Science.gov

Sample records for ptz seizure threshold

  1. Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates PTZ-induced seizures through CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Iraj; Rostampour, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammad; Naderi, Nima; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Babaei, Parvin; Khakpour-Taleghani, Behrooz

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Though there are effective medications available to reduce the symptoms of the disease, their side effects have limited their usage. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been shown to attenuate seizure in different animal models. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in this attenuation. Male wistar rats were used for the current experiment. PTZ was injected to induce chemical kindling in animals. After verification of kindling in animals, treatment was performed with PEA, AM251 and AM630 in different groups. Latency to induce seizure, seizure stages and latency and duration of fifth stage of seizure was recorded for each animal. Injection of PTZ led to seizure in the animals. Pretreatment with PEA increased the latency to initiate seizures and reduced the duration of seizure. Pretreatment with different dosages of AM251 had contrary effects so that at lower doses they increased the seizure in animals but at higher doses led to the attenuation of seizure. AM630 increased seizures in a dose dependent manner. Combination of the antagonists increased the seizure parameters and attenuated the effect of PEA on seizure. PEA attenuated the PTZ-induced seizures and pretreatment with CB1 and CB2 antagonists diminished this effect of PEA, but still PEA was effective, which might be attributed to the contribution of other receptors in PEA anti-epileptic properties. Findings of the current study implied that endocannabinoid signaling pathway might have an important role in the effects of PEA. PMID:26370914

  2. Interference of TRPV1 function altered the susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Li, Ying-Chao; Tang, Yan-Ping; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) including hippocampus, and regulates the balance of excitation and inhibition in CNS, which imply its important role in epilepsy. We used both pharmacological manipulations and transgenic mice to disturb the function of TRPV1 and then studied the effects of these alterations on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Our results showed that systemic administration of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP, 40 mg/kg) directly induced tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) without PTZ induction. The severity of seizure was increased in lower doses of CAP groups (5 and 10 mg/kg), although the latency to TCS was delayed. On the other hand, systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) and TRPV1 knockout mice exhibited delayed latency to TCS and reduced mortality. Furthermore, hippocampal administration of CPZ (10 and 33 nmol/?L/side) was firstly reported to increase the latency to TCS, decrease the maximal grade of seizure and mortality. It is worth noting that decreased susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures was observed in hippocampal TRPV1 overexpression mice and hippocampal CAP administration (33 nmol/?L/side), which is opposite from results of systemic agonist CAP. Our findings suggest that the systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist may be a novel therapeutic target for epilepsy, and alteration of hippocampal TRPV1 function exerts a critical role in seizure susceptibility. PMID:25713512

  3. Characterization of PTZ-Induced Seizure Susceptibility in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model That Overexpresses CSTB

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Vronique; Martin, Benot; Costet, Nathalie; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Hrault, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a complex genetic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphism and variable additional physiological traits. Current research progress has begun to decipher the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, leading to new therapeutic perspectives. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) has recently been found to have positive effects on learning and memory capacities of a DS mouse model and is foreseen to treat DS patients. But PTZ is also known to be a convulsant drug at higher dose and DS persons are more prone to epileptic seizures than the general population. This raises concerns over what long-term effects of treatment might be in the DS population. The cause of increased propensity for epilepsy in the DS population and which Hsa21 gene(s) are implicated remain unknown. Among Hsa21 candidate genes in epilepsy, CSTB, coding for the cystein protease inhibitor cystatin B, is involved in progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia in both mice and human. Thus we aim to evaluate the effect of an increase in Cstb gene dosage on spontaneous epileptic activity and susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure. To this end we generated a new mouse model trisomic for Cstb by homologous recombination. We verified that increasing copy number of Cstb from Trisomy (Ts) to Tetrasomy (Tt) was driving overexpression of the gene in the brain, we checked transgenic animals for presence of locomotor activity and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities characteristic of myoclonic epilepsy and we tested if those animals were prone to PTZ-induced seizure. Overall, the results of the analysis shows that an increase in Cstb does not induce any spontaneous epileptic activity and neither increase or decrease the propensity of Ts and Tt mice to myoclonic seizures suggesting that Ctsb dosage should not interfere with PTZ-treatment. PMID:22140471

  4. The role of technical, biological and pharmacological factors in the laboratory evaluation of anticonvulsant drugs. VI. Seasonal influences on maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol seizure thresholds.

    PubMed

    Löscher, W; Fiedler, M

    1996-09-01

    There is strong evidence for circadian rhythmicity in certain seizure types, whereas only a few studies have addressed the possibility of seasonal rhythms in convulsive activity. In the present experiments, seizure thresholds to different types of seizures were determined twice per month over a period of 13 months in mice under controlled environmental conditions, i.e., constant photoperiod, temperature, humidity, and food. Each group of animals was used for only one experiment, and the age of the mice used per month was the same throughout the study. Furthermore, all experiments were done at the same time in the morning to avoid circadian variation. Thresholds for the following seizure types were determined: (1) tonic hindlimb seizures induced by electrical (transauricular) stimulation; (2) myoclonic seizures induced by intravenous (i.v.) infusion of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ); (3) generalized clonic seizures in response to i.v. PTZ; and (4) tonic forelimb seizures induced by PTZ. A significant seasonality was determined for myoclonic and clonic PTZ seizure thresholds with highest thresholds between February and April and lowest thresholds between July and September. No clear seasonality was seen for chemically or electrically induced tonic seizures. Determination of plasma corticosterone did not disclose any seasonal rhythm in adrenal corticosteroid production that resembled the circannual variation in myoclonic and clonic seizure thresholds. In conclusion, our experiments suggest the existence of seasonal rhythms in PTZ seizure thresholds in laboratory animals despite standardized environmental conditions. A possible explanation for the findings may be the known seasonal alteration of the geomagnetic field which, by its effect on the pineal production of melatonin, may act as a seasonal synchronizor ("zeitgeber") in animals in the absence of other synchronizing forces, such as seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature. PMID:8886656

  5. Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodrguez, Stephanie; Jordn, Claudia; Licier, Rgel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, Jos G.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [3H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II. PMID:25762932

  6. Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodrguez, Stephanie; Jordn, Claudia; Licier, Rgel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, Jos G

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [(3)H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II. PMID:25762932

  7. ABHD6 blockade exerts antiepileptic activity in PTZ-induced seizures and in spontaneous seizures in R6/2 mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Christine S.; Swinney, Katie; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Cao, Jessica K.; Marrs, William; Blankman, Jacqueline L.; Tu, Sarah; Cherry, Allison E.; Fung, Susan; Wen, Andy; Li, Weiwei; Saporito, Michael S.; Selley, Dana E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Oakley, John C.; Stella, Nephi

    2014-01-01

    The serine hydrolase ?/?-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) hydrolyzes the most abundant endocannabinoid (eCB) in the brain, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and controls its availability at cannabinoid receptors. We show that ABHD6 inhibition decreases pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized tonic-clonic and myoclonic seizure incidence, and severity. This effect is retained in cnr1?/? or cnr2?/? mice, but blocked by addition of a subconvulsive dose of picrotoxin, suggesting the involvement of GABAA receptors. ABHD6 inhibition also blocked spontaneous seizures in R6/2 mice, a genetic model of Juvenile Huntingtons disease known to exhibit dysregulated eCB signaling. ABHD6 blockade retained its antiepileptic activity over chronic dosing and was not associated with psychomotor or cognitive effects. While the etiology of seizures in R6/2 mice remains unsolved, involvement of the hippocampus is suggested by interictal epileptic discharges, increased expression of vGLUT1 but not vGAT, and reduced Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. We conclude that ABHD6 inhibition may represent a novel antiepileptic strategy. PMID:25033180

  8. Neuroprotective Effect of Lycopene Against PTZ-induced Kindling Seizures in Mice: Possible Behavioural, Biochemical and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Manveen; Kumar, Anil

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major contributing factors in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders. Recently, antioxidant therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress gained a considerable attention in epilepsy treatment. Lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has received scientific interest in recent years. So, the present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of lycopene against the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling epilepsy. Laca mice received lycopene (2.5, 5 and 10?mg/kg) and sodium valproate for a period of 29?days and PTZ (40?mg/kg i.p (Intraperitoneal)) injection on alternative days. Various behavioural (kindling score), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase and nitrite) and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) were assessed in the brain. Results depicted that repeated administration of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (40?mg/kg) significantly increased kindling score, oxidative damage and impaired mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared with naive animals. Lycopene (5 and 10?mg/kg) and sodium valproate (100?mg/kg) treatment for a duration of 29?days significantly attenuated kindling score, reversed oxidative damage and restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared with control. Thus, present study demonstrates the neuroprotective potential of lycopene in PTZ-induced kindling in mice. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26633078

  9. The interaction of adenosine and morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Akbarian, Reyhane; Niknahad, Hossein; Shafaroodi, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine agonists or low doses of morphine exert anti-convulsant effects in different models of seizures. On the other hand, a tight interaction has been reported between morphine and adenosine in various paradigms. This study investigated the effect of the interaction of adenosine and morphine on seizure susceptibility in the intravenous mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. The researchers used acute systemic administration of morphine, N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (a selective A1 receptor agonist), naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist) and 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) (a selective A1 receptor antagonist). Acute administration of morphine (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) or CHA (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg) raised the threshold of seizures induced by PTZ. Non-effective dose of 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of sub-effective doses of morphine (0.125 mg/kg) and CHA (0.125 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure latency showing the additive effect of morphine and CHA. The enhanced latency induced by combination of low doses of morphine and CHA completely reversed by 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) or naltrexone (1 mg/kg). Moreover, 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of morphine (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) and naltrexone (1 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of low doses of 8-CPT (1 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.5 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effect of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). In conclusion, adenosine and morphine exhibit an additive effect on the enhancement of the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice, probably through A1 or ? receptors. PMID:23624288

  10. The novel antiepileptic drug imepitoin compares favourably to other GABA-mimetic drugs in a seizure threshold model in mice and dogs.

    PubMed

    Lscher, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Katrin; Twele, Friederike; Potschka, Heidrun; Tllner, Kathrin

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the imidazolinone derivative imepitoin has been approved for treatment of canine epilepsy. Imepitoin acts as a low-affinity partial agonist at the benzodiazepine (BZD) site of the GABAA receptor and is the first compound with such mechanism that has been developed as an antiepileptic drug (AED). This mechanism offers several advantages compared to full agonists, including less severe adverse effects and a lack of tolerance and dependence liability, which has been demonstrated in rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates. In clinical trials in epileptic dogs, imepitoin was shown to be an effective and safe AED. Recently, seizures in dogs have been proposed as a translational platform for human therapeutic trials on new epilepsy treatments. In the present study, we compared the anticonvulsant efficacy of imepitoin, phenobarbital and the high-affinity partial BZD agonist abecarnil in the timed i.v. pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold test in dogs and, for comparison, in mice. Furthermore, adverse effects of treatments were compared in both species. All drugs dose-dependently increased the PTZ threshold in both species, but anticonvulsant efficacy was higher in dogs than mice. At the doses selected for this study, imepitoin was slightly less potent than phenobarbital in increasing seizure threshold, but markedly more tolerable in both species. Effective doses of imepitoin in the PTZ seizure model were in the same range as those suppressing spontaneous recurrent seizures in epileptic dogs. The study demonstrates that low-affinity partial agonists at the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, such as imepitoin, offer advantages as a new category of AEDs. PMID:24056205

  11. A role for opioid system in the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil on the pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice.

    PubMed

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Payandemehr, Borna; Gholipour, Taha; Ziai, Pouya; Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Ghasemi, Abbas; Bahremand, Arash; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2011-06-01

    There are several lines of evidence that opioidergic and nitrergic systems could modulate the seizure threshold. We previously have shown that sildenafil had proconvulsant effects in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or bicuculline. In the present study, we examined whether the opioid system participates in the action of sildenafil on the PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice. Sildenafil (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the seizure threshold in a dose-dependent manner, whereas morphine had both anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects at low (0.5, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) and high (60 mg/kg, s.c.) doses. A sub-effective dose of sildenafil (5 mg/kg) combined with a dose of morphine (7.5 mg/kg) which was sub-effective for its proconvulsant effects significantly decreased the seizure threshold. Although naltrexone at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg had no effect on the seizure threshold, it significantly prevented both the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil as well as the anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of morphine on the PTZ-induced seizure thresholds. Our data suggested a role for opioidergic system in the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil on the PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice. PMID:21377383

  12. A statistical model predicting the seizure threshold for right unilateral ECT in 106 patients.

    PubMed

    Colenda, C C; McCall, W V

    1996-03-01

    Titration of the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) stimulus to the patient's convulsive threshold is the only way to directly assess the patient's seizure threshold. This technique is presently practiced by 39% of ECT providers, according to a recent survey. Because multiple variables influence the seizure threshold in patients, multivariate statistical methods may provide a useful strategy to determine which variables exert the most influence on convulsive threshold. A multivariate ordinal logistic model of seizure threshold was developed on an experimental group of 66 consecutive patients undergoing titrated right unilateral (RUL) ECT for major depression. The accuracy of the model was cross-validated on a second group of 40 patients undergoing similar RUL ECT procedures. The final multivariate ordinal logistic regression model for the seizure threshold level (STL) was significant (Likelihood ratio chi 2 = 54.115; p < 0.0001:R2 = 0.313). Increasing age, African-American race, and longer inion-nasion distances (p < 0.06) predicted higher STL. Female gender was associated with a lower STL. The ability of the final model to accurately predict STL for the validation group was fair (pairwise correlation was 0.576; p < 0.001). The model did well for predicting lower STL, but fared poorly for higher STL. In conclusion, modeling STL may help establish the relative contribution of variables thought to be important to seizure threshold. However, STL models remain impractical for clinical applications in estimating seizure threshold at this time, and empirical stimulus titration should be used. PMID:8777650

  13. Seizure protection by intrapulmonary delivery of midazolam in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Zolkowska, Dorota; Rogawski, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    The lung provides a portal of entry that could be used to rapidly deliver anticonvulsant substances to the brain to treat seizures. In the present study, we demonstrate that midazolam, a water-soluble anticonvulsant benzodiazepine, confers potent seizure protection when administered via the intrapulmonary route. High dose (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneal midazolam induced loss-of-righting reflex in mice. Lower doses of midazolam (100-1000 ?g/kg) when administered intraperitoneally did not induce loss-of-righting reflex but protected animals against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Intrapulmonary administration of midazolam via a tracheal cannula protected against intraperitoneal PTZ seizures at lower doses. The minimal intraperitoneal and intravenous doses of midazolam required to elevate the threshold for seizure signs induced by intravenous PTZ were 500 and 100 ?g/kg, respectively, whereas the minimal intrapulmonary midazolam dose was 12.5 ?g/kg. Intratracheal midazolam caused a large increase in intravenous PTZ threshold 5 min after administration but the effect declined rapidly over 60 min and no antiseizure activity was evident at 120 min. The minimal intraperitoneal doses of midazolam required to elevate the threshold for seizure signs induced by intravenous picrotoxin and kainic acid were 100 and 2000 ?g/kg, respectively; the corresponding values for intratracheal midazolam were 25 and 100 ?g/kg, respectively. We conclude that midazolam is a highly effective anticonvulsant when administered by the intrapulmonary route. Midazolam is substantially more potent when delivered into the lung than when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Inhalation could be an alternative to other routes of administration for the delivery of midazolam to rapidly abort acute seizures. PMID:23774136

  14. Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more than a few minutes after a seizure falls or hits his or her head before or during a seizure seems to be ill has any symptom that concerns you Think Prevention! If your child has a known seizure condition, ...

  15. Tanshinone IIA Exhibits Anticonvulsant Activity in Zebrafish and Mouse Seizure Models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Danshen or Chinese red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza, Bunge) is used by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners to treat neurological, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disorders and is included in some TCM formulations to control epileptic seizures. In this study, acetonic crude extracts of danshen inhibited pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure activity in zebrafish larvae. Subsequent zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four major tanshinones, which suppressed PTZ-induced activity to varying degrees. One of the active tanshinones, tanshinone IIA, also reduced c-fos expression in the brains of PTZ-exposed zebrafish larvae. In rodent seizure models, tanshinone IIA showed anticonvulsive activity in the mouse 6-Hz psychomotor seizure test in a biphasic manner and modified seizure thresholds in a complex manner for the mouse i.v. PTZ seizure assay. Interestingly, tanshinone IIA is used as a prescription drug in China to address cerebral ischemia in patients. Here, we provide the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that tanshinone IIA has anticonvulsant properties as well. PMID:23937066

  16. Anti-kindling Effect of Bezafibrate, a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Alpha Agonist, in Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure Model

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Lekha; Bhandari, Swati; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Studies in the animals suggested that Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) may be involved in seizure control and selective agonists of PPAR ? or PPAR ? raise seizure thresholds. The present study was contemplated with the aim of evaluating the anti kindling effects and the mechanism of bezafibrate, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR-?) agonist in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model of seizures in rats. Methods: In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of bezafibrate (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the PTZ injection. The PTZ injection was given on alternate day till the animal became fully kindled or till 10 weeks. The parameters measured were the latency to develop kindling and incidence of kindling, histopathological study of hippocampus, hippocampal lipid peroxidation studies, serum neuron specific enolase, and hippocampal DNA fragmentation study. Results: In this study, bezafibrate significantly reduced the incidence of kindling in PTZ treated rats and exhibited a marked prolongation in the latencies to seizures. In the present study bezafibrate decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance i.e. Malondialdehyde levels, increased the reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in the brain. This added to its additional neuroprotective effects. Bezafibrate also reduced the neuronal damage and apoptosis in hippocampal area of the brain. Therefore bezafibrate exerted anticonvulsant properties in PTZ induced kindling model in rats. Conclusions: These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the mechanism of bezafibrate as an anti kindling agent and could offer a useful support to the basic antiepileptic therapy in preventing the development of PTZ induced seizures, suggesting its potential for therapeutic applications in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25625088

  17. Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often with a loss of or change in consciousness. Seizures can be frightening, but most last only ... unusual sensations, uncontrollable muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. Some seizures may be due to another medical ...

  18. Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Yuki; Williams, Claire M.; Whalley, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV), have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o.) on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1) by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00) and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25) and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ?3.25) and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25), PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development. PMID:24282673

  19. Mouth breathing increases the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice: a role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Niaki, Seyed Esfandiar Akhavan; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Shakiba, Bijan; Fakhimi, Ali; Dehpour, Ahamd Reza

    2008-08-01

    Nasal obstruction and consequent mouth breathing have been shown to change the acid-base balance, producing respiratory acidosis. Additionally, there exists a large body of evidence maintaining that acidosis affects the activity of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, which play a crucial role in the function of the central nervous system (CNS), for example, in modulating seizure threshold. Thus, in the study described here, we examined whether mouth breathing, induced by surgical ligation of nostrils, could affect the seizure threshold induced by pentylenetetrazole in male NMRI mice. Using the selective K(ATP) channel opener (diazoxide) and blocker (glibenclamide), we also evaluated the possible role of K(ATP) channels in this process. Our data revealed that seizure threshold was increased 6 to 72 hours after nasal obstruction, reaching a peak 48 hours afterward, compared with either control or sham-operated mice (P<0.01). There was a significant decrease in pH of arterial blood samples and increase in CO(2) partial pressure (PCO(2)) during this time. Systemic injection of glibenclamide (1 and 2mg/kg, ip, daily) significantly prevented the increase in seizure threshold in 48-hour bilaterally nasally obstructed mice, whereas it had no effect on seizure threshold in sham-operated mice. Systemic injection of diazoxide (25mg/kg, ip, daily) had no effect on seizure threshold in all groups, whereas higher doses (50 and 100mg/kg, ip, daily) significantly increased seizure threshold in both 48-hour-obstructed and sham-operated mice. The decrease in seizure threshold induced by glibenclamide (2mg/kg, ip, daily) was prevented by diazoxide (25mg/kg, ip, daily). These results demonstrate for the first time that mouth breathing, which could result in respiratory acidosis, increases seizure threshold in mice and K(ATP) channels may play a role in this effect. PMID:18508411

  20. Morphine modulates the effects of histamine H1 and H3 receptors on seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model of mice.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hassanipour, Mahsa; Shirzadian, Armin; Gooshe, Maziar; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-12-15

    Histamine regulates release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and also is involved in several functions in central nervous system (CNS). It has been shown that histamine participates in disorders like seizure. It has been well documented that morphine dose-dependently induces anti or proconvulsant effects. In the current study, we firstly showed that morphine (1mg/kg) exerts anticonvulsant effects which significantly reversed by naltrexone administration. Secondly, we determined seizure threshold for H1 and H3 receptors agonists and antagonists in mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. Our results showed that activation of H1 receptors by 2-(2-Pyridyl)-ethylamine exerts anticonvulsant properties while inhibition of H1 receptors by pyrilamine maleate induced proconvulsant effects. Furthermore, we showed that immepip dihydrobromide, a H3 receptor agonist, increased seizure susceptibility to PTZ whereas thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist increased seizure threshold. We also revealed that pretreatment with morphine potently reversed the effects of histaminergic system on seizure threshold suggesting the involvement of opioid system in alteration of seizure threshold by histaminergic drugs. PMID:26500121

  1. Effect of taurine on chemoshock seizure thresholds in lead-exposed animals

    SciTech Connect

    Huxtable, R.J.; Shindo, S.; Nakagawa, K.

    1986-03-01

    The high levels of taurine found in developing brain have led to postulates that taurine is involved in brain maturation. The authors have examined the effect of taurine on the chemoshock threshold of rats reared in the presence of the environmental toxin, lead. Within 24 h of giving birth, dams were placed on one of four regimens: Group P received 0.4% lead acetate in the drinking water; Group T received 3% taurine in drinking water; Group PT received both taurine and lead acetate; and Group C received distilled water. The pups were weaned at 21 days, but maintained on the same treatments. Pentylene tetrazole seizure thresholds were determined at 42 days. Thresholds in Group P were significantly depressed relative to Group C (56.0 mg/kg v 79.9 mg/kg). Taurine supplementation had no effect on threshold (T = 72.7 mg/kg). However, thresholds in Group PT were significantly higher than those of Group P (PT = 85.2 mg/kg). These data show that whereas taurine was without effect on the threshold of animals not stressed by exposure to lead, it had a protective effect on exposed animals. As human neonates are unable to synthesize taurine, the findings reinforce the concept of taurine being a conditionally essential nutrient in developing humans.

  2. Seizure threshold variations in ECT-treated chronic patients with schizophrenia: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Iannitelli, Angela; Caredda, Maria; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Orsi, Paolo; Pacitti, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Seizure threshold (ST) is a parameter that differs in each person and can be modified both spontaneously and because of drug intake and/or other exogenous factors. A rise in ST during a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been demonstrated in patients with depression and mania, but little information has been available as to whether the same result occurs in schizophrenia (SCZ). 11 male patients underwent estimation of the seizure threshold over a bilateral ECT course. Mean ST changed not significantly. No correlations were found between baseline ST and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores. A significant positive correlation emerged between baseline ST and the variation of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) total and cognitive scores. The results suggest that ST in SCZ patients is not related to baseline psychopathological features, it is not related to clinical improvements of negative or positive SCZ symptoms and it does not change during the ECT course but it appears predictive of the improvement of affective and cognitive symptmos. PMID:24770574

  3. Magnesium Sulfate Treatment Reverses Seizure Susceptibility and Decreases Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Severe Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Abbie Chapman; Tremble, Sarah M.; Chan, Siu-Lung; Moseley, Janae; LaMarca, Babbette; Nagle, Keith J.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Eclampsia, defined as unexplained seizure in a woman with preeclampsia, is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy with unclear etiology. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the leading eclamptic seizure prophylactic, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized severe preeclampsia is a state of increased seizure susceptibility due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuroinflammation that lowers seizure threshold. Further, MgSO4 decreases seizure susceptibility by protecting the BBB and preventing neuroinflammation. To model severe preeclampsia, placental ischemia (reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure; RUPP) was combined with a high cholesterol diet (HC) to cause maternal endothelial dysfunction. RUPP+HC rats developed symptoms associated with severe preeclampsia, including hypertension, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and fetal and placental growth restriction. Seizure threshold was determined by quantifying the amount of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; mg/kg) required to elicit seizure in RUPP+HCMgSO4 and compared to normal pregnant controls (n?=?6/group; gestational day 20). RUPP+HC rats were more sensitive to PTZ with seizure threshold being ?65% lower vs. control (12.41.7 vs. 36.73.9 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05) that was reversed by MgSO4 (45.78.7 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05 vs. RUPP+HC). BBB permeability to sodium fluorescein, measured in-vivo (n?=?57/group), was increased in RUPP+HC vs. control rats, with more tracer passing into the brain (15.91.0 vs. 12.20.3 counts/gram 1000; p<0.05) and was unaffected by MgSO4 (15.61.0 counts/gram 1000; p<0.05 vs. controls). In addition, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of neuroinflammation, indicated by 352% of microglia being active compared to 92% in normal pregnancy (p<0.01; n?=?38/group). MgSO4 treatment reversed neuroinflammation, reducing microglial activation to 62% (p<0.01 vs. RUPP+HC). Overall, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of augmented seizure susceptibility potentially due to increased BBB permeability and neuroinflammation. MgSO4 treatment reversed this, increasing seizure threshold and decreasing neuroinflammation, without affecting BBB permeability. Thus, reducing neuroinflammation may be one mechanism by which MgSO4 prevents eclampsia during severe preeclampsia. PMID:25409522

  4. Acute anticonvulsant effects of capric acid in seizure tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Wla?, Piotr; Soca?a, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; ?arnowski, Tomasz; ?arnowska, Iwona; Czuczwar, Stanis?aw J; Gasior, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    Capric acid (CA10) is a 10-carbon medium-chain fatty acid abundant in the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet (MCT KD). The purpose of this study was to characterize acute anticonvulsant effects of CA10 across several seizure tests in mice. Anticonvulsant effects of orally (p.o.) administered CA10 were assessed in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST), 6-Hz seizure threshold, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests in mice. Acute effects of CA10 on motor coordination were assessed in the grip and chimney tests. Plasma and brain concentrations of CA10 were measured. Co-administration studies with CA10 and another abundant medium-chain fatty acid, caprylic acid (CA8) were performed. CA10 showed significant and dose-dependent anticonvulsant properties by increasing seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz and MEST seizure tests; it was ineffective in the i.v. PTZ seizure test. At higher doses than those effective in the 6-Hz and MEST seizure tests, CA10 impaired motor performance in the grip and chimney tests. An enhanced anticonvulsant response in the 6-Hz seizure test was produced when CA8 and CA10 were co-administered. An acute p.o. administration of CA10 resulted in dose-proportional increases in its plasma and brain concentrations. CA10 exerted acute anticonvulsant effects at doses that produce plasma exposures comparable to those reported in epileptic patients on the MCT KD. An enhanced anticonvulsant effect is observed when CA10 and the other main constituent of the MCT KD, CA8, were co-administered. Thus, acute anticonvulsant properties of CA10 and CA8 may influence the overall clinical efficacy of the MCT KD. PMID:25445478

  5. Clinical predictors of seizure threshold in electroconvulsive therapy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    van Waarde, Jeroen A; van Oudheusden, Lucas J B; Verwey, Bastiaan; Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Rose C

    2013-03-01

    At the start and during the course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), estimation of the seizure threshold (ST) is useful in weighing the expected effectiveness against the risks of side effects. Therefore, this study explores clinical factors predicting initial ST (IST) and levels of ST during the ECT course. This prospective observational study included patients aged ?18years receiving ECT without contraindications for dose titration. At the first and every sixth consecutive ECT session, ST level was measured. Using multivariate linear regression and multilevel models, predictors for IST and change in ST levels were examined. A total of 91 patients (mean age, 59.115.0years; 37% male; 97% diagnosis of depression) were included. In multivariable analysis, higher age (?=0.24; P=0.03) and bifrontotemporal (BL) electrode placement (?=0.42; P<0.001) were independent predictors for higher IST, explaining 49% of its variation. Also, these two variables independently predicted higher ST levels at different time points during the course. Using multilevel models, absence of a previous ECT course(s) predicted a steeper rise in ST during the course (P=0.03 for the interaction term time*previous ECT). The age-adjusted dose-titration method is somewhat crude, resulting in some measurement error. Concomitant medication use could have influenced ST levels. Increasing age and BL electrode placement predicted higher (I)ST, which should be taken into account when selecting ECT dosage. Previous ECT course(s) may avoid an increase in ST during the course of ECT. PMID:22797771

  6. ?-Hydroxybutyrate increases the pilocarpine-induced seizure threshold in young mice.

    PubMed

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dong Wook

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in young mice. Eighty-five male, postnatal day 21, ICR mice were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide (1 mg/kg) 30 min prior to pilocarpine administration. Experimental mice (n=46) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20 mmol/kg), 15 min prior to pilocarpine administration; control animals (n=39) were administered normal saline. Pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) was then administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures. Mice were monitored for 2 h after pilocarpine injection, and seizure behavior grades were evaluated according to Racine's scale. All mice developed typical seizure behaviors of grade 3 or higher. Although the severity in terms of seizure behavior grade was not significantly different between groups, the mean (SD) latency to the onset of seizure was significantly prolonged in BHB-treated mice (5.152.19 min) compared with controls (2.951.06 min; p<0.001). This study demonstrates that treatment with BHB significantly prolongs the latency to the onset of seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice and suggests that BHB, one of the ketone bodies, may be direct anticonvulsant. PMID:21723679

  7. Montelukast reduces seizures in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice.

    PubMed

    Fleck, J; Temp, F R; Marafiga, J R; Jesse, A C; Milanesi, L H; Rambo, L M; Mello, C F

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated in seizures and kindling; however, the effect of CysLT receptor antagonists on seizure frequency in kindled animals and changes in CysLT receptor expression after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated whether the CysLT1 inverse agonist montelukast, and a classical anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, were able to reduce seizures in PTZ-kindled mice and alter CysLT receptor expression. Montelukast (10 mg/kg, sc) and phenobarbital (20 mg/kg, sc) increased the latency to generalized seizures in kindled mice. Montelukast increased CysLT1 immunoreactivity only in non-kindled, PTZ-challenged mice. Interestingly, PTZ challenge decreased CysLT2 immunoreactivity only in kindled mice. CysLT1 antagonists appear to emerge as a promising adjunctive treatment for refractory seizures. Nevertheless, additional studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical implications of this research. PMID:26909785

  8. Stereo Localization Using Dual PTZ Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio

    In this paper, we present a cooperative stereo system based on two pant-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras that can localize a moving target in a complex environment. Given an approximate target position that can be estimated by a fixed camera with a wide field of view, two PTZ cameras with a large baseline are pointed toward the target in order to estimate precisely its position. The overall method is divided in three parts: offline construction of a look-up-table (LUT) of rectification matrices, use of the LUT in real time for computing the rectification transformations for arbitrary camera positions, and finally 3D target localization. A chain of homographic transformations are used for finding the matching between different pairs of wide baseline stereo images. The proposed stereo localization system has two advantages: improved localization on a partially occluded target and monitoring a large environment using only two PTZ cameras without missing significant information. Finally, through experimental results, we show that the proposed system is able to make required localization of targets with good accuracy.

  9. Adenosine receptor modulation of seizure susceptibility in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Szot, P.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine is considered to be a neuromodulator or cotransmitter in the periphery and CNS. This neuromodulatory action of adenosine may be observed as an anticonvulsant effect. Dose-response curves for R-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA), cycohexyladenosine (CHA), 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAdo), N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and S-PIA were generated against PTZ seizure thresholds in the rat. The rank order of potency for adenosine agonists to elevate PTZ seizure threshold was R-PIA > 2-ClAdo > NECA > CHA > S-PIA. R-PIA was approximately 80-fold more potent than S-PIA. This 80-fold difference in potency between the diasteriomers of PIA was consistent with an A{sub 1} adenoise receptor-mediated response. The anticonvulsant action of 2-ClAdo was reversed by pretreatment with theoplylline. Chronic administration of theophylline significantly increased the specific binding of {sup 3}H-cyclohexyladenosine in membranes of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the rat. Chronic exposure to theophylline produced a significant increase in the densities of both the high- and low-affinity forms of A{sub 1} adenosine receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  10. Conditional Disabled-1 Deletion in Mice Alters Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Reduces Seizure Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Matthew J.; Mandle, Quinton J.; Parent, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    Many animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit altered neurogenesis arising from progenitors within the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ). Aberrant integration of new neurons into the existing circuit is thought to contribute to epileptogenesis. In particular, adult-born neurons that exhibit ectopic migration and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs) are suggested to be pro-epileptogenic. Loss of reelin signaling may contribute to these morphological changes in patients with epilepsy. We previously demonstrated that conditional deletion of the reelin adaptor protein, disabled-1 (Dab1), from postnatal mouse SGZ progenitors generated dentate granule cells (DGCs) with abnormal dendritic development and ectopic placement. To determine whether the early postnatal loss of reelin signaling is epileptogenic, we conditionally deleted Dab1 in neural progenitors and their progeny on postnatal days 7–8 and performed chronic video-EEG recordings 8–10 weeks later. Dab1-deficient mice did not have spontaneous seizures but exhibited interictal epileptiform abnormalities and a significantly reduced latency to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. After chemoconvulsant treatment, over 90% of mice deficient for Dab1 developed generalized motor convulsions with tonic-clonic movements, rearing, and falling compared to <20% of wild-type mice. Recombination efficiency, measured by Cre reporter expression, inversely correlated with time to the first sustained seizure. These pro-epileptogenic changes were associated with decreased neurogenesis and increased numbers of hilar ectopic DGCs. Interestingly, neurons co-expressing the Cre reporter comprised a fraction of these hilar ectopic DGCs cells, suggesting a non-cell autonomous effect for the loss of reelin signaling. We also noted a dispersion of the CA1 pyramidal layer, likely due to hypomorphic effects of the conditional Dab1 allele, but this abnormality did not correlate with seizure susceptibility. These findings suggest that the misplacement or reduction of postnatally-generated DGCs contributes to aberrant circuit development and hyperexcitability, but aberrant neurogenesis after conditional Dab1 deletion alone is not sufficient to produce spontaneous seizures. PMID:26941603

  11. Anticonvulsant properties of an oral ketone ester in a pentylenetetrazole-model of seizure.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Andrea; Pilla, Raffaele; Arnold, Patrick; Monda, Marcellino; D'Agostino, Dominic; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2015-08-27

    The ketogenic diet is known to have an anti-epileptic effect; in fact it is currently used to treat drug resistant epilepsies. The efficacy of this diet is thought to be correlated to the elevation of blood ketone bodies. Because of problems with compliance to this diet, there is an interest in evaluating alternative pharmacological treatments that can have anti-seizure effects by elevating ketone bodies. In the present experiment, an orally administered synthetic ketone ester (R,S - 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester, or BD-AcAc2) was evaluated for its anti-seizure efficacy in a rat model. The threshold for seizure induction with progressive intravenous infusion of pentylenetrazole (PTZ) was evaluated in anesthetized Wistar rats two hours after a single 1 ml intragastric administration of BD-AcAc2 (i.e. 4 g/kg b.w., treated group) or water (control group). After correction for the dose of anesthetic, the results showed that the administration of BD-AcAc2 induced an elevation of the PTZ threshold (140 11 mg/kg for the treated group, 122 6 mg/kg for the control group), along with an increased level of blood ?-hydroxybutyrate (2.7 0.3mM for the treated group, 1.4 0.1mM for the control group). This result suggests that ketone esters may pave the road towards the establishment of a "ketogenic diet in a pill". PMID:26026798

  12. Duration of treatment and activation of ?1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kova?evi?, Jovana; Timi?, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V.; Batini?, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Mili?, Marija; Joksimovi?, Sr?an; Cook, James M.; Savi?, Miroslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of ?1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24 h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2 mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at ?1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator ?CCt (5 mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of ?CCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of ?1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at ?1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type. PMID:24695241

  13. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    PubMed

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  14. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  15. Antioxidants and free radical scavengers do not consistently delay seizure onset in animal models of acute seizures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaiping; Stringer, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary A number of herbal compounds with direct antioxidant activity slow the onset, or completely block, the appearance of seizures. This increase in latency has been proposed to be due to the antioxidant activity. This hypothesis was directly tested by determining the effects of Trolox®, a vitamin E analog, vitamin C, melatonin, and α-lipoic acid on the latency to acute seizures induced with pilocarpine, kainic acid or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ sc) in adult rats. Trolox®, vitamin C, and α-lipoic acid had significant anticonvulsant activity against pilocarpine, but there were no acute changes in reduced glutathione levels at 15 or 120 minutes. Other than a reduced mortality with vitamin C in the PTZ model, none of the antioxidants had a significant effect against PTZ, or kainic acid-induced seizures. The lack of consistent anticonvulsant effect suggests that antioxidant activity of the herbal preparations cannot account for the delay in seizure onset. PMID:18396108

  16. Closed-loop seizure control on epileptic rat models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sheng-Fu; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Chang, Da-Wei; Young, Chung-Ping; Chiueh, Herming

    2011-08-01

    In this paper numerous alternative treatments in addition to pharmacological therapy are proposed for their use in epileptic patients. Epileptic animal models can play a crucial role in the performance evaluation of new therapeutic techniques. The objective of this research is to first develop various epileptic rat models; second, develop a portable wireless closed-loop seizure controller including on-line seizure detection and real-time electrical stimulation for seizure elimination; and third, apply the developed seizure controller to the animal models to perform on-line seizure elimination. The closed-loop seizure controller was applied to three Long-Evans rats with spontaneous spike-wave discharges (non-convulsive) and three Long-Evans rats with epileptiform activities induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection (convulsive) for evaluation. The seizure detection accuracy is greater than 92% (up to 99%), and averaged seizure detection latency is less than 0.6 s for both spontaneous non-convulsive and PTZ-induced convulsive seizures. The average false stimulation rate is 3.1%. Near 30% of PTZ-induced convulsive seizures need more than two times of 0.5 s electrical stimulation for suppression and 90% of the non-convulsive seizures can be suppressed by only one 0.5 s electrical stimulation.

  17. Acute seizure suppression by transcranial direct current stimulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Ekstein, Dana; Zhuo, Zhihong; Gersner, Roman; Zurakowski, David; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jensen, Frances E; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a focal neuromodulation technique that suppresses cortical excitability by low-amplitude constant electrical current, and may have an antiepileptic effect. Yet, tDCS has not been tested in status epilepticus (SE). Furthermore, a combined tDCS and pharmacotherapy antiseizure approach is unexplored. We therefore examined in the rat pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) SE model whether cathodal tDCS (1) suppresses seizures, (2) augments lorazepam (LZP) efficacy, and (3) enhances GABAergic cortical inhibition. Methods Experiment 1 aimed to identify an effective cathodal tDCS intensity. Rats received intraperitoneal PTZ followed by tDCS (sham, cathodal 1mA, or cathodal 0.1mA; for 20min), and then a second PTZ challenge. In Experiment 2, two additional animal groups received a subtherapeutic LZP dose after PTZ, and then verum or sham tDCS. Clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) epileptic activity were compared between all groups. In Experiment 3, we measured GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) in rats that received PTZ or saline, and either verum or sham tDCS. Results Cathodal 1mA tDCS (1) reduced EEG spike bursts, and suppressed clinical seizures after the second PTZ challenge, (2) in combination with LZP was more effective in seizure suppression and improved the clinical seizure outcomes compared to either tDCS or LZP alone, and (3) prevented the loss of ppTMS motor cortex inhibition that accompanied PTZ injection. Interpretation These results suggest that cathodal 1mA tDCS alone and in combination with LZP can suppress seizures by augmenting GABAergic cortical inhibition. PMID:26339678

  18. The protective effects of endothelin-A receptor antagonist BQ-123 in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, H; Ekici, F; Katar, M; Kesici, H; Aslan, H

    2014-10-01

    Endothelin-1 has been shown to increase neuronal activity and glutaminergic synaptic transmission by endothelin-A receptors (ETAR) in the nucleus tractus solitarius neurons that play an important role in epileptic seizures. Therefore, BQ-123 as an ETAR antagonist might attenuate neuronal excitability and glutaminergic synaptic transmission. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of acute BQ-123 treatment against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced tonic-clonic seizures. Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control, PTZ, and PTZ + BQ-123 groups. BQ-123 (3 mg/kg, intravenously) was administered for 15 min before injecting with PTZ (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). We determined a delay resulting from BQ-123 in "duration of the seizure onset." "Number of rats with major seizure" also decreased according to scoring with video camera in PTZ + BQ-123 group. In BQ-123-treated group, there were eight rats without a major seizure, but only one rat had a delayed major seizure. The brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly decreased in the PTZ and PTZ + BQ-123 groups. According to the results of the control group, there was a significant increase in the protein carbonyl levels of the PTZ group and a significant increase in the nitric oxide levels of the PTZ + BQ-123 group. Histological examination showed an increase in the number of neuronal hyperchromatic nucleus especially in hippocampal gyrus dentatus region of BQ-123-treated group. We concluded that BQ-123 impeded the formation and spread of seizure to a great degree. The beneficial effects of BQ-123 were comparatively supported with biochemical parameters and histological examinations. PMID:24449761

  19. The Effects of Nigella Sativa Hydro-alcoholic Extract on Memory and Brain Tissues Oxidative Damage after Repeated Seizures in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vafaee, Farzaneh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Zahra; Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Amani, Atefeh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the therapeutic properties of Nigella sativa (NS), the effects of the plant hydro - alcoholic extract on learning, memory and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in penthylenetetrazole (PTZ) - induced repeated seizures. There were 4 experimental groups including: 1- control group; received saline, 2- PTZ group ; received saline and PTZ (50 mg/Kg, i.p) , 3-PTZ- NS 200 and 4- PTZ- NS 400 ; received 200 and 400 mg/Kg of NS extract respectively, before PTZ injection in 5 consecutive days. Seizure scores were lower in PTZ - NS 200 and 400, furthermore the seizure onset latencies were higher in these groups than PTZ group (P<0.05 and P<0.01 ). In Morris water maze, the time spent in target quadrant by PTZ group was lower than control group (P<0.05); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.01). In the passive avoidance test, delay time to enter the dark by PTZ group was lower than control at 1 and 24 hours after training (P<0.01- P<0.001); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.05). The total thiol concentration in hippocampal and cortical tissues of PTZ group was reduced while, MDA concentration was higher than control (p<0.05 - p<0.001). Administration of the extract increased the total thiol and decreased the MDA concentrations (p<0.01- p<0.001). It is concluded that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS possess beneficial effects on learning and memory impairments in repeated seizures model which is accompanied by antioxidant effects in the brain. PMID:25901163

  20. The Effects of Nigella Sativa Hydro-alcoholic Extract on Memory and Brain Tissues Oxidative Damage after Repeated Seizures in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee, Farzaneh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Zahra; Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Amani, Atefeh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the therapeutic properties of Nigella sativa (NS), the effects of the plant hydro alcoholic extract on learning, memory and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in penthylenetetrazole (PTZ) - induced repeated seizures. There were 4 experimental groups including: 1- control group; received saline, 2- PTZ group ; received saline and PTZ (50 mg/Kg, i.p) , 3-PTZ- NS 200 and 4- PTZ- NS 400 ; received 200 and 400 mg/Kg of NS extract respectively, before PTZ injection in 5 consecutive days. Seizure scores were lower in PTZ NS 200 and 400, furthermore the seizure onset latencies were higher in these groups than PTZ group (P<0.05 and P<0.01 ). In Morris water maze, the time spent in target quadrant by PTZ group was lower than control group (P<0.05); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.01). In the passive avoidance test, delay time to enter the dark by PTZ group was lower than control at 1 and 24 hours after training (P<0.01- P<0.001); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.05). The total thiol concentration in hippocampal and cortical tissues of PTZ group was reduced while, MDA concentration was higher than control (p<0.05 - p<0.001). Administration of the extract increased the total thiol and decreased the MDA concentrations (p<0.01- p<0.001). It is concluded that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS possess beneficial effects on learning and memory impairments in repeated seizures model which is accompanied by antioxidant effects in the brain. PMID:25901163

  1. EXAMINATION OF THE PROCONVULSANT ACTION OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES USING PENTYLENETETRAZOL AND AMYGDALA KINDLING SEIZURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The seizure-inducing properties of two pyrethroids were assessed by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure models (repeated ip, suprathreshold ip, and iv), and electrical kindling of the amygdala. he efficacy of po versus ip routes of deltamethrin administration was compared using iv-PT...

  2. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... febrile seizure does not mean a child has epilepsy, since that disorder is characterized by reoccurring seizures ... outcome but carry an increased risk of developing epilepsy. How common are febrile seizures? Febrile seizures are ...

  3. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or prolonged seizures are a risk factor for epilepsy but most children who experience febrile seizures do ... develop the reoccurring seizures that re characteristic of epilepsy. Certain children who have febrile seizures face an ...

  4. Absence seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  5. Effects of Luteolin on Liver, Kidney and Brain in Pentylentetrazol-Induced Seizures: Involvement of Metalloproteinases and NOS Activities

    PubMed Central

    Birman, Hsniye; Dar, Kadriye Akgn; Kapucu, Ay?egl; Acar, Samet; zm, Glay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Flavonoids are an important group of recognized antioxidants in plants. Luteolin (LUT) is a natural flavonoid in the plant kingdom. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of the LUT in the liver, kidney and brain of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure and the relationship between nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9). Materials and Methods: LUT (10 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally during two weeks prior to seizure induction. A single dose PTZ 80 mg/kg i.p. was administered and seizures were observed and evaluated with regard to latency, frequency and stage for one hour. Results: Seizure frequen cy after PTZ administration was significantly decreased in LUT pretreated rats (p<0.05). An increase of immunhistochemical reactions of iNOS and MMP2, but a decrease of eNOS activity, were observed in rat hippocampus and peripheral tissues during the PTZ induced seizures. LUT pretreatment reversed the iNOS and MMP2 activity to the control levels and significantly increased the eNOS activity (p<0.001). Conclusion: LUT seems to have an effective role in reducing the seizure frequency and a protective role on peripheral organ injury in animal models of seizure. The protective effect of LUT in seizures and the seizure induced peripheral tissue damage warrant further investigations. PMID:25206993

  6. Fluvoxamine alleviates seizure activity and downregulates hippocampal GAP-43 expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice: role of 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Momen W; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy has been documented to lead to many changes in the nervous system including cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. Neuronal loss and aberrant neuroplastic changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus have been identified in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. Antiseizure activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been reported in several studies. In the current study, the protective effect of fluvoxamine against PTZ-kindling was investigated in terms of seizure scores, neuronal loss, and regulation of hippocampal neuroplasticity. Further, the role of 5-HT3 receptors was determined. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of PTZ (35?mg/kg) thrice weekly, for a total of 13 injections. One hundred male albino mice were allocated into 10 groups: (1) saline, (2) PTZ, (3) diazepam (1?mg/kg)+PTZ, (4-6) fluvoxamine (5, 10 or 20?mg/kg)+PTZ, (7) ondansetron+fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg)+PTZ, (8) ondansetron+PTZ group, (9) ondansetron (2?mg/kg, i.p.)+saline, and (10) fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg)+saline. PTZ-kindled mice showed high seizure activity, hippocampal neuronal loss, and expression of growth-associated phosphoprotein (GAP-43) compared with saline-treated mice. Repeated administration of fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg) in PTZ-kindled mice suppressed seizure scores, protected against hippocampal neuronal loss, and downregulated GAP-43 expression, without producing any signs of the 5-HT syndrome in healthy rats. Importantly, pretreatment with a selective 5-HT3 receptor blocker (ondansetron) attenuated the aforementioned effects of fluvoxamine. In conclusion, the ameliorating effect of fluvoxamine on hippocampal neurons and neuroplasticity in PTZ-kindled mice was, at least in part, dependent on enhancement of hippocampal serotoninergic transmission at 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:25590967

  7. Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid☆

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pishan; Walker, Matthew C.; Williams, Robin S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3–5) trisphosphate (PIP3) is a central regulator of diverse neuronal functions that are critical for seizure progression, however its role in seizures is unclear. We have recently hypothesised that valproic acid (VPA), one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy, may target PIP3 signalling as a therapeutic mode of action. Here, we show that seizure induction using kainic acid in a rat in vivo epilepsy model resulted in a decrease in hippocampal PIP3 levels and reduced protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) phosphorylation, measured using ELISA mass assays and Western blot analysis, and both changes were restored following VPA treatment. These finding were reproduced in cultured rat hippocampal primary neurons and entorhinal cortex–hippocampal slices during exposure to the GABA(A) receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), which is widely used to generate seizures and seizure-like (paroxysmal) activity. Moreover, VPA's effect on paroxysmal activity in the PTZ slice model is blocked by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition or PIP2 sequestration by neomycin, indicating that VPA's efficacy is dependent upon PIP3 signalling. PIP3 depletion following PTZ treatment may also provide a positive feedback loop, since enhancing PIP3 depletion increases, and conversely, reducing PIP3 dephosphorylation reduces paroxysmal activity and this effect is dependent upon AMPA receptor activation. Our results therefore indicate that PIP3 depletion occurs with seizure activity, and that VPA functions to reverse these effects, providing a novel mechanism for VPA in epilepsy treatment. PMID:24148856

  8. Antiepileptic drugs prevent changes in adenosine deamination during acute seizure episodes in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Piato, Angelo Luis; Schaefer, Isabel Costa; Nery, Laura Roesler; Bogo, Maurcio Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2013-03-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous modulator of brain functions, which presents anticonvulsant properties. In addition, its levels can be increased during neural injury. The modulation of extracellular adenosine levels by ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities may represent a key mechanism in the control of epileptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute seizure episodes and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments on ectonucleotidases and ADA activities in adult zebrafish brain. Our data have demonstrated that pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures did not alter ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis in brain membrane fractions. However, there was a significant increase on ecto-ADA and soluble ADA activities in PTZ-treated animals immediately after a clonus-like convulsion and loss of posture, which are typical behavioral changes observed in Stage 3. Furthermore, our results have demonstrated that AED pretreatments prevented the stimulatory effect promoted by PTZ exposure on ADA activities. The PTZ and AED treatments did not promote alterations on ADA gene expression. Interestingly, when exposed to PTZ, animals pretreated with AEDs showed longer latency to reach the clonus-like seizure status, which is an effect that matches the suppression of the increase of ADA activity promoted by the AEDs. These data suggest that the adenosine deamination could be involved in the control of seizure development in zebrafish and may be modulated by AED treatments. PMID:23287800

  9. Capparis ovata modulates brain oxidative toxicity and epileptic seizures in pentylentetrazol-induced epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Akay, Mehmet Berk; elik, mer; Y?ld?r?m, Muhammed ?kbal; Balc?, Erdin; Yrekli, Vedat Ali

    2013-04-01

    It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress products play an important role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Capparis ovata (C. ovata) may useful treatment of epilepsy because it contains antioxidant flavonoids. The current study was designed to determine the effects of C. ovata on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant levels and electroencephalography (EEG) records in pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. First group was used as control although second group was PTZ group. Oral 100 and 200 mg/kg C. ovata were given to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 7 days before PTZ administration. Second, third and forth groups received 60 mg/kg PTZ for induction of epilepsy. Three hours after administration of PTZ, EEG records, brain cortex and blood samples were taken all groups. The lipid peroxidation levels of the brain cortex, number of spikes and epileptiform discharges of EEG were higher in PTZ group than in control and C. ovata group whereas they were decreased by C. ovata administration. Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and ?-carotene concentrations of brain cortex and latency to first spike of EEG were decreased by the PTZ administration although the brain cortex and plasma vitamin concentrations, and brain cortex and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were increased in PTZ + 100 and PTZ + 200 mg C. ovata groups. In conclusion, C. ovata administration caused protection against the PTZ-induced brain oxidative toxicity by inhibiting free radical and epileptic seizures, and supporting antioxidant redox system. PMID:23389657

  10. Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2012-06-01

    Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

  11. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice

    PubMed Central

    ARASH, Akaberi; MOHAMMAD, Mohammad-Zadeh; JAMAL, Mirmoosavi Seyed; MOHAMMAD, Tazari Ali; AZAM, Abarashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill) leaves was studied for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy, by using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. The evaluated plant has a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, additionally, dill has been claimed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Methods: For the PTZ kindling induction, mice were given a dose of PTZ (37 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) every other day, and seizure stages were precisely recorded. During and after kindling, the effects of the non-toxic doses of the aqueous extracts (100, 250, and 400 mg/kg) on seizure latency in stage 2 (S2L), seizure latency in stage 4 (S4L), and seizure duration in stage 5 (S5D) were measured. Results: The aqueous extract of dill leaves had a noticeable anticonvulsant effect. The 400 mg/kg dose of the extract sample decreased with S5D (P < 0.05), and increased with S2L and S4L significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The obtained data shows that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity against seizure induced by PTZ. The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in this medicinal herb suggests further activity and guided fractionation studies in order to introduce this plant as a valuable source of anticonvulsant agents. PMID:24643194

  12. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-01-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ?13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R2=0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  13. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-11-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2)=0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  14. Thymoquinone and vitamin C attenuates pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures via activation of GABAB1 receptor in adult rats cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ikram; Badshah, Haroon; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that leads to neuronal excitability and provoke various forms of cellular reorganization in the brain. In this study, we investigate the anti-convulsant and neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and vitamin C against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized seizures. Epileptic seizures were induced in adult rats using systemic intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (50mg/kg) for 7days. Animals pretreated with either TQ or vitamin C or in combination attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and mortality in rats as well neurodegeneration in the cells. Compared to PTZ, TQ and vitamin C significantly prolonged the onset of seizures (p>0.05) as well decrease the high-grade seizures. Analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings revealed that TQ or vitamin C supplementation significantly reduced polyspike and epileptiform discharges. Epileptic seizures caused a decline in expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid B1 receptor (GABAB1R) (p>0.05), unchanged expression of protein kinase A (PKA), decreased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) (p>0.05) and inhibit the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (p>0.05) in cortex and hippocampus, respectively, compared with control. Changes in expression of GABAB1R, CaMKII and CREB by PTZ were reversed by TQ and vitamin C supplementation. Moreover, PTZ significantly increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2 expression and finally the activation of caspase-3. TQ and vitamin C pretreatment reversed all these deleterious effects induced by PTZ. TQ and vitamin C showed anticonvulsant effects via activation of GABAB1R/CaMKII/CREB pathway and suggest a potential therapeutic role in epilepsy. PMID:25429759

  15. Febrile seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... does not have a history of seizure disorders (epilepsy). A grand mal seizure involves the entire body. ... no evidence that they cause death, brain damage, epilepsy, a decrease in IQ, or learning problems. Most ...

  16. Rapamycin down-regulates KCC2 expression and increases seizure susceptibility to convulsants in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; McMahon, J; Yang, J; Shin, D; Huang, Y

    2012-09-01

    Seizure susceptibility to neurological insults, including chemical convulsants, is age-dependent and most likely reflective of overall differences in brain excitability. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying development-dependent seizure susceptibility remain to be fully understood. Because the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and cell survival, thereby influencing brain development, we tested if exposure of the immature brain to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin changes seizure susceptibility to neurological insults. We found that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin in immature rats (3-4 weeks old) increases the severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine, including lengthening the total seizure duration and reducing the latency to the onset of seizures. Rapamycin also reduces the minimal dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) necessary to induce clonic seizures. However, in mature rats, rapamycin does not significantly change the seizure sensitivity to pilocarpine and PTZ. Likewise, kainate sensitivity was not significantly affected by rapamycin treatment in either mature or immature rats. Additionally, rapamycin treatment down-regulates the expression of potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) in the thalamus and to a lesser degree in the hippocampus. Pharmacological inhibition of thalamic mTOR or KCC2 increases susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizure in immature rats. Thus, our study suggests a role for the mTOR pathway in age-dependent seizure susceptibility. PMID:22613737

  17. Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure-like behavior and neural hyperactivity in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Elizabeth; Burrell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the capacity of a known pro-epileptic drug, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to elicit seizure-like activity in the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. During in vivo experiments, PTZ elicited increased motor activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest concentration (10 mM) eliciting episodes of highly uncoordinated exploratory and swimming behavior. Co-application of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin, failed to reduce the absolute amount of PTZ-induced motor behavior, but was able to prevent expression of abnormal exploratory and swimming behaviors. During in vitro experiments in which extracellular recordings of connective nerve activity were made, bath application of 1 ?M PTZ in Mg(2+)-free saline elicited a significant increase in spontaneous activity. This PTZ-induced increase in activity was completely inhibited by phenytoin. Interestingly, PTZ-induced hyperactivity was also blocked by co-application of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. These findings suggest that the leech can be a useful system in which to study potential anti-epileptic treatments. PMID:25572075

  18. Neuromodulatory role of endogenous interleukin-1? in acute seizures: possible contribution of cyclooxygenase-2

    PubMed Central

    Claycomb, Robert J; Hewett, Sandra J; Hewett, James A

    2011-01-01

    The function of endogenous interleukin-1? (IL-1?) signaling in acute seizure activity was examined using transgenic mice harboring targeted deletions in the genes for either IL-1? (Il1b) or its signaling receptor (Il1r1). Acute epileptic seizure activity was modeled using two mechanistically distinct chemoconvulsants, kainic acid (KA) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). KA-induced seizure activity was more severe in homozygous null (-/-) Il1b mice compared to their wild-type (+/+) littermate controls, as indicated by an increase in the incidence of sustained generalized convulsive seizure activity. In the PTZ seizure model, the incidence of acute convulsive seizures was increased in both Il1b and Il1r1 -/- mice compared to their respective +/+ littermate controls. Interestingly, the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, rofecoxib, mimicked the effect of IL-1? deficiency on PTZ-induced convulsions in Il1r1 +/+ but not -/- mice. Together, these results suggest that endogenous IL-1? possesses anticonvulsive properties that may be mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites derived from the catalytic action of COX-2. PMID:21856425

  19. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE) before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Results: The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010–P < 0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010). Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities. PMID:26056549

  20. Effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Besio, W.G.; Makeyev, O.; Medvedev, A.; Gale, K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) on the electrographic and behavioral activity from pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. Methods The TCREs were attached to the rat scalp. PTZ was administered and, after the first myoclonic jerk was observed, TFS was applied to the TFS treated group. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral activity were recorded and studied. Results In the case of the TFS treated group, after TFS, there was a significant (p = 0.001) decrease in power compared to the control group in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands. The number of myoclonic jerks was significantly different (p = 0.002) with median of 22 and 4.5 for the control group and the TFS treated groups, respectively. The duration of myoclonic activity was also significantly different (p= 0.031) with median of 17.56 min for the control group versus 8.63 min for the TFS treated group. At the same time there was no significant difference in seizure onset latency and maximal behavioral seizure activity score between control and TFS treated groups. Conclusions TFS via TCREs interrupted PTZ-induced seizures and electrographic activity was reduced towards the baseline. The significantly reduced electrographic power, number of myoclonic jerks, and duration of myoclonic activity of PTZ-induced seizures suggests that TFS may have an anticonvulsant effect. PMID:23290195

  1. Seizures and Meperidine: Overstated and Underutilized.

    PubMed

    Schlick, Konrad H; Hemmen, Thomas M; Lyden, Patrick D

    2015-12-01

    Meperidine is used for pain control and treatment of shivering. Concerns about neurotoxicity, particularly seizures, have led to efforts limiting meperidine use. We reviewed the body of evidence linking meperidine to seizures. We searched PubMed for the terms meperidine, normeperidine, pethidine, and norpethidine; each was combined with the terms: seizure, epilepsy, epileptogenic, toxicity, overdose, seizure threshold, and convulsion. Articles were assessed for relevance. Semiologies were reviewed to ascertain seizure likelihood. Our search yielded 351 articles, of which 66 were relevant. Of these, 33 had primary clinical data on meperidine-associated seizures, comprising 50 patients. Twenty events were deemed likely to be seizures, 26 indeterminate, and 4 unlikely. Most studies were case reports. Confounding comorbidities were frequent. The evidence base for meperidine-associated seizures in man is scant. Seizure risk associated with meperidine appears to be overstated. The utility of meperidine should continue to be explored, especially for therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:26087278

  2. Pediatric seizures.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Maneesha; Fox, Sean M

    2013-08-01

    Seizures are a commonly encountered condition within the emergency department and, because of this, can engender complacency on the part of the physicians and staff. Unfortunately, there is significant associated morbidity and mortality with seizures, and they should never be regarded as routine. This point is particularly important with respect to seizures in pediatric patients. The aim of this review is to provide a current view of the various issues that make pediatric seizures unique and to help elucidate emergent evaluation and management strategies. PMID:23915601

  3. Integration of multispectral face recognition and multi-PTZ camera automated surveillance for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chung-Hao; Yao, Yi; Chang, Hong; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi

    2013-06-01

    Due to increasing security concerns, a complete security system should consist of two major components, a computer-based face-recognition system and a real-time automated video surveillance system. A computerbased face-recognition system can be used in gate access control for identity authentication. In recent studies, multispectral imaging and fusion of multispectral narrow-band images in the visible spectrum have been employed and proven to enhance the recognition performance over conventional broad-band images, especially when the illumination changes. Thus, we present an automated method that specifies the optimal spectral ranges under the given illumination. Experimental results verify the consistent performance of our algorithm via the observation that an identical set of spectral band images is selected under all tested conditions. Our discovery can be practically used for a new customized sensor design associated with given illuminations for an improved face recognition performance over conventional broad-band images. In addition, once a person is authorized to enter a restricted area, we still need to continuously monitor his/her activities for the sake of security. Because pantilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras are capable of covering a panoramic area and maintaining high resolution imagery for real-time behavior understanding, researches in automated surveillance systems with multiple PTZ cameras have become increasingly important. Most existing algorithms require the prior knowledge of intrinsic parameters of the PTZ camera to infer the relative positioning and orientation among multiple PTZ cameras. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel mapping algorithm that derives the relative positioning and orientation between two PTZ cameras based on a unified polynomial model. This reduces the dependence on the knowledge of intrinsic parameters of PTZ camera and relative positions. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm presents substantially reduced computational complexity and improved flexibility at the cost of slightly decreased pixel accuracy as compared to Chen and Wang's method [18].

  4. Anticonvulsant Activity of B2, an Adenosine Analog, on Chemical Convulsant-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Kang, Ruixia; Shi, Jiangong; Liu, Gengtao; Zhang, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. However, approximately one-third of epilepsy patients still suffer from uncontrolled seizures. Effective treatments for epilepsy are yet to be developed. N6-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl) adenine riboside (B2) is a N6-substitued adenosine analog. Here we describe an investigation of the effects and mechanisms of B2 on chemical convulsant-induced seizures. Seizures were induced in mice by administration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), picrotoxin, kainite acid (KA), or strychnine. B2 has a dose-related anticonvulsant effect in these chemical-induced seizure models. The protective effects of B2 include increased latency of seizure onset, decreased seizure occurrence, shorter seizure duration and reduced mortality rate. Radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays indicated that B2 might be a functional ligand for both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Furthermore, DPCPX, a selective A1 receptor antagonist, but not SCH58261, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, blocked the anticonvulsant effect of B2 on PTZ-induced seizure. c-Fos is a cellular marker for neuronal activity. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses indicated that B2 significantly reversed PTZ-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Together, these results indicate that B2 has significant anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of B2 may be attributed to adenosine A1 receptor activation and reduced neuronal excitability in the hippocampus. These observations also support that the use of adenosine receptor agonist may be a promising approach for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:23825618

  5. The effect of dorsal hippocampal administration of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic ligands on pentylenetetrazol-induced generalized seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Morteza; Saboory, Ehsan; Zare, Samad; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hajizadeh-Moghaddam, Akbar

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, the effects of intrahippocampal injections of cholinergic ligands on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures were investigated in rats. The rats were assigned to 1 of the following 9 groups: saline, nicotine (0.5 or 1 ?g), atropine (0.25 or 1 ?g), oxotremorine-M (0.1 or 1 ?g), or mecamylamine (2 or 8 ?g). Cholinergic ligands were administered via intrahippocampal infusion 30 min before seizure induction (intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg PTZ). Results show that antagonists caused nonsignificant increases in the latency of tonic-clonic seizures, significant decreases in the duration of tonic-clonic seizures, significant decreases in the latency of death, and increases in mortality rate. Agonists led to increases in the duration of tonic-clonic seizures, decreases in the latency of death, and decreases in mortality rate. These results provide compelling evidence that cholinergic ligands show modulatory effects on a PTZ model of acute seizure in the rat hippocampus. PMID:23037131

  6. Antipsychotic medication and seizures: a review.

    PubMed

    Hedges, Dawson; Jeppson, Kreg; Whitehead, Paul

    2003-07-01

    Both first-generation and second-generation antipsychotic medications can lower the seizure threshold, increasing the chances of seizure induction. This article reviews the published literature concerning the seizure-lowering effects of first- and second-generation antipsychotic medication. Unfortunately, rigorously controlled studies are relatively infrequent, and case reports form a large part of the available literature, limiting the confidence with which firm conclusions can be drawn. Of the first-generation antipsychotic medications, chlorpromazine appears to be associated with the greatest risk of seizure provocation, although other first-generation antipsychotics also lower seizure threshold. Conversely, molindone, haloperidol, fluphenazine, pimozide and trifluoperazine are associated with a lower risk of seizure induction. Clozapine is the second-generation antipsychotic most frequently associated with seizures, with risperidone appearing to confer a relatively low risk. Other factors such as history of seizure activity, concurrent use of other drugs that lower seizure threshold, rapid dose titration, slow drug metabolism, metabolic factors and drug-drug interactions appear to increase the chances of an antipsychotic medication inducing seizure activity. PMID:12973403

  7. Dopey's seizure.

    PubMed

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. PMID:10452923

  8. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Simple febrile seizures are generalised in onset, last <15 minutes, and do not occur more than once in 24 hours. Complex febrile seizures are longer lasting, have focal symptoms, and can recur within 24 hours. This review only deals with simple febrile seizures. About 2% to 5% of children in the USA and Western Europe, and 6% to 9% of infants and children in Japan will have experienced at least one febrile seizure by the age of 5 years. Simple febrile seizures may slightly increase the risk of developing epilepsy, but have no known adverse effects on behaviour, scholastic performance, or neurocognition. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments given during episodes of fever in children with one or more previous simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of long-term (daily, for >1 month) anticonvulsant treatment in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of treatments on reducing the risk of subsequent epilepsy in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 18 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anticonvulsants (intermittent or continuous) and antipyretic treatments (physical antipyretic measures, paracetamol, ibuprofen). PMID:21406130

  9. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Simple febrile seizures are generalised in onset, last less than 15 minutes, and do not occur more than once in 24 hours. Complex seizures are longer lasting, have focal symptoms, and can recur within 24 hours. This review only deals with simple febrile seizures. About 2-5% of children in the USA and Western Europe, and 6-9% of infants and children in Japan, will have experienced at least one febrile seizure by the age of 5 years. Simple febrile seizures may slightly increase the risk of developing epilepsy, but have no known adverse effects on behaviour, scholastic performance, or neurocognition. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments given during episodes of fever in children with one or more previous simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of long-term (daily, for more than 1 month) anticonvulsant treatment in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of treatments on reducing the risk of subsequent epilepsy in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anticonvulsants (intermittent or continuous), and antipyretic treatments (physical antipyretic measures, paracetamol, ibuprofen). PMID:19450310

  10. Modulation of benzodiazepine by lysine and pipecolic acid on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.F.; Hargest, V.; Chen, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    L-lysine and its metabolite pipecolic acid (PA) have been studied for their effects on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. L-Lysine of L-Pa i.p. significantly increased clonic and tonic latencies in a dose-dependent manner against 90 mg/kg PTZ-induced seizures. L-Lysine but not L-Pa enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of diazepam (DZ). L-Pa i.c.v. showed a slight decrease in clonic latency; it did not enhance the antiseizure activity of DZ; it caused seizures at 0.6 mmol/kg. D-PA i.c.v. displayed an opposite effect compared to its L-isomer. The anticonvulsant effect of L-lysine in terms of increase in seizure latency and survival was even more amplified when tested with a submaximal PTZ concentration. L-Lysine showed an enhancement of specific /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam(FZ) binding to mouse brain membranes both in vitro an din vivo. The possibility of L-lysine acting as a modulator for the GABA/benzodiazepine receptors was demonstrated. Since L-PA showed enhancement of /sup 3/H-FZ binding only in vitro but not in vivo, the anticonvulsant effect of L-PA may not be linked to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor.

  11. Cognitive performance and convulsion risk after experimentally-induced febrile-seizures in rat.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Ebrahim; Abdeen, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair; Alsaffar, Yousif; Mandeel, Mohammad; Al Shawaaf, Fatima; Al-Ansari, Sali; Kamal, Amer

    2014-05-01

    Many reports indicated that small percentage of children with febrile seizures develop epilepsy and cognitive disorders later in adulthood. In addition, the neuronal network of the hippocampus was reported to be deranged in adult animals after being exposed to hyperthermia-induced seizures in their neonatal life. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) latency and probability of seizures, (2) spatial learning and memory, in adult rats after neonatal hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures (FS). Prolonged FS were elicited in 10-day old, male Sprague Dawleys (n=11/group) by exposure to heated air (48-52 C) for 30 min; control rats were exposed to 30 C air. After 1.5 months the animal's cognitive performance was assessed by 5 day trial in the Morris water maze. In another experiment the latency and probability of seizures were measured in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injections (increased doses ranged from 7 to 140 mg/kg; i.p.). In water maze, both groups showed improvements in escape latency and distance swam to reach the platform; effects were significantly greater in control versus hyperthermia-treated animals on days 3 and 4. Latency and probability of PTZ-induced seizures were shorter and higher respectively, in hyperthermia-treated animals compared to controls. We concluded that FS in neonatal rats leads to enhanced susceptibility for seizures, as well as cognitive deficits in adults. PMID:24433986

  12. Feasibility of recording high frequency oscillations with tripolar concentric ring electrodes during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Liling; Zhu, Zhenghan; Taveras, Aristides; Troiano, Derek; Medvedev, Andrei V; Besio, Walter G

    2012-01-01

    As epilepsy remains a refractory condition in about 30% of patients with complex partial seizures, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. Previously, we applied noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCREs) on the scalp of rats after inducing seizures with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). We developed a close-loop system to detect seizures and automatically trigger the stimulation and evaluated its effect on the electrographic activity recorded by TCREs in rats. In our previous work the detectors of seizure onset were based on seizure-induced changes in signal power in the frequency range up to 100 Hz, while in this preliminary study we assess the feasibility of recording high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the range up to 300 Hz noninvasively with scalp TCREs during PTZ-induced seizures. Grand average power spectral density estimate and generalized likelihood ratio tests were used to compare power of electrographic activity at different stages of seizure development in a group of rats (n= 8). The results suggest that TCREs have the ability to record HFOs from the scalp as well as that scalp-recorded HFOs can potentially be used as features for seizure onset detection. PMID:23366952

  13. Effect of magnesium oxide on the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs against experimental seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhande, Priti Pravin; Ranade, Rajani Shrikant; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of oral magnesium oxide supplementation alone and on the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs in the animal models of maximal electroshock seizures (MES) and chemically (pentylenetetrazole [PTZ])-induced seizures. Methods: Healthy male albino rats were given magnesium oxide (MgO) supplementation orally in various doses (500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg /day) for 4 weeks (day 1 to day 28). On day 0 and day 29, response to MES (180 mA for 0.2 s) was tested 1 h after pre-administration of phenytoin or carbamazepine orally. Similarly, in the other groups, the response to PTZ 40 mg/kg i.p. was tested 1 h after pre-administration of oral sodium valproate. Results: Oral administration of MgO in a low dose (500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks in healthy rats appears to exert protective effect against MES. High oral doses of MgO (750 and 1000 mg/kg) appear to enhance the activity of phenytoin and carbamazepine in the MES model. MgO supplementation was seen to decrease the latency of PTZ-induced seizures. Conclusion: The dose of oral MgO appears to have an inverse relation with the protective effect in MES-induced seizure model. High doses of MgO supplementation given orally appear to enhance the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs in the MES-induced seizure model. PMID:20407558

  14. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 67. ...

  15. Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cleide Correia de; Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos de; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Grauncke, Ana Cláudia Beck; Souza, Thaíze Lopes de; Souto, Naieli Schiefelbein; Furian, Ana Flávia; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that plant-derived extracts and their isolated components are useful for treatment of seizures and, hence, constitute a valuable source of new antiepileptic drugs with improved efficacy and better adverse effect profile. β-Caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that occurs in a wide range of plant species and displays a number of biological actions, including neuroprotective activity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that β-caryophyllene displays anticonvulsant effects. In addition, we investigated the effect of β-caryophyllene on behavioral parameters and on seizure-induced oxidative stress. Adult C57BL/6 mice received increasing doses of β-caryophyllene (0, 10, 30, or 100mg/kg). After 60min, we measured the latencies to myoclonic and generalized seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60mg/kg). We found that β-caryophyllene increased the latency to myoclonic jerks induced by PTZ. This result was confirmed by electroencephalographic analysis. In a separate set of experiments, we found that mice treated with an anticonvulsant dose of β-caryophyllene (100mg/kg) displayed an improved recognition index in the object recognition test. This effect was not accompanied by behavioral changes in the open-field, rotarod, or forced swim tests. Administration of an anticonvulsant dose of β-caryophyllene (100mg/kg) did not prevent PTZ-induced oxidative stress (i.e., increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances or the decrease in nonprotein thiols content). Altogether, the present data suggest that β-caryophyllene displays anticonvulsant activity against seizures induced by PTZ in mice. Since no adverse effects were observed in the same dose range of the anticonvulsant effect, β-caryophyllene should be further evaluated in future development of new anticonvulsant drugs. PMID:26827298

  16. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates hyperthermia-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Baik-Lin; Abraham, Jayne; Mlsna, Lauren; Kim, Min Jung; Koh, Sookyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged febrile seizures (FS) have both acute and long-lasting effects on the developing brain. Because FS are often associated with peripheral infection, we aimed to develop a preclinical model of FS that simulates fever and immune activation in order to facilitate the implementation of targeted therapy after prolonged FS in young children. Methods The innate immune activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to postnatal day 14 rat (200 μg/kg) and mouse (100 μg/kg) pups 2–2.5 h prior to hyperthermic seizures (HT) induced by hair dryer or heat lamp. To determine whether simulation of infection enhances neuronal excitability, latency to seizure onset, threshold temperature and total number of seizures were quantified. Behavioral seizures were correlated with electroencephalographic changes in rat pups. Seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was assessed in blood samples at various time points after HT. Seizure-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus was quantified using Cx3cr1GFP/+ mice. Results Lipopolysaccharide priming increased susceptibility of rats and mice to hyperthemic seizures and enhanced seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and microglial activation. Conclusions Peripheral inflammation appears to work synergistically with hyperthermia to potentiate seizures and to exacerbate seizure-induced immune responses. By simulating fever, a regulated increase in body temperature from an immune challenge, we developed a more clinically relevant animal model of prolonged FS. PMID:26357586

  17. Controlling Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35

  18. Controlling Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

  19. Effects of acute inhibition of fatty acid oxidation on latency to seizure and concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate in plasma of rats maintained on calorie restriction and/or the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Harney, Jacob P; Madara, Joseph; Madara, Jonathan; I'Anson, Helen

    2002-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of acute inhibition of fatty acid oxidation on plasma levels of beta hydroxybutyrate and latency to PTZ-induced seizures in ad libitum- (AL), calorie-restricted normal rodent chow- (CR), and calorie-restricted ketogenic diet (KD)-fed young rats. Young (day 23) Sprague-Dawley rats were fasted for 8 h and then fed their respective diets for 21 days. On day 21 of the diet rats in each group received either saline or the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor mercaptoacetate (MA; 46 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.). Two hours later, all rats received pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 10 mg/kg; i.p.) every 10 min until seizure onset. Results demonstrated that KD-fed rats had the longest (P<0.05) latency to PTZ-induced seizures. KD-fed rats administered an acute dose of MA had lower (P<0.01) levels of beta hydroxybutyrate in plasma and shorter latency to PTZ-induced seizures compared with control KD-fed rats. However, there was not a significant positive correlation (P>0.10) between plasma beta hydroxybutyrate and latency to seizure, suggesting that beta hydroxybutyrate may be indirectly involved in the antiseizure effects of the KD. Fatty acid oxidation inhibition represents an experimental manipulation that may allow for more precise establishment and evaluation of levels of beta hydroxybutyrate in plasma necessary for antiseizure effects of the KD. PMID:12076845

  20. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

  1. Intramolar electron transfer in the reductive chromophore-quencher complex ((bpy)Re(CO)/sub 3/(py-PTZ))/sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Westmoreland, T.D.; Danielson, E.; Schanze, K.S.; Anthon, D.; Neveux, P.E. Jr.; Meyer, T.J.

    1987-04-08

    Three metal complexes containing the reductive quencher ligand py-PTZ, ((bpy)Re(CO)/sub 3/(py-PTZ))/sup +/ and ((bpy)/sub 2/Ru/sup II/L(py-PTZ))/sup n+/ (where L = Cl/sup -/ (n = 1), PTZ = phenothiazine and acetonitrile ( n = 2)), were prepared and their redox and spectral properties investigated. The chromophore-quencher complex have essentially the same photophysical properties as their corresponding pyridine analogues at 77K in a 4:1 (v/v)) ethanol/methanol glass, but their properties are profoundly different in fluid solution. For the Re complex in fluid solution excitation of the Re..-->.. ..pi..*(bpy) metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) chromophore at 355 nm is followed by rapid (<10 ns) appearance of transient absorption (TA) features at 350 and 500 nm consistent with formation of the charge-separated state ((bpy/sup.-/)Re(CO)/sub 3/(py-PTZ/sup.+))/sup +*/. Picosecond TA experiments monitored at 500 nm show that the PTZ/sup .+/ site grows in within approx.200 ps in polar organic solvents following laser excitation at 355 nm. The transient behavior observed leads to the conclusion that initial excitation of the MLCT chromophore is followed by rapid intramolecular electron-transfer quenching with k/sub q/(RT) = 4.8 x 10/sup 9/ s /sup -1/ in acetonitrile to give the charge-separated excited state ((bpy/sup .-)Re(CO)/sub 3/(py-PTZ/sup.+))/sup +/, which, in turn, decays to the ground state with k/sub 2/ = 4.0 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/. 36 references, 11 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Identification of compounds with anti-convulsant properties in a zebrafish model of epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Baxendale, Sarah; Holdsworth, Celia J.; Meza Santoscoy, Paola L.; Harrison, Michael R. M.; Fox, James; Parkin, Caroline A.; Ingham, Philip W.; Cunliffe, Vincent T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The availability of animal models of epileptic seizures provides opportunities to identify novel anticonvulsants for the treatment of people with epilepsy. We found that exposure of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rapidly induces the expression of synaptic-activity-regulated genes in the CNS, and elicited vigorous episodes of calcium (Ca2+) flux in muscle cells as well as intense locomotor activity. We then screened a library of ?2000 known bioactive small molecules and identified 46 compounds that suppressed PTZ-inducedtranscription of the synaptic-activity-regulated gene fos in 2-day-old (2 dpf) zebrafish embryos. Further analysis of a subset of these compounds, which included compounds with known and newly identified anticonvulsant properties, revealed that they exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of both locomotor activity and PTZ-induced fos transcription, confirming their anticonvulsant characteristics. We conclude that this in situ hybridisation assay for fos transcription in the zebrafish embryonic CNS is a robust, high-throughput in vivo indicator of the neural response to convulsant treatment and lends itself well to chemical screening applications. Moreover, our results demonstrate that suppression of PTZ-induced fos expression provides a sensitive means of identifying compounds with anticonvulsant activities. PMID:22730455

  3. OmniBird: a miniature PTZ NIR sensor system for UCAV day/night autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Steven; Li, Hui

    2007-04-01

    Through a SBIR funding from NAVAIR, we have successfully developed an innovative, miniaturized, and lightweight PTZ UCAV imager called OmniBird for UCAV taxiing. The proposed OmniBird will be able to fit in a small space. The designed zoom capability allows it to acquire focused images for targets ranging from 10 to 250 feet. The innovative panning mechanism also allows the system to have a field of view of +/- 100 degrees within the provided limited spacing (6 cubic inches). The integrated optics, camera sensor, and mechanics solution will allow the OmniBird to stay optically aligned and shock-proof under harsh environments.

  4. Treadmill Exercise Protects Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures and Oxidative Stress after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurcio Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogrio da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Flix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35?mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na+/K+-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility. PMID:23530735

  5. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Pregnancy • What is a seizure? • What is epilepsy? • Can seizures be controlled? • If I have a ... in mood, emotions, consciousness, or movement. What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is one kind of seizure disorder. It ...

  6. Alcohol-related seizures.

    PubMed

    McMicken, David; Liss, Jonathan L

    2011-02-01

    The term alcohol-related seizures (ARS) is used to refer to all seizures in the aggregate associated with alcohol use, including the subset of alcohol withdrawal seizures (AWS). From 20% to 40% of patients with seizure who present to an emergency department have seizures related to alcohol abuse. However, it is critical to avoid prematurely labeling a seizure as being caused by alcohol withdrawal before performing a careful diagnostic evaluation. Benzodiazepines alone are sufficient to prevent AWS. The alcoholic patient with a documented history of ARS, who experiences a single seizure or a short burst of seizures should be treated with lorazepam, 2mg intravenously. PMID:21109108

  7. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both

  8. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  9. How do you approach seizures in the high altitude traveler?

    PubMed

    Maa, Edward H

    2011-01-01

    Counseling patients who suffer first-time or break- through seizures can be difficult, particularly when controllable external factors may be contributing to the lowering of their seizure threshold. High altitude as a potential trigger for seizures is a common question in our epilepsy clinics in Colorado, and this article reviews the existing anecdotal literature, presents our local experience with high altitude seizures (HAS), offers possible mechanisms to explain how high altitude may trigger seizures, and suggests an initial work-up and prophylactic strategies for future high altitude exposures. PMID:21452959

  10. Can Seizure-Alert Dogs predict seizures?

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen W; Goldstein, Laura H

    2011-12-01

    An index observation where a dog was trained to alert to, as well as respond to, human tonic-clonic seizures led to further research and refinement of training techniques. This was followed by anecdotal reports of pet dogs spontaneously anticipating human epileptic seizures. An industry has since developed training Seizure-Alert Dogs (SADs) to give humans warnings of their seizures. In some cases this has been accompanied by a reduction in seizure frequency. SADs may be trained along with the person with epilepsy, responding specifically to that person's seizures, or may be trained separately. Recent sceptical reports of non-epileptic seizures in some people with SADs have cast doubt on dogs' ability to anticipate true epileptic seizures. This may reflect selection criteria for training programmes as well as training methods used, but does not necessarily indicate that SADs might not be able to predict epileptic seizures. Whether the seizures are epileptic or non-epileptic, it is speculated that SADs probably alert to subtle pre-ictal human behaviour changes, but may also be sensitive to heart rate or olfactory cues. As yet, however, no rigorous data exist as to whether seizure prediction by SADS is better than chance, and what false positive and negative prediction rates might be. PMID:22050976

  11. Effects of cannabidiol on behavioral seizures caused by convulsant drugs or current in mice.

    PubMed

    Consroe, P; Benedito, M A; Leite, J R; Carlini, E A; Mechoulam, R

    1982-09-24

    In mice, running, clonic and tonic convulsions and lethality were assessed following transcorneal (electroshock) current or convulsant drugs, each administered alone and after cannabidiol (CBD) pretreatment. CBD prevented tonic convulsions caused by a convulsant current (CC) 99.99, and by the convulsant dose (CD) 99.99 values of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitors, 3-mercaptoproprionic acid (3MPA), picrotoxin (PIC), isonicotinic acid hydrazine (INH), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and bicuculline (BIC). Rankorder potencies, based on the antitonic ED50 of CBD, were: 3MPA greater than PIC = current = PTZ = BIC. Further, CBD prevented 3MPA-induced lethality, but failed to prevent the occurrence of the other behavioral endpoints of the above treatments. CBD also failed to prevent convulsions and lethality caused by the CD 99.99 of strychnine, a glycine antagonist. The differential effects of CBD suggest that the cannabinoid acts to inhibit seizure spread in the CNS by an action on GABA, but not glycine, mechanisms. PMID:6129147

  12. Validation of the zebrafish pentylenetetrazol seizure model: locomotor versus electrographic responses to antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Afrikanova, Tatiana; Serruys, Ann-Sophie K; Buenafe, Olivia E M; Clinckers, Ralph; Smolders, Ilse; de Witte, Peter A M; Crawford, Alexander D; Esguerra, Camila V

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish have recently emerged as an attractive in vivo model for epilepsy. Seven-day-old zebrafish larvae exposed to the GABA(A) antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) exhibit increased locomotor activity, seizure-like behavior, and epileptiform electrographic activity. A previous study showed that 12 out of 13 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) suppressed PTZ-mediated increases in larval movement, indicating the potential utility of zebrafish as a high-throughput in vivo model for AED discovery. However, a question remained as to whether an AED-induced decrease in locomotion is truly indicative of anticonvulsant activity, as some drugs may impair larval movement through other mechanisms such as general toxicity or sedation. We therefore carried out a study in PTZ-treated zebrafish larvae, to directly compare the ability of AEDs to inhibit seizure-like behavioral manifestations with their capacity to suppress epileptiform electrographic activity. We re-tested the 13 AEDs of which 12 were previously reported to inhibit convulsions in the larval movement tracking assay, administering concentrations that did not, on their own, impair locomotion. In parallel, we carried out open-field recordings on larval brains after treatment with each AED. For the majority of AEDs we obtained the same response in both the behavioral and electrographic assays. Overall our data correlate well with those reported in the literature for acute rodent PTZ tests, indicating that the larval zebrafish brain is more discriminatory than previously thought in its response to AEDs with different modes of action. Our results underscore the validity of using the zebrafish larval locomotor assay as a rapid first-pass screening tool in assessing the anticonvulsant and/or proconvulsant activity of compounds, but also highlight the importance of performing adequate validation when using in vivo models. PMID:23342097

  13. Contrasting effects of Na+, K+-ATPase activation on seizure activity in acute versus chronic models.

    PubMed

    Funck, V R; Ribeiro, L R; Pereira, L M; de Oliveira, C V; Grigoletto, J; Della-Pace, I D; Fighera, M R; Royes, L F F; Furian, A F; Larrick, J W; Oliveira, M S

    2015-07-01

    Epilepsy is a life-shortening brain disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Most epilepsy patients are refractory to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity and probing for new AEDs is fundamental to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Brain Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. Accordingly, a decrease of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase increases neuronal excitability and may predispose to appearing of seizure activity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity with a specific antibody (DRRSAb) raised against a regulatory site in the α subunit would decrease seizure susceptibility. We found that incubation of hippocampal homogenates with DRRSAb (1 μM) increased total and α1 Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. A higher concentration (3 μM) increased total, α1 and α2/α3 Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. Intrahippocampal injection of DRRSAb decreased the susceptibility of post status epilepticus animals to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced myoclonic seizures. In contrast, administration of DRRSAb into the hippocampus of naïve animals facilitated the appearance of PTZ-induced seizures. Quantitative analysis of hippocampal electroencephalography (EEG) recordings revealed that DRRSAb increased the percentage of total power contributed by the delta frequency band (0-3 Hz) to a large irregular amplitude pattern of hippocampal EEG. On the other hand, we found no DRRSAb-induced changes regarding the theta functional state. Further studies are necessary to define the potential of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activation as a new therapeutic approach for seizure disorders. PMID:25907445

  14. Seizure First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical I.D. bracelet or necklace that says epilepsy or seizure disorder. Some individuals wear a medical ... of knowing whether or not the person has epilepsy. The person having a seizure does not have ...

  15. Plic-1, a new target in repressing epileptic seizure by regulation of GABAAR function in patients and a rat model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujiao; Li, Zengyou; Gu, Juan; Zhang, Yanke; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-12-01

    Dysfunction of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors (GABAARs) is a prominent factor affecting intractable epilepsy. Plic-1, an ubiquitin-like protein enriched in the inhibitory synapses connecting GABAARs and the ubiquitin protease system (UPS), plays a key role in the modification of GABAAR functions. However, the relationship between Plic-1 and epileptogenesis is not known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate Plic-1 levels in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, as well as the role of Plic-1 in regulating onset and progression of epilepsy in animal models. We found that Plic-1 expression was significantly decreased in patients with epilepsy as well as pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced rat epileptic models. Intrahippocampal injection of the PePα peptide, which disrupts Plic-1 binding to GABAARs, significantly shortened the latency of seizure onset, and increased the seizure severity and duration in these two epileptic models. Overexpressed Plic-1 through lentivirus transfection into a PTZ model resulted in a reduction in both seizure severity and generalized tonic-clonic seizure duration. Whole-cell clamp recordings revealed that the PePα peptide decreased miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) whereas overexpressed Plic-1 increased mIPSCs in the pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. These effects can be blocked by picrotoxin, a GABAAR inhibitor. Our results indicate that Plic-1 plays an important role in managing epileptic seizures by enhancing seizure inhibition through regulation of GABAARs at synaptic sites. PMID:26415648

  16. [Drug-induced seizures].

    PubMed

    Block, F; Dafotakis, M

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced seizures are in view of a constantly ageing population and increasingly frequent polypharmacotherapy an increasing problem in daily routine praxis. Identification of potentially seizure-inducing drugs may help generating risk profiles for individual patients. Drug-induced seizures have often been seen as a complication of psychopharmacological therapy, but its occurrence has also been described in response to a great diversity of compounds such as antibiotics, sympathomimetics and anaesthetics. The present article outlines a synopsis of the most prevalent seizure-inducing drugs as well as strategies how to deal with a patient suffering from a drug-induced seizure. PMID:23138222

  17. How do seizures stop?

    PubMed Central

    Lado, Fred A.; Mosh, Solomon L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Although often overshadowed by factors influencing seizure initiation, seizure termination is a critical step in the return to the interictal state. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to seizure termination could potentially identify novel targets for anticonvulsant drug development and may also highlight the pathophysiological processes contributing to seizure initiation. In this article, we review known physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and discuss additional mechanisms that are likely to be relevant even though specific data are not yet available. This review is organized according to successively increasing size scalesfrom membranes to synapses to networks to circuits. We first discuss mechanisms of seizure termination acting at the shortest distances and affecting the excitable membranes of neurons in the seizure onset zone. Next we consider the contributions of ensembles of neurons and glia interacting at intermediate distances within the region of the seizure onset zone. Lastly, we consider the contribution of brain nuclei, such as the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR), that are capable of modulating seizures and exert their influence over the seizure onset zone (and neighboring areas) from a relatively greatin neuroanatomical termsdistance. It is our hope that the attention to the mechanisms contributing to seizure termination will stimulate novel avenues of epilepsy research and will contribute to improved patient care. PMID:18503563

  18. Calibration of a dual-PTZ-camera system for stereo vision based on parallel particle swarm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Wang, Huai-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Hsu, Ming-Hsi

    2014-02-01

    This work investigates the calibration of a stereo vision system based on two PTZ (Pan-Tilt-Zoom) cameras. As the accuracy of the system depends not only on intrinsic parameters, but also on the geometric relationships between rotation axes of the cameras, the major concern is the development of an effective and systematic way to obtain these relationships. We derived a complete geometric model of the dual-PTZ-camera system and proposed a calibration procedure for the intrinsic and external parameters of the model. The calibration method is based on Zhang's approach using an augmented checkerboard composed of eight small checkerboards, and is formulated as an optimization problem to be solved by an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Two Sony EVI-D70 PTZ cameras were used for the experiments. The root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of corner distances in the horizontal and vertical direction are 0.192 mm and 0.115 mm, respectively. The RMSE of overlapped points between the small checkerboards is 1.3958 mm.

  19. Effects of tianeptine on onset time of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: possible role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun I; Kayir, Hakan; Ceyhan, Mert

    2007-02-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric problem in epileptic patients. Thus, it is important that an antidepressant agent has anticonvulsant activity. This study was organized to investigate the effects of tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. A possible contribution of adenosine receptors was also evaluated. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (25-35 g) were subjects. PTZ (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to mice 30 min after tianeptine (2.5-80 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline administration. The onset times of 'first myoclonic jerk' (FMJ) and 'generalized clonic seizures' (GCS) were recorded. Duration of 600 s was taken as a cutoff time in calculation of the onset time of the seizures. To evaluate the contribution of adenosine receptors in the effect of tianeptine, a nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, a specific A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a specific A2A receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or their vehicles were administered to the mice 15 min before tianeptine (80 mg/kg) or saline treatments. Tianeptine (40 and 80 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly delayed the onset time of FMJ and GCS. Caffeine (10-60 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently blocked the retarding effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on the onset times of FMJ and GCS. DPCPX (20 mg/kg) but not CSC (1-8 mg/kg) blocked the effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on FMJ. Our results suggest that tianeptine delayed the onset time of PTZ-induced seizures via adenosine A1 receptors in mice. Thus, this drug may be a useful choice for epileptic patients with depression. PMID:16823386

  20. Seizure facilitating activity of the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Younus, Iyan; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2016-03-01

    Contraceptive management is critical in women with epilepsy. Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are widely used by many women with epilepsy, little is known about their impact on epileptic seizures and epileptogenesis. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is the primary component of OC pills. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effect of EE on epileptogenesis and kindled seizures in female mice using the hippocampus kindling model. Animals were stimulated daily with or without EE until generalized stage 5 seizures were elicited. EE treatment significantly accelerated the rate of epileptogenesis. In acute studies, EE caused a significant decrease in the afterdischarge threshold and increased the incidence and severity of seizures in fully-kindled mice. In chronic studies, EE treatment caused a greater susceptibility to kindled seizures. Collectively, these results are consistent with moderate proconvulsant-like activity of EE. Such excitatory effects may affect seizure risk in women with epilepsy taking OC pills. PMID:26874323

  1. Brain redox imaging in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Miho C; Yamato, Mayumi; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2015-11-01

    Much evidence supports the idea that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, and therapeutic interventions with antioxidants are expected as adjunct antiepileptic therapy. The aims of this study were to non-invasively obtain spatially resolved redox data from control and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindled mouse brains by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and to visualize the brain regions that are sensitive to oxidative damage. After infusion of the redox-sensitive imaging probe 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (MCP), a series of EPR images of PTZ-induced mouse heads were measured. Based on the pharmacokinetics of the reduction reaction of MCP in the mouse heads, the pixel-based rate constant of its reduction reaction was calculated as an index of redox status in vivo and mapped as a redox map. The obtained redox map showed heterogeneity in the redox status in PTZ-induced mouse brains compared with control. The co-registered image of the redox map and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both control and PTZ-induced mice showed a clear change in the redox status around the hippocampus after PTZ. To examine the role of antioxidants on the brain redox status, the levels of antioxidants were measured in brain tissues of control and PTZ-induced mice. Significantly lower concentrations of glutathione in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice were detected compared with control. From the results of both EPR imaging and the biochemical assay, the hippocampus was found to be susceptible to oxidative damage in the PTZ-induced animal model of epilepsy. PMID:26453762

  2. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports. PMID:22236820

  3. On the nature of seizure dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, William C.; Quilichini, Pascale P.; Ivanov, Anton I.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between ‘normal’ and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical parameters contributing to the five state variables in our model system. We show that these parameters apply to specific experimental conditions and propose that there exists a wide array of possible biophysical mechanisms for seizure genesis, while preserving central invariant properties. Epileptor and the seizure taxonomy will guide future modeling and translational research by identifying universal rules governing the initiation and termination of seizures and predicting the conditions necessary for those transitions. PMID:24919973

  4. Seizures induced by music.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, A O; Breen, H

    1993-01-01

    Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures. PMID:24487138

  5. Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome seizures.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Cano, H; Vela-Bueno, A; de Iceta, M; Pomalima, R; Martnez-Gras, I

    1995-11-01

    In this study, we present five cases of seizures following withdrawal of flunitrazepam, lorazepam, or triazolam, representing 3% of a sample consisting of 153 patients dependent on benzodiazepines. Both abrupt cessation of benzodiazepine intake and high-dose use seem to be critical for the appearance of seizures. Pharmacological features, such as short elimination half-life and high potency, might explain the higher risk of seizures observed in these patients. PMID:8773293

  6. Gestational treatment of folic acid attenuates blood-brain barrier leakage in pregnant- and prepubertal rats after pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure.

    PubMed

    Seker, Fatma Burcu; Yorulmaz, Hatice; Kaptan, Engin; Caglayan, Berrak; Oztas, Baria

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Folic acid (FA) is physiologically important in mammals and is a common vitamin supplement used during pregnancy and lactation. Numerous studies have reported that FA significantly improves endothelial function. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in maintaining the microenvironment required for neuronal function, but its unique structure is damaged by epileptic seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective role of FA on BBB leakage, as well as on the reactive astrogliosis in pregnant rats and their prepubertal offspring during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizure. Methods Pregnant rats were treated with FA (5mg/kg) and PTZ on gestational days 0-19 and 19, respectively. The pups were treated with PTZ at puberty. Evans blue was used to evaluate BBB integrity. Reactive astrogliosis was defined using immunohistochemical analysis for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was measured at the femoral artery. Results A moderate decrease in BBB leakage was observed in FA-treated pregnant and prepubertal animals (P<0.05). MABP was decreased significantly in pregnant rats (P<0.05). The epilepsy-induced increase in MABP was less prominent in pregnant animals (P<0.05). GFAP intensity decreased in PTZ-treated pregnant animals (P<0.01) and FA-treated prepubertal rats. Discussion Our findings suggest that FA, which is used as a maternal vitamin to promote normal fetus development, may be beneficial against seizure-induced neuronal damage by decreasing BBB leakage and reactive astrogliosis in pregnant and prepubertal rats. PMID:25222769

  7. Binding of double stranded oligonucleotide probes for particular transcription factors with leucine-zipper motifs in discrete brain structures of mice with acquired and inherent spontaneous seizures.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Y; Ogita, K; Yoneda, Y

    1996-09-01

    Nuclear extracts of mouse brain contained binding of radiolabeled oligonucleotide probes for particular transcription factors with leucine-zipper motifs including activator protein-1 (AP1), cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and c-Myc. An acute intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) at a convulsive dose significantly potentiated binding of the probe for AP1 in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus and midbrain, without affecting that in the medulla-pons and cerebellum, 2 h after the administration. However, PTZ failed to affect binding of the probe for CREB under the similar experimental conditions. In contrast, PTZ induced a slight but statistically significant decrease in binding of the AP1 probe in the cerebellum, without altering that in the hippocampus, 14 h after the injection. On the other hand, repeated administration of PTZ at a subconvulsive dose led to spontaneous kindling seizures in animals, with a concomitant decrease in binding of the AP1 probe in both the hippocampus and cerebellum. In contrast to these animals with acquired spontaneous seizures, however, binding of the AP1 probe was significantly higher in three different telencephalic structures of inherently spontaneous epileptic El mice than that in the parent ddY mice, with binding of probes for CREB and c-Myc being unchanged. These results suggest that different molecular mechanisms may underlie the expression of being unchanged. These results suggest that different molecular mechanisms may underlie the expression of AP1 in discrete brain structures of mice with acquired and inherent spontaneous seizures. PMID:8885292

  8. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... grand mal seizure. The terms seizure , convulsion, or epilepsy are most often associated with generalized tonic-clonic ... occur as part of a repeated, chronic illness (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).

  9. Metallothionein expression in the rat brain following KA and PTZ treatment.

    PubMed

    Jurez-Rebollar, Daniel; Manjarrez, Joaqun; Nava-Ruz, Concepcin; Zaga-Clavellina, Vernica; Flores-Espinosa, Pilar; Heras-Romero, Yesica; Daz-Ruz, Araceli; Mndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2015-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that has been associated with oxidative stress therefore epilepsy models have been develop such as kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol are usually used to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. We examined the metallothionein expression in rat brains of treated with kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol. Increase in metallothionein and nitrotirosyne immunoreactivity of both seizures epilepsy models was observed. Moreover, we show a significant increase on levels of MT expression. These results suggest that the increase of metallothionein expression is related with kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol treatments as response to damage mediated by oxidative stress. PMID:26318565

  10. Seizure First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical I.D. bracelet or necklace that says “epilepsy” or “seizure disorder.” Some individuals wear a medical ... of knowing whether or not the person has epilepsy. • The person having a seizure does not have ...

  11. Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alica M.

    2006-01-01

    The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…

  12. Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alica M.

    2006-01-01

    The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with

  13. [Driver's licence and seizures].

    PubMed

    Gjerstad, L; Steen, T

    1993-08-10

    The authors consider various types of seizures and their medico-legal consequences in connection with motor vehicle driving. Epilepsy, syncope, transitory ischemic attacks, migraine, electrolyte disturbances, hypoglycaemia, hypersomnia, and alcohol-induced fits are discussed in brief. The authors also discuss risk of recurrence, the seizure-free interval before driving can be resumed, and possible mitigating factors. PMID:8362397

  14. Functional, metabolic, and synaptic changes after seizures as potential targets for antiepileptic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lscher, Wolfgang; Khling, Rdiger

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about how the brain limits seizure duration and terminates seizures. Depending on severity and duration, a single seizure is followed by various functional, metabolic, and synaptic changes that may form targets for novel therapeutic strategies. It is long known that most seizures are followed by a period of postictal refractoriness during which the threshold for induction of additional seizures is increased. The endogenous anticonvulsant mechanisms involved in this phenomenon may be relevant for both spontaneous seizure arrest and increase of seizure threshold after seizure arrest. Postictal refractoriness has been extensively studied in various seizure and epilepsy models, including electrically and chemically induced seizures, kindling, and genetic animal models of epilepsy. During kindling development, two antagonistic processes occur simultaneously, one responsible for kindling-like events and the other for terminating ictus and postictal refractoriness. Frequently occurring seizures may lead to an accumulation of postictal refractoriness that may last weeks. The mechanisms involved in seizure termination and postictal refractoriness include changes in ionic microenvironment, in pH, and in various endogenous neuromodulators such as adenosine and neuropeptides. In animal models, the anticonvulsant efficacy of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is increased during postictal refractoriness, which is a logical consequence of the interaction between endogenous anticonvulsant processes and the mechanism of AEDs. As discussed in this review, enhanced understanding of these endogenous processes may lead to novel targets for AED development. PMID:20705520

  15. Medical causes of seizures.

    PubMed

    Delanty, N; Vaughan, C J; French, J A

    1998-08-01

    Seizures are commonly encountered in patients who do not have epilepsy. Factors that may provoke such seizures include organ failure, electrolyte imbalance, medication and medication withdrawal, and hypersensitive encephalopathy. There is usually one underlying cause, which may be reversible in some patients. A full assessment should be done to rule out primary neurological disease. Treatment of seizures in medically ill patients is aimed at correction of the underlying cause with appropriate short-term anticonvulsant medication. Phenytoin is ineffective in the management of seizures secondary to alcohol withdrawal, and in those due to theophylline or isoniazid toxicity. Control of blood pressure is important in patients with renal failure and seizures. Non-convulsive status epilepticus should be considered in any patient with confusion or coma of unclear cause, and electroencephalography should be done at the earliest opportunity. Most ill patients with secondary seizures do not have epilepsy, and this should be explained to patients and their families. Only those patients with recurrent seizures and uncorrectable predisposing factors need long-term treatment with anticonvulsant medication. PMID:9717943

  16. The involvement of Na+, K+-ATPase activity and free radical generation in the susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Lima, Frederico Diniz; Furian, Ana Flavia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2011-09-15

    Although the importance of brain trauma as risk factor for the development of epilepsy is well established, the mechanisms of epileptogenesis are not well understood. In the present study, we revealed that the injection of a subthreshold dose of PTZ (30 mg/Kg, i.p.) after 5 weeks of injury induced by Fluid Percussion Brain Injury (FPI) decreased latency for first clonic seizures, increased the time of spent generalized tonic-clonic seizures and electrocorticographic (EEG) wave amplitude. In addition, statistical analysis revealed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (100mg/kg) supplementation during 5 weeks after neuronal injury protected against behavioral and electrographical seizure activity elicited by subthreshold dose of PTZ. The supplementation of this antioxidant compound also protected against the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition and concomitant increase in the levels of oxidative stress markers (protein carbonylation and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances-TBARS) in site and peri-contusional cortical tissue. In summary, the current experiments clearly showed that FPI model induces early posttraumatic seizures and suggest that an alteration in the lipid/protein oxidation, membrane fluidity, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity may be correlated with neuronal excitability, a significant component of the secondary injury cascade that accompanies TBI. PMID:21737104

  17. Acute and Chronic Effects of N-acetylcysteine on Pentylenetetrazole-induced Seizure and Neuromuscular Coordination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaeri, Sasan; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been indicated against experimental seizures, but with relatively inconclusive results. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether NAC exerts a dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect and to determine NAC safe therapeutic dose range and its muscle-relaxant activity in both acute and chronic uses. Methods Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of N-acetylcysteine acutely (50-300 mg/kg) or chronically for 8 days (25-300 mg/kg), mice were injected with PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.) and latency times to the onset of myoclonic and clonic seizures and protection against death were recorded. Changes in body weight and mortality rate were considered as parameters for drug safety. The muscle-relaxant activity of NAC was assessed by rotarod test. Results Acute and chronic treatment with NAC delayed latency times to myoclonic and clonic seizures in a dose-dependent manner, but with no significant prevention against PTZ-induced death. Chronic administration of 300 mg/kg NAC was fully lethal while lower doses (100 and 150 mg/kg) resulted in a significant weight loss and decreased stay time on rotarod. Acute treatment with NAC had no significant effect on stay time on rotarod at all studied doses. Conclusion NAC exerts a dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect in acute and chronic uses, with no muscle relaxant activity. NAC has higher efficacy in preventing seizure in chronic than acute treatment, but its chronic use at higher doses of 75 mg/kg may be associated with side effects and/or toxicity. These findings suggest that low doses of NAC may have a potential use as a prophylactic treatment for absence seizure in human. PMID:25821291

  18. DDT Exposure of Zebrafish Embryos Enhances Seizure Susceptibility: Relationship to Fetal p,p?-DDE Burden and Domoic Acid Exposure of California Sea Lions

    PubMed Central

    Tiedeken, Jessica A.; Ramsdell, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Background California sea lions have a large body burden of organochlorine pesticides, and over the last decade they have also been subject to domoic acid poisoning. Domoic acid poisoning, previously recognized in adult animals, is now viewed as a major cause of prenatal mortality. The appearance of a chronic juvenile domoic acid disease in the sea lions, characterized by behavioral abnormalities and epilepsy, is consistent with early life poisoning and may be potentiated by organochlorine burden. Objective We investigated the interactive effect of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) on neurodevelopment using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model for seizure behavior to examine the susceptibility to domoic acidinduced seizures after completion of neurodevelopment. Methods Embryos were exposed (630 hr postfertilization) to either o,p?-DDT or p,p?-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) during neurodevelopment via a 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide solution. These larval (7 days postfertilization) fish were then exposed to either the seizure-inducing drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was monitored and analyzed for changes using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Results Embryonic exposure to DDTs enhanced PTZ seizures and caused distinct and increased seizure behaviors to domoic acid, most notably a type of head-shaking behavior. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that embryonic exposure to DDTs leads to asymptomatic animals at completion of neurodevelopment with greater sensitivity to domoic acidinduced seizures. The body burden levels of p,p?-DDE are close to the range recently found in fetal California sea lions and suggest a potential interactive effect of p,p?-DDE embryonic poisoning and domoic acid toxicity. PMID:19165389

  19. Screening and characterization of antiepileptic drugs with rapidly recurring hippocampal seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Lothman, E W; Salerno, R A; Perlin, J B; Kaiser, D L

    1988-01-01

    A method to efficiently screen antiepileptic drugs (AED) for their actions against complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures is presented. The procedure relies on rapidly recurring hippocampal seizures (RRHS) in rats which are first used to bring epileptic responses to a stable, fully kindled state and then to test 3 parameters--behavioral seizures, electrographic seizures, and afterdischarge thresholds--before and after drug administration. With the methods described, the effects of a given drug treatment can be thoroughly determined in a single study period. Quantitative determinations of dose-response, time-action and relative potency characteristics are readily ascertained. A battery of known AED, encompassing those in common clinical use, was studied with this system. Kindled motor seizures (classes 4 and 5) were more readily suppressed than limbic behavioral seizures (classes 1-3). Electrographic seizures were usually, but not always, shortened concurrently with suppression of behavioral seizures. Under the conditions of this study, afterdischarge thresholds were not elevated, indicating that a critical role of AED is to counteract seizure spread and prolongation. The overall behavior of the RRHS test system with AED was identical to that with traditional amygdala kindled seizures and results were in good agreement with the clinical responsiveness of the kinds of seizures that these experimental systems model. The features of RRHS make it a useful system for screening new agents for antiepileptic effects, even in circumstances where little or no information about the drug under study is available. PMID:3197706

  20. Validation of an automated seizure detection algorithm for term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mathieson, Sean R.; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Low, Evonne; Marnane, William P.; Rennie, Janet M.; Temko, Andrey; Lightbody, Gordon; Boylan, Geraldine B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to validate the performance of a seizure detection algorithm (SDA) developed by our group, on previously unseen, prolonged, unedited EEG recordings from 70 babies from 2 centres. Methods EEGs of 70 babies (35 seizure, 35 non-seizure) were annotated for seizures by experts as the gold standard. The SDA was tested on the EEGs at a range of sensitivity settings. Annotations from the expert and SDA were compared using event and epoch based metrics. The effect of seizure duration on SDA performance was also analysed. Results Between sensitivity settings of 0.5 and 0.3, the algorithm achieved seizure detection rates of 52.6–75.0%, with false detection (FD) rates of 0.04–0.36 FD/h for event based analysis, which was deemed to be acceptable in a clinical environment. Time based comparison of expert and SDA annotations using Cohen’s Kappa Index revealed a best performing SDA threshold of 0.4 (Kappa 0.630). The SDA showed improved detection performance with longer seizures. Conclusion The SDA achieved promising performance and warrants further testing in a live clinical evaluation. Significance The SDA has the potential to improve seizure detection and provide a robust tool for comparing treatment regimens. PMID:26055336

  1. IS A GRANDMAL SEIZURE NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT FOR THE EFFICACY OF ELECTRO CONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Abraham

    2000-01-01

    This paper highlights the recent research findings which suggest that the old teaching that a grandma! seizure is both necessary and sufficient for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not correct. It is necessary; but not sufficient. The stimulus intensity should be adjusted so that it is far above the seizure threshold in order to get maximum efficacy of ECT. PMID:21407909

  2. Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2006-01-01

    In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic…

  3. Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2006-01-01

    In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic

  4. Tuberculoma-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Salway, R. James; Sangani, Shruti; Parekh, Samira; Bhatt, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Seizures in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients can be caused by a wide variety of opportunistic infections, and, especially in developing countries, tuberculosis (TB) should be high on the differential. In India, TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV and it can have several different central nervous system manifestations, including intracranial tuberculomas. In this case, an HIV patient presenting with new-onset seizure and fever was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis and multiple intracranial tuberculomas. The patient received standard TB medications, steroids, and anticonvulsants in the emergency department and was admitted for further care. PMID:26587082

  5. Briviact Approved for Epileptic Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... seizures in people aged 16 and older with epilepsy. Partial onset seizures describe those that originate in ... the FDA said Friday in a news release. Epilepsy, a common disorder believed to affect more than ...

  6. Screening of the anticonvulsant activity of some plants from Fabaceae family in experimental seizure models in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, M.; Khodaparast, A.; Yazdi, A.; Sardari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Albizzia julibrissin, Acacia juliflora, Acacia nubica and aerial parts of Astragalus obtusifolius was evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure tests. Methods The hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were obtained by percolation. Different doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50Hz, 1sec) were monitored up to 30 min after administration. Acute toxicity of the extracts was also assessed. The safe and effective extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and anticonvulsant activity of the fractions was determined. Finally, the constituents of the extract and the fractions were screened by thin layer chromatography. Results Among the extracts, only A. obtusifolius extract showed low toxicity and protective effect against clonic seizures with ED50 value of 3.97 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract led to increase in anticonvulsant activity and ED50 value of 2.86 g/kg was obtained for the aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthrones and saponins in the aqueous fraction. Major conclusion The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in A. obtusifolius suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find out the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agent. PMID:22615673

  7. Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Lscher, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Animal models for seizures and epilepsy have played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of basic mechanisms underlying ictogenesis and epileptogenesis and have been instrumental in the discovery and preclinical development of novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, there is growing concern that the efficacy of drug treatment of epilepsy has not substantially improved with the introduction of new AEDs, which, at least in part, may be due to the fact that the same simple screening models, i.e., the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and s.c. pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure tests, have been used as gatekeepers in AED discovery for >6 decades. It has been argued that these old models may identify only drugs that share characteristics with existing drugs, and are unlikely to have an effect on refractory epilepsies. Indeed, accumulating evidence with several novel AEDs, including levetiracetan, has shown that the MES and PTZ models do not identify all potential AEDs but instead may fail to discover compounds that have great potential efficacy but work through mechanisms not tested by these models. Awareness of the limitations of acute seizure models comes at a critical crossroad. Clearly, preclinical strategies of AED discovery and development need a conceptual shift that is moving away from using models that identify therapies for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy to those that may be useful for identifying therapies that are more effective in the refractory population and that may ultimately lead to an effective cure in susceptible individuals by interfering with the processes underlying epilepsy. To realize this goal, the molecular mechanisms of the next generation of therapies must necessarily evolve to include targets that contribute to epileptogenesis and pharmacoresistance in relevant epilepsy models. PMID:21292505

  8. Epileptic seizures: Quakes of the brain?

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures ("focal" in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the system's dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems. PMID:20866849

  9. Iopamidol Myelography-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Rajpal, Chitra; Nannapeneni, Srikanth; Venkatesh, Sundar

    2005-01-01

    Iopamidol, a water-soluble contrast agent, has been rarely associated with seizures. We describe a case of generalized tonic-clonic seizure after cervical myelography with iopamidol in a previously healthy young man. In patients presenting with seizures, a history of recent myelography should be considered as an etiology. Iopamidol myelography may be associated with a risk of seizures. Clinicians need to be aware of this complication and inform their patients about such risk. PMID:16369390

  10. Seizure ending signs in patients with dyscognitive focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Gavvala, Jay R; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Macken, Mchel; Schuele, Stephan U

    2015-09-01

    Signs indicating the end of a focal seizure with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness but without progression to focal or generalized motor symptoms are poorly defined and can be difficult to determine. Not recognizing the transition from ictal to postictal behaviour can affect seizure reporting accuracy by family members and may lead to delayed or a lack of examination during EEG monitoring, erroneous seizure localization and inadequate medical intervention for prolonged seizure duration. Our epilepsy monitoring unit database was searched for focal seizures without secondary generalization for the period from 2007 to 2011. The first focal seizure in a patient with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness and/or behavioural arrest, with or without automatisms, was included. Seizures without objective symptoms or inadequate video-EEG quality were excluded. A total of 67 patients were included, with an average age of 41.7 years. Thirty-six of the patients had seizures from the left hemisphere and 29 from the right. All patients showed an abrupt change in motor activity and resumed contact with the environment as a sign of clinical seizure ending. Specific ending signs (nose wiping, coughing, sighing, throat clearing, or laughter) were seen in 23 of 47 of temporal lobe seizures and 7 of 20 extra-temporal seizures. Seizure ending signs are often subtle and the most common finding is a sudden change in motor activity and resumption of contact with the environment. More distinct signs, such as nose wiping, coughing or throat clearing, are not specific to temporal lobe onset. A higher proportion of seizures during sleep went unexamined, compared to those during wakefulness. This demonstrates that seizure semiology can be very subtle and arousals from sleep during monitoring should alert staff. Patient accounts of seizure frequency appear to be unreliable and witness reports need to be taken into account. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:26271680

  11. Terminology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Bongiovanni, Luigi Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-03-01

    Several different terms have been used to describe "psychogenic nonepileptic seizures" (PNES) in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the most common English terms used to describe PNES on Google and in PubMed using multiple search terms (https://www.google.com and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). The information prevalence of the five terms most frequently used to refer to PNES in PubMed were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by pseudo(-)seizure(s), non(-)epileptic seizure(s), psychogenic seizure(s), and non(-)epileptic event(s). The five most frequently adopted terms to describe PNES in Google were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by non(-)epileptic event(s), psychogenic attack(s), non(-)epileptic attack(s), and psychogenic non(-)epileptic attack(s). The broad spectrum of synonyms used to refer to PNES in the medical literature reflects a lack of internationally accepted, uniform terminology for PNES. In addition to "seizure(s)," lay people use the word "attack(s)" to describe PNES. Although considered obsolete, some terms, e.g., pseudoseizure(s), are still used in the recent medical literature. Adopting a uniform terminology to describe PNES could facilitate communication between epileptologists, physicians without specific expertise in epilepsy, and patients. PMID:25631657

  12. Individualized Low-Amplitude Seizure Therapy: Minimizing Current for Electroconvulsive Therapy and Magnetic Seizure Therapy.

    PubMed

    Peterchev, Angel V; Krystal, Andrew D; Rosa, Moacyr A; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2015-08-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at conventional current amplitudes (800-900 mA) is highly effective but carries the risk of cognitive side effects. Lowering and individualizing the current amplitude may reduce side effects by virtue of a less intense and more focal electric field exposure in the brain, but this aspect of ECT dosing is largely unexplored. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) induces a weaker and more focal electric field than ECT; however, the pulse amplitude is not individualized and the minimum amplitude required to induce a seizure is unknown. We titrated the amplitude of long stimulus trains (500 pulses) as a means of determining the minimum current amplitude required to induce a seizure with ECT (bilateral, right unilateral, bifrontal, and frontomedial electrode placements) and MST (round coil on vertex) in nonhuman primates. Furthermore, we investigated a novel method of predicting this amplitude-titrated seizure threshold (ST) by a non-convulsive measurement of motor threshold (MT) using single pulses delivered through the ECT electrodes or MST coil. Average STs were substantially lower than conventional pulse amplitudes (112-174 mA for ECT and 37.4% of maximum device amplitude for MST). ST was more variable in ECT than in MST. MT explained 63% of the ST variance and is hence the strongest known predictor of ST. These results indicate that seizures can be induced with less intense electric fields than conventional ECT that may be safer; efficacy and side effects should be evaluated in clinical studies. MT measurement could be a faster and safer alternative to empirical ST titration for ECT and MST. PMID:25920013

  13. Effects of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures on acute hippocampal injury and later-life seizure susceptibility and anxiety-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Dunleavy, Mark; Waddington, John L; Boylan, Geraldine B; Henshall, David C

    2015-11-01

    Seizures are common during the neonatal period, often due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and may contribute to acute brain injury and the subsequent development of cognitive deficits and childhood epilepsy. Here we explored short- and long-term consequences of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures in 7day old C57BL/6J mice. Seizure activity, molecular markers of hypoxia and histological injury were investigated acutely after hypoxia and response to chemoconvulsants and animal behaviour was explored at adulthood. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pups to 5% oxygen for 15min (global hypoxia). Electrographically defined seizures with behavioral correlates occurred in 95% of these animals and seizures persisted for many minutes after restitution of normoxia. There was minimal morbidity or mortality. Pre- or post-hypoxia injection of phenobarbital (50mg/kg) had limited efficacy at suppressing seizures. The hippocampus from neonatal hypoxia-seizure mice displayed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the immediate early gene c-fos, minimal histological evidence of cell injury and activation of caspase-3 in scattered neurons. Behavioral analysis of mice five weeks after hypoxia-induced seizures detected novel anxiety-related and other behaviors, while performance in a spatial memory test was similar to controls. Seizure threshold tests with kainic acid at six weeks revealed that mice previously subject to neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures developed earlier, more frequent and longer-duration seizures. This study defines a set of electro-clinical, molecular, pharmacological and behavioral consequences of hypoxia-induced seizures that indicate short- and long-term deleterious outcomes and may be a useful model to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of neonatal seizures in humans. PMID:26341542

  14. The effect of antihistamines on seizures induced by increasing-current electroshocks: ketotifen, but not olopatadine, promotes the seizures in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Takizawa, Fumitake; Tamura, Tadafumi; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Clinical reports have shown that some antihistamines, such as ketotifen, occasionally produced seizures, especially in pre-school age children or young patients with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether olopatadine, one of the most efficacious antihistamines, promotes seizures induced by electroshocks in young rats. We investigated the seizures induced by electroshock using increasing-current delivery in 3- or 4-week-old rats, and found that the threshold-current of tonic extensor seizures was elevated with age in weeks in the vehicle-treatment groups. While caffeine decreased the threshold-current in every age group of rats, pentylenetetrazole, a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor antagonist, significantly decreased them only in 4-week-old rats. On the other hand, ketotifen decreased them only in 3-weeks-old rats. In the 3-week-old rats, neither olopatadine nor fexofenadine had any effect on the threshold-currents of tonic extensor seizures. These results showed that histaminergic neuro-transmission in the brain plays a crucial role in inhibiting seizures in rats soon after weaning, but is no longer effective in rats as they approach sexual maturation. In addition, unlike ketotifen, olopatadine, as well as fexofenadine, do not promote the occurrence of seizures in infant rats. PMID:22687403

  15. Distinct EEG seizure patterns reflect different seizure generation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Salami, Pariya; Lévesque, Maxime; Gotman, Jean; Avoli, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Low-voltage fast (LVF)- and hypersynchronous (HYP)-seizure onset patterns can be recognized in the EEG of epileptic animals and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz) have been linked to each pattern, with ripples predominating during LVF seizures and fast ripples predominating during HYP seizures in the rat pilocarpine model. This evidence led us to hypothesize that these two seizure-onset patterns reflect the contribution of neural networks with distinct transmitter signaling characteristics. Here, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing the seizure activity induced with the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4AP, 4-5 mg/kg ip), which enhances both glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission, or the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin (3-5 mg/kg ip); rats were implanted with electrodes in the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, and the subiculum. We found that LVF onset occurred in 82% of 4AP-induced seizures whereas seizures after picrotoxin were always HYP. In addition, high-frequency oscillation analysis revealed that 4AP-induced LVF seizures were associated with higher ripple rates compared with fast ripples (P < 0.05), whereas picrotoxin-induced seizures contained higher rates of fast ripples compared with ripples (P < 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that two distinct patterns of seizure onset result from different pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25652916

  16. A role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the anticonvulsant effects of triamterene in mice.

    PubMed

    Shafaroodi, Hamed; Barati, Saghar; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Almasirad, Ali; Moezi, Leila

    2016-03-01

    There are reports indicating that diuretics including chlorothiazide, furosemide, ethacrynic acid, amiloride and bumetanide can have anticonvulsant properties. Intracellular acidification appears to be a mechanism for the anticonvulsant action of some diuretics. This study was conducted to investigate whether or not triamterene, a K(+)-sparing diuretic, can generate protection against seizures induced by intravenous or intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) models. And to see if, triamterene can withstand maximal electroshock seizure (MES) in mice. We also investigated to see if there is any connection between triamterene's anti-seizure effect and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels. Five days triamterene oral administration (10, 20 and 40mg/kg), significantly increased clonic seizure threshold which was induced by intravenous pentylenetetrazole. Triamterene (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) treatment also increased the latency of clonic seizure and decreased its frequency in intraperitoneal PTZ model. Administration of triamterene (20mg/kg) also decreased the incidence of tonic seizure in MES-induced seizure. Co-administration of a KATP sensitive channel blocker, glibenclamide, in the 6th day, 60min before intravenous PTZ blocked triamterene's anticonvulsant effect. A KATP sensitive channel opener, diazoxide, enhanced triamterene's anti-seizure effect in both intravenous PTZ or MES seizure models. At the end, triamterene exerts anticonvulsant effect in 3 seizure models of mice including intravenous PTZ, intraperitoneal PTZ and MES. The anti-seizure effect of triamterene probably is induced through KATP channels. PMID:26855365

  17. Neto2-null mice have impaired GABAergic inhibition and are susceptible to seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Dargaei, Zahra; Ivakine, Evgueni A.; Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Ng, David; Chevrier, Jonah; Ormond, Jake; Nothwang, Hans Gerd; McInnes, Roderick R.; Woodin, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Neto2 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the neuron-specific K+-Cl? cotransporter (KCC2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Efficient KCC2 transport is essential for setting the neuronal Cl? gradient, which is required for fast GABAergic inhibition. Neto2 is required to maintain the normal abundance of KCC2 in neurons, and increases KCC2 function by binding to the active oligomeric form of this cotransporter. In the present study, we characterized GABAergic inhibition and KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride homeostasis in pyramidal neurons from adult hippocampal slices. Using gramicidin perforated patch clamp recordings we found that the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA) was significantly depolarized. We also observed that surface levels of KCC2 and phosphorylation of KCC2 serine 940 (Ser940) were reduced in Neto2?/? neurons compared to wild-type controls. To examine GABAergic inhibition we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and found that Neto2?/? neurons had significant reductions in both their amplitude and frequency. Based on the critical role of Neto2 in regulating GABAergic inhibition we rationalized that Neto2-null mice would be prone to seizure activity. We found that Neto2-null mice demonstrated a decrease in the latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and an increase in seizure severity. PMID:26441539

  18. Treatment of neonatal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Janet; Boylan, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    Newborn babies with unusual movements thought to represent seizures are usually given a loading dose of phenobarbitone without electroencephalography being performed. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are then continued, with the outcome determined by clinical observation alone. AED treatment, often involving multiple drugs for long periods, is undesirable at a time when the brain is developing rapidly and likely to be especially vulnerable to any toxic effects. Despite considerable advances in the pharmacology of AEDs, continuous EEG monitoring using compact digital systems with simultaneous videorecording allowing off?line analysis, automated seizure detection, neuroimaging, and basic science research on cellular mechanisms of brain injury, treatment of such babies has progressed little. A change in practice is long overdue to allow affected babies to benefit from the advances made. PMID:17337664

  19. Ion dynamics during seizures

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Joseph V.; Burman, Richard J.; Katz, Arieh A.; Akerman, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in membrane voltage brought about by ion fluxes through voltage and transmitter-gated channels represent the basis of neural activity. As such, electrochemical gradients across the membrane determine the direction and driving force for the flow of ions and are therefore crucial in setting the properties of synaptic transmission and signal propagation. Ion concentration gradients are established by a variety of mechanisms, including specialized transporter proteins. However, transmembrane gradients can be affected by ionic fluxes through channels during periods of elevated neural activity, which in turn are predicted to influence the properties of on-going synaptic transmission. Such activity-induced changes to ion concentration gradients are a feature of both physiological and pathological neural processes. An epileptic seizure is an example of severely perturbed neural activity, which is accompanied by pronounced changes in intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations. Appreciating the factors that contribute to these ion dynamics is critical if we are to understand how a seizure event evolves and is sustained and terminated by neural tissue. Indeed, this issue is of significant clinical importance as status epilepticus—a type of seizure that does not stop of its own accord—is a life-threatening medical emergency. In this review we explore how the transmembrane concentration gradient of the six major ions (K+, Na+, Cl−, Ca2+, H+and HCO3−) is altered during an epileptic seizure. We will first examine each ion individually, before describing how multiple interacting mechanisms between ions might contribute to concentration changes and whether these act to prolong or terminate epileptic activity. In doing so, we will consider how the availability of experimental techniques has both advanced and restricted our ability to study these phenomena. PMID:26539081

  20. [Seizures and driver's licence].

    PubMed

    Barolin, G S; Haslinger, A

    1991-01-01

    Legislation leaves a wide margin of freedom of judgement to the medical expert in the forensic assessment of a person's suitability for holding a driver's license. We have to make use of this freedom very cautiously with regard to social aspects as well as to the presently accepted state of scientific knowledge. In cases of first manifestations of epilepsy we must postulate--as a rule of thumb--a seizure-free period of two years with regular medication and clinical and electro-encephalographic checkups. The (epileptic or non-epileptic) "accidental seizure" is characterized by the releasing influence of powerful external noxious factors. In these cases, the patients should be seizure-free for at least six months before driving can be resumed. In all cases, the evaluation depends on the continuous observance of the patients, taking into account any underlying primary illness (alcoholism, cerebral vascular disease, conditions following brain surgery or trauma). The organic brain syndrome is an essential additional factor, together with the feasibility of treatment and the patient's compliance. Evaluation of the clinical picture is of foremost importance, support by EEG-findings, serum levels and psychological tests. Knowledge of cumulative factors, elimination and side-effects of anticonvulsive drugs is essential. According to the present view, medication should be continued over a period of many years. Curative medicine and medical assessment are not mutually exclusive, but require a distinct differentiation in every single case. PMID:1926883

  1. Inflammatory pathways of seizure disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Nicola; Granata, Tiziana; Janigro, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy refers to a cluster of neurological disease characterized by seizures. While many forms of epilepsy have a well-defined immune etiology, in other forms of epilepsy an altered immune response is only suspected. In general, the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to seizures is supported by experimental results. Additionally, antiepileptic maneuvers may act as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory therapies can treat seizures. Triggers of seizure include a bidirectional communication between the nervous system and organs of immunity. Thus, a crucial cellular interface protecting from immunological seizures is the blood-brain barrier. Here, we summarize recent advances in the understanding and treatment of epileptic seizures which derive from a non-neurocentric viewpoint and suggest key avenues for future research. PMID:24355813

  2. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  3. Chemoconvulsant seizures: advantages of focally-evoked seizure models.

    PubMed

    Gale, K

    1995-01-01

    Studies of short and long-term changes in regional metabolism, blood flow, gene expression (including immediate early genes and genes for neurotrophic factors), sprouting and cell death following seizures are pivotal to an understanding of the neural networks responsible for the generation of seizures. At the same time, this information forms a basis for understanding the pathophysiology associated with chronic, recurrent seizures. Systemic chemoconvulsant seizure models, produced by systemically administered chemoconvulsant agents, although convenient, are plagued with difficulties which confound the interpretation of their effects on the nervous system. These difficulties include widespread direct cellular and physiological effects of the chemoconvulsant drugs, most of which are independent of seizures. In addition, numerous physiological changes occur as a secondary consequence of, or ancillary to, seizures, and it can be especially difficult to separate these effects from the direct effects of the propagated seizure discharge itself. Some of these difficulties can be overcome by the use of focally-evoked seizure models. Such models avoid the diffuse presence of drug throughout the CNS and thereby eliminate most of the direct cellular and physiologic actions of the drug apart from seizure-induction. Large regions of the brain distant from the focal site of drug application then can be examined for molecular, structural and physiologic changes uncomplicated by the presence of drug. Moreover, different focal sites of drug application can be compared to evaluate the specificity of the molecular changes to the neural network engaged in the seizure discharge. For example, limbic seizures, evoked by chemoconvulsant application into area tempestas, can be compared with brainstem convulsions evoked by chemoconvulsant application into inferior colliculus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7642347

  4. Seizure Prediction and its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Iasemidis, Leon D.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, hypersynchronous electrical activity, that may remain localized and/or spread and severely disrupt the brains normal multi-task and multi-processing function. Epileptic seizures are the hallmarks of such activity and had been considered unpredictable. It is only recently that research on the dynamics of seizure generation by analysis of the brains electrographic activity (EEG) has shed ample light on the predictability of seizures, and illuminated the way to automatic, prospective, long-term prediction of seizures. The ability to issue warnings in real time of impending seizures (e.g., tens of minutes prior to seizure occurrence in the case of focal epilepsy), may lead to novel diagnostic tools and treatments for epilepsy. Applications may range from a simple warning to the patient, in order to avert seizure-associated injuries, to intervention by automatic timely administration of an appropriate stimulus, for example of a chemical nature like an anti-epileptic drug (AED), electromagnetic nature like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial direct current (TDC) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and/or of another nature (e.g., ultrasonic, cryogenic, biofeedback operant conditioning). It is thus expected that seizure prediction could readily become an integral part of the treatment of epilepsy through neuromodulation, especially in the new generation of closed-loop seizure control systems. PMID:21939848

  5. Seizures with neuroleptics and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, J C; Brown, R P

    1987-03-01

    Seizures remain among the most serious side effects of psychotropic drugs. The authors review the literature associating neuroleptic and antidepressant medications with seizures, discussing the relative "seizurogenicity" of different medications, risk factors for seizures, and drugs of choice for high-risk patients. Case histories are presented. Available evidence suggests that molindone, fluphenazine, and haloperidol are among the least seizurogenic neuroleptics and that doxepin, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or electroconvulsive therapy may be safest in treating the depressed patient at risk for seizures. PMID:2883085

  6. Hypocalcemia-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Bradley J.; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is essential for both neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction. Given these important physiological processes, it seems reasonable to assume that hypocalcemia may lead to reduced neuromuscular excitability. Counterintuitively, however, clinical observation has frequently documented hypocalcemias role in induction of seizures and general excitability processes such as tetany, Chvosteks sign, and bronchospasm. The mechanism of this calcium paradox remains elusive, and very few pathophysiological studies have addressed this conundrum. Nevertheless, several studies primarily addressing other biophysical issues have provided some clues. In this review, we analyze the data of these studies and propose an integrative model to explain this hypocalcemic paradox. PMID:25810356

  7. Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on

  8. Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn

  9. Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

  10. Modeling glial contributions to seizures and epileptogenesis: cation-chloride cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rusan, Zeid M; Kingsford, Olivia A; Tanouye, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl- cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi) of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24-48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl- cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed. PMID:24971529

  11. Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Santwana; Malhotra, Mahima

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure, which is a very rare and uncommon event, occurred after discontinuation of steroid therapy that was taken to increase weight by the patient. The pathogenesis is not well understood. In this submission, we have highlighted the fact that withdrawal of steroid has a propensity to cause seizure as a rare withdrawal phenomenon. PMID:25969660

  12. Feverish prospects for seizure genetics.

    PubMed

    Sisodiya, Sanjay

    2014-12-01

    Febrile seizures can arise in response to fevers induced by viral infection or as an adverse reaction to live-virus vaccines such as measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. A new study has now identified common genetic variants influencing susceptibility to febrile seizures, including two loci specifically associated with MMR-related events. PMID:25418745

  13. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 ?g/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  14. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 ?g/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 2025 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  15. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, J

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot. PMID:26662874

  16. Seizure Treatment in Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Solid organ transplantation is frequently complicated by a spectrum of seizure types, including single partial-onset or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, acute repetitive seizures or status epilepticus, and sometimes the evolution of symptomatic epilepsy. There is currently no specific evidence involving the transplant patient population to guide the selection, administration, or duration of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, so familiarity with clinical AED pharmacology and application of sound judgment are necessary for successful patient outcomes. An initial detailed search for symptomatic seizure etiologies, including metabolic, infectious, cerebrovascular, and calcineurin inhibitor treatment-related neuro-toxic complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), is imperative, as underlying central nervous system disorders may impose additional serious risks to cerebral or general health if not promptly detected and appropriately treated. The mainstay for post-transplant seizure management is AED therapy directed toward the suspected seizure type. Unfavorable drug interactions could place the transplanted organ at risk, so choosing an AED with limited interaction potential is also crucial. When the transplanted organ is dysfunctional or vulnerable to rejection, AEDs without substantial hepatic metabolism are favored in post-liver transplant patients, whereas after renal transplantation, AEDs with predominantly renal elimination may require dosage adjustment to prevent adverse effects. Levetiracetam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and lacosamide are drugs of choice for treatment of partial-onset seizures in post-transplant patients given their efficacy spectrum, generally excellent tolerability, and lack of drug interaction potential. Levetiracetam is the drug of choice for primary generalized seizures in post-transplant patients. When intravenous drugs are necessary for acute seizure management, benzodiazepines and fosphenytoin are the traditional and best evidence-based options, although intravenous levetiracetam, valproate, and lacosamide are emerging options. Availability of several newer AEDs has greatly expanded the therapeutic armamentarium for safe and efficacious treatment of post-transplant seizures, but future prospective clinical trials and pharmacokinetic studies within this specific patient population are needed. PMID:22660960

  17. Treating acute seizures with benzodiazepines: does seizure duration matter?

    PubMed

    Naylor, David E

    2014-10-01

    Several clinical trials have shown improved seizure control and outcome by early initiation of treatment with benzodiazepines, before arrival in the emergency department and before intravenous access can be established. Here, evidence is provided and reviewed for rapid treatment of acute seizures in order to avoid the development of benzodiazepine pharmacoresistance and the emergence of self-sustaining status epilepticus. Alterations in the physiology, pharmacology, and postsynaptic level of GABA-A receptors can develop within minutes to an hour and hinder the ability of synaptic inhibition to stop seizures while also impairing the efficacy of GABAergic agents, such as benzodiazepines, to boost impaired inhibition. In addition, heightened excitatory transmission further exacerbates the inhibitory/excitatory balance and makes seizure control even more resistant to treatment. The acute increase in the surface expression of NMDA receptors during prolonged seizures also may cause excitotoxic injury, cell death, and other pathological expressions and re-arrangements of receptor subunits that all contribute to long-term sequelae such as cognitive impairment and chronic epilepsy. In conclusion, a short window of opportunity exists when seizures are maximally controlled by first-line benzodiazepine treatment. After that, multiple pathological mechanisms quickly become engaged that make seizures increasingly more difficult to control with high risk for long-term harm. PMID:25323468

  18. Nanoparticle formulation improves the anticonvulsant effect of clonazepam on the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures: behavior and electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Gmez, Gerardo; Gonzlez-Trujano, Mara Eva; Lpez-Ruiz, Edith; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Wekslerg, Babette; Romero, Ignacio; Miller, Florence; Delie, Florence; Allmann, Eric; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2014-08-01

    To document the efficacy of clonazepam (CLZ) either free as a solution or loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles (CLZ-SLN) or mixed micelles (CLZ-MM), the in vitro blood-brain barrier permeability of the formulations was determined. Behavior and/or electroencephalograms (EEGs) of rodents receiving treatments were also studied. The in vitro permeability of CLZ increased when associated with SLN, but decreased in the case of MM. The occurrence of the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice was significantly prevented by CLZ, even when exposed a lower dose of CLZ-SLN after administration by the oral route. The behavioral severity and EEGs showing the PTZ-induced paroxystic activity in rats diminished significantly in the presence of CLZ alone (0.3 mg/kg), and were almost totally prevented in the rats treated with CLZ-SLN (equivalent to 0.3 mg/kg). The frequency, duration, and spreading of the spikes-wave of rats treated with CLZ-SLN decreased significantly as compared with CLZ alone, CLZ-MM, or the vehicle. These results show an in vitro-in vivo correlation in the enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability of SLN formulation, and a contribution of MM to the carrier effect of drugs toward the bloodstream and brain, where this pharmaceutical formulation of CLZ-SLN improves the anticonvulsant effect of this benzodiazepine, thus offering additional advantages after oral administration. PMID:24916334

  19. Closed-loop neural stimulation for pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Ricardo; Beattie, Christine E.; Hall, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Neural stimulation can reduce the frequency of seizures in persons with epilepsy, but rates of seizure-free outcome are low. Vagus nerve stimulation prevents seizures by continuously activating noradrenergic projections from the brainstem to the cortex. Cortical norepinephrine then increases GABAergic transmission and increases seizure threshold. Another approach, responsive nervous stimulation, prevents seizures by reactively shocking the seizure onset zone in precise synchrony with seizure onset. The electrical shocks abort seizures before they can spread and manifest clinically. The goal of this study was to determine whether a hybrid platform in which brainstem activation triggered in response to impending seizure activity could prevent seizures. We chose the zebrafish as a model organism for this study because of its ability to recapitulate human disease, in conjunction with its innate capacity for tightly controlled high-throughput experimentation. We first set out to determine whether electrical stimulation of the zebrafish hindbrain could have an anticonvulsant effect. We found that pulse train electrical stimulation of the hindbrain significantly increased the latency to onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures, and that this apparent anticonvulsant effect was blocked by noradrenergic antagonists, as is also the case with rodents and humans. We also found that the anticonvulsant effect of hindbrain stimulation could be potentiated by reactive triggering of single pulse electrical stimulations in response to impending seizure activity. Finally, we found that the rate of stimulation triggering was directly proportional to pentylenetetrazole concentration and that the stimulation rate was reduced by the anticonvulsant valproic acid and by larger stimulation currents. Taken as a whole, these results show that that the anticonvulsant effect of brainstem activation can be efficiently utilized by reactive triggering, which suggests that alternative stimulation paradigms for vagus nerve stimulation might be useful. Moreover, our results show that the zebrafish epilepsy model can be used to advance our understanding of neural stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:22822044

  20. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. )

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  1. Pharmacological effects of phenylalanine on seizure susceptibility: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sze, P Y

    1989-02-01

    The effects of excessive doses of phenylalanine on seizure susceptibility were examined in animal models in the past, primarily because of their relevance to phenylketonuria. It was thought that such effects might involve brain monoaminergic mechanisms. Recently, this issue has been pursued with a renewed interest but for a different reason. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame, contains a phenylalanine residue. In the last three years, a number of studies involving as many as nine animal models of seizures have reexamined the effects of phenylalanine (and aspartame) on seizure thresholds. Data from these studies are in general agreement that aspartame at dosage levels below 1,000 mg/kg, or phenylalanine at equimolar doses, is without an effect on seizure susceptibility in animals. When the dosage level of aspartame reaches 1,000 mg/kg, the findings between various laboratories and from different animal models of seizures are inconsistent, showing either no effect or a proconvulsant effect. The Acceptable Daily Intake of aspartame in humans set by the Food and Drug Administration is 50 mg/kg/day. Thus, the data from the excessive bolus doses in rodents do not appear to be relevant to human use. This article provides a detailed review of the data from both early and recent studies and points out the methodological problems apparent at such high doses. PMID:2657469

  2. A case of atypical tardive seizure activity during an initial ECT titration series.

    PubMed

    Thisayakorn, Paul; Karim, Yasser; Yamada, Thoru; McCormick, Laurie M

    2014-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used in this country for more than 70 years, is still the most effective treatment in all of psychiatry, and is considered a very safe procedure to have under general anesthesia. Although most patients tolerate this procedure very well without complications, prolonged and/or tardive seizures or even status epilepticus can develop, which is a rare but serious complication of ECT. Tardive seizures are typically associated with electroencephalographic evidence of ictal activity and motor manifestations of the tonic-clonic activity. Whereas there are instances of nonconvulsive status epilepticus after ECT, this is the first report of a patient developing autonomic and motor manifestations of a tardive seizure without electroencephalographic evidence of seizure activity during the initial titration series to establish seizure threshold for a course of ECT. PMID:23845940

  3. A Hypothesis Regarding the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Dietary Soy-Induced Effects on Seizure Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara Jean

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold. PMID:25232349

  4. Evaluation of a first seizure.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen M; Knowles, Paul D

    2007-05-01

    Seizure is a common presentation in the emergency care setting, and new-onset epilepsy is the most common cause of unprovoked seizures. The patient history and physical examination should direct the type and timing of laboratory and imaging studies. No single sign, symptom, or test dearly differentiates a seizure from a nonseizure event (e.g., syncope, pseudoseizure). Electroencephalography is recommended for patients presenting with a first seizure, and neuroimaging is recommended for adults. Neuroimaging also should be performed in children with risk factors such as head trauma, focal neurologic deficits, or a history of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging is preferred over computed tomography except when acute intracranial bleeding is suspected. The most common laboratory findings associated with a seizure are abnormal sodium and glucose levels. Patients with a normal neurologic examination, normal test results, and no structural brain disease do not require hospitalization or antiepileptic medications. Treatment with antiepileptic medications reduces the one- to two-year risk of recurrent seizures but does not reduce the long-term risk of recurrence and does not affect remission rates. Regardless of etiology, a seizure diagnosis severely limits a patient's driving privileges, although laws vary by state. PMID:17508528

  5. Resected Brain Tissue, Seizure Onset Zone and Quantitative EEG Measures: Towards Prediction of Post-Surgical Seizure Control

    PubMed Central

    Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Hauf, Martinus; Pollo, Claudio; Müller, Markus; Weisstanner, Christian; Wiest, Roland; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy surgery is a potentially curative treatment option for pharmacoresistent patients. If non-invasive methods alone do not allow to delineate the epileptogenic brain areas the surgical candidates undergo long-term monitoring with intracranial EEG. Visual EEG analysis is then used to identify the seizure onset zone for targeted resection as a standard procedure. Methods Despite of its great potential to assess the epileptogenicty of brain tissue, quantitative EEG analysis has not yet found its way into routine clinical practice. To demonstrate that quantitative EEG may yield clinically highly relevant information we retrospectively investigated how post-operative seizure control is associated with four selected EEG measures evaluated in the resected brain tissue and the seizure onset zone. Importantly, the exact spatial location of the intracranial electrodes was determined by coregistration of pre-operative MRI and post-implantation CT and coregistration with post-resection MRI was used to delineate the extent of tissue resection. Using data-driven thresholding, quantitative EEG results were separated into normally contributing and salient channels. Results In patients with favorable post-surgical seizure control a significantly larger fraction of salient channels in three of the four quantitative EEG measures was resected than in patients with unfavorable outcome in terms of seizure control (median over the whole peri-ictal recordings). The same statistics revealed no association with post-operative seizure control when EEG channels contributing to the seizure onset zone were studied. Conclusions We conclude that quantitative EEG measures provide clinically relevant and objective markers of target tissue, which may be used to optimize epilepsy surgery. The finding that differentiation between favorable and unfavorable outcome was better for the fraction of salient values in the resected brain tissue than in the seizure onset zone is consistent with growing evidence that spatially extended networks might be more relevant for seizure generation, evolution and termination than a single highly localized brain region (i.e. a “focus”) where seizures start. PMID:26513359

  6. Seizure secondary to citalopram overdose.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Peter John; Holt, Kurtis Rex; Hoefle, Jeffrey David

    2004-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used in the community for treating many forms of mental illness. Citalopram, a newer generation SSRI, is commonly prescribed but, despite its low toxicity profile, has a danger of seizure and dysrhythmias in overdose. This case report documents the key aspects in treatment of a citalopram overdose resulting in a seizure and an episode of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). The seizure was successfully treated with benzodiazepines. The SVT was terminated with administration of adenosine. We review the literature and make recommendations on treatment of citalopram overdose. PMID:14980340

  7. LRP12 silencing during brain development results in cortical dyslamination and seizure sensitization.

    PubMed

    Grote, Alexander; Robens, Barbara K; Blmcke, Ingmar; Becker, Albert J; Schoch, Susanne; Gemb, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Correct positioning and differentiation of neurons during brain development is a key precondition for proper function. Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are increasingly recognized as causes of therapy refractory epilepsies. Neuropathological analyses of respective surgical specimens from neurosurgery for seizure control often reveal aberrant cortical architecture and/or aberrantly shaped neurons in FCDs. However, the molecular pathogenesis particularly of FCDs with aberrant lamination (so-called FCD type I) is largely unresolved. Lipoproteins and particularly low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 12 (LRP12) are involved in brain development. Here, we have examined a potential role of LRP12 in the pathogenesis of FCDs. In vitro knockdown of LRP12 in primary neurons results in impaired neuronal arborization. In vivo ablation of LRP12 by intraventricularly in utero electroporated shRNAs elicits cortical maldevelopment, i.e. aberrant lamination by malpositioning of upper cortical layer neurons. Subsequent epilepsy phenotyping revealed pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures to be aggravated in cortical LRP12-silenced mice. Our data demonstrates IUE mediated cortical gene silencing as an excellent approach to study the role of distinct molecules for epilepsy associated focal brain lesions and suggests LRP12 and lipoprotein homeostasis as potential molecular target structures for the emergence of epilepsy-associated FCDs. PMID:26639854

  8. Sex-specific control of flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures by the substantia nigra pars reticulata during development.

    PubMed

    Velsek, Libor; Velskov, Jana; Giorgi, Filippo S; Mosh, Solomon L

    2006-09-01

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) plays an important age- and sex-specific role in control of clonic seizures. Its involvement in control of tonic-clonic seizures is contradictory. We investigated the role of the SNR in the tonic-clonic seizures induced in male, female and neonatally castrated male rats using flurothyl. In adult female rats, vaginal impedance determined the changes in progesterone/estrogen ratio. Rats at various postnatal ages received infusions of muscimol or vehicle in the SNRanterior or SNRposterior. Furthermore, in 15-day-old (P15) and adult male rats, ZAPA (a GABA(A) receptor agonist) or AP7 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) was infused. The developmental profile of tonic-clonic seizure threshold differed between male and female rats possibly due to early postnatal testosterone surge in male rats. On the other hand, changing estrogen/progesterone ratio in cycling adult female rats had no effect on seizure threshold. Intranigral muscimol had proconvulsant effects on tonic-clonic seizures only in immature rats, and this effect was dependent on the perinatal testosterone surge. ZAPA had anticonvulsant effects in P15 rats but was not effective in adult rats. Only AP7 had anticonvulsant effects in both adult and P15 rats. Results indicate that thresholds for flurothyl-induced tonic-clonic seizures develop under the control of postnatal testosterone. Although GABAergic inhibition in the SNR affects tonic-clonic seizures in developing rats, only the NMDA antagonist had consistent anticonvulsant effects throughout development. PMID:16730708

  9. Does ketogenic diet alter seizure sensitivity and cell loss following fluid percussion injury?

    PubMed

    Schwartzkroin, Philip A; Wenzel, H Jrgen; Lyeth, Bruce G; Poon, Carrie C; Delance, Arthur; Van, Ken C; Campos, Luis; Nguyen, Danh V

    2010-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently leads to epilepsy. The process of epileptogenesis - the development of that seizure state - is still poorly understood, and effective antiepileptogenic treatments have yet to be identified. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been shown to be effective as an antiepileptic therapy, but has not been extensively tested for its efficacy in preventing the development of the seizure state, and certainly not within the context of TBI-induced epileptogenesis. We have used a rat model of TBI - fluid percussion injury (FPI) - to test the hypothesis that KD treatment is antiepileptogenic and protects the brain from neuronal cell loss following TBI. Rats fed a KD had a higher seizure threshold (longer latency to flurothyl-induced seizure activity) than rats fed a standard diet (SD); this effect was seen when KD was in place at the time of seizure testing (3 and 6 weeks following FPI), but was absent when KD had been replaced by SD at time of testing. FPI caused significant hippocampal cell loss in both KD-fed and SD-fed rats; the degree of cell loss appeared to be reduced by KD treatment before FPI but not after FPI. These results are consistent with prior demonstrations that KD raises seizure threshold, but do not provide support for the hypothesis that KD administered for a limited time directly before or after FPI alters later seizure sensitivity; that is, within the limits of this model and protocol, there is no evidence for KD-induced antiepileptogenesis. PMID:20863664

  10. Recent Research on Febrile Seizures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Syndi Seinfeld, DO; Pellock, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. They are the most common cause of seizures in children less than five years of age. There are two categories of febrile seizures, simple and complex. Both the International League against Epilepsy and the National Institute of Health has published definitions on the classification of febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizures are mostly benign, but a prolonged (complex) febrile seizure can have long term consequences. Most children who have a febrile seizure have normal health and development after the event, but there is recent evidence that suggests a small subset of children that present with seizures and fever may have recurrent seizure or develop epilepsy. This review will give an overview of the definition of febrile seizures, epidemiology, evaluation, treatment, outcomes and recent research. PMID:25383238

  11. Metformin protects against seizures, learning and memory impairments and oxidative damage induced by pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran-Ran; Xu, Xiao-Chen; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Wei-Li; Zhang, Wen-Lin; Liu, Liang-Min; Wang, Wei-Ping

    2014-06-13

    Cognitive impairment, the most common and severe comorbidity of epilepsy, greatly diminishes the quality of life. However, current therapeutic interventions for epilepsy can also cause untoward cognitive effects. Thus, there is an urgent need for new kinds of agents targeting both seizures and cognition deficits. Oxidative stress is considered to play an important role in epileptogenesis and cognitive deficits, and antioxidants have a putative antiepileptic potential. Metformin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic oral drug, has antioxidant properties. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effects of metformin on seizures, cognitive impairment and brain oxidative stress markers observed in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered with subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (37 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day for 14 injections. Metformin was injected intraperitoneally in dose of 200mg/kg along with alternate-day PTZ. We found that metformin suppressed the progression of kindling, ameliorated the cognitive impairment and decreased brain oxidative stress. Thus the present study concluded that metformin may be a potential agent for the treatment of epilepsy as well as a protective medicine against cognitive impairment induced by seizures. PMID:24802403

  12. Seizures, Cerebral Shutdown, and SUDEP

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, Alireza; Lhatoo, Samden D.

    2013-01-01

    Several potential pathophysiologic phenomena, including cerebral shutdown, are postulated to be responsible for SUDEP. Since the evidence for a seizure-related mechanism is strong, a poor understanding of the physiology of human seizure termination is a major handicap. However, rather than a failure of a single homeostatic mechanism, such as postictal arousal, it may be a perfect storm created by the lining up of a several factors that lead to death. PMID:24348118

  13. Inflammatory markers associated with seizures.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hong Seok; Kim, Sung Keun; Lee, Seo-Young

    2016-03-01

    Seizures can produce systemic changes, including elevated body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein levels, which raises concern for potential infection. We describe seizure-induced inflammation-like responses and discuss how these changes may be distinguished from those associated with infection. We prospectively investigated 140 consecutive visits to the emergency room, in which patients presented with seizures. We defined elevated body temperature, white blood cell count, or C-reactive protein levels as inflammation-like responses. We investigated the occurrence of inflammation-like responses, characteristics of the seizures, neurological status at the initial visit, outcomes, and clinical findings to determine the presence of infection. We ascertained whether the patients had infection or not based on the overall information post-discharge. An inflammation-like response was observed in 56.3% of all visits and 19.3% were diagnosed with concurrent infection. Among the visits with inflammation-like response, 34.7% were shown to have an infection. Increases in body temperature and C-reactive protein levels were milder (<39C and <6mg/dl, respectively) in patients without infection compared to those with infection, whereas there was no difference in leukocytosis, with regard to the presence or absence of infection. Increased body temperature occurred only in cases of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, whereas leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein levels were reported in patients with any type of seizure. Body temperatures returned to normal within eight hours in uncomplicated cases. Seizures frequently induce an increase in body temperature, white blood cell count, or C-reactive protein levels, making it challenging to distinguish these changes from those associated with infection. Nonetheless, elevated body temperature in the absence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, above 39?C, or persisting for more than eight hours after recovery of consciousness, and C-reactive protein levels above 6mg/dl warrant close observation and consideration for concurrent infection. PMID:26806580

  14. Early seizures in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Chraa; Kissani, Najib

    2015-01-01

    Early seizures (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and the predictive factors for early seizures as well the clinical outcome in patients with first-ever stroke. A total of 352 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke, admitted to our department, were included in this retrospective study. Early seizures were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. About 47 patients (13%) had early seizure, and 8 had a status epilepticus. We had 28 women and 19 men. The mean age was 71.6 14.6. They were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical associated hemorrhage. ES were associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). Early seizures occured in about 13% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES seem to be associated with a worse outcome after acute stroke. PMID:26097640

  15. Maternal knowledge of acute seizures

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Nawal A.; Joubah, Mohammed A. Bin; Khan, Samar M.; Jan, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study maternal knowledge -of, and behavior during acute seizures. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted from September 2013 to January 2014 included consecutive mothers presenting at the Pediatric Neurology Clinics of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A structured 30-item questionnaire was designed to examine their demographics, knowledge, and behavior on acute seizures. Results: A total of 92 mothers were interviewed and 41% witnessed at least one acute seizure in their affected child (range 1-15 years, mean 4.5). Up to 26% felt not knowledgeable at all regarding the acute care and management of seizure. Mothers with higher education (college or university degree) were more likely to feel very knowledgeable (19% versus 11%, p=0.02). Only 10% were aware of an antiepileptic drug that could be used at home to stop prolonged seizures, and 35% mentioned that they would wait for 15 minutes before taking the child to the emergency department. Most mothers (93%) wanted more information. Those who felt strongly regarding that (66%), were more likely to be younger (<27 years) (p=0.01), and have at least 3 out of 7 mismanagement decisions (p=0.003). Conclusion: Maternal level of knowledge and behavior during acute seizures needs improvement. Many mothers have significant misinformation, negative behavior, and poor management practices. Increased awareness and educational programs are needed. PMID:26492113

  16. GABAB receptors as a common target for hypothermia and spike and wave seizures: intersecting mechanisms of thermoregulation and absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ostoji?, Z S; Ili?, T V; Veskovi?, S M; Andjus, P R

    2013-05-15

    In the current study the link among the ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced absence-like seizures and concomitant decreases in the core temperature, as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during rewarming from deep hypothermia produced by a drug-free protocol were investigated. During the rewarming period after deep cooling, most Wistar rats suffered from bilaterally synchronous spike and waves with no or mild behavioral correlates. Spike and wave seizures were temperature-dependent and were initially registered when body temperature (Tb) reached 25-27C, but mostly during the mild hypothermia of 0.3-1.3C (Tb of 36.3-37.3C). In chemical absence models, spike and wave discharges were also closely accompanied by mild systemic hypothermia, as both PTZ- and GHB-induced temperature decreases ranged from about 1-1.4C respectively, together with EEG markers of absence activity. Thus, throughout the different experimental designs, the occurrence of spike and wave discharges was always related to a mild (0.3-1.4C) decrease of Tb. Benzodiazepine diazepam as the GABAA-positive allosteric modulator and CGP 62349 as the selective antagonist of GABAB receptors were used to determine if their well-known anticonvulsant properties also affect hypothermia elicited by these drugs. Finally, during the course of spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, another selective GABAB-blocking agent, CGP 35348, was used to elucidate if GABAB inhibitory system could be critically implicated in the generation of hypothermia-dependent spike and waves. Diazepam prevented both the PTZ-induced hypothermia and electrographic absence seizures, but these two beneficial effects did not occur in the GHB model. Even though diazepam delayed GHB-induced maximal temperature decrease, the GHB effects remained highly significant. The GABAB antagonist CGP 62349 completely prevented hypothermia as well as absence seizures in both chemical models. Likewise, spike and wave discharges, registered during the spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, were completely prevented by CGP 35348. These findings show that systemic hypothermia should definitely be regarded as a marker of GABAB receptor activation. Moreover, the results of this study clearly show that initial mild temperature decrease should be considered as strong absence-provoking factor. Hypothermia-induced nonconvulsive seizures also highlight the importance of continuous EEG monitoring in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Since every change in peripheral or systemic temperature ultimately must be perceived by preoptic region of the anterior hypothalamus as the primary thermoregulatory and sleep-inducing center, the preoptic thermosensitive neurons in general and warm-sensitive neurons in particular, simply have to be regarded as the most probable candidate for connected thermoregulatory and absence generating mechanisms. Therefore, additional studies are needed to confirm their potential role in the generation and propagation of absence seizures. PMID:23415784

  17. The auriculo-vagal afferent pathway and its role in seizure suppression in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The afferent projections from the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) have been proposed as the anatomical basis for the increased parasympathetic tone seen in auriculo-vagal reflexes. As the afferent center of the vagus nerve, the NTS has been considered to play roles in the anticonvulsant effect of cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Here we proposed an “auriculo-vagal afferent pathway” (AVAP), by which transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) suppresses pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures by activating the NTS neurons in rats. Results The afferent projections from the ABVN to the NTS were firstly observed in rats. ta-VNS increased the first grand mal latency of the epileptic seizure and decreased the seizure scores in awake rats. Furthermore, when the firing rates of the NTS neurons decreased, epileptiform activity manifested as electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization increased with 0.37±0.12 s delay in anaesthetized rats. The change of instantaneous frequency, mean frequency of the NTS neurons was negative correlated with the amplitude of the epileptic activity in EEG traces. ta-VNS significantly suppressed epileptiform activity in EEG traces via increasing the firing rates of the neurons of the NTS. In comparison with tan-VNS, the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS were significantly longer (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS (P>0.05). The anticonvulsant effect of ta-VNS was weakened by reversible cold block of the NTS. Conclusions There existed an anatomical relationship between the ABVN and the NTS, which strongly supports the concept that ta-VNS has the potential for suppressing epileptiform activity via the AVAP in rats. ta-VNS will provide alternative treatments for neurological disorders, which can avoid the disadvantage of VNS. PMID:23927528

  18. Short-term fasting, seizure control and brain amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yudkoff, Marc; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Horyn, Oksana; Luhovyy, Bogdan; Lazarow, Adam; Nissim, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for seizures, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It is uncertain whether the anti-epileptic effect presupposes ketosis, or whether the restriction of calories and/or carbohydrate might be sufficient. We found that a relatively brief (24 h) period of low glucose and low calorie intake significantly attenuated the severity of seizures in young Sprague-Dawley rats (50-70 gms) in whom convulsions were induced by administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The blood glucose concentration was lower in animals that received less dietary glucose, but the brain glucose level did not differ from control blood [3-OH-butyrate] tended to be higher in blood, but not in brain, of animals on a low-glucose intake. The concentration in brain of glutamine increased and that of alanine declined significantly with low-glucose intake. The blood alanine level fell more than that of brain alanine, resulting in a marked increase ( approximately 50%) in the brain:blood ratio for alanine. In contrast, the brain:blood ratio for leucine declined by about 35% in the low-glucose group. When animals received [1-(13)C]glucose, a metabolic precursor of alanine, the appearance of (13)C in alanine and glutamine increased significantly relative to control. The brain:blood ratio for [(13)C]alanine exceeded 1, indicating that the alanine must have been formed in brain and not transported from blood. The elevated brain(alanine):blood(alanine) could mean that a component of the anti-epileptic effect of low carbohydrate intake is release of alanine from brain-to-blood, in the process abetting the disposal of glutamate, excess levels of which in the synaptic cleft would contribute to the development of seizures. PMID:16510212

  19. Intranasal therapies for acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Klviinen, Reetta

    2015-08-01

    Most seizure emergencies occur outside of the hospital, and there is a need for treatment interventions that can be administered quickly and safely by nonclinical caregivers. Intranasal benzodiazepine administration does not require intravenous access and offers rapid seizure cessation. Intranasal midazolam is faster at aborting seizure activity than rectal diazepam and quicker to administer than intravenous diazepam. Although time to seizure cessation varies from study to study, intranasal midazolam is efficacious when administered not only by emergency department personnel but also by paramedics and caregivers in out-of-hospital and home settings. Absorption of midazolam intranasal formulations appears to be relatively rapid compared to diazepam formulations. Its shorter elimination half-life may also be beneficial in that patients may more quickly return to normal function because of rapid offset of effect. On the other hand, the faster rate of elimination of midazolam may expose patients to a higher rate of seizure recurrence compared with diazepam. Two diazepam formulations and one midazolam formulation are being currently developed for intranasal use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:26022649

  20. Postprostatectomy seizures: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bichu, Prasad; Phadke, Gautam; Sangha, Harbaksh; Misra, Madhukar

    2011-10-01

    A 75-year-old Caucasian male presented with generalized seizures half-hour post-transurethral resection of the prostate surgery. The intra-operative course was complicated by perforation of the posterior wall of the bladder neck during a difficult Foley catheter placement. This resulted in intraperitoneal extravasation of the glycine containing bladder irrigation fluid. An emergent laparotomy was performed, and 3.5-4?L of fluid was drained from the peritoneal cavity. Postoperative course was complicated by two seizures within a short interval. Patient developed profound hyponatremia (Na of 109?mEq/L). However, measured serum osmolality was normal (283?mOsm/kg). The serum osmolality remained relatively stable, indicating that the absorbed glycine and its metabolites remained osmotically active in the intravascular space (until they were dialyzed as mentioned later), making the hyponatremia less pernicious and an unlikely cause of patient's symptoms. The encephalopathy and seizures were ascribed to accumulation of toxic metabolites of glycine, especially ammonia (serum level -1261?mcmol/L). During a complicated postoperative period, patient developed oligo-anuric renal failure, and was started on slow low-efficiency dialysis for 8 hours resulting in rapid lowering of serum ammonia levels and glycine with reversal of encephalopathy including seizures. There was no recurrence of encephalopathy, seizures, or metabolic acidosis. Although rare, glycine toxicity may be life threatening. The pathophysiology, need for early detection and the role of early use of renal replacement therapy in acute glycine toxicity is discussed below. PMID:22093602

  1. [Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

    2014-01-01

    Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24726042

  2. Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy (FEAST): A novel form of ECT illustrates the roles of current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration in seizure induction

    PubMed Central

    Spellman, Timothy; Peterchev, Angel V.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a mainstay in the treatment of severe, medication resistant depression. The antidepressant efficacy and cognitive side effects of ECT are influenced by the position of the electrodes on the head and by the degree to which the electrical stimulus exceeds the threshold for seizure induction. However, surprisingly little is known about the effects of other key electrical parameters such as current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration. Understanding these relationships may inform the optimization of therapeutic interventions to improve their risk/benefit ratio. To elucidate these relationships, we evaluated a novel form of ECT (focal electrically administered seizure therapy, FEAST) that combines unidirectional stimulation, control of polarity, and an asymmetrical electrode configuration, and contrasted it with conventional ECT in a nonhuman primate model. Rhesus monkeys had their seizure thresholds determined on separate days with ECT conditions that crossed the factors of current directionality (unidirectional or bidirectional), electrode configuration (standard bilateral or FEAST (small anterior and large posterior electrode)), and polarity (assignment of anode and cathode in unidirectional stimulation). Ictal expression and post-ictal suppression were quantified via scalp EEG. Findings were replicated and extended in a second experiment with the same subjects. Seizures were induced in each of 75 trials, including 42 FEAST procedures. Seizure thresholds were lower with unidirectional than with bidirectional stimulation (p<0.0001), and lower in FEAST than in bilateral ECS (p=0.0294). Ictal power was greatest in posterior-anode unidirectional FEAST, and post-ictal suppression was strongest in anterior-anode FEAST (p=0.0008 and p=0.0024, respectively). EEG power was higher in the stimulated hemisphere in posterior-anode FEAST (p=0.0246), consistent with the anode being the site of strongest activation. These findings suggest that current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration influence the efficiency of seizure induction with ECT. Unidirectional stimulation and novel electrode configurations such as FEAST are two approaches to lowering seizure threshold. Furthermore, the impact of FEAST on ictal and post-ictal expression appeared to be polarity-dependent. Future studies may examine whether these differences in seizure threshold and expression have clinical significance for patients receiving ECT. PMID:19225453

  3. Utility of different seizure induction protocols in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gourav; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K

    2014-08-01

    Psychogenic non epileptic seizure (PNES) can be induced by several induction tests but their relative usefulness has not been evaluated. In this study, we report the sensitivity and specificity of various induction tests in the diagnosis of PNES and assess their discomfort level. The induction tests were: (a) compression of temple region (CTR), (b) verbal suggestion (VS), (c) tuning fork application (TFA), (d) moist swab application (MSA), (e) torch light stimulation (TLS) and (f) saline injection (SI). Up to 3 trials were done for each test except for normal saline injection which was given once. For comparison of these tests, patients with epileptic seizures were included as controls. The time to precipitate PNES was recorded and patients' discomfort levels were noted on a 0-10 scale. Video EEG was recorded in the PNES patients. 140 patients with PNES and 50 controls with epileptic seizures were included. The diagnostic yield of CTR was 65.7%, TFA 61.4%, MSA 60.7%, SI 55.6%, VS 54.3% and TLS 40.7%. These tests did not induce seizures in the controls. All these tests had 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in the diagnosis of PNES. The maximum discomfort was reported with SI and minimum with MSA. The similarity of efficacy and discomfort with CTR and TFA appear to be the most optimal induction techniques when compared with VS, AMS, TLS, and SI. PMID:24802296

  4. Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Possible Outcomes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whether they could increase the risk of developing epilepsy later. Febrile seizures are defined as seizures that ... brains of patients who underwent surgery for severe epilepsy. 3 The children with FSE were com- pared ...

  5. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or just after seizures. Don’t use artificial respiration unless breathing is absent after muscle jerks subside ... or just after seizures. Don’t use artificial respiration unless breathing is absent after muscle jerks subside ...

  6. Early Posttraumatic Seizures in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Daniel H; Goodkin, Howard P; Giza, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Early posttraumatic seizure is a paramount clinical issue in pediatric traumatic brain injury patients as it is a common occurrence, yet an understudied entity at present. Recent literature recognizes several posttraumatic seizure subtypes based on time of presentation and the underlying pathophysiology: impact, immediate, delayed early, and late/posttraumatic epilepsy. Appropriate classification of pediatric posttraumatic seizure subtypes can be helpful for appropriate management and prognosis. This review will focus on early posttraumatic seizures, and the subtypes of early posttraumatic seizure. Incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, seizure semiology, status epilepticus, management, risk of recurrence, and prognosis were reviewed. The integration of continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring into pediatric traumatic brain injury management may hold the key to better characterizing and understanding pediatric early posttraumatic seizures. Topics for future research pertaining to pediatric early posttraumatic seizure are identified. PMID:25564481

  7. Seizures in corticobasal degeneration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Vanja C; DeArmond, Stephen J; Aminoff, Michael J; Miller, Bruce L; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2009-08-01

    Seizures are relatively common in Alzheimer disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. To our knowledge, however, there have been no reports of seizures associated with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). We describe a patient with brain biopsy features suggestive of CBD whose course was complicated by complex partial seizures with secondary generalization. Thus, the occurrence of seizures in a patient with dementia should not exclude the diagnosis of CBD. PMID:19544144

  8. An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus

  9. Seizures in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... effects — Each anti-seizure medication can cause side effects, which can affect each person differently. Anyone taking an anti-seizure ... their plans for pregnancy. Anti-seizure medications can affect the health of ... with the effects of certain birth control methods, so this discussion ...

  10. An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus…

  11. Characteristics and phenomenology of epileptic partial seizures in dogs: similarities with human seizure semiology.

    PubMed

    Berendt, M; Gredal, H; Alving, J

    2004-01-01

    Dogs with spontaneous occurring epilepsy with partial seizures express symptomatology resembling what is found in humans with partial epileptic seizures. Questionnaires on clinical signs from 70 dogs, with a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization, were reviewed in order to characterize and classify clinical signs of partial seizure activity in dogs and compare them to partial seizure phenomenology in humans. Signs of partial seizure activity were distributed into three categories: motor signs, autonomic signs and paroxysms of behavioral signs. Motor signs were described in 48 dogs (69%), autonomic signs in 16 dogs (23%) and paroxysms of behavioral signs in 56 dogs (80%). The majority of dogs expressed signs from more than one group. Sixty-one dogs (87%) had partial seizures with secondary generalization. Nine dogs (13%) had partial seizures without secondary generalization. The study shows a remarkable resemblance between the seizure phenomenology expressed in humans and canines with partial epileptic seizures. PMID:15451018

  12. Effect of ACE inhibitors and AT1 receptor antagonists on pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice.

    PubMed

    ?ukawski, Krzysztof; Czuczwar, Stanis?aw Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    Experimental data show that some angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonists that are normally used as antihypertensive drugs can exert anticonvulsant-like activity against audiogenic seizures. In the current study, a number of ACE inhibitors (captopril, enalapril, cilazapril, perindopril and zofenopril) and AT(1) antagonists (losartan, telmisartan and candesartan) were examined against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. Captopril (50 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally significantly raised the PTZ threshold (p < 0.05). The remaining drugs were not protective against PTZ-induced convulsions. The current study indicates that captopril decreases PTZ-evoked seizures in mice, which is an animal model of myoclonic convulsions. PMID:25573423

  13. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.; Eisenstadt, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

  14. Neonatal Seizures: Advances in Mechanisms and Management

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Seizures occur in approximately 15 per 1,000 live births, and are among the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal neurocritical care service. There are several, age-specific factors that are particular to the developing brain, which influence excitability and seizure generation, response to medications, and impact of seizures on brain structure and function. Neonatal seizures are often associated with serious underlying brain injury such as hypoxia-ischemia, stroke or hemorrhage. Conventional, prolonged, continuous video-electroencephalogram (cEEG) is the gold standard for detecting seizures, whereas amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a convenient and useful bedside tool. Evaluation of neonatal seizures involves a thorough search for the etiology of the seizures, and includes detailed clinical history, routine chemistries, neuroimaging (and preferably magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), and specialized testing such as screening for inborn errors of metabolism if no structural cause is identified and seizures persist after correction of transient metabolic deficits. Expert opinion supports rapid medical treatment to abolish electrographic seizures, however the relative risk versus benefit for aggressive medical treatment of neonatal seizures is not known. While there is increasing evidence to support a harmful effect of seizures on the developing brain, there is also evidence that commonly used medications are potentially neurotoxic in animal models. Newer agents appear less harmful, but data are lacking regarding optimal dosing and efficacy. PMID:24524454

  15. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  16. Seizure-induced disinhibition of the HPA axis increases seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Kate K.; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility. PMID:24225328

  17. Cortical alterations in a model for absence epilepsy and febrile seizures: in vivo findings in mice carrying a human GABA(A)R gamma2 subunit mutation.

    PubMed

    Witsch, Jens; Golkowski, Daniel; Hahn, Thomas T G; Petrou, Steven; Spors, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy among children. The study of a large Australian family demonstrated that a point mutation in the gene encoding the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (G2R43Q) leads to an autosomal dominantly inherited form of CAE and febrile seizures (FS). In a transgenic mouse model carrying the gamma2 (R43Q) mutation heterozygous animals recapitulate the human phenotype. In-vitro experiments indicated that this point mutation impairs cortical inhibition and thus increases the likelihood of seizures. Here, using whole-cell (WC) and extracellular (EC) recordings as well as voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI), we systematically searched for an in vivo correlate of cortical alterations caused by the G2R43Q mutation, as suggested by the mentioned in vitro results. We measured spontaneous and whisker-evoked activity in the primary somatosensory cortex and ventral posteriomedial nucleus of the thalamus (VPM) before and after intraperitoneal injection of the ictogenic substance pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in urethane-anesthetized G2R43Q mice and controls in a blinded setting. Compared to wildtype controls in G2R43Q mice after PTZ injection we found 1.) Increased cortical spontaneous activity in layer 2/3 and layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons (increased standard deviation of the mean membrane potential in WC recordings), 2.) Increased variance of stimulus evoked cortical responses in VSDI experiments. 3.) The cortical effects are not due to increased strength or precision of thalamic output. In summary our findings support the hypothesis of a cortical pathology in this mouse model of human genetic absence epilepsy. Further study is needed to characterize underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:25731747

  18. Peroxisomal disorders with infantile seizures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jao-Shwann; Lu, Jyh-Feng

    2011-10-01

    Peroxisomes are organelles responsible for multiple metabolic pathways including the biosynthesis of plasmalogens and the oxidation of branched-chain as well as very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Peroxisomal disorders (PDs) are heterogeneous groups of diseases and affect many organs with varying degrees of involvement. Even pathogenetically distinct PDs share some common symptoms. However, several PDs have uniquely characteristic clinical findings. The durations of survival in PDs are also variable. Infants with PDs are usually presented with developmental delay, visual and hearing impairment. Generalized hypotonia is present in severe cases. Epileptic seizures are also a common characteristic of patients with certain PDs. Nonetheless, the classification and evolution of epilepsy in PDs have not been elucidated in detail. Here, we review the relevant literatures and provide an overview of PDs with particular emphasis on the characteristics of seizures in infants. PMID:21397417

  19. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2014-07-18

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. PMID:25038202

  20. Neonatal Seizures: Impact on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok Kyu; Kadam, Shilpa D.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal period is the most vulnerable time for the occurrence of seizures, and neonatal seizures often pose a clinical challenge both for their acute management and frequency of associated long-term co-morbidities. Etiologies of neonatal seizures are known to play a primary role in the anti-epileptic drug responsiveness and the long-term sequelae. Recent studies have suggested that burden of acute recurrent seizures in neonates may also impact chronic outcomes independent of the etiology. However, not many studies, either clinical or pre-clinical, have addressed the long-term outcomes of neonatal seizures in an etiology-specific manner. In this review, we briefly review the available clinical and pre-clinical research for long-term outcomes following neonatal seizures. As the most frequent cause of acquired neonatal seizures, we focus on the studies evaluating long-term effects of HIE-seizures with the goal to evaluate (1) what parameters evaluated during acute stages of neonatal seizures can reliably be used to predict long-term outcomes? and (2) what available clinical and pre-clinical data are available help determine importance of etiology vs. seizure burdens in long-term sequelae. PMID:26636052

  1. Glutamatergic neuron-targeted loss of LGI1 epilepsy gene results in seizures

    PubMed Central

    Boillot, Morgane; Huneau, Clément; Marsan, Elise; Lehongre, Katia; Navarro, Vincent; Ishida, Saeko; Dufresnois, Béatrice; Ozkaynak, Ekim; Garrigue, Jérôme; Miles, Richard; Martin, Benoit; Leguern, Eric; Anderson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Leucin-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted protein linked to human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune aetiology. Mutations in the LGI1 gene are responsible for autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features, whereas LGI1 autoantibodies are involved in limbic encephalitis, an acquired epileptic disorder associated with cognitive impairment. We and others previously reported that Lgi1-deficient mice have early-onset spontaneous seizures leading to premature death at 2–3 weeks of age. Yet, where and when Lgi1 deficiency causes epilepsy remains unknown. To address these questions, we generated Lgi1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice using a set of universal Cre-driver mouse lines. Selective deletion of Lgi1 was achieved in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons during embryonic (Emx1-Lgi1cKO) or late postnatal (CaMKIIα-Lgi1cKO) developmental stages, or in gamma amino butyric acidergic (GABAergic) parvalbumin interneurons (PV-Lgi1cKO). Emx1-Lgi1cKO mice displayed early-onset and lethal seizures, whereas CaMKIIα-Lgi1cKO mice presented late-onset occasional seizures associated with variable reduced lifespan. In contrast, neither spontaneous seizures nor increased seizure susceptibility to convulsant were observed when Lgi1 was deleted in parvalbumin interneurons. Together, these data showed that LGI1 depletion restricted to pyramidal cells is sufficient to generate seizures, whereas seizure thresholds were unchanged after depletion in gamma amino butyric acidergic parvalbumin interneurons. We suggest that LGI1 secreted from excitatory neurons, but not parvalbumin inhibitory neurons, makes a major contribution to the pathogenesis of LGI1-related epilepsies. Our data further indicate that LGI1 is required from embryogenesis to adulthood to achieve proper circuit functioning. PMID:25234641

  2. Des-acyl ghrelin attenuates pilocarpine-induced limbic seizures via the ghrelin receptor and not the orexin pathway.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Coppens, Jessica; Demuyser, Thomas; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    Des-acyl ghrelin, widely accepted to work independently of the ghrelin receptor, is increasingly being implicated in a number of biological functions. The involvement of des-acyl ghrelin in epilepsy has only been recently reported. In this study, apart from unravelling the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on seizure thresholds and seizure severity in two models of pilocarpine-induced seizures, we mainly attempted to unravel its anticonvulsant mechanism of action. Since it was found that des-acyl ghrelin administration affected food intake via the orexin pathway, we first determined whether this pathway was responsible for des-acyl ghrelin's seizure-attenuating properties using the dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant. We noted that, while des-acyl ghrelin showed dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects against focal pilocarpine-evoked seizures in rats, almorexant did not affect seizure severity and did not reverse des-acyl ghrelin's anticonvulsant effect. Subsequently, to investigate whether the ghrelin receptor was implicated in des-acyl ghrelin's anticonvulsant properties, we tested this peptide in ghrelin receptor deficient mice and wild type mice, all infused with pilocarpine intravenously. Unexpectedly, we found that des-acyl ghrelin significantly elevated seizure thresholds in C57Bl/6 and wild type mice but not in ghrelin receptor knock-out mice. Taken together, our results indicate the involvement of the ghrelin receptor in the anticonvulsant effects of des-acyl ghrelin on pilocarpine-induced seizures. We also show for the first time that dual antagonism of hippocampal orexin receptors does not affect seizure severity. PMID:26002375

  3. Emergency Management of Seizures in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to

  4. SEIZURE PREDICTION: THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    PubMed Central

    Zaveri, Hitten P.; Frei, Mark G.; Arthurs, Susan; Osorio, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The recently convened Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) brought together a diverse international group of investigators, from academia and industry, including epileptologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, computer scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who are conducting interdisciplinary research on the prediction and control of seizures. IWSP4 allowed the presentation and discussion of results, an exchange of ideas, an assessment of the status of seizure prediction, control and related fields and the fostering of collaborative projects. PMID:20674508

  5. Possible causes of seizure after spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Seizure after laminectomy for spinal procedure is very rare and has not been reported after lipomyelomeningocele surgery beforehand. Here, two cases of seizure following laminectomy for lipomyelomeningocele are reported. The exact etiology of the event is unknown but anesthetic material, pneumocephalus, intracranial hypotension subsequent to cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal procedures, spinal-induced seizure and the potential toxic effect of fat molecules could be considered. PMID:21042506

  6. Neonatal seizures-part 2: Aetiology of acute symptomatic seizures, treatments and the neonatal epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hart, Anthony R; Pilling, Elizabeth L; Alix, James J P

    2015-10-01

    Most neonatal epileptic seizures are provoked by an underlying condition or problem-'acute symptomatic seizures'. However, a few neonatal epilepsy syndromes exist, and these are defined by the constellation of seizure types, EEG findings and family history seen. Making an accurate diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome can help direct investigations, treatment options and provide prognostic information. This article discusses the investigative approach and treatments for neonatal epileptic seizures, including the neonatal epilepsy syndromes. PMID:25824891

  7. Neonatal seizures associated with narcotic withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Herzlinger, R A; Kandall, S R; Vaughan, H G

    1977-10-01

    Among 302 neonates passively addicted to narcotics, 18 had seizures that were attributed to withdrawal. Of those 18 infants, 10 were among the 127 infants exposed to methadone (7.8%), whereas only one of them was among the 83 infants exposed to heroin (1.2%). Generalized motor seizures and myoclonic jerks were the predominant convulsive manifestations. Paregoric was more effective than was diazepam in controlling and preventing these seizures once they occurred. Electroencephalograms were obtained on 13 neonates in the interictal period; 12 of these ECGs were normal. Three infants, two with myoclonic jerks, had paroxysmal brain wave activity at the time of the seizures. PMID:908988

  8. Levetiracetam in neonatal seizures: a review.

    PubMed

    Mruk, Allison L; Garlitz, Karen L; Leung, Noelle R

    2015-01-01

    Phenobarbital and phenytoin have been the mainstay treatment modalities for neonatal seizures. Studies have revealed these agents control seizures in less than half of neonates, can cause neuronal apoptosis in vitro, and have highly variable pharmacokinetics in neonates. In contrast, there have been no reports of levetiracetam causing these neurotoxic effects. Due to its favorable side effect and pharmacokinetic profiles and positive efficacy outcomes in neonatal studies to date, there is great interest in the use of levetiracetam for neonatal seizures. This article reviews the literature regarding the safety of levetiracetam in neonates and its efficacy in neonatal seizures. PMID:25964725

  9. Levetiracetam in Neonatal Seizures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Allison L.; Garlitz, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Phenobarbital and phenytoin have been the mainstay treatment modalities for neonatal seizures. Studies have revealed these agents control seizures in less than half of neonates, can cause neuronal apoptosis in vitro, and have highly variable pharmacokinetics in neonates. In contrast, there have been no reports of levetiracetam causing these neurotoxic effects. Due to its favorable side effect and pharmacokinetic profiles and positive efficacy outcomes in neonatal studies to date, there is great interest in the use of levetiracetam for neonatal seizures. This article reviews the literature regarding the safety of levetiracetam in neonates and its efficacy in neonatal seizures. PMID:25964725

  10. Nonepileptic seizures treatment workshop summary.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, W Curt; Alper, Kenneth; Babcock, Debra; Barry, John J; Benbadis, Selim; Caplan, Rochelle; Gates, John; Jacobs, Margaret; Kanner, Andres; Martin, Roy; Rundhaugen, Lynn; Stewart, Randy; Vert, Christina

    2006-05-01

    In May 2005, an international, interdisciplinary group of researchers gathered in Bethesda, MD, USA, for a workshop to discuss the development of treatments for patients with nonepileptic seizures (NES). Specific subgroup topics that were covered included: pediatric NES; presenting the diagnosis of NES, outcome measures for NES trials; classification of NES subtypes; and pharmacological treatment approaches and psychotherapies. The intent was to develop specific research strategies that can be expanded to involve a large segment of the epilepsy and psychiatric treatment communities. Various projects have resulted from the workshop, including the initial development of a prospective randomized clinical trial for NES. PMID:16540377

  11. Anticonvulsants for soman-induced seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Shih, T; McDonough, J H; Koplovitz, I

    1999-01-01

    This report describes studies of anticonvulsants for the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent soman: a basic research effort to understand how different pharmacological classes of compounds influence the expression of seizure produced by soman in rats, and a drug screening effort to determine whether clinically useful antiepileptics can modulate soman-induced seizures in rats. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were used in these studies. Basic studies were conducted in rats pretreated with HI-6 and challenged with 1.6 x LD50 soman. Antimuscarinic compounds were extremely effective in blocking (pretreatment) or terminating soman seizures when given 5 min after seizure onset. However, significantly higher doses were required when treatment was delayed for more than 10 min, and some antimuscarinic compounds lost anticonvulsant efficacy when treatment was delayed for more than 40 min. Diazepam blocked seizure onset, yet seizures could recur after an initial period of anticonvulsant effect at doses seizures when given 5 min after seizure onset, but doses up to 20 mg/kg were ineffective when treatment was delayed for 40 min. The GABA uptake inhibitor, tiagabine, was ineffective in blocking or terminating soman motor convulsions or seizures. The glutamate receptor antagonists, NBQX, GYKI 52466, and memantine, had weak or minimal antiseizure activity, even at doses that virtually eliminated signs of motor convulsions. The antinicotinic, mecamylamine, was ineffective in blocking or stopping seizure activity. Pretreatment with a narrow range of doses of alpha2-adrenergic agonist, clonidine, produced variable protection (40-60%) against seizure onset; treatment after seizure onset with clonidine was not effective. Screening studies in rats, using HI-6 pretreatment, showed that benzodiazepines (diazepam, midazolam and lorazepam) were quite effective when given 5 min after seizure onset, but lost their efficacy when given 40 min after onset. The barbiturate, pentobarbital, was modestly effective in terminating seizures when given 5 or 40 min after seizure onset, while other clinically effective antiepileptic drugs, trimethadione and valproic acid, were only slightly effective when given 5 min after onset. In contrast, phenytoin, carbamazepine, ethosuximide, magnesium sulfate, lamotrigine, primidone, felbamate, acetazolamide, and ketamine were ineffective. PMID:10087439

  12. Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over and over might indicate the ongoing condition epilepsy . Some kids under 5 years old have febrile ... times. Fortunately, fainting is rarely a sign of epilepsy. Most kids recover very quickly (seconds to minutes) ...

  13. Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Street drugs, such as angel dust (PCP), cocaine, amphetamines Stroke Toxemia of pregnancy Toxin buildup in the body due to liver or kidney failure Very high blood pressure ( malignant hypertension ) Venomous bites and stings ( snake bite ) ...

  14. Treatment of drug-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Yi; Albertson, Timothy E; Olson, Kent R

    2016-03-01

    Seizures are a common complication of drug intoxication, and up to 9% of status epilepticus cases are caused by a drug or poison. While the specific drugs associated with drug-induced seizures may vary by geography and change over time, common reported causes include antidepressants, stimulants and antihistamines. Seizures occur generally as a result of inadequate inhibitory influences (e.g., gamma aminobutyric acid, GABA) or excessive excitatory stimulation (e.g. glutamate) although many other neurotransmitters play a role. Most drug-induced seizures are self-limited. However, status epilepticus occurs in up to 10% of cases. Prolonged or recurrent seizures can lead to serious complications and require vigorous supportive care and anticonvulsant drugs. Benzodiazepines are generally accepted as the first line anticonvulsant therapy for drug-induced seizures. If benzodiazepines fail to halt seizures promptly, second line drugs include barbiturates and propofol. If isoniazid poisoning is a possibility, pyridoxine is given. Continuous infusion of one or more anticonvulsants may be required in refractory status epilepticus. There is no role for phenytoin in the treatment of drug-induced seizures. The potential role of ketamine and levetiracetam is promising but not established. PMID:26174744

  15. Alternative therapies for seizures: promises and dangers.

    PubMed

    Sirven, Joseph I

    2007-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly being used for a multitude of medical problems, one of them being seizures. This article discusses the prevalence of CAM use for seizures and epilepsy. Evidence-based data regarding CAM for epilepsy are presented as well as potential safety concerns regarding ephedra and cannabis use. PMID:17701869

  16. Search and Seizure in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossow, Lawrence F.

    This monograph attempts to provide clear understanding of the standards presented by the Supreme Court in "New Jersey v. T.L.O." relative to search and seizure in public schools, and suggests practical ways of applying search and seizure law to situations in the school setting. ("T.L.O." are the initials of the anonymous student.) After an

  17. A Discriminative Approach to EEG Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ashley N.; Sow, Daby; Biem, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are abnormal sudden discharges in the brain with signatures represented in electroencephalograms (EEG). The efficacy of the application of speech processing techniques to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure states in EEGs is reported. The approach accounts for the challenges of unbalanced datasets (seizure and non-seizure), while also showing a system capable of real-time seizure detection. The Minimum Classification Error (MCE) algorithm, which is a discriminative learning algorithm with wide-use in speech processing, is applied and compared with conventional classification techniques that have already been applied to the discrimination between seizure and non-seizure states in the literature. The system is evaluated on 22 pediatric patients multi-channel EEG recordings. Experimental results show that the application of speech processing techniques and MCE compare favorably with conventional classification techniques in terms of classification performance, while requiring less computational overhead. The results strongly suggests the possibility of deploying the designed system at the bedside. PMID:22195192

  18. Search and Seizure in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under

  19. Seizure prediction for therapeutic devices: A review.

    PubMed

    Gadhoumi, Kais; Lina, Jean-Marc; Mormann, Florian; Gotman, Jean

    2016-02-15

    Research in seizure prediction has come a long way since its debut almost 4 decades ago. Early studies suffered methodological caveats leading to overoptimistic results and lack of statistical significance. The publication of guidelines addressing mainly the question of performance evaluation and statistical validation in seizure prediction helped revising the status of the field. While many studies failed to prove that above chance prediction is possible by applying these guidelines, other studies were successful. Methods based on EEG analysis using linear and nonlinear measures were reportedly successful in detecting preictal changes and using them to predict seizures above chance. In this review, we present a selection of studies in seizure prediction published in the last decade. The studies were selected based on the validity of the methods and the statistical significance of performance results. These results varied between studies and many showed acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity that could be appealing for therapeutic devices. The relatively large prediction horizon and early preictal changes reported in most studies suggest that seizure prediction may work better in closed loop seizure control devices rather than as seizure advisory devices. The emergence of a large database of annotated long-term EEG recordings should help prospective assessment of prediction methods. Some questions remain to be addressed before large clinical trials involving seizure prediction can be carried out. PMID:26099549

  20. Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. PMID:26724401

  1. A method for deciding about the possible safety of modafinil and armodafinil in patients with seizure disorder.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Modafinil or armodafinil (ar/mod) may be considered for patients with approved or unapproved indications, including excessive daytime drowsiness, fatigue, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or addictions. Ar/mod is classified as a psychostimulant, and psychostimulants have been associated with a small risk of seizures. There is no guidance about the use of ar/mod in patients who are at risk of seizures. This article suggests how a physician may explore the safety of ar/mod if indicated in a patient at such risk. In summary, reading the prescribing information, writing to the drug manufacturer, and searching research databases suggest the following: Ar/mod and its metabolites and derivatives have dose-dependent anticonvulsant action in animal models; ar/mod is not associated with seizures as an adverse event in populations at risk, such as those with ADHD, head injury, and brain tumors; it is not associated with worsening of seizure disorder in patients with current seizure disorder; and it is not associated with seizures in overdose. These findings are reassuring. However, not all the data are of high quality, and potential ar/mod interactions with antiepileptic drugs (and other concurrent medications that affect the seizure threshold) need to be considered because ar/mod can induce the metabolism of some drugs and inhibit the metabolism of others. Decisions should be individualized, and decision-making should be a shared effort between patient and physician. PMID:26845275

  2. Seizure Recurrence in Developmentally and Neurologically Normal Children With a Newly Diagnosed Unprovoked Seizure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunmi; Oh, Ahyuda; de Grauw, Xinyao; de Grauw, Ton J

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to assess recurrence risk in developmentally and neurologically normal children with a newly diagnosed unprovoked seizure. The medical record was retrospectively reviewed in 393 children who had a newly diagnosed, unprovoked seizure. A total of 152 children met inclusion criteria. The relationship between seizure recurrence and variables was examined. Seventy cases had recurrent seizures. Total 113 cases had follow-up data and 70 cases of these (63.7%) experienced recurrent seizures. EEG was abnormal in 65 (44.8%): focal epileptiform abnormality in 34 cases (23.4%) and generalized epileptiform abnormality in 23 cases (15.9%). Brain MRI revealed any structural abnormality in 14 of 86 cases (16.3%). Neither EEG abnormality nor brain MRI abnormality was statistically significantly associated with increased seizure recurrence in this cohort. Further study is required to confirm the EEG and brain MRI findings in otherwise normal children with a newly diagnosed unprovoked seizure. PMID:26215392

  3. Predictors of seizures during pregnancy in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sanjeev V; Syam, Unnikrishnan; Devi, J Sucharitha

    2012-05-01

    We aimed to characterize the seizure pattern during pregnancy in a large cohort of women with epilepsy (WWE) and identify possible predictors of seizure relapse during pregnancy. We recorded the antiepileptic drug (AED) use and seizure frequency for WWE during the prepregnancy month and pregnancy. The seizure profile was correlated with the clinical details and seizure type as abstracted from the clinical records maintained in the registry. Of the 1,297 pregnancies in WWE with complete seizure data, 47.8% were seizure-free during pregnancy. Seizure relapse was highest during the three peripartum days. Women with partial seizures-had higher risk of relapse (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.0) than those with generalized seizures. They had two peaks of seizure relapse (second to third month and sixth month). Those with generalized seizures had one peak at first trimester. Those who were on polytherapy had increased risk of seizures (OR 2.98, 95% CI 2.3-3.9) when compared to those on monotherapy. Those who had seizures in the prepregnancy month had higher risk (OR 15, 95% CI 9-25.1) of seizures during pregnancy when compared to those who were seizure-free during that period. On multiple logistic regression, prepregnancy seizure was the most important predictor of seizures during pregnancy. PMID:22429269

  4. Epileptic seizure induced by fennel essential oil.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Soulaymani Bencheikh, Rachida

    2011-09-01

    An epileptic seizure is reported in a 38-year-old woman, known to be an epileptic patient. Although she was under antiepileptic treatment and had well-controlled epilepsy, she developed a typical generalised tonic-clonic seizure and remained unconscious for 45 minutes following ingestion of a number of cakes containing an unknown quantity of fennel essential oil. Involuntary diarrhoea accompanied her epileptic seizure. This reported case recalls the fact that fennel essential oil can induce seizures and that this oil should probably be avoided by patients with epilepsy. Labelling of products with fennel essential oil should refer to the risk of seizures, particularly for patients with epilepsy. An awareness programme should involve all stakeholders affected by this issue. PMID:21865126

  5. Moxifloxacin Induced Seizures -A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiana; Xu, Huimin

    2014-09-01

    A 73-year-old female patient developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the 6th day after treatment with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily intravenously for appendicitis. This patient had atrial fibrillation and history of a surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage, with impaired renal function and liver function, but without history of seizures. Moxifloxacin was discontinued and switched to cefuroxime. The patient remained seizure-free at discharge four days later. The naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 4, indicating a possible adverse reaction to moxifloxacin. The potential risk factors related to moxifloxacin-induced seizures are discussed. It highlights that preexisting central nervous system disease, elderly female with lower bodyweight and severe renal impairment may be the risk factors involved in moxifloxacin-induced seizures. PMID:26175984

  6. Helicopter mishap attributed to single seizure.

    PubMed

    Simon, Esan; Watts, Darron; Bohnker, Bruce K

    2008-03-01

    A case report is presented of a 36-year-old U.S. Coast Guard aviator who had a single seizure while operating a helicopter on the ground. His seizure activity produced a loss of consciousness during which he pushed the cyclic to the left anterior quadrant that resulted in a ground mishap. No risk factors were identified in an extensive neurological workup. The current guidance for handling seizures in military aviation personnel is reviewed, along with considerations for treatment. Although the military aviation selection process carefully screens applicants for seizure history and potential, occasional seizures in the aviation population remain possible. Such events may result in military aircraft mishaps despite careful risk factor surveillance, as demonstrated by this case. PMID:18419038

  7. Role of oxidative stress in epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Chung, Yoon Hee; Kim, Won-Ki; Ko, Kwang-Ho; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Yoneda, Yukio; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from excessive free-radical release is likely implicated in the initiation and progression of epilepsy. Therefore, antioxidant therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress have received considerable attention in epilepsy treatment. However, much evidence suggests that oxidative stress does not always have the same pattern in all seizures models. Thus, this review provides an overview aimed at achieving a better understanding of this issue. We summarize work regarding seizure models (i.e., genetically epilepsy-prone rats, kainic acid, pilocarpine, pentylenetetrazol, and trimethyltin), oxidative stress as an etiologic factor in epileptic seizures (i.e., impairment of antioxidant systems, mitochondrial dysfunction, involvement of redox-active metals, arachidonic acid pathway activation, and aging), and antioxidant strategies for seizure treatment. Combined, this review highlights pharmacological mechanisms associated with oxidative stress in epileptic seizures and the potential for neuroprotection in epilepsy that targets oxidative stress and is supported by effective antioxidant treatment. PMID:21672578

  8. ?-Hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P; Duntley, Stephen P; Darken, Rachel S

    2014-07-15

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. PMID:25024661

  9. Neonates with seizures: what predicts development?

    PubMed

    Painter, Michael J; Sun, Qing; Scher, Mark S; Janosky, Janine; Alvin, John

    2012-08-01

    Animal and human studies indicate that neonatal seizures are detrimental to the developing nervous system. This study addressed whether parameters of seizure severity and treatment were predictive of outcome and influenced the incidence of epilepsy. The outcome of babies with neonatal seizures was assessed based on follow-up examination, record review, and school performance. Epilepsy was assessed relative to developmental outcome and imaging abnormalities. There was no association between response to therapy and outcome. Neonates with mild or moderate seizure severity and decreasing severity over time, prior to anticonvulsant treatment, were more likely to have normal or moderately abnormal development than a severe outcome or death. Babies who had the highest seizure severity following treatment were more likely to have adverse outcomes. Those with normal imaging studies were more likely to have better outcome than those with diffuse severe abnormalities. Children with epilepsy were more likely to have abnormal development and imaging. PMID:22628218

  10. Anticonvulsant activity of bone marrow cells in electroconvulsive seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone marrow is an accessible source of progenitor cells, which have been investigated as treatment for neurological diseases in a number of clinical trials. Here we evaluated the potential benefit of bone marrow cells in protecting against convulsive seizures induced by maximum electroconvulsive shock (MES), a widely used model for screening of anti-epileptic drugs. Behavioral and inflammatory responses were measured after MES induction in order to verify the effects promoted by transplantation of bone marrow cells. To assess the anticonvulsant effects of bone marrow cell transplantation, we measured the frequency and duration of tonic seizure, the mortality rate, the microglial expression and the blood levels of cytokine IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α after MES induction. We hypothesized that these behavioral and inflammatory responses to a strong stimulus such as a convulsive seizure could be modified by the transplantation of bone marrow cells. Results Bone marrow transplanted cells altered the convulsive threshold and showed anticonvulsant effect by protecting from tonic seizures. Bone marrow cells modified the microglial expression in the analyzed brain areas, increased the IL-10 and attenuate IL-6 levels. Conclusions Bone marrow cells exert protective effects by blocking the course of electroconvulsive seizures. Additionally, electroconvulsive seizures induced acute inflammatory responses by altering the pattern of microglia expression, as well as in IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Our findings also indicated that the anticonvulsant effects of these cells can be tested with the MES model following the same paradigm used for drug testing in pharmacological screening. Studies on the inflammatory reaction in response to acute seizures in the presence of transplanted bone marrow cells might open a wide range of discussions on the mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology of epilepsies. PMID:24011127

  11. EPILAB: a software package for studies on the prediction of epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C A; Direito, B; Feldwisch-Drentrup, H; Valderrama, M; Costa, R P; Alvarado-Rojas, C; Nikolopoulos, S; Le Van Quyen, M; Timmer, J; Schelter, B; Dourado, A

    2011-09-15

    A Matlab-based software package, EPILAB, was developed for supporting researchers in performing studies on the prediction of epileptic seizures. It provides an intuitive and convenient graphical user interface. Fundamental concepts that are crucial for epileptic seizure prediction studies were implemented. This includes, for example, the development and statistical validation of prediction methodologies in long-term continuous recordings. Seizure prediction is usually based on electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) signals. EPILAB is able to process both EEG and ECG data stored in different formats. More than 35 time and frequency domain measures (features) can be extracted based on univariate and multivariate data analysis. These features can be post-processed and used for prediction purposes. The predictions may be conducted based on optimized thresholds or by applying classifications methods such as artificial neural networks, cellular neuronal networks, and support vector machines. EPILAB proved to be an efficient tool for seizure prediction, and aims to be a way to communicate, evaluate, and compare results and data among the seizure prediction community. PMID:21763347

  12. A computational environment for long-term multi-feature and multi-algorithm seizure prediction.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C A; Direito, B; Costa, R P; Valderrama, M; Feldwisch-Drentrup, H; Nikolopoulos, S; Le Van Quyen, M; Schelter, B; Dourado, A

    2010-01-01

    The daily life of epilepsy patients is constrained by the possibility of occurrence of seizures. Until now, seizures cannot be predicted with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Most of the seizure prediction studies have been focused on a small number of patients, and frequently assuming unrealistic hypothesis. This paper adopts the view that for an appropriate development of reliable predictors one should consider long-term recordings and several features and algorithms integrated in one software tool. A computational environment, based on Matlab (), is presented, aiming to be an innovative tool for seizure prediction. It results from the need of a powerful and flexible tool for long-term EEG/ECG analysis by multiple features and algorithms. After being extracted, features can be subjected to several reduction and selection methods, and then used for prediction. The predictions can be conducted based on optimized thresholds or by applying computational intelligence methods. One important aspect is the integrated evaluation of the seizure prediction characteristic of the developed predictors. PMID:21097174

  13. Quickest detection of drug-resistant seizures: An optimal control approach

    PubMed Central

    Santaniello, Sabato; Burns, Samuel P.; Golby, Alexandra J.; Singer, Jedediah M.; Anderson, William S.; Sarma, Sridevi V.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy affects 50 million people worldwide, and seizures in 30% of the cases remain drug resistant. This has increased interest in responsive neurostimulation, which is most effective when administered during seizure onset. We propose a novel framework for seizure onset detection that involves (i) constructing statistics from multichannel intracranial EEG (iEEG) to distinguish nonictal versus ictal states; (ii) modeling the dynamics of these statistics in each state and the state transitions; you can remove this word if there is no room. (iii) developing an optimal control-based quickest detection (QD) strategy to estimate the transition times from nonictal to ictal states from sequential iEEG measurements. The QD strategy minimizes a cost function of detection delay and false positive probability. The solution is a threshold that non-monotonically decreases over time and avoids responding to rare events that normally trigger false positives. We applied QD to four drug resistant epileptic patients (168 hour continuous recordings, 2644 electrodes, 33 seizures) and achieved 100% sensitivity with low false positive rates (0.16 false positive/hour). This article is part of a Supplemental Special Issue entitled The Future of Automated Seizure Detection and Prediction. PMID:22078519

  14. Seizure recognition on epilepsy feature tensor.

    PubMed

    Acar, Evrim; Bingol, Canan Aykut; Bingol, Haluk; Bro, Rasmus; Yener, Bent

    2007-01-01

    With a goal of automating visual analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) data and assessing the performance of various features in seizure recognition, we introduce a mathematical model capable of recognizing patient-specific epileptic seizures with high accuracy. We represent multi-channel scalp EEG using a set of features. These features expected to have distinct trends during seizure and non-seizure periods include features from both time and frequency domains. The contributions of this paper are threefold. First, we rearrange multi-channel EEG signals as a third-order tensor called an Epilepsy Feature Tensor with modes: time epochs, features and electrodes. Second, we model the Epilepsy Feature Tensor using a multilinear regression model, i.e., Multilinear Partial Least Squares regression, which is the generalization of Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression to higher-order datasets. This two-step approach facilitates EEG data analysis from multiple electrodes represented by several features from different domains. Third, we identify which features are more significant for seizure recognition. Our results based on the analysis of 19 seizures from 5 epileptic patients demonstrate that multiway analysis of an Epilepsy Feature Tensor can detect (patient-specific) seizures with classification accuracy ranging between 77-96%. PMID:18002946

  15. Neonatal seizures: Predictors of adverse outcome

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Veena; Nair, P. M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Early detection of predictors of adverse outcome will be helpful for neonatologists to plan management, follow up and rehabilitation in advance so that neurological disability can be minimised. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the adverse outcome of neonatal seizures. Settings and Design: This is a prospective study conducted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital. One hundred and eight newborns consecutively admitted with seizures were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Data was collected regarding perinatal history and seizure and evaluated for etiology. We conducted a retrospective analysis to identify the factors associated with adverse outcome after neonatal seizures. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test with degree of freedom = 1 was used to find the variables significantly associated with adverse outcome (P < 0.05). Results: Gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5 min, seizure onset <24 hrs, status epilepticus, radiological findings and EEG findings were significantly associated with outcome. Conclusion: Mortality and severe neurological impairment after neonatal seizure is associated with prematurity, LBW, low Apgar score at 5 min, etiologies like meningitis, sepsis, severe HIE, brain malformations, grade 3 or 4 IVH or intracranial haemorrhage, seizure onset <24 hours, presence of status epilepticus, severely abnormal radiological and EEG findings. PMID:25250059

  16. Oxaliplatin-Induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Truong, Phu V.; Kallail, K. James

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI). After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES. PMID:26491586

  17. Inhomogeneous Cortical Synchronization and Partial Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Pastor, Jess Eduardo; de Sola, Rafael G.; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Interictal synchronization clusters have recently been described in several publications using diverse techniques, including neurophysiological recordings and fMRI, in patients suffering from epilepsy. However, little is known about the role of these hyper-synchronous areas during seizures. In this work, we report an analysis of synchronization clusters jointly with several network measures during seizure activity; we then discuss our findings in the context of prior literature. Methods: Subdural activity was recorded by electrocorticography (with 60 electrodes placed at temporal and parietal lobe locations) in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy with partial seizures with and without secondary generalization (SG). Both interictal and ictal activities (during four seizures) were investigated and characterized using local synchronization and complex network methodology. The modularity, density of links, average clustering coefficient, and average path lengths were calculated to obtain information about the dynamics of the global network. Functional connectivity changes during the seizures were compared with the time evolution of highly synchronized areas. Results: Our findings reveal temporal changes in local synchronization areas during seizures and a tight relationship between the cortical locations of these areas and the patterns of their evolution over time. Seizure evolution and SG appear to be driven by two different underlying mechanisms. PMID:25309507

  18. Electroconvulsive treatment for nonepileptic seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Dietrich; Rice, Steven; Adamolekun, Bola

    2009-07-01

    Because of its striking prevalence among females, the paroxysmal disorder presenting with nonepileptic seizures was termed hysteria in premodern times. In our time, the disorder has remained widely misunderstood and mistreated. The diagnostic early history of painful traumatic events as the source of the nonepileptic seizures is hidden by the shame of the victim and remains ignored. Early effective psychotherapeutic intervention is rarely carried out. Antiepileptic treatment is commonly initiated, and tends to worsen the seizure condition, which commonly becomes chronic. Key evidence from our treatment of patients with both epileptic and nonepileptic seizures had shown that low doses of antiepileptic drugs were required, because the patients markedly improved as some epileptic seizures were allowed to occur. This prompted our use of electroconvulsive treatment for a select series of 18 patients with the most severe chronic nonepileptic seizure condition. This treatment proved remarkably effective for 11 of the 15 patients who tolerated the treatment. Together with their seizures, the patients had had bodily pains, depressive moods, and often anxiety. Their disorder can be clearly distinguished from ordinary depression, and the remarkable effect of electroconvulsive treatment in its treatment seems to be in accordance with premodern views of a polarity between the two paroxysmal disorders epilepsy and hysteria. Further studies of our topic are called for. PMID:19446043

  19. Oxaliplatin-Induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Ahmad K; Truong, Phu V; Kallail, K James

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI). After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES. PMID:26491586

  20. Low intensity vagal nerve stimulation lowers human thermal pain thresholds.

    PubMed

    Ness, T J; Fillingim, R B; Randich, A; Backensto, E M; Faught, E

    2000-05-01

    The effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on thermal pain sensation was studied in eight subjects who had vagal nerve stimulators surgically implanted for purposes of seizure control. Prior to their involvement in the study, all subjects had the intensity of their VNS (30 Hz, 0.5 ms, 1.0-2.75 mA) adjusted upwards until achieving their desired clinical effect of reduced seizures. Thermal pain thresholds were determined using a Medoc TSA-2001 with a thermode applied to the skin of the forearm. During VNS at settings 100% of those used clinically to control their seizures, subjects showed a statistically significant decrease in their thermal pain threshold of 1.1+/-0.4 degrees C. Acute effects of graded VNS on thermal pain thresholds were determined in seven of the subjects after cessation of chronic VNS. Two thermal threshold measurements were obtained while the subject received sham stimulation (0 mA intensity), during tactile control stimulation and during 30 s of VNS at intensities approximately 33, 66 and 100% of the settings utilized to control their seizures. Tactile control stimulation was provided by electrical stimulation of the skin of the ankle with the intensity adjusted by the patient to match the intensity of any sensations felt in the neck during VNS. Subjects were not aware of the settings employed. Their stimulator was adjusted with each trial and an ascending/descending ordering of intensity was utilized with an inter-trial interval of 2 min. Thermal pain thresholds were significantly decreased in relation to tactile control stimulation at all intensities of VNS tested with the greatest effect occurring at the 66% level. Subjects were also monitored non-invasively and hemodynamic responses to VNS were determined. No significant alterations in hemodynamic variables were observed. The findings of this human study are consistent with experiments in non-human animals which demonstrate a pro-nociceptive effect of low intensity VNS. PMID:10779664

  1. Acute Seizures Predict Epilepsy After Childhood Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Christine K.; Glass, Hannah C.; Sidney, Stephen; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Fullerton, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine incidence rates and predictors of epilepsy after childhood stroke and compare these to published estimates of 35% cumulative epilepsy incidence by five years post-stroke in adults. Methods In a retrospective population-based study of children with stroke (29 days?19 years) in an integrated health care system (19932007), post-stroke seizures were identified through electronic searches and confirmed by chart review. Stroke and seizure characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Survival analysis was used to determine rates and predictors of remote seizures and active epilepsy (anti-convulsant treatment for remote seizure within prior 6 months) at last follow-up. Results From a population of 2.5 million children, we identified 305 stroke cases. Over a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range 1.86.8), 49 children had a first unprovoked remote seizure. The average annual incidence rate of first remote seizure was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3, 5.8) with a cumulative risk of 16% (CI 12%, 21%) at 5 years and 33% (CI 23%, 46%) at 10 years post-stroke. The cumulative risk of active epilepsy was 13% (CI 9%, 18%) at five years and 30% (CI 20%, 44%) at 10 years. Acute seizures at the time of stroke predicted development of active epilepsy (hazard ratio [HR] 4.2, CI 2.2, 8.1). At last follow-up, one-third of the children with active epilepsy had a recent breakthrough seizure despite anti-convulsant usage. Interpretation Unlike adults, children are uniquely vulnerable to epilepsy after stroke. Children with acute seizures at the time of stroke are at particularly high risk. PMID:23613472

  2. Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

  3. Advances in Management of Neonatal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Vesoulis, Zachary A.; Mathur, Amit M.

    2015-01-01

    Seizures are more common in the neonatal period than any other time in the human lifespan. A high index of suspicion for seizures should be maintained for infants who present with encephalopathy soon after birth, have had a stroke, central nervous system (CNS) infection or intracranial hemorrhage or have a genetic or metabolic condition associated with CNS malformations. Complicating the matter, most neonatal seizures lack a clinical correlate with only subtle autonomic changes and often no clinical indication at all. Over the last three decades, several tools have been developed to enhance the detection and treatment of neonatal seizures. The use of electroencephalography (EEG) and the later development of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), allows for Neurologists and non-Neurologists alike, to significantly increase the sensitivity of seizure detection. When applied to the appropriate clinical setting, time to diagnosis and start of therapy is greatly reduced. Phenobarbital maintains the status of first-line therapy in worldwide use. However, newer anti-epileptic agents such as, levetiracetam, bumetanide, and topiramate are increasingly being applied to the neonatal population, offering the potential for seizure treatment with a significantly better side-effect profile. Seizures in premature infants continue to confound clinicians and researchers alike. Though the apparent seizure burden is significant and there is an association between seizures and adverse outcomes, the two are not cleanly correlated. Compounding the issue, GABA-ergic anti-epileptic drugs are not only less effective in this age group due to reversed neuronal ion gradients but may also cause harm. Selecting an appropriate treatment group remains a challenge. PMID:24796413

  4. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

  5. [Absence seizure--recent physiopathologic data].

    PubMed

    Cuciureanu, D; Stefanache, Felicia

    2003-01-01

    The progresses in clarifying the normal and pathologic cellular and molecular mechanisms are reflected in the elucidation of the way some of the most common forms of generalized seizure--absence seizures--occur and are produced. Intrinsic properties of the thalamic neurons that give them the ability to release or preserve oscillatory, low-frequency neuronal discharges, and the thalamo-cortical feedback mechanism seem to explain the pathogenesis of absence seizures. The involvement of GABA receptors in the regulation of membrane calcium channels, as well as their genetically-induced changes are new pieces in the pathogenic puzzle. PMID:14755927

  6. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  7. Lithium inhibits the modulatory effects of morphine on susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice: involvement of a nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Honar, Hooman; Riazi, Kiarash; Homayoun, Houman; Demehri, Shadpour; Dehghani, Mehdi; Vafaie, Kourosh; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad Reza; Rashidi, Narges; Gaskari, Seyed Ali; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2004-12-10

    Lithium has been reported to inhibit opioid-induced properties. The present study examined the effect of acute and chronic administration of lithium chloride (LiCl) on morphine's biphasic modulation of susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizure in mice. We also examined the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in lithium effect. Both acute (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) and chronic (same doses, 21 consecutive days) administration of LiCl completely inhibited the anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of morphine (at doses 1 and 30 mg/kg, respectively). A very low and per se noneffective dose of LiCl (0.05 mg/kg) significantly inhibited both phases of morphine effect when administered concomitant with a noneffective low dose of naloxone (0.1 mg/kg). The NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) at a per se noneffective dose of 0.3 mg/kg potentiated the inhibitory effects of low doses of LiCl (0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg) on both phases of morphine effect. l-arginine, a NO synthase substrate, at a per se noneffective dose of 30 mg/kg reversed the inhibitory effects of lithium (1 mg/kg). Lithium is capable of antagonizing both modulatory effects of morphine on seizure susceptibility even at relatively low doses. These inhibitory effects of lithium may also involve NO synthesis. PMID:15533315

  8. Alterations in sociability and functional brain connectivity caused by early-life seizures are prevented by bumetanide.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L; Tian, Chengju; Hernan, Amanda E; Flynn, Sean; Camp, Devon; Barry, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    There is a well-described association between infantile epilepsy and pervasive cognitive and behavioral deficits, including a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders. Despite the robustness of the relationship between early-life seizures and the development of autism, the pathophysiological mechanism by which this occurs has not been explored. As a result of increasing evidence that autism is a disorder of brain connectivity we hypothesized that early-life seizures would interrupt normal brain connectivity during brain maturation and result in an autistic phenotype. Normal rat pups underwent recurrent flurothyl-induced seizures from postnatal (P)days 5-14 and then tested, along with controls, for developmental alterations of development brain oscillatory activity from P18-P25. Specifically we wished to understand how normal changes in rhythmicity in and between brain regions change as a function of age and if this rhythmicity is altered or interrupted by early life seizures. In rat pups with early-life seizures, field recordings from dorsal and ventral hippocampus and prefrontal cortex demonstrated marked increase in coherence as well as a decrease in voltage correlation at all bandwidths compared to controls while there were minimal differences in total power and relative power spectral densities. Rats with early-life seizures had resulting impairment in the sociability and social novelty tests but demonstrated no evidence of increased activity or generalized anxiety as measured in the open field. In addition, rats with early-life seizures had lower seizure thresholds than controls, indicating long-standing alterations in the excitatory/inhibition balance. Bumetanide, a pharmacological agent that blocks the activity of NKCC1 and induces a significant shift of ECl toward more hyperpolarized values, administration at the time of the seizures precluded the subsequent abnormalities in coherence and voltage correlation and resulted in normal sociability and seizure threshold. Taken together these findings indicate that early-life seizures alter the development of oscillations and result in autistic-like behaviors. The altered communication between these brain regions could reflect the physiological underpinnings underlying social cognitive deficits seen in autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25766676

  9. 19 CFR 162.22 - Seizure of conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure of conveyances. 162.22 Section 162.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures 162.22 Seizure of conveyances. (a)...

  10. Increasing Epilepsy Awareness in Schools: A Seizure Smart Schools Project.

    PubMed

    Brook, Heather A; Hiltz, Cynthia M; Kopplin, Vicki L; Lindeke, Linda L

    2015-08-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26) were trained as seizure management educators and instructed staff in 21 schools on seizure awareness and response. School nurses utilized new seizure management resources, a procedural guideline, and care plan updates. The majority of school nurses rated the resources and training interventions as "very helpful." School nurse confidence in managing students with seizures increased, seizure action plan use increased, and 88% of children's records with new seizure diagnoses had completed documentation. School nurses played vital roles in increasing seizure awareness as educators and care managers. EFMN is using this project as an exemplar for expanding its Seizure Smart Schools program. PMID:25589403

  11. Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope through Research

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the seizures in the brain. For example, electrode arrays that are flexible enough to mold to the ... provide a way to deliver treatment. While these arrays have not yet been used in humans, they ...

  12. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  13. Wearable Devices Aim to Monitor Epileptic Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is discarded. The goal of using an EEG Patch is to allow doctors to adjust medication dosage while controlling seizures or to determine how effective a newly added drug or therapy is, Lehmkuhle said. The Brain Sentinel, ...

  14. Focal motor seizures complicating carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Youkey, J R; Clagett, G P; Jaffin, J H; Parisi, J E; Rich, N M

    1984-09-01

    We studied four patients with focal motor seizures complicating carotid endarterectomy and compared them with 14 other cases reported previously. Seventeen of the 18 patients had high-grade carotid stenoses. A severe unilateral headache usually preceded seizure activity, which was followed by prolonged Todd's paralysis. Eight patients had histories of ipsilateral stroke. There was no association with perioperative hypertension. Two patients who were receiving heparin sodium had intracerebral hemorrhages that caused one of the two postoperative deaths. The patency of all endarterectomized carotid arteries was recorded by arteriography or noninvasive studies. These data suggest that patients who have severe unilateral headaches following ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy for high-grade stenoses are at risk for focal motor seizures. The roles of antithrombotic agents and anti-seizure medication in this setting are unclear. PMID:6433857

  15. Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

  16. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Motelow, Joshua E; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M; Sachdev, Robert N S; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P; Englot, Dario J; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function, including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a critical mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  17. A synthetic bioisoster of trimethadione and phenytoin elicits anticonvulsant effect, protects the brain oxidative damage produced by seizures and exerts antidepressant action in mice.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Valentina; Wasowski, Cristina; Higgs, Josefina; Mangialavori, Irene C; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E; Marder, Mariel

    2014-08-01

    Epilepsy is recognized as one of the most common and serious neurological disorder affecting 1-2% of the world?s population. The present study demonstrates that systemic administration of 3-butyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,2,3-oxathiazolidine-4-one-2,2-dioxide (DIOXIDE), a synthetic compound bioisoster of trimethadione and phenytoin (classical anticonvulsants), elicits a dose dependent anticonvulsant response in mice submitted to the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure test (scPTZ). Among various factors supposed to play role in epilepsy, oxidative stress and reactive species have strongly emerged. The protection exerted by DIOXIDE over the extent of brain oxidative damage produced by PTZ was determined, by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione and the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Psychiatric disorders represent frequent comorbidities in persons with epilepsy. In this report, the potential anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of DIOXIDE were evaluated in several widely used models for assessing anxiolytic and antidepressant activities in rodents. Although DIOXIDE did not evidence anxiolytic activity at the doses tested, it revealed a significant antidepressant-like effect. Preliminary studies of its mechanism of action, by means of its capacity to act via the GABAA receptor (using the [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding assay in vitro and the picrotoxin test in vivo) and the Na(+) channel (using the alkaloid veratrine, a voltage-Na(+) channel agonist) demonstrated that the anticonvulsant effect is not likely related to the GABAergic pathway and the antidepressant-like effect could be due to its Na(+) channel blocking properties. The results for DIOXIDE suggested it as a new anticonvulsant-antioxidant and antidepressant compound that deserves further development. PMID:24846538

  18. Infantile Spasms: Little Seizures, BIG Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shields, W Donald

    2006-01-01

    Infantile spasms is one of the catastrophic childhood epilepsies because of the difficulty in controlling seizures and the association with mental retardation. However, early recognition, a careful diagnostic evaluation, and proper treatment may allow some children to attain seizure control and to achieve a normal, or at least much improved, level of development. Thus, there is the opportunity to have an important impact in the lives of these unfortunate children and their families. PMID:16761063

  19. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  20. Seizure in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Mohammad; Norouzi, Rasul; Shayegannejad, Vahid; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Ghasemi, Majid; Tavahen, Hemaseh; Masaeli, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a broad variation in reported frequencies of seizure in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, the seizure and its characteristics analyzed among a large group of patients with MS. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all definite MS patients referred to the MS Clinic of Kashani hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between 2007 and 2011. Results: Altogether, 34 cases with seizure activity identified among the 920 definite MS subjects (3.69%). Five excluded due to the other probable etiologies rather than MS. In the remained 29 patients (3.15%), the type of seizure was mostly generalized (79.3%); interictal electroencephalography showed an abnormal pattern in 84.6%, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed subcortical white mater lesions in 84.6% of patients. The mean duration of MS onsets was 8.17 years and the mean interval between MS onset and the first seizure occurrence was 3.7 years. In general, response to antiepileptic treatment was excellent. Conclusion: Seizures can occur at any stage during the course of MS, but it is more common during the early stages. PMID:24516486

  1. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  2. Monitor for status epilepticus seizures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

  3. Ultra-low dose naltrexone potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of low dose morphine on clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Honar, H; Riazi, K; Homayoun, H; Sadeghipour, H; Rashidi, N; Ebrahimkhani, M R; Mirazi, N; Dehpour, A R

    2004-01-01

    Significant potentiation of analgesic effects of opioids can be achieved through selective blockade of their stimulatory effects on intracellular signaling pathways by ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists. However, the generality and specificity of this interaction is not well understood. The bimodal modulation of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by opioids provide a model to assess the potential usefulness of this approach in seizure disorders and to examine the differential mechanisms involved in opioid anti- (morphine at 0.5-3 mg/kg) versus pro-convulsant (20-100 mg/kg) effects. Systemic administration of ultra-low doses of naltrexone (100 fg/kg-10 ng/kg) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of morphine at 0.5 mg/kg while higher degrees of opioid receptor antagonism blocked this effect. Moreover, inhibition of opioid-induced excitatory signaling by naltrexone (1 ng/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of morphine (1 ng/kg-100 microg/kg), suggesting that a presumed inhibitory component of opioid receptor signaling can exert strong seizure-protective effects even at very low levels of opioid receptor activation. However, ultra-low dose naltrexone could not increase the maximal anticonvulsant effect of morphine (1-3 mg/kg), possibly due to a ceiling effect. The proconvulsant effects of morphine on seizure threshold were minimally altered by ultra-low doses of naltrexone while being completely blocked by a higher dose (1 mg/kg) of the antagonist. The present data suggest that ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility, especially in conjunction with very low doses of opioids. PMID:15541894

  4. Safety and feasibility of magnetic seizure therapy (MST) in major depression: randomized within-subject comparison with electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Lisanby, Sarah H; Luber, Bruce; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Sackeim, Harold A

    2003-10-01

    Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel means of performing convulsive therapy using rapidly alternating strong magnetic fields. MST offers greater control of intracerebral current intensity than is possible with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). These features may result in a superior cognitive side effect profile for MST, while possibly retaining the efficacy of ECT. The objective of this study was to determine whether MST and ECT differ in seizure characteristics, and acute objective and subjective cognitive side effects. A total of 10 inpatients in a major depressive episode referred for ECT were enrolled in this randomized, within-subject, double-masked trial. Seizure threshold was determined with MST and ECT in the first two sessions of a course of convulsive therapy, with order randomized. The remaining two sessions consisted of suprathreshold stimulation with MST and ECT. A neuropsychological battery and side effect rating scale were administered by a masked rater before and after each session. Tonic-clonic seizures were elicited with MST in all patients. Compared to ECT, MST seizures had shorter duration, lower ictal EEG amplitude, and less postictal suppression. Patients had fewer subjective side effects and recovered orientation more quickly with MST than ECT. MST was also superior to ECT on measures of attention, retrograde amnesia, and category fluency. Magnetic seizure induction in patients with depression is feasible, and appears to have a superior acute side effect profile than ECT. Future research will be needed to establish whether MST has antidepressant efficacy. PMID:12865903

  5. Ketogenic diet protects against epileptogenesis as well as neuronal loss in amygdaloid-kindling seizures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Yao; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Man-Man; Wen, Shu-Qun; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Ketogenic diets (KD) have shown beneficial effects in terms of anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenic properties in several experimental models. However, few studies have investigated the consequences of KD with regards to the anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects in kindling-induced seizures. Here, postnatal day 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats received one of two experimental diets for 4 weeks: (a) a 'classic' 4:1 KD; and (b) a normal regular rodent chow diet (ND). Fully-kindled seizures were achieved by daily electrical stimulation in the amygdala. Seizure stage and after-discharge duration (ADD) were assessed daily. The after-discharge threshold (ADT) was measured every 5 days. The effects of the two diets on neuronal loss were observed before kindling and 20 days after stimulation by Nissl staining. We found that the progression of seizure stage and ADD was delayed by KD. KD prevented the ADT decrease on day 5. The incidence of generalized seizures was lower in the KD group compared to the ND group. The neuronal density was decreased in the ipsilateral hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 area, as well as the contralateral CA1 area before kindling in the KD group. However, KD prevented neuronal loss in the ipsilateral CA1 area 20 days after stimulation. Our data suggest that KD can protect against epileptogenesis by preventing both after-discharge generation and propagation in kindling seizures. In addition, KD also possesses a neuroprotective function during kindling although it changes hippocampal development in early life. PMID:22178860

  6. Threshold quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.

  7. Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

  8. Effect of trained Seizure Alert Dogs on frequency of tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Strong, Val; Brown, Stephen; Huyton, Margaret; Coyle, Helen

    2002-09-01

    We have previously reported that dogs can be trained to recognize specific changes preceding an epileptic seizure in humans. Such dogs can provide an overt signal that acts as a useful warning to the human. Early observations suggested that seizure frequency might also be reduced. We report a prospective study of 10 consecutive referrals to our Seizure Alert Dogs service of people with tonic-clonic seizures. Seizure frequency was monitored over a 48 week period including 12 weeks baseline after entry, a 12 week training period, and 24 weeks follow up. Comparing baseline seizure frequency to the last 12 weeks of follow up, there was a 43% mean reduction in seizure frequency ( P= 0.002). Nine out of /10 subjects showed a 34% or greater reduction, 4 /10 showed a 50% or greater reduction, and only one showed no improvement. Although a significant drop in seizure frequency was seen during the first 4 weeks of training ( P= 0.0078) a further drop occurred between the first and last 4 week period of training (P = 0.038) and this final improvement was maintained for the whole 24 week follow up. PMID:12160671

  9. Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

    2006-01-01

    Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical

  10. Seizure-Induced Neuronal Injury: Vulnerability to Febrile Seizures in an Immature Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Zsolt; Yan, Xiao-Xin; Haftoglou, Suzie; Ribak, Charles E.; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2012-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common seizure type in young children. Whether they induce death of hippocampal and amygdala neurons and consequent limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy has remained controversial, with conflicting data from prospective and retrospective studies. Using an appropriate-age rat model of febrile seizures, we investigated the acute and chronic effects of hyperthermic seizures on neuronal integrity and survival in the hippocampus and amygdala via molecular and neuroanatomical methods. Hyperthermic seizuresbut not hyperthermia aloneresulted in numerous argyrophilic neurons in discrete regions of the limbic system; within 24 hr of seizures, a significant proportion of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala and in the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cell layer were affected. These physicochemical alterations of hippocampal and amygdala neurons persisted for at least 2 weeks but were not accompanied by significant DNA fragmentation, as determined by in situ end labeling. By 4 weeks after the seizures, no significant neuronal dropout in these regions was evident. In conclusion, in the immature rat model, hyperthermic seizures lead to profound, yet primarily transient alterations in neuronal structure. PMID:9592105

  11. Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

    2006-01-01

    Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical…

  12. Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to

  13. Preclinical assessment of proconvulsant drug activity and its relevance for predicting adverse events in humans.

    PubMed

    Lscher, Wolfgang

    2009-05-21

    Safety pharmacology studies, which are performed before first studies with investigational drugs in humans, often include experiments on proconvulsant drug activity, because such drugs are thought to promote seizures by decreasing seizure threshold. A commonly used model for the assessment of proconvulsant activity of investigational or marketed drugs is the timed intravenous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) infusion seizure test, in which the latency to myoclonic or clonic seizures is determined by PTZ infusion in mice or rats. This test provides an extremely sensitive parametric method for assessing seizure threshold and allows detecting both anticonvulsant and proconvulsant drug effects. The aim of this review is to critically review the concept of "proconvulsant" drug activity and discuss data obtained by the PTZ and other seizure threshold tests as well as the various factors that may affect seizure threshold determinations. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical data on proconvulsant drug activity are compared. It is concluded that a battery of different tests is needed to provide the most reliable conclusions about the proconvulsant profile, if any, of drugs. Furthermore, misconceptions regarding proconvulsant drug effects, which can result in the undertreatment of brain diseases, are discussed. PMID:19292981

  14. Febrile seizures in Kaduna, north western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eseigbe, E. E.; Adama, S. J.; Eseigbe, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Febrile seizure is the most common seizure of childhood and has a good prognosis. However its presentation is fraught with poor management, with grave consequences, in our environment. Thus a review of its current status is important. Objective: To review the status of febrile seizures in Kaduna metropolis. Materials and Methods: A review of cases seen in the Department of Paediatrics, 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital, Kaduna between June 2008 and June 2010. Results: Out of the 635 cases admitted in the department 17 (2.7%) fulfilled the criteria for febrile seizures. There were 11 Males and 6 Females (M: F, 1.8:1). Age range was from 9 months to 5 years with a mean of 2.2 years ± 1.1 and peak age of 3 years. Twelve (70.6%) were in the upper social classes (I-III). Fever, convulsion, catarrh and cough were major presenting symptoms. Incidence of convulsion was least on the 1st day of complaint. Fourteen (82.4%) of the cases were simple febrile seizures while 3 were complex. There was a positive family history in 5 (29.4%) of the cases. Eleven (64.7%) had orthodox medication at home, before presentation, 5 (29.4%) consulted patient medicine sellers and 7 (41.7%) received traditional medication as part of home management. Malaria and acute respiratory infections were the identifiable causes. Standard anti-malaria and anti-biotic therapy were instituted, where indicated. All recovered and were discharged. Conclusion: There was a low prevalence of febrile seizures among the hospitalized children and a poor pre-hospitalization management of cases. It highlighted the need for improved community awareness on the prevention and management of febrile seizures. PMID:23293414

  15. Changes in serum prolactin after electroconvulsive and epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Johansson, F; von Knorring, L

    1987-01-01

    Serial serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations were measured after epileptic seizures and seizures following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). There was a large and rapid rise in PRL after ECT seizures but a much more variable PRL response after spontaneous seizures. Only epileptic seizures of longer duration and of grand mal character resulted in a more substantial rise in PRL. In ECT seizures there was a significant positive correlation between the duration of seizures and the rise in postictal PRL. The postictal PRL curves over 24 h were similar in both spontaneous seizures and ECT seizures. Interictally there were no difference in PRL levels between epileptic patients compared to patients with other neurological diseases or healthy volunteers. Chronic treatment with drugs affecting dopamine transmission had a profound effect on PRL secretion, and a dose-dependent significant increase in PRL with neuroleptics was observed. PMID:2888653

  16. A New Model to Study Sleep Deprivation-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Brendan P.; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Design: Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB9ed4), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (seits1) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB9ed4 flies was also assessed. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB9ed4/+ and seits1 mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB9ed4/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB9ed4/+ became adults. Conclusions: These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. Citation: Lucey BP, Leahy A, Rosas R, Shaw PJ. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure. SLEEP 2015;38(5):777–785. PMID:25515102

  17. Can magnesium supplementation reduce seizures in people with epilepsy? A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Alan W C; Sander, Josemir W

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium is required for over 300 enzyme systems and is critical for many cellular functions including oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, DNA transcription and protein synthesis. Studies suggest that the modern Western diet and lifestyle may lead to magnesium deficiency, and this appears to be associated with a wide range of medical conditions. Magnesium deficiency decreases seizure thresholds in animal models of epilepsy and indeed low magnesium concentration in the perfusate is a common method of generating spontaneous epileptiform discharges from rat hippocampal slices. Magnesium is a potential modulator of seizure activity because of its ability to antagonize excitation through the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Some studies have shown that people with epilepsy have lower magnesium levels than people without epilepsy. There are case reports of seizures being controlled with magnesium supplementation in people with specific conditions, and recently in an open randomized trial, children with infantile spasms responded better to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plus magnesium than to ACTH alone. We hypothesise that magnesium supplementation can reduce seizures in people with epilepsy. This hypothesis can be tested in a controlled randomised supplementation trial. If proven, magnesium supplementation needs to be considered in the overall management of people with refractory epilepsy. PMID:22406257

  18. Fish Oil Intake and Seizure Control in Children with Medically Resistant Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Diala Mohamed Ali; Abd-El-Fatah, Nesrin Kamal; Omar, Tarek El-Sayed Ismail; Darwish, Olfat Abdel Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is considerable evidence which suggests that Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. Aim: The study was to investigate the effect of Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (as fish oil supplementation) in reducing the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Materials and Methods: In the case-control study, a total of 70 children with medically resistant epilepsy underwent assessment of the frequency and severity of the epileptic attacks at baseline, after one month, two months and three months from the beginning of the study; 35 children received fish oil and the other 35 children received placebo. Results: The number of children who received fish oil, having 0 epileptic attacks increased from 0%, before starting the study, up to 57.1% at the end of the third month, while the improvement was minimal in the placebo group, with a significant difference in the improvement between the intervention and the control groups. There was no statistically significant difference in improvement in the severity of the seizures either between cases and control or between the beginning and the end of the study. Conclusion: Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elevated the seizure threshold in epileptic patients and may help in achieving seizure control. PMID:26258079

  19. Protective role of Ashwagandharishta and flax seed oil against maximal electroshock induced seizures in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanna, Ila R.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B. K.; Chandola, H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Ashwagandharishta, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, is the remedy for Apasmara (epilepsy), Murchha (syncope), Unmada (psychosis), etc. Recent studies in animal models have shown that n-3 PUFAs can raise the threshold of epileptic seizures. The indigenous medicinal plant, called Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in Ayurveda, or flax seed, is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acids. The present study is designed to investigate whether Ashwagandharishta and Atasi taila (flax seed oil) protect against maximal electroshock (MES) seizures in albino rats. Further, a possible protective role of flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta in its anticonvulsant activity has also been evaluated in the study. MES seizures were induced for rats and seizure severity was assessed by the duration of hind limb extensor phase. Phenytoin was used as the standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Both flax seed oil and Ashwagandharishta significantly decreased convulsion phase. Pre-treatment with flax seed oil exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Contrary to the expectations, pre-treatment with flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta failed to decrease the tonic extensor phase; however, it significantly decreased the flexion phase (P < 0.001) and duration of the convulsions (P < 0.05). Both the drugs exhibited an excellent anti-post-ictal depression effect and complete protection against mortality. PMID:23049195

  20. Protective role of Ashwagandharishta and flax seed oil against maximal electroshock induced seizures in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Tanna, Ila R; Aghera, Hetal B; Ashok, B K; Chandola, H M

    2012-01-01

    Ashwagandharishta, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, is the remedy for Apasmara (epilepsy), Murchha (syncope), Unmada (psychosis), etc. Recent studies in animal models have shown that n-3 PUFAs can raise the threshold of epileptic seizures. The indigenous medicinal plant, called Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in Ayurveda, or flax seed, is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acids. The present study is designed to investigate whether Ashwagandharishta and Atasi taila (flax seed oil) protect against maximal electroshock (MES) seizures in albino rats. Further, a possible protective role of flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta in its anticonvulsant activity has also been evaluated in the study. MES seizures were induced for rats and seizure severity was assessed by the duration of hind limb extensor phase. Phenytoin was used as the standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Both flax seed oil and Ashwagandharishta significantly decreased convulsion phase. Pre-treatment with flax seed oil exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Contrary to the expectations, pre-treatment with flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta failed to decrease the tonic extensor phase; however, it significantly decreased the flexion phase (P < 0.001) and duration of the convulsions (P < 0.05). Both the drugs exhibited an excellent anti-post-ictal depression effect and complete protection against mortality. PMID:23049195

  1. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  2. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been

  3. Neurogenetic disorders and treatment of associated seizures.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Michele A; Singh, Sanjay P

    2013-03-01

    Seizures are a frequent complication associated with several neurogenetic disorders. Antiepileptic medications remain the mainstay of treatment in these patients. We summarized the available data associated with various antiepileptic therapies used to treat patients with neurogenetic disorders who experienced recurrent seizures. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify articles and abstracts describing the use of antiepileptic therapy for the treatment of various neurogenetic syndromes. Of all the neurogenetic syndromes, only autism spectrum disorders, Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Dravet syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis complex were identified as having sufficient published information to evaluate therapy. Some efficacy trends were identified, including frequent successes with valproic acid with clonazepam for epilepsy with Angelman syndrome; valproic acid, stiripentol, and clobazam (triple combination therapy) for epilepsy with Dravet syndrome; and vigabatrin for infantile spasms associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. Due to a paucity of information regarding the mechanisms by which seizures are generated in the various disorders, approach to seizure control is primarily based on clinical experience and a limited amount of study data exploring patient outcomes. Although exposure of the developing brain to antiepileptic medications is of some concern, the control of epileptic activity is an important undertaking in these individuals, as the severity of eventual developmental delay often appears to correlate with the severity of seizures. As such, early aggressive therapy is warranted. PMID:23400943

  4. Positron emission tomography in generalized seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.

    1985-05-01

    The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.

  5. Self-control of epileptic seizures by nonpharmacological strategies.

    PubMed

    Kotwas, Iliana; McGonigal, Aileen; Trebuchon, Agnès; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille; Nagai, Yoko; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur

    2016-02-01

    Despite the unpredictability of epileptic seizures, many patients report that they can anticipate seizure occurrence. Using certain alert symptoms (i.e., auras, prodromes, precipitant factors), patients can adopt behaviors to avoid injury during and after the seizure or may implement spontaneous cognitive and emotional strategies to try to control the seizure itself. From the patient's view point, potential means of enhancing seizure prediction and developing seizure control supports are seen as very important issues, especially when the epilepsy is drug-resistant. In this review, we first describe how some patients anticipate their seizures and whether this is effective in terms of seizure prediction. Secondly, we examine how these anticipatory elements might help patients to prevent or control their seizures and how the patient's neuropsychological profile, specifically parameters of perceived self-control (PSC) and locus of control (LOC), might impact these strategies and quality of life (QOL). Thirdly, we review the external supports that can help patients to better predict seizures. Finally, we look at nonpharmacological means of increasing perceived self-control and achieving potential reduction of seizure frequency (i.e., stress-based and arousal-based strategies). In the past few years, various approaches for detection and control of seizures have gained greater interest, but more research is needed to confirm a positive effect on seizure frequency as well as on QOL. PMID:26780213

  6. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  7. Effects of an acute seizure on associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Holley, Andrew J; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that inducing several seizures or continuous seizures in neonatal or adult rats results in impairments in learning and memory. The impact of a single acute seizure on learning and memory has not been investigated in mice. In this study, we exposed adult 129SvEvTac mice to the inhalant flurothyl until a behavioral seizure was induced. Our study consisted of 4 experiments where we examined the effect of one seizure before or after delay fear conditioning. We also included a separate cohort of animals that was tested in the open field after a seizure to rule out changes in locomotor activity influencing the results of memory tests. Mice that had experienced a single seizure 1h, but not 6h, prior to training showed a significant impairment in associative conditioning to the conditioned stimulus when compared with controls 24h later. There were no differences in freezing one day later for animals that experienced a single seizure 1h after associative learning. We also found that an acute seizure reduced activity levels in an open-field test 2h but not 24h later. These findings suggest that an acute seizure occurring immediately before learning can have an effect on the recall of events occurring shortly after that seizure. In contrast, an acute seizure occurring shortly after learning appears to have little or no effect on long-term memory. These findings have implications for understanding the acute effects of seizures on the acquisition of new knowledge. PMID:26655449

  8. [Panic attacks simulated by occipital lobe seizures].

    PubMed

    Stolle, Martin; Sieben, Claudia; Pst, Burkhard

    2009-05-01

    Eleven-year-old Stephanie was admitted to a child and adolescent psychiatry day hospital with symptoms of an anxiety and panic disorder, and compulsive and self-harmful behavior. The patient described detailed threatening scenic sequences that caused her to feel panicky. They symptoms could be classified as epilepsy with visually dominated seizures of the occipital lobe. In addition to pharmacological treatment with oxcabazepine, extensive multimodal interventions as part of the child and adolescent psychiatric day hospital treatment program helped all family members to understand and handle the seizures. Eight weeks after initiation of treatment, Stephanie was seizure-free. Complex partial epilepsy can be mistaken for primary child-psychiatric disorder. PMID:19415605

  9. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219

  10. Sex dimorphism in seizure-controlling networks

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Fillippo Sean; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Mosh, Solomon L.

    2014-01-01

    Males and females show a different predisposition to certain types of seizures in clinical studies. Animal studies have provided growing evidence for sexual dimorphism of certain brain regions, including those that control seizures. Seizures are modulated by networks involving subcortical structures, including thalamus, reticular formation nuclei, and structures belonging to the basal ganglia. In animal models, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) is the best studied of these areas, given its relevant role in the expression and control of seizures throughout development in the rat. Studies with bilateral infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol have identified distinct roles of the anterior or posterior rat SNR in flurothyl seizure control, that follow sex-specific maturational patterns during development. These studies indicate that (a) the regional functional compartmentalization of the SNR appears only after the third week of life, (b) only the male SNR exhibits muscimol-sensitive proconvulsant effects which, in older animals, is confined to the posterior SNR, and (c) the expression of the muscimol-sensitive anticonvulsant effects become apparent earlier in females than in males. The first three postnatal days are crucial in determining the expression of the muscimol-sensitive proconvulsant effects of the immature male SNR, depending on the gonadal hormone setting. Activation of the androgen receptors during this early period seems to be important for the formation of this proconvulsant SNR region. We describe molecular/anatomical candidates underlying these age- and sex-related differences, as derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as by [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. These involve sex-specific patterns in the developmental changes in the structure or physiology or GABAA receptors or of other subcortical structures (e.g., locus coeruleus, hippocampus) that may affect the function of seizure-controlling networks. PMID:24851800

  11. Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXIX. Overt limbic seizures are associated with concurrent and premidscotophase geomagnetic activity: synchronization by prenocturnal feeding.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A

    1995-08-01

    Approximately 35% of the variance (multiple r = 0.59) in the proportion of overt seizures (forelimb clonus) within a group of 35 chronically epileptic male rats during 65, daily 10-min. observation periods was significantly accommodated by the variations in the magnitude of the increased geomagnetic activity at the same time as the seizures and with activity during the previous midscotophase. The results supported the hypothesis that increased geomagnetic activity during specific subintervals of the circadian period suppresses the activity of the endogenous anticonvulsant melatonin and lowers the threshold for paroxysmal electrical seizures. The possibility of employing large populations of (limbic) epileptic patients as a network or a very large array of biomonitors for geomagnetic activity is considered. PMID:8532487

  12. The use of seizure-alert dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, S W; Strong, V

    2001-01-01

    We report our experience of training dogs to assist people with epilepsy by providing a useful warning of seizures. An unexpected finding has been that human subjects report an improvement in seizure rate. This may be related to increased confidence and activity levels. We have observed some hazards associated with untrained dogs, which raises questions about future experimental design. We plan further research to test our method and assess outcomes more formally. Recent changes in UK quarantine law provide an opportunity for further international collaboration. PMID:11181096

  13. Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

  14. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  15. Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008).

    PubMed

    Browand-Stainback, Laura; Levesque, Donald; McBee, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures in 211 canine and feline patients diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy were evaluated for temporal significance in relation to the lunar cycle. Seizure counts were compared among each of the eight individual lunar phases, among each of eight exact lunar phase dates, and by percent of lunar illumination using generalized estimating equations. No statistical significance was found in any of these comparisons excluding a relationship between the onset of epileptic seizures and the phases of the moon. Alteration in anticonvulsant treatment or monitoring of canine and feline patients with idiopathic epilepsy at large was not warranted based on the lunar cycle. PMID:21852516

  16. Ictal asystole mimicking seizure deterioration in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, Baburhan; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rmi, Jan; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2015-09-01

    We report on a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy, secondary to a left lateral temporal cavernoma, in whom the change in seizure semiology suggested recurrence of secondary generalized seizures. Anticonvulsive medication previously controlled secondary generalized seizures over a period of years but focal seizures continued at a lower rate. Continuous video-EEG monitoring revealed ictal asystole associated with myoclonic syncope and falls during focal seizures arising from the left temporal lobe. After implantation of a cardiac pacemaker, no more falls occurred during the focal seizures. In conclusion, recurrence of seizure-associated falls is typically attributed to recurrence of secondary generalized seizures, however, ictal asystole should be considered in selected epilepsy patients as a differential diagnosis of falls. [Published with video sequence]. PMID:26235365

  17. Seizures: awareness and observation in the ward environment.

    PubMed

    Spray, Jennifer

    The preconceived 'foaming' and 'violent' seizure stereotypes are misrepresentations, particularly by non-specialist health professionals. Thus the vast semiology (signs and symptoms) of seizures and their subtle signs too easily go unrecognised by the untrained eye. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of adult patients admitted to the ward for treatment of their current illness will have a pre-existing seizure disorder (epilepsy). Furthermore, such hospitalised patients are more likely to suffer a seizure within the ward environment as triggering factors are unavoidably present. Thus, it is essential that nurses are prepared to encounter seizures, irrespective of the reason for admission. This article discusses the clinical semiology of the various seizure types in association with the underpinning neuropathophysiology, as well as the potential seizure triggers. It thereby enhances nurses' awareness and observations of seizure activity in patients in the ward environment. PMID:26500124

  18. A knock-in model of human epilepsy in Drosophila reveals a novel cellular mechanism associated with heat-induced seizure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Gilligan, Jeff; Staber, Cynthia; Schutte, Ryan J; Nguyen, Vivian; O'Dowd, Diane K; Reenan, Robert

    2012-10-10

    Over 40 missense mutations in the human SCN1A sodium channel gene are linked to an epilepsy syndrome termed genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Inheritance of GEFS+ is dominant, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we report that knock-in of a GEFS+ SCN1A mutation (K1270T) into the Drosophila sodium channel gene, para, causes a semidominant temperature-induced seizure phenotype. Electrophysiological studies of GABAergic interneurons in the brains of adult GEFS+ flies reveal a novel cellular mechanism underlying heat-induced seizures: the deactivation threshold for persistent sodium currents reversibly shifts to a more negative voltage when the temperature is elevated. This leads to sustained depolarizations in GABAergic neurons and reduced inhibitory activity in the central nervous system. Furthermore, our data indicate a natural temperature-dependent shift in sodium current deactivation (exacerbated by mutation) may contribute to febrile seizures in GEFS+ and perhaps normal individuals. PMID:23055484

  19. [Effects of heterotherapy for homopathy on the metabolism path of glutamate in the pentylenetetrazol-kindled seizure rats' hippocampus].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Yu YH; Xie W; Zhao YY

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the effects of Compound Chaihu Shugan Decoction (CHSGD, "treatment from Gan") and Dingxian Pill (DXP, "treatment from the sputum") on the metabolism path of glutamate in the pentylenetetrazol-kindled seizure rats' hippocampus, thus exploring the molecular mechanism of "heterotherapy for homopathy".METHODS: A chronic kindling seizures rat model was established by intraperitoneal injecting pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Totally 24 fully kindled seizure rats were randomized into four groups, i.e., the model control group, the Sodium Valproate (VPA) group, the DXP group, and the CHSGD group. They were respectively treated with normal saline, VPA, CHSGD, and DXP, respectively. Rats in the control group were treated with normal saline by peritoneal injection and by gastrogavage. After intragastric administration for 4 successive weeks, the glutamate (Glu) levels in the hippocampus were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expressions of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) proteins were detected by Western blot. The activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) was detected by using GS detection kit.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the content of Glu in the model group significantly increased, and the expression of GLT-1 and the activity of GS significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the content of Glu in each medication group significantly decreased, and the protein expression of GLT-1 as well as the activity of GS significantly increased (P < 0.01). But when compared between the CHSGD group and the DXP group, the content of Glu was lower and the activity of GS was higher in the CHSGD group than in the DXP group (P < 0.01), while there was no statistical difference in the expression of GLT-1 between the two groups (P > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: CHSGD ("treatment from Gan") and DXP ("treatment from the sputum") could both decrease the level of Glu and raise the expression of GLT-1 and the activity of GS, indicating that CHSGD and DXP both could regulate the metabolism path of Glu to affect the level of the Glu in the brain. But the effects of CHSGD were superior to those of DXP in decreasing the content of Glu and up-regulating the activity of GS, suggesting that there were some different effects targets between the two compounds on the metabolism path of Glu, which may be one of possible molecular mechanisms for treating epilepsy by heterotherapy for homopathy.

  20. Modification of seizure disorders: the interruption of behavioral chains.

    PubMed

    Zlutnick, S; Mayville, W J; Moffat, S

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of interruption and differential reinforcement on seizures in children. Seizures were conceptualized as the terminal link in a behavioral chain, resulting in a strategy aimed at identifying and modifying behaviors that reliably preceded the seizure climax. Seizure frequency was reduced in four of five subjects, whereas the frequency of preseizure behavior was reduced in only three subjects. Parents and school personnel were successfully used as change agents. PMID:1141076

  1. Effectiveness of ketogenic diet in pentylenetetrazol-induced and kindling rats as well as its potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Ding, Yao; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Shen, Chun-Hong; Jin, Bo; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2016-02-12

    The effects and mechanisms of ketogenic diets (KD) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to reveal electrographic and behavioral thresholds in responses to the KD in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, as well as its antiepileptogenic effects on PTZ-kindling rats. Additionally, we investigated the potential link between KD and expression levels of two cation chloride co-transporters: K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). The KD group had significantly higher electrographic thresholds than the control (ND) group for the first spike-and-wave, subcontinuous spike-and-wave, high amplitude spike-and-wave, and polyspikes both in the cortex and hippocampus. Compared to the ND group, the KD group had higher behavioral thresholds for behavioral absence, first jerk, first overt myoclonia, and generalized seizures. In the PTZ-kindling model, KD not only prolonged the latency of myoclonic and clonic convulsions, but shortened clonic and generalized duration. In addition, KD rats had higher KCC2 protein expression before kindling, during myoclonic jerks, and GTCS compared with ND rats. There were no significant differences in NKCC1 protein levels between both groups following the four-week dietary intervention without PTZ exposure (before kindling). Moreover, KD inhibited the upregulation of NKCC1 expression induced by kindling in myoclonic jerks and GTCS. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that KD had antiepileptic features in elevating thresholds to most electrographic and behavioral seizure patterns in PTZ-induced rats, as well as delaying the progression and alleviating the severity of seizure in PTZ-kindling model. The antiepileptogenic effects of KD may be attributed to its regulatory properties on KCC2 and NKCC1 protein expression. PMID:26751594

  2. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures

    PubMed Central

    Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B.; Derr, Lori L.; Broshek, Donna K.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228

  3. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures.

    PubMed

    Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B; Derr, Lori L; Broshek, Donna K

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228

  4. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or...

  5. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or...

  6. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or...

  7. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or...

  8. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or...

  9. 19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures 162.21 Responsibility...

  10. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  11. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  12. Mechanisms of seizure propagation in 2-dimensional centre-surround recurrent networks.

    PubMed

    Hall, David; Kuhlmann, Levin

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how seizures spread throughout the brain is an important problem in the treatment of epilepsy, especially for implantable devices that aim to avert focal seizures before they spread to, and overwhelm, the rest of the brain. This paper presents an analysis of the speed of propagation in a computational model of seizure-like activity in a 2-dimensional recurrent network of integrate-and-fire neurons containing both excitatory and inhibitory populations and having a difference of Gaussians connectivity structure, an approximation to that observed in cerebral cortex. In the same computational model network, alternative mechanisms are explored in order to simulate the range of seizure-like activity propagation speeds (0.1-100 mm/s) observed in two animal-slice-based models of epilepsy: (1) low extracellular [Formula: see text], which creates excess excitation and (2) introduction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonists, which reduce inhibition. Moreover, two alternative connection topologies are considered: excitation broader than inhibition, and inhibition broader than excitation. It was found that the empirically observed range of propagation velocities can be obtained for both connection topologies. For the case of the GABA antagonist model simulation, consistent with other studies, it was found that there is an effective threshold in the degree of inhibition below which waves begin to propagate. For the case of the low extracellular [Formula: see text] model simulation, it was found that activity-dependent reductions in inhibition provide a potential explanation for the emergence of slowly propagating waves. This was simulated as a depression of inhibitory synapses, but it may also be achieved by other mechanisms. This work provides a localised network understanding of the propagation of seizures in 2-dimensional centre-surround networks that can be tested empirically. PMID:23967201

  13. Differential Effects of High Dose Magnetic Seizure Therapy (MST) and Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS) on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Spellman, Timothy; McClintock, Shawn M.; Terrace, Herbert; Luber, Bruce; Husain, Mustafa M.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is under investigation as an alternative form of convulsive therapy that induces more focal seizures and spares cortical regions involved in memory. Using a newly expanded version of the Columbia University Primate Cognitive Profile, we compared the cognitive effects of high-dose MST delivered at 100 Hz (6X seizure threshold) with electroconvulsive shock (ECS) delivered at 2.5X seizure threshold. Methods Daily high-dose MST, ECS, and Sham (anesthesia-only) were administered for 4 weeks each in a within-subject cross-over design. Rhesus macaques (n = 3) were trained on five cognitive tasks assessing automatic memory, anterograde learning and memory, combined anterograde and retrograde simultaneous chaining, and spatial and serial working memory. Acutely following each intervention, monkeys were tested on the cognitive battery twice daily, separated by a 3-hour retention interval. Results Subjects were slower to complete criterion tasks (p’s<0.0001) following ECS, compared to sham and high-dose MST. Moreover, time to task-completion following high-dose MST did not differ from sham. Out of 6 measures of accuracy, treatment effects were found in 4; in all of these, ECS, but not MST, fared worse than Sham. On all accuracy and time to completion measurements, subjects performed as well as following high-dose MST as did subjects from a previous study on moderate-dose MST. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that high-dose MST results in benign acute cognitive side-effect profile relative to ECS, and are in line with our previous studies. PMID:18262171

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam in Neonates with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Merhar, Stephanie L.; Schibler, Kurt R.; Sherwin, Catherine M.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Shi, Jing; Balmakund, Tonya; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam were determined prospectively in 18 neonates with seizures. Neonates were found to have lower clearance, higher volume of distribution, and a longer half-life as compared with older children and adults. Mild somnolence was the only adverse effect. PMID:21592494

  15. Search and Seizure in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondschein, Eric S.; West, Michael A.

    This paper reviews the application of the Fourth Amendment, which protects persons against unreasonable search and seizure, as it applies to the student-college relationship. The topics discussed in terms of federal and state court decisions include warrantless searches, delegation of authority to conduct searches, notice of identity and purpose

  16. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: 'cardiac arrhythmias' and 'epilepsy'. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:26038597

  17. Seizures - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Seizures - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) ...

  18. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: ‘cardiac arrhythmias’ and ‘epilepsy’. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:26038597

  19. Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Diane

    2007-01-01

    As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…

  20. Neonatal Seizures: Soothing a Burning Topic

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Matthew D.; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia, and present the case of a 6 day old male who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis. PMID:24084610

  1. Effect of sleep-wake reversal and sleep deprivation on the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, J. D.; Hof, D. G.; Mengel, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Albino Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in a previously O2 flushed, CO2 free chamber. The exposure began with attainment of 60 psi (gauge) and the end point was the first generalized oxygen toxicity seizure. Animals were exposed to reversal diurnal conditions since weanlings until their sleep-wake cycles had completely reversed, and then divided into four groups of 20 based on the time of day exposed. The time of exposure to oxygen at high pressure prior to seizure was now significantly longer in the group exposed from 1900 to 2000 hr and a reversal of the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility was noted. Animals maintained on normal diurnal conditions were deprived of sleep on the day of exposure for the 12 hours prior to exposure at 1900 hr, while controls were allowed to sleep. There was no significant differences in the time prior to seizure between the deprived animals and the controls with an n = 40. Thus the inherent threshold in susceptibility to high-pressure oxygen seizures seems not to be a function of sleep itself, but of some biochemical/physiologic event which manifests a circadian rhythm.

  2. Effect of quercetin and rutin in some acute seizure models in mice.

    PubMed

    Nieoczym, Dorota; Soca?a, Katarzyna; Raszewski, Grzegorz; Wla?, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    Quercetin is one of the most widely occurring flavonoid which is also often present in plants as glycosidic form - rutin. These compounds are ingredients of plant diet and are also present in numerous pharmaceutical preparations and diet supplements which are taken by patients suffering from epilepsy and treating with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Influence of these compounds on central nervous system-related effects was proved both in experimental and clinical studies. Their influence on anxiety, depression, memory processes and convulsant activity was reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin and rutin in some models of seizures, i.e., in the model of psychomotor seizures induced by 6Hz stimulation, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold and intravenous pentylenetetrazole tests in mice. We also examined a possible mechanism of anticonvulsant activity of quercetin and its influence on action of two AEDs, i.e., valproic acid and levetiracetam, in the 6Hz seizure test. Our results revealed only a weak anticonvulsant potential of the studied flavonoids because they showed anticonvulsant action at doses from 10 to 200mg/kg only in the 6Hz test and did not change seizure thresholds in the remaining tests. Moreover, anticonvulsant action of the studied flavonoids was short-term, noted only at pretreatment time ranging between 30 and 60min. The highest anticonvulsant activity of quercetin was correlated with its high plasma and brain concentration, which was revealed in a pharmacokinetic study. We did not note changes in the anticonvulsant action of the used AEDs combined with quercetin in the model of psychomotor seizures in mice. Neither quercetin and rutin nor combinations of quercetin with the studied AEDs produced any significant impairments of motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test), muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test) and long-term memory (evaluated in the passive avoidance test) in mice. The results of the present study suggest that quercetin and rutin have only weak and short-term anticonvulsant potential. These flavonoids seem to be safe for patients with epilepsy because they neither changed activity of the studied AEDs nor produced any adverse effects. PMID:24857758

  3. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE: MULTIMODAL DETECTION AND OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Perotte, Adler; Albers, David; Kleinberg, Samantha; Schmidt, J. Michael; Tu, Bin; Badjatia, Neeraj; Lantigua, Hector; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Mayer, Stephan A.; Connolly, E. Sander; Hripcsak, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective Seizures have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but the systemic and cerebral physiologic effects of seizures after acute brain injury are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed intracortical EEG and multimodality physiological recordings in 48 comatose subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to better characterize the physiological response to seizures after acute brain injury. Results Intracortical seizures were seen in 38% of patients and 8% had surface seizures. Intracortical seizures were accompanied by elevated heart rate (P=0.001), blood pressure (P<0.001), and respiratory rate (P<0.001). There were trends for rising cerebral perfusion pressure (P=0.03) and intracranial pressure (P =0.06) seen after seizure onset. Intracortical seizure associated increases in global brain metabolism, partial brain tissue oxygenation, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) did not reach significance, but a trend for a pronounced delayed rCBF rise was seen for surface seizures (P=0.08). Functional outcome was very poor for patients with severe background attenuation without seizures and best for those without severe attenuation or seizures (77% vs. 0% dead or severely disabled, respectively). Outcome was intermediate for those with seizures independent of the background EEG and worse for those with intracortical only seizures when compared to those with intracortical and scalp seizures (50% and 25% death or severe disability, respectively). Interpretation We replicated in humans complex physiologic processes associated with seizures after acute brain injury previously described in laboratory experiments and illustrated differences such as the delayed increase in regional cerebral blood flow. These real-world physiologic observations may permit more successful translation of laboratory research to the bedside. PMID:23813945

  4. Interictal spikes and epileptic seizures: their relationship and underlying rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Karoly, Philippa J; Freestone, Dean R; Boston, Ray; Grayden, David B; Himes, David; Leyde, Kent; Seneviratne, Udaya; Berkovic, Samuel; O'Brien, Terence; Cook, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    We report on a quantitative analysis of electrocorticography data from a study that acquired continuous ambulatory recordings in humans over extended periods of time. The objectives were to examine patterns of seizures and spontaneous interictal spikes, their relationship to each other, and the nature of periodic variation. The recorded data were originally acquired for the purpose of seizure prediction, and were subsequently analysed in further detail. A detection algorithm identified potential seizure activity and a template matched filter was used to locate spikes. Seizure events were confirmed manually and classified as either clinically correlated, electroencephalographically identical but not clinically correlated, or subclinical. We found that spike rate was significantly altered prior to seizure in 9 out of 15 subjects. Increased pre-ictal spike rate was linked to improved predictability; however, spike rate was also shown to decrease before seizure (in 6 out of the 9 subjects). The probability distribution of spikes and seizures were notably similar, i.e. at times of high seizure likelihood the probability of epileptic spiking also increased. Both spikes and seizures showed clear evidence of circadian regulation and, for some subjects, there were also longer term patterns visible over weeks to months. Patterns of spike and seizure occurrence were highly subject-specific. The pre-ictal decrease in spike rate is not consistent with spikes promoting seizures. However, the fact that spikes and seizures demonstrate similar probability distributions suggests they are not wholly independent processes. It is possible spikes actively inhibit seizures, or that a decreased spike rate is a secondary symptom of the brain approaching seizure. If spike rate is modulated by common regulatory factors as seizures then spikes may be useful biomarkers of cortical excitability.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww019_video_abstractaww019_video_abstract. PMID:26912639

  5. Epilepsy in children with a history of febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Byeon, Jung Hye; Kim, Gun Ha; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Febrile seizure, the most common type of pediatric convulsive disorder, is a benign seizure syndrome distinct from epilepsy. However, as epilepsy is also common during childhood, we aimed to identify the prognostic factors that can predict epilepsy in children with febrile seizures Methods The study comprised 249 children at the Korea University Ansan Hospital who presented with febrile seizures. The relationship between the subsequent occurrence of epilepsy and clinical factors including seizure and fever-related variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results Twenty-five patients (10.0%) had additional afebrile seizures later and were diagnosed with epilepsy. The subsequent occurrence of epilepsy in patients with a history of febrile seizures was associated with a seizure frequency of more than 10 times during the first 2 years after seizure onset (P<0.001). Factors that were associated with subsequent occurrence of epilepsy were developmental delay (P<0.001), preterm birth (P=0.001), multiple seizures during a febrile seizure attack (P=0.005), and epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) (P=0.008). Other factors such as the age at onset of first seizure, seizure duration, and family history of epilepsy were not associated with subsequent occurrence of epilepsy in this study. Conclusion Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. However, careful observation is needed, particularly for prediction of subsequent epileptic episodes in patients with frequent febrile seizures with known risk factors, such as developmental delay, history of preterm birth, several attacks during a febrile episode, and epileptiform discharges on EEG. PMID:26958066

  6. Acute and chronic effects of agomelatine on intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure in mice and the probable role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Dastgheib, Mona; Moezi, Leila

    2014-08-01

    Agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist as well as a 5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. It was approved by the European Medicines Agency as an antidepressant drug in year 2009. On the other hand, the involvement of melatonin and serotonin receptors in the modulation of seizure threshold has been demonstrated previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agomelatine on penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold in male mice. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of acute (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. and chronic (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg, p.o., once a day, for 7 days) agomelatine administration on mouse model of intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure. For evaluation of nitrergic system involvement in the anticonvulsant effect of agomelatine, co-administration of multiple nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors [L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, (5 mg/kg, p.o.), aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or 7-nitroindazol, a selective nNOS inhibitor, (60 mg/kg, p.o.)] and agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) were examined. In acute study, agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure threshold compared to control group (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively). In chronic study, agomelatine had no effect on clonic seizure threshold compared with control mice. Co-administration of L-NAME, aminoguanidine or 7-nitroindazol with agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) prevented a agomelatine-induced anti-convulsant effect. Our results suggest that agomelatine has anticonvulsant activity in intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure in acute therapy and this effect can be at least in part due to iNOS or nNOS induction. PMID:24803306

  7. How I treat a first single seizure in a child

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sheffali; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar

    2016-01-01

    An epileptic seizure is defined as transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in brain. There are diverse etiologies for acute seizure in infants and children. The present review provides a broad approach to diagnosis and treatment plan for acute seizure in children. The approach to a child with acute seizure is discussed with special emphasis on clinical approach based on history and focused examination with judicious choice of investigation and further management plan. The review also emphasizes on recognizing common nonepileptic events that masquerade as true seizure among infants and children. PMID:27011625

  8. Pausing at the Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Patrick K.

    2015-01-01

    Since about 2003, the notion of threshold concepts--the central ideas in any field that change how learners think about other ideas--have become difficult to escape at library conferences and in general information literacy discourse. Their visibility will likely only increase because threshold concepts figure prominently in the Framework for

  9. Bayesian Threshold Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time

  10. Bayesian Threshold Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time…

  11. Cloxacillin-induced seizure in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    El Nekidy, Wasim; Dziamarski, Nicole; Soong, Derrick; Donaldson, Christine; Ibrahim, Muhieldean; Kadri, Albert

    2015-10-01

    We are reporting a cloxacillin-induced seizure in a patient with stage 5 chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of seizures induced by parenteral cloxacillin in hemodialysis patients. A young hemodialysis female was admitted to the hospital with decreased level of consciousness. Blood cultures revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus where cloxacillin 2?g intravenously every 4 hours was initiated. Head computed tomography (CT) was not significant. After 14 hours of cloxacillin therapy (4 doses), the patient demonstrated tonic/clonic seizure activity, where phenytoin and lorazepam were initiated. The anti-seizure medications partially reduced seizure activity. Once the cloxacillin was discontinued, the seizures stopped. Two weeks later, all anti-seizure medications were stopped with no further seizure activity. Cloxacillin elimination in hemodialysis patients is similar to patients with normal kidney function. Although cloxacillin does not significantly cross the blood-brain barrier, the correlation between the start of seizures and cloxacillin initiation was confirmed by the negative CT and blood chemistry laboratory results. Moreover, seizure activity was terminated upon discontinuation of cloxacillin. Although further investigation for the cause of such seizures is warranted, clinicians should use caution when giving high doses of cloxacillin in hemodialysis patients. PMID:25582344

  12. Risk of seizures in children with tectal gliomas.

    PubMed

    Dabscheck, Gabriel; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Manley, Peter E; Goumnerova, Liliana; Ullrich, Nicole J

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of seizures in children with tectal gliomas and to determine if there are common clinical, electroencephalography (EEG), or radiologic findings that predict risk of seizures in these patients. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with tectal gliomas over a 22-year period at a single institution. Data extraction included sex, age at presentation of tectal glioma and age of presentation with seizures, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, seizure frequency and semiology, and EEG findings. We identified 79 patients, 66 of whom had adequate imaging and clinical data for further analysis. Eight patients (12.1%) had a history of seizures. Three patients had a clear symptomatic cause of seizures. Three patients were diagnosed with a tectal glioma as an incidental finding after a first seizure. One patient had a history of febrile convulsions. One patient had a generalized seizure 5 years after presenting with macrocephaly. Although the risk of seizure in children with known tectal glioma was relatively high, we did not identify specific clinical, radiologic, EEG, or MRI features that are predictive of increased risk. Thus, in children with tectal gliomas who have seizures, alternative causes for the seizures must be sought. PMID:26193802

  13. Seizures in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Brendan J.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2009-01-01

    Seizures have been recognized to occur in multiple sclerosis since early descriptions of the disease. Various studies have attempted to determine the incidence and prevalence of seizures in multiple sclerosis; although they differ in the reported prevalence, seizures do appear to be more common in multiple sclerosis cohorts than in the general population. The pathological underpinning of seizures in multiple sclerosis remains indeterminate. Cortical and subcortical demyelination and inflammation may explain the increased frequency of seizures in multiple sclerosis, although this hypothetical correlation remains to be proven. Management of seizures in multiple sclerosis is similar to the management of seizures in other patients. Consideration of the underlying neurological deficits related to multiple sclerosis may be necessary, and dosages should be adjusted if increased sensitivity to antiepileptic side effects or interaction with other centrally-acting medications is suspected. The prognosis of epilepsy in patients with MS remains uncertain, with some studies suggesting a more favorable prognosis than others. PMID:19739692

  14. Threshold pion photoproduction revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, S.A.; Scadron, M.D.

    1993-04-01

    The authors show that the low energy expressions for the CGLN pion photoproduction invariant amplitudes when evaluated at threshold yield a 26% enhancement of the de Baenst {gamma}p {r_arrow}{pi}{sup 0}p threshold electric dipole amplitude. One can recover the de Baenst result, to lowest two orders in m{sub {pi}}/M{sub N}, by assuming that the Goldberger-Treiman (GT) relation f{sub {pi}}g = m{sub N}g{sub A} is exact. However, accounting for the observed 5% GT discrepancy, and the recent modifications of the Saclay and Mainz threshold data, and comparing the data to the enhanced de Baenst amplitude leads to a large explicit breaking of chiral symmetry. The magnitude of the explicit chiral symmetry breaking is not cleanly extracted from the threshold data because of the GT-like cancellations in the exact {gamma}p{r_arrow}{pi}{sup 0}p threshold electric dipole amplitude.

  15. Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models.

    PubMed

    Koppert, M M J; Kalitzin, S; Lopes da Silva, F H; Viergever, M A

    2011-08-01

    In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scenario predicts exponential distributions of the duration of the seizures and of the inter-ictal intervals. These predictions were validated in rat models of absence epilepsy, as well as in a few human cases. Nonetheless, deviations from the predictions with respect to seizure duration distributions remained unexplained. The objective of the present work is to implement a simple but realistic computational model of a neuronal network including synaptic plasticity and ionic current dynamics and to explore the dynamics of the model with special emphasis on the distributions of seizure and inter-ictal period durations. We use as a basis our lumped model of cortical neuronal circuits. Here we introduce 'activity dependent' parameters, namely post-synaptic voltage-dependent plasticity, as well as a voltage-dependent hyperpolarization-activated current driven by slow and fast activation conductances. We examine the distributions of the durations of the seizure-like model activity and the normal activity, described respectively by the limit cycle and the steady state in the dynamics. We use a parametric ?-distribution fit as a quantifier. Our results show that autonomous, activity-dependent membrane processes can account for experimentally obtained statistical distributions of seizure durations, which were not explainable using the previous model. The activity-dependent membrane processes that display the strongest effect in accounting for these distributions are the hyperpolarization-dependent cationic (I(h)) current and the GABAa plastic dynamics. Plastic synapses (NMDA-type) in the interneuron population show only a minor effect. The inter-ictal statistics retain their consistency with the experimental data and the previous model. PMID:21730748

  16. Automatic multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system for detection of motor seizures from electromyographic data and motion data.

    PubMed

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sndor; Wolf, Peter; Kjaer, Troels W; Sams, Thomas; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2012-08-01

    The objective is to develop a non-invasive automatic method for detection of epileptic seizures with motor manifestations. Ten healthy subjects who simulated seizures and one patient participated in the study. Surface electromyography (sEMG) and motion sensor features were extracted as energy measures of reconstructed sub-bands from the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and the wavelet packet transformation (WPT). Based on the extracted features all data segments were classified using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm as simulated seizure or normal activity. A case study of the seizure from the patient showed that the simulated seizures were visually similar to the epileptic one. The multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system showed high sensitivity, short detection latency and low false detection rate. The results showed superiority of the multi-modal detection system compared to the uni-modal one. The presented system has a promising potential for seizure detection based on multi-modal data. PMID:21724291

  17. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  18. Epileptic seizures during card games and draughts.

    PubMed

    Cirignotta, F; Cicogna, P; Lugaresi, E

    1980-04-01

    This paper presents a case of epileptic seizures occurring during card games and draughts. The patient was a 26-year-old man who complained of "arrests of thought" while playing cards or draughts or solving mathematical problems. The attacks, which were very rare in other situations, had begun at the age of 14. Between the ages of 14 and 21 he had had occasional tonic-clonic seizures. Protracted EEG recording showed bursts of 3 Hz spike-wave discharges during the day. Such discharges were very much more frequent when the patient was playing cards of draughts and only these circumstances were subjectively experienced as lapses of consciousness. Various explanations can be advanced for this case. PMID:7358038

  19. Vision-based absence seizure detection.

    PubMed

    Pediaditis, M; Tsiknakis, M; Koumakis, L; Karachaliou, M; Voutoufianakis, S; Vorgia, P

    2012-01-01

    In order to diagnose epilepsy, neurologists rely on their experience, performing an equal assessment of the electroencephalogram and the clinical image. Since misdiagnosis reaches a rate of 30% and more than one-third of all epilepsies are poorly understood, a need for leveraging diagnostic precision is obvious. With the aim at enhancing the clinical image assessment procedure, this paper evaluates the suitability of certain facial expression features for detecting and quantifying absence seizures. These features are extracted by means of time-varying signal analysis from signals that are gained by applying computer vision techniques, such as face detection, dense optical flow computation and averaging background subtraction. For the evaluation, video sequences of four patients with absence seizures are used. The classification performance of a C4.5 decision tree shows accuracies of up to 99.96% with a worst percentage of incorrectly classified instances of 0.14%. PMID:23365833

  20. Electroencephalography of Seizure-Like Movements During General Anesthesia with Propofol: Seizures or Nonepileptic Events?

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Flood, Pamela; Cornes, Susannah

    2015-12-01

    Seizure-like behavior is an uncommon yet worrisome phenomenon during anesthesia with propofol. The current case report describes a 23-year-old man admitted for elective surgery who experienced several seizure-like episodes after induction with propofol and during a desflurane-based general anesthetic that were so severe it was not possible to complete the procedure. A second surgery was rescheduled 2 days later with simultaneous scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recording and general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl. During the second operation, he again experienced numerous episodes of generalized shaking movements. Simultaneous intraoperative EEG recording showed a background of diffuse beta and alpha frequencies interspersed with periods of pseudoperiodic delta activity; electrographic seizures were not apparent. With this information, muscle relaxants were given and the procedure was performed without difficulty. This is the first report of apparent seizure-like activity during anesthesia with propofol of an otherwise relatively healthy adult, in which concurrent EEG recording demonstrates the nonepileptic nature. The current case demonstrates that, at least in some instances, these concerning movements are not seizure related. Concurrent EEG monitoring may be helpful to evaluate the nature of the episodes in select cases. PMID:26588032

  1. Fluorocitrate-mediated astroglial dysfunction causes seizures.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, John O; Mackenzie, Lorraine; Broberg, Marita; Thoren, Anna E; Medvedev, Andrei; Sims, Neil R; Nilsson, Michael

    2003-10-01

    A role for astroglia in epileptogenesis has been hypothesised but is not established. Low doses of fluorocitrate specifically and reversibly disrupt astroglial metabolism by blocking aconitase, an enzyme integral to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. We used cerebral cortex injections of fluorocitrate, at a dose that we demonstrated to inhibit astroglial metabolism selectively, to determine whether astroglial disturbances lead to seizures. Rats were halothane-anesthetized, and 0.8 nmol of sodium fluorocitrate was injected into the cerebral cortex. Extradural electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes were implanted, after which the anesthesia was ceased and the animals were observed. In all experiments, 14 of 15 fluorocitrate-treated animals exhibited epileptiform EEG discharges, with some animals exhibiting convulsive seizures. Discharges commenced as early as 30 min postfluorocitrate injection. Intraperitoneal octanol, but not halothane by inhalation, given to test the possible participation of gap junctions in EEG discharge generation, blocked or delayed the occurrence of discharges after fluorocitrate. These results indicate that focal cerebrocortical astroglial dysfunction leads to focal epileptiform discharges and sometimes to convulsive seizures and that the process possibly depends on effects mediated by gap junctions. PMID:13130518

  2. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Warning Device

    SciTech Connect

    Elarton, J.K.; Koepsel, K.L.

    1999-06-21

    Flint Hills Scientific, L.L.C. (FHS) has invented what is believed to be the first real-time epileptic seizure detection and short-term prediction method in the world. They have demonstrated an IBM PC prototype with a multi-channel EEG monitoring configuration. This CRADA effort applied AlliedSignal FM and T hardware design, manufacturing miniaturization, and high quality manufacturing expertise in converting the prototype into a small, portable, self-contained, multi-channel EEG epileptic seizure detection and warning device. The purpose of this project was to design and build a proof-of-concept miniaturized prototype of the FHS-developed PC-based prototype. The resultant DSP prototype, measuring 4'' x 6'' x 2'', seizure detection performance compared favorably with the FHS PC prototype, thus validating the DSP design goals. The very successful completion of this project provided valuable engineering information for FHS for future prototype commercialization as well as providing AS/FM and T engineers DSP design experience.

  3. Seizure classification key to epilepsy management.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Louise; Derry, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of epilepsy carries significant implications for physical, psychosocial and financial wellbeing as well as a small but significant increased risk of mortality. The diagnosis is often incorrect, potentially in up to 20% of cases, so should be revisited if seizures are not responding to treatment. Evidence indicates that misdiagnosis is significantly more common among nonspecialists. SIGN recommends that the diagnosis of epilepsy should be made by an epilepsy specialist, ideally in the setting of a dedicated first seizure or epilepsy clinic. An incorrect diagnosis of epilepsy can be harmful. There is an exhaustive list of epilepsy mimics that can result in misdiagnosis and expose patients to unnecessary treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Diagnosis relies primarily on the history. Investigations can support the diagnosis but cannot make it in isolation, and negative investigation findings are common in epilepsy. Brain imaging will be undertaken in most patients with epilepsy, but is not routinely required in those with a definite diagnosis of genetic generalised epilepsy. The EEG has limitations and can sometimes cloud rather than clarify the diagnostic picture. Distinguishing between a genetic generalised epilepsy and a focal epilepsy is vital as this influences investigation, treatment and prognosis. Generally medication should not be started following a single seizure except in specific circumstances or in cases where the risk of recurrence is high. PMID:26591652

  4. Uncrossed epileptic seizures in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lpez Ruiz, Pedro; Garca Garca, Maria Eugenia; Dicapua Sacoto, Daniela; Marcos-Dolado, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Joubert syndrome and related disorders comprise a subgroup of ciliopathies defined by the presence of the 'molar tooth sign', a midbrain-hindbrain malformation identifiable by neuroimaging. Characteristically, the corticospinal tract and superior cerebellar peduncles do not decussate. Epileptic seizures are uncommon. We present a case of a 28-year-old man with a background of Leber's congenital amaurosis with nephronophthisis, requiring kidney transplantation, and mental retardation, who developed epileptic seizures consisting of a short muffled cry and involuntary shaking movements of the extremities beginning in the left upper limb; these episodes lasted several seconds and occurred in clusters. Simultaneous video-EEG recording showed an ictal pattern in the left frontal lobe. Brain MRI revealed the pathognomonic 'molar tooth sign'; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-tractography showed a lack of decussation of both corticospinal tracts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that DTI-tractography has been used to uncover the anatomical substrate underlying the semiology of epileptic seizures. PMID:26002775

  5. Translational Development Strategy for Magnetic Seizure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rowny, Stefan; Benzl, Karla; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has unparalleled antidepressant efficacy, but its cognitive side effects may be persistent. Research suggests that the side effects may be at least partially dissociable from the therapeutic effects of ECT, suggesting that distinct cortical networks may underlie them and introducing a role for focal seizure induction as a means of minimizing side effects. In magnetic seizure therapy (MST), magnetic fields avoid tissue impedance and induce electrical currents confined to superficial cortex, facilitating focal seizure induction. The translational development strategy for MST has included: (1) device development, (2) feasibility in animals and initial human trials, (3) testing in nonhuman primates on safety and mechanisms of action (with neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and cognitive endpoints), (4) safety testing in patients, (5) initial efficacy testing in patients, (6) dosage optimization, and (7) randomized comparison with ECT. These stages have been iterative, with results of early clinical testing prompting device enhancements that were, in turn, tested in nonhuman primates prior to human trials. Safety testing was aided by development of a nonhuman primate model of human ECT, and the validation of a cognitive battery for the monkey that is sensitive to the range of effects of ECT on human memory. Human testing has been facilitated by the development of an international consortium of centers addressing various aspects of technique and dose/response relationships. Challenges facing MST are common to other device based therapies: characterizing dose/response relationships, optimizing efficacy, and developing efficient and reliable methods to induce lasting therapeutic change in the circuitry underlying depression. PMID:19348798

  6. Models of hypoxia and ischemia-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyu; Juul, Halvor M; Jensen, Frances E

    2016-02-15

    Despite greater understanding and improved management, seizures continue to be a major problem in childhood. Neonatal seizures are often refractory to conventional antiepileptic drugs, and can result in later life epilepsy and cognitive deficits, conditions for which there are no specific treatments. Hypoxic and/or ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most common cause for neonatal seizures, and accounts for more than two-thirds of neonatal seizure cases. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms is essential for identifying new therapeutic strategies that control the neonatal seizures and its cognitive consequences. This heavily relies on animal models that play a critical role in discovering novel mechanisms underlying both epileptogenesis and associated cognitive impairments. To date, a number of animal models have provided a tremendous amount of information regarding the pathophysiology of HIE-induced neonatal seizures. This review provides an overview on the most important features of the main animal models of HIE-induced seizures. In particular, we focus on the methodology of seizure induction and the characterizations of post-HIE injury consequences. These aspects of HIE-induced seizure models are discussed in the light of the suitability of these models in studying human HIE-induced seizures. PMID:26434705

  7. Inheritance of Febrile Seizures in Sudden Unexplained Death in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Ingrid A.; Poduri, Annapurna; Crandall, Laura; Haas, Elisabeth; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Kinney, Hannah C.; Krous, Henry F.

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in toddlers has been associated with febrile seizures, family history of febrile seizures, and hippocampal anomalies. We investigated the mode of inheritance for febrile seizures in these families. A three-generation pedigree was obtained from families enrolled in the San Diego Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Research Project, involving toddlers with sudden unexplained death, febrile seizures, and family history of febrile seizures. In our six cases, death was unwitnessed and related to sleep. The interval from last witnessed febrile seizure to death ranged from 3 weeks to 6 months. Hippocampal abnormalities were identified in one of three cases with available autopsy sections. Autosomal dominant inheritance of febrile seizures was observed in three families. A fourth demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In two families, the maternal and paternal sides manifested febrile seizures. In this series, the major pattern of inheritance in toddlers with sudden unexplained death and febrile seizures was autosomal dominant. Future studies should develop markers (including genetic) to identify which patients with febrile seizures are at risk for sudden unexplained death in childhood, and to provide guidance for families and physicians. PMID:22490769

  8. Identification of a neurovascular signaling pathway regulating seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Linda; Stevenson, Tamara K; Su, Enming J; Ragsdale, Margaret; Moore, Shannon; Craciun, Stefan; Schielke, Gerald P; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Lawrence, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability can contribute to the development of seizures. The protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been shown to promote BBB permeability and susceptibility to seizures. In this study, we examined the pathway regulated by tPA in seizures. Methods An experimental model of kainate-induced seizures was used in genetically modified mice, including mice deficient in tPA (tPA−/−), its inhibitor neuroserpin (Nsp−/−), or both (Nsp:tPA−/−), and in mice conditionally deficient in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Results Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, Nsp−/− mice have significantly reduced latency to seizure onset and generalization; whereas tPA−/− mice have the opposite phenotype, as do Nsp:tPA−/− mice. Furthermore, interventions that maintain BBB integrity delay seizure propagation, whereas osmotic disruption of the BBB in seizure-resistant tPA−/− mice dramatically reduces the time to seizure onset and accelerates seizure progression. The phenotypic differences in seizure progression between WT, tPA−/−, and Nsp−/− mice are also observed in electroencephalogram recordings in vivo, but absent in ex vivo electrophysiological recordings where regulation of the BBB is no longer necessary to maintain the extracellular environment. Finally, we demonstrate that these effects on seizure progression are mediated through signaling by PDGFRα on perivascular astrocytes. Interpretation Together, these data identify a specific molecular pathway involving tPA-mediated PDGFRα signaling in perivascular astrocytes that regulates seizure progression through control of the BBB. Inhibition of PDGFRα signaling and maintenance of BBB integrity might therefore offer a novel clinical approach for managing seizures. PMID:26273685

  9. Effects of antiepileptics on lateral geniculate nucleus-kindled seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Akinori; Takechi, Kenshi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the characteristics of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) kindling in rats, especially the efficacies of antiepileptics, in comparison with those of amygdala (AMG) kindling. Daily electrical stimulation of the LGN led to the development of a generalized convulsion (kangaroo posture and falling back) in all subjects, similar to AMG kindling. The kindling response of the LGN differed from that of the AMG in a number of respects, that is, a high after-discharge (AD) threshold, a large number of stimulations for completion of kindling, and a different pattern of electroencephalogram (EEG) development. On the other hand, the oral administration of sodium valproate, carbamazepine, clobazam, or zonisamide caused dose-dependent inhibitions of both seizure stage and AD duration of LGN-kindled seizures, whereas ethosuximide had no significant effects. In addition, seizure stage was more potently inhibited than AD duration by these antiepileptics, particularly with clobazam. In conclusion, LGN kindling possesses characteristics that are different from AMG kindling. In addition, it was demonstrated that LGN kindling is a useful model, similar to other types of limbic system kindling, for the evaluation of antiepileptics. PMID:19346673

  10. A Fuzzy Logic System for Seizure Onset Detection in Intracranial EEG

    PubMed Central

    Rabbi, Ahmed Fazle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2012-01-01

    We present a multistage fuzzy rule-based algorithm for epileptic seizure onset detection. Amplitude, frequency, and entropy-based features were extracted from intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings and considered as the inputs for a fuzzy system. These features extracted from multichannel iEEG signals were combined using fuzzy algorithms both in feature domain and in spatial domain. Fuzzy rules were derived based on experts' knowledge and reasoning. An adaptive fuzzy subsystem was used for combining characteristics features extracted from iEEG. For the spatial combination, three channels from epileptogenic zone and one from remote zone were considered into another fuzzy subsystem. Finally, a threshold procedure was applied to the fuzzy output derived from the final fuzzy subsystem. The method was evaluated on iEEG datasets selected from Freiburg Seizure Prediction EEG (FSPEEG) database. A total of 112.45 hours of intracranial EEG recordings was selected from 20 patients having 56 seizures was used for the system performance evaluation. The overall sensitivity of 95.8% with false detection rate of 0.26 per hour and average detection latency of 15.8 seconds was achieved. PMID:22577370

  11. Embryonic Exposure to Domoic Acid Increases the Susceptibility of Zebrafish Larvae to the Chemical Convulsant Pentylenetetrazole

    PubMed Central

    Tiedeken, Jessica A.; Ramsdell, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia that targets the limbic system to induce tonicclonic seizures and memory impairment. In utero DA exposure of mice leads to a reduction in seizure threshold to subsequent DA exposures in mid-postnatal life, and similar studies have shown neurotoxic effects in rats that were delayed until adolescence. Objective We used in ovo microinjection of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to characterize the effect of embryonic exposure of DA on seizure-inducing agents later in life as an alternative species model to screen environmental contaminants that might induce a fetal-originating adult disease. Methods Embryos were microinjected within hours of fertilization to DA concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 1.26 ng/mg egg weight. Seven days later, the larval animals were characterized for sensitivity to the chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), an agent that is well-defined in laboratory rodents and, more recently, in zebrafish. Results In ovo DA exposure, most significantly at 0.4 ng/mg, reduces the latency time until first PTZ seizure in larval fish and increases the severity of seizures as determined by seizure stage and movement parameters. The interaction between in ovo DA exposure and PTZ caused seizure behaviors to individually asymptomatic doses of PTZ (1.0 and 1.25 mM) and DA (0.13 and 0.22 ng/mg). Conclusion These studies demonstrate that in ovo exposure to DA reduces the threshold to chemically induced seizures in larval fish and increases the severity of seizure behavior in a manner that is consistent with in utero studies of laboratory rodents. PMID:18007982

  12. The inflammatory molecules IL-1? and HMGB1 can rapidly enhance focal seizure generation in a brain slice model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, Angela; Zurolo, Emanuele; Losi, Gabriele; Aronica, Eleonora; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by a hyperexcitable brain tissue and unpredictable seizures, i.e., aberrant firing discharges in large neuronal populations. It is well established that proinflammatory cytokines, in addition to their canonical involvement in the immune response, have a crucial role in the mechanism of seizure generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) in the generation of seizure-like discharges using two models of focal epilepsy in a rat entorhinal cortex slice preparation. Seizure like-discharges were evoked by either slice perfusion with low Mg(2+) and picrotoxin or with a double NMDA local stimulation in the presence of the proconvulsant 4-amino-pyridine. The effects of IL-1? or HMGB1 were evaluated by monitoring seizure discharge generation through laser scanning microscope imaging of Ca(2+) signals from neurons and astrocytes. In the picrotoxin model, we revealed that both cytokines increased the mean frequency of spontaneous ictal-like discharges, whereas only IL-1? reduced the latency and prolonged the duration of the first ictal-like event. In the second model, a single NMDA pulse, per se ineffective, became successful when it was performed after IL-? or HMGB1 local applications. These findings demonstrate that both IL-1? and HMGB1 can rapidly lower focal ictal event threshold and strengthen the possibility that targeting these inflammatory pathways may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent seizures. PMID:24936172

  13. Efficient circular thresholding.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Kun; Rosin, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Otsu's algorithm for thresholding images is widely used, and the computational complexity of determining the threshold from the histogram is O(N) where N is the number of histogram bins. When the algorithm is adapted to circular rather than linear histograms then two thresholds are required for binary thresholding. We show that, surprisingly, it is still possible to determine the optimal threshold in O(N) time. The efficient optimal algorithm is over 300 times faster than traditional approaches for typical histograms and is thus particularly suitable for real-time applications. We further demonstrate the usefulness of circular thresholding using the adapted Otsu criterion for various applications, including analysis of optical flow data, indoor/outdoor image classification, and non-photorealistic rendering. In particular, by combining circular Otsu feature with other colour/texture features, a 96.9% correct rate is obtained for indoor/outdoor classification on the well known IITM-SCID2 data set, outperforming the state-of-the-art result by 4.3%. PMID:24464614

  14. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Thyrion, Lisa; Raedt, Robrecht; Portelli, Jeanelle; Van Loo, Pieter; Wadman, Wytse J; Glorieux, Griet; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in seizure generation. This study aimed to unravel the contribution of uric acid to seizure generation in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures. We measured extracellular levels of uric acid in the brain and modulated them using complementary pharmacological and genetic tools. Local extracellular uric acid levels increased three to four times during acute limbic seizures and peaked between 50 and 100min after kainic acid infusion. Manipulating uric acid levels through administration of allopurinol or knock-out of urate oxidase significantly altered the number of generalized seizures, decreasing and increasing them by a twofold respectively. Taken together, our results consistently show that uric acid is released during limbic seizures and suggest that uric acid facilitates seizure generalization. PMID:26774005

  15. Anoxic-epileptic seizures: observational study of epileptic seizures induced by syncopes

    PubMed Central

    Horrocks, I; Nechay, A; Stephenson, J; Zuberi, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To describe a large series of children with anoxic-epileptic seizures (AES)that is, epileptic seizures induced by syncopes. Methods: Retrospective case-note review in a tertiary paediatric neurology unit. For all 27 children seen with a definite diagnosis of AES between 1972 and 2002, a review of clinical histories, videotapes, and EEG/ECG studies was undertaken. Main outcome measures were: age of onset, frequency and type of syncopes; age of onset and frequency of AES; type and duration of induced epileptic seizures; effect of treatment of syncopal and epileptic components. Results: Median age of onset of syncopes was 8 months (range 0.2120), frequency 2 in total to 40/day, median total ?200. Syncopes were predominantly reflex asystolic (RAS), prolonged expiratory apnoea (cyanotic breath-holding spells), or of mixed or uncertain origin; there was one each of ear piercing and hair grooming vasovagal syncope and one of compulsive Valsalva. Median age of onset of AES was 17 months (range 7120), frequency from total 1 to 3/day, median total 3. The epileptic component was almost always bilateral clonic; three had additional epilepsy, one each with complex partial seizures, myoclonic absences, and febrile seizures plus. Median duration of epileptic component was 5 minutes (range 0.540, mean 11). Cardiac pacing prevented RAS in two patients: most other anti-syncope therapies were ineffective. Diazepam terminated the epileptic component in 6/8. Valproate or carbamazepine abolished AES in 5/7 without influencing syncope frequency. Conclusions: Although uncommon compared with simple syncopes, syncope triggered epileptic seizures (AES) are an important treatable basis of status epilepticus. PMID:16159903

  16. Detection of seizures in intracranial EEG: UPenn and Mayo Clinic's Seizure Detection Challenge.

    PubMed

    Temko, Andriy; Sarkar, Achintya; Lightbody, Gordon

    2015-08-01

    A system for detection of seizures in intracranial EEG is presented that is based on a combination of generative, discriminative and hybrid approaches. We present a methodology to effectively benefit from the advantages each classifier offers. In particular, Gaussian mixture models, Support Vector Machines, hybrid likelihood ratio and Gaussian supervector approaches are developed and combined for the task. This system participated in the UPenn and Mayo Clinic's Seizure Detection Challenge, ranking in the top 5 of over 200 participants. The drawbacks of the proposed method with respect to the winning solutions are critically assessed. PMID:26737801

  17. Adding Insult to Injury: Nonconvulsive Seizures in Abusive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Mary V; Greiner, Hansel M; Car, Marguerite M; Owens, Deanna; Shapiro, Robert; Holland, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in patients with abusive head trauma who underwent electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and to describe predictive factors for this population. Children with a diagnosis of abusive head trauma were studied retrospectively to determine the rate of EEG monitoring, the rate of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and the associated neuroimaging findings. Over 11 years, 73 of 199 (36.8%) children with abusive head trauma had electroencephalography monitoring performed. Of these, 20 (27.4%) had nonconvulsive seizures and 3 (4.1%) had nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and cortical T2 / fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal abnormalities were both significantly associated with the presence of nonconvulsive seizures / nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Nonconvulsive seizures are relatively common in abusive head trauma and may go unrecognized. Specific neuroimaging characteristics increase the likelihood of nonconvulsive seizures on EEG. PMID:25900138

  18. Tranexamic acid–associated seizures: Causes and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian‐Shi; Whissell, Paul D.; Avramescu, Sinziana; Mazer, C. David

    2015-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays, and increased in‐hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. The goal of this review is to summarize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of these seizures. This review also highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes of and treatments for tranexamic acid–associated seizures. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid–associated seizures and by translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients. ANN NEUROL 2016;79:18–26 PMID:26580862

  19. γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. γ-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

  20. Tranexamic acid-associated seizures: Causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Whissell, Paul D; Avramescu, Sinziana; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2016-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays, and increased in-hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. The goal of this review is to summarize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of these seizures. This review also highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes of and treatments for tranexamic acid-associated seizures. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid-associated seizures and by translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients. ANN NEUROL 2016;79:18-26. PMID:26580862

  1. Audio-induced psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Young, A M H; Stoker, T B

    2012-02-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented with vague attacks, which consisted of headaches, confusion and sleepiness. An electroencephalograph was normal, but subsequent scans revealed the presence of a right-sided convexity meningioma. This was excised and complications led to the removal of an infected bone flap in a separate procedure the following year. Various types of 'seizures' resulted from the operation. These were described to involve both tonic-clonic and absence seizures. This continued for 18 years, unaffected by medication, until a specialist diagnosed pseudo-epilepsy, by fortune of a hospital fire alarm. The patient began a psychological intervention programme including cognitive-behavioural therapy, which has significantly reduced episodes. In conclusion, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures may develop after intracranial neurosurgery undertaken for indications other than the control of refractory epileptic seizures. A diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures should be considered in patients who develop refractory seizures after neurosurgery and managed appropriately. PMID:22408222

  2. Fasting and ketogenic diet effects on audiogenic seizures susceptibility of magnesium deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, A W; Hendricks, D G; Bernhard, N; Sisson, D V

    1983-05-01

    Because fasting and ketogenic diets decrease seizure susceptibility in epileptics, their anticonvulsant effects were studied using sound-induced seizures in the magnesium-deficient rat. Fasting markedly depressed seizure incidence and severity but did not affect latency (sec to seizure onset). High-fat diet increased incidence of audiogenic seizures and seizure severity, and decreased latency. Gavage of medium chain triglyceride, beta-hydroxybutyrate or glucose did not affect seizure incidence, seizure severity or latency. Nonspecific excitability level was not associated with treatment nor with seizure incidence, severity or latency time. PMID:6856644

  3. Ngram-Derived Pattern Recognition for the Detection and Prediction of Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Amir; Juffali, Walid; El-Imad, Jamil; Constandinou, Timothy G.; Toumazou, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new method that combines symbol dynamics methodologies with an Ngram algorithm for the detection and prediction of epileptic seizures. The presented approach specifically applies Ngram-based pattern recognition, after data pre-processing, with similarity metrics, including the Hamming distance and Needlman-Wunsch algorithm, for identifying unique patterns within epochs of time. Pattern counts within each epoch are used as measures to determine seizure detection and prediction markers. Using 623 hours of intracranial electrocorticogram recordings from 21 patients containing a total of 87 seizures, the sensitivity and false prediction/detection rates of this method are quantified. Results are quantified using individual seizures within each case for training of thresholds and prediction time windows. The statistical significance of the predictive power is further investigated. We show that the method presented herein, has significant predictive power in up to 100% of temporal lobe cases, with sensitivities of up to 70100% and low false predictions (dependant on training procedure). The cases of highest false predictions are found in the frontal origin with 0.310.61 false predictions per hour and with significance in 18 out of 21 cases. On average, a prediction sensitivity of 93.81% and false prediction rate of approximately 0.06 false predictions per hour are achieved in the best case scenario. This compares to previous work utilising the same data set that has shown sensitivities of up to 4050% for a false prediction rate of less than 0.15/hour. PMID:24886714

  4. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Kulikov, Stanislav; Osorio, Ivan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  5. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Day, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming. 76 figs.

  6. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.; Clapp, Ned E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Lawkins, William F.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming.

  7. Forecasting Seizures in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Stead, S. Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H.; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W. Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.14 Hz), theta (48 Hz), alpha (812 Hz), beta (1230 Hz), low-gamma (3070 Hz), and high-gamma (70180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring. PMID:24416133

  8. Consciousness and epilepsy: why are complex-partial seizures complex?

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-01-01

    Why do complex-partial seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cause a loss of consciousness? Abnormal function of the medial temporal lobe is expected to cause memory loss, but it is unclear why profoundly impaired consciousness is so common in temporal lobe seizures. Recent exciting advances in behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging techniques spanning both human patients and animal models may allow new insights into this old question. While behavioral automatisms are often associated with diminished consciousness during temporal lobe seizures, impaired consciousness without ictal motor activity has also been described. Some have argued that electrographic lateralization of seizure activity to the left temporal lobe is most likely to cause impaired consciousness, but the evidence remains equivocal. Other data correlates ictal consciousness in TLE with bilateral temporal lobe involvement of seizure spiking. Nevertheless, it remains unclear why bilateral temporal seizures should impair responsiveness. Recent evidence has shown that impaired consciousness during temporal lobe seizures is correlated with large-amplitude slow EEG activity and neuroimaging signal decreases in the frontal and parietal association cortices. This abnormal decreased function in the neocortex contrasts with fast polyspike activity and elevated cerebral blood flow in limbic and other subcortical structures ictally. Our laboratory has thus proposed the network inhibition hypothesis, in which seizure activity propagates to subcortical regions necessary for cortical activation, allowing the cortex to descend into an inhibited state of unconsciousness during complex-partial temporal lobe seizures. Supporting this hypothesis, recent rat studies during partial limbic seizures have shown that behavioral arrest is associated with frontal cortical slow waves, decreased neuronal firing, and hypometabolism. Animal studies further demonstrate that cortical deactivation and behavioral changes depend on seizure spread to subcortical structures including the lateral septum. Understanding the contributions of network inhibition to impaired consciousness in TLE is an important goal, as recurrent limbic seizures often result in cortical dysfunction during and between epileptic events that adversely affects patients quality of life. PMID:19818900

  9. Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Chaitali; Sarkar, Shatanik; Dasgupta, Malay Kumar; Das, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise) in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any. PMID:25878755

  10. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  11. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  12. The theme of death in complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D B; Hochberg, F H; Murray, G B

    1984-12-01

    The theme of death highlighted the depersonalization phenomena of four patients with complex partial seizures. These patients became preoccupied with death in association with psychomotor seizures, visual hallucinations, and altered perception of time and reality. The episodic sense of being dead or of having an appointment with death is a clue to the diagnosis of recurrent complex partial seizures even without overt motor stigmata of seizures. The syndrome differs from fear of death, steroid psychosis, the "near death syndrome," and Cotard's syndrome. Adjustment of antiseizure medication is an important therapeutic maneuver. PMID:6507664

  13. Maternal immune activation increases seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xin-Ting; Li, Jun; Yu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Wen; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Li, Bao-Min

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a relationship between maternal infection and a high incidence of childhood epilepsy in offspring. However, there is little experimental evidence that links maternal infection with later seizure susceptibility in juvenile offspring. Here, we asked whether maternal immune challenge during pregnancy can alter seizure susceptibility and seizure-associated brain damage in adolescence. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (NS) on gestational days 15 and 16. At postnatal day 21, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) was evaluated in male offspring. Four groups were studied, including normal control (NS-NS), prenatal infection (LPS-NS), juvenile seizure (NS-KA), and "two-hit" (LPS-KA) groups. Our results demonstrated that maternal LPS exposure caused long-term reactive astrogliosis and increased seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring. Compared to the juvenile seizure group, animals in the "two-hit" group showed exaggerated astrogliosis, followed by worsened spatial learning ability in adulthood. In addition, prenatal immune challenge alone led to spatial learning impairment in offspring but had no effect on anxiety. These data suggest that prenatal immune challenge causes a long-term increase in juvenile seizure susceptibility and exacerbates seizure-induced brain injury, possibly by priming astroglia. PMID:25982885

  14. Using a structured questionnaire improves seizure description by medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Saher; Shah, Hemang; McNair, Nancy; Pruitt, J. Ned; Murro, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a structured questionnaire for improving a medical students ability to identify, describe and interpret a witnessed seizure. Methods Ninety two 3rd year medical students, blinded to seizure diagnosis, viewed videos of a primary generalized seizure and a complex partial seizure. Students next completed an unstructured questionnaire that asked the students to describe the seizure video recordings. The students then completed a structured questionnaire that asked the student to respond to 17 questions regarding specific features occurring during the seizures. We determined the number and types of correct responses for each questionnaire. Results Overall, the structured questionnaire was more effective in eliciting an average of 9.25 correct responses compared to the unstructured questionnaire eliciting an average of 5.30 correct responses (p < 0.001). Additionally, 10 of the 17 seizure features were identified more effectively with the structured questionnaire. Potentially confounding factors, prior knowledge of someone with epilepsy or a prior experience of viewing a seizure, did not predict the students ability to correctly identify any of the 17 features. Conclusions A structured questionnaire significantly improves a medical students ability to provide an accurate clinical description of primary generalized and complex partial witnessed seizures. Our analysis identified the 10 specific features improved by using the structured questionnaire. PMID:26752118

  15. Imaging the seizure during surgery with a hyperspectral camera.

    PubMed

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; Ferrier, Cyrille; de Roode, Rowland; Leijten, Frans; van Rijen, Peter; Gosselaar, Peter; Klaessens, John; Verdaasdonk, Ruud

    2013-11-01

    An epilepsy patient with recurring sensorimotor seizures involving the left hand every 10 min, was imaged with a hyperspectral camera during surgery. By calculating the changes in oxygenated, deoxygenated blood, and total blood volume in the cortex, a focal increase in oxygenated and total blood volume could be observed in the sensory cortex, corresponding to the seizure-onset zone defined by intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) findings. This probably reflects very local seizure activity. After multiple subpial transections in this motor area, clinical seizures abated. PMID:24199829

  16. Does Naloxone Prevent Seizure in Tramadol Intoxicated Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Ozcan, Dilek; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Hedaiaty, Mahrang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tramadol poisoning has increased in recent years. Seizure is one of the side-effects of tramadol toxicity. There is a controversy about possible preventive effect of naloxone in tramadol poisoning induced seizure. Therefore, this study was performed to compare seizure incidence in tramadol poisoning patients who received and did not receive naloxone, as an opioid antagonist. Methods: This study involved prospective data collection followed by retrospective analysis on 104 tramadol poisoning patients who were admitted in a referral poisoning center. The incidences of seizure were compared between patients received naloxone and those did not. Outcome was considered as survived without or with complications and death. Logistic Regression analysis was used to determine the effects of different variables on seizure incidence. Results: 70 (67.3%) of the patients were men. The mean age of the patients was 26.3 9 years old. 18.3% of the patients received naloxone in their treatment period. Seizure incidence was significantly higher among tramadol poisoning patients who did not receive naloxone compare with those received naloxone (14.1% vs. 5.1%). Among different variable studied, age had a significant effect on predicting of seizure (odds ratio = 2.09; 95% of confidence interval: 1.82-2.26; P value, 0.004). Conclusions: Although the seizure incidence was lower in patients with tramadol poisoning who received naloxone, the logistic regression did not support the preventive effect of naloxone on seizure in tramadol poisoning cases. PMID:24829714

  17. [Febrile seizures: some issues related to the diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Yuan, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common convulsive disorder and one of the most common nervous system diseases in childhood. Generally, the prognosis is good. Recent studies have revealed a greater understanding about many issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of febrile seizures, including the definition of febrile seizures, clinical diagnosis and evaluation, drug treatment, and prevention. Clinicians should note the association between febrile seizures and epilepsy syndromes. Excessive examination and treatment for patients should be avoided. Effective communication with the parents of patients and health education are also the key points of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26108309

  18. Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

  19. Stereo-Encephalography Versus Subdural Electrodes for Seizure Localization.

    PubMed

    Podkorytova, Irina; Hoes, Kathryn; Lega, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    In today's practice, epileptologists and neurosurgeons have several options for seizure localization with intracranial electrodes during phase II evaluations. Traditionally, centers in North America have used subdural electrode grids (SDE or SDG) for intracranial seizure localization. However, improvements in technology led to the popularization of stereo-encephalography (SEEG) using depth electrodes. Epilepsy surgery centers highest in volume now offer both SDE and SEEG for seizure localization. This article provides a general guide for considering SEEG versus SDE for intracranial seizure localization based on our experience with both. Several paradigmatic cases are used illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches. PMID:26615112

  20. Preferential inactivation of Scn1a in parvalbumin interneurons increases seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Stacey B.; Makinson, Christopher D.; Papale, Ligia A.; Shankar, Anupama; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nakazawa, Kazu; Escayg, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials in electrically excitable cells. Dominant mutations in SCN1A, which encodes the Nav1.1 VGSC α-subunit, underlie several forms of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Electrophysiological analyses of DS and GEFS+ mouse models have led to the hypothesis that SCN1A mutations reduce the excitability of inhibitory cortical and hippocampal interneurons. To more directly examine the relative contribution of inhibitory interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells to SCN1A-derived epilepsy, we first compared the expression of Nav1.1 in inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and excitatory neurons from P22 mice using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In the hippocampus and neocortex, 69% of Nav1.1 immunoreactive neurons were also positive for PV. In contrast, 13% and 5% of Nav1.1 positive cells in the hippocampus and neocortex, respectively, were found to co-localize with excitatory cells identified by CaMK2α immunoreactivity. Next, we reduced the expression of Scn1a in either a subset of interneurons (mainly PV interneurons) or excitatory cells by crossing mice heterozygous for a floxed Scn1a allele to either the Ppp1r2-Cre or EMX1-Cre transgenic lines, respectively. The inactivation of one Scn1a allele in interneurons of the neocortex and hippocampus was sufficient to reduce thresholds to flurothyl- and hyperthermia-induced seizures, whereas thresholds were unaltered following inactivation in excitatory cells. Reduced interneuron Scn1a expression also resulted in the generation of spontaneous seizures. These findings provide direct evidence for an important role of PV interneurons in the pathogenesis of Scn1a-derived epilepsies. PMID:22926190

  1. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

  2. Block term decomposition for modelling epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunyadi, Borbála; Camps, Daan; Sorber, Laurent; Paesschen, Wim Van; Vos, Maarten De; Huffel, Sabine Van; Lathauwer, Lieven De

    2014-12-01

    Recordings of neural activity, such as EEG, are an inherent mixture of different ongoing brain processes as well as artefacts and are typically characterised by low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, EEG datasets are often inherently multidimensional, comprising information in time, along different channels, subjects, trials, etc. Additional information may be conveyed by expanding the signal into even more dimensions, e.g. incorporating spectral features applying wavelet transform. The underlying sources might show differences in each of these modes. Therefore, tensor-based blind source separation techniques which can extract the sources of interest from such multiway arrays, simultaneously exploiting the signal characteristics in all dimensions, have gained increasing interest. Canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) has been successfully used to extract epileptic seizure activity from wavelet-transformed EEG data (Bioinformatics 23(13):i10-i18, 2007; NeuroImage 37:844-854, 2007), where each source is described by a rank-1 tensor, i.e. by the combination of one particular temporal, spectral and spatial signature. However, in certain scenarios, where the seizure pattern is nonstationary, such a trilinear signal model is insufficient. Here, we present the application of a recently introduced technique, called block term decomposition (BTD) to separate EEG tensors into rank- ( L r , L r ,1) terms, allowing to model more variability in the data than what would be possible with CPD. In a simulation study, we investigate the robustness of BTD against noise and different choices of model parameters. Furthermore, we show various real EEG recordings where BTD outperforms CPD in capturing complex seizure characteristics.

  3. Near threshold fatigue testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, D. C.; Strum, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10(exp -5) mm/cycle (4 x 10(exp -7) inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity are described.

  4. Near threshold fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.C.; Strum, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10{sup {minus}5} mm/cycle (4{times}10{sup {minus}7} inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed by the authors for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail here to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, we describe techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity.

  5. Near threshold fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.C.; Strum, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10[sup [minus]5] mm/cycle (4[times]10[sup [minus]7] inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed by the authors for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail here to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, we describe techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity.

  6. Synchronous inhibitory potentials precede seizure-like events in acute models of focal limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Uva, Laura; Breschi, Gian Luca; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Taverna, Stefano; de Curtis, Marco

    2015-02-18

    Interictal spikes in models of focal seizures and epilepsies are sustained by the synchronous activation of glutamatergic and GABAergic networks. The nature of population spikes associated with seizure initiation (pre-ictal spikes; PSs) is still undetermined. We analyzed the networks involved in the generation of both interictal and PSs in acute models of limbic cortex ictogenesis induced by pharmacological manipulations. Simultaneous extracellular and intracellular recordings from both principal cells and interneurons were performed in the medial entorhinal cortex of the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain during focal interictal and ictal discharges induced in the limbic network by intracortical and brief arterial infusions of either bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or 4-aminopyridine (4AP). Local application of BMI in the entorhinal cortex did not induce seizure-like events (SLEs), but did generate periodic interictal spikes sensitive to the glutamatergic non-NMDA receptor antagonist DNQX. Unlike local applications, arterial perfusion of either BMI or 4AP induced focal limbic SLEs. PSs just ahead of SLE were associated with hyperpolarizing potentials coupled with a complete blockade of firing in principal cells and burst discharges in putative interneurons. Interictal population spikes recorded from principal neurons between two SLEs correlated with a depolarizing potential. We demonstrate in two models of acute limbic SLE that PS events are different from interictal spikes and are sustained by synchronous activation of inhibitory networks. Our findings support a prominent role of synchronous network inhibition in the initiation of a focal seizure. PMID:25698742

  7. Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)

  8. Intramuscular and rectal therapies of acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Leppik, Ilo E; Patel, Sima I

    2015-08-01

    The intramuscular (IM) and rectal routes are alternative routes of delivery for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when the intravenous route is not practical or possible. For treatment of acute seizures, the AED used should have a short time to maximum concentration (Tmax). Some AEDs have preparations that may be given intramuscularly. These include the benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam) and others (fosphenytoin, levetiracetam). Although phenytoin and valproate have parenteral preparations, these should not be given intramuscularly. A recent study of prehospital treatment of status epilepticus evaluated a midazolam (MDZ) autoinjector delivering IM drug compared to IV lorazepam (LZP). Seizures were absent on arrival to the emergency department in 73.4% of the IM MDZ compared to a 63.4% response in LZP-treated subjects (p < 0.001 for superiority). Almost all AEDs have been evaluated for rectal administration as solutions, gels, and suppositories. In a placebo-controlled study, diazepam (DZP) was administered at home by caregivers in doses that ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg. Diazepam was superior to placebo in reduced seizure frequency in children (p < 0.001) and in adults (p = 0.02) and time to recurrent seizures after an initial treatment (p < 0.001). Thus, at this time, only MZD given intramuscularly and DZP given rectally appear to have the properties required for rapid enough absorption to be useful when intravenous routes are not possible. Some drugs cannot be administered rectally owing to factors such as poor absorption or poor solubility in aqueous solutions. The relative rectal bioavailability of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin is so low that the current formulations are not considered to be suitable for administration by this route. When administered as a solution, diazepam is rapidly absorbed rectally, reaching the Tmax within 5-20 min in children. By contrast, rectal administration of lorazepam is relatively slow, with a Tmax of 1-2h. The dependence of gabapentin on an active transport system, and the much-reduced surface area of the rectum compared with the small intestine, may be responsible for its lack of absorption from the rectum. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:26071998

  9. Emotions and personality in complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Perini, G I

    1986-01-01

    Using the emotion profile index (EPI) and the Bear and Fedio personality inventory (PI), we investigated the influence of hemispheric localization of epileptic foci on emotions and personality in 24 patients with complex partial seizure. On the EPI, left patients showed a paranoid and depressed personality and gave a negative image of themselves, whereas right patients rated themselves in a positive way. On the PI, left and right patients showed an epileptic behavioral syndrome. Left patients were more depressed, guilt-ridden and aggressive than right patients. PMID:3823358

  10. How to Differentiate Syncope from Seizure.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Convulsive syncope is a common cause of misdiagnosis in patients who present with a transient loss of consciousness. This misdiagnosis contributes significantly to the numbers of patients with a questionable diagnosis of epilepsy, and to those with apparently drug-resistant epilepsy. The most important step to an accurate diagnosis is a fastidious history. Inducing syncope with tilt table testing and documenting heart rate changes during events with implantable loop recorders have proved to be useful. These suggest the need for closer and ongoing collaboration among neurologists and cardiologists to provide optimal care for patients with the diagnostic dilemma of syncope or epileptic seizures. PMID:26115824

  11. Perampanel for tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Gregory L.; Wechsler, Robert T.; Wang, Xue-Feng; DiVentura, Bree; Brandt, Christian; Trinka, Eugen; O'Brien, Terence J.; Laurenza, Antonio; Patten, Anna; Bibbiani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of adjunctive perampanel in patients with drug-resistant, primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01393743; funded by Eisai Inc.), patients 12 years or older with PGTC seizures and IGE were randomized to placebo or perampanel during a 4-week titration period (perampanel uptitrated from 2 to 8 mg/d, or highest tolerated dose) and 13-week maintenance period. The primary endpoint was percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (titration plus maintenance vs baseline). The key secondary endpoint (primary endpoint for European Union registration) was 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (patients achieving ≥50% reduction in PGTC seizure frequency; maintenance vs baseline). Treatment-emergent adverse events were monitored. Results: Of 164 randomized patients, 162 comprised the full analysis set (placebo, 81; perampanel, 81). Compared with placebo, perampanel conferred a greater median percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (−38.4% vs −76.5%; p < 0.0001) and greater 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (39.5% vs 64.2%; p = 0.0019). During maintenance, 12.3% of placebo-treated patients and 30.9% of perampanel-treated patients achieved PGTC seizure freedom. For the safety analysis (placebo, 82; perampanel, 81), the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events with perampanel were dizziness (32.1%) and fatigue (14.8%). Conclusions: Adjunctive perampanel was well tolerated and improved control of drug-resistant PGTC seizures in patients with IGE. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that adjunctive perampanel reduces PGTC seizure frequency, compared with placebo, in patients with drug-resistant PGTC seizures in IGE. PMID:26296511

  12. Opposing Actions of Hippocampus TNF? Receptors on Limbic Seizure Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Marc S.; Blake, Bonita L.; McCown, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Resected epileptic tissues exhibit elements of chronic neuroinflammation that include elevated TNF? and increased TNF? receptor activation, but the seizure related consequences of chronic TNF? expression remain unknown. Twenty four hours after acute limbic seizures the rat hippocampus exhibited a rapid upregulation of TNFR1, but a simultaneous downregulation of TNFR2. These limbic seizures also evoked significant increases in measures of neuroinflammation and caused significant neuronal cell death in both the hilus and CA3 of the hippocampus. In order to mimic a state of chronic TNF? exposure, adeno-associated viral vectors were packaged with a TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) specific agonist, human TNF?, or a TNF receptor 1/2 agonist, rat TNF?. Subsequently, chronic hippocampal overexpression of either TNFR ligand caused microglial activation and blood-brain barrier compromise, a pattern similar to limbic seizure-induced neuroinflammation. However, no evidence was found for neuronal cell death or spontaneous seizure activity. Thus, chronic, in vivo TNF? expression and the subsequent neuroinflammation alone did not cause cell death or elicit seizure activity. In contrast, chronic hippocampal activation of TNFR1 alone significantly increased limbic seizure sensitivity in both amygdala kainic acid and electrical amygdala kindling models, while chronic activation of both TNFR1 and TNFR2 significantly attenuated the amygdala kindling rate. With regard to endogenous TNF?, chronic hippocampal expression of a TNF? decoy receptor significantly reduced seizure-induced cell death in the hippocampus, but did not alter seizure susceptibility. These findings suggest that blockade of endogenous TNF? could attenuate seizure related neuropathology, while selective activation of TNFR2 could exert beneficial therapeutic effects on in vivo seizure sensitivity. PMID:23333565

  13. Kernel duration and modulation gain in a coupled oscillator model and their implications on the progression of seizures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wu; Cahoy, Dexter O; Tasker, Jeffrey G; Chiu, Alan W L

    2012-01-01

    The coupled oscillator model has previously been used for the simulation of neuronal activities in invitro rat hippocampal slice seizure data and the evaluation of seizure suppression algorithms. Each model unit can be described as either an oscillator which can generate action potential spike trains without inputs, or a threshold-based unit. With the change of only one parameter, each unit can either be an oscillator or a threshold-based spiking unit. This would eliminate the need of a new set of equations for each type of unit. Previous analysis has suggested that long kernel duration and imbalance of inhibitory feedback can cause the system to intermittently transition into and out of ictal activities. The state transitions of seizure-like events were investigated here; specifically, how the system excitability may change when the system underwent transitions in the preictal and postictal processes. Analysis showed that the area of the excitation kernel is positively correlated with the mean firing rate of ictal activity. The kernel duration is also correlated to the amount of ictal activity. The transition into ictal involved the escape from the saddle point foci in the state space trajectory identified using Newton's method. PMID:22571251

  14. Electric field strength and focality in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a finite element simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced the maximum electric field of 2.1-2.5 V cm-1 and 1.1-2.2 V cm-1 in the brain, corresponding to 6.2-7.2 times and 1.2-2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much larger with ECT (up to 100%) than with MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double-cone coil was the most focal, and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800-900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects.

  15. Benign familial infantile seizures: further delineation of the syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Roberto Horacio; Cerssimo, Ricardo Oscar; Amartino, Hernan; Szepetowski, Pierre; Fejerman, Natalio

    2002-09-01

    Benign familial infantile seizures are an autosomal dominant epilepsy disorder that is characterized by convulsions, with onset at age 3 to 12 months and a favorable outcome. Benign familial infantile seizures have been linked to chromosome 19q whereas infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis syndrome, in which benign familial infantile seizure is associated with paroxysmal choreoathetosis, has been linked to chromosome 16p 12-q12. Many additional families from diverse ethnic backgrounds have similar syndromes that have been linked to the chromosome 16 infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis syndrome region. Moreover, in one large pedigree with paroxysmal kinesiogenic dyskinesias only, the syndrome has also been linked to the same genomic area. Families with pure benign familial infantile seizures may be linked to chromosome 16 as well. In this study, we present a series of 19 families and 24 otherwise healthy infants with benign familial infantile seizures. Two of these families include members affected with benign familial infantile seizures and paroxysmal choreoathetosis. We included patients with normal neurologic examinations, who started having simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, or apparently generalized seizures without recognized etiology between 2 months and 2 years of age. Neurologic studies were normal, but in all patients, there was a history of similar seizures and age at onset in either the father or the mother. Twenty-four patients (14 girls and 10 boys) were evaluated at our hospital between February 1990 and February 2001. Age at onset, sex, family history of epilepsy and/or paroxysmal dyskinesias, neurologic examination, semiology, distribution, and frequency and duration of seizures were evaluated. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and neuroradiologic studies were also performed. Seizures began between 3 and 22 months of life, with a median age of 5 1/2 months. Nine patients (37.5%) had only apparently generalized seizures, 5 patients (20.8%) had only partial seizures, and 10 patients had both partial and apparently generalized seizures (41.6%). Seizures were invariably brief, occurred during the waking state (100%), and presented mainly in clusters in 12 patients (50%). Interictal EEG was normal in 23 patients (95.8%). Sixteen patients (66.6%) had a confirmed history of convulsions in family members other than parents. Twenty-two patients became seizure free after 30 months of life. Two brothers in the same family had brief paroxysmal episodes of choreoathetosis in the hemibody triggered by stress while awake at 15 and 17 years old, respectively. One of them had paroxysmal choreoathetosis only, and the other was associated with benign familial infantile seizures. One father had brief spontaneous episodes of paroxysmal choreoathetosis when awake at age 18 years. All of them had a good response to antiepilepsy drugs, and neurologic examination and EEG and neuroradiologic studies were normal. Benign familial infantile seizure is a genetic epilepsy syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance. It may be associated with paroxysmal choreoathetosis (infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis syndrome), which has been linked to the chromosome 16 infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis syndrome region. Patients in families with infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis syndrome could display either benign familial infantile seizures or paroxysmal choreoathetosis or both. It is likely that the disease in families with pure benign familial infantile seizures may be linked to the infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis region as well. We cannot exclude the possibility that the youngest patients may develop choreoathetosis or other dyskinesias later in life. PMID:12503648

  16. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account

  17. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  18. Setting Graduation Rate Thresholds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, David G.; Rieck, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the college completion/graduation rate thresholds developed by several states and discusses advantages and disadvantages of several statistical approaches, including use of the one standard deviation lower bound method, the logit prediction bound method, the linear regression method, and the logistic regression method. (DB)

  19. Using trend templates in a neonatal seizure algorithm improves detection of short seizures in a foetal ovine model.

    PubMed

    Zwanenburg, Alex; Andriessen, Peter; Jellema, Reint K; Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Delhaas, Tammo

    2015-03-01

    Seizures below one minute in duration are difficult to assess correctly using seizure detection algorithms. We aimed to improve neonatal detection algorithm performance for short seizures through the use of trend templates for seizure onset and end. Bipolar EEG were recorded within a transiently asphyxiated ovine model at 0.7 gestational age, a common experimental model for studying brain development in humans of 30-34 weeks of gestation. Transient asphyxia led to electrographic seizures within 6-8 h. A total of 3159 seizures, 2386 shorter than one minute, were annotated in 1976 h-long EEG recordings from 17 foetal lambs. To capture EEG characteristics, five features, sensitive to seizures, were calculated and used to derive trend information. Feature values and trend information were used as input for support vector machine classification and subsequently post-processed. Performance metrics, calculated after post-processing, were compared between analyses with and without employing trend information. Detector performance was assessed after five-fold cross-validation conducted ten times with random splits. The use of trend templates for seizure onset and end in a neonatal seizure detection algorithm significantly improves the correct detection of short seizures using two-channel EEG recordings from 54.3% (52.6-56.1) to 59.5% (58.5-59.9) at FDR 2.0 (median (range); p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Using trend templates might therefore aid in detection of short seizures by EEG monitoring at the NICU. PMID:25651839

  20. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark H.; Padmanabha, Akshay; Hossain, Gahangir; de Jongh Curry, Amy L.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a “closed-loop” system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998; Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event. PLV is used as the seizure prediction marker and signifies the emergence of abnormal neuronal activations through local neuron populations. PLV/ALVs are used as seizure detection markers to demarcate the seizure event, or when the local seizure event has propagated throughout the brain turning into a grand-mal event. We verify the performance of this methodology against the “CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database” which features seizure attributes for testing. Through this testing, we can demonstrate a high degree of sensivity and precision of our methodology between pre-ictal and ictal events. PMID:27014017

  1. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  2. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  3. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  4. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  5. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  6. Increasing Epilepsy Awareness in Schools: A Seizure Smart Schools Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Heather A.; Hiltz, Cynthia M.; Kopplin, Vicki L.; Lindeke, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26)…

  7. Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days…

  8. Practical neurology--5: Recurrent unresponsive episodes and seizures.

    PubMed

    Degruyter, Melissa A; Cook, Mark J

    2011-11-21

    Careful history-taking is essential when evaluating patients with suspected epileptic seizures. It should focus on ascertaining whether the episodes are seizures or a seizure mimic such as syncope. Recurrent unresponsive episodes associated with seizures may indicate a diagnosis of focal epilepsy or complex partial epilepsy. Adults with a clinical diagnosis of a focal seizure disorder require investigation with electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging. The goal of treatment should be to achieve a life free of seizures, with minimum adverse effects from anticonvulsant medication. The choice of medication should be individualised to a patient's seizure characteristics, circumstances and preferences. Dose adjustments should be made according to clinical response (seizure frequency and adverse effects), rather than on serum drug concentrations alone. Lifestyle advice, such as advice about driving restrictions, is important for the safety of the patient and others. All anticonvulsants are potentially teratogenic. Poorly controlled epilepsy in pregnancy imparts significant risks to the mother and baby, which need to be weighed against the risks of teratogenicity. The risk of major congenital malformations is highest with valproate, particularly in high doses. PMID:22107008

  9. Multifractal detrented fluctuation analysis of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliola, A.; Serrano, E.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-04-01

    Scaling behaviour analysis of wavelet filtered EEG (without muscle activity) generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizures are presented. In particular we show using the Multifractal Detrented Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) that the epileptic recruitment rhythm observed in this kind of epileptic seizures present monofractal scaling behaviour, with lower values for the clonic than the tonic phases.

  10. Postoperative seizure outcome after corpus callosotomy in reflex epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kwan, S Y; Wong, T T; Chang, K P; Yang, T F; Lee, Y C; Guo, W Y; Su, M S

    2000-03-01

    Flickering light and color patterns, reading, language, movement, decision making, eating, tapping and touching, hot water immersion and auditory stimulation can induce seizures in some epileptic patients. These are known as the "reflex epilepsies". The mechanism of reflex epilepsy is not clear. Recently, we performed anterior two-thirds corpus callosotomies in two reflex epilepsy patients (ages 12 and 14 years), with follow-up for more than three years. Patient 1 had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome with auditory-induced generalized atonic or tonic seizures (startle epilepsy), which decreased by 60% after callosotomy. Patient 2 had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome with somatosensory-induced generalized tonic seizures (tap epilepsy). He was seizure-free for one year immediately after callosotomy, but his seizures recurred with the same degree and frequency as before surgery. The nonsignificant postoperative seizure outcome suggests that the corpus callosum only plays a partial role in seizure generation. Our report also discusses the possible mechanisms of generation of reflex seizures. PMID:10746422

  11. 26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE... property subject to seizure. Personal property may be seized by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or...

  12. 26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE... property subject to seizure. Personal property may be seized by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or...

  13. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  14. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  15. Levetiracetam in the Treatment of Epileptic Seizures After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Long; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Nai-Ching; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract After liver transplantation, patients may develop seizures or epilepsy due to a variety of etiologies. The ideal antiepileptic drugs for these patients are those with fewer drug interactions and less hepatic toxicity. In this study, we present patients using levetiracetam to control seizures after liver transplantation. We retrospectively enrolled patients who received levetiracetam for seizure control after liver transplantation. We analyzed the etiology of liver failure that required liver transplantation, etiology of the seizures, outcomes of seizure control, and the condition of the patient after follow-up at the outpatient department. Hematological and biochemical data before and after the use of levetiracetam were also collected. Fifteen patients who received intravenous or oral levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure control after liver transplantation were enrolled into this study. All of the patients remained seizure-free during levetiracetam treatment. Two patients died during the follow-up, and the other 13 patients were alive at the end of the study period and all were seizure-free without neurological sequelae that interfered with their daily activities. No patients experienced liver failure or rejection of the donor liver due to ineffective immunosuppressant medications. The dosage of immunosuppressants did not change before and after levetiracetam treatment, and there were no changes in hematological and biochemical data before and after treatment. Levetiracetam may be a suitable antiepileptic drug for patients who undergo liver transplantation due to fewer drug interactions and a favorable safety profile. PMID:26402799

  16. Levetiracetam in the Treatment of Epileptic Seizures After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Long; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Nai-Ching; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2015-09-01

    After liver transplantation, patients may develop seizures or epilepsy due to a variety of etiologies. The ideal antiepileptic drugs for these patients are those with fewer drug interactions and less hepatic toxicity. In this study, we present patients using levetiracetam to control seizures after liver transplantation. We retrospectively enrolled patients who received levetiracetam for seizure control after liver transplantation. We analyzed the etiology of liver failure that required liver transplantation, etiology of the seizures, outcomes of seizure control, and the condition of the patient after follow-up at the outpatient department. Hematological and biochemical data before and after the use of levetiracetam were also collected. Fifteen patients who received intravenous or oral levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure control after liver transplantation were enrolled into this study. All of the patients remained seizure-free during levetiracetam treatment. Two patients died during the follow-up, and the other 13 patients were alive at the end of the study period and all were seizure-free without neurological sequelae that interfered with their daily activities. No patients experienced liver failure or rejection of the donor liver due to ineffective immunosuppressant medications. The dosage of immunosuppressants did not change before and after levetiracetam treatment, and there were no changes in hematological and biochemical data before and after treatment. Levetiracetam may be a suitable antiepileptic drug for patients who undergo liver transplantation due to fewer drug interactions and a favorable safety profile. PMID:26402799

  17. Chronic focal seizure disorder as a manifestation of intracranial iophendylate.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, R M; Roos, K L; Scott, J A

    1988-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman developed focal seizures 10-15 years following iophendylate myelography. Focal epileptogenic abnormalities on electroencephalogram corresponded to the localization of residual iophendylate in the right sylvian fissure. Intracranial iophendylate may have produced chronic meningeal reaction leading to cortical irritation and a chronic seizure disorder. PMID:3131136

  18. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal

  19. 50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE...

  20. 50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section 12.5 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES...

  1. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population

  2. [Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency: an unusual cause of neonatal seizure].

    PubMed

    Clamadieu, C; Cottin, X; Rousselle, C; Claris, O

    2008-02-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of purine synthesis, which provokes epilepsy, psychomotor delay and/or autistic features. We report on two siblings with ADSL deficiency, who developed seizures on the first day of life. ADSL deficiency should be part of the screening to be performed in case of neonatal seizures. PMID:18201882

  3. Increasing Epilepsy Awareness in Schools: A Seizure Smart Schools Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Heather A.; Hiltz, Cynthia M.; Kopplin, Vicki L.; Lindeke, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26)

  4. Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of

  5. 21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property 1316.72 Officers who will...

  6. 21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property 1316.72 Officers who will...

  7. 21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property 1316.72 Officers who will...

  8. Frontal Lobe Seizures: No Evidence of Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes current neurological knowledge regarding the recognition, diagnosis, and classification of frontal lobe seizures, and then critiques a study by A. Gedye which suggested that self-injury may be involuntary and related to frontal lobe seizure activity. (JDD)

  9. Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days

  10. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  11. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  12. Mouse models of human KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 mutations for benign familial neonatal convulsions show seizures and neuronal plasticity without synaptic reorganization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nanda A; Otto, James F; Dahle, E Jill; Pappas, Chris; Leslie, Jonathan D; Vilaythong, Alex; Noebels, Jeffrey L; White, H Steve; Wilcox, Karen S; Leppert, Mark F

    2008-07-15

    The childhood epilepsy syndrome of benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) exhibits the remarkable feature of clinical remission within a few weeks of onset and a favourable prognosis, sparing cognitive abilities despite persistent expression of the mutant KCNQ2 or KCNQ3 potassium channels throughout adulthood. To better understand such dynamic neuroprotective plasticity within the developing brain, we introduced missense mutations that underlie human BFNC into the orthologous murine Kcnq2 (Kv7.2) and Kcnq3 (Kv7.3) genes. Mutant mice were examined for altered thresholds to induced seizures, spontaneous seizure characteristics, hippocampal histology, and M-current properties of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Adult Kcnq2(A306T/+) and Kcnq3(G311V/+) heterozygous knock-in mice exhibited reduced thresholds to electrically induced seizures compared to wild-type littermate mice. Both Kcnq2(A306T/A306T) and Kcnq3(G311V/G311V) homozygous mutant mice exhibited early onset spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures concurrent with a significant reduction in amplitude and increased deactivation kinetics of the neuronal M-current. Mice had recurrent seizures into adulthood that triggered molecular plasticity including ectopic neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in granule cells, but without hippocampal mossy fibre sprouting or neuronal loss. These novel knocking mice recapitulate proconvulsant features of the human disorder yet show that inherited M-current defects spare granule cells from reactive changes in adult hippocampal networks. The absence of seizure-induced pathology found in these epileptic mouse models parallels the benign neurodevelopmental cognitive profile exhibited by the majority of BFNC patients. PMID:18483067

  13. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a pre-seizure state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

  14. Single photon emission computed tomography in seizure disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Denays, R; Rubinstein, M; Ham, H; Piepsz, A; Nol, P

    1988-01-01

    Fourteen children with various seizure disorders were studied using a cerebral blood flow tracer, 123I iodoamphetamine (0.05 mCi/kg), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the five patients with radiological lesions, SPECT showed congruent or more extensive abnormalities. Five of the nine children with a normal scan on computed tomography had abnormal SPECT studies consisting of focal hypoperfusion, diffuse hemispheric hypoperfusion, multifocal and bilateral hypoperfusion, or focal hyperperfusion. A focal lesion seen on SPECT has been found in children with tonic-clonic seizures suggesting secondarily generalised seizures. Moreover the pattern seen on SPECT seemed to be related to the clinical status. An extensive impairment found on SPECT was associated with a poor evolution in terms of intellectual performance and seizure frequency. Conversely all children with a normal result on SPECT had less than two seizures per year and normal neurological and intellectual development. Images Figure PMID:3264135

  15. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  16. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a ``pre-seizure'' state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  17. The piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortex in seizure generation

    PubMed Central

    Vismer, Marta S.; Forcelli, Patrick A.; Skopin, Mark D.; Gale, Karen; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of mammalian limbic and neocortical brain regions provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC), perirhinal (PRC), and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are discussed. In addition, the neurotransmitters, intrinsic and extrinsic connections, and the interaction of these regions are described. Furthermore, we provide evidence based on clinical research and animal models that suggest that these cortical regions may act as key seizure-trigger zones and, even, epileptogenesis. PMID:26074779

  18. Clinically silent seizures in a neonate with tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Mitsuru; Okumura, Akihisa; Abe, Shinpei; Igarashi, Ayuko; Hisata, Ken; Shoji, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Although seizures during infancy in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are common, seizures in neonates are infrequent. Here, we report the clinical course and electroencephalography (EEG) findings of a neonate with tuberous sclerosis complex associated with clinically silent seizures. The patient was a girl in whom cardiac tumors were detected on fetal ultrasonography. Brain magnetic resonance imaging during the neonatal period showed subependymal and cortical tubers. Routine EEG indicated unexpected ictal changes with no noticeable clinical symptoms. Ictal EEG was associated with a subtle increase in heart rate and a brief increase in chin electromyogram. These changes were difficult to identify clinically. The patient later developed focal seizures and epileptic spasms and had severe psychomotor delay. The present case suggests the occurrence of clinically silent seizures before the appearance of epileptic spasms in infants with tuberous sclerosis, and that EEG is an option for neonates with a prenatal diagnosis. PMID:26712128

  19. Unilateral opercular lesion andeating-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Manyam, Siresha Chaluvadi; Kung, Doris H; Rhodes, Lisa B; Newmark, Michael E; Friedman, David E

    2010-12-01

    Eating-induced seizures are an uncommon presentation of reflex epilepsy, a condition characterized by seizures provoked by specific stimuli. Most reports have identified aetiology associated with malformations of cortical developmental, hypoxic brain injury, previous meningoencephalitis or static encephalopathy. We present a patient with eating-induced reflex seizures, which began several years after treatment for an opercular primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET), and who subsequently underwent in-depth clinical and video-EEG analysis for her seizures. This patient noted rapid improvement with decreased frequency of seizure activity after treatment with valproic acid. We discuss the aetiology of reflex epilepsy, the anatomical basis of eating-induced epilepsy, and review the current literature. PMID:21112825

  20. Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination

    PubMed Central

    Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

  1. Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels

  2. The antiepileptic activity of Vitex agnus castus extract on amygdala kindled seizures in male rats.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Mehdi; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2008-08-22

    The antiepileptic activity of hydrophilic extract of Vitex agnus castus fruit (Vitex) was evaluated by the kindling model of epilepsy. Intact male rats (250-300 g) were stereotaxically implanted with a tripolar and two monopolar electrodes in amygdala and dura, respectively. The afterdischarge (AD) threshold was determined in each animal and stimulated daily until fully kindled. The animals were administered different doses (60, 120 or 180 mg/kg) of Vitex or 0.1 ml of hydro alcoholic solvent intra-peritoneally (i.p.) and kindling parameters including AD threshold, seizure stages (SS), afterdischarge duration (ADD), stage 4 latency (S4L) and stage 5 duration (S5D) were recorded 30 min post-injection. The obtained data showed that even low dose (60 mg/kg) of Vitex could significantly increase the AD threshold and decrease the ADD and S5D (P<0.05). These changes were more significant with higher doses (120 or 180 mg/kg) for ADD (P<0.01) and S5D (P<0.001). Vitex at the dose of 120 mg/kg, induced significant increment in S4L (P<0.05). This effect was more prominent at the dose of 180 mg/kg (P<0.001). The latter dose could significantly reduce seizure stage (P<0.01) and most of the animals did not show S5. These results indicate that Vitex can reduce or prevent epileptic activity as demonstrated by reduction of ADD and S5D (length of convulsion) in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, Vitex at appropriate dose can probably reduce or control epileptic activities. PMID:18577418

  3. Network problem threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

    1992-01-01

    Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

  4. Fifteen-minute consultation: when is a seizure not a seizure? Part 2, the older child.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Mohamed O E; Prasad, Manish

    2015-12-01

    Paroxysmal non-epileptic events (PNEs) refer to episodic changes in behaviour, sensation or consciousness that lead to unusual movements, which may resemble epileptic seizures, but are not, due to excessive neuronal firing in the cerebral cortex. A significant proportion of patients seen in epilepsy clinics do not actually have epilepsy. Therefore, it is paramount for clinicians to be able to recognise these transient non-epileptic events in order to avoid unnecessary antiepileptic treatments and to provide appropriate management as required. These PNEs can be observed within the context of a neurological disorder such as migraine or with no direct neurological basis such as simple tics. In this review, we have described common PNEs presenting in school-age children and adolescents alongside the clinical approach to differentiate them from epileptic seizures. PNEs occurring in infancy and younger children have been covered in our first review of this series. PMID:26135356

  5. 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures in refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; Santos, Ana Catarina; Peralta, Rita; Paiva, Teresa; Bentes, Carla

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of seizures in specific types of epilepsies can follow a 24-hour nonuniform or nonrandom pattern. We described the 24-hour pattern of clinical seizures in patients with focal refractory epilepsy who underwent video-electroencephalography monitoring. Only patients who were candidates for epilepsy surgery with an unequivocal seizure focus were included in the study. A total of 544 seizures from 123 consecutive patients were analyzed. Specific time of seizures were distributed along 3- or 4-hour time blocks or bins throughout the 24-hour period. The mean age of the subjects was 37.7years, with standard deviation of 11.5years, median of 37. The majority were females (70/56%). The majority of patients had a seizure focus located in the mesial temporal lobe (102/83%) and in the neocortical temporal lobe (13/11%). The remaining patients had a seizure focus located in the extratemporal lobe (8/6%). The most common etiology was mesial temporal sclerosis (86/69.9%). Nonuniform seizure distribution was observed in seizures arising from the temporal lobe (mesial temporal lobe and neocortical temporal lobe), with two peaks found in both 3- and 4-hour bins: 10:00-13:00/16:00-19:00 and 08:00-12:00/16:00-20:00 respectively (p=0.004). No specific 24-hour pattern was identified in seizures from extratemporal location. The 24-hour rhythmicity of seizure distribution is recognized in certain types of epilepsy, but studies on the topic are scarce. Their replication and validation is therefore needed. Our study confirms the bimodal pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy independently of the nature of the lesion. However, peak times differ between different studies, suggesting that the ambient, rhythmic exogenous factors or environmental/social zeitgebers, may modulate the 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures. Characterization of these 24-hour patterns of seizure occurrence can influence diagnosis and treatment in selected types of epilepsy, such as the case of temporal lobe epilepsy, the most common drug-resistant epilepsy. PMID:26773673

  6. Microscale spatiotemporal dynamics during neocortical propagation of human focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Fabien B; Eskandar, Emad N; Cosgrove, G Rees; Madsen, Joseph R; Blum, Andrew S; Potter, N Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

    2015-11-15

    Some of the most clinically consequential aspects of focal epilepsy, e.g. loss of consciousness, arise from the generalization or propagation of seizures through local and large-scale neocortical networks. Yet, the dynamics of such neocortical propagation remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the microdynamics of focal seizure propagation in neocortical patches (4×4 mm) recorded via high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) implanted in people with pharmacologically resistant epilepsy. Our main findings are threefold: (1) a newly developed stage segmentation method, applied to local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity (MUA), revealed a succession of discrete seizure stages, each lasting several seconds. These different stages showed characteristic evolutions in overall activity and spatial patterns, which were relatively consistent across seizures within each of the 5 patients studied. Interestingly, segmented seizure stages based on LFPs or MUA showed a dissociation of their spatiotemporal dynamics, likely reflecting different contributions of non-local synaptic inputs and local network activity. (2) As previously reported, some of the seizures showed a peak in MUA that happened several seconds after local seizure onset and slowly propagated across the MEA. However, other seizures had a more complex structure characterized by, for example, several MUA peaks, more consistent with the succession of discrete stages than the slow propagation of a simple wavefront of increased MUA. In both cases, nevertheless, seizures characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWDs, ~2-3 Hz) eventually evolved into patterns of phase-locked MUA and LFPs. (3) Individual SWDs or gamma oscillation cycles (25-60 Hz), characteristic of two different types of recorded seizures, tended to propagate with varying degrees of directionality, directions of propagation and speeds, depending on the identified seizure stage. However, no clear relationship was observed between the MUA peak onset time (in seizures where such peak onset occurred) and changes in MUA or LFP propagation patterns. Overall, our findings indicate that the recruitment of neocortical territories into ictal activity undergoes complex spatiotemporal dynamics evolving in slow discrete states, which are consistent across seizures within each patient. Furthermore, ictal states at finer spatiotemporal scales (individual SWDs or gamma oscillations) are organized by slower time scale network dynamics evolving through these discrete stages. PMID:26279211

  7. Masturbation mimicking seizure in an infant.

    PubMed

    Deda, G; Caksen, H; Suskan, E; Gms, D

    2001-08-01

    A 3.5-month-old boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of infantile spasm. His developmental milestones and physical examination were normal. During the follow-up we recorded about six to nine attacks a day and the duration of attacks was changed between 15 seconds-1.5 minutes. During the episodic attacks he was flushed and had tonic posturing associated with crossing of thighs, without loss of consciousness and his eye movements were normal. Routine and long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal during attack. The patient was diagnosed as masturbation according to the clinical and EEG findings. In conclusion, we would like to stress that masturbation should also be considered in infants who were admitted with complaint of seizure, and aside from EEG monitoring a detailed history and careful observation are very important factors in differential diagnosis of these two different conditions. PMID:11563256

  8. Epileptic Seizure Forewarning by Nonlinear Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2001-02-05

    Nicolet Biomedical Inc. (NBI) is collaborating with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to convert ORNL.s patented technology for forewarning of epileptic seizures to a clinical prototype. This technical report describes the highlights of the first year.s effort. The software requirements for the clinical device were specified from which the hardware specifications were obtained. ORNL's research-class FORTRAN was converted to run under a graphical user interface (GUI) that was custom-built for this application by NBI. The resulting software package was cloned to desktop computers that are being tested in five different clinical sites. Two hundred electroencephalogram (EEG) datasets from those clinical sites were provided to ORNL for detailed analysis and improvement of the forewarning methodology. Effort under this CRADA is continuing into the second year as planned.

  9. Threshold properties of a microcavity laser with submicroampere threshold current

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Lear, K.L.; Chow, W.W.; Mar, A.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    We report the threshold characteristics of small oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers. Abrupt threshold transitions 105 times the spontaneous emission background are obtained at injection currents as low as 470 nanoampere.

  10. Intracranial electroencephalographic seizure-onset patterns: effect of underlying pathology.

    PubMed

    Perucca, Piero; Dubeau, Franois; Gotman, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Because seizures originate from different pathological substrates, the question arises of whether distinct or similar mechanisms underlie seizure generation across different pathologies. Better defining intracranial electroencephalographic morphological patterns at seizure-onset could improve the understanding of such mechanisms. To this end, we investigated intracranial electroencephalographic seizure-onset patterns associated with different epileptogenic lesions, and defined high-frequency oscillation correlates of each pattern. We analysed representative seizure types from 33 consecutive patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy and a structural magnetic resonance imaging lesion (11 mesial temporal sclerosis, nine focal cortical dysplasia, six cortical atrophy, three periventricular nodular heterotopia, three polymicrogyria, and one tuberous sclerosis complex) who underwent depth-electrode electroencephalographic recordings (500 Hz filter, 2000 Hz sampling rate). Patients were included only if seizures arose from contacts located in lesional/peri-lesional tissue, and if clinical manifestations followed the electrographic onset. Seizure-onset patterns were defined independently by two reviewers blinded to clinical information, and consensus was reached after discussion. For each seizure, pre-ictal and ictal sections were selected for high-frequency oscillation analysis. Seven seizure-onset patterns were identified across the 53 seizures sampled: low-voltage fast activity (43%); low-frequency high-amplitude periodic spikes (21%); sharp activity at ?13 Hz (15%); spike-and-wave activity (9%); burst of high-amplitude polyspikes (6%); burst suppression (4%); and delta brush (4%). Each pattern occurred across several pathologies, except for periodic spikes, only observed with mesial temporal sclerosis, and delta brush, exclusive to focal cortical dysplasia. However, mesial temporal sclerosis was not always associated with periodic spikes nor focal cortical dysplasia with delta brush. Compared to other patterns, low-voltage fast activity was associated with a larger seizure-onset zone (P = 0.04). Four patterns, sharp activity at ?13 Hz, low-voltage fast activity, spike-and-wave activity and periodic spikes, were also found in regions of seizure spread, with periodic spikes only emerging from mesial temporal sclerosis. Each of the seven patterns was accompanied by a significant increase in high-frequency oscillations upon seizure-onset. Overall, our data indicate that: (i) biologically-distinct epileptogenic lesions share intracranial electroencephalographic seizure-onset patterns, suggesting that different pathological substrates can affect similarly networks or mechanisms underlying seizure generation; (ii) certain pathologies are associated with intracranial electroencephalographic signatures at seizure-onset, e.g. periodic spikes which may reflect mechanisms specific to mesial temporal sclerosis; (iii) some seizure-onset patterns, including periodic spikes, can also be found in regions of spread, which cautions against relying on the morphology of the initial discharge to define the epileptogenic zone; and (iv) high-frequency oscillations increase at seizure-onset, independently of the pattern. PMID:24176980

  11. The Role of Resting State Networks in Focal Neocortical Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Bandt, S. Kathleen; Bundy, David T.; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ayoub, Kareem W.; Sharma, Mohit; Hacker, Carl D.; Pahwa, Mrinal; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of resting state functional networks in epilepsy is incompletely understood. While some pathologic diagnoses have been shown to have maintained but altered resting state connectivity, others have implicated resting state connectivity in disease progression. However little is known about how these resting state networks influence the behavior of a focal neocortical seizure. Methods Using data taken from invasively monitored patients with intractable focal neocortical epilepsy, we evaluated network connectivity (as determined by oscillatory covariance of the slow cortical potential (<0.5 Hz)) as it relates to neocortical seizure foci both in the interictal and ictal states. Results Similar to what has been shown in the past for sleep and anesthesia, electophysiologic resting state networks that are defined by this slow cortical potential covariance maintain their topographic correlation structure throughout an ictal event. Moreover, in the context of focal epilepsy in which the seizure has a specific site of onset, seizure propagation is not chaotic or random. Rather, the seizure (reflected by an elevation of high frequency power) preferentially propagates along the network that contains the seizure onset zone. Significance Taken together, these findings further undergird the fundamental role of resting state networks, provide novel insights into the network-influenced behavior of seizures, and potentially identify additional targets for surgical disconnection including informing the location for the completion of multiple subpial transections (MSPTs). PMID:25247680

  12. Evidence for Consolidation of Neuronal Assemblies after Seizures in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stead, Matt; Bower, Regina S.; Kucewicz, Michal T.; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cimbalnik, Jan; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Vasoli, Vincent M.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of memories involves reactivation of waking neuronal activity patterns and strengthening of associated neural circuits during slow-wave sleep (SWS), a process known as cellular consolidation (Dudai and Morris, 2013). Reactivation of neural activity patterns during waking behaviors that occurs on a timescale of seconds to minutes is thought to constitute memory recall (O'Keefe and Nadel, 1978), whereas consolidation of memory traces may be revealed and served by correlated firing (reactivation) that appears during sleep under conditions suitable for synaptic modification (Buhry et al., 2011). Although reactivation has been observed in human neuronal recordings (Gelbard-Sagiv et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2013), reactivation during sleep has not, likely because data are difficult to obtain and the effect is subtle. Seizures, however, provide intense and synchronous, yet sparse activation (Bower et al., 2012) that could produce a stronger consolidation effect if seizures activate learning-related mechanisms similar to those activated by learned tasks. Continuous wide-bandwidth recordings from patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for drug-resistant epilepsy revealed reactivation of seizure-related neuronal activity during subsequent SWS, but not wakefulness. Those neuronal assemblies that were most strongly activated during seizures showed the largest correlation changes, suggesting that consolidation selectively strengthened neuronal circuits activated by seizures. These results suggest that seizures hijack physiological learning mechanisms and also suggest a novel epilepsy therapy targeting neuronal dynamics during post-seizure sleep. PMID:25609617

  13. Epidemiology of Acute Symptomatic Seizures among Adult Medical Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Nwani, Paul Osemeke; Nwosu, Maduaburochukwu Cosmas; Nwosu, Monica Nonyelum

    2016-01-01

    Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring in close temporal relationship with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of presentation and etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures among adult medical admissions. It was a two-year retrospective study of the medical files of adults patients admitted with acute symptomatic seizures as the first presenting event. There were 94 cases of acute symptomatic seizures accounting for 5.2% (95% CI: 4.17–6.23) of the 1,802 medical admissions during the period under review. There were 49 (52.1%) males and 45 (47.9%) females aged between 18 years and 84 years. The etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures were infections in 36.2% (n = 34) of cases, stroke in 29.8% (n = 28), metabolic in 12.8% (n = 12), toxic in 10.6% (n = 10), and other causes in 10.6% (n = 10). Infective causes were more among those below fifty years while stroke was more in those aged fifty years and above. CNS infections and stroke were the prominent causes of acute symptomatic seizures. This is an evidence of the “double tragedy” facing developing countries, the unresolved threat of infectious diseases on one hand and the increasing impact of noncommunicable diseases on the other one. PMID:26904280

  14. Castration alters susceptibility of male rats to specific seizures.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; McLean, J H

    1991-06-01

    Studies in female rats indicate that estrogen reduction has both pro- and anticonvulsant effects on seizures, but that the respective effects are limited to specific types of seizures at selected doses of picrotoxin. This study was conducted to see if testosterone reduction had parallel effects on seizure susceptibility in males. Male rats were given castration or sham operations and allowed 3 weeks to recover. The latencies to myoclonic, focal, akinetic, and generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures were scored in independent groups of sham-operated or castrated males after injection with picrotoxin (3.5-7.5 mg/kg). The results showed that castrated males had significantly shorter latencies to GTC seizures than sham-operated males at the 3.5 mg/kg and 5.5 mg/kg doses of picrotoxin. There were no significant differences in the latencies to myoclonic, focal, or akinetic seizures between the two surgical groups. The findings suggest that, unlike endogenous estrogen, endogenous testosterone exerts only an anticonvulsant effect and that the effect is limited to GTC seizures. PMID:1896499

  15. A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

  16. Optimal control based seizure abatement using patient derived connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Thomas, Jijju; Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Thesen, Thomas; Ruths, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which patients have recurrent seizures. Seizures occur in conjunction with abnormal electrical brain activity which can be recorded by the electroencephalogram (EEG). Often, this abnormal brain activity consists of high amplitude regular spike-wave oscillations as opposed to low amplitude irregular oscillations in the non-seizure state. Active brain stimulation has been proposed as a method to terminate seizures prematurely, however, a general and widely-applicable approach to optimal stimulation protocols is still lacking. In this study we use a computational model of epileptic spike-wave dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of a pseudospectral method to simulated seizure abatement. We incorporate brain connectivity derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a subject with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We find that the pseudospectral method can successfully generate time-varying stimuli that abate simulated seizures, even when including heterogeneous patient specific brain connectivity. The strength of the stimulus required varies in different brain areas. Our results suggest that seizure abatement, modeled as an optimal control problem and solved with the pseudospectral method, offers an attractive approach to treatment for in vivo stimulation techniques. Further, if optimal brain stimulation protocols are to be experimentally successful, then the heterogeneity of cortical connectivity should be accounted for in the development of those protocols and thus more spatially localized solutions may be preferable. PMID:26089775

  17. Respiratory responses to focal and generalized seizures in cats.

    PubMed

    Paydarfar, D; Eldridge, F L; Scott, S C; Dowell, R T; Wagner, P G

    1991-05-01

    We studied the effects on breathing of seizures induced by focal injection of penicillin G into the parietal cortex in 13 anesthetized cats. Electrocorticograms, ventilation, end-tidal PCO2, and intrapleural and arterial pressures were monitored; changes of these variables were related to the stages of motor seizure. The first respiratory responses, tachypnea and hyperpnea, usually occurred before any peripheral muscular contractions developed. Progression of the seizure was always accompanied by further tachypnea and hyperpnea. The hyperpnea associated with all stages of seizure activity resulted in hypocapnia, which was sustained even during prolonged tonic-clonic motor convulsions that caused a threefold increase of metabolic rate. The extreme tachypnea of tonic generalized convulsions led to increased end-expiratory lung volume because of dynamic hyperinflation associated with very short expiratory durations in the tonic phase. We suggest that the profound effects of seizures on respiration are by feedforward mechanisms from the cortical focus itself and from subcortical circuits, such as hypothalamus, that become involved during seizure propagation and generalization. Peripheral respiratory feedback mechanisms are not important for the genesis of seizure-induced hyperpnea. PMID:2035705

  18. Threshold Concepts in Research Education and Evidence of Threshold Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiley, Margaret; Wisker, Gina

    2009-01-01

    Most work on threshold concepts has hitherto related to discipline-specific undergraduate education, however, the idea of generic doctoral-level threshold concepts appeared to us to provide a strong and useful framework to support research learning and teaching at the graduate level. The early work regarding research-level threshold concepts is

  19. A Computational Study of Stimulus Driven Epileptic Seizure Abatement

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Marc; Dauwels, Justin; Moeller, Friederike; Stephani, Ulrich; Baier, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    Active brain stimulation to abate epileptic seizures has shown mixed success. In spike-wave (SW) seizures, where the seizure and background state were proposed to coexist, single-pulse stimulations have been suggested to be able to terminate the seizure prematurely. However, several factors can impact success in such a bistable setting. The factors contributing to this have not been fully investigated on a theoretical and mechanistic basis. Our aim is to elucidate mechanisms that influence the success of single-pulse stimulation in noise-induced SW seizures. In this work, we study a neural population model of SW seizures that allows the reconstruction of the basin of attraction of the background activity as a four dimensional geometric object. For the deterministic (noise-free) case, we show how the success of response to stimuli depends on the amplitude and phase of the SW cycle, in addition to the direction of the stimulus in state space. In the case of spontaneous noise-induced seizures, the basin becomes probabilistic introducing some degree of uncertainty to the stimulation outcome while maintaining qualitative features of the noise-free case. Additionally, due to the different time scales involved in SW generation, there is substantial variation between SW cycles, implying that there may not be a fixed set of optimal stimulation parameters for SW seizures. In contrast, the model suggests an adaptive approach to find optimal stimulation parameters patient-specifically, based on real-time estimation of the position in state space. We discuss how the modelling work can be exploited to rationally design a successful stimulation protocol for the abatement of SW seizures using real-time SW detection. PMID:25531883

  20. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Shin, Hyeeun; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kwon, Ohyun; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26157671

  1. Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.

    PubMed

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

    2013-11-01

    Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

  2. Epileptic seizures evoked by card games, draughts, and similar games.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, N

    1987-01-01

    Three Asian patients, since adolescence, had myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures during card games, draughts, and a local game "punchi." Interictal EEG showed generalized bisynchronous atypical 3-Hz spike and wave discharges. Test procedures evoked EEG dysrhythmia and clinical seizures in two patients. These patients and previously reported cases have the seizure disorder juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (impulsive petit mal), which seems particularly sensitive to provocation by cognitive functions, especially decision making. Myoclonic epilepsy is considered resistant to antiepileptic drugs other than clonazepam and valproate, but two of our patients responded well to clobazam. PMID:3622411

  3. Neuronal Spatiotemporal Pattern Discrimination: The Dynamical Evolution of Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Steven J.; Sauer, Tim; Kumar, Rohit; Weinstein, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a modern numerical approach to the multivariate linear discrimination of Fisher from 1936 based upon singular value decomposition that is sufficiently stable to permit widespread application to spatiotemporal neuronal patterns. We demonstrate this approach on an old problem in neuroscience whether seizures have distinct dynamical states as they evolve with time. A practical result was the first demonstration that human seizures have distinct initiation and termination dynamics, an important characterization as we seek to better understand how seizures start and stop. Our approach is broadly applicable to a wide variety of neuronal data, from multichannel EEG or MEG, to sequentially acquired optical imaging data or fMRI. PMID:16198127

  4. Seizure localization using three-dimensional surface projections of intracranial EEG power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Youngblood, Mark W; Farooque, Pue; Han, Xiao; Jhun, Stephen; Chen, William C; Goncharova, Irina; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D; Zaveri, Hitten; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-12-01

    Intracranial EEG (icEEG) provides a critical road map for epilepsy surgery but it has become increasingly difficult to interpret as technology has allowed the number of icEEG channels to grow. Borrowing methods from neuroimaging, we aimed to simplify data analysis and increase consistency between reviewers by using 3D surface projections of intracranial EEG poweR (3D-SPIER). We analyzed 139 seizures from 48 intractable epilepsy patients (28 temporal and 20 extratemporal) who had icEEG recordings, epilepsy surgery, and at least one year of post-surgical follow-up. We coregistered and plotted icEEG ? frequency band signal power over time onto MRI-based surface renderings for each patient, to create color 3D-SPIER movies. Two independent reviewers interpreted the icEEG data using visual analysis vs. 3D-SPIER, blinded to any clinical information. Overall agreement rates between 3D-SPIER and icEEG visual analysis or surgery were about 90% for side of seizure onset, 80% for lobe, and just under 80% for sublobar localization. These agreement rates were improved when flexible thresholds or frequency ranges were allowed for 3D-SPIER, especially for sublobar localization. Interestingly, agreement was better for patients with good surgical outcome than for patients with poor outcome. Localization using 3D-SPIER was measurably faster and considered qualitatively easier to interpret than visual analysis. These findings suggest that 3D-SPIER could be an improved diagnostic method for presurgical seizure localization in patients with intractable epilepsy and may also be useful for mapping normal brain function. PMID:23850575

  5. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    GHASEMI, Fateme; VALIZADEH, Fateme; TAEE, Nadere

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the recurrence of febrile seizure and costs for families, many studies have attempted to identify its risk factors. Some recent studies have reported that anemia is more common in children with febrile convulsion, whereas others have reported that iron deficiency raises the seizure threshold. This study was done to compare iron-deficiency anemia in children with first FS with children having febrile illness alone and with healthy children. Materials & Methods This case-control study evaluated 300 children in three groups (first FS, febrile without convulsion, and healthy) in Khoramabad Madani Hospital from September 2009 to September 2010. Body temperature on admission was measured using the tympanic method. CBC diff, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum iron, plasma ferritin and TIBC tests were performed for all participants. Data were analyzed by frequency, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and chi-square statistical tests. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression at a confidence level of 95%. Results Forty percent of the cases with FS had iron-deficiency anemia, compared to 26% of children with febrile illness without seizure and 12% of healthy children. The Odds ratio for iron-deficiency anemia in the patients with FS was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.04-5.17) compared to the febrile children without convulsion and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.54-3.46) compared to the healthy group. Conclusion Children with FS are more likely to be iron-deficient than those with febrile illness alone and healthy children. Thus, iron-deficiency anemia could be a risk factor for FS. PMID:24949050

  6. Enhanced Susceptibility to Spontaneous Seizures of Noda Epileptic Rats by Loss of Synaptic Zn2+

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsushi; Iida, Masashi; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis in the brain is associated with the etiology and manifestation of epileptic seizures. Adult Noda epileptic rats (NER, >12-week-old) exhibit spontaneously generalized tonic-clonic convulsion about once a day. To pursue the involvement of synaptic Zn2+ signal in susceptibility to spontaneous seizures, in the present study, the effect of zinc chelators on epileptogenesis was examined using adult NER. Clioquinol (CQ) and TPEN are lipophilic zinc chelotors, transported into the brain and reduce the levels of synaptic Zn2+. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion was markedly increased after i.p. injection of CQ (30100 mg/kg) and TPEN (1 mg/kg). The basal levels of extracellular Zn2+ measured by ZnAF-2 were decreased before tonic-clonic convulsion was induced with zinc chelators. The hippocampal electroencephalograms during CQ (30 mg/kg)-induced convulsions were similar to those during sound-induced convulsions in NER reported previously. Exocytosis of hippocampal mossy fibers, which was measured with FM4-64, was significantly increased in hippocampal slices from CQ-injected NER that did not show tonic-clonic convulsion yet. These results indicate that the abnormal excitability of mossy fibers is induced prior to epileptic seizures by injection of zinc chelators into NER. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion induced with CQ (30 mg/kg) was significantly reduced by co-injection with aminooxyacetic acid (510 mg/kg), an anticonvulsant drug enhancing GABAergic activity, which did not affect locomotor activity. The present paper demonstrates that the abnormal excitability in the brain, especially in mossy fibers, which is potentially associated with the insufficient GABAergic neuron activity, may be a factor to reduce the threshold for epileptogenesis in NER. PMID:23951148

  7. Blockade of T-type calcium channels prevents tonic-clonic seizures in a maximal electroshock seizure model.

    PubMed

    Sakkaki, Sophie; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Lerat, Benoit; Franon, Dominique; Forichon, Luc; Chemin, Jean; Valjent, Emmanuel; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Lory, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    T-type (Cav3) calcium channels play important roles in neuronal excitability, both in normal and pathological activities of the brain. In particular, they contribute to hyper-excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Here we have characterized the anticonvulsant properties of TTA-A2, a selective T-type channel blocker, in mouse. Using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) as a model of tonic-clonic generalized seizures, we report that mice treated with TTA-A2 (0.3mg/kg and higher doses) were significantly protected against tonic seizures. Although no major change in Local Field Potential (LFP) pattern was observed during the MES seizure, analysis of the late post-ictal period revealed a significant increase in the delta frequency power in animals treated with TTA-A2. Similar results were obtained for Cav3.1-/- mice, which were less prone to develop tonic seizures in the MES test, but not for Cav3.2-/- mice. Analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and c-Fos expression revealed a rapid and elevated neuronal activation in the hippocampus following MES clonic seizures, which was unchanged in TTA-A2 treated animals. Overall, our data indicate that TTA-A2 is a potent anticonvulsant and that the Cav3.1 isoform plays a prominent role in mediating TTA-A2 tonic seizure protection. PMID:26456350

  8. Seizure Risk in Patients with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Joachim F.; Holdridge, Karen Chilcott; Jin, Ling; Edison, Timothy; Zhang, Shuyu; Bangs, Mark E.; Allen, Albert J.; Ball, Susan; Dunn, David

    2007-01-01

    The comorbidity of seizures, epilepsy, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the examination of whether atomoxetine use for ADHD is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizures and seizure-related symptoms were reviewed from two independent Eli Lilly and Company databases: the atomoxetine clinical trials database

  9. Effect of Immunotherapy on Seizure Outcome in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Prospective Observational Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Keun-Hwa; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Moon, Jangsup; Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Doo Young; Shin, Yong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Han-Sang; Jun, Jinsun; Kim, Dong-Yub; Kim, Man-Young; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Suh, Hong Il; Lee, Yoojin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Jin Ho; Choi, Woo Chan; Bae, Dae Woong; Shin, Jung-Won; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Kyung-Il; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the seizure characteristics and outcome after immunotherapy in adult patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and new-onset seizure. Methods Adult (age ≥18 years) patients with AE and new-onset seizure who underwent immunotherapy and were followed-up for at least 6 months were included. Seizure frequency was evaluated at 2–4 weeks and 6 months after the onset of the initial immunotherapy and was categorized as “seizure remission”, “> 50% seizure reduction”, or “no change” based on the degree of its decrease. Results Forty-one AE patients who presented with new-onset seizure were analysed. At 2–4 weeks after the initial immunotherapy, 51.2% of the patients were seizure free, and 24.4% had significant seizure reduction. At 6 months, seizure remission was observed in 73.2% of the patients, although four patients died during hospitalization. Rituximab was used as a second-line immunotherapy in 12 patients who continued to have seizures despite the initial immunotherapy, and additional seizure remission was achieved in 66.6% of them. In particular, those who exhibited partial response to the initial immunotherapy had a better seizure outcome after rituximab, with low adverse events. Conclusion AE frequently presented as seizure, but only 18.9% of the living patients suffered from seizure at 6 months after immunotherapy. Aggressive immunotherapy can improve seizure outcome in patients with AE. PMID:26771547

  10. A study of the dynamics of seizure propagation across micro domains in the vicinity of the seizure onset zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Ishita; Kudela, Pawel; Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Anderson, William S.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The use of micro-electrode arrays to measure electrical activity from the surface of the brain is increasingly being investigated as a means to improve seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization. In this work, we used a multivariate autoregressive model to determine the evolution of seizure dynamics in the 70-110 Hz high frequency band across micro-domains sampled by such micro-electrode arrays. We showed that a directed transfer function (DTF) can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with known propagation pattern. Approach. We used seven complex partial seizures recorded from four patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for surgical evaluation to reconstruct the seizure propagation pattern over sliding windows using a DTF measure. Main results. We showed that a DTF can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with a known propagation pattern. In general, depending on the location of the micro-electrode grid with respect to the clinical SOZ and the time from seizure onset, ictal propagation changed in directional characteristics over a 2-10 s time scale, with gross directionality limited to spatial dimensions of approximately 9 m{{m}2}. It was also seen that the strongest seizure patterns in the high frequency band and their sources over such micro-domains are more stable over time and across seizures bordering the clinically determined SOZ than inside. Significance. This type of propagation analysis might in future provide an additional tool to epileptologists for characterizing epileptogenic tissue. This will potentially help narrowing down resection zones without compromising essential brain functions as well as provide important information about targeting anti-epileptic stimulation devices.

  11. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  12. Laser threshold magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new type of sensor, which uses diamond containing the optically active nitrogen-vacancy (NV‑) centres as a laser medium. The magnetometer can be operated at room-temperature and generates light that can be readily fibre coupled, thereby permitting use in industrial applications and remote sensing. By combining laser pumping with a radio-frequency Rabi-drive field, an external magnetic field changes the fluorescence of the NV‑ centres. We use this change in fluorescence level to push the laser above threshold, turning it on with an intensity controlled by the external magnetic field, which provides a coherent amplification of the readout signal with very high contrast. This mechanism is qualitatively different from conventional NV‑–based magnetometers which use fluorescence measurements, based on incoherent photon emission. We term our approach laser threshold magnetometer (LTM). We predict that an NV‑–based LTM with a volume of 1 mm3 can achieve shot-noise limited dc sensitivity of 1.86 fT /\\sqrt{{{Hz}}} and ac sensitivity of 3.97 fT /\\sqrt{{{Hz}}}.

  13. Fumonisin B1 facilitates seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol in mice.

    PubMed

    Poersch, Alice Bertotto; Trombetta, Francielle; Souto, Naiéli Schiefelbein; de Oliveira Lima, Camilla; Braga, Ana Cláudia Monteiro; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia

    2015-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium spp. mycotoxin which constitutes a major public health issue because of its worldwide distribution and diversity of toxic effects.While the liver and kidney are considered the major target organs of FB1 toxicity in several species, evidence indicates that FB1 may be toxic to the brain. To further investigate the effects of FB1 on the central nervous system the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that acute FB1 exposure causes brain hyperexcitability and the potential underlying mechanisms. For these purposes, adult male C57BL/6 mice were injected with FB1 (8 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle and 30 min thereafter received with a low dose of the classical convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle. After behavioral evaluation the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus were collected for analysis of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial complex I and II activities. We found that FB1 reduced the latency for PTZ-induced myoclonic jerks and increased the number of these events. After exposure to FB1 total and α1 Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities increased in cerebral cortex, whereas the same enzyme activities decreased in the hippocampus. Although no changes in mitochondrial complex I and II activities were found, acute exposure to FB1 increased ΔΨm in the cerebral cortex. Altogether, present results indicate that FB1 causes brain hyperexcitability in vivo, and that mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a potential underlying mechanism. PMID:26342287

  14. Optogenetic activation of superior colliculus neurons suppresses seizures originating in diverse brain networks.

    PubMed

    Soper, Colin; Wicker, Evan; Kulick, Catherine V; N'Gouemo, Prosper; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2016-03-01

    Because sites of seizure origin may be unknown or multifocal, identifying targets from which activation can suppress seizures originating in diverse networks is essential. We evaluated the ability of optogenetic activation of the deep/intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC) to fill this role. Optogenetic activation of DLSC suppressed behavioral and electrographic seizures in the pentylenetetrazole (forebrain+brainstem seizures) and Area Tempestas (forebrain/complex partial seizures) models; this effect was specific to activation of DLSC, and not neighboring structures. DLSC activation likewise attenuated seizures evoked by gamma butyrolactone (thalamocortical/absence seizures), or acoustic stimulation of genetically epilepsy prone rates (brainstem seizures). Anticonvulsant effects were seen with stimulation frequencies as low as 5 Hz. Unlike previous applications of optogenetics for the control of seizures, activation of DLSC exerted broad-spectrum anticonvulsant actions, attenuating seizures originating in diverse and distal brain networks. These data indicate that DLSC is a promising target for optogenetic control of epilepsy. PMID:26721319

  15. Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

  16. Automatic seizure detection using Stockwell transform and boosting algorithm for long-term EEG.

    PubMed

    Yan, Aiyu; Zhou, Weidong; Yuan, Qi; Yuan, Shasha; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Xiuhe; Wang, Jiwen

    2015-04-01

    Automatic detection of seizures has vital significance for epileptic diagnosis and can efficiently reduce the workload of the medical staff. In this study, a novel seizure detection method based on Stockwell transform is proposed for intracranial long-term EEG data. The Stockwell transform is employed to obtain the time-frequency representation of the EEG signals, and then the power spectral density is calculated in the time-frequency plane to characterize the behavior of EEG recordings. After that, a classifier based on gradient boosting algorithm is used to make the classification. Finally, the postprocessing is utilized on the outputs of the classifier to obtain more stable and accurate detection results, which includes Kalman filter, threshold judgment, and collar technique. The performance of this method is assessed on the publicly available EEG database which contains approximately 533h of intracranial EEG recordings. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a satisfactory sensitivity of 94.26%, a specificity of 96.34%, as well as a very short delay time of 0.56s. PMID:25780956

  17. The design and hardware implementation of a low-power real-time seizure detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K.; Ward, Matthew P.; Worth, Robert M.; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

    2009-10-01

    Epilepsy affects more than 1% of the world's population. Responsive neurostimulation is emerging as an alternative therapy for the 30% of the epileptic patient population that does not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Efficient seizure detection algorithms will enable closed-loop epilepsy prostheses by stimulating the epileptogenic focus within an early onset window. Critically, this is expected to reduce neuronal desensitization over time and lead to longer-term device efficacy. This work presents a novel event-based seizure detection algorithm along with a low-power digital circuit implementation. Hippocampal depth-electrode recordings from six kainate-treated rats are used to validate the algorithm and hardware performance in this preliminary study. The design process illustrates crucial trade-offs in translating mathematical models into hardware implementations and validates statistical optimizations made with empirical data analyses on results obtained using a real-time functioning hardware prototype. Using quantitatively predicted thresholds from the depth-electrode recordings, the auto-updating algorithm performs with an average sensitivity and selectivity of 95.3 0.02% and 88.9 0.01% (mean SE? = 0.05), respectively, on untrained data with a detection delay of 8.5 s [5.97, 11.04] from electrographic onset. The hardware implementation is shown feasible using CMOS circuits consuming under 350 nW of power from a 250 mV supply voltage from simulations on the MIT 180 nm SOI process.

  18. An electrophysiological analysis of the anticonvulsant action of cannabidiol on limbic seizures in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Turkanis, S A; Smiley, K A; Borys, H K; Olsen, D M; Karler, R

    1979-08-01

    The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on electrically evoked kindled seizures were studied in conscious, unrestrained rats with chronically implanted cortical and limbic electrodes, and the results were compared with those of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), phenytoin (PHT), and ethosuximide (ESM). All drugs were anticonvulsant, but there were marked differences in their effects on afterdischarge (AD) threshold, duration, and amplitude. CBD, like PHT and delta 9-THC, elevated the AD threshold; in contrast, ESM decreased the threshold but suppressed AD spread. CBD, however, also resembled ESM inasmuch as both drugs decreased AD duration and amplitude. Electrophysiologically, the antiseizure effects of CBD were a combination of those of PHT and ESM. The combination of effects may account for the observation that CBD was the most efficacious of the drugs tested against limbic ADs and convulsions. Other properties of CBD were also noted: For example, compared with delta 9-THC, it is a much more selective anticonvulsant vis--vis motor toxicity. CBD also lacks the CNS excitatory effects produced by delta 9-THC, PHT, and ESM. These characteristics, combined with its apparently unique set of electrophysiological properties, support the suggestion that CBD has therapeutic potential as an antiepileptic. PMID:477630

  19. Soman-induced seizures impair norepinephrine-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Filbert, M.G.; Phann, S.; Forster, J.; Ballough, G.P.; Cann, F.J.

    1993-05-13

    Seizure activity increases turnover of phosphoinositide bisphosphate (PIP2). Turnover of PIP2 is thought to be modulated by neurotransmitter interactions. The effect of soman-induced seizures on neurotransmitter-stimulated PIP 2 turnover was examined in rats. Thirty minutes after induction of seizure activity, rats were euthanized and slices prepared from the hippocampus or cerebral cortex were incubated with myo-(2-3H) inositol for incorporation into phospholipids. Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides was determined by measuring the accumulation of (3H) inositol-l-phosphate (IP1) in the presence of LiCl. Carbachol, norepinephrine (NE) and high K+ increased accumulation of IP1 in slices from control rats. GABA was without effect on IP1 accumulation but potentiated the stimulation of PIP, hydrolysis by NE. NE-stimulated IP1 accumulation in slices from rats undergoing seizures was significantly reduced. GABA potentiation of the NE-stimulated hydrolysis was also reduced.

  20. Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Poor Attention Is More Than Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Childhood absence epilepsy Poor attention is more than seizures Liu Lin ... Masur and colleagues 1 from the Childhood Absence Epilepsy Study Group tried to answer a few important ...

  1. Bearing Witness: Personal and Poetic Descriptions of Seizure Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fink, Max

    2016-03-01

    Many voices comment on personal experience with induced seizures. The encouraging voices of professionals are contrasted with those in theater and film that stigmatize the treatments. The negative images have done much to support restrictive legislation. PMID:26225850

  2. Treatment of Seizures in Children (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... seizures, although children with other neurologic problems (eg, cerebral palsy) have a slightly higher risk of having another ... and right to use and access the UpToDate database and software (the "Licensed Materials") in accordance with ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their head movement. Many have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and become "floppy." If seizures can be controlled ... mutation ; developmental delay ; embryonic ; encephalopathy ; epilepsy ; epileptic ; gene ; hypotonia ; inherited ; ions ; microcephaly ; motor ; muscle tone ; mutation ; new ...

  4. Lorazepam for seizure prophylaxis during high-dose busulfan administration.

    PubMed

    Chan, K W; Mullen, C A; Worth, L L; Choroszy, M; Koontz, S; Tran, H; Slopis, J

    2002-06-01

    Seizure is a recognized complication of high-dose busulfan (BU) therapy and phenytoin (DPH) is widely used as prophylaxis. A number of adverse effects have been associated with DPH and it may also interfere with BU metabolism. We used lorazepam (median dose 0.022 mg/kg) i.v. or p.o. before each dose and for 24 h after the last dose of BU as seizure prophylaxis to 29 children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The regimen was well tolerated and drowsiness was the only significant side-effect. Twelve patients were able to receive the entire prophylaxis by mouth. No seizure developed during and within 48 h of BU. Concomitant pharmacokinetic studies showed no alternation of the absorption and clearance of BU during lorazepam administration. Lorazepam can be used as an alternative for seizure prophylaxis during high-dose BU treatment. PMID:12098063

  5. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Santos, Daniela F.; Santos, Ana I.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Arajo, Ins M.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO). In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA) induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons. PMID:26587180

  6. Respiratory motor nerve activities during experimental seizures in cats.

    PubMed

    Terndrup, T E; Knuth, S L; Gdovin, M J; Darnall, R; Bartlett, D

    1996-03-01

    We evaluated respiratory motor nerve activities during experimental seizures induced with subcortical penicillin. The activities of the phrenic (PH), nasolabial (NL), and hypoglossal (HG) nerves and the recurrent laryngeal motor branches to the thyroarytenoid (TA) and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles were analyzed in 13 anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and ventilated cats. During ictal and interictal phases of seizures, nerve activities became irregular and peak integrated nerve activities increased, particularly in the case of the PH nerve. The ictal phase of seizures was associated with increased tonic activity and decreased phasic respiratory discharges, particularly in the cases of the HG, NL, and PCA nerves. During some prolonged ictal discharges, entrainment of nerve activities by cortical spiking was associated with irregular uncoordinated activation, particularly in the TA nerve. These studies help explain respiratory impairment during seizures by providing evidence of impaired coordination between activation of muscles that regulate upper airway patency and activation of the diaphragm. PMID:8964758

  7. Views of patients with epilepsy on seizure prediction devices.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Sales, Francisco; Wagner, Kathrin; Teotonio, Rute; Carius, Astrid; Schelle, Annette; Ihle, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    Patients views on the relevance, performance requirements, and implementation of seizure prediction devices have so far not been evaluated in a standardized form. We here report views of outpatients with uncontrolled epilepsy from the epilepsy centers at Freiburg, Germany, and Coimbra, Portugal, based on a questionnaire. Interest in the development of methods for seizure prediction both for warning and for closed-loop interventions is high. High sensitivity of prediction is regarded as more important than specificity. Short prediction time windows are preferred, but the indication of seizure-prone periods is also considered worthwhile. Only a few patients are, however, willing to wear EEG electrodes for signal acquisition on a long-term basis. These data support the view that seizure prediction is of high interest to patients with uncontrolled epilepsy. Improvements in the performance of presently available prediction algorithms and technical improvements in EEG recording will, however, be necessary to meet patients requirements. PMID:20624689

  8. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  9. Reflex gelasticdacrystic seizures following hypoxicischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Praharaj, Heramba Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Reflex or stimulus-sensitive epilepsies are uncommon epileptic syndromes triggered by exogenous-specific sensory stimulus or endogenous various mental activities. Gelasticdacrystic seizures are rare epileptic manifestations characterised by ictal laughter and crying. Gelasticdacrystic seizures are commonly caused by hypothalamic hamartoma but rarely described due to cortical dysplasia, lesions of frontal and temporal lobes, tumours and vascular malformations. We report a young woman who presented with somatosensory-evoked gelasticdacrystic seizures. This patient had a positive history of perinatal insult substantiated by MRI findings. Hypoxicischaemic encephalopathy as the cause of gelasticdacrystic seizures has not been reported so far in the literature. PMID:23853086

  10. Somatic Overgrowth Predisposes to Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brachini, Francesca; Apicella, Fabio; Cosenza, Angela; Ferrari, Anna Rita; Guerrini, Renzo; Muratori, Filippo; Romano, Maria Francesca; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Tancredi, Raffaella; Sicca, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders with seizures or abnormal EEG (Autism-Epilepsy Phenotype) suggests shared pathomechanisms, and might be a starting point to identify distinct populations within the clinical complexity of the autistic spectrum. In this study, we tried to assess whether distinct subgroups, having distinctive clinical hallmarks, emerge from this comorbid condition. Methods Two-hundred and six individuals with idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorders were subgrouped into three experimental classes depending on the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. Neurobehavioral, electroclinical and auxological parameters were investigated to identify differences among groups and features which increase the risk of seizures. Our statistical analyses used ANOVA, post-hoc multiple comparisons, and the Chi-squared test to analyze continuous and categorical variables. A correspondence analysis was also used to decompose significant Chi-squared and reduce variables dimensions. Results The high percentage of children with seizures (28.2% of our whole cohort) and EEG abnormalities (64.1%) confirmed that the prevalence of epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders exceeds that of the general population. Seizures were associated with severe intellectual disability, and not with autism severity. Interestingly, tall stature (without macrocephaly) was significantly associated with EEG abnormalities or later onset seizures. However, isolated macrocephaly was equally distributed among groups or associated with early onset seizures when accompanied by tall stature. Conclusions Tall stature seems to be a phenotypic “biomarker” of susceptibility to EEG abnormalities or late epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders and, when concurring with macrocephaly, predisposes to early onset seizures. Growth pattern might act as an endophenotypic marker in Autism-Epilepsy comorbidity, delineating distinct pathophysiological subtypes and addressing personalized diagnostic work-up and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24086423

  11. Copeptin as a Serum Biomarker of Febrile Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Schillinger, Paula; Cayir, Sevgi; Skendaj, Roswitha; Ramser, Michel; Weber, Peter; Wellmann, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Accurate diagnosis of febrile seizures in children presenting after paroxysmal episodes associated with fever, is hampered by the lack of objective postictal biomarkers. The aim of our study was to investigate whether FS are associated with increased levels of serum copeptin, a robust marker of arginine vasopressin secretion. Methods This was a prospective emergency-setting cross-sectional study of 161 children between six months and five years of age. Of these, 83 were diagnosed with febrile seizures, 69 had a febrile infection without seizures and nine had epileptic seizures not triggered by infection. Serum copeptin and prolactin levels were measured in addition to standard clinical, neurophysiological, and laboratory assessment. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01884766. Results Circulating copeptin was significantly higher in children with febrile seizures (median [interquartile range] 18.9 pmol/L [8.5-36.6]) compared to febrile controls (5.6 pmol/L [4.1-9.4]; p <0.001), with no differences between febrile and epileptic seizures (21.4 pmol/L [16.1-46.6]; p = 0.728). In a multivariable regression model, seizures were the major determinant of serum copeptin (beta 0.509; p <0.001), independently of clinical and baseline laboratory indices. The area under the receiver operating curve for copeptin was 0.824 (95% CI 0.753-0.881), significantly higher compared to prolactin (0.667 [0.585-0.742]; p <0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of copeptin increased with decreasing time elapsed since the convulsive event (at 120 min: 0.879 [0.806-0.932] and at <60 min: 0.975 [0.913-0.997]). Conclusions Circulating copeptin has high diagnostic accuracy in febrile seizures and may be a useful adjunct for accurately diagnosing postictal states in the emergency setting. PMID:25894585

  12. Startle provoked epileptic seizures:features in 19 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Manford, M R; Fish, D R; Shorvon, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To define the clinical characteristics of a group of patients with startle provoked epileptic seizures (SPES). METHODS--Nineteen patients were identified during the course of a larger study of clinical seizure patterns. A witnessed seizure account was obtained in all patients; interictal EEG in 18, video-EEG-telemetry in eight, CT in 18, and high resolution MRI in eight. RESULTS--The onset of SPES was in childhood or adolescence in 14 of 19 patients. It was preceded by exclusively spontaneous seizures in nine patients and SPES had been replaced by exclusively spontaneous seizures in two patients. Sudden noise was the main triggering stimulus and somatosensory and visual stimuli were also effective in some patients. The clinical seizure pattern involved asymmetric tonic posturing in 16 of 19 patients. Focal neurological signs were present in nine patients, mental retardation in six, and 10 were clinically normal. Ictal scalp EEG showed a clear seizure discharge in only one patient with a tonic seizure pattern; over the lateral frontal electrodes contralateral to the posturing limbs. Brain CT showed a porencephalic cyst in three patients, focal frontal atrophy in one, and generalised atrophy in one. Brain MRI was undertaken in five normal subjects and three neurologically impaired patients, six with normal CT. It showed a porencephalic cyst in one patient. In six patients, there were dysplastic lesions. They affected the lateral premotor cortex in three patients and the perisylvian cortex in three patients, one with bilateral perisylvian abnormality. CONCLUSIONS--SPES are more frequent than is generally appreciated. They may be transient and occur relatively commonly without fixed deficit, by contrast with previous reports. The imaging abnormalities identified in those without diffuse cerebral damage suggest that SPES are often due to occult congenital lesions and that the lateral premotor and perisylvian cortices are important in this phenomenon. Images PMID:8708682

  13. Long-term seizure and behavioral outcomes after corpus callosotomy.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Claudia; Zamponi, Nelia; Foschi, Nicoletta; Trignani, Roberto; Luzi, Michele; Cesaroni, Elisabetta; Provinciali, Leandro; Scerrati, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Outcomes of corpus callosotomy (CC) have been mainly focused on seizures. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of CC on adaptive behaviors and caregivers' satisfaction in addition to seizures and to identify clinical predictors of postsurgical outcomes. Medical records of 26 patients (mean age at study time: 40 years, mean follow-up: 14 years) with childhood-onset epilepsy who underwent anterior or 2-stage complete CC were reviewed. A structured questionnaire was submitted to caregivers asking about relative changes in different seizure types, behavioral functions, and satisfaction with the postoperative outcomes. Formal neuropsychological assessment was carried out in a subgroup of patients. Selected clinical variables including age at surgery, extent of callosal section, length of follow-up, epilepsy syndrome, and presurgical cognitive level were submitted to multiple regression analysis. At the last follow-up visit, a reduction greater than 50% was observed mainly for drop attacks (65% of patients), followed by generalized tonic-clonic seizures (53%), and complex partial seizures (50%). No presurgical variables were significantly associated with seizure outcome. After surgery, more than half of patients showed attention enhancement, which was related to drop seizure improvement. Early age at surgery was associated with better behavioral regulation; complete CC slightly worsened language abilities. Satisfaction with surgery outcomes was expressed by 73% of caregivers and was dependent on drop seizure reduction and improvements in activities of daily living. A long-term positive psychosocial outcome is likely after CC also in severely disabled patients, especially if surgery is performed early. PMID:25269691

  14. Detection of epileptic seizure using wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Borujeny, Golshan Taheri; Yazdi, Mehran; Keshavarz-Haddad, Alireza; Borujeny, Arash Rafie

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of epileptic seizures is mainly done by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Although this method is accurate, it is not comfortable for the patient as the EEG-electrodes have to be attached to the scalp which hampers the patient's movement. This makes long-term home monitoring not feasible. In this paper, the aim is to propose a seizure detection system based on accelerometry for the detection of epileptic seizure. The used sensors are wireless, which can improve quality of life for the patients. In this system, three 2D accelerometer sensors are positioned on the right arm, left arm, and left thigh of an epileptic patient. Datasets from three patients suffering from severe epilepsy are used in this paper for the development of an automatic detection algorithm. This monitoring system is based on Wireless Sensor Networks and can determine the location of the patient when a seizure is detected and then send an alarm to hospital staff or the patient's relatives. Our wireless sensor nodes are MICAz Motes developed by Crossbow Technology. The proposed system can be used for patients living in a clinical environment or at their home, where they do only their daily routines. The analysis of the recorded data is done by an Artificial Neural Network and K Nearest-Neighbor to recognize seizure movements from normal movements. The results show that K Nearest Neighbor performs better than Artificial Neural Network for detecting these seizures. The results also show that if at least 50% of the signal consists of seizure samples, we can detect the seizure accurately. In addition, there is no need for training the algorithm for each new patient. PMID:24098859

  15. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Audiogenic Seizures in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Emily; Bandara, Suren B.; Allen, Jont B.; Sadowski, Renee N.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes auditory deficits. Thus, we recently conducted a study to investigate if developmental PCB exposure would exacerbate noise-induced hearing loss in adulthood. Unexpectedly, some PCB-exposed rats exhibited seizure-like behaviors when exposed to loud noise. Therefore, we conducted the current experiment to determine if adult rats perinatally exposed to PCBs are more susceptible to audiogenic seizures when tested in a standard audiogenic seizure paradigm. Adult male and female rats exposed to PCBs during gestation and lactation (0, 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg/day) and previously tested in the noise-induced hearing loss study were presented with a 100dB noise stimulus. If they did not exhibit clonus in response to the 100dB noise, they were exposed to a 105dB stimulus 24-48 hours later. This was followed by an 110dB stimulus 24-48 hours later if they did not exhibit clonus at 105 dB. Female and male rats exposed to either 3 or 6 mg/kg PCBs exhibited a significantly higher incidence of audiogenic seizures, shorter latency to onset of seizures, and greater severity of seizures compared to controls. Thyroxine measured in littermates at weaning was significantly lower in all PCB groups compared to controls, suggesting a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of audiogenic seizures. This is the first study to show that developmental PCB exposure increases the susceptibility to audiogenic seizures in adulthood. PMID:25543072

  16. Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

    2015-01-01

    Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. PMID:25145652

  17. Seizure Outcomes and Predictors of Recurrent Post-Stroke Seizure: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Rie; Fukuma, Kazuki; Miyagi, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Kazutaka; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Seizure is a common complication after stroke (termed post-stroke seizure, PSS). Although many studies have assessed outcomes and risk factors of PSS, no reliable predictors are currently available to determine PSS recurrence. We compared baseline clinical characteristics and post-stroke treatment regimens between recurrent and non-recurrent PSS patients to identify factors predictive of recurrence. Methods Consecutive PSS patients admitted to our stroke center between January 2011 and July 2013 were monitored until February 2014 (median 357 days; IQR, 160552) and retrospectively evaluated for baseline clinical characteristics and PSS recurrence. Cumulative recurrence rates at 90, 180, and 360 days post-stroke were estimated by KaplanMeier analysis. Independent predictors of recurrent PSS were identified by Cox proportional-hazards analysis. Results A total of 104 patients (71 men; mean age, 72.1 11.2 years) were analyzed. PSS recurred in 31 patients (30%) during the follow-up. Factors significantly associated with PSS recurrence by log-rank analysis included previous PSS, valproic acid (VPA) monotherapy, polytherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), frontal cortical lesion, and higher modified Rankin Scale score at discharge (all p < 0.05). Independent predictors of recurrent PSS were age <74 years (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.025.90), VPA monotherapy (HR 3.86, 95% CI 1.3012.62), and convulsions on admission (HR 3.87, 95% CI 1.3512.76). Conclusions Approximately one-third of PSS patients experienced seizure recurrence within one year. The predictors of recurrent PSS were younger age, presence of convulsions and VPA monotherapy. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously in countries where monotherapy with second-generation AEDs has been approved because this study was conducted while second-generation AEDs had not been officially approved for monotherapy in Japan. PMID:26309124

  18. Mutations affecting GABAergic signaling in seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2010-07-01

    The causes of epilepsies and epileptic seizures are multifactorial. Genetic predisposition may contribute in certain types of epilepsies and seizures, whether idiopathic or symptomatic of genetic origin. Although these are not very common, they have offered a unique opportunity to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. Among the implicated gene mutations, a number of GABAA receptor subunit mutations have been recently identified that contribute to several idiopathic epilepsies, febrile seizures, and rarely to certain types of symptomatic epilepsies, like the severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Deletion of GABAA receptor genes has also been linked to Angelman syndrome. Furthermore, mutations of proteins controlling chloride homeostasis, which indirectly defines the functional consequences of GABAA signaling, have been identified. These include the chloride channel 2 (CLCN2) and the potassium chloride cotransporter KCC3. The pathogenic role of CLCN2 mutations has not been clearly demonstrated and may represent either susceptibility genes or, in certain cases, innocuous polymorphisms. KCC3 mutations have been associated with hereditary motor and sensory polyneuropathy with corpus callosum agenesis (Andermann syndrome) that often manifests with epileptic seizures. This review summarizes the recent progress in the genetic linkages of epilepsies and seizures to the above genes and discusses potential pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the age, sex, and conditional expression of these seizures in carriers of these mutations. PMID:20352446

  19. Tranexamic acid concentrations associated with human seizures inhibit glycine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Romaschin, Alexander D.; Peterson, Mark; Mazer, C. David; Orser, Beverley A.

    2012-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are widely used to reduce blood loss during surgery. One serious adverse effect of these drugs is convulsive seizures; however, the mechanisms underlying such seizures remain poorly understood. The antifibrinolytic drugs tranexamic acid (TXA) and ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA) are structurally similar to the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine. Since reduced function of glycine receptors causes seizures, we hypothesized that TXA and EACA inhibit the activity of glycine receptors. Here we demonstrate that TXA and EACA are competitive antagonists of glycine receptors in mice. We also showed that the general anesthetic isoflurane, and to a lesser extent propofol, reverses TXA inhibition of glycine receptor–mediated current, suggesting that these drugs could potentially be used to treat TXA-induced seizures. Finally, we measured the concentration of TXA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. Surprisingly, peak TXA concentration in the CSF occurred after termination of drug infusion and in one patient coincided with the onset of seizures. Collectively, these results show that concentrations of TXA equivalent to those measured in the CSF of patients inhibited glycine receptors. Furthermore, isoflurane or propofol may prevent or reverse TXA-induced seizures. PMID:23187124

  20. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668