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1

EXAMINATION OF THE PROCONVULSANT ACTIONS OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES USING PTZ AND KINDLING SEIZURE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Properties of two pyrethroids was assessed using acute i.p. pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) administration and electrical kindling of the amygdale. he Type I pyrethroid, cismethrin (15 mg/kg, po), produced a 17% reduction in the threshold dosage of PTZ required to induce a seizure, while...

2

Interference of TRPV1 function altered the susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) including hippocampus, and regulates the balance of excitation and inhibition in CNS, which imply its important role in epilepsy. We used both pharmacological manipulations and transgenic mice to disturb the function of TRPV1 and then studied the effects of these alterations on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Our results showed that systemic administration of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP, 40 mg/kg) directly induced tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) without PTZ induction. The severity of seizure was increased in lower doses of CAP groups (5 and 10 mg/kg), although the latency to TCS was delayed. On the other hand, systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) and TRPV1 knockout mice exhibited delayed latency to TCS and reduced mortality. Furthermore, hippocampal administration of CPZ (10 and 33 nmol/?L/side) was firstly reported to increase the latency to TCS, decrease the maximal grade of seizure and mortality. It is worth noting that decreased susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures was observed in hippocampal TRPV1 overexpression mice and hippocampal CAP administration (33 nmol/?L/side), which is opposite from results of systemic agonist CAP. Our findings suggest that the systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist may be a novel therapeutic target for epilepsy, and alteration of hippocampal TRPV1 function exerts a critical role in seizure susceptibility. PMID:25713512

Jia, Yun-Fang; Li, Ying-Chao; Tang, Yan-Ping; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

2015-01-01

3

Characterization of PTZ-Induced Seizure Susceptibility in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model That Overexpresses CSTB  

PubMed Central

Down syndrome (DS) is a complex genetic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphism and variable additional physiological traits. Current research progress has begun to decipher the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, leading to new therapeutic perspectives. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) has recently been found to have positive effects on learning and memory capacities of a DS mouse model and is foreseen to treat DS patients. But PTZ is also known to be a convulsant drug at higher dose and DS persons are more prone to epileptic seizures than the general population. This raises concerns over what long-term effects of treatment might be in the DS population. The cause of increased propensity for epilepsy in the DS population and which Hsa21 gene(s) are implicated remain unknown. Among Hsa21 candidate genes in epilepsy, CSTB, coding for the cystein protease inhibitor cystatin B, is involved in progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia in both mice and human. Thus we aim to evaluate the effect of an increase in Cstb gene dosage on spontaneous epileptic activity and susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure. To this end we generated a new mouse model trisomic for Cstb by homologous recombination. We verified that increasing copy number of Cstb from Trisomy (Ts) to Tetrasomy (Tt) was driving overexpression of the gene in the brain, we checked transgenic animals for presence of locomotor activity and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities characteristic of myoclonic epilepsy and we tested if those animals were prone to PTZ-induced seizure. Overall, the results of the analysis shows that an increase in Cstb does not induce any spontaneous epileptic activity and neither increase or decrease the propensity of Ts and Tt mice to myoclonic seizures suggesting that Ctsb dosage should not interfere with PTZ-treatment. PMID:22140471

Brault, Véronique; Martin, Benoît; Costet, Nathalie; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Hérault, Yann

2011-01-01

4

Adenosine-angiotensin II interactions in pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold in mice.  

PubMed

The effects of adenosinergic and angiotensin IIergic agents and of their combinations on the seizure threshold in mice were determined by measuring the dose of timed-intravenous (tail vein) infused pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) required to elicit clonic seizures. All drugs were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Angiotensin II (ANG II), its peptide analogue sarmesin, the selective adenosine A1 receptor agonists N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAdo) significantly increased the PTZ seizure threshold. The selective AT1 receptor antagonist losartan blocked the anticonvulsant effect of ANG II, sarmesin and CPA. The selective AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319 failed to block the effect of ANG II and sarmesin on the PTZ seizure threshold but reversed the threshold-increasing effect of CPA. The selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline (8-p-SPT) alleviated the threshold-increasing effect of CPA and ANG II. Concurrent injection of 2-ClAdo and ANG II as well as of 2-ClAdo and sarmesin, at doses which had no significant effect on the PTZ seizure threshold when given alone, acted synergistically, producing greater effect on the threshold. Taken together, the findings support the possibility of specific ANG II-adenosine A1 receptor interactions in the regulation of the PTZ seizure threshold. PMID:10399674

Tchekalarova, J; Georgiev, V

1999-01-01

5

The threshold of pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsive seizures, but not that of nonconvulsive seizures, is controlled by the nitric oxide levels in murine brains.  

PubMed

Alterations in the NO pathway play an important role in the development of convulsive seizures via the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems in acute pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure animals. We previously reported that the background NO levels under physiological conditions negatively regulate convulsive seizures, while excess NO levels under pathologic conditions positively regulate PTZ-induced convulsive seizures. In this study, the NO content in various brain regions after a single dose injection of PTZ was quantitatively and directly measured using the ex vivo X-band electron paramagnetic resonance method with an NO-trapping agent. Experimental data demonstrated the effects of NO on the convulsive seizure threshold: a 1.5-fold increase in the NO level in all brain regions compared to that observed in the control state showed proconvulsive properties without any involvement with nonconvulsive seizures. The distribution of the background NO content in the normal animals was higher in the temporal region of the cerebral cortex, including the amygdala, than in the hippocampus, cerebellum and other regions of the cerebral cortex. However, the levels of NO after the occurrence of acute PTZ-induced convulsive seizures significantly increased by more than 50% in all brain regions, thus suggesting that the NO levels in all brain regions contribute to PTZ-induced convulsions as a seizure threshold. In a pharmacological study, the inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors prevented PTZ-induced convulsions and excessive NO generation. In addition, therapeutic drugs, such as valproate and ethosuximide used to treat generalized seizures not only inhibited the increase in NO generation induced by PTZ, but also prevented both convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures caused by PTZ. We herein provide novel insight into the involvement of NO in PTZ-seizure susceptibility at the whole-animal level. PMID:23499834

Watanabe, Masatomo; Miyai, Asuka; Danjo, Sonoko; Nakamura, Yu; Itoh, Kouichi

2013-09-01

6

Constitutive deletion of the serotonin-7 (5-HT(7)) receptor decreases electrical and chemical seizure thresholds.  

PubMed

The localization of serotonin-7 (5-HT(7)) receptors and the biological activity of ligands have suggested that 5-HT(7) receptors might be involved in pain, migraine, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, memory, and sleep. In the present study, the potential involvement of 5-HT(7) receptors in epilepsy and other seizure disorders was assessed by comparing the seizures produced by three types of electrical stimulation and three chemical convulsants in 5-HT(7) receptor-deficient (knockout, KO) mice to those seizures observed in wild-type (WT) mice. Thresholds for producing electroshock-induced clonic seizures did not differ between KO versus WT mice. However, thresholds for producing electroshock-induced tonic seizures were significantly lower in KO than in WT mice. Seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA, an agonist at NMDA-type glutamate receptors), and cocaine (an inhibitor of monoamine uptake) were also studied. PTZ was more potent in inducing seizures in 5-HT(7) KO mice than in wild-type mice. Likewise, cocaine was more potent in inducing seizures in 5-HT(7) KO than in WT mice; moreover, death resulted from cocaine administration in 5-HT(7) KO mice but not in WT mice. There was a similar trend for NMDA that did not reach statistical significance. The present findings point to the potential for a generalized reduction in seizure threshold with constitutive deletion of the 5-HT(7) receptor gene. Since seizures have not been reported with pharmacological blockade of the receptor, the findings suggest that adaptive changes may play a role in the low seizure thresholds in these mice. In addition, the data suggest that the lower thresholds for seizures produced by diverse mechanisms should be taken into account when interpreting other aspects of the phenotype and behavioral pharmacology of this mouse. PMID:17485199

Witkin, Jeffrey M; Baez, Melvyn; Yu, Jianliang; Barton, Matthew E; Shannon, Harlan E

2007-06-01

7

Decreased Seizure Threshold in an Eclampsia-Like Model Induced in Pregnant Rats with Lipopolysaccharide and Pentylenetetrazol Treatments  

PubMed Central

Objective Eclampsia is a poorly understood but potentially fatal complication of pregnancy. Research to date on this disorder has been hampered by the lack of a suitable animal model. To correct this deficiency, this report describes the generation of a rat eclampsia-like model using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in a previously established rat preeclampsia model. Method Rats were administered lipopolysaccharide (1.0 µg/kg) by tail vein injection on gestational day 14 to establish preeclampsia (PE). PE and control rats (non-pregnant, NP; normal-pregnant, P) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with PTZ (40 mg/kg) to induce seizures. In separate experiments, MgSO4 (270 mg/kg IP) was injected in advance of PTZ into PE rats to observe its effect on PTZ-induced seizures. Results PE conditions were verified in rats after LPS administration by significantly higher blood pressure (P<0.01) and urinary albumin excretion (P<0.05), elevated sFlt-1 (P<0.05) and decreased PlGF serum levels (P<0.05), and evidence of hepatic dysfunction compared to control groups. PTZ successfully induced seizure activity in all groups studied. Latency to seizure was significantly (P<0.01) less in the PE-PTZ group (73.2±6.6 sec.) than in PTZ-treated controls (107.0±7.4 sec.). Pretreatment with MgSO4 prolonged (P<0.05) latency to seizure, shortened seizure duration and decreased seizure rates. Significant increased (P<0.05) in the serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? in PE and PE-PTZ groups, and decreased (P<0.05) in their levels following MgSO4 administration. Conclusion This PTZ-induced eclampsia-like rat model is comparable to the human condition of eclampsia and may serve as a useful research tool for future studies of this disease. The increased inflammatory cytokines in preeclampsia are coincident with a decreased threshold for PTZ-induced seizures, suggesting that an inflammatory mechanism may contribute to the susceptibility to seizure activity and inflammation might have an important role in eclampsia. PMID:24586695

Huang, Qian; Liu, Lei; Hu, Bihui; Di, Xiaodan; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

2014-01-01

8

Morphine sensitization in the pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure threshold in mice: role of nitric oxide and ? receptors.  

PubMed

Behavioral sensitization occurs after repeated administration of ?-opioid receptor agonists following a drug-free period. It seems that the changes in dopaminergic systems induced by ?-opioid receptor agonists play a crucial role in behavioral sensitization to opioids. Nitric oxide also plays a role in some behavioral effects of morphine, including sensitization to the locomotor-stimulating effect. This study investigated whether morphine sensitization appears in seizure threshold and the possible role of ?-opioid receptor and nitric oxide in this sensitization. Sensitization was produced by daily injections of morphine (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 15, or 30 mg/kg), followed by a 10-day washout period. Then the challenge test was performed using morphine (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 15, or 30 mg/kg) in different groups. To assess clonic seizure threshold, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was administered intravenously. Subcutaneous administration of morphine (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) induced sensitization in PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg), a nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, or naltrexone (10 mg/kg), an opioid receptor antagonist, along with morphine inhibited morphine-induced sensitization in PTZ-induced seizure threshold. In conclusion, at low doses, morphine induces sensitization in PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice probably as a result of the interaction with ?-receptors and nitric oxide. PMID:21419715

Shafaroodi, Hamed; Baradaran, Nazanin; Moezi, Leila; Dehpour, Siavash; Kabiri, Tina; Dehpour, Ahmad R

2011-04-01

9

Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [3H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II.

Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodríguez, Stephanie; Jordán, Claudia; Licier, Rígel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, José G.

2015-01-01

10

The interaction of adenosine and morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice.  

PubMed

Adenosine agonists or low doses of morphine exert anti-convulsant effects in different models of seizures. On the other hand, a tight interaction has been reported between morphine and adenosine in various paradigms. This study investigated the effect of the interaction of adenosine and morphine on seizure susceptibility in the intravenous mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. The researchers used acute systemic administration of morphine, N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (a selective A1 receptor agonist), naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist) and 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) (a selective A1 receptor antagonist). Acute administration of morphine (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) or CHA (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg) raised the threshold of seizures induced by PTZ. Non-effective dose of 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of sub-effective doses of morphine (0.125 mg/kg) and CHA (0.125 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure latency showing the additive effect of morphine and CHA. The enhanced latency induced by combination of low doses of morphine and CHA completely reversed by 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) or naltrexone (1 mg/kg). Moreover, 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of morphine (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) and naltrexone (1 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of low doses of 8-CPT (1 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.5 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effect of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). In conclusion, adenosine and morphine exhibit an additive effect on the enhancement of the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice, probably through A1 or ? receptors. PMID:23624288

Moezi, Leila; Akbarian, Reyhane; Niknahad, Hossein; Shafaroodi, Hamed

2013-09-01

11

Long-term theophylline treatment changes the effects of angiotensin II and adenosinergic agents on the seizure threshold.  

PubMed

The effects of angiotensin II (ANG II), sarmesin, losartan, PD 123319, and adenosine A (1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) administered i.c.v. in untreated and in theophylline-treated male mice (50 mg/kg i.p. twice daily for 14 days) were studied on the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure threshold. The threshold was increased after long-term theophylline treatment. ANG II, sarmesin, and CPA increased the threshold in theophylline-untreated mice, whereas it decreased the threshold in theophylline-treated animals. Losartan did not change the threshold in theophylline-untreated mice but decreased it in theophylline-treated animals. PD 123319 did not change the seizure threshold both in theophylline-untreated and -treated mice. Taken together, the data demonstrated that repeated exposure to theophylline selectively changes the effects of ANG II and adenosinergic agents on the PTZ seizure threshold. The results indicate that both angiotensin AT(1) and adenosine A(1) receptor subtypes could possess interactive mechanisms of adaptation to chronic theophylline treatment. PMID:10779696

Tchekalarova, J; Kambourova, T; Georgiev, V

2000-05-01

12

STEP Regulation of Seizure Thresholds in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose To investigate whether STriatal Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) influences ictogenesis. Methods STEP knockout mice were compared to wild-type (WT) mice in pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal slices were also prepared from these two mouse populations, allowing the examination of ictal-like stimulation in these slices using calcium imaging and electrophysiological recordings. Results To examine seizure thresholds, increasing doses of pilocarpine were administered to adult mice and seizures were scored behaviorally. Significantly fewer STEP knockout mice developed seizures that progressed to the stage of status epilepticus compared to WT mice. To examine potential differences in neural circuits that might account for this finding, seizure-like activity was induced in hippocampal slices. Electrical stimulation of the hippocampal-entorhinal cortex pathway in STEP knockout mice resulted in less activation of the dentate granule cell layer, but greater activation of the hilus in STEP knockouts, compared with heterozygous slices. Conclusions STEP deficiency is associated with higher seizure thresholds. The locus of these effects appears to include the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and hilus. PMID:21204826

Aaron, Gloster; Briggs, Stephen; Walker, Jeffrey; Asik, Kemal; Lombroso, Paul; Naegele, Janice

2010-01-01

13

Effects of apomorphine and piribedil on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous work examining the effects of dextroamphetamine on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced clonic seizure threshold, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of two other dopamine agonists, apomorphine (AP) and piribedil, on PTZ seizures. TD50 and LD50 values for CD-1 mice were determined initially for the two drugs. Subsequently, dose-and time-response analyses established that AP decreased

William H. Riffee; Richard E. Wilcox; Cheng-Pei Li Goldman; Robert V. Smith

1981-01-01

14

The role of potassium BK channels in anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol in pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock models of seizure in mice.  

PubMed

Cannabidiol is a nonpsychoactive member of phytocannabinoids that produces various pharmacological effects that are not mediated through putative CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and their related effectors. In this study, we examined the effect of the i.c.v. administration of potassium BK channel blocker paxilline alone and in combination with cannabidiol in protection against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure in mice. In the PTZ-induced seizure model, i.c.v. administration of cannabidiol caused a significant increase in seizure threshold compared with the control group. Moreover, while i.c.v. administration of various doses of paxilline did not produce significant change in the PTZ-induced seizure threshold in mice, coadministration of cannabidiol and paxilline attenuated the antiseizure effect of cannabidiol in PTZ-induced tonic seizures. In the MES model of seizure, both cannabidiol and paxilline per se produced significant increase in percent protection against electroshock-induced seizure. However, coadministration of cannabidiol and paxilline did not produce significant interaction in their antiseizure effect in the MES test. The results of the present study showed a protective effect of cannabidiol in both PTZ and MES models of seizure. These results suggested a BK channel-mediated antiseizure action of cannabidiol in PTZ model of seizure. However, such an interaction might not exist in MES-induced convulsion. PMID:23644464

Shirazi-zand, Zahra; Ahmad-Molaei, Leila; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Naderi, Nima

2013-07-01

15

A role for opioid system in the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil on the pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice.  

PubMed

There are several lines of evidence that opioidergic and nitrergic systems could modulate the seizure threshold. We previously have shown that sildenafil had proconvulsant effects in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or bicuculline. In the present study, we examined whether the opioid system participates in the action of sildenafil on the PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice. Sildenafil (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the seizure threshold in a dose-dependent manner, whereas morphine had both anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects at low (0.5, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) and high (60 mg/kg, s.c.) doses. A sub-effective dose of sildenafil (5 mg/kg) combined with a dose of morphine (7.5 mg/kg) which was sub-effective for its proconvulsant effects significantly decreased the seizure threshold. Although naltrexone at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg had no effect on the seizure threshold, it significantly prevented both the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil as well as the anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of morphine on the PTZ-induced seizure thresholds. Our data suggested a role for opioidergic system in the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil on the PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice. PMID:21377383

Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Payandemehr, Borna; Gholipour, Taha; Ziai, Pouya; Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Ghasemi, Abbas; Bahremand, Arash; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2011-06-01

16

The effects of sarmesin, an Angiotensin II analogue on seizure susceptibility, memory retention and nociception.  

PubMed

The present research studies the effects of sarmesin [Sar(1)Tyr(OMe)(4)] Angiotensin II (ANG II), an analogue of ANG II, on the seizure susceptibility, memory activity and nociception. It was found that this octapeptide, administered i.c.v., dose-dependently decreased the seizure intensity (pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) generalized seizure model and PTZ kindling) and augmented PTZ seizure threshold in mice. Sarmesin impaired the memory upon re-testing of rats 24 h later in the passive avoidance test. It decreased the pain threshold in a paw pressure nociceptive assay in rats. ANG II exerted pronociceptive effect as well. Taken together, these results reveal sarmesin as a behaviorally active peptide in the studied experimental animal models. PMID:12609768

Tchekalarova, J; Pechlivanova, D; Kambourova, T; Matsoukas, J; Georgiev, V

2003-03-28

17

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Seizures What is a seizure? A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how a person feels or acts for a short time. On rare occasions, a seizure ...

18

Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of kappa opioid receptors: effects on cocaine- and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions and seizure kindling.  

PubMed

The present study used pharmacological and gene ablation techniques to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) in modulating the convulsant effects of two mechanistically different drugs: cocaine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; GABA-A receptor antagonist) in mice. Systemic administration of the selective KOPr-1 agonist, U69593 (0.16-0.6mg/kg; s.c.), failed to modify cocaine-evoked convulsions or cocaine kindling. Similarly, no alteration in responsiveness to cocaine was observed in wild-type mice that received the selective KOPr-1 antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 5mg/kg) or in mice lacking the gene encoding KOPr-1. In contrast to cocaine, U69593 attenuated the seizures induced by acute or repeated PTZ administration. Nor-BNI decreased the threshold for PTZ-evoked seizures and increased seizure incidence during the initial induction of kindling relative to controls. Decreased thresholds for PTZ-induced seizures were also observed in KOPr-1 knock out mice. Together, these data demonstrate an involvement of endogenous KOPr systems in modulating vulnerability to the convulsant effects of PTZ but not cocaine. Furthermore, they demonstrate that KOPr-1 activation protects against acute and kindled seizures induced by this convulsant. Finally, the results of our study suggest that KOPr-1 antagonists will not have therapeutic utility against cocaine-induced seizures, while they may prove beneficial in attenuating several actions of cocaine that have been linked to its abuse. PMID:17126860

Kaminski, Rafal M; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Shippenberg, Toni S

2007-03-01

19

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... a seizure before might have ingested any poisons, medications, etc. If your child has previously had seizures, call 911 if the seizure lasts more than 5 minutes or is for some reason very alarming to you and you're worried for your child's safety. If your child is breathing normally and the ...

20

Permanent Reduction of Seizure Threshold in Post-Ischemic CA3 Pyramidal Neurons  

E-print Network

Permanent Reduction of Seizure Threshold in Post-Ischemic CA3 Pyramidal Neurons PATRICE CONGAR thresh- old in post-ischemic CA3 pyramidal neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 83: 2040­2046, 2000. The effects of ischemia were examined on CA3 pyramidal neurons recorded in hippocampal slices 2­4 mo after a global

Cossart, Rosa

21

Anti-kindling Effect of Bezafibrate, a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Alpha Agonist, in Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure Model  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Studies in the animals suggested that Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) may be involved in seizure control and selective agonists of PPAR ? or PPAR ? raise seizure thresholds. The present study was contemplated with the aim of evaluating the anti kindling effects and the mechanism of bezafibrate, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR-?) agonist in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model of seizures in rats. Methods: In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of bezafibrate (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the PTZ injection. The PTZ injection was given on alternate day till the animal became fully kindled or till 10 weeks. The parameters measured were the latency to develop kindling and incidence of kindling, histopathological study of hippocampus, hippocampal lipid peroxidation studies, serum neuron specific enolase, and hippocampal DNA fragmentation study. Results: In this study, bezafibrate significantly reduced the incidence of kindling in PTZ treated rats and exhibited a marked prolongation in the latencies to seizures. In the present study bezafibrate decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance i.e. Malondialdehyde levels, increased the reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in the brain. This added to its additional neuroprotective effects. Bezafibrate also reduced the neuronal damage and apoptosis in hippocampal area of the brain. Therefore bezafibrate exerted anticonvulsant properties in PTZ induced kindling model in rats. Conclusions: These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the mechanism of bezafibrate as an anti kindling agent and could offer a useful support to the basic antiepileptic therapy in preventing the development of PTZ induced seizures, suggesting its potential for therapeutic applications in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25625088

Saha, Lekha; Bhandari, Swati; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Amitava

2014-01-01

22

Tamoxifen Mimics the Effects of Endogenous Ovarian Hormones on Repeated Seizures Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the effects of tamoxifen on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced repeated seizures and hippocampal neuronal damage in ovariectomized rats were investigated. Thirty seven virgin female Wistar rats were divided to: (1) control, (2) sham-PTZ, (3) sham-PTZ-tamoxifen (sham-PTZ-T), (4) Ovariectomized -PTZ (OVX-PTZ) and (5) OVX-PTZ-tamoxifen (OVX-PTZ-T) groups. The animals of groups 3 and 5 were injected by tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) on 7 consecutive days. After 7 days of tamoxifen injection, they also were then injected by tamoxifen 30 min prior each PTZ injection. PTZ (40 mg/kg) was injected on 6 consecutive days and the animal behaviors were observed for 60 min. The histological methods were then used to determine dark neurons in hippocampus. A significant decrease in the seizure score was seen in OVX-PTZ group compared to Sham-PTZ. The animals of OVX-PTZ-T group had a significant higher seizure score compared to OVX-PTZ group. The dark neurons in DG of OVX group were lower than sham group (p<0.01). The numbers of dark neurons in CA1 area of OVX-PTZ-T group was higher than OVX-PTZ group (p<0.05) compared to control, the numbers of dark neurons in CA3 area showed a significant increase in Sham-PTZ and OVX-PTZ group (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). Dark neurons in OVX-PTZ-T group were higher than OVX-PTZ group (p<0.05). It is concluded that pretreatment of the ovariectomized rats by tamoxifen increased PTZ-induced seizure score and dark neurons. It might be suggested that tamoxifen has agonistic effects for estrogen receptors to change the seizure severity. PMID:23833560

Mansouri, Somaeh; Ataei, Mariam lale; Hosseini, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

23

Time-course and dose-response relationships of imperatorin in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure threshold model.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of imperatorin (a furanocoumarin isolated from fruits of Angelica archangelica) in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure threshold model. The threshold for electroconvulsions in mice was determined at several times: 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after i.p. administration of imperatorin at increasing doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mg/kg. The evaluation of time-course relationship for imperatorin in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test revealed that the agent produced its maximum antielectroshock action at 30 min after its i.p. administration. In this case, imperatorin at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly raised the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice by 38 and 68% (P<0.05 and P<0.001), respectively. The antiseizure effects produced by imperatorin at 15, 60 and 120 min after its systemic (i.p.) administration were less expressed than those observed for imperatorin injected 30 min before the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test. Based on this study, one can conclude that imperatorin produces the anticonvulsant effect in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:17602770

Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

2007-09-01

24

Seizures Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in the Adult Zebrafish: A Detailed Behavioral Characterization  

PubMed Central

Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is a common convulsant agent used in animal models to investigate the mechanisms of seizures. Although adult zebrafish have been recently used to study epileptic seizures, a thorough characterization of the PTZ-induced seizures in this animal model is missing. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed temporal behavior profile characterization of PTZ-induced seizure in adult zebrafish. The behavioral profile during 20 min of PTZ immersion (5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mM) was characterized by stages defined as scores: (0) short swim, (1) increased swimming activity and high frequency of opercular movement, (2) erratic movements, (3) circular movements, (4) clonic seizure-like behavior, (5) fall to the bottom of the tank and tonic seizure-like behavior, (6) death. Animals exposed to distinct PTZ concentrations presented different seizure profiles, intensities and latencies to reach all scores. Only animals immersed into 15 mM PTZ showed an increased time to return to the normal behavior (score 0), after exposure. Total mortality rate at 10 and 15 mM were 33% and 50%, respectively. Considering all behavioral parameters, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mM PTZ, induced seizures with low, intermediate, and high severity, respectively. Pretreatment with diazepam (DZP) significantly attenuated seizure severity. Finally, the brain PTZ levels in adult zebrafish immersed into the chemoconvulsant solution at 5 and 10 mM were comparable to those described for the rodent model, with a peak after a 20-min of exposure. The PTZ brain levels observed after 2.5-min PTZ exposure and after 60-min removal from exposure were similar. Altogether, our results showed a detailed temporal behavioral characterization of a PTZ epileptic seizure model in adult zebrafish. These behavioral analyses and the simple method for PTZ quantification could be considered as important tools for future investigations and translational research. PMID:23349914

Mussulini, Ben Hur M.; Leite, Carlos E.; Zenki, Kamila C.; Moro, Luana; Baggio, Suelen; Rico, Eduardo P.; Rosemberg, Denis B.; Dias, Renato D.; Souza, Tadeu M.; Calcagnotto, Maria E.; Campos, Maria M.; Battastini, Ana M.; de Oliveira, Diogo L.

2013-01-01

25

Mice with a Targeted Disruption of the Cl?/HCO3? Exchanger AE3 Display a Reduced Seizure Threshold  

PubMed Central

Neuronal activity results in significant pH shifts in neurons, glia, and interstitial space. Several transport mechanisms are involved in the fine-tuning and regulation of extra- and intracellular pH. The sodium-independent electroneutral anion exchangers (AEs) exchange intracellular bicarbonate for extracellular chloride and thereby lower the intracellular pH. Recently, a significant association was found with the variant Ala867Asp of the anion exchanger AE3, which is predominantly expressed in brain and heart, in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To analyze a possible involvement of AE3 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of seizures, we generated an AE3-knockout mouse model by targeted disruption of Slc4a3. AE3-knockout mice were apparently healthy, and neither displayed gross histological and behavioral abnormalities nor spontaneous seizures or spike wave complexes in electrocorticograms. However, the seizure threshold of AE3-knockout mice exposed to bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, or pilocarpine was reduced, and seizure-induced mortality was significantly increased compared to wild-type littermates. In the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 region, where AE3 is strongly expressed, disruption of AE3 abolished sodium-independent chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that AE3 modulates seizure susceptibility and, therefore, are of significance for understanding the role of intracellular pH in epilepsy. PMID:16354689

Hentschke, Moritz; Wiemann, Martin; Hentschke, Suna; Kurth, Ingo; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Jentsch, Thomas J.; Gal, Andreas; Hübner, Christian A.

2006-01-01

26

Ameliorating effect of quercetin on acute pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study to elicit effects of pure quercetin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and picrotoxin induced seizures. Materials and methods: Each animal group was divided into six groups and composed of six rats. Rats were assigned to the following experiments and groups (G): (G1) PTZ 45 mg/kg + DMSO; (G2) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg quercetin; (G3) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg quercetin; (G4) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 20 mg/kg quercetin; (G5) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 40 mg/kg quercetin; (G6) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + DMSO; (G7) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg quercetin; (G8) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + 20 mg/kg quercetin. In all groups quercetin were injected 30 min before PTZ and picrotoxin applications. Results: Compared to PTZ, quercetin significantly prolonged onset of the seizure in 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and reduced the seizure stage in 10 mg/kg quercetin injected group (P < 0.01). Compared to PTZ, quercetin also declined the generalized seizure duration at 10 mg/kg (P < 0.01) and 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05) doses. At the doses of 5 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg quercetin there were no significant changes in seizure parameters. Development of picrotoxin induced seizures is slower than in PTZ. Quercetin was found to be unable to prevent seizure in picrotoxin induced seizures. Surprisingly, quercetin also significantly reduced the onset of seizures at the dose of 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Conclusion: quercetin (at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p) prevented seizures in PTZ (45 mg/kg i.p) induced seizures. Especially, 10 mg/kg PTZ prolonged onset of seizures, reduced the seizure duration and seizure severity score in comparison with control group. At a higher (40 mg/kg) dose quercetin failed to prevent PTZ induced seizures. In addition 20 mg/kg quercetin significantly reduced the onset of seizures that suggest a preconvulsive effect. 20 mg/kg quercetin reduced the onset of picrotoxin induced seizures. In picrotoxin model, it may be claimed that quercetin at higher doses accelerate the epileptic activity owing to its antagonistic effect on GABAA. Further investigations are needed to explore the mechanisms of the antiepileptic and preconvulsant effects of quercetin. PMID:25356099

Sefil, Fatih; Kahraman, Ibrahim; Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tutuk, Okan; Aydin, Mehmet; Ozkan, Umit; Pinar, Neslihan

2014-01-01

27

The association between seizure predisposition and inflammation in a rat model of fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

The association between inflammation and the induction of seizures is well-known. It has been reported that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a pro-inflammatory state, and systemic inflammation may trigger central nervous system inflammation. This study aims to identify the impact of inflammation in a rat model of fatty liver on the propensity and severity of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 were administered a 35 % fructose solution over 8 weeks to induce the development of fatty liver while Groups 3 and 4 were fed normally as controls. Groups 1 and 3 were given 70 mg/kg PTZ, determining Racine Convulsion Scores (RCS) and onset times of the first myoclonic jerks (FMJ). Groups 2 and 4 were administered 35 mg/kg of PTZ, then EEG recordings were obtained to evaluate spike percentages. TNF-? levels in brain and liver tissues were also measured. While RCS's of fatty liver rats were higher than the control group (p > 0.05) as well as spike percentages (p < 0.05), FMJ onset time was significantly shorter. TNF-? levels in liver and brain tissues of the rats with NAFLD were significantly higher than the control rats. We found that rats with NAFLD demonstrated decreased seizure thresholds, possibly due to increased cytokine levels systemically and within the central nervous system. As such, epilepsy patients taking medications that may predispose the development of NAFLD must be carefully managed to prevent the possibility of increased seizure episodes. PMID:24715054

Aksoy, Dürdane; Solmaz, Volkan; Ta?k?ran, Dilek; Erba?, Oytun

2014-09-01

28

Single-cell Tsc1 knockout during corticogenesis generates tuber-like lesions and reduces seizure threshold in mice  

PubMed Central

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mutations in Tsc1 or Tsc2 that lead to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) hyperactivity. Patients with TSC suffer from intractable seizures resulting from cortical malformations known as tubers, but research into how these tubers form has been limited because of the lack of an animal model. To address this limitation, we used in utero electroporation to knock out Tsc1 in selected neuronal populations in mice heterozygous for a mutant Tsc1 allele that eliminates the Tsc1 gene product at a precise developmental time point. Knockout of Tsc1 in single cells led to increased mTOR activity and soma size in the affected neurons. The mice exhibited white matter heterotopic nodules and discrete cortical tuber-like lesions containing cytomegalic and multinucleated neurons with abnormal dendritic trees resembling giant cells. Cortical tubers in the mutant mice did not exhibit signs of gliosis. Furthermore, phospho-S6 immunoreactivity was not upregulated in Tsc1-null astrocytes despite a lower seizure threshold. Collectively, these data suggest that a double-hit strategy to eliminate Tsc1 in discrete neuronal populations generates TSC-associated cortical lesions, providing a model to uncover the mechanisms of lesion formation and cortical hyperexcitability. In addition, the absence of glial reactivity argues against a contribution of astrocytes to lesion-associated hyperexcitability. PMID:21403402

Feliciano, David M.; Su, Tiffany; Lopez, Jean; Platel, Jean-Claude; Bordey, Angélique

2011-01-01

29

Influence of sildenafil on the anticonvulsant action of selected antiepileptic drugs against pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, on threshold for clonic seizures in mice. In addition, the effects of sildenafil on the anticonvulsant activity of selected antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), i.e., clonazepam (CZP), valproate (VPA), phenobarbital (PB), ethosuximide (ETS) and tiagabine (TGB), were also evaluated. The subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test was used to determine the effects of sildenafil on convulsive susceptibility and the anticonvulsant activity of the studied AEDs in mice, while the acute side effects of sildenafil and its combinations with the studied AEDs were evaluated in the chimney test, step-through passive-avoidance task and grip-strength test in mice. Total brain concentrations of AEDs were also determined. Sildenafil (5–40 mg/kg) did not influence the threshold for PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice, but increased the anticonvulsant activity of ETS in this test without any significant changes in the total brain concentration. The activity of the remaining AEDs was not significantly changed by sildenafil. Neither sildenafil alone nor its combinations with the studied AEDs produced any changes in the motor coordination, long-term memory and muscular strength in mice. Co-administration of sildenafil with ETS in male epileptic patients with co-existing erectile dysfunctions might lead to the pharmacodynamic interactions that may be beneficial for the patients. Combinations of sildenafil with CZP, VPA, PB and TGB appear to be neutral in terms of their influence on seizures. PMID:22315091

Nieoczym, Dorota; Soca?a, Katarzyna; ?uszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanis?aw J; Wlaz, Piotr

2012-08-01

30

Impaired fear conditioning but enhanced seizure sensitivity in rats given repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol.  

PubMed

Repeated experience of withdrawal from chronic alcohol treatment increases sensitivity to seizures. It has been argued by analogy that negative affective consequences of withdrawal also sensitize, but repeated experience of withdrawal from another sedative-hypnotic drug, diazepam, results in amelioration of withdrawal anxiety and aversiveness. We tested whether giving rats repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol altered their ability to acquire a conditioned emotional response (CER). Male Hooded Lister rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet as their only food source. Different groups received control diet, or diet containing 7% ethanol. Rats receiving ethanol diet were fed for either 24 days (Single withdrawal, SWD), or 30 days, with two periods of 3 days, starting at day 11, and 21, in which they received control diet (Repeated withdrawal, RWD). All rats were fed lab chow at the end of their liquid diet feeding period. Starting 12 days after the final withdrawal, groups of Control, SWD and RWD rats were given pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 30 mg/kg, i.p.) three times a week, and scored for seizures. The occurrence of two successive Stage 5 seizures was taken as the criterion for full PTZ kindling. Other groups of control, SWD and RWD rats were trained to operate levers to obtain food, and were then exposed, in a fully counterbalanced design, to light and tone stimuli which predicted unavoidable footshock (CS+), or which had no consequences (CS-). Rats consumed approximately 17.5 g/kg/day of ethanol, resulting in blood alcohol levels of approximately 100 mg/dL. Repeated administration of PTZ resulted in increasing seizure scores. RWD rats achieved kindling criterion faster than either Control or SWD rats. No differences were seen in the groups in flinch threshold to footshock (0.3 mA). At a shock intensity of 0.35 mA, Control, but not RWD or SWD rats showed significant suppression to the CS+ CS- presentation did not affect response rates. The three groups differed in their response to pairing the CS+ with increasing shock levels, the Controls remaining more sensitive to the CS+. SWD rats showed significant suppression of lever pressing during CS+ presentations only at 0.45 and 0.5 mA, and RWD rats only at 0.5 mA. Giving rats repeated experience of withdrawal from chronic ethanol results in increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling, but reduces their ability to acquire a CER. Withdrawal kindling of sensitivity to anxiogenic events does not seem to occur under circumstances which give rise to kindling of seizure sensitivity. PMID:11860497

Stephens, D N; Brown, G; Duka, T; Ripley, T L

2001-12-01

31

Closed-loop seizure control on epileptic rat models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper numerous alternative treatments in addition to pharmacological therapy are proposed for their use in epileptic patients. Epileptic animal models can play a crucial role in the performance evaluation of new therapeutic techniques. The objective of this research is to first develop various epileptic rat models; second, develop a portable wireless closed-loop seizure controller including on-line seizure detection and real-time electrical stimulation for seizure elimination; and third, apply the developed seizure controller to the animal models to perform on-line seizure elimination. The closed-loop seizure controller was applied to three Long-Evans rats with spontaneous spike-wave discharges (non-convulsive) and three Long-Evans rats with epileptiform activities induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection (convulsive) for evaluation. The seizure detection accuracy is greater than 92% (up to 99%), and averaged seizure detection latency is less than 0.6 s for both spontaneous non-convulsive and PTZ-induced convulsive seizures. The average false stimulation rate is 3.1%. Near 30% of PTZ-induced convulsive seizures need more than two times of 0.5 s electrical stimulation for suppression and 90% of the non-convulsive seizures can be suppressed by only one 0.5 s electrical stimulation.

Liang, Sheng-Fu; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Chang, Da-Wei; Young, Chung-Ping; Chiueh, Herming

2011-08-01

32

Dcx reexpression reduces subcortical band heterotopia and seizure threshold in an animal model of neuronal migration disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disorders of neuronal migration can lead to malformations of the cerebral neocortex that greatly increase the risk of seizures. It remains untested whether malformations caused by disorders in neuronal migration can be reduced by reactivating cellular migration and whether such repair can decrease seizure risk. Here we show, in a rat model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) generated by in

Jean-Bernard Manent; Yu Wang; YoonJeung Chang; Murugan Paramasivam; Joseph J LoTurco

2008-01-01

33

Evaluation of sphingolipids changes in brain tissues of rats with pentylenetetrazol-induced kindled seizures using MALDI-TOF-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal lipid metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neural system diseases, including epilepsy. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling in rodents is considered a model of human absence epilepsy and myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic seizure. In an effort to further understand the mechanism for PTZ-induced seizure, we analyzed crude lipids and sphingolipids in the cortex, hippocampus, and brain stem of normal

Xiaoqiong Ma; Guangyi Liu; Shuang Wang; Zhong Chen; Maode Lai; Ziyang Liu; Jun Yang

2007-01-01

34

Evidence that the dorsal raphe area is involved in the effect of clonidine against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) in the rat ventromedial tegmentum, which depleted forebrain serotonin, and of 6-hydroxydopamine in the dorsal noradrenergic bundle, which causes a marked reduction of forebrain noradrenaline, intensified pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Neither condition significantly modified the inhibitory effect of 0.5 mg\\/kg clonidine on PTZ-induced seizures, with the exception of the effect on mortality which was reduced in 5,7-DHT

M. Lazarova; C. Bendotti; R. Samanin

1984-01-01

35

ACT-Vision: active collaborative tracking for multiple PTZ cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a novel scalable approach for the management of a large number of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras deployed outdoors for persistent tracking of humans and vehicles, without resorting to the large fields of view of associated static cameras. Our system, Active Collaborative Tracking - Vision (ACT-Vision), is essentially a real-time operating system that can control hundreds of PTZ cameras to ensure uninterrupted tracking of target objects while maintaining image quality and coverage of all targets using a minimal number of sensors. The system ensures the visibility of targets between PTZ cameras by using criteria such as distance from sensor and occlusion.

Broaddus, Christopher; Germano, Thomas; Vandervalk, Nicholas; Divakaran, Ajay; Wu, Shunguang; Sawhney, Harpreet

2009-04-01

36

Neuropharmacological effects of carvacryl acetate on ?-aminolevulinic dehydratase, Na+, K+-ATPase activities and amino acids levels in mice hippocampus after seizures.  

PubMed

Epileptic syndromes are highly prevalent neurological conditions and can often be disabling. In order to find an alternative for treatment, this study evaluated anticonvulsant effects of carvacryl acetate (CA), a derivative of monoterpene carvacrol, after seizures induced by pilocarpine (P400), picrotoxin (PIC) or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). We also analyzed the CA effects on Na+, K+-ATPase and ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALA-D) activities in hippocampus mice after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ. In addition, glutamate, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine and aspartate levels in mice hippocampus treated with CA after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ were also measured. CA produced anticonvulsant effects against seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ, and its effects were reversed by flumazenil, suggesting that action mechanism can be mediated by GABAergic system. CA increased GABA levels, but did not alter glutamate and aspartate concentrations in mice hippocampus after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ when compared with seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ (p<0.05), respectively, as well as decreased glutamine content in mice hippocampus after seizures induced by PIC when compared with seizures induced by PIC (p<0.05). In addition, CA also increased Na+, K+-ATPase and ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activities after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ when compared with seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ (p<0.05), respectively. This study demonstrated that CA could be a future therapeutic option for treatment of epilepsy, with a multifactorial brain action mechanism. PMID:25490531

Pires, Lúcio Fernandes; Costa, Luciana Muratori; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; Silva, Oskar Almeida; Santos Cerqueira, Gilberto; de Sousa, Damiăo Pergentino; Pires, Rosana Martins Carneiro; Satyal, Prabodh; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

2015-01-25

37

EXAMINATION OF THE PROCONVULSANT ACTION OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES USING PENTYLENETETRAZOL AND AMYGDALA KINDLING SEIZURE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The seizure-inducing properties of two pyrethroids were assessed by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure models (repeated ip, suprathreshold ip, and iv), and electrical kindling of the amygdala. he efficacy of po versus ip routes of deltamethrin administration was compared using iv-PT...

38

The Effects of Nigella Sativa Hydro-alcoholic Extract on Memory and Brain Tissues Oxidative Damage after Repeated Seizures in Rats  

PubMed Central

Regarding the therapeutic properties of Nigella sativa (NS), the effects of the plant hydro – alcoholic extract on learning, memory and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in penthylenetetrazole (PTZ) - induced repeated seizures. There were 4 experimental groups including: 1- control group; received saline, 2- PTZ group ; received saline and PTZ (50 mg/Kg, i.p) , 3-PTZ- NS 200 and 4- PTZ- NS 400 ; received 200 and 400 mg/Kg of NS extract respectively, before PTZ injection in 5 consecutive days. Seizure scores were lower in PTZ – NS 200 and 400, furthermore the seizure onset latencies were higher in these groups than PTZ group (P<0.05 and P<0.01 ). In Morris water maze, the time spent in target quadrant by PTZ group was lower than control group (P<0.05); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.01). In the passive avoidance test, delay time to enter the dark by PTZ group was lower than control at 1 and 24 hours after training (P<0.01- P<0.001); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.05). The total thiol concentration in hippocampal and cortical tissues of PTZ group was reduced while, MDA concentration was higher than control (p<0.05 - p<0.001). Administration of the extract increased the total thiol and decreased the MDA concentrations (p<0.01- p<0.001). It is concluded that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS possess beneficial effects on learning and memory impairments in repeated seizures model which is accompanied by antioxidant effects in the brain.

Vafaee, Farzaneh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Zahra; Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Amani, Atefeh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

2015-01-01

39

Effects of Luteolin on Liver, Kidney and Brain in Pentylentetrazol-Induced Seizures: Involvement of Metalloproteinases and NOS Activities  

PubMed Central

Objective: Flavonoids are an important group of recognized antioxidants in plants. Luteolin (LUT) is a natural flavonoid in the plant kingdom. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of the LUT in the liver, kidney and brain of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure and the relationship between nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9). Materials and Methods: LUT (10 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally during two weeks prior to seizure induction. A single dose PTZ 80 mg/kg i.p. was administered and seizures were observed and evaluated with regard to latency, frequency and stage for one hour. Results: Seizure frequen cy after PTZ administration was significantly decreased in LUT pretreated rats (p<0.05). An increase of immunhistochemical reactions of iNOS and MMP2, but a decrease of eNOS activity, were observed in rat hippocampus and peripheral tissues during the PTZ induced seizures. LUT pretreatment reversed the iNOS and MMP2 activity to the control levels and significantly increased the eNOS activity (p<0.001). Conclusion: LUT seems to have an effective role in reducing the seizure frequency and a protective role on peripheral organ injury in animal models of seizure. The protective effect of LUT in seizures and the seizure induced peripheral tissue damage warrant further investigations. PMID:25206993

Birman, Hüsniye; Dar, Kadriye Akgün; Kapucu, Ay?egül; Acar, Samet; Üzüm, Gülay

2012-01-01

40

Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid.  

PubMed

Phosphatidylinositol (3-5) trisphosphate (PIP3) is a central regulator of diverse neuronal functions that are critical for seizure progression, however its role in seizures is unclear. We have recently hypothesised that valproic acid (VPA), one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy, may target PIP3 signalling as a therapeutic mode of action. Here, we show that seizure induction using kainic acid in a rat in vivo epilepsy model resulted in a decrease in hippocampal PIP3 levels and reduced protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) phosphorylation, measured using ELISA mass assays and Western blot analysis, and both changes were restored following VPA treatment. These finding were reproduced in cultured rat hippocampal primary neurons and entorhinal cortex-hippocampal slices during exposure to the GABA(A) receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), which is widely used to generate seizures and seizure-like (paroxysmal) activity. Moreover, VPA's effect on paroxysmal activity in the PTZ slice model is blocked by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition or PIP2 sequestration by neomycin, indicating that VPA's efficacy is dependent upon PIP3 signalling. PIP3 depletion following PTZ treatment may also provide a positive feedback loop, since enhancing PIP3 depletion increases, and conversely, reducing PIP3 dephosphorylation reduces paroxysmal activity and this effect is dependent upon AMPA receptor activation. Our results therefore indicate that PIP3 depletion occurs with seizure activity, and that VPA functions to reverse these effects, providing a novel mechanism for VPA in epilepsy treatment. PMID:24148856

Chang, Pishan; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

2014-02-01

41

Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid?  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylinositol (3–5) trisphosphate (PIP3) is a central regulator of diverse neuronal functions that are critical for seizure progression, however its role in seizures is unclear. We have recently hypothesised that valproic acid (VPA), one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy, may target PIP3 signalling as a therapeutic mode of action. Here, we show that seizure induction using kainic acid in a rat in vivo epilepsy model resulted in a decrease in hippocampal PIP3 levels and reduced protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) phosphorylation, measured using ELISA mass assays and Western blot analysis, and both changes were restored following VPA treatment. These finding were reproduced in cultured rat hippocampal primary neurons and entorhinal cortex–hippocampal slices during exposure to the GABA(A) receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), which is widely used to generate seizures and seizure-like (paroxysmal) activity. Moreover, VPA's effect on paroxysmal activity in the PTZ slice model is blocked by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition or PIP2 sequestration by neomycin, indicating that VPA's efficacy is dependent upon PIP3 signalling. PIP3 depletion following PTZ treatment may also provide a positive feedback loop, since enhancing PIP3 depletion increases, and conversely, reducing PIP3 dephosphorylation reduces paroxysmal activity and this effect is dependent upon AMPA receptor activation. Our results therefore indicate that PIP3 depletion occurs with seizure activity, and that VPA functions to reverse these effects, providing a novel mechanism for VPA in epilepsy treatment. PMID:24148856

Chang, Pishan; Walker, Matthew C.; Williams, Robin S.B.

2014-01-01

42

Antiepileptic drugs prevent changes in adenosine deamination during acute seizure episodes in adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Adenosine is an endogenous modulator of brain functions, which presents anticonvulsant properties. In addition, its levels can be increased during neural injury. The modulation of extracellular adenosine levels by ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities may represent a key mechanism in the control of epileptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute seizure episodes and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments on ectonucleotidases and ADA activities in adult zebrafish brain. Our data have demonstrated that pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures did not alter ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis in brain membrane fractions. However, there was a significant increase on ecto-ADA and soluble ADA activities in PTZ-treated animals immediately after a clonus-like convulsion and loss of posture, which are typical behavioral changes observed in Stage 3. Furthermore, our results have demonstrated that AED pretreatments prevented the stimulatory effect promoted by PTZ exposure on ADA activities. The PTZ and AED treatments did not promote alterations on ADA gene expression. Interestingly, when exposed to PTZ, animals pretreated with AEDs showed longer latency to reach the clonus-like seizure status, which is an effect that matches the suppression of the increase of ADA activity promoted by the AEDs. These data suggest that the adenosine deamination could be involved in the control of seizure development in zebrafish and may be modulated by AED treatments. PMID:23287800

Siebel, Anna Maria; Piato, Angelo Luis; Schaefer, Isabel Costa; Nery, Laura Roesler; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise

2013-03-01

43

Impaired neurogenesis, learning and memory and low seizure threshold associated with loss of neural precursor cell survivin  

PubMed Central

Background Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family in that it exhibits antiapoptotic properties and also promotes the cell cycle and mediates mitosis as a chromosome passenger protein. Survivin is highly expressed in neural precursor cells in the brain, yet its function there has not been elucidated. Results To examine the role of neural precursor cell survivin, we first showed that survivin is normally expressed in periventricular neurogenic regions in the embryo, becoming restricted postnatally to proliferating and migrating NPCs in the key neurogenic sites, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ). We then used a conditional gene inactivation strategy to delete the survivin gene prenatally in those neurogenic regions. Lack of embryonic NPC survivin results in viable, fertile mice (SurvivinCamcre) with reduced numbers of SVZ NPCs, absent rostral migratory stream, and olfactory bulb hypoplasia. The phenotype can be partially rescued, as intracerebroventricular gene delivery of survivin during embryonic development increases olfactory bulb neurogenesis, detected postnatally. SurvivinCamcre brains have fewer cortical inhibitory interneurons, contributing to enhanced sensitivity to seizures, and profound deficits in memory and learning. Conclusions The findings highlight the critical role that survivin plays during neural development, deficiencies of which dramatically impact on postnatal neural function. PMID:20051123

2010-01-01

44

Ultra-low dose cannabinoid antagonist AM251 enhances cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoid compounds are anticonvulsant since they have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to Gi/o proteins. Surprisingly, both the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist naltrexone and as opioid and cannabinoid systems interact, it has been shown that ultra-low dose naltrexone also enhances cannabinoid-induced antinociception. However, regarding the seizure modulating properties of both classes of receptors this study investigated whether ultra-low dose cannabinoid antagonist AM251 influences cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects. The clonic seizure threshold (CST) was tested in separate groups of male NMRI mice following injection of vehicle, the cannabinoid selective agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and ultra-low doses of the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist AM251 and a combination of ACEA and AM251 doses in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Systemic administration of ultra-low doses of AM251 (10 fg/kg-100 ng/kg) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of ACEA at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. Moreover, inhibition of cannabinoid induced excitatory signaling by AM251 (100 pg/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of ACEA (100 ng/kg-100 microg/kg), suggesting that a presumed inhibitory component of cannabinoid receptor signaling can exert strong seizure-protective effects even at very low levels of cannabinoid receptor activation. A similar potentiation by AM251 (100 pg/kg and 1 ng/kg) of anticonvulsant effects of non-effective dose of ACEA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) was also observed in the generalized tonic-clonic model of seizure. The present data suggest that ultra-low doses of cannabinoid receptor antagonists may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility, especially in conjunction with very low doses of cannabinoids. PMID:17870135

Gholizadeh, Shervin; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Bahremand, Arash; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2007-11-01

45

Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: In this study, the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill) leaves was studied for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy, by using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. The evaluated plant has a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, additionally, dill has been claimed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Methods: For the PTZ kindling induction, mice were given a dose of PTZ (37 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) every other day, and seizure stages were precisely recorded. During and after kindling, the effects of the non-toxic doses of the aqueous extracts (100, 250, and 400 mg/kg) on seizure latency in stage 2 (S2L), seizure latency in stage 4 (S4L), and seizure duration in stage 5 (S5D) were measured. Results: The aqueous extract of dill leaves had a noticeable anticonvulsant effect. The 400 mg/kg dose of the extract sample decreased with S5D (P < 0.05), and increased with S2L and S4L significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The obtained data shows that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity against seizure induced by PTZ. The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in this medicinal herb suggests further activity and guided fractionation studies in order to introduce this plant as a valuable source of anticonvulsant agents. PMID:24643194

ARASH, Akaberi; MOHAMMAD, Mohammad-Zadeh; JAMAL, Mirmoosavi Seyed; MOHAMMAD, Tazari Ali; AZAM, Abarashi

2013-01-01

46

Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures are associated with Na?,K?-ATPase activity decrease and alpha subunit phosphorylation state in the mice cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate whether Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state of the catalytic ? subunit are altered by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. PTZ (30, 45 or 60 g/kg, i.p.) was administered to adult male Swiss mice, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state were measured in the cerebral cortex 15 min after PTZ administration. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity significantly decreased after PTZ-induced seizures (60 mg/kg). Immunoreactivity of phosphorylated Ser943 at ? subunit was increased after PTZ-induced seizures. A significant positive correlation between Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and latency to myoclonic jerks and generalized seizures was found. Conversely, a strong negative correlation between Ser943 phosphorylation and latency to generalized seizures was detected. Given the role of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a major regulator of brain excitability, Ser943 at Na(+),K(+)-ATPase ? subunit may represent a potentially valuable new target for drug development for seizure disorders. PMID:23602551

Marquezan, Bárbara P; Funck, Vinícius R; Oliveira, Clarissa V; Pereira, Letícia M; Araújo, Stífani M; Zarzecki, Micheli S; Royes, Luiz Fernando F; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro S

2013-08-01

47

Montelukast Inhibits Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Montelukast is an antiinflammatory drug with an antioxidant property. In this study, we aimed to reveal whether montelukast has a preventive effect against seizures and post-seizure oxidative stress in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. Material/Methods Of the 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study, 24 were assigned to EEG recordings (group A) and 24 were assigned to behavioral studies (group B). In group A, the electrodes were implanted on dura over the left frontal cortex for EEG recording. After 10 days, in group A, i.p. saline, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg montelukast+35 mg/kg PTZ was administered to the rats. EEG was recorded and spike percentage was evaluated. In group B, i.p. saline, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg montelukast+70 mg/kg PTZ was administered to the rats. Racine’s Convulsion Scale (RCS) and onset times of first myoclonic jerk (FMJ) was used to evaluate the seizures. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined in the brain tissue of animals. Results Animals treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg montelukast had significantly lower RCS and significantly increased FMJ onset time compared to the saline-treated animals. Moreover, groups given 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg montelukast had significantly lower MDA and higher SOD levels compared to the saline-treated group. The differences were more pronounced in the 100 mg/kg montelukast-pretreated group (p<0.001). Conclusions Montelukast showed anticonvulsant action and led to amelioration of oxidative stress markers in PTZ-induced seizures in rats. PMID:25803241

Cevik, Betul; Solmaz, Volkan; Aksoy, Durdane; Erbas, Oytun

2015-01-01

48

Febrile Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... term impact that febrile seizures might have on intelligence, behavior, school achievement, and the development of epilepsy. ... and especially very long seizures, on measures of intelligence and on the development of epilepsy. In particular ...

49

Effects of tamoxifen, mifepristone and cyproterone on the electroconvulsive threshold and pentetrazole-induced convulsions in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three antihormones, tamoxifen (TXF, an antiestrogen), mifepristone (MIF, an antiprogesterone) and cyproterone (CYP, an antiandrogen) in two major models of experimental epilepsy, electrically and pentetrazole (PTZ)-evoked seizures in mice. TXF (20-50 mg/kg) significantly raised the threshold for electroconvulsions in female mice, whereas CYP was active in male mice. Similar effects were observed in castrated mice. Different data were obtained in sexually immature animals since both TXF and CYP exerted anticonvulsive effects in animals of both genders. MIF (5-50 mg/kg) remained without effect on electrically evoked seizures in mice. The anticonvulsive action of TXF was reversed by aminophylline, bicuculline, kainic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, but not by estradiol or strychnine. The protective action of CYP was reversed by aminophylline and bicuculline, but not by testosterone, kainic acid, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid or strychnine. All three antihormones were ineffective against PTZ-induced convulsions in mice. Our results suggest that the action of TXF and CYP might be indirectly associated with the respective hormonal receptor-mediated events, but the nature of this dependence is unclear and further investigations are needed to elucidate this phenomenon. PMID:12139106

Borowicz, Kinga K; Luszczki, Jarogniew; Matuszek, Mariusz; Kleinrok, Zdzis?aw; Czuczwar, Stanis?aw J

2002-01-01

50

TS+OCD-like neuropotentiated mice are supersensitive to seizure induction.  

PubMed

Seizures can be induced by systemic dopamine D1 receptor agonists or by cortical-limbic neurostimulation non-selectively. Seizures are also often associated with tics and compulsions, which likewise involve cortical-limbic hyperactivity. To determine if selective potentiation of cortical-limbic D1 receptor-expressing (D1+) neurons increases seizure susceptibility, we administered pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) to mice that express a neuropotentiating transgene only in a glutamatergic, cortical-limbic subset of D1+ neurons (D1CT-7 line). These mice exhibited increased PTZ-dependent seizure incidence, onset rate and intensity. Because D1CT-7 mice also exhibit tic+compulsion-like behaviors, this implies that glutamatergic hyperactivity induced by cortical-limbic D1+ neuropotentiation facilitates not only epilepsy but also tics and compulsions. This suggests a dopamine-regulated glutamatergic basis for all three states and may explain why they often co-exist in humans. PMID:10923696

Campbell, K M; Veldman, M B; McGrath, M J; Burton, F H

2000-07-14

51

Thymoquinone and Vitamin C Attenuates Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures Via Activation of GABAB1 Receptor in Adult Rats Cortex and Hippocampus.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that leads to neuronal excitability and provoke various forms of cellular reorganization in the brain. In this study, we investigate the anti-convulsant and neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and vitamin C against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized seizures. Epileptic seizures were induced in adult rats using systemic intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (50 mg/kg) for 7 days. Animals pretreated with either TQ or vitamin C or in combination attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and mortality in rats as well neurodegeneration in the cells. Compared to PTZ, TQ and vitamin C significantly prolonged the onset of seizures (p > 0.05) as well decrease the high-grade seizures. Analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings revealed that TQ or vitamin C supplementation significantly reduced polyspike and epileptiform discharges. Epileptic seizures caused a decline in expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid B1 receptor (GABAB1R) (p > 0.05), unchanged expression of protein kinase A (PKA), decreased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) (p > 0.05) and inhibit the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (p > 0.05) in cortex and hippocampus, respectively, compared with control. Changes in expression of GABAB1R, CaMKII and CREB by PTZ were reversed by TQ and vitamin C supplementation. Moreover, PTZ significantly increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2 expression and finally the activation of caspase-3. TQ and vitamin C pretreatment reversed all these deleterious effects induced by PTZ. TQ and vitamin C showed anticonvulsant effects via activation of GABAB1R/CaMKII/CREB pathway and suggest a potential therapeutic role in epilepsy. PMID:25429759

Ullah, Ikram; Badshah, Haroon; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok

2015-03-01

52

Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure-like behavior and neural hyperactivity in the medicinal leech.  

PubMed

This study examined the capacity of a known pro-epileptic drug, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to elicit seizure-like activity in the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. During in vivo experiments, PTZ elicited increased motor activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest concentration (10 mM) eliciting episodes of highly uncoordinated exploratory and swimming behavior. Co-application of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin, failed to reduce the absolute amount of PTZ-induced motor behavior, but was able to prevent expression of abnormal exploratory and swimming behaviors. During in vitro experiments in which extracellular recordings of connective nerve activity were made, bath application of 1 ?M PTZ in Mg(2+)-free saline elicited a significant increase in spontaneous activity. This PTZ-induced increase in activity was completely inhibited by phenytoin. Interestingly, PTZ-induced hyperactivity was also blocked by co-application of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. These findings suggest that the leech can be a useful system in which to study potential anti-epileptic treatments. PMID:25572075

Hahn, Elizabeth; Burrell, Brian

2015-03-01

53

Video Analysis in PTZ Camera Networks From master-slave to cooperative smart cameras  

E-print Network

. In modern surveillance systems, one of the major challenges in multi-camera tracking is the consistency needed. The introduction of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras brought new capabilities to surveillance networks a1 Video Analysis in PTZ Camera Networks From master-slave to cooperative smart cameras Christian

54

PTZ CAMERA CALIBRATION FOR AUGMENTED VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Lu Wang, Suya You, Ulrich Neumann  

E-print Network

videos captured by surveillance cameras mounted on the top of buildings are projected onto a 3D urban with the 3D model. Nowadays, PTZ cameras are popular in surveillance sys- tems. Their calibration posts twoPTZ CAMERA CALIBRATION FOR AUGMENTED VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS Lu Wang, Suya You, Ulrich Neumann

Shahabi, Cyrus

55

Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

2012-06-01

56

Lamotrigine Decreased Hippocampal Damage and Improved Vascular Risk Markers in a Rat Model of Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure  

PubMed Central

Various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) especially enzyme-inducing AEDs might be associated with increased vascular risk, through impairment of the endogenous antioxidative ability which may trigger oxygen-dependent tissue injury. Lamotrigine (LTG) a non-enzyme-inducing AED has scarce information regarding its effects on oxidative stress. The present study aimed to study the possible modulation of vascular risk factors of epileptogenesis by LTG, in a rat model of kindling seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Four groups of male Wister rats were used; vehicle control group, PTZ group (alternate day PTZ, 30 mg/kg, i.p), LTG/PTZ group (LTG 20 mg/kg/day p.o and alternate day PTZ) and LTG group. The study period was 5 weeks. Lipoproteins and total homocysteine (tHcy), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. Aortic endothelial function study and histopathological examination of the rats' brains, aortas and coronaries were conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), tHcy, MDA, GSH levels were significantly higher in epileptic rats than normal controls rats. A decrease in HDL-cholesterol with high atherosclerotic index was also demonstrated. The administration of LTG improved the PTZ-kindled seizures. It produced a significant decrease in TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol, MDA, aortic GSH and increase in HDL-cholesterol with no significant effect on serum GSH and tHcy levels. LTG improved endothelium-dependent relaxation, decreased hippocampal neurodegenerative changes and atherosclerotic changes of aortas and coronaries. LTG decreased seizures severity, hippocampal damage and improved vascular risk markers in this rat model of kindling seizures. PMID:24976768

Haggag, Basma S; Raafat, Mona H; Abdel Kawy, Hala S

2014-01-01

57

The role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on seizure  

PubMed Central

Objective : Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures. Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidate the possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation. Results: Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p<0.05-p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model. PMID:25068139

Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazmand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Faizpour, Azadeh; Ghasemabady, Marzieh

2014-01-01

58

The ameliorative effects of sesamol against seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in the experimental model of epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): A growing interest has recently been attracted towards the identification of plant-based medications including those with protective effects against cognitive impairment. Sesamol has shown promising antioxidant and neuroprotective effects, therefore, we aimed to evaluate its therapeutic potential in epilepsy which is commonly associated with oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats received pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (30 mg/kg, IP) once every other day until the development of kindling, i.e., the occurrence of stage 5 of seizures for three consecutive trials. After the completion of kindling procedure, behavioural tests including elevated plus maze and passive avoidance were performed in order to assess learning and memory. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimation of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The effects of pretreatment with sesamol (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, IP) against PTZ-induced seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress were investigated. Results: 32.45 ± 1.86 days after treatment with PTZ, kindling was developed that was associated with myoclonic jerks and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Moreover, PTZ kindling induced a remarkable cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. Sesamol (30 mg/kg) significantly delayed the development of kindling and prevented seizure-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. Conclusion: Sesamol exerts ameliorative effects in the experimental model of epilepsy. This phytochemical may be considered as a beneficial adjuvant for antiepileptic drugs. PMID:24711892

Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Arbabi, Elham; Rostami, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

59

Seizure termination.  

PubMed

A better understanding of the mechanisms by which most focal epileptic seizures stop spontaneously within a few minutes would be of highest importance, because they could potentially help to improve existing and develop novel therapeutic measures for seizure control. Studies devoted to unraveling mechanisms of seizure termination often take one of the two following approaches. The first approach focuses on metabolic mechanisms such as ionic concentrations, acidity, or neuromodulator release, studying how they are dependent on, and in turn affect changes of neuronal activity. The second approach uses quantitative tools to derive functional networks from electrophysiological recordings and analyzes these networks with mathematical methods, without focusing on actual details of cell biology. In this chapter, we summarize key results obtained by both of these approaches and attempt to show that they are complementary and equally necessary in our aim to gain a better understanding of seizure termination. PMID:25078503

Zubler, Frédéric; Steimer, Andreas; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar A

2014-01-01

60

Febrile seizures  

MedlinePLUS

Seizure - fever induced ... an illness, and may not occur when the fever is highest. Ear infections, a cold or viral ... other than symptoms of the illness causing the fever. Often, the child will not need a full ...

61

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT) antagonists decrease pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures. In line with this view, selected pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid derivatives have been reported to facilitate seizures. Kainate-induced seizures are accompanied by leukotriene formation, and are reduced by inhibitors of LOX/COX pathway. Moreover, LTD4 receptor blockade and LTD4 synthesis inhibition suppress pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling and pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures. Although there is convincing evidence supporting that blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction facilitates seizures, no study has investigated whether the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast is associated with its ability to maintain BBB integrity. In this study we investigated whether montelukast and other CysLT receptor antagonists decrease PTZ-induced seizures, as well as whether these antagonists preserve BBB during PTZ-induced seizures. Adult male albino Swiss mice were stereotaxically implanted with a cannula into the right lateral ventricle, and two electrodes were placed over the parietal cortex along with a ground lead positioned over the nasal sinus for electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The effects of montelukast (0.03 or 0.3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), pranlukast (1 or 3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), Bay u-9773 (0.3, 3 or 30 nmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), in the presence or absence of the agonist LTD4 (0.2, 2, 6 or 20 pmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), on PTZ (1.8 ?mol/2 ?L)-induced seizures and BBB permeability disruption were determined. The animals were injected with the antagonists, agonist or vehicle 30 min before PTZ, and monitored for additional 30 min for the appearance of seizures by electrographic and behavioral methods. BBB permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein method and by confocal microscopy for CD45 and IgG immunoreactivity. Bay-u9973 (3 and 30 nmol), montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) and pranlukast (1 and 3 ?mol), increased the latency to generalized seizures and decreased the mean amplitude of EEG recordings during seizures. LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) reverted the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast (0.3 ?mol). Montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) prevented PTZ-induced BBB disruption, an effect that was reversed by LTD4 at the dose of 6 pmol, but not at the doses 0.2 and 2 pmol. Moreover, the doses of LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) that reverted the effect of montelukast on seizures did not alter montelukast-induced protection of BBB, dissociating BBB protection and anticonvulsant activity. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that 1. PTZ increased the number of CD45+ and double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cerebral cortex, indicating BBB leakage with leukocyte infiltration; 2. while LTD4 (6 pmol) potentiated, montelukast decreased the effect of PTZ on leukocyte migration and BBB, assessed by double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cannulated hemisphere. Our data do not allow us ruling out that mechanisms unrelated and related to BBB protection may co-exist, resulting in decreased seizure susceptibility by montelukast. Notwithstanding, they suggest that CysLT1 receptors may be a suitable target for anticonvulsant development. PMID:25090924

Lenz, Q F; Arroyo, D S; Temp, F R; Poersch, A B; Masson, C J; Jesse, A C; Marafiga, J R; Reschke, C R; Iribarren, P; Mello, C F

2014-09-26

62

Controlling Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

Henderson, Nancy

2008-01-01

63

Febrile seizures  

PubMed Central

Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

2014-01-01

64

Chronic treatment with fluoxetine decreases seizure threshold in naďve but not in rats exposed to the learned helplessness paradigm: Correlation with the hippocampal glutamate release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proconvulsive effect of the new generation of antidepressants remains controversial. The authors investigated in naďve rats the effect of chronic treatment with fluoxetine (FLX) on the convulsive threshold and on two parameters of the hippocampal glutamatergic neurotransmission: the in vitro glutamate release and the binding of [3H] MK801 to NMDA receptors. While the acute treatment with FLX provoked no

Alejandro J. Ferrero; Marina Cereseto; Analía Reinés; Carla D. Bonavita; Laura L. Sifonios; Modesto C. Rubio; Silvia I. Wikinski

2005-01-01

65

Integration of multispectral face recognition and multi-PTZ camera automated surveillance for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to increasing security concerns, a complete security system should consist of two major components, a computer-based face-recognition system and a real-time automated video surveillance system. A computerbased face-recognition system can be used in gate access control for identity authentication. In recent studies, multispectral imaging and fusion of multispectral narrow-band images in the visible spectrum have been employed and proven to enhance the recognition performance over conventional broad-band images, especially when the illumination changes. Thus, we present an automated method that specifies the optimal spectral ranges under the given illumination. Experimental results verify the consistent performance of our algorithm via the observation that an identical set of spectral band images is selected under all tested conditions. Our discovery can be practically used for a new customized sensor design associated with given illuminations for an improved face recognition performance over conventional broad-band images. In addition, once a person is authorized to enter a restricted area, we still need to continuously monitor his/her activities for the sake of security. Because pantilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras are capable of covering a panoramic area and maintaining high resolution imagery for real-time behavior understanding, researches in automated surveillance systems with multiple PTZ cameras have become increasingly important. Most existing algorithms require the prior knowledge of intrinsic parameters of the PTZ camera to infer the relative positioning and orientation among multiple PTZ cameras. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel mapping algorithm that derives the relative positioning and orientation between two PTZ cameras based on a unified polynomial model. This reduces the dependence on the knowledge of intrinsic parameters of PTZ camera and relative positions. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm presents substantially reduced computational complexity and improved flexibility at the cost of slightly decreased pixel accuracy as compared to Chen and Wang's method [18].

Chen, Chung-Hao; Yao, Yi; Chang, Hong; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi

2013-06-01

66

Two polyoxometalate-directed 3D metal-organic frameworks with multinuclear silver-ptz cycle/belts as subunits.  

PubMed

Two new polyoxometalate (POM)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed from multinuclear silver-ptz cycle/belts, namely [Ag7(ptz)4(NO3)(H2O)][H4P2W18O62]·5H2O () and [Ag6(ptz)4(H2O)2][HPMo12O40]·3H2O () (ptzH = 5-(3-pyridyl)-1H-tetrazole), have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions via changing the polyoxoanions and adjusting the pH. Compound exhibits a 3D framework constructed from the Wells-Dawson [P2W18O62](6-) anion and a 2D layer based on two types of multinuclear Ag-ptz cycles. In compound , the 1D infinite multinuclear Ag-ptz belts consisting of repeated tetranuclear subunits [(Ag1)2(Ag2)2(ptz)4] are connected by Ag3 ions to form a 2D layer. The adjacent 2D layers are further linked by tetra-dentate Keggin [PMo12O40](3-) anions to construct a 3D framework. The structural analyses reveal that the different polyoxoanions have a great influence on the Ag(I)-ptz multinuclear cycle/belts and the whole structures. The influences of the pH and molar ratio of initial reactants in the hydrothermal process were also discussed. The electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of the title compounds have been studied in detail. PMID:23989233

Wang, Xiuli; Li, Na; Tian, Aixiang; Ying, Jun; Liu, Guocheng; Lin, Hongyan; Zhang, Juwen; Yang, Yang

2013-10-01

67

Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

Shafer, Patricia Osborne

2007-01-01

68

Treadmill Exercise Protects Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures and Oxidative Stress after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35?mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na+/K+-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility. PMID:23530735

Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogério da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia

2013-01-01

69

PROACTIVE PTZ CAMERA CONTROL A Cognitive Sensor Network That Plans Ahead  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Smart cameras, camera networks, computer vision, PTZ cameras, visual surveillance, persistent in the scene. This has led to surveillance systems that combine passive wide field-of-view (FOV) cameras Candidates (a) (b) Figure 1.1: (a) A camera network for video surveillance consists of cam

Toronto, University of

70

Unilateral Hypothalamus Inactivation Prevents PTZ Kindling Development through Hippocampal Orexin Receptor 1 Modulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Epilepsy is a neural disorder in which abnormal plastic changes during short and long term periods lead to increased excitability of brain tissue. Kindling is an animal model of epileptogenesis which results in changes of synaptic plasticity due to repetitive electrical or chemical sub-convulsive stimulations of the brain. Lateral hypothalamus, as the main niche of orexin neurons with extensive projections, is involved in sleep and wakefulness and so it affects the excitability of the brain. Therefore, we investigated whether lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) inactivation or orexin-A receptor blocking could change convulsive behavior of acute and kindled PTZ treated animals and if glutamate has a role in this regard. Methods Kindling was induced by 40 mg/kg PTZ, every 48 hours up to 13 injections to each rat. Three consecutive stages 4 or 5 of convulsive behavior were used to ensure kindling. Lidocaine was injected stereotaxically to inactivate LHA, unilaterally. SB334867 used for orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) blocking administered in CSF. Results We demonstrated that LHA inactivation prevented PTZ kindling and hence, excitability evolution. Hippocampal glutamate content was decreased due to LHA inactivation, OX1R antagonist infusion, lidocaine injection and kindled groups. In accordance, OX1R antagonist (SB334867) and lidocaine injection decreased PTZ single dose induced convulsive behavior. While orexin-A i.c.v. infusion increased hippocampal glutamate content, it did not change PTZ induced convulsive intensity. Discussion It is concluded that LHA inactivation prevented kindling development probably through orexin receptor antagonism. CSF orexin probably acts as an inhibitory step on convulsive intensity through another unknown process. PMID:25436086

Akbari, Nasibe; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; LashkarBoluki, Taghi; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh

2014-01-01

71

Non-invasive detection of optical changes elicited by seizure activity using time-series analysis of light scattering images in a rat model of generalized seizure.  

PubMed

For the first time, we detected optical changes elicited by seizure activity in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-treated rats (n=6) versus saline controls (n=2) over a 30min recording session using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images obtained non-invasively with a real-time multispectral diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system. Spatio-temporal images of absorption and scattering coefficients were recovered from PTZ- and saline-treated rats' brains using a finite element-based DOT image reconstruction algorithm. After pulse artifacts were eliminated, an independent component (IC) analysis was conducted for blind-source separation of the optical signals. The retrieved ICs were compared with concurrently measured EEG signals, and the selected components were further refined using K-means clustering and spectrum analysis tools. The results revealed that changes in absorption and scattering coefficients emerge sooner than changes in the EEG signal and a low frequency peak signal of ?0.3Hz in the spectra of light scattering images after PTZ injection. This low frequency caused by slow volume changes in CNS cells was not detected in control animals. Brain regions that we detected early changes in optical signals and activation maps were confirmed in an additional 3 PTZ-treated rats using the DOT system and concurrent EEG recordings obtained from multiple brain regions. Our results show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure and other CNS disorders with the additional benefit of providing access to physiological parameters that other modalities cannot access. PMID:24530435

Hajihashemi, M Reza; Zhang, Tao; Ormerod, Brandi K; Jiang, Huabei

2014-04-30

72

Seizure Termination by Acidosis Depends on ASIC1a  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Most seizures stop spontaneously. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Earlier observations that seizures reduce brain pH and that acidosis inhibits seizures indicated that acidosis halts epileptic activity. Because acid–sensing ion channel–1a (ASIC1a) shows exquisite sensitivity to extracellular pH and regulates neuron excitability, we hypothesized that acidosis might activate ASIC1a to terminate seizures. Disrupting mouse ASIC1a increased the severity of chemoconvulsant–induced seizures, whereas overexpressing ASIC1a had the opposite effect. ASIC1a did not affect seizure threshold or onset, but shortened seizure duration and prevented progression. CO2 inhalation, long known to lower brain pH and inhibit seizures, also required ASIC1a to interrupt tonic–clonic seizures. Acidosis activated inhibitory interneurons through ASIC1a, suggesting that ASIC1a might limit seizures by increasing inhibitory tone. These findings identify ASIC1a as a key element in seizure termination when brain pH falls. The results suggest a molecular mechanism for how the brain stops seizures and suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:18536711

Ziemann, Adam E.; Schnizler, Mikael K.; Albert, Gregory W.; Severson, Meryl A.; Howard, Matthew A.; Welsh, Michael J.; Wemmie, John A.

2008-01-01

73

SEIZURE DURATION AND RELATED ISSUES IN ECT FOR ENDOGENOUS DEPRESSION  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In a study comparing sinusoidal wave and brief-pulse ECT in endogenous depression, seizure duration was monitored by the cuff method in 29 patients over 180 treatment sessions. Mean seizure duration across all treatments was 26.5 secs, and the mean for individual patients across their ECT course ranged from a minimum of 15.7 secs to maximum of38.5 secs. Regression analysis found no variable which significantly predicted mean seizure duration. Of the 22 good responders in the study, response to ECT was associated with a mean seizure duration of secs in 1 patient, ando cs in 11 patients; as just 2 of 7poor responders to ECT had a mean seizure duration of <20 secs in 1 patients, <25 secs in 11 patients, of the 22 good responders in the study; as just 2 of 7 poor responders to ECT had a mean seizure duration of <25 secs, it appears that a cuff seizure duration of over 20 secs may suffice for the seizure to be therapeutic in depression. With (constant current) brief pulse ECT, seizure threshold significantly increased with successive ECTs; thresholds did not however differ between the good and poor responders. There was a trend for seizure duration to decrease over time; again, good and poor responders did not differ. These findings provide little support for the anticonvulsant hypothesis for the antidepressant effect of ECT, but support the literature that ECT exerts an anticonvulsant effect. PMID:21776168

Andrade, Chittaranjan

1993-01-01

74

Contribution of estradiol in sex-dependent differences of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats.  

PubMed

In the present study the contribution of estradiol in sex-dependent differences of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures was investigated in rats. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) sham, 2) ovariectomized (OVX), 3) ovariectomized-estradiol (OVX-Est) and 4) male. The OVX-Est group received estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; i.m/4 weeks) while, male, sham and OVX groups received vehicle. The animals were injected by PTZ (90 mg/kg). The latencies to minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), were recorded. Serum 17?-estradiol and testosterone levels were also determined using an Elisa kit. GTCS latency in OVX rats was higher than in sham-operated animals (P < 0.05). MCS and GTCS latency in the male group was significantly higher than in the sham, OVX and OVX-Est groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in MCS or GTCS latencies among OVX-Est, sham and OVX groups. Serum 17?-estradiol level in the OVX group was significantly lower than in the sham (P < 0.01) and in the OVX-Est group it was higher than in the sham, OVX and male groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). Serum testosterone level in the male group was significantly higher than in all the other three groups (P < 0.001). It seems that testosterone probably has a more efficient role than estradiol in the gender dependent difference in seizure caused by PTZ in rats. PMID:23524184

Hosseini, Mahmoud; Sadeghnia, H R; Salehabadi, S; Soukhtanloo, M

2013-06-01

75

Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Methods: Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Results: Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure. PMID:23825891

Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

2013-01-01

76

Video game induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

1994-01-01

77

Novel Vitamin K analogues suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world’s population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit HDACs using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, NQN1, significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of VPA. We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogues. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6 Hz) and corneal kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogues for prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production. PMID:24291671

Rahn, Jennifer J.; Bestman, Jennifer E.; Josey, Benjamin J.; Inks, Elizabeth S.; Stackley, Krista D.; Rogers, Carolyn E.; Chou, C. James; Chan, Sherine S. L.

2014-01-01

78

Neuropeptide Y: potential role in recurrent developmental seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures induce profound plastic changes in the brain, including altered expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors. Here I discuss a potential role of NPY plasticity in the developmental brain: In a rat model of febrile seizures (FS), the most common type of seizures in infants and young children, NPY expression was up-regulated in hippocampus after experimentally-induced FS. Interestingly, NPY up-regulation was associated with an increased seizure threshold for additional (recurrent) FS, and this effect was abolished when an antagonist against NPY receptor type 2 was applied. These findings suggest that inhibitory actions of NPY, released after seizures, exert a protective effect that reduces the risk of seizure recurrence in the developing brain. PMID:17196709

Dubé, Celine

2007-01-01

79

Naringin ameliorates pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and cognitive impairment in rats: possible mechanisms of neuroprotection.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and cognitive impairment are associated with PTZ-induced convulsions. Naringin is a bioflavonoid present in the grapefruit. It is a potent antioxidant, and we evaluated its effect on PTZ-induced convulsions. Rats were pretreated with normal saline, naringin (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, i.p.), or diazepam (5mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to the administration of PTZ. The administration of PTZ induced myoclonic jerks and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTSs). We observed that naringin significantly prolonged the induction of myoclonic jerks dose-dependently. Naringin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment protected all rats, and this protective effect was annulled by the GABAA receptor antagonist, flumazenil. In addition, naringin reduced brain MDA and TNF-? levels and conserved GSH. The pretreatment also enhanced the performance of rats in the passive avoidance task. Our observations highlight the antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticonvulsant potential of naringin. Also, naringin modulates the GABAA receptor to produce anticonvulsant effects and to ameliorate cognitive impairment. PMID:25461197

Golechha, Mahaveer; Sarangal, Vikas; Bhatia, Jagriti; Chaudhry, Uma; Saluja, Daman; Arya, Dharmveer Singh

2014-12-01

80

Lithium inhibits the modulatory effects of morphine on susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice: involvement of a nitric oxide pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium has been reported to inhibit opioid-induced properties. The present study examined the effect of acute and chronic administration of lithium chloride (LiCl) on morphine's biphasic modulation of susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizure in mice. We also examined the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in lithium effect. Both acute (0.1 and 1 mg\\/kg) and chronic (same doses,

Hooman Honar; Kiarash Riazi; Houman Homayoun; Shadpour Demehri; Mehdi Dehghani; Kourosh Vafaie; Mohammad Reza Ebrahimkhani; Narges Rashidi; Seyed Ali Gaskari; Ahmad Reza Dehpour

2004-01-01

81

Studies on the role of serotonin in different regions of the rat central nervous system of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and the effect of di- n -propylacetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections which caused selective depletion of serotonin in the forebrain enhanced the seizures caused by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 90 mg\\/kg s.c.) in rats. No effect was observed in rats with 5,7-DHT-induced depletion of spinal serotonin or treated with metergoline (1 mg\\/kg i.p.) or methysergide (10 mg\\/kg i.p.).

M. Lazarova; C. Bendotti; R. Samanin

1983-01-01

82

Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Anethum Graveolens Seed on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Adult Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regarding chronic nature of epilepsy and its side effects and to access the effective treatment procedures, herbal medicine has received remarkable interest. The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -induced seizure in male mice. Methods Fifty-six albino male mice were divided randomly into seven groups including the negative control (saline), positive control (Phenobarbital) and treatment groups using different doses of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (50, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg). To provoke convulsion, PTZ was injected to all groups and initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures as well as surveillance after 24 h were measured. Results The results indicated that hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (AGS) delayed the initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with saline group. The latency was considerable for myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures at all above mentioned doses of AGS extract except for the lowest one. Moreover, the protective effect of AGS extract against mortality was statistically significant at all doses except for 50 mg/kg. Discussion As the hydro-alcoholic extract of AGS showed an appropriate response in experimental model of convulsion, it might be considered as an adjuvant therapy with other traditional antiepileptic medications. PMID:25337380

Rostampour, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Arghavan; Salehi, Peyman; Saadat, Farshid

2014-01-01

83

Generalized tonic-clonic seizure  

MedlinePLUS

... tonic-clonic seizures have vision, taste, smell, or sensory changes, hallucinations, or dizziness before the seizure. This ... lasts for 1 hour or longer Loss of memory (amnesia) about the seizure episode Headache Weakness of ...

84

Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…

Goldman, Alica M.

2006-01-01

85

Prediction of epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

For almost 40 years, neuroscientists thought that epileptic seizures began abruptly, just a few seconds before clinical attacks. There is now mounting evidence that seizures develop minutes to hours before clinical onset. This change in thinking is based on quantitative studies of long digital intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from patients being evaluated for epilepsy surgery. Evidence that seizures can be predicted is spread over diverse sources in medical, engineering, and patent publications. Techniques used to forecast seizures include frequency-based methods, statistical analysis of EEG signals, non-linear dynamics (chaos), and intelligent engineered systems. Advances in seizure prediction promise to give rise to implantable devices able to warn of impending seizures and to trigger therapy to prevent clinical epileptic attacks. Treatments such as electrical stimulation or focal drug infusion could be given on demand and might eliminate side-effects in some patients taking antiepileptic drugs long term. Whether closed-loop seizure-prediction and treatment devices will have the profound clinical effect of their cardiological predecessors will depend on our ability to perfect these techniques. Their clinical efficacy must be validated in large-scale, prospective, controlled trials. PMID:12849542

Litt, Brian; Echauz, Javier

2002-05-01

86

Comparative profiles of sodium valproate and ethosuximide on electro-behavioural correlates in gamma-hydroxybutyrate and pentylenetetrazol induced absence seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Sodium valproate (VPA) and ethosuximide (ESM) were compared on behavioural and EEG changes in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat models of Absence Seizures (AS). Both GHB, 100 mg/kg i.p. and PTZ, 20 mg/kg i.p., produced repetitive episodes of staring and immobility with concomitant 6 to 9 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG. The parameters used for drug evaluation were the number and duration of SWDs/hour. Though the number of SWDs/hour produced by GHB and PTZ were not significantly different, the duration of SWDs was significantly longer in GHB treated rats (P < 0.001) VPA and ESM, at 200 mg/kg i.p., reduced SWD number and duration in GHB pretreated rats, whereas ESM, 50 mg/kg i.p., was four times more effective than VPA, 200 mg/kg i.p., in the PTZ model. Phenytoin (PHY) 20 and Carbamazepine (CBZ) 10 mg/kg i.p., worsened AS, a feature which has also been reported clinically. Both rat models of experimental AS can be used to defect potential anti-absence activity in new chemical entities. PMID:11214495

Kumaresan, S; David, J; Joseph, T

2000-10-01

87

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome aminoacylase 1 deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ...

88

The involvement of Na+, K+-ATPase activity and free radical generation in the susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures after experimental traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Although the importance of brain trauma as risk factor for the development of epilepsy is well established, the mechanisms of epileptogenesis are not well understood. In the present study, we revealed that the injection of a subthreshold dose of PTZ (30 mg/Kg, i.p.) after 5 weeks of injury induced by Fluid Percussion Brain Injury (FPI) decreased latency for first clonic seizures, increased the time of spent generalized tonic-clonic seizures and electrocorticographic (EEG) wave amplitude. In addition, statistical analysis revealed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (100mg/kg) supplementation during 5 weeks after neuronal injury protected against behavioral and electrographical seizure activity elicited by subthreshold dose of PTZ. The supplementation of this antioxidant compound also protected against the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition and concomitant increase in the levels of oxidative stress markers (protein carbonylation and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances-TBARS) in site and peri-contusional cortical tissue. In summary, the current experiments clearly showed that FPI model induces early posttraumatic seizures and suggest that an alteration in the lipid/protein oxidation, membrane fluidity, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity may be correlated with neuronal excitability, a significant component of the secondary injury cascade that accompanies TBI. PMID:21737104

Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Lima, Frederico Diniz; Furian, Ana Flavia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

2011-09-15

89

Segregation of Seizure Traits in C57 Black Mouse Substrains Using the Repeated-Flurothyl Model  

PubMed Central

Identifying the genetic basis of epilepsy in humans is difficult due to its complexity, thereby underlying the need for preclinical models with specific aspects of seizure susceptibility that are tractable to genetic analyses. In the repeated-flurothyl model, mice are given 8 flurothyl-induced seizures, once per day (the induction phase), followed by a 28-day rest period (incubation phase) and final flurothyl challenge. This paradigm allows for the tracking of multiple phenotypes including: initial generalized seizure threshold, decreases in generalized seizure threshold with repeated flurothyl exposures, and changes in the complexity of seizures over time. Given the responses we previously reported in C57BL/6J mice, we analyzed substrains of the C57BL lineage to determine if any of these phenotypes segregated in these substrains. We found that the generalized seizure thresholds of C57BL/10SNJ and C57BL/10J mice were similar to C57BL/6J mice, whereas C57BL/6NJ and C57BLKS/J mice showed lower generalized seizure thresholds. In addition, C57BL/6J mice had the largest decreases in generalized seizure thresholds over the induction phase, while the other substrains were less pronounced. Notably, we observed only clonic seizures during the induction phase in all substrains, but when rechallenged with flurothyl after a 28-day incubation phase, ?80% of C57BL/6J and 25% of C57BL/10SNJ and C57BL/10J mice expressed more complex seizures with tonic manifestations with none of the C57BL/6NJ and C57BLKS/J mice having complex seizures with tonic manifestations. These data indicate that while closely related, the C57BL lineage has significant diversity in aspects of epilepsy that are genetically controlled. Such differences further highlight the importance of genetic background in assessing the effects of targeted deletions of genes in preclinical epilepsy models. PMID:24594686

Kadiyala, Sridhar B.; Papandrea, Dominick; Herron, Bruce J.; Ferland, Russell J.

2014-01-01

90

Acute and Chronic Effects of N-acetylcysteine on Pentylenetetrazole-induced Seizure and Neuromuscular Coordination in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been indicated against experimental seizures, but with relatively inconclusive results. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether NAC exerts a dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect and to determine NAC safe therapeutic dose range and its muscle-relaxant activity in both acute and chronic uses. Methods Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of N-acetylcysteine acutely (50-300 mg/kg) or chronically for 8 days (25-300 mg/kg), mice were injected with PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.) and latency times to the onset of myoclonic and clonic seizures and protection against death were recorded. Changes in body weight and mortality rate were considered as parameters for drug safety. The muscle-relaxant activity of NAC was assessed by rotarod test. Results Acute and chronic treatment with NAC delayed latency times to myoclonic and clonic seizures in a dose-dependent manner, but with no significant prevention against PTZ-induced death. Chronic administration of 300 mg/kg NAC was fully lethal while lower doses (100 and 150 mg/kg) resulted in a significant weight loss and decreased stay time on rotarod. Acute treatment with NAC had no significant effect on stay time on rotarod at all studied doses. Conclusion NAC exerts a dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect in acute and chronic uses, with no muscle relaxant activity. NAC has higher efficacy in preventing seizure in chronic than acute treatment, but its chronic use at higher doses of 75 mg/kg may be associated with side effects and/or toxicity. These findings suggest that low doses of NAC may have a potential use as a prophylactic treatment for absence seizure in human.

Zaeri, Sasan; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

2015-01-01

91

Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic…

Devinsky, Orrin

2006-01-01

92

Seizures and Epilepsy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program discusses different types of seizures including epileptic. The causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for epilepsy are reviewed. It also covers what to do when a seizure occurs, how to live with seizures, and preventive measures. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

93

Menhaden fish oil improves spatial memory in rat pups following recurrent pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of two supplementary dietary oils (fish oil and corn oil) as parts of isocaloric/isoproteic diets on growth, brain fatty acid composition, and behavior in rat pups with recurrent seizures. Recurrent seizures were induced by injecting rat pups with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) between P10 (10 days of age) and P14. Either menhaden fish oil (FO) or corn oil (CO) was given as supplemental dietary oil throughout the experiment from P3 to P40. We assessed the effects of the two supplemental dietary oils on spatial memory, histomorphology, and fatty acid composition of brain tissue at the end of the study on P40. Rats that received dietary FO performed significantly better in the Morris water maze, a test used to examine spatial performance in rats; the FO group had significantly shorter escape latencies (P=0.041) during the escape test. Compared with the CO group, the FO group stayed a longer time (P=0.015) and swam a longer distance (P=0.033) in the target quadrant in the spatial probe test. The FO group had significantly higher brain docosahexaenoic acid (P0.01) and significantly lower brain C20:3 n-6 and C20:4 n-6 (P<0.01 and P=0.031) levels compared with the CO group, but the two groups did not differ significantly with respect to neuronal cell loss in the histomorphology study. This study demonstrated that, compared with CO, FO is better in improving spatial memory in rats following recurrent PTZ-induced seizures. PMID:16473555

Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chaung, H C; Chung, Mei-Yung; Huang, Li-Tung

2006-05-01

94

Reflex seizures in Rett syndrome.  

PubMed

Reflex seizures are a rare phenomenon among epileptic patients, in which an epileptic discharge is triggered by various kinds of stimuli (visual, auditory, tactile or gustatory). Epilepsy is common in Rett syndrome patients (up to 70%), but to the authors' knowledge, no pressure or eating-triggered seizures have yet been reported in Rett children. We describe three epileptic Rett patients with reflex seizures, triggered by food intake or proprioception. One patient with congenital Rett Sd. developed infantile epileptic spasms at around seven months and two patients with classic Rett Sd. presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures at around five years. Reflex seizures appeared when the patients were teenagers. The congenital-Rett patient presented eating-triggered seizures at the beginning of almost every meal, demonstrated by EEG recording. Both classic Rett patients showed self-provoked pressure -triggered attacks, influenced by stress or excitement. Non-triggered seizures were controlled with carbamazepine or valproate, but reflex seizures did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Risperidone partially improved self-provoked seizures. When reflex seizures are suspected, reproducing the trigger during EEG recording is fundamental; however, self-provoked seizures depend largely on the patient's will. Optimal therapy (though not always possible) consists of avoiding the trigger. Stress modifiers such as risperidone may help control self-provoked seizures. PMID:22258043

Roche Martínez, Ana; Alonso Colmenero, M Itziar; Gomes Pereira, Andreia; Sanmartí Vilaplana, Francesc X; Armstrong Morón, Judith; Pineda Marfa, Mercé

2011-12-01

95

Terminology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Several different terms have been used to describe "psychogenic nonepileptic seizures" (PNES) in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the most common English terms used to describe PNES on Google and in PubMed using multiple search terms (https://www.google.com and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). The information prevalence of the five terms most frequently used to refer to PNES in PubMed were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by pseudo(-)seizure(s), non(-)epileptic seizure(s), psychogenic seizure(s), and non(-)epileptic event(s). The five most frequently adopted terms to describe PNES in Google were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by non(-)epileptic event(s), psychogenic attack(s), non(-)epileptic attack(s), and psychogenic non(-)epileptic attack(s). The broad spectrum of synonyms used to refer to PNES in the medical literature reflects a lack of internationally accepted, uniform terminology for PNES. In addition to "seizure(s)," lay people use the word "attack(s)" to describe PNES. Although considered obsolete, some terms, e.g., pseudoseizure(s), are still used in the recent medical literature. Adopting a uniform terminology to describe PNES could facilitate communication between epileptologists, physicians without specific expertise in epilepsy, and patients. PMID:25631657

Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Bongiovanni, Luigi Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Trinka, Eugen

2015-03-01

96

Downregulation of dopamine D? receptors and increased neuronal apoptosis upon ethanol and PTZ exposure in prenatal rat cortical and hippocampal neurons.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) on the expression of dopamine receptors (D1R) and to observe the apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical and hippocampal neurons at gestational days (GD) 17.5. In the present study, ethanol (100 mM) and PTZ (15 mM) were exposed to the prenatal rat cortical and hippocampal neuronal cell cultures for 1 h. For mRNA RT-PCR and for protein Western blot analysis was done to elucidate D1R, Bax, Bak, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression upon ethanol and PTZ exposure in neuronal cell cultures. Furthermore, ethanol and PTZ-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration was also observed using TUNEL staining and propidium iodide (PI) used as counter stain under confocal microscopy. The results of present study showed that ethanol and PTZ exposure significantly decreased D1R expression and induced neuronal death by significantly increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, Bak and decreasing anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 leading to the apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase-3 expression in cortical and hippocampal primary neuronal cell cultures. Our findings indicated that ethanol and PTZ exposure to the prenatal neurons showed not only downregulation of D1R but also causes neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat brain. Further, this explains the possibility of higher risk of developmental disturbances and malformations during early developmental stage. PMID:24810836

Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Ullah, Ikram; Rasool, Mahmood; Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmed; Bibi, Fehmida; Chaudhary, Adeel Gulzar; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H

2014-11-01

97

Seizure Prediction: Methods  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy, one of the most common neurological diseases, affects over 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy can have a broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Although antiepileptic drugs have helped treat millions of patients, roughly a third of all patients have seizures that are refractory to pharmacological intervention. The evolution of our understanding of this dynamic disease leads to new treatment possibilities. There is great interest in the development of devices that incorporate algorithms capable of detecting early onset of seizures or even predicting them hours before they occur. The lead time provided by these new technologies will allow for new types of interventional treatment. In the near future, seizures may be detected and aborted before physical manifestations begin. In this chapter we discuss the algorithms that make these devices possible and how they have been implemented to date. We also compare and contrast these measures, and review their individual strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we illustrate how these techniques can be combined in a closed-loop seizure prevention system. PMID:22078526

Carney, Paul R.; Myers, Stephen; Geyer, James D.

2011-01-01

98

Methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla ameliorates seizure severity, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice.  

PubMed

Decoctions of Ficus plathyphylla are used in Nigeria's folk medicine to manage epilepsy for many years and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of Northern Nigeria. In this study, we examined the ameliorative effects of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark on seizure severity, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. The (35)S-GTP?S, glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid receptors binding properties of the extract were also evaluated. Male CD-1 mice were kindled with an initial subeffective dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 37.5mg/kg, i.p.) for a total of 13 convulsant injections and the treatment groups concurrently received FP (100 and 200mg/kg). Control animals received the same number of saline injections. Twenty-four h after kindling completion the animals' learning performance was tested in a two-way shuttle-box. The animals were challenged with another subeffective dose of PTZ (32.5mg/kg, i.p.) on day 7 after kindling completion. Animals were sacrificed a day after the challenged experiment and the brains were processed for histological investigation. FP ameliorates seizure severity, cognitive deficits and neuronal cell loss in PTZ kindled mice. Components of the extract showed affinity for GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors. Glutamate release was diminished and the (35)S-GTP?S binding assay revealed no intrinsic activity at glutamatergic receptors. Our results revealed that FP contains psychoactive secondary metabolites with anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting the isolation and development of the biologically active components of this medicinal plant as antiepileptic agents. PMID:25636876

Chindo, Ben A; Schröder, Helmut; Becker, Axel

2015-01-15

99

Screening of the anticonvulsant activity of some plants from Fabaceae family in experimental seizure models in mice  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose of the study Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Albizzia julibrissin, Acacia juliflora, Acacia nubica and aerial parts of Astragalus obtusifolius was evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure tests. Methods The hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were obtained by percolation. Different doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50Hz, 1sec) were monitored up to 30 min after administration. Acute toxicity of the extracts was also assessed. The safe and effective extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and anticonvulsant activity of the fractions was determined. Finally, the constituents of the extract and the fractions were screened by thin layer chromatography. Results Among the extracts, only A. obtusifolius extract showed low toxicity and protective effect against clonic seizures with ED50 value of 3.97 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract led to increase in anticonvulsant activity and ED50 value of 2.86 g/kg was obtained for the aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthrones and saponins in the aqueous fraction. Major conclusion The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in A. obtusifolius suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find out the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agent. PMID:22615673

Sayyah, M.; Khodaparast, A.; Yazdi, A.; Sardari, S.

2011-01-01

100

The Alaris auditory evoked potential monitor as an indicator of seizure inducibility and duration during electroconvulsive therapy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Precise control of anesthetic depth during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is crucial because most intravenous anesthetics have anticonvulsant effects. In this study, we investigated the association between anesthetic depth measured by the Alaris auditory evoked potential index (AAI) and seizure inducibility and seizure duration during ECT. Methods Sixty-four ECTs were evaluated in 12 consecutive patients. General anesthesia was performed with a thiopental-based method. The relationship between the pre-ictal AAI, seizure activity and seizure duration was analyzed, and a possible threshold pre-ictal AAI to induce a seizure duration of at least 25 seconds was calculated. Results Forty-one of the 64 ECT stimuli successfully induced seizure activity that lasted longer than 25 seconds. Pre-ictal AAI was significantly correlated to seizure duration (r?=?0.54, p?threshold pre-ictal AAi value was calculated to be 26 (area under curve: 0.76, sensitivity: 70.3% and specificity: 73.9%, p?seizure activity ( p?seizure duration (55?±?35 v.s. 21?±?27 seconds, p?seizure activities and a longer seizure duration. This is the first report to investigate Alaris AEP monitoring during ECT. PMID:24914401

2014-01-01

101

Inflammatory pathways of seizure disorders  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy refers to a cluster of neurological disease characterized by seizures. While many forms of epilepsy have a well-defined immune etiology, in other forms of epilepsy an altered immune response is only suspected. In general, the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to seizures is supported by experimental results. Additionally, antiepileptic maneuvers may act as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory therapies can treat seizures. Triggers of seizure include a bidirectional communication between the nervous system and organs of immunity. Thus, a crucial cellular interface protecting from immunological seizures is the blood-brain barrier. Here, we summarize recent advances in the understanding and treatment of epileptic seizures which derive from a non-neurocentric viewpoint and suggest key avenues for future research. PMID:24355813

Marchi, Nicola; Granata, Tiziana; Janigro, Damir

2014-01-01

102

Brain Tumors and ICU Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures are a common presentation of brain neoplasms. Both primary brain tumors and metastases can present with seizures,\\u000a which are more commonly focal depending on the location and the pathology of the lesion. In general, more benign tumors have\\u000a higher incidence of seizures than more malignant ones. These patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) either\\u000a for preoperative

Efstathios Papavassiliou; Panayiotis Varelas

103

Modeling Glial Contributions to Seizures and Epileptogenesis: Cation-Chloride Cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl? cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi) of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24–48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl? cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed. PMID:24971529

Rusan, Zeid M.; Kingsford, Olivia A.; Tanouye, Mark A.

2014-01-01

104

Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Possible Outcomes  

MedlinePLUS

... more complex features. WHAT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN FE- BRILE SEIZURES AND LATER DEVELOPMENT OF EPILEPSY? Overall, ... more febrile seizures. WHAT IS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN FE- BRILE SEIZURES AND LATER DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFIC TYPES ...

105

Analyzing autonomic activity in neonatal seizures  

E-print Network

Recent studies suggest that seizures in the newborn occur more often than previously appreciated. The effect of neonatal seizures remain unclear, however. Do seizures in the newborn cause brain injury, are they a consequence ...

Ramaswamy, Priya, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

106

Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on…

Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

2007-01-01

107

Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

2007-01-01

108

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.

109

Hypocalcemia-Induced Seizure  

PubMed Central

Calcium is essential for both neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction. Given these important physiological processes, it seems reasonable to assume that hypocalcemia may lead to reduced neuromuscular excitability. Counterintuitively, however, clinical observation has frequently documented hypocalcemia’s role in induction of seizures and general excitability processes such as tetany, Chvostek’s sign, and bronchospasm. The mechanism of this calcium paradox remains elusive, and very few pathophysiological studies have addressed this conundrum. Nevertheless, several studies primarily addressing other biophysical issues have provided some clues. In this review, we analyze the data of these studies and propose an integrative model to explain this hypocalcemic paradox. PMID:25810356

Trinidad, Bradley J.; Shi, Jiong

2015-01-01

110

Closed-loop neural stimulation for pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Neural stimulation can reduce the frequency of seizures in persons with epilepsy, but rates of seizure-free outcome are low. Vagus nerve stimulation prevents seizures by continuously activating noradrenergic projections from the brainstem to the cortex. Cortical norepinephrine then increases GABAergic transmission and increases seizure threshold. Another approach, responsive nervous stimulation, prevents seizures by reactively shocking the seizure onset zone in precise synchrony with seizure onset. The electrical shocks abort seizures before they can spread and manifest clinically. The goal of this study was to determine whether a hybrid platform in which brainstem activation triggered in response to impending seizure activity could prevent seizures. We chose the zebrafish as a model organism for this study because of its ability to recapitulate human disease, in conjunction with its innate capacity for tightly controlled high-throughput experimentation. We first set out to determine whether electrical stimulation of the zebrafish hindbrain could have an anticonvulsant effect. We found that pulse train electrical stimulation of the hindbrain significantly increased the latency to onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures, and that this apparent anticonvulsant effect was blocked by noradrenergic antagonists, as is also the case with rodents and humans. We also found that the anticonvulsant effect of hindbrain stimulation could be potentiated by reactive triggering of single pulse electrical stimulations in response to impending seizure activity. Finally, we found that the rate of stimulation triggering was directly proportional to pentylenetetrazole concentration and that the stimulation rate was reduced by the anticonvulsant valproic acid and by larger stimulation currents. Taken as a whole, these results show that that the anticonvulsant effect of brainstem activation can be efficiently utilized by reactive triggering, which suggests that alternative stimulation paradigms for vagus nerve stimulation might be useful. Moreover, our results show that the zebrafish epilepsy model can be used to advance our understanding of neural stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:22822044

Pineda, Ricardo; Beattie, Christine E; Hall, Charles W

2013-01-01

111

Closed-loop neural stimulation for pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Neural stimulation can reduce the frequency of seizures in persons with epilepsy, but rates of seizure-free outcome are low. Vagus nerve stimulation prevents seizures by continuously activating noradrenergic projections from the brainstem to the cortex. Cortical norepinephrine then increases GABAergic transmission and increases seizure threshold. Another approach, responsive nervous stimulation, prevents seizures by reactively shocking the seizure onset zone in precise synchrony with seizure onset. The electrical shocks abort seizures before they can spread and manifest clinically. The goal of this study was to determine whether a hybrid platform in which brainstem activation triggered in response to impending seizure activity could prevent seizures. We chose the zebrafish as a model organism for this study because of its ability to recapitulate human disease, in conjunction with its innate capacity for tightly controlled high-throughput experimentation. We first set out to determine whether electrical stimulation of the zebrafish hindbrain could have an anticonvulsant effect. We found that pulse train electrical stimulation of the hindbrain significantly increased the latency to onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures, and that this apparent anticonvulsant effect was blocked by noradrenergic antagonists, as is also the case with rodents and humans. We also found that the anticonvulsant effect of hindbrain stimulation could be potentiated by reactive triggering of single pulse electrical stimulations in response to impending seizure activity. Finally, we found that the rate of stimulation triggering was directly proportional to pentylenetetrazole concentration and that the stimulation rate was reduced by the anticonvulsant valproic acid and by larger stimulation currents. Taken as a whole, these results show that that the anticonvulsant effect of brainstem activation can be efficiently utilized by reactive triggering, which suggests that alternative stimulation paradigms for vagus nerve stimulation might be useful. Moreover, our results show that the zebrafish epilepsy model can be used to advance our understanding of neural stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:22822044

Pineda, Ricardo; Beattie, Christine E.; Hall, Charles W.

2013-01-01

112

Neonatal Cocaine-Related Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine abuse is associated with a variety of severe acute neurologic complications typically occurring in the abusers themselves. These include ischemic stroke, subarachnoid and intraparenchymal hemorrhage, headaches, syncope, seizures, and death. Sixteen pediatric patients with presumed cocaine-related seizures secondary to maternal consumption are reported. They were evaluated only because of requests for neurologic consultation. All were seen during the 1987

Lynn D. Kramer; George E. Locke; Abayomi Ogunyemi; Lowell Nelson

1990-01-01

113

Asystole following complex partial seizures.  

PubMed

A case is presented of a patient with a long history of epilepsy who presents with recurrent seizures and develops a period of asystole. The case highlights the need to consider the potential arrhythmic complications of seizures and the clinical characteristics that may be present in those with epilepsy that may warrant evaluation for arrhythmias. PMID:22877730

Stokes, Michael B; Palmer, Sonny; Moneghetti, Kegan J; Mariani, Justin A; Wilson, Andrew M

2013-02-01

114

Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion  

PubMed Central

Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 ?g/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

2015-01-01

115

The effects of superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTMPyP on the altered blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental preeclampsia with or without seizures in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in experimental preeclampsia symptoms induced by N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in pregnant rats. To show the functional and morphological alterations in BBB integrity, quantitative analysis of sodium fluorescein (NaFlu) extravasation, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic assessment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability were performed. Varying degrees of proteinuria were seen and arterial blood pressure increased in l-NAME-treated pregnant rats (p<0.01). MnTMPyP pretreatment and convulsive PTZ challenge significantly decreased the immunoreactivity of occludin in hippocampal capillaries in l-NAME-treated pregnant rats (p<0.01). BBB permeability to NaFlu significantly increased in pregnant rats treated with l-NAME plus PTZ (p<0.01), but MnTMPyP pretreatment did not significantly decrease NaFlu penetration into the brain parenchyma in these animals. Ultrastructurally, frequent vesicles containing HRP reaction products were observed in the capillary endothelial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of pregnant rats treated with l-NAME and l-NAME plus PTZ with the abundance being more in the latter group. MnTMPyP pretreatment caused a marked reduction in the frequency of HRP reaction product containing vesicles in both experimental settings. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide evidence that MnTMPyP plays an important role in limiting the enhanced vesicle-mediated transcellular transport in BBB endothelium in a rat model of preeclampsia and the differences in the way of transports of NaFlu and HRP might be responsible for the different effects of MnTMPyP on the BBB permeability to these two tracers. PMID:24680906

Orhan, Nurcan; Ugur Yilmaz, Canan; Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Ahishali, Bulent; Arican, Nadir; Kucuk, Mutlu; Elmas, Imdat; Gürses, Candan; Kalayci, Rivaze; Kaya, Mehmet

2014-05-14

116

A Hypothesis Regarding the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Dietary Soy-Induced Effects on Seizure Propensity  

PubMed Central

Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold. PMID:25232349

Westmark, Cara Jean

2014-01-01

117

The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure  

SciTech Connect

Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01

118

Seizure Treatment in Transplant Patients  

PubMed Central

Opinion statement Solid organ transplantation is frequently complicated by a spectrum of seizure types, including single partial-onset or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, acute repetitive seizures or status epilepticus, and sometimes the evolution of symptomatic epilepsy. There is currently no specific evidence involving the transplant patient population to guide the selection, administration, or duration of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, so familiarity with clinical AED pharmacology and application of sound judgment are necessary for successful patient outcomes. An initial detailed search for symptomatic seizure etiologies, including metabolic, infectious, cerebrovascular, and calcineurin inhibitor treatment-related neuro-toxic complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), is imperative, as underlying central nervous system disorders may impose additional serious risks to cerebral or general health if not promptly detected and appropriately treated. The mainstay for post-transplant seizure management is AED therapy directed toward the suspected seizure type. Unfavorable drug interactions could place the transplanted organ at risk, so choosing an AED with limited interaction potential is also crucial. When the transplanted organ is dysfunctional or vulnerable to rejection, AEDs without substantial hepatic metabolism are favored in post-liver transplant patients, whereas after renal transplantation, AEDs with predominantly renal elimination may require dosage adjustment to prevent adverse effects. Levetiracetam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and lacosamide are drugs of choice for treatment of partial-onset seizures in post-transplant patients given their efficacy spectrum, generally excellent tolerability, and lack of drug interaction potential. Levetiracetam is the drug of choice for primary generalized seizures in post-transplant patients. When intravenous drugs are necessary for acute seizure management, benzodiazepines and fosphenytoin are the traditional and best evidence-based options, although intravenous levetiracetam, valproate, and lacosamide are emerging options. Availability of several newer AEDs has greatly expanded the therapeutic armamentarium for safe and efficacious treatment of post-transplant seizures, but future prospective clinical trials and pharmacokinetic studies within this specific patient population are needed. PMID:22660960

Shepard, Paul W.

2013-01-01

119

Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

2014-01-01

120

First seizure: EEG and neuroimaging following an epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

An early EEG (within 48 h) and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hr_MRI) are the methods of choice for an accurate diagnosis after a first seizure presentation. Together with a careful history and examination, they will allow definition of the epilepsy syndrome in two-thirds of patients and help assess the individual risk for seizure recurrence, which is determined by the specific syndrome and is highest with focal epileptiform activity on EEG. Despite the heterogeneity of first seizure studies, EEG and etiology are consistently found to be the best predictors for seizure recurrence and prognosis. The additional yield of sleep-deprived EEG and sleep EEG is uncertain; yet MRI is essential for detecting brain tumors and other structural bases for new epilepsy. The rate occurrence of remote symptomatic seizures increases significantly with age and the most common etiology in the elderly with a first seizure is stroke; however, its exact relevance to epileptogenicity is yet to be defined. There is a striking lack of systematic studies using early EEG and hr_MRI in order to better characterize epileptogenic areas and elucidate the mechanisms of seizure provocation. PMID:18184150

Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd; Newton, Mark

2008-01-01

121

Bupropion seizure proportion among new-onset generalized seizures and drug related seizures presenting to an emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is a relatively new and popular medication with seizures as its major side effect. This drug can produce seizures with an overdose. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative importance of this medication as the etiology of new-onset seizures relative to other drugs and new-onset seizures in general. The study design was a retrospective case series.

Gene R Pesola; Jagannadha Avasarala

2002-01-01

122

Pharmacological and behavioral characterization of cocaine-kindled seizures in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Convulsions associated with cocaine toxicity are a serious aspect of cocaine-related emergency room incidents. Seizures\\u000a can result from a single high dose of cocaine, and evidence is accumulating that correlates repetitive administration of sub-convulsive\\u000a doses of cocaine with a decreased seizure threshold, a phenomenon known as pharmacological kindling. A murine model of cocaine kindling has not been characterized. Objectives:

Kathleen A. Miller; Jeffrey M. Witkin; Jesse T. Ungard; Maciej Gasior

2000-01-01

123

What is a seizure focus?  

PubMed

The seizure focus is the site in the brain from which the seizure originated and is most likely equivalent to the epileptogenic zone, defined as the area of cerebral cortex indispensable for the generation of clinical seizures. The boundaries of this region cannot be defined at present by any diagnostic test. Imaging and EEG recording can define regions of functional deficit during the interictal period, regions that generate interictal spikes, regions responsible for the ictal symptoms, regions from which the seizure is triggered, and regions of structural damage. However, these regions define the epileptogenic zone only when they are spatially concordant. The frequent discrepancies suggest the essential involvement of synaptically connected regions, that is a distributive focus, in the origination of most seizures. Here we review supporting evidence from animal studies and studies of persons undergoing surgical resection for medically-intractable epilepsy. We conclude that very few of the common seizures are truly local, but rather depend on nodal interactions that permit spontaneous network excitability and behavioral expression. Recognition of the distributive focus underlying most seizures has motivated many surgical programs to upgrade their intracranial studies to capture activity in as much of the network as possible. PMID:25012366

Nadler, J Victor; Spencer, Dennis D

2014-01-01

124

Disruption of the blood–brain barrier after generalized tonic-clonic seizures correlates with cerebrospinal fluid MMP-9 levels  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence suggests seizures cause blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction including decreased seizure threshold and higher onset potential of future seizures. However, the mechanisms underlying BBB damage in seizures remains poorly understood. Evidence in human and animal models shows BBB disruption is associated with activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after cerebral ischemia and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine whether MMP-9 concentrations in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are associated with BBB disruption in patients after epileptic seizures. Methods Thirty-one patients with generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures were included in the study: 20 had recurrent GTC seizures (RS), and 11 had a single GTC seizure (SS) episode. Twenty-five adult non-seizure patients were used as controls. CSF samples were collected by lumbar puncture within 24 h after seizure cessation (range: 3–15 h, mean 6.2 h). CSF MMP-9 levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MMP enzyme activity was measured by gelatin zymography. The CSF/serum albumin ratio (albumin quotient, QAlb) was used as a measure of blood–brain barrier permeability. Results We found significantly higher CSF MMP-9 concentrations in seizure patients compared with controls (P < 0.001). CSF MMP-9 levels and QAlb values were higher in RS patients compared with SS and controls. Moreover, CSF MMP-9 concentration showed strong correlation between QAlb values (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001) and between CSF leukocyte counts (r = 0.77, P < 0.0001) in patients after seizures. Gelatin zymography showed MMP-9 proteolytic activity only in GTC seizure patients. Conclusions Our results suggest MMP-9 plays a role in BBB dysfunction, characterized by invasion of leukocytes into the CSF during seizures. PMID:23829879

2013-01-01

125

A Child's Guide to Seizure Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for young children suffering from seizure disorders, the booklet explains what a seizure disorder is, encourages the asking of questions, provides a simple explanation of how seizures happen and what effects they have, describes various kinds of seizures, and stresses the importance of taking prescribed medication regularly. Also stressed…

Epilepsy Foundation of America, Landover, MD.

126

Epileptic Seizures at the Onset of Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversies exist concerning the frequency of early epileptic seizures in different types of stroke. The aim of this work was to analyze the incidence of epileptic seizures at the onset of stroke, the factors related to seizures, and the prognosis of such seizures. A total of 1,000 patients included in a prospective data bank of cerebrovascular diseases in Girona were

A. Dávalos; E. de Cendra; A. Molins; M. Ferrandiz; S. Lopez-Pousa; D. Genís

1992-01-01

127

Effect of ACEA--a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist on the protective action of different antiepileptic drugs in the mouse pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model.  

PubMed

Endogenous cannabinoid ligands and cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists have been shown to exert anticonvulsant effects in various experimental models of epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA-a highly selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) on the protective action of clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, and valproate against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures in mice. To ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution of ACEA to the observed interactions between tested drugs, free (non-protein bound) plasma and total brain concentrations of the antiepileptic drugs were estimated. Additionally, acute adverse-effect profiles of the combination of ACEA and different classical antiepileptic drugs (clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate) with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured. Results indicated that ACEA (10mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF-a substance protecting ACEA against degradation by the fatty-acid hydrolase; 30mg/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate in the mouse PTZ-induced clonic seizure model by reducing their median effective doses (ED(50) values) from 122.8mg/kg to 71.7mg/kg (P<0.01; for ethosuximide), from 13.77mg/kg to 5.26mg/kg (P<0.05; for phenobarbital), and from 142.7mg/kg to 87.3mg/kg (P<0.05; for valproate), respectively. In contrast, ACEA (10mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with PMSF (30mg/kg, i.p.) had no impact on the protective action of clonazepam against PTZ-induced seizures in mice. However, ACEA (10mg/kg)+PMSF (30mg/kg) considerably increased free plasma and total brain concentrations of ethosuximide and valproate in mice suggesting a pharmacokinetic nature of interaction between drugs. In contrast, free plasma and total brain concentrations of clonazepam and phenobarbital remained unchanged after ACEA+PMSF administration and thus, indicating pharmacodynamic interactions. Moreover, none of the examined combinations of ACEA (10mg/kg, i.p.)+PMSF (30mg/kg, i.p.) with clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, and valproate (at their ED(50) values from the PTZ-induced seizure test) affected motor coordination in the chimney test, long-term memory in the passive avoidance task, and muscular strength in the grip-strength test in mice, indicating no possible acute adverse effects in animals. In conclusion, pharmacodynamic enhancement of the anticonvulsant potency of phenobarbital by ACEA+PMSF is worthy of recommendation for further clinical settings. Pharmacokinetic interactions of ACEA+PMSF with ethosuximide and valproate seem to be responsible for a significant suppression of PTZ-induced seizures in mice. The combination of ACEA+PMSF with clonazepam seems to be neutral from a preclinical viewpoint. PMID:22789660

Andres-Mach, Marta; Zolkowska, Dorota; Barcicka-Klosowska, Beata; Haratym-Maj, Agnieszka; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

2012-12-01

128

Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures  

PubMed Central

Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association. PMID:25624930

Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, P?nar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

2014-01-01

129

Metformin protects against seizures, learning and memory impairments and oxidative damage induced by pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment, the most common and severe comorbidity of epilepsy, greatly diminishes the quality of life. However, current therapeutic interventions for epilepsy can also cause untoward cognitive effects. Thus, there is an urgent need for new kinds of agents targeting both seizures and cognition deficits. Oxidative stress is considered to play an important role in epileptogenesis and cognitive deficits, and antioxidants have a putative antiepileptic potential. Metformin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic oral drug, has antioxidant properties. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effects of metformin on seizures, cognitive impairment and brain oxidative stress markers observed in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered with subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (37 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day for 14 injections. Metformin was injected intraperitoneally in dose of 200mg/kg along with alternate-day PTZ. We found that metformin suppressed the progression of kindling, ameliorated the cognitive impairment and decreased brain oxidative stress. Thus the present study concluded that metformin may be a potential agent for the treatment of epilepsy as well as a protective medicine against cognitive impairment induced by seizures. PMID:24802403

Zhao, Ran-Ran; Xu, Xiao-Chen; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Wei-Li; Zhang, Wen-Lin; Liu, Liang-Min; Wang, Wei-Ping

2014-06-13

130

Can venous blood gas analysis be used for predicting seizure recurrence in emergency department?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Epileptic seizures account for 1%–2% of all admissions of patients to the emergency department (ED). The present study aimed to determine whether venous blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate levels taken within 1 hour of the last seizure episode help to determine seizure recurrence in emergency departments. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) between January and July, 2012. Patients who were admitted to the emergency department consecutively were included in the study if they were 14 years or older and within 1 hour after last seizure. Demographics, seizure type, use of antiepileptic drugs, observation period at the emergency department, seizure recurrence, pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate levels from venous blood gas analysis were determined. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients aged 14 years or older were included in the study. Of these patients, 10.6% (n=10) experienced recurrent seizures in the observation period at the emergency department. To predict recurrent seizures in ED, threshold venous blood gas values were determined as follows: pH<7.245 [sensitivity 80% (95%CI: 44–96), negative predictive value 96.9% (95%CI: 88.3–99.4)], bicarbonate<17.1 mmol/L [sensitivity 80% (95%CI: 44–96), negative predictive value 97% (95%CI: 89–99.5)], base excess<–11.1 mEq/L [sensitivity 80% (95%CI: 44–96), negative predictive value 97% (95%CI: 89–99)], and lactate>7.65 mmol/L [sensitivity 80% (95%CI: 44–96), negative predictive value 96.6% (95%CI: 87–99)]. CONCLUSION: If venous blood gas analysis is made on pH, base excess, lactate and bicarbonate immediately one hour after the last epileptic seizure episode, it is possible to predict whether the patient will have seizure recurrence. PMID:25225582

K?l?c, Turgay Y?lmaz; Yesilaras, Murat; Atilla, Ozge Duman; Sever, Mustafa; Aksay, Ersin

2014-01-01

131

GABAB receptors as a common target for hypothermia and spike and wave seizures: intersecting mechanisms of thermoregulation and absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

In the current study the link among the ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced absence-like seizures and concomitant decreases in the core temperature, as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during rewarming from deep hypothermia produced by a drug-free protocol were investigated. During the rewarming period after deep cooling, most Wistar rats suffered from bilaterally synchronous spike and waves with no or mild behavioral correlates. Spike and wave seizures were temperature-dependent and were initially registered when body temperature (Tb) reached 25-27°C, but mostly during the mild hypothermia of 0.3-1.3°C (Tb of 36.3-37.3°C). In chemical absence models, spike and wave discharges were also closely accompanied by mild systemic hypothermia, as both PTZ- and GHB-induced temperature decreases ranged from about 1-1.4°C respectively, together with EEG markers of absence activity. Thus, throughout the different experimental designs, the occurrence of spike and wave discharges was always related to a mild (0.3-1.4°C) decrease of Tb. Benzodiazepine diazepam as the GABAA-positive allosteric modulator and CGP 62349 as the selective antagonist of GABAB receptors were used to determine if their well-known anticonvulsant properties also affect hypothermia elicited by these drugs. Finally, during the course of spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, another selective GABAB-blocking agent, CGP 35348, was used to elucidate if GABAB inhibitory system could be critically implicated in the generation of hypothermia-dependent spike and waves. Diazepam prevented both the PTZ-induced hypothermia and electrographic absence seizures, but these two beneficial effects did not occur in the GHB model. Even though diazepam delayed GHB-induced maximal temperature decrease, the GHB effects remained highly significant. The GABAB antagonist CGP 62349 completely prevented hypothermia as well as absence seizures in both chemical models. Likewise, spike and wave discharges, registered during the spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, were completely prevented by CGP 35348. These findings show that systemic hypothermia should definitely be regarded as a marker of GABAB receptor activation. Moreover, the results of this study clearly show that initial mild temperature decrease should be considered as strong absence-provoking factor. Hypothermia-induced nonconvulsive seizures also highlight the importance of continuous EEG monitoring in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Since every change in peripheral or systemic temperature ultimately must be perceived by preoptic region of the anterior hypothalamus as the primary thermoregulatory and sleep-inducing center, the preoptic thermosensitive neurons in general and warm-sensitive neurons in particular, simply have to be regarded as the most probable candidate for connected thermoregulatory and absence generating mechanisms. Therefore, additional studies are needed to confirm their potential role in the generation and propagation of absence seizures. PMID:23415784

Ostoji?, Z S; Ili?, T V; Veskovi?, S M; Andjus, P R

2013-05-15

132

An epileptic seizures detection algorithm based on the empirical mode decomposition of EEG.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects around 50 million people worldwide. The seizure detection is an important component in the diagnosis of epilepsy. In this study, the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method was proposed on the development of an automatic epileptic seizure detection algorithm. The algorithm first computes the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) of EEG records, then calculates the energy of each IMF and performs the detection based on an energy threshold and a minimum duration decision. The algorithm was tested in 9 invasive EEG records provided and validated by the Epilepsy Center of the University Hospital of Freiburg. In 90 segments analyzed (39 with epileptic seizures) the sensitivity and specificity obtained with the method were of 56.41% and 75.86% respectively. It could be concluded that EMD is a promissory method for epileptic seizure detection in EEG records. PMID:19963776

Orosco, Lorena; Laciar, Eric; Correa, Agustina Garces; Torres, Abel; Graffigna, Juan P

2009-01-01

133

A Smell That Causes Seizure  

PubMed Central

In mammals, odorants are detected by a large family of receptors that are each expressed in just a small subset of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Here we describe a strain of transgenic mice engineered to express an octanal receptor in almost all OSNs. Remarkably, octanal triggered a striking and involuntary phenotype in these animals, with passive exposure regularly inducing seizures. Octanal exposure invariably resulted in widespread activation of OSNs but interestingly seizures only occurred in 30–40% of trials. We hypothesized that this reflects the need for the olfactory system to filter strong but slowly-changing backgrounds from salient signals. Therefore we used an olfactometer to control octanal delivery and demonstrated suppression of responses whenever this odorant is delivered slowly. By contrast, rapid exposure of the mice to octanal induced seizure in every trial. Our results expose new details of olfactory processing and provide a robust and non-invasive platform for studying epilepsy. PMID:22848650

Nguyen, Minh Q.; Ryba, Nicholas J. P.

2012-01-01

134

Cardiorespiratory abnormalities during epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of death in young and otherwise healthy patients with epilepsy, and sudden death is at least 20 times more common in epilepsy patients as compared to patients without epilepsy. A significant proportion of patients with epilepsy experience cardiac and respiratory complications during seizures. These cardiorespiratory complications are suspected to be a significant risk factor for SUDEP. Sleep physicians are increasingly involved in the care of epilepsy patients and a recognition of these changes in relation to seizures while a patient is under their care may improve their awareness of these potentially life-threatening complications that may occur during sleep studies. This paper details these cardiopulmonary changes that take place in relation to epileptic seizures and how these changes may relate to the occurrence of SUDEP. PMID:25311834

Kothare, Sanjeev V; Singh, Kanwaljit

2014-12-01

135

The serotonin axis: Shared mechanisms in seizures, depression and SUDEP  

PubMed Central

Summary There is a growing appreciation that patients with seizures are also affected by a number of co-morbid conditions, including an increase in prevalence of depression (Kanner, 2009), sleep apnea (Chihorek et al, 2007), and sudden death (Ryvlin et al, 2006; Tomson et al, 2008). The mechanisms responsible for these associations are unclear. Here we discuss the possibility that underlying pathology in the serotonin (5-HT) system of epilepsy patients lowers the threshold for seizures, while also increasing the risk of depression and sudden death. We propose that post-ictal dysfunction of 5-HT neurons causes depression of breathing and arousal in some epilepsy patients, and this can lead to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We further draw parallels between SUDEP and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which may share pathophysiological mechanisms, and which have both been linked to defects in the 5-HT system. PMID:21214537

Richerson, George B.; Buchanan, Gordon F.

2010-01-01

136

Utility of different seizure induction protocols in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Psychogenic non epileptic seizure (PNES) can be induced by several induction tests but their relative usefulness has not been evaluated. In this study, we report the sensitivity and specificity of various induction tests in the diagnosis of PNES and assess their discomfort level. The induction tests were: (a) compression of temple region (CTR), (b) verbal suggestion (VS), (c) tuning fork application (TFA), (d) moist swab application (MSA), (e) torch light stimulation (TLS) and (f) saline injection (SI). Up to 3 trials were done for each test except for normal saline injection which was given once. For comparison of these tests, patients with epileptic seizures were included as controls. The time to precipitate PNES was recorded and patients' discomfort levels were noted on a 0-10 scale. Video EEG was recorded in the PNES patients. 140 patients with PNES and 50 controls with epileptic seizures were included. The diagnostic yield of CTR was 65.7%, TFA 61.4%, MSA 60.7%, SI 55.6%, VS 54.3% and TLS 40.7%. These tests did not induce seizures in the controls. All these tests had 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in the diagnosis of PNES. The maximum discomfort was reported with SI and minimum with MSA. The similarity of efficacy and discomfort with CTR and TFA appear to be the most optimal induction techniques when compared with VS, AMS, TLS, and SI. PMID:24802296

Goyal, Gourav; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K

2014-08-01

137

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1  

E-print Network

and transient memory lapse. When an animal suffering from seizures arrives at an emergency center, it can. Abstract Animal hospitals receive on average 1-2 seizure patients weekly. Seizures in animals occur for the same reason in animals as they do in humans, with causes ranging from epilepsy to low blood sugar

Levi, Anthony F. J.

138

An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

139

Ultra-low dose naltrexone potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of low dose morphine on clonic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant potentiation of analgesic effects of opioids can be achieved through selective blockade of their stimulatory effects on intracellular signaling pathways by ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists. However, the generality and specificity of this interaction is not well understood. The bimodal modulation of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by opioids provide a model to assess the potential usefulness of this approach

H. Honar; K. Riazi; H. Homayoun; H. Sadeghipour; N. Rashidi; M. R. Ebrahimkhani; N. Mirazi; A. R. Dehpour

2004-01-01

140

Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures  

SciTech Connect

We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, St. Mary`s Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

141

Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

2013-09-01

142

The synergistic anticonvulsant effect of agmatine and morphine: Possible role of alpha 2-adrenoceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent demonstrations of the anticonvulsant properties of agmatine suggest it may be considered as a potential adjunct for protection against seizure. We investigated the possibility of an additive anticonvulsant effect between low doses of agmatine and morphine. The thresholds for the clonic seizures induced by the intravenous administration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-antagonist, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) were assessed in mice. Morphine at

Kiarash Riazi; Hooman Honar; Houman Homayoun; Narges Rashidi; Samira Kiani; Mohammad Reza Ebrahimkhani; Ali Reza Noorian; Kamyar Ghaffari; Ali Jannati; Ahmad Reza Dehpour

2005-01-01

143

Role of the hippocampus in Nav1.6 (Scn8a) mediated seizure resistance.  

PubMed

SCN1A mutations are the main cause of the epilepsy disorders Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Mutations that reduce the activity of the mouse Scn8a gene, in contrast, are found to confer seizure resistance and extend the lifespan of mouse models of DS and GEFS+. To investigate the mechanism by which reduced Scn8a expression confers seizure resistance, we induced interictal-like burst discharges in hippocampal slices of heterozygous Scn8a null mice (Scn8a(med/+)) with elevated extracellular potassium. Scn8a(med/+) mutants exhibited reduced epileptiform burst discharge activity after P20, indicating an age-dependent increased threshold for induction of epileptiform discharges. Scn8a deficiency also reduced the occurrence of burst discharges in a GEFS+ mouse model (Scn1a(R1648H/+)). There was no detectable change in the expression levels of Scn1a (Nav1.1) or Scn2a (Nav1.2) in the hippocampus of adult Scn8a(med/+) mutants. To determine whether the increased seizure resistance associated with reduced Scn8a expression was due to alterations that occurred during development, we examined the effect of deleting Scn8a in adult mice. Global Cre-mediated deletion of a heterozygous floxed Scn8a allele in adult mice was found to increase thresholds to chemically and electrically induced seizures. Finally, knockdown of Scn8a gene expression in the adult hippocampus via lentiviral Cre injection resulted in a reduction in the number of EEG-confirmed seizures following the administration of picrotoxin. Our results identify the hippocampus as an important structure in the mediation of Scn8a-dependent seizure protection and suggest that selective targeting of Scn8a activity might be efficacious in patients with epilepsy. PMID:24704313

Makinson, Christopher D; Tanaka, Brian S; Lamar, Tyra; Goldin, Alan L; Escayg, Andrew

2014-08-01

144

Role of GluK1 Kainate Receptors in Seizures, Epileptic Discharges, and Epileptogenesis  

PubMed Central

Kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit have an impact on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are relevant to seizures and epilepsy. Here we used 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), a potent and selective agonist of kainate receptors that include the GluK1 subunit, in conjunction with mice deficient in GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits to assess the role of GluK1 kainate receptors in provoking seizures and in kindling epileptogenesis. We found that systemic ATPA, acting specifically via GluK1 kainate receptors, causes locomotor arrest and forelimb extension (a unique behavioral characteristic of GluK1 activation) and induces myoclonic behavioral seizures and electrographic seizure discharges in the BLA and hippocampus. In contrast, the proconvulsant activity of systemic AMPA, kainate, and pentylenetetrazol is not mediated by GluK1 kainate receptors, and deletion of these receptors does not elevate the threshold for seizures in the 6 Hz model. ATPA also specifically activates epileptiform discharges in BLA slices in vitro via GluK1 kainate receptors. Olfactory bulb kindling developed similarly in wild-type, GluK1, and GluK2 knock-out mice, demonstrating that GluK1 kainate receptors are not required for epileptogenesis or seizure expression in this model. We conclude that selective activation of kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit can trigger seizures, but these receptors are not necessary for seizure generation in models commonly used to identify therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24760837

Fritsch, Brita; Reis, Janine; Gasior, Maciej; Kaminski, Rafal M.

2014-01-01

145

Glutamatergic neuron-targeted loss of LGI1 epilepsy gene results in seizures.  

PubMed

Leucin-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted protein linked to human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune aetiology. Mutations in the LGI1 gene are responsible for autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features, whereas LGI1 autoantibodies are involved in limbic encephalitis, an acquired epileptic disorder associated with cognitive impairment. We and others previously reported that Lgi1-deficient mice have early-onset spontaneous seizures leading to premature death at 2-3 weeks of age. Yet, where and when Lgi1 deficiency causes epilepsy remains unknown. To address these questions, we generated Lgi1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice using a set of universal Cre-driver mouse lines. Selective deletion of Lgi1 was achieved in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons during embryonic (Emx1-Lgi1cKO) or late postnatal (CaMKII?-Lgi1cKO) developmental stages, or in gamma amino butyric acidergic (GABAergic) parvalbumin interneurons (PV-Lgi1cKO). Emx1-Lgi1cKO mice displayed early-onset and lethal seizures, whereas CaMKII?-Lgi1cKO mice presented late-onset occasional seizures associated with variable reduced lifespan. In contrast, neither spontaneous seizures nor increased seizure susceptibility to convulsant were observed when Lgi1 was deleted in parvalbumin interneurons. Together, these data showed that LGI1 depletion restricted to pyramidal cells is sufficient to generate seizures, whereas seizure thresholds were unchanged after depletion in gamma amino butyric acidergic parvalbumin interneurons. We suggest that LGI1 secreted from excitatory neurons, but not parvalbumin inhibitory neurons, makes a major contribution to the pathogenesis of LGI1-related epilepsies. Our data further indicate that LGI1 is required from embryogenesis to adulthood to achieve proper circuit functioning. PMID:25234641

Boillot, Morgane; Huneau, Clément; Marsan, Elise; Lehongre, Katia; Navarro, Vincent; Ishida, Saeko; Dufresnois, Béatrice; Ozkaynak, Ekim; Garrigue, Jérôme; Miles, Richard; Martin, Benoit; Leguern, Eric; Anderson, Matthew P; Baulac, Stéphanie

2014-11-01

146

Role of GluK1 kainate receptors in seizures, epileptic discharges, and epileptogenesis.  

PubMed

Kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit have an impact on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are relevant to seizures and epilepsy. Here we used 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), a potent and selective agonist of kainate receptors that include the GluK1 subunit, in conjunction with mice deficient in GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits to assess the role of GluK1 kainate receptors in provoking seizures and in kindling epileptogenesis. We found that systemic ATPA, acting specifically via GluK1 kainate receptors, causes locomotor arrest and forelimb extension (a unique behavioral characteristic of GluK1 activation) and induces myoclonic behavioral seizures and electrographic seizure discharges in the BLA and hippocampus. In contrast, the proconvulsant activity of systemic AMPA, kainate, and pentylenetetrazol is not mediated by GluK1 kainate receptors, and deletion of these receptors does not elevate the threshold for seizures in the 6 Hz model. ATPA also specifically activates epileptiform discharges in BLA slices in vitro via GluK1 kainate receptors. Olfactory bulb kindling developed similarly in wild-type, GluK1, and GluK2 knock-out mice, demonstrating that GluK1 kainate receptors are not required for epileptogenesis or seizure expression in this model. We conclude that selective activation of kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit can trigger seizures, but these receptors are not necessary for seizure generation in models commonly used to identify therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24760837

Fritsch, Brita; Reis, Janine; Gasior, Maciej; Kaminski, Rafal M; Rogawski, Michael A

2014-04-23

147

Smartphone applications for seizure management.  

PubMed

Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. PMID:25038202

Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

2014-07-18

148

A boosted cascade for efficient epileptic seizure detection.  

PubMed

Seizure detection from electroencephalogram (EEG) plays an important role for epilepsy therapy. Due to the diversity of seizure EEG patterns between different individuals, multiple features are necessary for high accuracy since a single feature could hardly encode all types of epileptiform discharges. However, a large feature set inevitably causes the increase of the computational cost. This paper proposes a boosted cascade chain to obtain both high detection performance and high computational efficiency. Sixteen features that are widely used in seizure detection are implemented. Considering the sequential characteristics of EEG signals, the features are extracted on each 1-second segment and its former three segments. Thus, a total of 64 features are used to construct a feature pool. Based on the feature pool, Real AdaBoost is used to select a group of effective features, on which weak classifiers are learned to assemble a strong classifier. The strong classifier is transformed to a cascade classifier by reordering the weak classifiers and learning a threshold for each weak classifier. The cascade classifier still has the similar classification strength to the original strong classifier. More importantly, it is able to reject easy non-seizure samples by the first a few weak classifiers in the cascade, thus high computational efficiency can be obtained. To evaluate our method, 90.6-hour EEG signals from four patients are tested. The experimental results show that our method can achieve an average accuracy of 95.31% and an average detection rate of 91.29% with the false positive rate of 4.68%. On average, only about 4 features are used. Compared with support vector machine (SVM), our method is much more efficient with the similar detection performance. PMID:24111183

Ge, Tingting; Qi, Yu; Wang, Yueming; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

2013-01-01

149

?-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. ?-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

2014-01-01

150

Comparison of classifications of seizures: A preliminary study with 28 participants and 48 seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeOur aim was to compare three available seizure classifications (SCs), namely, the international classification of epileptic seizures published in 1981 (ICES; Epilepsia 1981;22:489–50); the semiological seizure classification (SSC) by H. Lüders, J. Acharya, C. Baumgartner, et al. (Epilepsia 1998;39:1006–13; Acta Neurol Scand 1999;99:137–41); and the proposal of a new diagnostic scheme for seizures (PDSS) by J. Engel, Jr. (Epilepsia 2001;42:796–803)

Betül Baykan; Nalan Kayrak Ertas; Mustafa Ertas; Berrin Aktekin; Serap Saygi; Aysen Gokyigit

2005-01-01

151

Soy Infant Formula and Seizures in Children with Autism: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Seizures are a common phenotype in many neurodevelopmental disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and autism. We hypothesized that phytoestrogens in soy-based infant formula were contributing to lower seizure threshold in these disorders. Herein, we evaluated the dependence of seizure incidence on infant formula in a population of autistic children. Medical record data were obtained on 1,949 autistic children from the SFARI Simplex Collection. An autism diagnosis was determined by scores on the ADI-R and ADOS exams. The database included data on infant formula use, seizure incidence, the specific type of seizure exhibited and IQ. Soy-based formula was utilized in 17.5% of the study population. Females comprised 13.4% of the subjects. There was a 2.6-fold higher rate of febrile seizures [4.2% versus 1.6%, OR?=?2.6, 95% CI?=?1.3–5.3], a 2.1-fold higher rate of epilepsy comorbidity [3.6% versus 1.7%, OR?=?2.2, 95% CI?=?1.1–4.7] and a 4-fold higher rate of simple partial seizures [1.2% versus 0.3%, OR?=?4.8, 95% CI?=?1.0–23] in the autistic children fed soy-based formula. No statistically significant associations were found with other outcomes including: IQ, age of seizure onset, infantile spasms and atonic, generalized tonic clonic, absence and complex partial seizures. Limitations of the study included: infant formula and seizure data were based on parental recall, there were significantly less female subjects, and there was lack of data regarding critical confounders such as the reasons the subjects used soy formula, age at which soy formula was initiated and the length of time on soy formula. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the use of soy-based infant formula may be associated with febrile seizures in both genders and with a diagnosis of epilepsy in males in autistic children. Given the lack of data on critical confounders and the retrospective nature of the study, a prospective study is required to confirm the association. PMID:24622158

Westmark, Cara J.

2014-01-01

152

Importance of cardiological evaluation for first seizures.  

PubMed

This paper reports two cases of long QT syndrome (LQTS) which presented with seizures as their initial feature. Case 1, AB was seen in emergency department with post-partum seizure, discharged and re-presented following cardiac arrest associated with LQTS. Case 2, CD presented initially with tonic-clonic seizure and because of experience with AB, CD was assessed for LQTS which was subsequently confirmed. The legal medicine experience re Dobler v Halverson, which involved a young boy with LQTS, who suffered cardiac arrest without prior diagnosis of LQTS, has reinforced the requirement to seriously consider LQTS as an aetiological factor in first seizure presentations. PMID:25879012

Choong, Ho; Hanna, Ibrahim; Beran, Roy

2015-04-16

153

Importance of cardiological evaluation for first seizures  

PubMed Central

This paper reports two cases of long QT syndrome (LQTS) which presented with seizures as their initial feature. Case 1, AB was seen in emergency department with post-partum seizure, discharged and re-presented following cardiac arrest associated with LQTS. Case 2, CD presented initially with tonic-clonic seizure and because of experience with AB, CD was assessed for LQTS which was subsequently confirmed. The legal medicine experience re Dobler v Halverson, which involved a young boy with LQTS, who suffered cardiac arrest without prior diagnosis of LQTS, has reinforced the requirement to seriously consider LQTS as an aetiological factor in first seizure presentations. PMID:25879012

Choong, Ho; Hanna, Ibrahim; Beran, Roy

2015-01-01

154

Early sonographic prenatal diagnosis of seizures.  

PubMed

Fetal seizures are an unusual phenomenon. When diagnosed by ultrasonography, they are frequently associated with malformations and carry a poor prognosis. We describe first trimester seizures in two siblings with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. In both cases, convulsions appeared before other sonographic signs of the disease. Review of the literature revealed 11 other cases of fetal seizures diagnosed by ultrasound, all later in gestation. Fetal seizures may be the first manifestation of defective neural and motor development. Therefore, in pregnancies at high risk for neuromuscular disease, early sonographic evaluation of fetal motility, in addition to the anatomical survey, is advised. PMID:17948231

Sheizaf, B; Mazor, M; Landau, D; Burstein, E; Bashiri, A; Hershkovitz, R

2007-12-01

155

Effect of antihormones in amygdala-kindled seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Tamoxifen (TXF; an antiestrogen), cyproterone acetate (CYP; an antiandrogen) and mifepristone (MIF; an antigestagen) did not affect kindling parameters (afterdischarge threshold, seizure severity, seizure duration and afterdischarge duration) in fully-kindled rats. TXF (50 mg/kg) and CYP (50 mg/kg), when combined with carbamazepine, or phenobarbital, both antiepileptics administered at their highest subprotective doses of 15 mg/kg, resulted in significant reduction of the seizure and afterdischarge durations, both in male and female rats. Additionally, the combination of carbamazepine and cyproterone markedly increased the afterdischarge threshold in fully-kindled rats of both genders. The interaction between antihormones and carbamazepine, or phenobarbital, was not reversed by the respective gonadal hormones (estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone), kainic acid, or strychnine. However, the TXF-, and CYP-induced effect on the action of carbamazepine was abolished by bicuculline, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and aminophylline. The effect of TXF on the protective activity of phenobarbital was reversed by bicuculline and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid. Finally, the CYP-mediated effect on phenobarbital action was abolished by bicuculline and aminophylline. Neither TXF nor CYP altered free plasma levels and brain levels of carbamazepine or phenobarbital, so a pharmacokinetic interaction between antihormones and antiepileptic drugs is not probable. In view of the present data, it may be suggested that the protective activity of the antiestrogen and antiandrogen are mostly associated with the enhancement of GABA-ergic and purinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Also the augmentation of glutamatergic transmission, realized through NMDA receptors, may be involved in the mechanism of antiseizure action of TXF and CYP. PMID:11785914

Borowicz, K K

2001-01-01

156

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances...

2014-04-01

157

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances...

2013-04-01

158

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances...

2012-04-01

159

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21...

2010-04-01

160

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242, 21...

2011-04-01

161

Nonepileptic seizures treatment workshop summary.  

PubMed

In May 2005, an international, interdisciplinary group of researchers gathered in Bethesda, MD, USA, for a workshop to discuss the development of treatments for patients with nonepileptic seizures (NES). Specific subgroup topics that were covered included: pediatric NES; presenting the diagnosis of NES, outcome measures for NES trials; classification of NES subtypes; and pharmacological treatment approaches and psychotherapies. The intent was to develop specific research strategies that can be expanded to involve a large segment of the epilepsy and psychiatric treatment communities. Various projects have resulted from the workshop, including the initial development of a prospective randomized clinical trial for NES. PMID:16540377

LaFrance, W Curt; Alper, Kenneth; Babcock, Debra; Barry, John J; Benbadis, Selim; Caplan, Rochelle; Gates, John; Jacobs, Margaret; Kanner, Andres; Martin, Roy; Rundhaugen, Lynn; Stewart, Randy; Vert, Christina

2006-05-01

162

Effects of D-penicillamine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: involvement of nitric oxide/NMDA pathways.  

PubMed

Besides the clinical applications of penicillamine, some reports show that use of D-penicillamine (D-pen) has been associated with adverse effects such as seizures. So, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of D-pen on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in male NMRI mice. It also examined whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor/nitrergic system blockage was able to alter the probable effects of D-pen. Different doses of D-pen (0.1, 0.5, 1, 10, 100, 150, and 250 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 90 min prior to induction of seizures. D-Penicillamine at a low dose (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) had anticonvulsant effects, whereas at a high dose (250 mg/kg, i.p.), it was proconvulsant. Both anti- and proconvulsant effects of D-pen were blocked by a single dose of a nonspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p.), and a single dose of a specific inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), 7-nitroindazole (30 mg/kg, i.p.). A selective inhibitor of iNOS, aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg, i.p.), had no effect on these activities. An NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.), alters the anti- and proconvulsant effects of D-pen. The results of the present study showed that the nitric oxide system and NMDA receptors may contribute to the biphasic effects of D-pen, which remain to be clarified further. PMID:25173990

Rahimi, Nastaran; Sadeghzadeh, Mitra; Javadi-Paydar, Mehrak; Heidary, Mahmoud Reza; Jazaeri, Farahnaz; Dehpour, Ahmad R

2014-10-01

163

Increased seizure severity and seizure-related death in mice lacking HCN1 channels  

PubMed Central

Summary Persistent down-regulation in the expression of the hyperpolarization-activated HCN1 cation channel, a key determinant of intrinsic neuronal excitability, has been observed in febrile seizure, temporal lobe epilepsy and generalized epilepsy animal models, as well as patients with epilepsy. However, the role and importance of HCN1 downregulation for seizure activity is unclear. To address this question we determined the susceptibility of mice with either a general or forebrain-restricted deletion of HCN1 to limbic seizure induction by amygdala kindling or pilocarpine administration. Loss of HCN1 expression in both mouse lines is associated with higher seizure severity and higher seizure-related mortality, independent of the seizure induction method used. Thus, downregulation of HCN1 associated with human epilepsy and rodent models may be a contributing factor to seizure behavior. PMID:20384728

Santoro, Bina; Lee, Janet Y.; Englot, Dario J.; Gildersleeve, Sandra; Piskorowski, Rebecca A.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.; Winawer, Melodie R.; Blumenfeld, Hal

2010-01-01

164

Search and Seizure in the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph attempts to provide clear understanding of the standards presented by the Supreme Court in "New Jersey v. T.L.O." relative to search and seizure in public schools, and suggests practical ways of applying search and seizure law to situations in the school setting. ("T.L.O." are the initials of the anonymous student.) After an…

Rossow, Lawrence F.

165

Search and Seizure in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under…

Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

2007-01-01

166

Seizure or syncope: Lessons over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25-year-old woman with recurrent syncopal episodes presented with a first time generalized tonic clonic (GTC) seizure. She had experienced two prior fainting spells lasting seconds and associated with diet pills and dehydration. She had another similar spell prior to falling, sustaining a laceration to the right posterior occiput, and having a witnessed GTC seizure. Her scalp electroencephalography (EEG) showed

Volney L. Sheen

167

The many etiologies of neonatal hypocalcemic seizures.  

PubMed

Seizures during the neonatal period have a broad differential diagnosis. Unlike in developing countries where hypovitaminosis D and hypocalcemia constitutes a major cause of infantile seizures, the number of neonatal seizures attributed to hypocalcemia in developed countries has decreased dramatically due to the improvement of infant formulas and vitamin D supplementation. In these countries, most infants that present with hypocalcemic seizures have underlying endocrinological etiologies rather than dietary insufficiencies. Here, we describe 3 cases of neonatal seizures due to hypocalcemia. Although the symptoms and calcium concentrations at presentation were similar in all 3 cases, the course of the disease and the final diagnosis for each were distinct. The cases are presented along with a brief review of the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of neonatal hypocalcemia. PMID:25738238

Levy-Shraga, Yael; Dallalzadeh, Keren; Stern, Keren; Paret, Gideon; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit

2015-03-01

168

?-Hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures.  

PubMed

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P; Duntley, Stephen P; Darken, Rachel S

2014-07-15

169

Molecular mechanism of circadian rhythmicity of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The circadian pattern of seizures in people with epilepsy (PWE) was first described two millennia ago. However, these phenomena have not received enough scientific attention, possibly due to the lack of promising hypotheses to address the interaction between seizure generation and a physiological clock. To propose testable hypotheses at the molecular level, interactions between circadian rhythm, especially transcription factors governing clock genes expression, and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, the major signaling pathway in epilepsy, will be reviewed. Then, two closely related hypotheses will be proposed: (1) Rhythmic activity of hyperactivated mTOR signaling molecules results in rhythmic increases in neuronal excitability. These rhythmic increases in excitability periodically exceed the seizure threshold, displaying the behavioral seizures. (2) Oscillation of neuronal excitability in SCN modulates the rhythmic excitability in the hippocampus through subiculum via long-range projections. Findings from published results, their implications, and proposals for new experiments will be discussed. These attempts may ignite further discussion on what we still need to learn about the rhythmicity of spontaneous seizures. PMID:23189039

Cho, Chang-Hoon

2012-01-01

170

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... is involved. Symptoms occur suddenly and may include: Brief blackout followed by a period of confusion (the person cannot remember for a short time) Changes in behavior such as picking at one's ...

171

Neuronal Ensemble Synchrony during Human Focal Seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures are classically characterized as the expression of hypersynchronous neural activity, yet the true degree of synchrony in neuronal spiking (action potentials) during human seizures remains a fundamental question. We quantified the temporal precision of spike synchrony in ensembles of neocortical neurons during seizures in people with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Two seizure types were analyzed: those characterized by sustained gamma (?40–60 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations or by spike-wave complexes (SWCs; ?3 Hz). Fine (<10 ms) temporal synchrony was rarely present during gamma-band seizures, where neuronal spiking remained highly irregular and asynchronous. In SWC seizures, phase locking of neuronal spiking to the SWC spike phase induced synchrony at a coarse 50–100 ms level. In addition, transient fine synchrony occurred primarily during the initial ?20 ms period of the SWC spike phase and varied across subjects and seizures. Sporadic coherence events between neuronal population spike counts and LFPs were observed during SWC seizures in high (?80 Hz) gamma-band and during high-frequency oscillations (?130 Hz). Maximum entropy models of the joint neuronal spiking probability, constrained only on single neurons' nonstationary coarse spiking rates and local network activation, explained most of the fine synchrony in both seizure types. Our findings indicate that fine neuronal ensemble synchrony occurs mostly during SWC, not gamma-band, seizures, and primarily during the initial phase of SWC spikes. Furthermore, these fine synchrony events result mostly from transient increases in overall neuronal network spiking rates, rather than changes in precise spiking correlations between specific pairs of neurons. PMID:25057195

Ahmed, Omar J.; Harrison, Matthew T.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Madsen, Joseph R.; Blum, Andrew S.; Potter, N. Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Cash, Sydney S.

2014-01-01

172

Pediatric Stroke Presenting as a Seizure  

PubMed Central

Background. Childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is rare and may be difficult to diagnose. Management of acute stroke in any age group is time sensitive, so awareness of the manifestations and appropriate diagnostic procedures for pediatric AIS is vital to establishing care. We present a pediatric case of arterial ischemic stroke that presented to the emergency department (ED) after two seizures. Case Report. A five-year-old female with an existing seizure disorder presented to a pediatric ED after having two seizures. Postictal upon arrival, she underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of her head. Family reported that she had complained of a severe headache and vomited; her seizures were described as different from those she had experienced in the past. Loss of grey white matter differentiation on the CT warranted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a right-sided stroke. After a complicated course in the hospital, the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation hospital. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? It is important that emergency physicians recognize that a seizure may be the initial symptom of a pediatric stroke regardless of an established seizure history. Pediatric seizures are relatively common; however consideration of the diagnosis of pediatric stroke may prevent unnecessary delays in treatment. PMID:25587467

Ahmadzadeh, Katie L.; Bhardwaj, Vartika; Johnson, Steven A.; Kane, Kathleen E.

2014-01-01

173

Acute Seizures Predict Epilepsy After Childhood Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine incidence rates and predictors of epilepsy after childhood stroke and compare these to published estimates of 3–5% cumulative epilepsy incidence by five years post-stroke in adults. Methods In a retrospective population-based study of children with stroke (29 days?19 years) in an integrated health care system (1993–2007), post-stroke seizures were identified through electronic searches and confirmed by chart review. Stroke and seizure characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Survival analysis was used to determine rates and predictors of remote seizures and active epilepsy (anti-convulsant treatment for remote seizure within prior 6 months) at last follow-up. Results From a population of 2.5 million children, we identified 305 stroke cases. Over a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range 1.8–6.8), 49 children had a first unprovoked remote seizure. The average annual incidence rate of first remote seizure was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3, 5.8) with a cumulative risk of 16% (CI 12%, 21%) at 5 years and 33% (CI 23%, 46%) at 10 years post-stroke. The cumulative risk of active epilepsy was 13% (CI 9%, 18%) at five years and 30% (CI 20%, 44%) at 10 years. Acute seizures at the time of stroke predicted development of active epilepsy (hazard ratio [HR] 4.2, CI 2.2, 8.1). At last follow-up, one-third of the children with active epilepsy had a recent breakthrough seizure despite anti-convulsant usage. Interpretation Unlike adults, children are uniquely vulnerable to epilepsy after stroke. Children with acute seizures at the time of stroke are at particularly high risk. PMID:23613472

Fox, Christine K.; Glass, Hannah C.; Sidney, Stephen; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Fullerton, Heather J.

2013-01-01

174

Laugh-induced seizure: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction A laugh-induced seizure is an unrecognized condition and to the best of our knowledge no case has been reported in the medical literature until now. We present an interesting and extremely rare case in which laughing generated the seizure activity that was recorded and confirmed by video electroencephalography. Case presentation A 43-year-old obese Caucasian man with history of bipolar disorder and chronic headache presented with multiple episodes of seizures, all induced by laughter while watching comedy shows. Each episode lasted approximately five seconds. In each instance, he started laughing, then his arms started shaking and he felt like ‘his consciousness was being vacuumed away’. A physical examination revealed normal findings. He had been maintained on valproic acid for bipolar disorder and topiramate for his chronic headache, but this did not control his symptoms. His sleep-deprived electroencephalography and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal except for an arachnoid cyst measuring 4.2 × 2.1cm in the anterior right middle cranial fossa. His video electroencephalography demonstrated laugh-induced seizure activities. He was then placed on carbamazepine. Following treatment, he had two episodes of mild staring but no frank seizures, and his seizures have remained well controlled on this regimen for more than a year. Conclusions Laugh-induced seizure is a most unusual clinical entity without any previous case report. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by video electroencephalography recording of seizure activities provoked by laughing. As in gelastic seizure without hypothalamic hamartoma, our case responded well to polytherapy with topiramate and carbamazepine on top of laugh-provocation avoidance. Further study is required to establish the standard treatment of this condition. PMID:23668718

2013-01-01

175

ABSENCE SEIZURES AS RESETTING MECHANISMS OF BRAIN DYNAMICS1  

PubMed Central

To understand the increase in age-related incidence and frequency of absence seizures in the rat brain, we investigated the effect of these seizures on brain dynamics. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that age-related differences in the expression of absence seizures are associated with the ability of the seizures to reset brain dynamics. PMID:19763248

Nair, S.P.; Jukkola, P.I.; Quigley, M.; Wilberger, A.; Shiau, D.S.; Sackellares, J.C.; Pardalos, P.M.; Kelly, K.M.

2009-01-01

176

Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

2014-01-01

177

Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control  

SciTech Connect

The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

2009-07-02

178

EEG, CT and neurosonographic findings in patients with postischemic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-two patients with postischemic seizures were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG), computerized tomography (CT) and neurosonography. There were 24% early-onset and 76% late-onset initial seizures. Early-onset seizure was more likely to be simple partial (53%), whereas late-onset seizure was more likely to be primarily generalized (56%). 76% early-onset and 80% late-onset seizures were single. Status epilepticus was more frequent in early-onset

Susanna Horner; Xiu-Shi Ni; Margret Duft; Kurt Niederkorn; Helmut Lechner

1995-01-01

179

The fruit essential oil of Pimpinella anisum exerts anticonvulsant effects in mice.  

PubMed

This study investigates anticonvulsant effects of an essential oil of the fruits of Pimpinella anisum (Umbelliferae), a folkloric remedy in the Iranian traditional medicine, against seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or maximal electroshock (MES) in male mice. The essential oil suppressed tonic convulsions induced by PTZ or MES. It also elevated the threshold of PTZ-induced clonic convulsions in mice. The essential oil produced motor impairment. However, this effect was not observed at the doses and time courses needed for anticonvulsant activity. PMID:10433480

Pourgholami, M H; Majzoob, S; Javadi, M; Kamalinejad, M; Fanaee, G H; Sayyah, M

1999-08-01

180

Patient-specific seizure onset detection  

E-print Network

Approximately one percent of the world's population exhibits symptoms of epilepsy, a serious disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes those affected to experiencing recurrent seizures. The risk of injury ...

Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

2003-01-01

181

Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures.  

PubMed

Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function, including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a critical mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

Motelow, Joshua E; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M; Sachdev, Robert N S; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P; Englot, Dario J; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

2015-02-01

182

If I Had - My First Seizure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... relate to problems that can occur in the brain. Have you been having headaches recently? Fevers? Did ... A history of encephalitis? Anything that can affect brain function, might be related to having a seizure. ...

183

Duration of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia Before Seizures  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Despite a high incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia documented by the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), there are no reports in the literature of nocturnal hypoglycemic seizures while a patient is wearing a CGM device. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In this article, we describe four such cases and assess the duration of nocturnal hypoglycemia before the seizure. RESULTS—In the cases where patients had a nocturnal hypoglycemic seizure while wearing a CGM device, sensor hypoglycemia (<60 mg/dl) was documented on the CGM record for 2.25–4 h before seizure activity. CONCLUSIONS—Even with a subcutaneous glucose lag of 18 min when compared with blood glucose measurements, glucose sensors have time to provide clinically meaningful alarms. Current nocturnal hypoglycemic alarms need to be improved, however, since patients can sleep through the current alarm systems. PMID:18694975

Buckingham, Bruce; Wilson, Darrell M.; Lecher, Todd; Hanas, Ragnar; Kaiserman, Kevin; Cameron, Fergus

2008-01-01

184

Seizures in Adults (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... an apparent unprovoked first seizure in adults (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of ... E, Bourgeois B, et al. ILAE treatment guidelines: evidence-based analysis of antiepileptic drug efficacy and effectiveness as ...

185

Analysis of Epileptic Seizures with Complex Network  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a disease of abnormal neural activities involving large area of brain networks. Until now the nature of functional brain network associated with epilepsy is still unclear. Recent researches indicate that the small world or scale-free attributes and the occurrence of highly clustered connection patterns could represent a general organizational principle in the human brain functional network. In this paper, we seek to find whether the small world or scale-free property of brain network is correlated with epilepsy seizure formation. A mass neural model was adopted to generate multiple channel EEG recordings based on regular, small world, random, and scale-free network models. Whether the connection patterns of cortical networks are directly associated with the epileptic seizures was investigated. The results showed that small world and scale-free cortical networks are highly correlated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures. In particular, the property of small world network is more significant during the epileptic seizures. PMID:25147576

Ni, Yan; Wang, Yinghua; Yu, Tao; Li, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

186

Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

1993-01-01

187

Alcohol-Related Seizures in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol abuse is a common cause of seizures resulting in admission to the intensive care unit. The cause of the alcohol-related\\u000a seizures (ARS) is usually abstinence in a chronic alcoholic, although some patients may still have detectable levels of alcohol\\u000a in their blood. ARS generally occur between 7 and 48 h after abstinence. Approximately half of patients presenting with ARS

Zachary Webb

188

Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months), 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3%) occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32?C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls). Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%). All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection. PMID:24665278

ESMAILI GOURABI, Hamed; BIDABADI, Elham; CHERAGHALIPOUR, Fatemeh; AARABI, Yasaman; SALAMAT, Fatemeh

2012-01-01

189

Infantile Spasms: Little Seizures, BIG Consequences  

PubMed Central

Infantile spasms is one of the “catastrophic childhood epilepsies” because of the difficulty in controlling seizures and the association with mental retardation. However, early recognition, a careful diagnostic evaluation, and proper treatment may allow some children to attain seizure control and to achieve a normal, or at least much improved, level of development. Thus, there is the opportunity to have an important impact in the lives of these unfortunate children and their families. PMID:16761063

Shields, W Donald

2006-01-01

190

Seizure or syncope: lessons over time.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old woman with recurrent syncopal episodes presented with a first time generalized tonic clonic (GTC) seizure. She had experienced two prior fainting spells lasting seconds and associated with diet pills and dehydration. She had another similar spell prior to falling, sustaining a laceration to the right posterior occiput, and having a witnessed GTC seizure. Her scalp electroencephalography (EEG) showed left temporal slowing with sharp features. T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI revealed two moderately enhancing focal lesions within the left frontal and temporal regions. These findings raised the possibility of an underlying seizure focus. Repeat imaging studies of this patient 1 month later, however, demonstrated resolution of these findings and an area of encephalomalacia, consistent with a traumatic coup contrecoup injury. A repeat EEG was normal. Therefore, the cause of the loss of consciousness was due to syncope with the consequent head injury giving rise to an isolated seizure. Understanding the underlying cause of a seizure is important in dictating treatment. In this setting the patient was not initiated on seizure medication and has done well. PMID:22245277

Sheen, Volney L

2012-03-01

191

Monitor for status epilepticus seizures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

1994-01-01

192

Correlation between shaking behaviors and seizure severity in five animal models of convulsive seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet dog shakes (WDS) and head shakes (HS) are associated with experimentally induced convulsive seizures. We sought to determine whether these behaviors are correlated or not with major (status epilepticus (SE) or fully kindled animals) or minor (non-SE or partially kindled animals) seizure severity. WDS are directly correlated with SE induced by intracerebral star fruit extract (Averrhoa carambola) injection and

Marcelo Cairrăo Araújo Rodrigues; Franco Rossetti; Maira Licia Foresti; Gabriel Maisonnave Arisi; Márcio Araújo Furtado; Maria Luiza Cleto Dal-Cól; Poliana Bertti; Artur Fernandes; Francisco Leite Santos; Flávio Del Vecchio; Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

2005-01-01

193

Demographic and Seizure Variables, But Not Hypnotizability or Dissociation, Differentiated Psychogenic from Organic Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection and differential diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and epileptic seizures (ES) is a major clinical issue in comprehensive epilepsy centers. Using blind conditions with patients with PNES (N= 10) and ES (N= 31) before diagnosis, we tested the hypotheses that individuals with PNES would exhibit significantly greater dissociativity, hypnotizability, absorption, and history of early abuse than ES

Richard Litwin; Etzel Cardeńa

2001-01-01

194

A Feature Set for EEG Seizure Detection in the Newborn based on Seizure and Background Charactersitics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a set of four features to be used in the detection of seizure in the electroencephalograms (EEGs) of newborns. The features are designed with the aid of recent advances in modelling of the newborn EEG. The performance of the features is analysed with a database of 500 epochs of newborn EEG (250 background\\/250 seizure). The covariance of

N. Stevenson; M. Mesbah; B. Boashash

2007-01-01

195

Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

2006-01-01

196

Does the seizure frequency increase in Ramadan?  

PubMed

During Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar, adult Muslims are required to refrain from taking any food, beverages, or oral drugs, as well as from sexual intercourse between dawn and sunset. In this study, we aimed at discovering alterations in drug regimens and the seizure frequency of epileptic patients during Ramadan (15 October 2004-13 November 2004). In the 3 months following Ramadan in the year 2004, 114 patients with epilepsy who were fasting during Ramadan were examined at our Epilepsy Department. Of the 114 patients who were included in the study, 38 patients had seizures and one of these patients developed status epilepticus during Ramadan. When the seizure frequency of these patients during Ramadan was compared to that in the last 1 year and last 3 months period just prior to Ramadan, a statistically significant increase was observed (p<0.001). Moreover, there was an important increase in the risk of having seizures in the patients who changed their drug regimens compared with those who did not (p<0.05). In the patients who received monotherapy or polytherapy, no difference in the frequency of seizures during Ramadan was seen (p>0.05). During Ramadan, an increase in the seizure frequency of patients with epilepsy was observed. The most important reason for this situation was the alteration in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, and consequently, in their efficacy. We believe that in the patients who received monotherapy and who did not change their drug regimes, the increase in seizure frequency may have been related to the changes in their daily rhythms, emotional stress, tiredness and their day-long fasting. PMID:18468459

Gomceli, Yasemin B; Kutlu, Gulnihal; Cavdar, Leyla; Inan, Levent E

2008-12-01

197

Protective role of Ashwagandharishta and flax seed oil against maximal electroshock induced seizures in albino rats  

PubMed Central

Ashwagandharishta, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, is the remedy for Apasmara (epilepsy), Murchha (syncope), Unmada (psychosis), etc. Recent studies in animal models have shown that n-3 PUFAs can raise the threshold of epileptic seizures. The indigenous medicinal plant, called Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in Ayurveda, or flax seed, is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acids. The present study is designed to investigate whether Ashwagandharishta and Atasi taila (flax seed oil) protect against maximal electroshock (MES) seizures in albino rats. Further, a possible protective role of flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta in its anticonvulsant activity has also been evaluated in the study. MES seizures were induced for rats and seizure severity was assessed by the duration of hind limb extensor phase. Phenytoin was used as the standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Both flax seed oil and Ashwagandharishta significantly decreased convulsion phase. Pre-treatment with flax seed oil exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Contrary to the expectations, pre-treatment with flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta failed to decrease the tonic extensor phase; however, it significantly decreased the flexion phase (P < 0.001) and duration of the convulsions (P < 0.05). Both the drugs exhibited an excellent anti-post-ictal depression effect and complete protection against mortality. PMID:23049195

Tanna, Ila R.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B. K.; Chandola, H. M.

2012-01-01

198

VEGF Receptor-2 (Flk-1) Overexpression in Mice Counteracts Focal Epileptic Seizures  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was first described as an angiogenic agent, but has recently also been shown to exert various neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in the nervous system. These effects of VEGF are mainly mediated by its receptor, VEGFR-2, which is also referred to as the fetal liver kinase receptor 1 (Flk-1). VEGF is up-regulated in neurons and glial cells after epileptic seizures and counteracts seizure-induced neurodegeneration. In vitro, VEGF administration suppresses ictal and interictal epileptiform activity caused by AP4 and 0 Mg2+ via Flk-1 receptor. We therefore explored whether increased VEGF signaling through Flk-1 overexpression may regulate epileptogenesis and ictogenesis in vivo. To this extent, we used transgenic mice overexpressing Flk-1 postnatally in neurons. Intriguingly, Flk-1 overexpressing mice were characterized by an elevated threshold for seizure induction and a decreased duration of focal afterdischarges, indicating anti-ictal action. On the other hand, the kindling progression in these mice was similar to wild-type controls. No significant effects on blood vessels or glia cells, as assessed by Glut1 and GFAP immunohistochemistry, were detected. These results suggest that increased VEGF signaling via overexpression of Flk-1 receptors may directly affect seizure activity even without altering angiogenesis. Thus, Flk-1 could be considered as a novel target for developing future gene therapy strategies against ictal epileptic activity. PMID:22808185

Nikitidou, Litsa; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Dhondt, Joke; Carmeliet, Peter; Lambrechts, Diether; Kokaia, Mérab

2012-01-01

199

Neurogenetic disorders and treatment of associated seizures.  

PubMed

Seizures are a frequent complication associated with several neurogenetic disorders. Antiepileptic medications remain the mainstay of treatment in these patients. We summarized the available data associated with various antiepileptic therapies used to treat patients with neurogenetic disorders who experienced recurrent seizures. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify articles and abstracts describing the use of antiepileptic therapy for the treatment of various neurogenetic syndromes. Of all the neurogenetic syndromes, only autism spectrum disorders, Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Dravet syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis complex were identified as having sufficient published information to evaluate therapy. Some efficacy trends were identified, including frequent successes with valproic acid with clonazepam for epilepsy with Angelman syndrome; valproic acid, stiripentol, and clobazam (triple combination therapy) for epilepsy with Dravet syndrome; and vigabatrin for infantile spasms associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. Due to a paucity of information regarding the mechanisms by which seizures are generated in the various disorders, approach to seizure control is primarily based on clinical experience and a limited amount of study data exploring patient outcomes. Although exposure of the developing brain to antiepileptic medications is of some concern, the control of epileptic activity is an important undertaking in these individuals, as the severity of eventual developmental delay often appears to correlate with the severity of seizures. As such, early aggressive therapy is warranted. PMID:23400943

Faulkner, Michele A; Singh, Sanjay P

2013-03-01

200

Concepts of brain oxygen sufficiency during seizures.  

PubMed

To resolve conflicting evidence of oxygen sufficiency or insufficiency during seizures, signals of metabolic and circulatory function were monitored in rat cerebral cortex during recurrent seizures. Early seizures were accompanied by increased blood volume, increased tPO2, and oxidative shifts of cytochrome a,a3, indicative of oxygen sufficiency. Later seizures were accompanied by a smaller increment in blood volume, a fall in tPO2, and shifts toward reduction of cytochrome a,a3, suggesting that cerebral oxygen supply became insufficient to meet demand. Responses suggesting oxygen insufficiency occurred during short duration ictal bursts, interictal spikes or electrocortical stimulation at times when longer duration ictal episodes still were accompanied by responses signalling oxygen sufficiency. These data indicate that there is a progressive dissociation of the normally tight couple between neuronal activity, energy demand, and cerebral blood flow during status epilepticus. Systemic derrangements that often accompanied recurrent seizures also contributed to decreased cerebral oxygenation. These factors may cause the neuronal damage reported to follow prolonged status epilepticus. PMID:6099961

Kreisman, N R; Sick, T J; Rosenthal, M

1984-01-01

201

Positron emission tomography in generalized seizures  

SciTech Connect

The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.

Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.

1985-05-01

202

77 FR 12360 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...enable these individuals with seizure disorders to operate CMVs in interstate commerce...UPS. He was diagnosed with a seizure disorder and given anti-seizure...

2012-02-29

203

Is there a clustering effect on electroencephalographic seizure localization?  

PubMed

Long-term video-EEG monitoring (LTM) is the gold standard for initial lateralization and localization of seizures in the workup for neurosurgical treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. Previous studies have yielded contradictory results as to whether seizures that occur in clusters tend to arise from the same brain region and may lead to the incorrect conclusion that seizures arise from a single focus. To determine whether seizure clustering affects localization in an LTM setting, the authors performed an observational study over 6 years at a large regional epilepsy center on those undergoing LTM for seizure diagnosis, characterization, or presurgical workup. Excluding repeat studies and LTMs with generalized or nonepileptic seizures resulted in 479 monitorings with 2774 focal seizures for analysis. Sequential pairs of consecutive focal seizures were classed as "concordant", "discordant," or "other," based on EEG localization. ANOVA analysis on the logarithm of the interseizure interval (LISI) among the three seizure pair groups showed no significant difference, p=0.47, nor did analysis defining concordance as lateralization to the same hemisphere (p=0.34). Analyses on subgroups with multifocal seizures, bilateral seizures, and extratemporal seizures all failed to show a significant difference. In conclusion, seizures have the same localizing value whether occurring in a cluster over a few hours or sporadically over a few days. This could potentially lead to shorter monitoring times. PMID:24559839

Kim, Wonsuk; Miller, John W; Drane, Daniel L; Oakley, John C

2014-05-01

204

Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures  

SciTech Connect

Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

1990-01-01

205

Comparison of three nonlinear seizure prediction methods by means of the seizure prediction characteristic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epilepsy is characterized by the spontaneous and unforeseeable occurrence of seizures, during which the perception or behavior of patients is disturbed. The predictability of these seizures would render novel therapeutic approaches possible. Several prediction methods have claimed to be able to predict seizures based on EEG recordings minutes in advance. However, the term seizure prediction is not unequivocally defined, different criteria to assess prediction methods exist, and only little attention has been paid to issues of sensitivity and false prediction rate. We introduce an assessment criterion called the seizure prediction characteristic that incorporates the assessment of sensitivity and false prediction rate. Within this framework, three nonlinear seizure prediction methods were evaluated on a large EEG data pool of 21 patients. Altogether, 582 h intracranial EEG data and 88 seizures were examined. With a rate of 1-3.6 false predictions per day, the “dynamical similarity index” achieves a sensitivity between 21 and 42%, which was the best result of the three methods. Sensitivity was between 18 and 31% for the extended, prospective version of the “accumulated energy” and between 13 and 30% for the “effective correlation dimension”. These results still are not sufficient for clinical applications.

Maiwald, Thomas; Winterhalder, Matthias; Aschenbrenner-Scheibe, Richard; Voss, Henning U.; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Timmer, Jens

2004-07-01

206

Seizure Reduction with Fluoxetine in Dravet Syndrome.  

PubMed

An adult woman with Dravet syndrome (documented SCN1A mutation) experienced a marked reduction in seizures when treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. The seizure reduction may be partly to reductions associated with aging in Dravet patients, but it appears to be due at least in part to the fluoxetine. A prior preliminary study reported that fenfluramine reduces seizures in patients with Dravet syndrome. Fenfluramine may produce this effect by increasing serotonin brain levels, and SSRIs have been found to possess antiepileptic properties in animal models of epilepsy. Given the known cardiac risks of fenfluramine, consideration of randomized clinical trials with SSRIs should be considered in Dravet syndrome and other epilepsies. PMID:24955329

Meador, Kimford J

2014-01-01

207

Continuous assessment of epileptic seizures with wrist-worn biosensors  

E-print Network

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized predominantly by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The apprehension about injury, or even death, resulting from a seizure often overshadows the ...

Poh, Ming-Zher

2011-01-01

208

27 CFR 478.152 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures...Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Any firearm or ammunition involved in or used in any knowing...

2010-04-01

209

Treatment of Seizures in Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... table 1 ). (See "Antiepileptic drugs: Mechanism of action, pharmacology, and adverse effects" .) OTHER TREATMENTS Dietary treatment — A ... seizures and epilepsy Antiepileptic drugs: Mechanism of action, pharmacology, and adverse effects Treatment of neonatal seizures Overview ...

210

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2010-04-01

211

Electrically Induced Limbic Seizures: Preliminary Findings in a Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

In epilepsy, novel pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment approaches are commonly assessed in model systems of acute motor and often generalized seizures. We developed a rodent model with short-term electrical stimulation of the perforant path resulting in stereotyped limbic seizures. Limbic structures play a major role in human intractable epilepsy. In 10 rats, single electrical 5-second and 20-Hz stimuli to the perforant path reliably produced limbic seizures characterized by resting behavior and subtle motor signs. Electrophysiological recordings from the dentate gyrus demonstrated a seizure pattern with 4-Hz to 5-Hz discharges. Multiple inductions of seizures within 72 hours did not alter behavioral and electrophysiological seizure characteristics. Electrophysiological excitatory and inhibitory parameters assessed by evoked single and paired pulses did not change with increasing number of seizures. We present preliminary findings on a new model of electrically induced limbic seizures of mesiotemporal origin. This model may represent a reliable screening tool for new treatment approaches such as deep brain stimulation.

Kowski, Alexander B; Holtkamp, Martin

2015-01-01

212

A Unifying Explanation of Primary Generalized Seizures Through Nonlinear  

E-print Network

, and a well- structured periodic spike and slow-wave shape that slows only slightly during the seizure- dictions with regards to seizure phenomena. We show that mapping the structure of the nonlinear bifurcation

Breakspear, Michael

213

Vagus nerve stimulation: predictors of seizure freedom  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify predictive factors for the seizure-free outcome of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Methods: All 47 patients who had undergone VNS implantation at one centre and had at least one year of follow up were studied. They underwent complete presurgical evaluation including detailed clinical history, magnetic resonance imaging, and long term video-EEG with ictal and interictal recordings. After implantation, adjustment of stimulation parameters and concomitant antiepileptic drugs were at the discretion of the treating physician. Results: Mean (SD) age of the patients was 22.7 (11.6) years (range 7 to 53). Six patients (13%) became seizure-free after the VNS implantation. Only two variables showed a significant association with the seizure-free outcome: absence of bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) and presence of malformation of cortical development (MCD). Epilepsy duration showed a non-significant trend towards a negative association with outcome. By logistic regression analysis, only absence of bilateral IED correlated independently with successful VNS treatment (p<0.01, odds ratio = 29.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 353)). Bilateral IED (independent or bilateral synchronous) was found in one of six seizure-free patients and in 33 of 41 non-seizure-free patients. When bilateral IED were absent, the sensitivity for seizure-free outcome was 0.83 (0.44 to 0.97), and the specificity was 0.80 (0.66 to 0.90). Conclusions: Bilateral IED was independently associated with the outcome of VNS. These results are preliminary because they were based on a small patient population. They may facilitate prospective VNS studies enrolling larger numbers of patients to confirm the results. PMID:15716532

Janszky, J; Hoppe, M; Behne, F; Tuxhorn, I; Pannek, H; Ebner, A

2005-01-01

214

Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008).  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures in 211 canine and feline patients diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy were evaluated for temporal significance in relation to the lunar cycle. Seizure counts were compared among each of the eight individual lunar phases, among each of eight exact lunar phase dates, and by percent of lunar illumination using generalized estimating equations. No statistical significance was found in any of these comparisons excluding a relationship between the onset of epileptic seizures and the phases of the moon. Alteration in anticonvulsant treatment or monitoring of canine and feline patients with idiopathic epilepsy at large was not warranted based on the lunar cycle. PMID:21852516

Browand-Stainback, Laura; Levesque, Donald; McBee, Matthew

2011-01-01

215

Monitoring Seizure Duration During Electroconvulsive Therapy.  

PubMed

Three alternative monitoring methods for assessing the duration of seizures during electroconvulsive therapy were studied. The mean integrated amplitude of the electroencephalogram, facial muscle electromyogram, and "cuff method" were compared with the reference single-channel unprocessed electroencephalogram in 78 sessions with 17 patients. The measures of seizure duration differed significantly (p < 0.001). The mean integrated electroence phalographic amplitude differences were small and an artifact of the sampling procedure. Larger, but clinically unimportant, discrepancies were obtained with the facial electromyogram amplitude. In contrast, there were marked differences between the electroencephalogram and the "cuff method," which suggest that the latter technique may be of limited usefulness. PMID:11940966

Couture, Lawrence J.; Lucas, Linda F.; Lippmann, Steven B.; Shaltout, Taher; Paloheimo, Markku P. J.; Edmonds, Harvey L.

1988-01-01

216

Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in clinical expression, as evidenced, for example, by studies of ictal fear-related behavior (decorrelation of activity between structures inducing "release" phenomena) and of déjŕ vu (increased synchronization). Studies of functional coupling within networks underlying complex ictal behavior indicate that the clinical semiology of a given seizure depends upon neither the anatomical origin of ictal discharge nor the target areas of its propagation alone but on the dynamic interaction between these. Careful mapping of the ictal network in its full spread offers essential information as to the localization of seizure onset, by deducing that a given network configuration could only be generated by a given area or group of areas. PMID:24424286

Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

2014-09-01

217

Computer simulation of epilepsy: implications for seizure spread and behavioral dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal area CA3 has been one of the most intensively studied brain regions for computer models of epileptiform activity. As physiological studies begin to extend outward to other hippocampal and parahippocampal areas, we must extend these models to understand more complex circuitry containing diverse elements. Study of subiculum is of particular interest in this context, as it is a structure of intermediate complexity, with an inchoate columnar and laminar organization. In addition to helping us understand seizures, modeling of these structures will also help us understand the genesis of physiological activity patterns that are below threshold for seizure generation. Such modeling can also serve as a basis for speculation regarding the non-ictal behavioral consequences of epilepsy. PMID:16105749

Lytton, William W.; Orman, Rena; Stewart, Mark

2009-01-01

218

Effect of sleep-wake reversal and sleep deprivation on the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Albino Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in a previously O2 flushed, CO2 free chamber. The exposure began with attainment of 60 psi (gauge) and the end point was the first generalized oxygen toxicity seizure. Animals were exposed to reversal diurnal conditions since weanlings until their sleep-wake cycles had completely reversed, and then divided into four groups of 20 based on the time of day exposed. The time of exposure to oxygen at high pressure prior to seizure was now significantly longer in the group exposed from 1900 to 2000 hr and a reversal of the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility was noted. Animals maintained on normal diurnal conditions were deprived of sleep on the day of exposure for the 12 hours prior to exposure at 1900 hr, while controls were allowed to sleep. There was no significant differences in the time prior to seizure between the deprived animals and the controls with an n = 40. Thus the inherent threshold in susceptibility to high-pressure oxygen seizures seems not to be a function of sleep itself, but of some biochemical/physiologic event which manifests a circadian rhythm.

Dexter, J. D.; Hof, D. G.; Mengel, C. E.

1972-01-01

219

Symptoms of Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seizures are more common in individuals with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. As a result, differences in functioning for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures have been evaluated. Research on differences in psychopathology for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures

Fitzgerald, Mary E.; Matson, Johnny L.; Barker, Alyse

2011-01-01

220

Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG  

PubMed Central

Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

2014-01-01

221

A unifying concept of seizure onset and termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discoveries in molecular biology and human genetics have contributed greatly to an understanding of the nature of seizure (ictal) activity. However, two questions of fundamental clinical importance continue to resist scientific inquiry: when and why does a seizure begin; and when and why does a seizure end?This paper cites evidence from the medical literature in support of two counterintuitive

Glenn Doman; Ralph Pelligra

2004-01-01

222

Seizures in patients with cerebral hemiatrophy: A prognostic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Cerebral hemiatrophy is a common childhood disease. It clinically manifests with seizures, hemiparesis and mental retardation. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, previously untreated patients with seizures and cerebral hemiatrophy were recruited. Cerebral hemiatrophy was diagnosed on the basis of hemispheric ratio. Patients with acquired hemiconvulsion, hemiplegia, and epilepsy (HHE) syndrome were included in group A. Group B included patients with congenital HHE syndrome. Patients were followed up for 6 months for seizure recurrence. Results: Out of 42 patients 26 were in group A and 16 were in group B. After 6 months, there was significant reduction in seizure frequency (P < 0.0001) in both the groups. At least 50% reduction in seizure frequency was noted in all the patients. Complete seizure freedom was observed in 15 (35.7%) patients. Seizure recurrences were significantly higher (P = 0.008) in group A. On univariate analysis, predictors of seizure recurrences were history of febrile seizures (P = 0.013), hippocampal sclerosis (P = 0.001), thalamic atrophy (P = 0.001), basal ganglia atrophy (P = 0.001), cerebellar atrophy (P = 0.01), ventricular dilatation (P = 0.001), epileptiform discharges at presentation (P = 0.023), complex partial seizures (P = 0.006) and status epilepticus (P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, hemispheric ratio was the only significant factor for seizure recurrence. Conclusion: Patients with congenital hemiatrophy had better seizure control than that in patients with HHE syndrome. PMID:25745309

Jaiswal, Anupam; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Verma, Rajesh; Singh, Maneesh Kumar

2015-01-01

223

Repeated seizures induce prefrontal growth disturbance in frontal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe possible consequences of seizures in the immature brain have been the subject of much conjecture. We prospectively measured frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes using three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetry in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) presenting with the same seizure semiology. The pathogenesis of repeated seizure-induced brain damage is discussed herein.

Hideaki Kanemura; Fumikazu Sano; Tomoko Tando; Kanji Sugita; Masao Aihara

224

Rapidly learned identification of epileptic seizures from sonified EEG.  

PubMed

Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient's electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

2014-01-01

225

Seizure associated with clozapine: incidence, etiology, and management.  

PubMed

Seizures are a known adverse effect of clozapine therapy. The literature varies on incidence rates of seizures, secondary to varying time frames in which each seizure occurred. Tonic-clonic seizures comprise the majority of seizures experienced secondary to clozapine use, but it is imperative to recognize the potential variety of seizure presentation. The exact etiology of clozapine-induced seizure is unknown. Conflicting reports regarding total oral dose, serum concentration, dose titration, and concomitant medications make it difficult to identify a single cause contributing to seizure risk. Following seizure occurrence, it may be in the best interests of the patient to continue clozapine treatment. In this clinical situation, the use of an antiepileptic drug (AED) for seizure prophylaxis may be required. The AED of choice appears to be valproate, but several successful case reports also support the use of lamotrigine, gabapentin and topiramate. Well-designed clinical trials regarding clozapine seizure prophylaxis are lacking. Given clozapine's strong evidence for efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, every attempt to manage side effects, including seizure, should be implemented to allow for therapeutic continuation. PMID:25537107

Williams, Andrew M; Park, Susie H

2015-02-01

226

Automatic Seizure Detection in Rats Using Laplacian EEG and Verification with Human Seizure Signals  

PubMed Central

Automated detection of seizures is still a challenging problem. This study presents an approach to detect seizure segments in Laplacian electroencephalography (tEEG) recorded from rats using the tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) configuration. Three features, namely, median absolute deviation, approximate entropy, and maximum singular value were calculated and used as inputs into two different classifiers: support vector machines and adaptive boosting. The relative performance of the extracted features on TCRE tEEG was examined. Results are obtained with an overall accuracy between 84.81 and 96.51%. In addition to using TCRE tEEG data, the seizure detection algorithm was also applied to the recorded EEG signals from Andrzejak et al. database to show the efficiency of the proposed method for seizure detection. PMID:23073989

Feltane, Amal; Boudreaux-Bartels, G. Faye; Besio, Walter

2012-01-01

227

David et al.: Seizure onset zone imaging Imaging the seizure onset zone with stereo-electroencephalography  

E-print Network

with stereo-electroencephalography Olivier David a,b,c,* , Thomas Blauwblomme d , Anne-Sophie Job e , Stéphan zone imaging 2 ABSTRACT Stereo-electroencephalography is used to localise the seizure onset

Boyer, Edmond

228

Influence of sexual hormone antagonists on the anticonvulsant action of conventional antiepileptic drugs against electrically- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present results refer to the action of three gonadal steroid antihormones, tamoxifen (TXF, an estrogen antagonist), cyproterone acetate (CYP, an antiandrogen) and mifepristone (MIF, a progesterone antagonist) on seizure phenomena in mice. TXF and CYP at their lowest protective dose in the electroconvulsive threshold test, enhanced the antiseizure efficacy of some antiepileptic drugs. TXF (20 mg\\/kg) potentiated the protective

Kinga K. Borowicz; Jarogniew ?uszczki; Mariusz ?wi?der; Zdzis?aw Kleinrok; Stanis?aw J. Czuczwar

2004-01-01

229

Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS Summer School  

E-print Network

Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS;Epilepsy · A group of CNS disorders · Associated with sudden transient seizure episodes - Abnormal motor, sensory, autonomic, and psychic activity · EEG usually normal · Different types of epilepsy - Secondary

Kalueff, Allan V.

230

NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES AFTER SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE: MULTIMODAL DETECTION AND OUTCOMES  

PubMed Central

Objective Seizures have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury, but the systemic and cerebral physiologic effects of seizures after acute brain injury are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed intracortical EEG and multimodality physiological recordings in 48 comatose subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to better characterize the physiological response to seizures after acute brain injury. Results Intracortical seizures were seen in 38% of patients and 8% had surface seizures. Intracortical seizures were accompanied by elevated heart rate (P=0.001), blood pressure (P<0.001), and respiratory rate (P<0.001). There were trends for rising cerebral perfusion pressure (P=0.03) and intracranial pressure (P =0.06) seen after seizure onset. Intracortical seizure associated increases in global brain metabolism, partial brain tissue oxygenation, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) did not reach significance, but a trend for a pronounced delayed rCBF rise was seen for surface seizures (P=0.08). Functional outcome was very poor for patients with severe background attenuation without seizures and best for those without severe attenuation or seizures (77% vs. 0% dead or severely disabled, respectively). Outcome was intermediate for those with seizures independent of the background EEG and worse for those with intracortical only seizures when compared to those with intracortical and scalp seizures (50% and 25% death or severe disability, respectively). Interpretation We replicated in humans complex physiologic processes associated with seizures after acute brain injury previously described in laboratory experiments and illustrated differences such as the delayed increase in regional cerebral blood flow. These real-world physiologic observations may permit more successful translation of laboratory research to the bedside. PMID:23813945

Claassen, Jan; Perotte, Adler; Albers, David; Kleinberg, Samantha; Schmidt, J. Michael; Tu, Bin; Badjatia, Neeraj; Lantigua, Hector; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Mayer, Stephan A.; Connolly, E. Sander; Hripcsak, George

2013-01-01

231

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Seizures in Alzheimer Disease  

E-print Network

, MD; W. Allen Hauser, MD; Yaakov Stern, PhD Background: Transient symptoms in Alzheimer dis- ease (AD nonepileptic and epileptic events may be challenging. Patients with dementia may experience nonepileptic conflicting results about the prevalence of seizures in dementia and AD, with frequency ranging from 5% to 64

232

Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope through Research  

MedlinePLUS

... available for many antiepileptic drugs. The chemicals in generic drugs are exactly the same as in the brand- ... check with their doctors before switching to a generic version of their medication. ... their antiepileptic drugs after 2 years have passed without a seizure. ...

233

Prenatal cocaine: Seizure susceptibility in rat offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proconvulsant and convulsant effects of cocaine have been described in various experimental models of epilepsy. We have studied the susceptibility to bicuculline and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in developing 10-, 20- and 30-day old rats, gestationally exposed to cocaine. Incidence and latency of appearance of the epileptic manifestations, their evolution toward status epilepticus and successive recovery or death, have been evaluated and

Maria Rita De Feo; Daniele Del Priore; Oriano Mecarelli

1995-01-01

234

[Classification of epileptic seizures and syndromes].  

PubMed

Advances in diagnostic and therapeutic options require a revision of the current classification of seizures and epilepsies. Recently, a classification proposal was introduced which reflects the ambivalence of the Internationalen Liga gegen Epilepsie (ILAE). We suggest that epileptology should utilize the same established systematic approach used in clinical neurology. PMID:22349767

Noachtar, S; Rémi, J

2012-02-01

235

Oxygen and seizure dynamics: I. Experiments.  

PubMed

We utilized a novel ratiometric nanoquantum dot fluorescence resonance energy transfer (NQD-FRET) optical sensor to quantitatively measure oxygen dynamics from single cell microdomains during hypoxic episodes as well as during 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced spontaneous seizure-like events in rat hippocampal slices. Coupling oxygen sensing with electrical recordings, we found the greatest reduction in the O2 concentration ([O2]) in the densely packed cell body stratum (st.) pyramidale layer of the CA1 and differential layer-specific O2 dynamics between the st. pyramidale and st. oriens layers. These hypoxic decrements occurred up to several seconds before seizure onset could be electrically measured extracellularly. Without 4-AP, we quantified a narrow range of [O2], similar to the endogenous hypoxia found before epileptiform activity, which permits a quiescent network to enter into a seizure-like state. We demonstrated layer-specific patterns of O2 utilization accompanying layer-specific neuronal interplay in seizure. None of the oxygen overshoot artifacts seen with polarographic measurement techniques were observed. We therefore conclude that endogenously generated hypoxia may be more than just a consequence of increased cellular excitability but an influential and critical factor for orchestrating network dynamics associated with epileptiform activity. PMID:24598521

Ingram, Justin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Cressman, John R; Hazra, Anupam; Wei, Yina; Koo, Yong-Eun; Žiburkus, Jok?bas; Kopelman, Raoul; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J

2014-07-15

236

Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset  

PubMed Central

Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. PMID:22677032

Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

2012-01-01

237

Hyponatremia and seizures in an ultradistance triathlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyponatremia is being increasingly recognized as a complication of participation in ultra-endurance sports. Reported is the case of an Ironman triathlete who collapsed at the end of the race, having gained 5% in body weight. His serum sodium concentration at the finish was 116 mmol\\/L. After an Intensive Care Unit course complicated by recurrent seizures, he eventually made a complete

Dale B Speedy; Ian Rogers; Shameem Safih; Bernard Foley

2000-01-01

238

Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment trials for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are few, despite the high prevalence and disabling nature of the disorder. We evaluated the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on reduction of PNES. Secondary measures included psychiatric symptom scales and psychosocial variables. We conducted a prospective clinical trial assessing the frequency of PNES in outpatients treated using a CBT for PNES

W. Curt LaFrance Jr.; Ivan W. Miller; Christine E. Ryan; Andrew S. Blum; David A. Solomon; Joan E. Kelley; Gabor I. Keitner

2009-01-01

239

Ictal electroencephalograms in neonatal seizures: characteristics and associations.  

PubMed

The characteristics of ictal electroencephalograms in 160 neonatal seizures of 43 babies were correlated with mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Neonatal seizures are focal at onset, most frequently temporal, and often occur during sleep. Twenty-one percent of babies with seizures died, and 76% of survivors manifested neurodevelopmental impairment during 2-6-year follow-up. A low-amplitude ictal electroencephalogram discharge was associated with increased mortality, and a frequency of <2 Hz with increased morbidity. Status epilepticus, ictal fractions, multiple foci, and bihemispheric involvement did not influence outcomes. Of 160 seizures, 99 exhibited no associated clinical features (electrographic seizures). Neonatal seizures with clinical correlates (electroclinical seizures) exhibited a higher amplitude and frequency of ictal electroencephalogram discharge than electrographic seizures. During electroclinical seizures, the ictal electroencephalogram was more likely to involve larger areas of the brain and to cross the midline. Mortality and morbidity were similar in babies with electroclinical and electrographic seizures, emphasizing the need to diagnose and treat both types. Ictal electroencephalogram topography has implications for electrode application during limited-channel, amplitude-integrated electroencephalograms. We recommend temporal and paracentral electrodes. Video electroencephalograms are important in diagnosing neonatal seizures and providing useful information regarding ictal electroencephalogram characteristics. PMID:21723453

Nagarajan, Lakshmi; Ghosh, Soumya; Palumbo, Linda

2011-07-01

240

Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models.  

PubMed

In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scenario predicts exponential distributions of the duration of the seizures and of the inter-ictal intervals. These predictions were validated in rat models of absence epilepsy, as well as in a few human cases. Nonetheless, deviations from the predictions with respect to seizure duration distributions remained unexplained. The objective of the present work is to implement a simple but realistic computational model of a neuronal network including synaptic plasticity and ionic current dynamics and to explore the dynamics of the model with special emphasis on the distributions of seizure and inter-ictal period durations. We use as a basis our lumped model of cortical neuronal circuits. Here we introduce 'activity dependent' parameters, namely post-synaptic voltage-dependent plasticity, as well as a voltage-dependent hyperpolarization-activated current driven by slow and fast activation conductances. We examine the distributions of the durations of the seizure-like model activity and the normal activity, described respectively by the limit cycle and the steady state in the dynamics. We use a parametric ?-distribution fit as a quantifier. Our results show that autonomous, activity-dependent membrane processes can account for experimentally obtained statistical distributions of seizure durations, which were not explainable using the previous model. The activity-dependent membrane processes that display the strongest effect in accounting for these distributions are the hyperpolarization-dependent cationic (I(h)) current and the GABAa plastic dynamics. Plastic synapses (NMDA-type) in the interneuron population show only a minor effect. The inter-ictal statistics retain their consistency with the experimental data and the previous model. PMID:21730748

Koppert, M M J; Kalitzin, S; Lopes da Silva, F H; Viergever, M A

2011-08-01

241

Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scenario predicts exponential distributions of the duration of the seizures and of the inter-ictal intervals. These predictions were validated in rat models of absence epilepsy, as well as in a few human cases. Nonetheless, deviations from the predictions with respect to seizure duration distributions remained unexplained. The objective of the present work is to implement a simple but realistic computational model of a neuronal network including synaptic plasticity and ionic current dynamics and to explore the dynamics of the model with special emphasis on the distributions of seizure and inter-ictal period durations. We use as a basis our lumped model of cortical neuronal circuits. Here we introduce 'activity dependent' parameters, namely post-synaptic voltage-dependent plasticity, as well as a voltage-dependent hyperpolarization-activated current driven by slow and fast activation conductances. We examine the distributions of the durations of the seizure-like model activity and the normal activity, described respectively by the limit cycle and the steady state in the dynamics. We use a parametric ?-distribution fit as a quantifier. Our results show that autonomous, activity-dependent membrane processes can account for experimentally obtained statistical distributions of seizure durations, which were not explainable using the previous model. The activity-dependent membrane processes that display the strongest effect in accounting for these distributions are the hyperpolarization-dependent cationic (Ih) current and the GABAa plastic dynamics. Plastic synapses (NMDA-type) in the interneuron population show only a minor effect. The inter-ictal statistics retain their consistency with the experimental data and the previous model.

Koppert, M. M. J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F. H.; Viergever, M. A.

2011-08-01

242

Etifoxine: evaluation of its anticonvulsant profile in mice in comparison with sodium valproate, phenytoin and clobazam.  

PubMed

The anticonvulsant potential of 6-chloro-2-(ethylamino)-4-methyl-4-phenyl-4H-3,1-benzoxazine (etifoxine), a non-benzodiazepine tranquilizer, was evaluated in mice in comparison to valproate, phenytoin and clobazam. Maximal seizures were induced by electroshock (MES) and the chemical convulsants pentetrazol (PTZ), picrotoxin (PTX), bicuculline (BIC), isoniazid (INH), nicotine (NIC) and strychnine (STR). Tonic extensor convulsions were prevented by etifoxine in the following rank order of potency (ED50 values with seizure tests): 39.5 (PTX), 101 (PTZ), 101 (MES), 154 (INH), 181 (NIC), 397 (BIC), and greater than 800 mg/kg p.o. (STR). Clonic seizures were induced by threshold doses of PTZ, PTX and pilocarpine (PIL) and antagonized by etifoxine at ED50 values of 181 (PIL), 221 (PTZ), and greater than 800 mg/kg p.o. (PTX). Hence, etifoxine blocked both tonic and clonic seizures but was more potent against the tonic component. The anticonvulsant profile of etifoxine appeared similar to that of valproate. However, in terms of potency, protective indices (ED50 rotarod/ED50 seizure test) and therapeutic indices (LD50/ED50 seizure test) etifoxine was on an average 3.7, 12 and 14 times superior to valproate, respectively. It is concluded that etifoxine has a marked anticonvulsive potential and may be beneficially used in epileptic disorders, especially of the grand mal type. PMID:2859023

Kruse, H J; Kuch, H

1985-01-01

243

The mei-P26 Gene Encodes a RING Finger B-box Coiled-Coil-NHL Protein That Regulates Seizure Susceptibility in Drosophilia  

PubMed Central

Seizure-suppressor mutations provide unique insight into the genes and mechanisms involved in regulating nervous system excitability. Drosophila bang-sensitive (BS) mutants present a useful tool for identifying seizure suppressors since they are a well-characterized epilepsy model. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a new Drosophila seizure-suppressor mutant that results from disruption of the meiotic gene mei-P26, which belongs to the RBCC-NHL family of proteins. The mei-P26 mutation reduces seizures in easily shocked (eas) and slamdance (sda) epileptic flies following mechanical stimulation and electroconvulsive shock. In addition, mutant mei-P26 flies exhibit seizure thresholds at least threefold greater than those of wild type. The mei-P26 phenotypes appear to result from missense mutation of a critical residue in the NHL protein-protein interaction domain of the protein. These results reveal a surprising role for mei-P26 outside of the germline as a regulator of seizure susceptibility, possibly by affecting synaptic development as a ubiquitin ligase. PMID:15937125

Glasscock, Edward; Singhania, Ayush; Tanouye, Mark A.

2005-01-01

244

The inflammatory molecules IL-1? and HMGB1 can rapidly enhance focal seizure generation in a brain slice model of temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by a hyperexcitable brain tissue and unpredictable seizures, i.e., aberrant firing discharges in large neuronal populations. It is well established that proinflammatory cytokines, in addition to their canonical involvement in the immune response, have a crucial role in the mechanism of seizure generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) in the generation of seizure-like discharges using two models of focal epilepsy in a rat entorhinal cortex slice preparation. Seizure like-discharges were evoked by either slice perfusion with low Mg(2+) and picrotoxin or with a double NMDA local stimulation in the presence of the proconvulsant 4-amino-pyridine. The effects of IL-1? or HMGB1 were evaluated by monitoring seizure discharge generation through laser scanning microscope imaging of Ca(2+) signals from neurons and astrocytes. In the picrotoxin model, we revealed that both cytokines increased the mean frequency of spontaneous ictal-like discharges, whereas only IL-1? reduced the latency and prolonged the duration of the first ictal-like event. In the second model, a single NMDA pulse, per se ineffective, became successful when it was performed after IL-? or HMGB1 local applications. These findings demonstrate that both IL-1? and HMGB1 can rapidly lower focal ictal event threshold and strengthen the possibility that targeting these inflammatory pathways may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent seizures. PMID:24936172

Chiavegato, Angela; Zurolo, Emanuele; Losi, Gabriele; Aronica, Eleonora; Carmignoto, Giorgio

2014-01-01

245

The inflammatory molecules IL-1? and HMGB1 can rapidly enhance focal seizure generation in a brain slice model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by a hyperexcitable brain tissue and unpredictable seizures, i.e., aberrant firing discharges in large neuronal populations. It is well established that proinflammatory cytokines, in addition to their canonical involvement in the immune response, have a crucial role in the mechanism of seizure generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) in the generation of seizure-like discharges using two models of focal epilepsy in a rat entorhinal cortex slice preparation. Seizure like-discharges were evoked by either slice perfusion with low Mg2+ and picrotoxin or with a double NMDA local stimulation in the presence of the proconvulsant 4-amino-pyridine. The effects of IL-1? or HMGB1 were evaluated by monitoring seizure discharge generation through laser scanning microscope imaging of Ca2+ signals from neurons and astrocytes. In the picrotoxin model, we revealed that both cytokines increased the mean frequency of spontaneous ictal-like discharges, whereas only IL-1? reduced the latency and prolonged the duration of the first ictal-like event. In the second model, a single NMDA pulse, per se ineffective, became successful when it was performed after IL-? or HMGB1 local applications. These findings demonstrate that both IL-1? and HMGB1 can rapidly lower focal ictal event threshold and strengthen the possibility that targeting these inflammatory pathways may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent seizures. PMID:24936172

Chiavegato, Angela; Zurolo, Emanuele; Losi, Gabriele; Aronica, Eleonora; Carmignoto, Giorgio

2014-01-01

246

Dynamic imaging of seizure activity in pediatric epilepsy patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the feasibility of using noninvasive EEG source imaging approach to image continuous seizure activity in pediatric epilepsy patients. Methods Nine pediatric patients with medically intractable epilepsy were included in this study. Eight of the patients had extratemporal lobe epilepsy and one had temporal lobe epilepsy. All of the patients underwent resective surgery and seven of them underwent intracranial EEG (iEEG) monitoring. The ictal EEG was analyzed using a noninvasive dynamic seizure imaging (DSI) approach. The DSI approach separates scalp EEGs into independent components and extracts the spatio-temporal ictal features to achieve dynamic imaging of seizure sources. Surgical resection and intracranial recordings were used to validate the noninvasive imaging results. Results The DSI determined seizure onset zones (SOZs) in these patients were localized within or in close vicinity to the surgically resected region. In the seven patients with intracranial monitoring, the estimated seizure onset sources were concordant with the seizure onset zones of iEEG. The DSI also localized the multiple foci involved in the later seizure propagation, which were confirmed by the iEEG recordings. Conclusions Dynamic seizure imaging can noninvasively image the seizure activations in pediatric patients with both temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Significance EEG seizure imaging can potentially be used to noninvasively image the SOZs and aid the pre-surgical planning in pediatric epilepsy patients. PMID:22608485

Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Lin; Worrell, Gregory A.; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Nelson, Cindy; He, Bin

2012-01-01

247

Characterization of Early Partial Seizure Onset: Frequency, Complexity and Entropy  

PubMed Central

Objective A clear classification of partial seizures onset features is not yet established. Complexity and entropy have been very widely used to describe dynamical systems, but a systematic evaluation of these measures to characterize partial seizures has never been performed. Methods Eighteen different measures including power in frequency bands up to 300Hz, Gabor atom density (GAD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Lempel-Ziv complexity, Shannon entropy, sample entropy, and permutation entropy, were selected to test sensitivity to partial seizure onset. Intracranial recordings from forty-five patients with mesial temporal, neocortical temporal and neocortical extratemporal seizure foci were included (331 partial seizures). Results GAD, Lempel-Ziv complexity, HFD, high frequency activity, and sample entropy were the most reliable measures to assess early seizure onset. Conclusions Increases in complexity and occurrence of high-frequency components appear to be commonly associated with early stages of partial seizure evolution from all regions. The type of measure (frequency-based, complexity or entropy) does not predict the efficiency of the method to detect seizure onset. Significance Differences between measures such as GAD and HFD highlight the multimodal nature of partial seizure onsets. Improved methods for early seizure detection may be achieved from a better understanding of these underlying dynamics. PMID:21872526

Jouny, Christophe C.; Bergey, Gregory K.

2011-01-01

248

Treatment of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and the treatment principles and methods of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders. A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical data, treatment methods and results in 13 patients with recurrent epileptic seizures attending the neurosurgery department. Of the 13 patients, 10 had a history of epilepsy, 9 had organic frontal lobe brain lesions and 11 exhibited frontal lobe epilepsy. The causes of the epileptic seizure aggravation included drug withdrawal, dose reduction and dressing change (5 cases). The epileptic seizure types included partial and secondary full seizures and the seizure frequency ranged from 1 seizure/3 min to 1 seizure/several h. Following combined therapy with multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), including oral administration and injection, the epilepsy was controlled. The addition of orally administered levetiracetam improved the treatment efficiency. In cases of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders, the combined administration of AEDs should be conducted with doses higher than the conventional initial dose to control the epileptic seizures as rapidly as possible. PMID:23251281

YUAN, GUAN-QIAN; GAO, DAN-DAN; LIN, JUN; HAN, SONG; LV, BO-CHUANG

2013-01-01

249

Inheritance of febrile seizures in sudden unexplained death in toddlers.  

PubMed

Sudden unexplained death in toddlers has been associated with febrile seizures, family history of febrile seizures, and hippocampal anomalies. We investigated the mode of inheritance for febrile seizures in these families. A three-generation pedigree was obtained from families enrolled in the San Diego Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Research Project, involving toddlers with sudden unexplained death, febrile seizures, and family history of febrile seizures. In our six cases, death was unwitnessed and related to sleep. The interval from last witnessed febrile seizure to death ranged from 3 weeks to 6 months. Hippocampal abnormalities were identified in one of three cases with available autopsy sections. Autosomal dominant inheritance of febrile seizures was observed in three families. A fourth demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In two families, the maternal and paternal sides manifested febrile seizures. In this series, the major pattern of inheritance in toddlers with sudden unexplained death and febrile seizures was autosomal dominant. Future studies should develop markers (including genetic) to identify which patients with febrile seizures are at risk for sudden unexplained death in childhood, and to provide guidance for families and physicians. PMID:22490769

Holm, Ingrid A; Poduri, Annapurna; Crandall, Laura; Haas, Elisabeth; Grafe, Marjorie R; Kinney, Hannah C; Krous, Henry F

2012-04-01

250

Inheritance of Febrile Seizures in Sudden Unexplained Death in Toddlers  

PubMed Central

Sudden unexplained death in toddlers has been associated with febrile seizures, family history of febrile seizures, and hippocampal anomalies. We investigated the mode of inheritance for febrile seizures in these families. A three-generation pedigree was obtained from families enrolled in the San Diego Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Research Project, involving toddlers with sudden unexplained death, febrile seizures, and family history of febrile seizures. In our six cases, death was unwitnessed and related to sleep. The interval from last witnessed febrile seizure to death ranged from 3 weeks to 6 months. Hippocampal abnormalities were identified in one of three cases with available autopsy sections. Autosomal dominant inheritance of febrile seizures was observed in three families. A fourth demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In two families, the maternal and paternal sides manifested febrile seizures. In this series, the major pattern of inheritance in toddlers with sudden unexplained death and febrile seizures was autosomal dominant. Future studies should develop markers (including genetic) to identify which patients with febrile seizures are at risk for sudden unexplained death in childhood, and to provide guidance for families and physicians. PMID:22490769

Holm, Ingrid A.; Poduri, Annapurna; Crandall, Laura; Haas, Elisabeth; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Kinney, Hannah C.; Krous, Henry F.

2014-01-01

251

A Fuzzy Logic System for Seizure Onset Detection in Intracranial EEG  

PubMed Central

We present a multistage fuzzy rule-based algorithm for epileptic seizure onset detection. Amplitude, frequency, and entropy-based features were extracted from intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings and considered as the inputs for a fuzzy system. These features extracted from multichannel iEEG signals were combined using fuzzy algorithms both in feature domain and in spatial domain. Fuzzy rules were derived based on experts' knowledge and reasoning. An adaptive fuzzy subsystem was used for combining characteristics features extracted from iEEG. For the spatial combination, three channels from epileptogenic zone and one from remote zone were considered into another fuzzy subsystem. Finally, a threshold procedure was applied to the fuzzy output derived from the final fuzzy subsystem. The method was evaluated on iEEG datasets selected from Freiburg Seizure Prediction EEG (FSPEEG) database. A total of 112.45 hours of intracranial EEG recordings was selected from 20 patients having 56 seizures was used for the system performance evaluation. The overall sensitivity of 95.8% with false detection rate of 0.26 per hour and average detection latency of 15.8 seconds was achieved. PMID:22577370

Rabbi, Ahmed Fazle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

2012-01-01

252

Seizure prediction with bipolar spectral power features using Adaboost and SVM classifiers.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of our study on finding a lower complexity and yet a robust seizure prediction method using intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings. We compare two classifiers: a low-complexity Adaboost and the more complex support vector machine (SVM). Adaboost is a linear classier using decision stumps, and SVM uses a nonlinear Gaussian kernel. Bipolar and/or time-differential spectral power features of different sub-bands are extracted from the iEEG signal. Adaboost is used to simultaneously classify as well as rank the features. Eliminating the low discriminating features reduces computational complexity and power consumption. The top features selected by Adaboost were also used as a feature set for SVM classification. The outputs of classifiers are regularized by applying a moving-average window and a threshold is used to generate alarms. The proposed methods were applied on 8 invasive recordings selected from the EPILEPSIAE database, the European database of EEG seizure recordings. Doublecross validation is used by separating data sets for training and optimization from testing. The key conclusion is that Adaboost performs slightly better than SVM using a reduced feature set on average with significantly less complexity resulting in a sensitivity of 77.1% (27 of 35 seizures in 873 h recordings) and a false alarm rate of 0.18 per hour. PMID:24111182

Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Dourado, Antonio; Teixeira, Cesar A; Netoff, Theoden I; Parhi, Keshab K

2013-01-01

253

An unusual cause for hyponatremia with seizures.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old Asian Indian female with known hypertension presented with persistent vomiting but no other symptoms of meningism. Clinical examination and basic laboratory parameters were entirely normal except for significant hyponatremia. Further investigation was suggestive of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Subsequently, despite steady correction of hyponatremia, the patient developed generalised seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis performed was inconclusive. Screening for a chronic meningitis underlying SIADH, yielded positive blood and CSF titres for venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), which were confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA). The patient was treated for neurosyphilis and made a complete recovery. Hyponatremia resolved and she had no further episodes of seizures. She was tested for HIV infection which was negative. On follow-up, she remained TPHA positive but VDRL titres became negative. PMID:22605698

Naha, Kushal; Vivek, G; Dasari, Sowjanya; Manthappa, M; Dias, Lorraine; Acharya, Raviraja

2012-01-01

254

An unusual cause for hyponatremia with seizures  

PubMed Central

A 50-year-old Asian Indian female with known hypertension presented with persistent vomiting but no other symptoms of meningism. Clinical examination and basic laboratory parameters were entirely normal except for significant hyponatremia. Further investigation was suggestive of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Subsequently, despite steady correction of hyponatremia, the patient developed generalised seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis performed was inconclusive. Screening for a chronic meningitis underlying SIADH, yielded positive blood and CSF titres for venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), which were confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA). The patient was treated for neurosyphilis and made a complete recovery. Hyponatremia resolved and she had no further episodes of seizures. She was tested for HIV infection which was negative. On follow-up, she remained TPHA positive but VDRL titres became negative. PMID:22605698

Naha, Kushal; Vivek, G; Dasari, Sowjanya; Manthappa, M; Dias, Lorraine; Acharya, Raviraja

2012-01-01

255

Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures  

SciTech Connect

Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

1983-04-01

256

Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization  

PubMed Central

A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S.; Loddenkemper, Tobias

2012-01-01

257

Ischemia-modified albumin levels in children having seizure.  

PubMed

Convulsions are one of the frequently seen problems for a neurologist in the daily routine. It is difficult to distinguish the seizure from pseudo-seizure because of lack of conclusive tests. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between seizure types and seizure periods by studying IMA serum levels in children having seizure. Two groups were included (patients and control) in our study. The patient group consisted of the children admitted to Pediatric Emergency Care during January 2008-January 2010 with seizure and the control group consisted of healthy children. Serum Ischemia modified albumin (IMA) level in the group having seizures was 99.7 and 83.2U/ml in the control group. In the comparison of the patient and control groups, significant differences were found between their IMA values (p=0.000). There was a significant difference between IMA values of the group having generalized tonic-clonic seizures and those of the control group (p=0.001). In comparison of the IMA values of the group having febrile convulsions and those of the control group, a significant difference was determined (p=0.011). It has been shown that if the seizure was prolonged over 5 min, IMA level increased, and there was a significant difference between the groups experiencing over 5 min of seizures and the groups experiencing less than 5 min of seizures (p=0.001). An increase in IMA levels in febrile convulsion supports the hypoxia development in the brain during the seizure. Serum IMA levels increased with the elongation of the seizure period and may be an indicator for status epilepticus. PMID:23291221

Inci, Asli; Gencpinar, Pinar; Orhan, Demet; Uzun, Gulbahar; Ozdem, Sebahat; Samur, An?l Akta?; Haspolat, Senay; Duman, Ozgür

2013-10-01

258

Intermittent clobazam therapy in febrile seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of intermittent clobazam therapy in preventing the recurrence of febrile seizures and to assess\\u000a its safety.Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted in the Department of Child Health,\\u000a Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore between July 2001 and September 2002. Neurologically normal children between 6\\u000a months and 3 years of age with

Winsley Rose; Chellam Kirubakaran; Julius Xavier Scott

2005-01-01

259

Epileptic Seizure Detection and Warning Device  

SciTech Connect

Flint Hills Scientific, L.L.C. (FHS) has invented what is believed to be the first real-time epileptic seizure detection and short-term prediction method in the world. They have demonstrated an IBM PC prototype with a multi-channel EEG monitoring configuration. This CRADA effort applied AlliedSignal FM and T hardware design, manufacturing miniaturization, and high quality manufacturing expertise in converting the prototype into a small, portable, self-contained, multi-channel EEG epileptic seizure detection and warning device. The purpose of this project was to design and build a proof-of-concept miniaturized prototype of the FHS-developed PC-based prototype. The resultant DSP prototype, measuring 4'' x 6'' x 2'', seizure detection performance compared favorably with the FHS PC prototype, thus validating the DSP design goals. The very successful completion of this project provided valuable engineering information for FHS for future prototype commercialization as well as providing AS/FM and T engineers DSP design experience.

Elarton, J.K.; Koepsel, K.L.

1999-06-21

260

Threshold quantum cryptography  

SciTech Connect

We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.

Tokunaga, Yuuki [NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847 (Japan); Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Okamoto, Tatsuaki [NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847 (Japan); Imoto, Nobuyuki [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2005-01-01

261

Rolandic epilepsy: an uncommon presentation with leg motor seizures.  

PubMed

Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common and one of the most benign epileptic syndromes of childhood. It is typically characterized by sleep-related orofacial seizures, of brief duration, of variable frequency, in otherwise healthy children. Electroencephalography (EEG) shows typical centrotemporal spike and spike-and-wave complexes, often bilateral and asynchronous, activated by sleep. Therapy is often unnecessary and seizures spontaneously end at puberty. Apart from typical orofacial localization, arm or more diffuse clonic jerks are frequently described by parents. More rare and probably underestimated are sensorimotor seizure localized to one leg. When such seizures represent the only type of seizures in RE, the exact recognition of this benign epileptic syndrome appears difficult, leading to unnecessary investigation and therapy. We describe six children, among 230 with RE, who presented leg sensorimotor seizures as the mainly type of ictal manifestations. PMID:21204813

Fusco, Lucia; Trivisano, Marina; Specchio, Nicola; Vigevano, Federico

2010-12-01

262

Sex-specific consequences of early life seizures.  

PubMed

Seizures are very common in the early periods of life and are often associated with poor neurologic outcome in humans. Animal studies have provided evidence that early life seizures may disrupt neuronal differentiation and connectivity, signaling pathways, and the function of various neuronal networks. There is growing experimental evidence that many signaling pathways, like GABAA receptor signaling, the cellular physiology and differentiation, or the functional maturation of certain brain regions, including those involved in seizure control, mature differently in males and females. However, most experimental studies of early life seizures have not directly investigated the importance of sex on the consequences of early life seizures. The sexual dimorphism of the developing brain raises the question that early seizures could have distinct effects in immature females and males that are subjected to seizures. We will first discuss the evidence for sex-specific features of the developing brain that could be involved in modifying the susceptibility and consequences of early life seizures. We will then review how sex-related biological factors could modify the age-specific consequences of induced seizures in the immature animals. These include signaling pathways (e.g., GABAA receptors), steroid hormones, growth factors. Overall, there are very few studies that have specifically addressed seizure outcomes in developing animals as a function of sex. The available literature indicates that a variety of outcomes (histopathological, behavioral, molecular, epileptogenesis) may be affected in a sex-, age-, region-specific manner after seizures during development. Obtaining a better understanding for the gender-related mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure comorbidities will be necessary to develop better gender and age appropriate therapies. PMID:24874547

Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

2014-12-01

263

Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children  

PubMed Central

Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1˝-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise) in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any. PMID:25878755

Patra, Chaitali; Sarkar, Shatanik; Dasgupta, Malay Kumar; Das, Amit

2015-01-01

264

Global Hypoxia–Ischemia and Critical Care Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures after cardiopulmonary arrest are a common problem in the intensive care unit, occurring in as many as one-third of\\u000a these patients during hospitalization. The etiology, treatment, and prognostic importance of seizures in this setting have\\u000a not been well delineated in the literature. Whether seizures exacerbate global hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in humans remains\\u000a unclear, which raises uncertainty about how aggressively

Matthew A. Koenig; Romergryko Geocadin

265

Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming.

Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN); Clapp, Ned E. (Knoxville, TN); Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Lawkins, William F. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

266

Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods  

DOEpatents

This research discloses methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming. 76 figs.

Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Day, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

1999-01-12

267

Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures  

DOEpatents

A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Kulikov, Stanislav (Sarov, RU); Osorio, Ivan (Leawood, KS); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

2012-04-24

268

Forecasting Seizures in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz), low-gamma (30–70 Hz), and high-gamma (70–180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring. PMID:24416133

Stead, S. Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H.; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W. Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

269

Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

1989-01-01

270

Neck myoclonia with absence seizures in an Indian girl.  

PubMed

Absence seizures associated with myoclonic phenomena have been associated with 4 seizure types. Recently, a new seizure type of neck myoclonia with absences was described. We present a case of 9-year-old girl who presented with abnormal head shaking and vacant stare for the past 5 months with an ictal electroencephalograph (EEG) record showing 3-Hz spike-and-wave discharges. The seizures were easily controlled with valproate and clobazam. Neck myoclonia with absences might be a new idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome in development. PMID:24556548

Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Aneja, Satinder

2014-11-01

271

Efficacy of Pregabalin in Childhood Refractory Partial Seizure  

PubMed Central

Objective: About one third of partial seizures are refractory to treatment. Several anticonvulsant drugs have entered the market in recent decades but concerns about intolerance, drug interactions, and the safety of the drug are notable. One of these new anticonvulsants is pregabalin, a safe drug with almost no interaction with other antiepileptic drugs. Methods: In this open label clinical trial study, pregabalin was used for evaluation of its efficacy on reducing seizure frequency in 29 children suffering from refractory partial seizures. Average daily and weekly seizure frequency of the patients was recorded during a 6-week period (baseline period). Then, during a period of 2 weeks (titration period), pregabalin was started with a dose of 25-75 mg/d, using method of flexible dose, and was brought to maximum dose of drug that was intended in this study (450 mg/d) based on clinical response of the patients and seizure frequency. Then the patients were given the drug for 12 weeks and the average frequency of daily and weekly seizures were recorded again (treatment period). Findings : Reduction in seizure frequency in this study was 36% and the responder rate or number of patients who gained more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency was 51.7%. Conclusion: This study showed that pregabalin can be used with safety and an acceptable efficacy in treatment of childhood refractory partial seizures.

Zamani, Gholamreza; Tavasoli, Alireza; Zare-Shahabadi, Ameneh; Rezaei, Nima; Ahmadvand, Alireza

2014-01-01

272

Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

Loertscher, Jennifer

2011-01-01

273

Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat  

SciTech Connect

Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

Anderson, M.C.

1988-01-01

274

78 FR 41185 - Denial of Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...have experienced a seizure the same, regardless of individual medical...medication from operating a CMV in interstate...does not consider a driver's actual seizure history and time since the last seizure...The disposition of applications...

2013-07-09

275

78 FR 41985 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...have experienced a seizure the same, regardless of individual medical...medication from operating a CMV in interstate...does not consider a driver's actual seizure history and time since the last seizure...individualized assessments of the exemption...

2013-07-12

276

Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)…

Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

2008-01-01

277

Block term decomposition for modelling epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recordings of neural activity, such as EEG, are an inherent mixture of different ongoing brain processes as well as artefacts and are typically characterised by low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, EEG datasets are often inherently multidimensional, comprising information in time, along different channels, subjects, trials, etc. Additional information may be conveyed by expanding the signal into even more dimensions, e.g. incorporating spectral features applying wavelet transform. The underlying sources might show differences in each of these modes. Therefore, tensor-based blind source separation techniques which can extract the sources of interest from such multiway arrays, simultaneously exploiting the signal characteristics in all dimensions, have gained increasing interest. Canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) has been successfully used to extract epileptic seizure activity from wavelet-transformed EEG data (Bioinformatics 23(13):i10-i18, 2007; NeuroImage 37:844-854, 2007), where each source is described by a rank-1 tensor, i.e. by the combination of one particular temporal, spectral and spatial signature. However, in certain scenarios, where the seizure pattern is nonstationary, such a trilinear signal model is insufficient. Here, we present the application of a recently introduced technique, called block term decomposition (BTD) to separate EEG tensors into rank- ( L r , L r ,1) terms, allowing to model more variability in the data than what would be possible with CPD. In a simulation study, we investigate the robustness of BTD against noise and different choices of model parameters. Furthermore, we show various real EEG recordings where BTD outperforms CPD in capturing complex seizure characteristics.

Hunyadi, Borbála; Camps, Daan; Sorber, Laurent; Paesschen, Wim Van; Vos, Maarten De; Huffel, Sabine Van; Lathauwer, Lieven De

2014-12-01

278

Pathology Case Study: Seizures and Progressive Dementia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old female has seizures and progressive dementia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Friese, Michael

279

Pathology Case Study: New Onset Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old nurse is experiencing headaches and seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Hamilton, Ronald

280

AMPA Receptor antagonist NBQX attenuates later-life epileptic seizures and autistic-like social deficits following neonatal seizures  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose To determine whether AMPA receptor (AMPAR) antagonist NBQX can prevent early mTOR pathway activation and long-term sequelae following neonatal seizures in rats, including later-life spontaneous recurrent seizures, CA3 mossy fiber sprouting, and autistic-like social deficits. Methods Long-Evans rats experienced hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures (HS) at postnatal day (P)10. NBQX (20 mg/kg) was administered immediately following HS (every 12h x 4 doses). 12h post-HS, we assessed mTOR activation marker phosphorylated p70-S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) in hippocampus and cortex of vehicle (HS+V) or NBQX-treated post-HS rats (HS+N) versus littermate controls (C+V). Spontaneous seizure activity was compared between groups by epidural cortical electroencephalography (EEG) at P70-100. Aberrant mossy fiber sprouting was measured using Timm staining. Finally, we assessed behavior between P30-38. Key findings Post-seizure NBQX treatment significantly attenuated seizure-induced increases in p-P70S6K in the hippocampus (p<0.01) and cortex (p<0.001). While spontaneous recurrent seizures increased in adulthood in HS+V rats compared to controls (3.22±1seizures/hour; p=0.03), NBQX significantly attenuated later-life seizures (0.14±0.1 seizures/hour; p=0.046). HS+N rats showed less aberrant mossy fiber sprouting (115±8.0%) than vehicle-treated post-HS rats (174±10%, p=0.004), compared to controls (normalized to 100%). Finally, NBQX treatment prevented alterations in later-life social behavior; post-HS rats showed significantly decreased preference for a novel over a familiar rat (71.0±12 sec) compared to controls (99.0±15.6 sec; p<0.01), while HS+N rats showed social novelty preference similar to controls (114.3±14.1 sec). Significance Brief NBQX administration during the 48 hours post-seizure in P10 Long-Evans rats suppresses transient mTOR pathway activation and attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures, social preference deficits and mossy fiber sprouting observed in vehicle-treated adult rats after early-life seizures. These results suggest that acute AMPAR antagonist treatment during the latent period immediately following neonatal HS can modify seizure-induced activation of mTOR, reduce the frequency of later-life seizures, and protect against CA3 mossy fiber sprouting and autistic-like social deficits. PMID:24117347

Lippman-Bell, Jocelyn J.; Rakhade, Sanjay N.; Klein, Peter M.; Obeid, Makram; Jackson, Michele C.; Joseph, Annelise; Jensen, Frances E.

2013-01-01

281

Frontal Lobe Seizures: No Evidence of Self-Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes current neurological knowledge regarding the recognition, diagnosis, and classification of frontal lobe seizures, and then critiques a study by A. Gedye which suggested that self-injury may be involuntary and related to frontal lobe seizure activity. (JDD)

Coulter, David L.

1991-01-01

282

Dynamical intrinsic functional architecture of the brain during absence seizures.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent and temporary brain dysfunction due to discharges of interconnected groups of neurons. The brain of epilepsy patients has a dynamic bifurcation that switches between epileptic and normal states. The dysfunctional state involves large-scale brain networks. It is very important to understand the network mechanisms of seizure initiation, maintenance, and termination in epilepsy. Absence epilepsy provides a unique model for neuroimaging investigation on dynamic evolutions of brain networks over seizure repertoire. By using a dynamic functional connectivity and graph theoretical analyses to study absence seizures (AS), we aimed to obtain transition of network properties that account for seizure onset and offset. We measured resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) from children with AS. We used simultaneous EEG to define the preictal, ictal and postictal intervals of seizures. We measured dynamic connectivity maps of the thalamus network and the default mode network (DMN), as well as functional connectome topologies, during the three different seizure intervals. The analysis of dynamic changes of anti-correlation between the thalamus and the DMN is consistent with an inhibitory effect of seizures on the default mode of brain function, which gradually fades out after seizure onset. Also, we observed complex transitions of functional network topology, implicating adaptive reconfiguration of functional brain networks. In conclusion, our work revealed novel insights into modifications in large-scale functional connectome during AS, which may contribute to a better understanding the network mechanisms of state bifurcations in epileptogenesis. PMID:23913255

Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Mantini, Dante; Xu, Qiang; Ji, Gong-Jun; Zhang, Han; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhengge; Chen, Guanghui; Tian, Lei; Jiao, Qing; Zang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guangming

2014-11-01

283

Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

2012-01-01

284

Epileptic seizure detection in EEG recordings using phase congruency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of phase congruency to robustly detect the epileptic seizure. Phase congruency is calculated from log Gabor wavelets. Numbers of spikes detected from the phase congruency of two classes of EEG data (epilepsy and seizure free) are used as the features of interest. By using only one dimensional features, the detection accuracies of the proposed method

Yodchanan Wongsawat

2008-01-01

285

Real-Time Seizure Monitoring and Spectral Analysis Microsystem  

E-print Network

of an envisioned miniature implantable brain implant for automated epileptic seizure therapy. The microsystem com. INTRODUCTION Fig. 1. Architecture of the envisioned brain implant for seizure prediction. Approximately 50. For the remaining chip [7]. To date, brain activity analysis techniques have epileptics there are several existing

Genov, Roman

286

Epileptogenic networks in seizures arising from motor systems.  

PubMed

Classification of seizures arising from the cortical motor system classically distinguishes between primary motor seizures and supplementary motor area (SMA) seizures. With the aim of better characterizing the underlying networks of motor seizures, we quantitatively studied the "epileptogenicity" of brain structures in 28 patients investigated by intracerebral recordings (stereoelectroencephalography, SEEG). Epileptogenicity of various motor regions (rolandic, SMA, pre-SMA, cingulate motor area (CMA), lateral area 6) as well as prefrontal and parietal areas, was calculated according to the "epileptogenicity index" (EI), a technique that allows mathematical quantification of rapid discharges at seizure onset. According to the maximal value of EI five groups of patients were identified: precentral, premotor/precentral, mesial premotor, lateral premotor and mesio-lateral premotor groups. Most patients disclosed a complex pattern of motor/premotor involvement, while pure mesial premotor seizures ("SMA seizures") were rare. A positive correlation between the number of structures exhibiting high EI and epilepsy duration was found, as well as a relationship between high EI values in rolandic cortex and poorer surgical outcome. Seizures arising from the motor system appear to be organized in complex electrophysiological patterns that often involve both lateral and mesial aspects of premotor areas together with precentral cortex. PMID:23726290

Bonini, Francesca; McGonigal, Aileen; Wendling, Fabrice; Régis, Jean; Scavarda, Didier; Carron, Romain; Chauvel, Patrick; Bartolomei, Fabrice

2013-09-01

287

Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

2010-01-01

288

Psychogenic seizures and frontal disconnection: EEG synchronisation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePsychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal events that, in contrast to epileptic seizures, are related to psychological causes without the presence of epileptiform EEG changes. Recent models suggest a multifactorial basis for PNES. A potentially paramount, but currently poorly understood factor is the interplay between psychiatric features and a specific vulnerability of the brain leading to a clinical picture that

Maria G Knyazeva; Mahdi Jalili; Richard S Frackowiak; Andrea O Rossetti

2011-01-01

289

Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

2009-01-01

290

The Effects of Tactile Stimulation on EEG Recordings and Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty subjects between the ages of six and 12 years with a diagnosis of seizure disorder were used to investigate the relationship between therapeutically applied tactile stimulation and the incidence of seizures and changes in the electrical activity as measured by the EEG. (Editors/JA)

Ecker, Dorothy M.

1973-01-01

291

Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

Holmes, Gregory L.

2004-01-01

292

Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

293

Photosensitivity, visually sensitive seizures and epilepsies.  

PubMed

Although many observations in patients with this intriguing type of epilepsy have been described and detailed studies have been performed, only a few meet the current criteria of class 1 or 2 evidence-based studies. In general, the selection bias is due to studying a referral population instead of the general population, and to different age and sex distributions of the subjects under study. Comparing the various studies is often difficult, because of differences in the populations studied (single seizures, epilepsy centre population, etc.), but also because of different methods (photic stimulator, flash frequencies, eye conditions, etc.) and the terminology used. Finally, and most crucial, in many studies there is often no information on how the data were actually obtained (EEG or clinical data or both?). The popular term "photosensitive" is used widely and applied to patients with a history of visually induced seizures, with and without a photoparoxysmal response (PPR), and to those with only a PPR. An overview of the "hard" data is given with future needs for a better understanding of this type of epilepsy and for improving the endophenotype for genetic research. It is important to standardise the studies as much as possible and describe in detail the methodology of the study, taking at least the above variables into account. PMID:16814522

Trenité, Dorothée G A Kasteleijn-Nolst

2006-08-01

294

Pharmacological Treatment of Neonatal Seizures: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Pharmacologic treatment options for neonatal seizures have expanded over the last two decades and there is no consensus on optimal treatment strategy. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine which medication(s) are most effective for treating neonatal seizures, by retrieving trials and observational investigations via PubMed (through August 2011) that focused on pharmacological seizure treatment of neonates (? 28 days old) and utilized continuous or amplitude-integrated EEG to confirm seizure diagnosis and cessation. Our search identified 557 initial articles and 14 additional studies after reference reviews, with 16 meeting inclusion criteria. Two were randomized trials and only three additional investigations included comparison groups. We found limited evidence regarding the best pharmacologic treatment for neonatal seizures, but were able to devise a treatment algorithm from available data. These findings have the potential to serve both as a clinical reference and inform the design of comparative effectiveness investigations for neonatal antiepileptics. PMID:23318696

Slaughter, Laurel A.; Patel, Anup D.; Slaughter, Jonathan L.

2013-01-01

295

Neonatal seizure detection using atomic decomposition with a novel dictionary.  

PubMed

Atomic decomposition (AD) can be used to efficiently decompose an arbitrary signal. In this paper, we present a method to detect neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG) seizure based on AD via orthogonal matching pursuit using a novel, application-specific, dictionary. The dictionary consists of pseudoperiodic Duffing oscillator atoms which are designed to be coherent with the seizure epochs. The relative structural complexity (a measure of the rate of convergence of AD) is used as the sole feature for seizure detection. The proposed feature was tested on a large clinical dataset of 826 h of EEG data from 18 full-term newborns with 1389 seizures. The seizure detection system using the proposed dictionary was able to achieve a median receiver operator characteristic area of 0.91 (IQR 0.87-0.95) across 18 neonates. PMID:25330152

Nagaraj, Sunil Belur; Stevenson, Nathan J; Marnane, William P; Boylan, Geraldine B; Lightbody, Gordon

2014-11-01

296

Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

2013-09-01

297

Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a “pre-seizure” state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

2014-01-01

298

Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a ``pre-seizure'' state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

2014-01-01

299

Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination  

PubMed Central

Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

2014-01-01

300

Enhanced sensitivity of laforin- and malin-deficient mice to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole  

PubMed Central

Lafora disease is a rare form of inherited progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A gene encoding laforin, or in the EPM2B gene, which encodes malin. It is characterized by the presence of polyglucosan inclusion bodies (Lafora bodies) in brain and other tissues. Genetically engineered mice lacking expression of either the laforin (Epm2a?/?) or malin (Epm2b?/?) genes display a number of neurological and behavioral abnormalities that resemble those found in patients suffering from Lafora disease; of these, both Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice have shown altered motor activity, impaired motor coordination, episodic memory deficits, and different degrees of spontaneous epileptic activity. In this study, we analyze the sensitivity of Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an antagonist of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, commonly used to induce epileptic tonic-clonic seizures in laboratory animals. PTZ-induced epileptic activity, including myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, was analyzed in 2 age groups of mice comprising representative samples of young adult and aged mice, after administration of PTZ at sub-convulsive and convulsive doses. Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice showed a lower convulsive threshold after PTZ injections at sub-convulsive doses. A lower convulsive threshold and shorter latencies to develop epileptic seizures were observed after PTZ injections at convulsive doses. Different patterns of generalized seizures and of discharges were observed in Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice. Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice present an increased sensitivity to the convulsant agent PTZ that may reflect different degrees of increased GABAA receptor-mediated hyperexcitability. PMID:25309313

García-Cabrero, Ana M.; Sánchez-Elexpuru, Gentzane; Serratosa, José M.; Sánchez, Marina P.

2014-01-01

301

Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…

Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

2010-01-01

302

Resonance phenomena near thresholds  

SciTech Connect

The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with states below and above threshold is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the states below threshold can trap the resonance ones and also that they can directly influence the scattering cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

1996-06-01

303

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in children: a review.  

PubMed

One of the considerations when a child presents with paroxysmal events is psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). PNES are discernible changes in behavior or consciousness that resemble epileptic seizures but are not accompanied by electrophysiologic changes. They are usually understood as the manifestation of a conversion disorder that reflects underlying psychological distress. There is a lack of population-based data on the prevalence or incidence of PNES in pediatric populations. The prevalence of PNES in children would appear to be lower than that in the adult population, but the prevalence of PNES seems to increase with age, and nonepileptic paroxysmal events are more likely to be PNES in adolescence than earlier in childhood. In terms of manifestation, PNES in childhood have been described using various categorizations and terminology, making comparisons across studies difficult. There is some evidence that events are more likely to involve unresponsiveness in younger children and prominent motor symptoms in older children. The most common precipitating factors would appear to be school-related difficulties and interpersonal conflict within the child's family. In terms of psychopathology, children with PNES are at high risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Accurate diagnosis of PNES in children is likely to involve taking a comprehensive description of the episodes, garnering the child's medical/developmental history, video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) to rule out epileptic seizures, and an evaluation of family functioning. The importance of effective and sensitive communication of the diagnosis of PNES has been emphasized and management approaches will typically involve multidisciplinary efforts to safely manage the events at home and at school. Interventions to reduce the effect of precipitating psychosocial stressors and the involvement of a mental health professional to treat comorbid psychopathology will also form part of an effective management plan. Outcome at follow-up is reported to be largely positive, although studies have not been able to follow all children, and few studies have focused on predictors of a good outcome. Future controlled intervention studies using a range of outcome measures are needed to identify efficacious approaches and predictors of best outcome. PMID:23944981

Reilly, Colin; Menlove, Leanne; Fenton, Virginia; Das, Krishna B

2013-10-01

304

Seizures as imbalanced up states: excitatory and inhibitory conductances during seizure-like events.  

PubMed

Precisely timed and dynamically balanced excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) conductances underlie the basis of neural network activity. Normal E/I balance is often shifted in epilepsy, resulting in neuronal network hyperexcitability and recurrent seizures. However, dynamics of the actual excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances (ge and gi, respectively) during seizures remain unknown. To study the dynamics of E and I network balance, we calculated ge and gi during the initiation, body, and termination of seizure-like events (SLEs) in the rat hippocampus in vitro. Repetitive emergent SLEs in 4-aminopyridine (100 ?M) and reduced extracellular magnesium (0.6 mM) were recorded in the identified CA1 pyramidal cells (PC) and oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons. Calculated ge/gi ratio dynamics showed that the initiation stage of the SLEs was dominated by inhibition in the PCs and was more balanced in the O-LM cells. During the body of the SLEs, the balance shifted toward excitation, with ge and gi peaking in both cell types at nearly the same time. In the termination phase, PCs were again dominated by inhibition, whereas O-LM cells experienced persistent excitatory synaptic barrage. In this way, increased excitability of interneurons may play roles in both seizure initiation (žiburkus J, Cressman JR, Barreto E, Schiff SJ. J Neurophysiol 95: 3948-3954, 2006) and in their termination. Overall, SLE stages can be characterized in PC and O-LM cells by dynamically distinct changes in the balance of ge and gi, where a temporal sequence of imbalance shifts with the changing firing patterns of the cellular subtypes comprising the hyperexcitable microcircuits. PMID:23221405

Žiburkus, Jokubas; Cressman, John R; Schiff, Steven J

2013-03-01

305

A novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

Han, Min; Ge, Sunan; Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

2014-01-01

306

A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction  

PubMed Central

Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

2014-01-01

307

Seizure suppression by gain-of-function escargot mutations.  

PubMed

Suppressor mutations provide potentially powerful tools for examining mechanisms underlying neurological disorders and identifying novel targets for pharmacological intervention. Here we describe mutations that suppress seizures in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy. A screen utilizing the Drosophila easily shocked (eas) "epilepsy" mutant identified dominant suppressors of seizure sensitivity. Among several mutations identified, neuronal escargot (esg) reduced eas seizures almost 90%. The esg gene encodes a member of the snail family of transcription factors. Whereas esg is normally expressed in a limited number of neurons during a defined period of nervous system development, here normal esg was expressed in all neurons and throughout development. This greatly ameliorated both the electrophysiological and the behavioral epilepsy phenotypes of eas. Neuronal esg appears to act as a general seizure suppressor in the Drosophila epilepsy model as it reduces the susceptibility of several seizure-prone mutants. We observed that esg must be ectopically expressed during nervous system development to reduce seizure susceptibility in adults. Furthermore, induction of esg in a small subset of neurons (interneurons) will reduce seizure susceptibility. A combination of microarray and computational analyses revealed 100 genes that represent possible targets of neuronal esg. We anticipate that some of these genes may ultimately serve as targets for novel antiepileptic drugs. PMID:15654097

Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Dang, Kim N; Tanouye, Mark A

2005-03-01

308

The Role of Resting State Networks in Focal Neocortical Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of resting state functional networks in epilepsy is incompletely understood. While some pathologic diagnoses have been shown to have maintained but altered resting state connectivity, others have implicated resting state connectivity in disease progression. However little is known about how these resting state networks influence the behavior of a focal neocortical seizure. Methods Using data taken from invasively monitored patients with intractable focal neocortical epilepsy, we evaluated network connectivity (as determined by oscillatory covariance of the slow cortical potential (<0.5 Hz)) as it relates to neocortical seizure foci both in the interictal and ictal states. Results Similar to what has been shown in the past for sleep and anesthesia, electophysiologic resting state networks that are defined by this slow cortical potential covariance maintain their topographic correlation structure throughout an ictal event. Moreover, in the context of focal epilepsy in which the seizure has a specific site of onset, seizure propagation is not chaotic or random. Rather, the seizure (reflected by an elevation of high frequency power) preferentially propagates along the network that contains the seizure onset zone. Significance Taken together, these findings further undergird the fundamental role of resting state networks, provide novel insights into the network-influenced behavior of seizures, and potentially identify additional targets for surgical disconnection including informing the location for the completion of multiple subpial transections (MSPTs). PMID:25247680

Bandt, S. Kathleen; Bundy, David T.; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ayoub, Kareem W.; Sharma, Mohit; Hacker, Carl D.; Pahwa, Mrinal; Leuthardt, Eric C.

2014-01-01

309

A case of seizures induced by abstract reasoning.  

PubMed

We describe a case of reflex seizures induced by abstract reasoning but not other cognitive processes. The patient, a 46-year-old man, experienced myoclonic seizures whenever he played shogi (Japanese chess). To identify the critical thought processes responsible for inducing his seizures, we monitored his clinical seizures and epileptiform discharges while he performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), spatial working memory, mental rotation, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) tasks. A myoclonic seizure occurred only during the WCST. Generalized 3- to 5-Hz spike-and-slow-wave bursts occurred repeatedly during the Block Design subtest of the WAIS-R and the WCST, whereas no discharges occurred during other subtests of the WAIS-R including the calculation, spatial working memory, and mental rotation tasks. These results indicate that abstract reasoning, independent of other cognitive processes, could induce the patient's epileptiform discharges, suggesting that his reflex seizures might be a distinct subtype of nonverbal thinking-induced seizures. PMID:20171146

Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro

2010-04-01

310

Seizure prediction using spike rate of intracranial EEG.  

PubMed

Reliable prediction of forthcoming seizures will be a milestone in epilepsy research. A method capable of timely predicting the occurrence of seizures could significantly improve the quality of life for epilepsy patients and open new therapeutic approaches. Seizures are usually characterized by generalized spike wave discharges. With the advent of seizures, the variation of spike rate (SR) will have different manifestations. In this study, a seizure prediction approach based on spike rate is proposed and evaluated. Firstly, a low-pass filter is applied to remove the high frequency artifacts in electroencephalogram (EEG). Then, the morphology filter is used to detect spikes and compute SR, and SR is smoothed with an average filter. Finally, the performance of smoothed SR (SRm) in EEG during interictal, preictal, and ictal periods is analyzed and employed as an index for seizure prediction. Experiments with long-term intracranial EEGs of 21 patients show that the proposed seizure prediction approach achieves a sensitivity of 75.8% with an average false prediction rate of 0.09/h. The low computational complexity of the proposed approach enables its possibility of applications in an implantable device for epilepsy therapy. PMID:24122570

Li, Shufang; Zhou, Weidong; Yuan, Qi; Liu, Yinxia

2013-11-01

311

Feature extraction with stacked autoencoders for epileptic seizure detection.  

PubMed

Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), a recording of the brain's electrical activity, has been used to diagnose and detect epileptic seizures for a long time. However, most researchers have implemented seizure detectors by manually hand-engineering features from observed EEG data, and used them in seizure detection, which might not scale well to new patterns of seizures. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of utilising unsupervised feature learning, the recent development of deep learning, to automatically learn features from raw, unlabelled EEG data that are representative enough to be used in seizure detection. We develop patient-specific seizure detectors by using stacked autoencoders and logistic classifiers. A two-step training consisting of the greedy layer-wise and the global fine-tuning was used to train our detectors. The evaluation was performed by using labelled dataset from the CHB-MIT database, and the results showed that all of the test seizures were detected with a mean latency of 3.36 seconds, and a low false detection rate. PMID:25570914

Supratak, Akara; Ling Li; Yike Guo

2014-01-01

312

Implied Mortgage Refinancing Thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal prepayment model asserts that rational homeowners will refinance if they can reduce the current value of their liabilities by an amount greater than the refinancing threshold, defined as the cost of carrying the transaction plus the time value of the embedded call option. To compute the notional value of the refinancing threshold, researchers have traditionally relied on discrete-

Paul Bennett; Richard Peach; Stavros Peristiani

2000-01-01

313

Bayesian Threshold Estimation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time…

Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

2009-01-01

314

Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy  

PubMed Central

Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

Janczak, Joanna M.; Beutner, Ulrich; Hasler, Karin

2015-01-01

315

Pathology Case Study: Recent Onset Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 12-year-old boy presents with a history of headaches, â??and a recent onset of right-sided seizures followed by the loss of consciousnessâ?ť. Visitors are shown CT scan images of the patientâ??s brain, along with microscopic images. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

Biernat, Wojciech

316

Dcx reexpression reduces subcortical band heterotopia and seizure threshold in an animal model of neuronal  

E-print Network

migrated neurons are particularly prevalent in individuals with pharmacologically intractable epilepsies, and surgical resection of malformed cortex can often effectively treat such drug-resistant epilepsy6,7. Many with mild to moderate mental retardation11 and with intractable epilepsy in about 65% of affected

Cossart, Rosa

317

Mortality in Late Post-Traumatic Seizures  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the mortality rates in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were classified as having experienced late post-traumatic seizures (LPTS) in the first 2 years post-TBI compared to those who were seizure-free (non-LPTS). Participants were a pooled sample (n?=?508) from two studies which enrolled individuals with TBI who were injured between March 31, 1992 and December 20, 1999. The first sample was made up of individuals enrolled in a study of risk factors for LPTS development; the second sample was composed of individuals enrolled in the TBI National Database from a single rehabilitation center. Seventy-one (14%) participants had LPTS, of which 27% had died at 8–15 years post-injury, as compared to 10% of non-LPTS participants. Individuals with LPTS died at a younger age (54.1 versus 67.7 years; p?=?0.01), but there were no statistically significant differences in either time from date of injury to death or highest GCS score in the first 24?h. Causes of death were variable and not specifically related to epilepsy. Of those with LPTS, risk factors for death include advanced age at time of injury and presence of subdural hematoma. The higher mortality rate and death at younger age with variable causes in TBI individuals with LPTS warrant close medical evaluation and monitoring of these individuals, particularly accessibility and compliance with ongoing general medical care, and education of primary care colleagues of the unique needs of this at-risk population. PMID:19508123

Englander, Jeffrey; Bushnik, Tamara; Wright, Jerry M.; Jamison, Laura; Duong, Thao T.

2009-01-01

318

A Computational Study of Stimulus Driven Epileptic Seizure Abatement  

PubMed Central

Active brain stimulation to abate epileptic seizures has shown mixed success. In spike-wave (SW) seizures, where the seizure and background state were proposed to coexist, single-pulse stimulations have been suggested to be able to terminate the seizure prematurely. However, several factors can impact success in such a bistable setting. The factors contributing to this have not been fully investigated on a theoretical and mechanistic basis. Our aim is to elucidate mechanisms that influence the success of single-pulse stimulation in noise-induced SW seizures. In this work, we study a neural population model of SW seizures that allows the reconstruction of the basin of attraction of the background activity as a four dimensional geometric object. For the deterministic (noise-free) case, we show how the success of response to stimuli depends on the amplitude and phase of the SW cycle, in addition to the direction of the stimulus in state space. In the case of spontaneous noise-induced seizures, the basin becomes probabilistic introducing some degree of uncertainty to the stimulation outcome while maintaining qualitative features of the noise-free case. Additionally, due to the different time scales involved in SW generation, there is substantial variation between SW cycles, implying that there may not be a fixed set of optimal stimulation parameters for SW seizures. In contrast, the model suggests an adaptive approach to find optimal stimulation parameters patient-specifically, based on real-time estimation of the position in state space. We discuss how the modelling work can be exploited to rationally design a successful stimulation protocol for the abatement of SW seizures using real-time SW detection. PMID:25531883

Goodfellow, Marc; Dauwels, Justin; Moeller, Friederike; Stephani, Ulrich; Baier, Gerold

2014-01-01

319

Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Febrile seizures are frequent during early childhood, and prolonged (complex) febrile seizures are associated with an increased susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy. The pathophysiological consequences of febrile seizures have been extensively studied in rat pups exposed to hyperthermia. The mechanisms that trigger these seizures are unknown, however. A rise in brain pH is known to enhance neuronal excitability. Here we

Sebastian Schuchmann; Dietmar Schmitz; Claudio Rivera; Sampsa Vanhatalo; Benedikt Salmen; Ken Mackie; Sampsa T Sipilä; Juha Voipio; Kai Kaila

2006-01-01

320

78 FR 77774 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...not be certified. Drivers with a history of a single provoked seizure with low...which provide that ``drivers with a history of epilepsy/seizures off anti-seizure...commerce. Interstate drivers with a history of a single unprovoked seizure may...

2013-12-24

321

Seizure Risk in Patients with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Atomoxetine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comorbidity of seizures, epilepsy, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the examination of whether atomoxetine use for ADHD is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizures and seizure-related symptoms were reviewed from two independent Eli Lilly and Company databases: the atomoxetine clinical trials database…

Wernicke, Joachim F.; Holdridge, Karen Chilcott; Jin, Ling; Edison, Timothy; Zhang, Shuyu; Bangs, Mark E.; Allen, Albert J.; Ball, Susan; Dunn, David

2007-01-01

322

The influence of the full moon on seizure frequency: myth or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate a possible relationship between seizure frequency and the lunar cycle, we reviewed the occurrence of seizures recorded in our epilepsy monitoring unit over a 3-year period. Analysis of the total number of seizures (epileptic plus nonepileptic) showed no significant association. A separate analysis revealed that for nonepileptic seizures, there was an increase at the full moon, and for

Selim R. Benbadis; Stanley Chang; Joel Hunter; Wei Wang

2004-01-01

323

The epidemiology of clinical neonatal seizures in Newfoundland: A population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the incidence, clinical features, etiologic distribution, and day of seizure onset by etiology in neonates with seizures. Design: Prospective, population-based study involving all the obstetric and neonatal units across the province of Newfoundland, Canada. All units were given educational sessions on neonatal seizure symptomatology. Subjects: Detailed questionnaires were prospectively collected for all infants with probable neonatal seizures

Gabriel M. Ronen; Sharon Penney; Wayne Andrews

1999-01-01

324

Atypical EEG pattern in children with absence seizures.  

PubMed

We studied four children with diagnosis of absence seizures (generalized primary epilepsy), and with a generalized delta activity on the EEG during clinical attacks provoked by hyperventilation. The lack of ictal generalized spike-and-wave discharges with a frequency of 3 Hz in our patients, makes this an atypical pattern. All children had complete control of their seizures and disappearance of the EEG changes with valproate. We concluded that generalized delta activity observed on EEG during the hyperventilation in children should not always be considered as a normal finding for age, since it could be an ictal event of an absence seizure. PMID:7487533

Silva, D F; Lima, M M; Anghinah, R; Zanoteli, E; Lima, J G

1995-06-01

325

Diagnosis and management of catamenial seizures: a review  

PubMed Central

Catamenial epilepsy is defined as a pattern of seizures that changes in severity during particular phases of the menstrual cycle, wherein estrogens are proconvulsant, increasing the neuronal excitability; and progesterone is anticonvulsant, enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition. Thus, changes in serum estradiol/progesterone ratio throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence. To date, there are no specific drug treatments for catamenial epilepsy however, non-hormonal and hormonal therapies have been proposed. The aim of this review is to report preclinical and clinical evidences about the relationship between female reproductive steroids and epileptic seizures, and to describe treatment approaches for catamenial epilepsy. PMID:23071424

Verrotti, Alberto; D’Egidio, Claudia; Agostinelli, Sergio; Verrotti, Carla; Pavone, Piero

2012-01-01

326

3-mercaptopropionic acid-induced seizures decrease NR2B expression in Purkinje cells: cyclopentyladenosine effect.  

PubMed

Inhibitory mechanism of cerebellum epileptic activity can be involved depending on the intensity and frequency of seizure convulsions. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play key roles in excitatory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in neurological disorders: in cerebellum, they have specific characteristics. NMDARs are heteromeric complexes, and the expression of functional receptors in mammalian cells requires the subunit NR1 (essential) and one NR2 subtype of the four isoforms: NR2A-NR2D. In mature Purkinje cells, the combination of NR1 with NR2B subunits forms functional NMDARs; NR2B subunit may be altered in exocitotoxic events. Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine analogue, administered to rats, for one or more days, increases seizure threshold induced by the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP). In this study, we focused on the expression of NR2B in cerebellum after repetitive seizures induced by MP and the effect of adenosine analogue CPA administered alone or previous to MP (CPA + MP). A significant decrease in NR2B in the whole cerebellum was observed after MP and CPA administration with a tendency to recover to normal values in the combined treatment of CPA administered 30 min before MP by Western blot assay. In immunohistochemical studies, NR2B expression was observed and analysed in Purkinje cells. NR2B expression was decreased after MP (55%) and CPA (12%) administration, and CPA injected 30 min before MP led to 28% reduction in Purkinje cells. These results could be related to Purkinje cell damage or alternatively to avoid the excitotoxic effect. Results recorded after CPA + MP treatment seemed involved in decreasing the convulsant MP effect. PMID:20625810

Girardi, E; Auzmendi, J; Charó, N; Gori, M B; Castro, M

2010-10-01

327

Seizure localization using three-dimensional surface projections of intracranial EEG power.  

PubMed

Intracranial EEG (icEEG) provides a critical road map for epilepsy surgery but it has become increasingly difficult to interpret as technology has allowed the number of icEEG channels to grow. Borrowing methods from neuroimaging, we aimed to simplify data analysis and increase consistency between reviewers by using 3D surface projections of intracranial EEG poweR (3D-SPIER). We analyzed 139 seizures from 48 intractable epilepsy patients (28 temporal and 20 extratemporal) who had icEEG recordings, epilepsy surgery, and at least one year of post-surgical follow-up. We coregistered and plotted icEEG ? frequency band signal power over time onto MRI-based surface renderings for each patient, to create color 3D-SPIER movies. Two independent reviewers interpreted the icEEG data using visual analysis vs. 3D-SPIER, blinded to any clinical information. Overall agreement rates between 3D-SPIER and icEEG visual analysis or surgery were about 90% for side of seizure onset, 80% for lobe, and just under 80% for sublobar localization. These agreement rates were improved when flexible thresholds or frequency ranges were allowed for 3D-SPIER, especially for sublobar localization. Interestingly, agreement was better for patients with good surgical outcome than for patients with poor outcome. Localization using 3D-SPIER was measurably faster and considered qualitatively easier to interpret than visual analysis. These findings suggest that 3D-SPIER could be an improved diagnostic method for presurgical seizure localization in patients with intractable epilepsy and may also be useful for mapping normal brain function. PMID:23850575

Lee, Hyang Woon; Youngblood, Mark W; Farooque, Pue; Han, Xiao; Jhun, Stephen; Chen, William C; Goncharova, Irina; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D; Zaveri, Hitten; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Blumenfeld, Hal

2013-12-01

328

The design and hardware implementation of a low-power real-time seizure detection algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epilepsy affects more than 1% of the world's population. Responsive neurostimulation is emerging as an alternative therapy for the 30% of the epileptic patient population that does not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Efficient seizure detection algorithms will enable closed-loop epilepsy prostheses by stimulating the epileptogenic focus within an early onset window. Critically, this is expected to reduce neuronal desensitization over time and lead to longer-term device efficacy. This work presents a novel event-based seizure detection algorithm along with a low-power digital circuit implementation. Hippocampal depth-electrode recordings from six kainate-treated rats are used to validate the algorithm and hardware performance in this preliminary study. The design process illustrates crucial trade-offs in translating mathematical models into hardware implementations and validates statistical optimizations made with empirical data analyses on results obtained using a real-time functioning hardware prototype. Using quantitatively predicted thresholds from the depth-electrode recordings, the auto-updating algorithm performs with an average sensitivity and selectivity of 95.3 ± 0.02% and 88.9 ± 0.01% (mean ± SE? = 0.05), respectively, on untrained data with a detection delay of 8.5 s [5.97, 11.04] from electrographic onset. The hardware implementation is shown feasible using CMOS circuits consuming under 350 nW of power from a 250 mV supply voltage from simulations on the MIT 180 nm SOI process.

Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K.; Ward, Matthew P.; Worth, Robert M.; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

2009-10-01

329

Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

2010-01-01

330

Joining the benefits: Combining epileptic seizure prediction methods  

E-print Network

methods for seizure prediction so far have shown statistical significance but insufficient performance'' and ``OR'' combinations. Results: Used independently, either method resulted in a statistically significant for clinical applications, we investigated pos- sible improvements by combining algorithms capturing different

Timmer, Jens

331

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

2012-04-01

332

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

2013-04-01

333

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

2014-04-01

334

Investigation of cardiac dysfunction and hypoxaemia during epileptic seizures   

E-print Network

Epileptic seizures are often un-witnessed and can result in hypoxic brain damage or can be fatal due to injuries, status epilepticus or sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The first aim of this thesis was ...

Brotherstone, Ruth Elizabeth

2012-06-30

335

Similarity-Index Early Seizure Detector VLSI Architecture  

E-print Network

nature of seizures is a major reason for the morbid nature of this disease, causing extensive emotional trauma to the patients and their families, as the risk of premature death in epileptic patients is two

Genov, Roman

336

Ontology and Knowledge Management System on Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures  

E-print Network

A Knowledge Management System developed for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information about Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures is presented. We present an Ontology on Epilepsy and a Web-based prototype that together create the KMS.

Almeida, Pedro; Sales, Francisco; Nogueira, Ana; Dourado, António

2010-01-01

337

Nonlinear nonstationary Wiener model of infant EEG seizures.  

PubMed

This paper presents the estimation of a nonstationary nonlinear model of seizures in infants based on parallel Wiener structures. The model comprises two parts and is partly derived from the Roessgen et al. seizure model. The first part consists of a nonlinear Wiener model of the pure background activity, and the second part in a nonlinear Wiener model of the pure seizure activity with a time-varying deterministic input signal. The two parts are then combined in a parallel structure. The Wiener model consists of an autoregressive moving average filter followed by a nonlinear shaping function to take into account the non-Gaussian statistical behavior of the data. Model estimation was performed on 64 infants of whom four showed signs of clinical and electrical seizures. Model validation is performed using time-frequency-based entropy distance and shows an averaged improvement of 50% in modeling performance compared with the Roessgen model. PMID:12046701

Celka, P; Colditz, P

2002-06-01

338

Tardive Seizure with Postictal Aphasia: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for certain psychiatric disorders with relatively few serious side effects or complications. Tardive seizures are one of these rare, but potentially fatal complications. Recognizing and treating tardive seizures is essential to prevent prolonged postictal confusion, progression to status epilepticus and associated soft tissue injury, anoxia, aspiration and death. Currently there is an unknown prevalence of their occurrence and an overall lack of clinical description of their phenomenology. We describe a case in which a patient develops a tardive seizure followed by a receptive and expressive aphasia, thought to be a variant of Todd’s postictal paralysis. This case is further unique in that there was a lateralization of a motor seizure presumably to the hemisphere contralateral to the RUL electrode placement. PMID:22573186

Felkel, W. Carson; Wagner, Gerhardt; Kimball, James; Rosenquist, Peter; McCall, W. Vaughn; Arias, Lorraine

2012-01-01

339

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

2010-04-01

340

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

2011-04-01

341

The approach to patients with "non-epileptic seizures"  

PubMed Central

Up to one fifth of patients who present to specialist clinics with seizures do not have epilepsy. The majority of such patients suffer from psychologically mediated episodes; dissociative seizures, often referred to as "non-epileptic seizures". This paper describes the diagnostic evaluation of seizure disorders, including clinical assessment and the role of special investigations. The organic and psychiatric imitators of epilepsy are outlined and findings on psychiatric assessment are reviewed. This group of patients often proves difficult to engage in appropriate treatment and an approach to explaining the diagnosis is described. As yet there are no controlled trials of treatment in this disorder but preliminary evidence suggests cognitive behavioural therapy is both a rational and promising way forward. PMID:16085740

Mellers, J

2005-01-01

342

Moonstruck? The effect of the lunar cycle on seizures.  

PubMed

Recent reports on the effects of the lunar cycle on seizure occurrence have yielded mixed results. If the moon phase is influential, we hypothesized that this would be due to the moon's contribution to nocturnal illumination, rather than its waxing or waning state, and that significant correlations would not be apparent if local cloud cover were controlled for. We found a significant negative correlation between the mean number of seizures and the fraction of the moon illuminated by the sun (rho=-0.09, P<0.05) in 1571 seizures recorded in a dedicated epilepsy inpatient unit over 341 days. This correlation disappeared when we controlled for the local clarity of the night sky, suggesting that it is the brightness of the night and the contribution the moon phase makes to nocturnal luminance, rather than the moon phase per se, that may influence the occurrence of epileptic seizures. PMID:18602495

Baxendale, Sallie; Fisher, Jennifer

2008-10-01

343

Evidence of an inhibitory restraint of seizure activity in humans  

PubMed Central

The location and trajectory of seizure activity is of great importance, yet our ability to map such activity remains primitive. Recently, the development of multi-electrode arrays for use in humans has provided new levels of temporal and spatial resolution for recording seizures. Here, we show that there is a sharp delineation between areas showing intense, hypersynchronous firing indicative of recruitment to the seizure, and adjacent territories where there is only low-level, unstructured firing. Thus, there is a core territory of recruited neurons and a surrounding 'ictal penumbra'. The defining feature of the 'ictal penumbra' is the contrast between the large amplitude EEG signals and the low-level firing there. Our human recordings bear striking similarities with animal studies of an inhibitory restraint, indicating that they can be readily understood in terms of this mechanism. These findings have important implications for how we localize seizure activity and map its spread. PMID:22968706

Schevon, Catherine A.; Weiss, Shennan A.; McKhann, Guy; Goodman, Robert R.; Yuste, Rafael; Emerson, Ronald G.; Trevelyan, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

344

Prognosis and Outcome Predictors in Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that one in five patients referred to specialist epilepsy clinics for refractory seizures have psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Despite the high prevalence, little is known about the prognosis of patients with PNES. In this paper we set out to systematically assess published original studies on the prognosis and outcome predictors of patients with PNES. Our literature search across the databases Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE generated 18 original studies meeting the search criteria. Prognosis was found to be poor in adults, but good in children. Predictors of poor outcome included the presence of coexisting epilepsy or psychiatric comorbidities, violent seizure phenomenology, dependent lifestyle, and poor relationships. Overall, too much reliance is placed on seizure remission as an outcome measurement for patients with PNES, and the impact of many of the outcome predictors requires evaluation using larger studies with longer followup. PMID:22937230

Durrant, Joseph; Rickards, Hugh; Cavanna, Andrea E.

2011-01-01

345

Rescue of easily shocked Mutant Seizure Sensitivity in Drosophila Adults  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors that influence seizure susceptibility can act transiently during the development of neural circuits or might be necessary for the proper functioning of existing circuits. We provide evidence that the Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutant easily shocked (eas) represents a neurological disorder in which abnormal functioning of existing neural circuits leads to seizure sensitivity. The eas+ gene encodes for the protein Ethanolamine Kinase, involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. We show that induction of eas+ in adult mutant flies rescues them from seizure sensitivity despite previously known developmental defects in brain morphology. Additionally, through cell-type-specific rescue, our results suggest a specific role for eas+ in excitatory rather than inhibitory neural transmission. Overall, our findings emphasize an important role for proper phospholipid metabolism in normal brain function and suggest that certain classes of epilepsy syndromes could have the potential to be treated with gene therapy techniques. PMID:23682034

Kroll, Jason R.; Tanouye, Mark A.

2014-01-01

346

Acute renal failure and seizures associated with chlorambucil overdose.  

PubMed

A case of chlorambucil overdose is presented. The clinical manifestations were acute renal failure and seizures. We are not aware of this combination of clinical features being previously reported with chlorambucil overdose. PMID:6655776

Blank, D W; Nanji, A A; Schreiber, D H; Hudman, C; Sanders, H D

1983-06-01

347

Rescue of easily shocked mutant seizure sensitivity in Drosophila adults.  

PubMed

Genetic factors that influence seizure susceptibility can act transiently during the development of neural circuits or might be necessary for the proper functioning of existing circuits. We provide evidence that the Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutant easily shocked (eas) represents a neurological disorder in which abnormal functioning of existing neural circuits leads to seizure sensitivity. The eas(+) gene encodes for the protein Ethanolamine Kinase, involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. We show that induction of eas(+) in adult mutant flies rescues them from seizure sensitivity despite previously known developmental defects in brain morphology. Additionally, through cell-type-specific rescue, our results suggest a specific role for eas(+) in excitatory rather than inhibitory neural transmission. Overall, our findings emphasize an important role for proper phospholipid metabolism in normal brain function and suggest that certain classes of epilepsy syndromes could have the potential to be treated with gene therapy techniques. PMID:23682034

Kroll, Jason R; Tanouye, Mark A

2013-10-15

348

Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.  

PubMed

Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. PMID:25145652

Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

2015-01-01

349

Genetic heterogeneity for autosomal recessive pyridoxine-dependent seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) is a rare autosomal recessive intractable seizure disorder only controlled by a daily supplementation\\u000a of pharmacological doses of pyridoxine (Vitamin B6). Although glutamate decarboxylase utilizes pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor\\u000a during conversion of the excitatory amino acid, glutamate, to the inhibitory neurotransmitter, ?-amino butyric acid (GABA),\\u000a several studies have failed to demonstrate a linkage to either of

C. L. Bennett; H. M. Huynh; P. F. Chance; I. A. Glass; S. M. Gospe

2005-01-01

350

Seizure and encephalopathy associated with thyroid storm in children.  

PubMed

Thyroid storm with seizures is very rare in children. The authors report 3 children with thyroid storm who had a seizure in the absence of a history of neurologic disease. Acute medical management with propylthiouracil, Lugol's iodine solution, hydrocortisone, and propranolol led to a complete resolution of the symptoms. Patients with thyroid storm may be predisposed to the development of neuropsychiatric change. Early recognition and treatment of thyroid storm are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality from this disorder. PMID:21325127

Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon

2011-04-01

351

Leaky Ca2+ release channel/ryanodine receptor 2 causes seizures and sudden cardiac death in mice  

PubMed Central

The Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) is required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart and is also present in the brain. Mutations in RyR2 have been linked to exercise-induced sudden cardiac death (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT]). CPVT-associated RyR2 mutations result in “leaky” RyR2 channels due to the decreased binding of the calstabin2 (FKBP12.6) subunit, which stabilizes the closed state of the channel. We found that mice heterozygous for the R2474S mutation in Ryr2 (Ryr2-R2474S mice) exhibited spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures (which occurred in the absence of cardiac arrhythmias), exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Treatment with a novel RyR2-specific compound (S107) that enhances the binding of calstabin2 to the mutant Ryr2-R2474S channel inhibited the channel leak and prevented cardiac arrhythmias and raised the seizure threshold. Thus, CPVT-associated mutant leaky Ryr2-R2474S channels in the brain can cause seizures in mice, independent of cardiac arrhythmias. Based on these data, we propose that CPVT is a combined neurocardiac disorder in which leaky RyR2 channels in the brain cause epilepsy, and the same leaky channels in the heart cause exercise-induced sudden cardiac death. PMID:18483626

Lehnart, Stephan E.; Mongillo, Marco; Bellinger, Andrew; Lindegger, Nicolas; Chen, Bi-Xing; Hsueh, William; Reiken, Steven; Wronska, Anetta; Drew, Liam J.; Ward, Chris W.; Lederer, W.J.; Kass, Robert S.; Morley, Gregory; Marks, Andrew R.

2008-01-01

352

Quantum threshold group signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most situations, the signer is generally a single person. However, when the message is written on behalf of an organization, a valid message may require the approval or consent of several persons. Threshold signature is a solution to this problem. Generally speaking, as an authority which can be trusted by all members does not exist, a threshold signature scheme without a trusted party appears more attractive. Following some ideas of the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, a quantum threshold group signature one is proposed. In the proposed scheme, only t or more of n persons in the group can generate the group signature and any t - 1 or fewer ones cannot do that. In the verification phase, any t or more of n signature receivers can verify the message and any t - 1 or fewer receivers cannot verify the validity of the signature.

Yang, Yuguang; Wen, Qiaoyan

2008-10-01

353

A Physiology-Based Seizure Detection System for Multichannel EEG  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable. Methodology This study proposes a physiology-based detection system for epileptic seizures that uses multichannel EEG signals. The proposed technique was tested on two EEG data sets acquired from 18 patients. Both unipolar and bipolar EEG signals were analyzed. We employed sample entropy (SampEn), statistical values, and concepts used in clinical neurophysiology (e.g., phase reversals and potential fields of a bipolar EEG) to extract the features. We further tested the performance of a genetic algorithm cascaded with a support vector machine and post-classification spike matching. Principal Findings We obtained 86.69% spike detection and 99.77% seizure detection for Data Set I. The detection system was further validated using the model trained by Data Set I on Data Set II. The system again showed high performance, with 91.18% detection of spikes and 99.22% seizure detection. Conclusion We report a de novo EEG classification system for seizure and spike detection on multichannel EEG that includes physiology-based knowledge to enhance the performance of this type of system. PMID:23799053

Shen, Chia-Ping; Liu, Shih-Ting; Zhou, Wei-Zhi; Lin, Feng-Seng; Lam, Andy Yan-Yu; Sung, Hsiao-Ya; Chen, Wei; Lin, Jeng-Wei; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Pan, Ming-Kai; Kao, Jui-Hung; Wu, Jin-Ming; Lai, Feipei

2013-01-01

354

Combination anticonvulsant treatment of soman-induced seizures.  

PubMed

These studies investigated the effectiveness of combination treatment with a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug against soman-induced seizures. The anticholinergic drugs considered were biperiden, scopolamine, trihexaphenidyl, and procyclidine; the benzodiazepines were diazepam and midazolam. Male guinea pigs were implanted surgically with cortical screw electrodes. Electrocorticograms were displayed continually and recorded on a computerized electroencephalographic system. Pyridostigmine (0.026 mg x kg(-1), i.m.) was injected as a pretreatment to inhibit red blood cell acetylcholinesterase by 30-40%. Thirty minutes after pyridostigmine, 2 x LD50 (56 microg x kg(-1)) of soman was injected s.c., followed 1 min later by i.m. treatment with atropine (2 mg x kg(-1)) + 2-PAM (25 mg x kg(-1)). Electrographic seizures occurred in all animals. Anticonvulsant treatment combinations were administered i.m. at 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. Treatment consisted of diazepam or midazolam plus one of the above-mentioned anticholinergic drugs. All doses of the treatment compounds exhibited little or no antiseizure efficacy when given individually. The combination of a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug was effective in terminating soman-induced seizure, whether given 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. The results suggest a strong synergistic effect of combining benzodiazepines with centrally active anticholinergic drugs and support the concept of using an adjunct to supplement diazepam for the treatment of nerve-agent-induced seizures. PMID:11920921

Koplovitz, I; Schulz, S; Shutz, M; Railer, R; Macalalag, R; Schons, M; McDonough, J

2001-12-01

355

Tranexamic acid concentrations associated with human seizures inhibit glycine receptors.  

PubMed

Antifibrinolytic drugs are widely used to reduce blood loss during surgery. One serious adverse effect of these drugs is convulsive seizures; however, the mechanisms underlying such seizures remain poorly understood. The antifibrinolytic drugs tranexamic acid (TXA) and ?-aminocaproic acid (EACA) are structurally similar to the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine. Since reduced function of glycine receptors causes seizures, we hypothesized that TXA and EACA inhibit the activity of glycine receptors. Here we demonstrate that TXA and EACA are competitive antagonists of glycine receptors in mice. We also showed that the general anesthetic isoflurane, and to a lesser extent propofol, reverses TXA inhibition of glycine receptor-mediated current, suggesting that these drugs could potentially be used to treat TXA-induced seizures. Finally, we measured the concentration of TXA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. Surprisingly, peak TXA concentration in the CSF occurred after termination of drug infusion and in one patient coincided with the onset of seizures. Collectively, these results show that concentrations of TXA equivalent to those measured in the CSF of patients inhibited glycine receptors. Furthermore, isoflurane or propofol may prevent or reverse TXA-induced seizures. PMID:23187124

Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Romaschin, Alexander D; Peterson, Mark; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

2012-12-01

356

Neonatal hypocalcemic seizures due to excessive maternal calcium ingestion.  

PubMed

Hypocalcemia is a common, treatable cause of neonatal seizures. A term girl neonate with no apparent risk factors developed seizures on day 5 of life, consisting of rhythmic twitching of all extremities in a migrating pattern. Physical examination was normal except for jitteriness. Laboratory evaluation was unremarkable except for decreased total and ionized serum calcium levels and an elevated serum phosphorus level. The mother had ingested 3-6 g of calcium carbonate daily during the final 4 months of pregnancy to control morning sickness. The baby's electroencephalogram showed multifocal interictal sharp waves and intermittent electrographic seizures consisting of focal spikes in the left hemisphere accompanied by rhythmic jerking of the right arm and leg. Treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate over several days resulted in cessation of seizures and normalization of serum calcium. The child has remained seizure free and is normal developmentally at 9 years of age. Hypocalcemic seizures in this newborn were likely secondary to excessive maternal calcium ingestion, which led to transient neonatal hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia. Inquiry about perinatal maternal medication use should include a search for over-the-counter agents that might not be thought of as "drugs," as in this case, antacids. PMID:23668874

Borkenhagen, Jenna F; Connor, Ellen L; Stafstrom, Carl E

2013-06-01

357

Decursin attenuates kainic acid-induced seizures in mice.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with recurrent unprovoked seizures as the main symptom. Of the coumarin derivatives in Angelica gigas, decursin, a major coumarin component, was reported to exhibit significant protective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity when added to primary cultures of rat cortical cells. This study served to investigate the effects of decursin on a kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus model. Thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injections of decursin (20?mg/kg) in male 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice, the animals were treated with KA (30?mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and then examined for behavioral seizure score, electroencephalogram, seizure-related expressed protein levels, neuronal cell loss, neurodegeneration, and astrogliosis. KA injections significantly enhanced neurodegenerative conditions but treatment with decursin 30?min before KA injection reduced the detrimental effects of KA in mice. The decursin-treated KA-injected group showed significantly decreased behavioral seizure activity and remarkably attenuated intense and high-frequency seizure discharges in the parietal cortex for 2?h compared with the group treated only with KA. Furthermore, in-vivo results indicated that decursin strongly inhibits selective neuronal death, astrogliosis, and oxidative stress induced by KA administration. Therefore decursin is able to attenuate KA-induced seizures and could have potential as an antiepileptic drug. PMID:25171200

Lee, Jong-Keun; Jeong, Ji Woon; Jang, Taeik; Lee, Go-Woon; Han, Hogyu; Kang, Jae-Seon; Kim, Ik-Hwan

2014-11-12

358

Seizure characterisation using frequency-dependent multivariate dynamics.  

PubMed

The characterisation of epileptic seizures assists in the design of targeted pharmaceutical seizure prevention techniques and pre-surgical evaluations. In this paper, we expand on the recent use of multivariate techniques to study the cross-correlation dynamics between electroencephalographic (EEG) channels. The maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) is applied in order to separate the EEG channels into their underlying frequencies. The dynamics of the cross-correlation matrix between channels, at each frequency, are then analysed in terms of the eigenspectrum. By examination of the eigenspectrum, we show that it is possible to identify frequency-dependent changes in the correlation structure between channels which may be indicative of seizure activity. The technique is applied to EEG epileptiform data and the results indicate that the correlation dynamics vary over time and frequency, with larger correlations between channels at high frequencies. Additionally, a redistribution of wavelet energy is found, with increased fractional energy demonstrating the relative importance of high frequencies during seizures. Dynamical changes also occur in both correlation and energy at lower frequencies during seizures, suggesting that monitoring frequency-dependent correlation structure can characterise changes in EEG signals during these. Future work will involve the study of other large eigenvalues and inter-frequency correlations to determine additional seizure characteristics. PMID:19580962

Conlon, T; Ruskin, H J; Crane, M

2009-09-01

359

Role of Organochlorine Pesticides in Children with Idiopathic Seizures  

PubMed Central

Background. Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are persistent organic pollutants that have been implicated in causing several deleterious effects in humans. These are known neurotoxins in high doses, but the role of environmentally acquired OCPs in the body to induce seizures in children has not been investigated yet. Objectives. To assess the serum levels of OCPs in children aged 2–12 with idiopathic seizure and to find out any association between the two are our objectives. Methods. It was a cross-sectional pilot study. Twenty developmentally normal children aged 2–12, presenting with idiopathic generalized seizures, were recruited. Twenty age-matched controls without any history of seizures were also taken. Their serum levels of ?, ?, and ? hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); and aldrin; dieldrin; p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p-DDT, and p,p dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); and ? and ? endosulfan were analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare OCP levels between the groups. Spearman correlation was used to find the correlation between individual pesticide levels with age and seizure duration. Results. Levels of ?, ?, and total HCH were significantly higher among cases as compared to the control group (P ? 0.05). Conclusion. There exists a possible association between idiopathic seizures and high serum levels of OCPs, especially HCH. PMID:24368944

Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Gupta, Sushan

2013-01-01

360

Antisense Reduction of Tau in Adult Mice Protects against Seizures  

PubMed Central

Tau, a microtubule-associated protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in regard to both neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal network hyperexcitability. The genetic ablation of tau substantially reduces hyperexcitability in AD mouse lines, induced seizure models, and genetic in vivo models of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that tau is an important regulator of network excitability. However, developmental compensation in the genetic tau knock-out line may account for the protective effect against seizures. To test the efficacy of a tau reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in adult animals, we identified antisense oligonucleotides that selectively decrease endogenous tau expression throughout the entire mouse CNS—brain and spinal cord tissue, interstitial fluid, and CSF—while having no effect on baseline motor or cognitive behavior. In two chemically induced seizure models, mice with reduced tau protein had less severe seizures than control mice. Total tau protein levels and seizure severity were highly correlated, such that those mice with the most severe seizures also had the highest levels of tau. Our results demonstrate that endogenous tau is integral for regulating neuronal hyperexcitability in adult animals and suggest that an antisense oligonucleotide reduction of tau could benefit those with epilepsy and perhaps other disorders associated with tau-mediated neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:23904623

DeVos, Sarah L.; Goncharoff, Dustin K.; Chen, Guo; Kebodeaux, Carey S.; Yamada, Kaoru; Stewart, Floy R.; Schuler, Dorothy R.; Maloney, Susan E.; Wozniak, David F.; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C. Frank; Cirrito, John R.; Holtzman, David M.

2013-01-01

361

Treatment of epileptic seizures in brain tumors: a critical review.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures represent a common signal of intracranial tumors, frequently the presenting symptom and the main factor influencing quality of life. Treatment of tumors concentrates on survival; antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment frequently is prescribed in a stereotyped way. A differentiated approach according to epileptic syndromes can improve seizure control and minimize unwarranted AED effects. Prophylactic use of AEDs is to be discouraged in patients without seizures. Acutely provoked seizures do not need long-term medication except for patients with high recurrence risk indicated by distinct EEG patterns, auras, and several other parameters. With chronically repeated seizures (epilepsies), long-term AED treatment is indicated. Non-enzyme-inducing AEDs might be preferred. Valproic acid exerts effects against progression of gliomatous tumors. In low-grade astrocytomas with epilepsy, a comprehensive presurgical epilepsy work-up including EEG-video monitoring is advisable; in static non-progressive tumors, it is mandatory. In these cases, the neurosurgical approach has to include the removal of the seizure-onset zone frequently located outside the lesion. PMID:24760366

Bauer, R; Ortler, M; Seiz-Rosenhagen, M; Maier, R; Anton, J V; Unterberger, I

2014-07-01

362

Long-term safety of perampanel and seizure outcomes in refractory partial-onset seizures and secondarily generalized seizures: Results from phase III extension study 307  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate safety, tolerability, seizure frequency, and regional variations in treatment responses with the AMPA antagonist, perampanel, in a large extension study during up to 3 years of treatment. Methods Patients ?12 years old with partial-onset seizures despite treatment with 1–3 antiepileptic drugs at baseline completed a perampanel phase III trial and entered extension study 307 (NCT00735397). Patients were titrated to 12 mg/day (or their individual maximum tolerated dose) during the blinded conversion period, followed by open-label maintenance. Exposure, safety (adverse events [AEs], vital signs, weight, electrocardiography [ECG], laboratory values) and seizure outcomes were analyzed; key measures were assessed by geographic regions. Results Among 1,216 patients, median exposure was 1.5 years (range 1 week to 3.3 years), with >300 patients treated for >2 years. Treatment retention was 58.5% at cutoff. AEs reported in ?10% of patients were dizziness, somnolence, headache, fatigue, irritability, and weight increase. Only dizziness and irritability caused discontinuation in >1% of patients (3.9% and 1.3%, respectively). The only serious AEs reported in >1% of patients were epilepsy-related (convulsion, 3.0%; status epilepticus, 1.1%). No clinically relevant changes in vital signs, ECG or laboratory parameters were seen. After titration/conversion, responder rate and median percentage change from baseline in seizure frequency were stable: 46% for both measures at 9 months (in 980 patients with ?9 months' exposure) and 58% and 60%, respectively, at 2 years (in the 337 patients with 2 years' exposure). Median percentage reduction in frequency of secondarily generalized (SG) seizures ranged from 77% at 9 months (N = 422) to 90% at 2 years (N = 141). Among the 694 patients with maintenance data ?1 year, 5.3% were seizure-free for the entire year. Significance No new safety signals emerged during up to 3 years of perampanel exposure in 39 countries. Seizure responses remained stable, with marked reductions, particularly in SG seizures. PMID:24867391

Krauss, Gregory L; Perucca, Emilio; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; Kwan, Patrick; Shih, Jerry J; Clément, Jean-François; Wang, Xuefeng; Bagul, Makarand; Gee, Michelle; Zhu, Jin; Squillacote, David

2014-01-01

363

Muscarinic M1 receptor and cannabinoid CB1 receptor do not modulate paraoxon-induced seizures  

PubMed Central

One of the major signs of severe organophosphate poisoning is seizures. Previous studies have shown that both muscarinic agonist- and organophosphate-induced seizures require activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system. Seizures induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine require the M1 receptor and are modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. In this study, we determined whether M1 and CB1 receptors also regulated seizures induced by the organophosphate paraoxon. We found no differences in seizures induced by paraoxon in wild-type (WT) and M1 knockout (KO) mice, indicating that in contrast to pilocarpine seizures, M1 receptors are not required for paraoxon seizures. Furthermore, we found that pilocarpine administration resulted in seizure-independent activation of ERK in the hippocampus in a M1 receptor-dependent manner, while paraoxon did not induce seizure-independent activation of ERK in the mouse hippocampus. This shows that pilocarpine and paraoxon activated M1 receptors in the hippocampus to different extents. There were no differences in seizures induced by paraoxon in WT and CB1 KO mice, and neither CB1 agonist nor antagonist administration had significant effects on paraoxon seizures, indicating that, in contrast to pilocarpine seizures, paraoxon seizures are not modulated by CB1 receptors. These results demonstrate that there are fundamental molecular differences in the regulation of seizures induced by pilocarpine and paraoxon. PMID:25692018

Kow, Rebecca L; Cheng, Eugene M; Jiang, Kelly; Le, Joshua H; Stella, Nephi; Nathanson, Neil M

2015-01-01

364

Presurgical connectome and postsurgical seizure control in temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether patients with surgically refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) exhibit a distinct pattern of structural network organization involving the temporal lobes and extratemporal regions. Methods: We retrospectively studied 18 healthy controls and 20 patients with medication refractory unilateral MTLE who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy for treatment of seizures. Patients were classified as seizure-free or not seizure-free at least 1 year after surgery. The presurgical brain connectome was calculated through probabilistic connectivity from MRI–diffusion tensor imaging from 83 anatomically defined regions of interest encompassing the whole brain. The connectivity patterns were analyzed regarding group differences in regional connectivity and network graph properties. Results: Compared with controls, patients exhibited a decrease in connectivity involving ipsilateral thalamocortical regions, with a pathologic increase in ipsilateral medial temporal lobe, insular, and frontal connectivity. Among patients, those not seizure-free exhibited a higher connectivity between structures in 1) the ipsilateral medial and lateral temporal lobe, 2) the ipsilateral medial temporal and parietal lobe, and 3) the contralateral temporal pole and parietal lobe. Patients not seizure-free also exhibited lower small-worldness in the subnetwork within the ipsilateral temporal lobe, with higher subnetwork integration at the expense of segregation. Conclusions: MTLE is associated with network rearrangement within, but not restricted to, the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the onset of seizures. Networks involving key components of the medial temporal lobe and structures traditionally not removed during surgery may be associated with seizure control after surgical treatment of MTLE. PMID:24107863

Helpern, Joseph A.; Sainju, Rup; Nesland, Travis; Edwards, Jonathan C.; Glazier, Steven S.; Tabesh, Ali

2013-01-01

365

Clinical implementation of a neonatal seizure detection algorithm  

PubMed Central

Technologies for automated detection of neonatal seizures are gradually moving towards cot-side implementation. The aim of this paper is to present different ways to visualize the output of a neonatal seizure detection system and analyse their influence on performance in a clinical environment. Three different ways to visualize the detector output are considered: a binary output, a probabilistic trace, and a spatio-temporal colormap of seizure observability. As an alternative to visual aids, audified neonatal EEG is also considered. Additionally, a survey on the usefulness and accuracy of the presented methods has been performed among clinical personnel. The main advantages and disadvantages of the presented methods are discussed. The connection between information visualization and different methods to compute conventional metrics is established. The results of the visualization methods along with the system validation results indicate that the developed neonatal seizure detector with its current level of performance would unambiguously be of benefit to clinicians as a decision support system. The results of the survey suggest that a suitable way to visualize the output of neonatal seizure detection systems in a clinical environment is a combination of a binary output and a probabilistic trace. The main healthcare benefits of the tool are outlined. The decision support system with the chosen visualization interface is currently undergoing pre-market European multi-centre clinical investigation to support its regulatory approval and clinical adoption.

Temko, Andriy; Marnane, William; Boylan, Geraldine; Lightbody, Gordon

2015-01-01

366

A patient with atonic seizures mimicking transient ischemic attacks?  

PubMed Central

A focal atonic seizure is a partial seizure in which the ictal manifestation consists of paresis of the extremities or muscles on one side of the body, and this phenomenon can easily be misdiagnosed as a transient ischemic attack. An 86-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of transient right upper extremity weakness lasting for 10 min following an unusual sensation in her chest accompanied by palpitations. On the third hospital day, she again complained of right arm weakness, which progressed to jerky movements of her right extremity accompanied by facial twitching and then generalized into a tonic–clonic seizure. The EEG displayed several interictal spikes in the contralateral temporal area, and the ictal SPECT, analyzed using the SISCOM system, showed an increased signal in both the contralateral superior parietal area and the mesial frontal area. In this case, the patient was diagnosed with focal atonic seizures as the cause of the monolimb weakness, which had been initially misdiagnosed aas transient ischemic attacks. In cases in which a patient presents with monolimb paresis, physicians should consider the possibility of an atonic seizure as the cause.

Kang, Min-Ju; Choi, Jun Young; An, Young-Sil; Park, Ki-Hyung; Park, Hyeon-Mi; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Sung, Young Hee; Shin, Dong Hoon

2015-01-01

367

The Secret “Spice”: An Undetectable Toxic Cause of Seizure  

PubMed Central

Neurologists and emergency department physicians are frequently involved in the comprehensive evaluation of a first generalized seizure. An important aspect of this evaluation is a detailed history which can identify a provoked seizure secondary to drug toxicity and hence avoid unnecessary treatment with antiepileptic drugs. “Spice” is an umbrella term for a variety of synthetic cannabinoid products whose inhalation has been associated with an increasing number of toxic side effects resulting in emergency department visits. These side effects (including psychosis, tachyarrhythmia, and seizures) are not typically seen with marijuana (Cannabis sativa) use. We report 2 patients with no prior history of neurological disease that experienced their first generalized tonic–clonic seizure after smoking Spice. The mechanism behind the possible proconvulsant effect of synthetic cannabinoids is not known, but it may be due to their effects at the cannabinoid receptor CB1. Although the US Drug Enforcement Administration placed 5 synthetic cannabinoids into schedule 1 for a 12-month period beginning March 2011, new Spice products containing different synthetic cannabinoids continue to emerge. Because synthetic cannabinoids are not detectable on commercial drug screens it is important that neurologists and emergency department physicians consider Spice inhalation in their differential diagnosis of a first generalized seizure. PMID:23983854

de Havenon, Adam; Chin, Brian; Thomas, Karen C.; Afra, Pegah

2011-01-01

368

Cross Sectional Imaging of Post Partum Headache and Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate spectrum of causes & their characteristic findings in peripartum head ache and seizures on computed tomography & magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with complaints of peripartum headache and seizures underwent cross sectional imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging during period of June 2011 to May 2012. Age group of subjects in this study was 18 to 38 y. Out of 40 patients 15 had history of eclampsia and remaining 25 patients were normotensive. Subjects with complaints of headache and seizures after six weeks of delivery were excluded from the study. Intravenous contrast was administered in cases with diagnostic dilemma. All results were reported and informed to the referring physicians on priority bases. Results: Nine patients with peripartum headache and seizures revealed no brain parenchymal or cerebral vascular abnormalities on imaging. Eleven patients with a history of eclampsia showed features of eclamptic encephalopathy. Out 40 patients, 17 patients revealed cortical venous thrombosis with 14 patients showing parenchymal changes. One patient each showed features of meningoencephalitis, ischemic watershed territory infarct & region of gliosis. All results were analysed & tabulated. Conclusion: Eclamptic encephalopathy and cortical venous thrombosis are the major causes for post partum headache and seizures. Rational use of CT & MRI in the early course of the disease helps in characterizing the lesion and providing the appropriate treatment. PMID:25654004

Mundaganur, Praveen; Sonwalkar, Pradeep; N S, Vishal; G S, Narendra; P, Sanjay

2014-01-01

369

Detection of tonic epileptic seizures based on surface electromyography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to design an algorithm for detection of tonic seizures based on surface electromyography signals from the deltoids. A successful algorithm has a future prospect of being implemented in a wearable device as part of an alarm system. This has already been done for generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and the hypothesis was that some of the same characteristics could be found for tonic seizures. The signals were pre-processed by a high-pass filter to remove low frequency noise such as movement artifacts. Several different features were investigated, including kurtosis, median frequency, zero crossing rate and approximate entropy. These features were used as input in the random forest classifier to decide if a data segment was from a seizure or not. The goal was to develop a generic algorithm for all tonic seizures, but better results were achieved when certain parameters were adapted specifically for each patient. With patient specific parameters the algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 100% for four of six patients with false detection rates between 0.08 and 7.90 per hour. PMID:25570115

Larsen, Sigge N; Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Sorensen, Helge B D

2014-08-01

370

Chemical–genetic attenuation of focal neocortical seizures  

PubMed Central

Focal epilepsy is commonly pharmacoresistant, and resective surgery is often contraindicated by proximity to eloquent cortex. Many patients have no effective treatment options. Gene therapy allows cell-type specific inhibition of neuronal excitability, but on-demand seizure suppression has only been achieved with optogenetics, which requires invasive light delivery. Here we test a combined chemical–genetic approach to achieve localized suppression of neuronal excitability in a seizure focus, using viral expression of the modified muscarinic receptor hM4Di. hM4Di has no effect in the absence of its selective, normally inactive and orally bioavailable agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Systemic administration of CNO suppresses focal seizures evoked by two different chemoconvulsants, pilocarpine and picrotoxin. CNO also has a robust anti-seizure effect in a chronic model of focal neocortical epilepsy. Chemical–genetic seizure attenuation holds promise as a novel approach to treat intractable focal epilepsy while minimizing disruption of normal circuit function in untransduced brain regions or in the absence of the specific ligand. PMID:24866701

Kätzel, Dennis; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Schorge, Stephanie; Walker, Matthew C.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

2014-01-01

371

Silicon micromachined threshold accelerometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A threshold accelerometer, also known as a g-switch, was developed for sensing very high acceleration levels. The design follows the concept of a cantilever beam as the sensing element with a metal line running along its length. Under applied acceleration, the beam deflects upwards across a small gap and makes contact with a second electrode, thus closing a switch. The structural material chosen for the beam was silicon dioxide, due to its flexibility and ease in fabrication. The theory of the electrostatic and inertial forces are analyzed and a threshold acceleration level is derived. It is shown that this level is very sensitive to beam length. Fabrication steps are described, including chemical vapor deposition, chemical etching, and fabrication and assembly of the top glass plate. Electrostatic testing that involved voltages representative of threshold acceleration levels of 400 to 100,000 gravities was performed on over 150 beams. Under static centrifuge testing involving over 100 beams, threshold acceleration levels from 400 to 20,000 gravities were measured. Most of the experimental results are within the predicted tolerance limits set by the processing parameters.

Loke, Y.; McKinnon, G. H.; Brett, M. J.

372

Animation with Threshold Textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for frame coherent texturing and hatching of 3D models with a discrete set of colors. Our technique is inspired by various artistic styles that use a limited set of colors to convey surface shape and texture. In previous research discrete color shading was produced by modifying smooth shading with a threshold function. We extend this approach

Oleg Veryovka

2002-01-01

373

Charmonium spectroscopy above thresholds  

E-print Network

We present a systematic and selfconsistent analysis of four-quark charmonium states and applied it to study compact four-quark systems and meson-meson molecules. Our results are robust and should serve to clarify the situation of charmonium spectroscopy above the threshold production of charmed mesons.

T. Fernandez-Carames; A. Valcarce; J. Vijande

2010-01-25

374

Stimulus driver for epilepsy seizure suppression with adaptive loading impedance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stimulus driver circuit for a micro-stimulator used in an implantable device is presented in this paper. For epileptic seizure control, the target of the driver was to output 30 µA stimulus currents when the electrode impedance varied between 20 and 200 k?. The driver, which consisted of the output stage, control block and adaptor, was integrated in a single chip. The averaged power consumption of the stimulus driver was 0.24-0.56 mW at 800 Hz stimulation rate. Fabricated in a 0.35 µm 3.3 V/24 V CMOS process and applied to a closed-loop epileptic seizure monitoring and controlling system, the proposed design has been successfully verified in the experimental results of Long-Evans rats with epileptic seizures.

Ker, Ming-Dou; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ling

2011-10-01

375

Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

Kovacs, S. Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.

2014-01-01

376

Unification of neuronal spikes, seizures, and spreading depression.  

PubMed

The pathological phenomena of seizures and spreading depression have long been considered separate physiological events in the brain. By incorporating conservation of particles and charge, and accounting for the energy required to restore ionic gradients, we extend the classic Hodgkin-Huxley formalism to uncover a unification of neuronal membrane dynamics. By examining the dynamics as a function of potassium and oxygen, we now account for a wide range of neuronal activities, from spikes to seizures, spreading depression (whether high potassium or hypoxia induced), mixed seizure and spreading depression states, and the terminal anoxic "wave of death." Such a unified framework demonstrates that all of these dynamics lie along a continuum of the repertoire of the neuron membrane. Our results demonstrate that unified frameworks for neuronal dynamics are feasible, can be achieved using existing biological structures and universal physical conservation principles, and may be of substantial importance in enabling our understanding of brain activity and in the control of pathological states. PMID:25164668

Wei, Yina; Ullah, Ghanim; Schiff, Steven J

2014-08-27

377

Unification of Neuronal Spikes, Seizures, and Spreading Depression  

PubMed Central

The pathological phenomena of seizures and spreading depression have long been considered separate physiological events in the brain. By incorporating conservation of particles and charge, and accounting for the energy required to restore ionic gradients, we extend the classic Hodgkin–Huxley formalism to uncover a unification of neuronal membrane dynamics. By examining the dynamics as a function of potassium and oxygen, we now account for a wide range of neuronal activities, from spikes to seizures, spreading depression (whether high potassium or hypoxia induced), mixed seizure and spreading depression states, and the terminal anoxic “wave of death.” Such a unified framework demonstrates that all of these dynamics lie along a continuum of the repertoire of the neuron membrane. Our results demonstrate that unified frameworks for neuronal dynamics are feasible, can be achieved using existing biological structures and universal physical conservation principles, and may be of substantial importance in enabling our understanding of brain activity and in the control of pathological states. PMID:25164668

Wei, Yina; Ullah, Ghanim

2014-01-01

378

Automatic detection of seizure termination during electroconvulsive therapy using sample entropy of the electroencephalogram.  

PubMed

Determining the exact duration of seizure activity is an important factor for predicting the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In most cases, seizure duration is estimated manually by observing the electroencephalogram (EEG) waveform. In this article, we propose a method based on sample entropy (SampEn) that automatically detects the termination time of an ECT-induced seizure. SampEn decreases during seizure activity and has its smallest value at the boundary of seizure termination. SampEn reflects not only different states of regularity and complexity in the EEG but also changes in EEG amplitude before and after seizure activity. Using SampEn, we can more precisely determine seizure termination time and total seizure duration. PMID:21831451

Yoo, Cheol Seung; Jung, Dong Chung; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Su-Gyeong; Yoon, Hyeri; Lim, Young Jin; Yi, Sang Hoon

2012-01-30

379

28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director,...

2012-07-01

380

28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director,...

2010-07-01

381

Diverse seizure presentation of acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis resolving with immunotherapy.  

PubMed

We report 3 previously normal children that presented for evaluation of new onset seizures. Case 1, a 7-year-old female, presented with refractory left frontal lobe seizures associated with right arm simple motor seizures refractory to 6 antiepileptic medications at sufficient doses and levels. Case 2, a 15-year-old female, presented with left frontotemporal lobe seizures and nonconvulsive seizures, associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms refractory to 5 antiepileptic medications. Both patients received intravenous steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Case 3, an 11-year-old male, presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and worsening hallucinations responding to intravenous corticosteroids and 1 antiepileptic medication. All 3 patients had extensive infectious and metabolic evaluation and were found to be serum immunoglobulin M positive for mycoplasma pneumoniae. Despite their prolonged severe symptoms, all patients had virtually complete recovery with excellent seizure control after aggressive seizure management with immunotherapy and antiepileptic medication. PMID:23481447

Arkilo, Dimitrios; Pierce, Beth; Ritter, Frank; Doescher, Jason S; Frost, Michael

2014-04-01

382

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2014-07-01

383

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2011-07-01

384

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2010-07-01

385

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2013-07-01

386

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2012-07-01

387

Application of machine learning to epileptic seizure onset detection and treatment  

E-print Network

Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes individuals to experiencing recurrent seizures. It affects 3 million Americans and 50 million people world-wide. A seizure is a transient ...

Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

2009-01-01

388

Electroacupuncture Reduces Cocaine-Induced Seizures and Mortality in Mice  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to characterize the protective profile of electroacupuncture (EA) on cocaine-induced seizures and mortality in mice. Mice were treated with EA (2?Hz, 50?Hz, and 100?Hz), or they underwent needle insertion without anesthesia at the Dazhui (GV14) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints before cocaine administration. EA at 50 Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 significantly reduced the seizure severity induced by a single dose of cocaine (75?mg/kg; i.p.). Furthermore, needle insertion into GV14 and GV20 and EA at 2 Hz and 50 Hz at both acupoints significantly reduced the mortality rate induced by a single lethal dose of cocaine (125?mg/kg; i.p.). In the sham control group, EA at 50?Hz applied to bilateral Tianzong (SI11) acupoints had no protective effects against cocaine. In addition, EA at 50?Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 failed to reduce the incidence of seizures and mortality induced by the local anesthetic procaine. In an immunohistochemistry study, EA (50 Hz) pretreatment at GV14 and GV20 decreased cocaine (75?mg/kg; i.p.)-induced c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamus. While the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SB-277011-A (30?mg/kg; s.c), did not by itself affect cocaine-induced seizure severity, it prevented the effects of EA on cocaine-induced seizures. These results suggest that EA alleviates cocaine-induced seizures and mortality and that the dopamine D3 receptor is involved, at least in part, in the anticonvulsant effects of EA in mice. PMID:23690833

Chen, Yi-Hung; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Lin, Jaung-Geng

2013-01-01

389

A distinct phenotype of childhood leukodystrophy presenting as absence seizure.  

PubMed

Leukoencephalopathy refers to any disease of the white matter including hereditary as well as acquired and toxic causes. Inherited leukodystrophies are diseases of myelin including abnormal myelin development, hypomyelination, or degeneration of myelin. We report a 6-year old female who presented with absence seizure at the age of 4 years. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed bilateral periventricular confluent high signal intensity. The seizure responded to anticonvulsant therapy, and the clinical course was characterized by normal development and neurological examination. PMID:24891910

Dweikat, Imad Mohammad; Damsah, Nadera; Khalaf, Reham

2014-01-01

390

Water-drinking as ictal behavior in complex partial seizures.  

PubMed

The urge to demand, pour, and drink water at the time of an attack was encountered in 20 patients who had seizures with complex partial symptomatology. Two patients were studied with bitemporal stereotaxically implanted depth electrodes. Drinking was associated with electrographic and clinical seizures starting in the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Sometimes, this was the only clinical manifestation of an attack, and its significance would not have been recognized without depth recording. Ictal drinking was never encountered in patients without electroencephalographic evidence of temporal epileptic abnormality, and therefore seems to have localizing significance. PMID:7193295

Rémillard, G M; Andermann, F; Gloor, P; Olivier, A; Martin, J B

1981-02-01

391

Adjunctive perampanel for refractory partial-onset seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of once-daily 8 or 12 mg perampanel, a noncompetitive ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, when added to concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the treatment of drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. Methods: This was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00699972). Patients (?12 years, with ongoing seizures despite 1–3 AEDs) were randomized (1:1:1) to once-daily perampanel 8 mg, 12 mg, or placebo. Following baseline (6 weeks), patients entered a 19-week double-blind phase: 6-week titration (2 mg/week increments to target dose) followed by a 13-week maintenance period. Percent change in seizure frequency was the primary endpoint; 50% responder rate was the primary endpoint for EU registration. Results: Of 388 patients randomized and treated, 387 provided seizure frequency data. Using this intent-to-treat population over the double-blind phase, the median percent change in seizure frequency was ?21.0%, ?26.3%, and ?34.5% for placebo and perampanel 8 and 12 mg, respectively (p = 0.0261 and p = 0.0158 for 8 and 12 mg vs placebo, respectively). Fifty percent responder rates during the maintenance period were 26.4%, 37.6%, and 36.1%, respectively, for placebo, perampanel 8 mg, and perampanel 12 mg; these differences were not statistically significant for 8 mg (p = 0.0760) or 12 mg (p = 0.0914). Sixty-eight (17.5%) patients discontinued, including 40 (10.3%) for adverse events. Most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were dizziness, somnolence, irritability, headache, fall, and ataxia. Conclusions: This trial demonstrated that once-daily, adjunctive perampanel at doses of 8 or 12 mg improved seizure control in patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures. Doses of perampanel 8 and 12 mg were safe, and tolerability was acceptable. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that once-daily 8 and 12 mg doses of adjunctive perampanel are effective in patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures. PMID:22843280

Krauss, Gregory L.; Biton, Victor; Squillacote, David; Yang, Haichen; Laurenza, Antonio; Kumar, Dinesh; Rogawski, Michael A.; Campanille, Verónica; Floridia, Jorge; Ilari, Rita; Consalvo, Damián E.; Thomson, Alfredo; Sfaello, Ignacio; Pociecha, Juan; Nieto, Flavia; Firstenfeld, Alfredo; Zuin, Daniel; Mesri, Jacobo; Silva, Walter; Nofal, Pedro; Cristalli, Diana; Clement, Jean-Francois; Hwang, Paul; McLachlan, Richard; Pillay, Neelan; Lasso, Jorge; Peralta, Balduin Lawson; Hernandez, Marcelo Leiva; Tenhamm, Eugenio; Barroso, Noe; Milian, Albino Contreras; Morales, Sarug Reyes; Rodríguez, Ildefonso; Jain, Sanjay; Wilfong, Angus; Kalra, Arun; Renfroe, Ben; Moore, David; Flamini, J.; Klapper, Jack; Szaflarski, Jerzy; Teasley, Jean; Halford, Jonathan; Ferreira, Jose; Goodpasture, Hewitt; Sperling, Michael; Klein, Pavel; Ayala, Ricardo; Brower, Richard; Leroy, Robert; Davis, Ronald; Elterman, Roy; Enlow, Thomas; Sosa, Veronica; Puri, Vinay; Miller, John; Shneker, Bassel; Bautista, Ramon; Chung, Steve; Lesch, David; Steiner, David; Webb, Randall; Armstrong, Robert; Biton, Victor; Krauss, Gregory; Mitchell, Wendy; Hogan, Robert; Knowlton, Robert; Wheless, James; Aung-Din, Ronald; Ali, Imran; Brown, Lawrence; Gruenthal, Michael; Kankirawatana, Pongkiat; Charlet, Michael; Conry, Joan; Owen, Meriem Bensalem; Yerby, Mark; Herrman, Craig; Fessler, Albert; Modur, Pradeep; Miranda, Fernando; King-Stephens, David

2012-01-01

392

Seizures and electroencephalographic findings in CDKL5 mutations: Case report and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been detected in patients presenting with seizures in the first few months of life and Rett syndrome features. Twenty-seven cases have been detected to date. Generalized intractable seizures, as infantile spasms, and generalized tonic–clonic seizures and myoclonic seizures characterize the clinical picture of CDKL5 mutations. Here we report on a

S. Grosso; A. Brogna; S. Bazzotti; A. Renieri; G. Morgese; P. Balestri

2007-01-01

393

Nonparametric spectral analysis with applications to seizure characterization using EEG time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the seizure initiation process and its propagation pattern(s) is a critical task in epilepsy research. Characteristics of the pre-seizure electroencephalograms (EEGs) such as oscillating powers and high-frequency activities are believed to be indicative of the seizure onset and spread patterns. In this article, we analyze epileptic EEG time series using nonparametric spectral estimation methods to extract information on seizure-specific

Li Qin; Yuedong Wang

2008-01-01

394

Epilepsy Research 72 (2006) 8081 Comment on: "Performance of a seizure warning  

E-print Network

Epilepsy Research 72 (2006) 80­81 Discussion Comment on: "Performance of a seizure warning Epilepsy Center, University Hospital of Freiburg, Germany Accepted 26 June 2006 Available online 21 August device for epilepsy patients based on an in-time seizure warning. However, seizure pre- diction suffers

Timmer, Jens

2006-01-01

395

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. A genetic disorder with heterogeneous clinical phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The clinical and genetic relationships of febrile seizures myoclonic seizures, FS 1 and atonic seizures, and the most severely affected individual had myoclonic-astatic epilepsy and the generalized epilepsies are poorly understood. We ascertained a family with genealogical information in 2000 (MAE). The pattern of inheritance was autosomal dominant. The large variation in generalized epilepsy phenotypes was individuals where there

Ingrid E. Scheffer; Samuel F. Berkovic

1997-01-01

396

The Effects of Seizures on the Connectivity and Circuitry of the Developing Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recurring seizures in infants and children are often associated with cognitive deficits, but the reason for the learning difficulties is unclear. Recent studies in several animal models suggest that seizures themselves may contribute in important ways to these deficits. Other studies in animals have shown that recurring seizures result in…

Swann, John W.

2004-01-01

397

Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: An Old Issue Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible deleterious role of febrile seizures on development is an old issue. It took a long time to realize that impaired development or occurrence of chronic epilepsy affected a very small minority of children with febrile seizures. These children either had pre-existing brain damage, specific genetic epileptic conditions, or seizure-induced…

Deonna, Thierry

2012-01-01

398

SPECT in a Patient with Postictal PLEDs: Is Hyperperfusion Evidence of Electrical Seizure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathophysiological relation between periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) and epileptic seizures is not known and the exact causative mechanism of PLEDs still remains unclear. In this report, the authors present a case in which the EEG displayed PLEDs after a complex partial seizure. This patient, with a long history of complex partial seizures, had previously undergone right standard anterior

Murat Fani Bozkurt; Serap Saygi; Belkis Erbas

2002-01-01

399

Favorable Seizure Outcome in Kabuki Make-up Syndrome Associated With Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kabuki make-up syndrome is a mental retardation—malformation syndrome affecting multiple organ systems, with a broad spectrum of neuromuscular dysfunction and mental ability. The incidence of seizures associated with this syndrome ranges from 10 to 40%. However, details of the seizures in this syndrome have not been adequately reported or thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we analyzed seizure characteristics and clinical

Atsushi Ogawa; Sawa Yasumoto; Yasuko Tomoda; Masaharu Ohfu; Akihisa Mitsudome; Yoshikazu Kuroki

2003-01-01

400

A unifying explanation of primary generalized seizures through nonlinear brain modeling and bifurcation analysis  

E-print Network

periodic spike and slow-wave shape which slows only slightly during the seizure but does not significantly predictions with regards to seizure phenomena. We show that mapping the structure of the nonlinear bifurcation, absence seizures have a brief on-off quality, similar pre- and post-ictal EEG and a well structured

401

Audiogenic seizures and cochlear damage in rats after perinatal antithyroid treatment  

SciTech Connect

The feeding of goitrogens during pregnancy and lactation causes the offspring of rats to be partially deaf and persistently sensitive to audiogenic seizures. The most potent goitrogen, propylthiouracil, caused severe dysfunction and disorganization of the organ of Corti. Adult seizure-susceptible rats showed increased sensitivity to audiogenic seizures when they were fed propylthiouracil.

Van Milllesworth, L.; Norris, C.H.

1980-06-01

402

Preoperative clinical, EEG, and imaging findings do not predict seizure outcome following temporal lobectomy in childhood.  

PubMed

Although certain clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and pathologic findings in adults with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy predict seizure outcome following temporal lobectomy, predictors of seizure outcome have not been studied systematically in pediatric temporal lobectomy series. We retrospectively analyzed preoperative clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging findings with reference to seizure outcome (seizure free or non-seizure free) in 33 children (mean age, 9.3 years) who underwent tailored temporal lobe resections for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Trends were apparent with (1) younger age at seizure onset, younger age at surgery, shorter duration of epilepsy, localized unilateral temporal lesions on MRI, and right-sided surgery more frequently associated with a seizure-free outcome, and (2) significant prior history, daily preoperative seizures, generalized motor seizures, mental retardation, and localized unilateral temporal epileptiform EEG activity more frequently associated with a non-seizure-free outcome. However, none of these findings, alone or in combination, correlated with postoperative seizure status at a statistically significant level. Submitting the four variables generally considered to be most predictive of favorable outcome (ie, normal intelligence, unilateral ictal and interictal EEG discharges, and focal temporal MRI lesion) to a multiple-cutoff procedure did not predict seizure freedom. Our data indicate that predictors of outcome of temporal lobectomy in adults may not apply in children, perhaps due to inherent neurobiologic differences in the etiology and expression of temporal lobe epilepsy, and should therefore not be used as sole determinants of surgical candidacy in children. PMID:9120221

Goldstein, R; Harvey, A S; Duchowny, M; Jayakar, P; Altman, N; Resnick, T; Levin, B; Dean, P; Alvarez, L

1996-11-01

403

Age of seizure onset, functional reorganization, and neuropsychological outcome in temporal lobectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with early onset seizure disorder tend to have less cognitive decline following surgical resection than patients with late onset seizure disorder. Differential opportunity for presurgical cerebral functional reorganization has been proposed to account for this “age of onset” effect. However, the relationships between age of seizure onset, functional organization, and neuropsychological outcome remain incompletely understood. To shed additional light

Stefanie Griffin; Daniel Tranel

2007-01-01

404

Effect of sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, on the anticonvulsant action of some antiepileptic drugs in the mouse 6-Hz psychomotor seizure model.  

PubMed

Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5), has been recently reported to have both pro- and anticonvulsant action in various experimental models of seizures and epilepsy. Furthermore, it affects anticonvulsant action of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in mice seizure tests and both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions were noted. The present study was carried out to investigate influence of sildenafil on the threshold for 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizures in mice. Effect of sildenafil on activity of some AEDs, i.e., phenobarbital (PB), clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ETS), valproic acid (VPA), tiagabine (TGB), oxcarbazepine (OXC) and levetiracetam (LEV), in 6 Hz test was also examined. Moreover, combination of sildenafil with LEV was investigated in terms of influence on motor coordination (determined by the chimney test), muscular strength (evaluated in the grip-strength test) and long-term memory (assessed in the passive avoidance task) in mice. To determine the type of pharmacological interaction between sildenafil and LEV, free plasma and total brain concentrations of this AED were determined by LC-MS/MS method. Sildenafil at a dose ranging from 10 to 40 mg/kg statistically increased psychomotor seizure threshold in mice. Moreover, sildenafil enhanced the anticonvulsant action of all the studied AEDs in this test. Interactions between this PDE5 inhibitor and PB, CZP, ETS, TGB and OXC seem to be pharmacodynamic. Since sildenafil increased free plasma and total brain concentration of LEV, interactions between these drugs have pharmacokinetic nature. This kind of interaction was also noted between sildenafil and VPA. Neither LEV (2.32 mg/kg) nor its co-administration with sildenafil (40 mg/kg) produced any significant changes in motor coordination, muscular strength and long-term memory in mice. PMID:23994662

Nieoczym, Dorota; Soca?a, Katarzyna; Jedziniak, Piotr; Olejnik, Ma?gorzata; Wla?, Piotr

2013-12-01

405

Contraction threshold and the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delayed component of intramembranous charge movement (hump, Iv) was studied around the contraction threshold in cut skeletal muscle fibers of the frog (Rana esculenta) in a single Vaseline-gap voltage clamp. Charges (Q) were computed as 50-ms integrals of the ON (QoN) and OFF (QoFr) of the asymmetric currents after subtracting a baseline. The hump appeared in parallel with an

G. Szffcs; L. CSERNOCH; J. MAGYAR; L. KovAcs

1991-01-01

406

Critical evaluation of four different seizure detection systems tested on one patient with focal and generalized tonic and clonic seizures.  

PubMed

For long-term home monitoring of epileptic seizures, the measurement of extracerebral body signals such as abnormal movement is often easier and less obtrusive than monitoring intracerebral brain waves with electroencephalography (EEG). Non-EEG devices are commercially available but with little scientifically valid information and no consensus on which system works for which seizure type or patient. We evaluated four systems based on efficiency, comfort, and user-friendliness and compared them in one patient suffering from focal epilepsy with secondary generalization. The Emfit mat, Epi-Care device, and Epi-Care Free bracelet are commercially available alarm systems, while the VARIA (Video, Accelerometry, and Radar-Induced Activity recording) device is being developed by our team and requires offline analysis for seizure detection and does so by presenting the 5% or 10% (patient-specific) most abnormal movement events, irrespective of the number of seizures per night. As we chose to mimic the home situation, we did not record EEG and compared our results to the seizures reported by experienced staff that were monitoring the patient on a semicontinuous basis. This resulted in a sensitivity (sens) of 78% and false detection rate (FDR) of 0.55 per night for Emfit, sens 40% and FDR 0.41 for Epi-Care, sens 41% and FDR 0.05 for Epi-Care Free, and sens 56% and FDR 20.33 for VARIA. Good results were obtained by some of the devices, even though, as expected, nongeneralized and nonrhythmic motor seizures (involving the head only, having a tonic phase, or manifesting mainly as sound) were often missed. The Emfit mat was chosen for our patient, also based on user-friendliness (few setup steps), comfort (contactless), and possibility to adjust patient-specific settings. When in need of a seizure detection system for a patient, a thorough individual search is still required, which suggests the need for a database or overview including results of clinical trials describing the patient and their seizure types. PMID:25010322

Van de Vel, Anouk; Verhaert, Kristien; Ceulemans, Berten

2014-08-01

407

High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

2004-01-01

408

Rapid Changes in Brain Benzodiazepine Receptors After Experimental Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizures induced in the rat by electroshock or by injections of pentylenetetrazol increase the specific binding of diazepam to putative receptor sites in cerebral cortical membranes. The enhancement of diazepam binding results from a rapid increase in the number of available binding sites rather than a change in receptor affinity. The postictal increase in cortical benzodiazepine receptors suggests that the

Steven M. Paul; Phil Skolnick

1978-01-01

409

Impaired sensorimotor gating in patients with non-epileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to identify possible disturbances of sensorimotor gating and habituation of the eye blink startle response, in patients with non-epileptic seizures (NES). Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex, as an operational measure of sensorimotor gating and habituation was studied in 21 patients with NES and in 22 healthy control subjects. Six NES patients were

Hamid R Pouretemad; Pamela J Thompson; Peter B. C Fenwick

1998-01-01

410

Characterization of Dopamine Release in a Penicillin Model of Seizure  

E-print Network

Characterization of Dopamine Release in a Penicillin Model of Seizure Taylor C. Hood, James O References Adiguzel, Esat, Ilgaz Akdogan, S. Ender Duzcan, and A. Cevik Tufan. "Effect of Penicillin Induced Analysis of Penicillin-induced Epileptiform Activity in Anesthetized Rats." Epilepsy Research 82.1 (2008

Collins, Gary S.

411

Seizure Recognition on Epilepsy Feature Tensor , Canan Aykut Bingol  

E-print Network

Seizure Recognition on Epilepsy Feature Tensor Evrim Acar , Canan Aykut Bingol , Haluk Bingol are threefold. First, we rearrange multi-channel EEG signals as a third-order tensor called an Epilepsy Feature Tensor with modes: time epochs, features and electrodes. Second, we model the Epilepsy Feature Tensor

Bystroff, Chris

412

Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of cation-chloride cotransporters in neonatal seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures are a common manifestation of acute neurologic insults in neonates and are often resistant to the standard antiepileptic drugs that are efficacious in children and adults. The paucity of evidence-based treatment guidelines, coupled with a rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis, has made the current treatment of neonatal seizures empiric and often ineffective, highlighting the need for novel therapies. Key developmental differences in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission between the immature and mature brain, and trauma-induced alterations in the function of the cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) NKCC1 and KCC2, probably contribute to the poor efficacy of standard antiepileptic drugs used in the treatment of neonatal seizures. Although CCCs are attractive drug targets, bumetanide and other existing CCC inhibitors are suboptimal because of pharmacokinetic constraints and lack of target specificity. Newer approaches including isoform-specific NKCC1 inhibitors with increased central nervous system penetration, and direct and indirect strategies to enhance KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride extrusion, might allow therapeutic modulation of the GABAergic system for neonatal seizure treatment. PMID:24802699

Puskarjov, Martin; Kahle, Kristopher T; Ruusuvuori, Eva; Kaila, Kai

2014-01-01

413

Adenosine dysfunction in astrogliosis: cause for seizure generation?  

PubMed

Epilepsy is characterized by both neuronal and astroglial dysfunction. The endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine, the level of which is largely controlled by astrocytes, might provide a crucial link between astrocyte and neuron dysfunction in epilepsy. Here we have studied astrogliosis, a hallmark of the epileptic brain, adenosine dysfunction and the emergence of spontaneous seizures in a comprehensive approach that includes a new mouse model of focal epileptogenesis, mutant mice with altered brain levels of adenosine, and mice lacking adenosine A1 receptors. In wild-type mice, following a focal epileptogenesis-precipitating injury, astrogliosis, upregulation of the adenosine-removing astrocytic enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), and spontaneous seizures coincide in a spatio-temporally restricted manner. Importantly, these spontaneous seizures are mimicked by untreated transgenic mice that either overexpress ADK in brain or lack A1 receptors. Conversely, mice with reduced ADK in the forebrain do not develop either astrogliosis or spontaneous seizures. Our studies define ADK as a crucial upstream regulator of A1 receptor-mediated modulation of neuronal excitability, and support the ADK hypothesis of epileptogenesis in which upregulation of ADK during astrogliosis provides a crucial link between astrocyte and neuron dysfunction in epilepsy. These findings define ADK as rational target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:18634566

Li, Tianfu; Quan Lan, Jing; Fredholm, Bertil B; Simon, Roger P; Boison, Detlev

2007-11-01

414

Ictal Cognitive Assessment of Partial Seizures and Pseudoseizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies suggest that responsive- ness is impaired during complex partial seizures (CPS) and pseudoseizures (PS); however, to our knowledge, there has been no systematic comparison using both re- sponse and memory testing. Objective: To compare CPS with PS using ictal cogni- tive assessment (ICA) of responsiveness and memory. Patients and Methods: We used a nonautomated method of ICA

William L. Bell; Yong D. Park; Elizabeth A. Thompson; Rodney A. Radtke

1998-01-01

415

Community Use of Intranasal Midazolam for Managing Prolonged Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Until a few years ago, rectal diazepam (RD) was the only option available to parents and carers managing prolonged seizures. However, its use in the community was limited due to the requirement for privacy, and because education staff in South Australia are not permitted to carry out invasive procedures. Method: Following a literature…

Kyrkou, Margaret; Harbord, Michael; Kyrkou, Nicole; Kay, Debra; Coulthard, Kingsley

2006-01-01

416

Pediatric psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: A study of assessment tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to identify assessment tools and associated behavioral domains that differentiate children with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) from those with epilepsy. A sample of 24 children with PNES (mean age 14.0 years, 14 female), 24 children with epilepsy (mean age 13.6 years, 13 female), and their parents were recruited from five epilepsy centers in the

Jay A. Salpekar; Sigita Plioplys; Prabha Siddarth; Brenda Bursch; Richard J. Shaw; Miya R. Asato; W. Curt LaFrance Jr.; Deborah M. Weisbrot; David W. Dunn; Joan K. Austin; Donald M. Olson; Rochelle Caplan

2010-01-01

417

Moonstruck? The effect of the lunar cycle on seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports on the effects of the lunar cycle on seizure occurrence have yielded mixed results. If the moon phase is influential, we hypothesized that this would be due to the moon’s contribution to nocturnal illumination, rather than its waxing or waning state, and that significant correlations would not be apparent if local cloud cover were controlled for. We found

Sallie Baxendale; Jennifer Fisher

2008-01-01

418

Epileptic seizures in patients with acute catatonic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute catatonic syndrome is a condition that can be caused by a variety of metabolic, neurological, psychiatric, and toxic conditions, including neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although ictal catatonia as a manifestation of non-convulsive status epilepticus has been described, reference to the occurrence of seizures in patients with acute catatonic syndrome is anecdotal. Twenty nine patients with acute catatonic syndrome were reviewed

A Primavera; A Fonti; P Novello; G Roccatagliata; L Cocito

1994-01-01

419

Cardiac asystole associated with seizures of right hemispheric onset  

PubMed Central

Ictal asystole is frequently underrecognized despite being a potentially lethal condition. We report two cases of ictal asystole with right hemispheric onset. These cases are unique since previous literature reports that seizures associated with bradyarrhythmias typically arise from left hemispheric foci. These cases further underscore the importance of clinical vigilance and the need of an enhanced diagnostic biomarker. PMID:25667889

Chu, Jennifer; Majmudar, Shirine; Chen, David K.

2014-01-01

420

Treatment of typical absence seizures and related epileptic syndromes.  

PubMed

Typical absences are brief (seconds) generalised seizures of sudden onset and termination. They have 2 essential components: clinically, the impairment of consciousness (absence) and, generalised 3 to 4Hz spike/polyspike and slow wave discharges on electroencephalogram (EEG). They differ fundamentally from other seizures and are pharmacologically unique. Their clinical and EEG manifestations are syndrome-related. Impairment of consciousness may be severe, moderate, mild or inconspicuous. This is often associated with motor manifestations, automatisms and autonomic disturbances. Clonic, tonic and atonic components alone or in combination are motor symptoms; myoclonia, mainly of facial muscles, is the most common. The ictal EEG discharge may be consistently brief (2 to 5 seconds) or long (15 to 30 seconds), continuous or fragmented, with single or multiple spikes associated with the slow wave. The intradischarge frequency may be constant or may vary (2.5 to 5Hz). Typical absences are easily precipitated by hyperventilation in about 90% of untreated patients. They are usually spontaneous, but can be triggered by photic, pattern, video games stimuli, and mental or emotional factors. Typical absences usually start in childhood or adolescence. They occur in around 10 to 15% of adults with epilepsies, often combined with other generalised seizures. They may remit with age or be lifelong. Syndromic diagnosis is important for treatment strategies and prognosis. Absences may be severe and the only seizure type, as in childhood absence epilepsy. They may predominate in other syndromes or be mild and nonpredominant in syndromes such as juvenile myoclonic epilepsy where myoclonic jerks and generalised tonic clonic seizures are the main concern. Typical absence status epilepticus occurs in about 30% of patients and is more common in certain syndromes, e.g. idiopathic generalised epilepsy with perioral myoclonia or phantom absences. Typical absence seizures are often easy to diagnose and treat. Valproic acid, ethosuximide and lamotrigine, alone or in combination, are first-line therapy. Valproic acid controls absences in 75% of patients and also GTCS (70%) and myoclonic jerks (75%); however, it may be undesirable for some women. Similarly, lamotrigine may control absences and GTCS in possibly 50 to 60% of patients, but may worsen myoclonic jerks; skin rashes are common. Ethosuximide controls 70% of absences, but it is unsuitable as monotherapy if other generalised seizures coexist. A combination of any of these 3 drugs may be needed for resistant cases. Low dosages of lamotrigine added to valproic acid may have a dramatic beneficial effect. Clonazepam, particularly in absences with myoclonic components, and acetazolamide may be useful adjunctive drugs. PMID:11393330

Panayiotopoulos, C P

2001-01-01

421

Spatial Variable Thresholding for SCALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation (SCALES) is a novel wavelet-based approach that resolves energy containing turbulent motions using wavelet multiresolution decomposition and self-adaptivity. The extraction of the most energetic structures is achieved using wavelet thresholding filter with a priori prescribed threshold level. This strategy, although successful, has a major drawback: the thresholding criterion is global and does not

Alireza Nejadmalayeri; Oleg V. Vasilyev; Alexei Vezolainen; Giuliano de Stefano

2009-01-01

422

Testing statistical significance of multivariate time series analysis techniques for epileptic seizure prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear time series analysis techniques have been proposed to detect changes in the electroencephalography dynamics prior to epileptic seizures. Their applicability in practice to predict seizure onsets is hampered by the present lack of generally accepted standards to assess their performance. We propose an analytic approach to judge the prediction performance of multivariate seizure prediction methods. Statistical tests are introduced to assess patient individual results, taking into account that prediction methods are applied to multiple time series and several seizures. Their performance is illustrated utilizing a bivariate seizure prediction method based on synchronization theory.

Schelter, Björn; Winterhalder, Matthias; Maiwald, Thomas; Brandt, Armin; Schad, Ariane; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Timmer, Jens

2006-03-01

423

[Epilepsy after febrile seizures. Predisposing factors and role of phenobarbital in its prophylaxis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Authors studied two different groups of patients. One of them with febrile seizures and the other febrile seizures associated to epilepsy, in order to find risk factors for the presentation of this one. They conclude that epilepsy has a presentation rate of 9,6% in patients with previous febrile seizures, having the highest risk when they show previous familial seizures, neonatal pathology and altered EEG after the first febrile convulsion. They study the role of phenobarbital taken after febrile seizures, as prophylaxis. No effect was observed in the prevention of following epilepsy. PMID:7337301

Palencia Luances, R; Díez, J M; Tresierra, F; Sánchez-Villares, S

1981-10-01

424

Metalloproteinase inhibition prevents inhibitory synapse reorganization and seizure genesis.  

PubMed

The integrity and stability of interneurons in a cortical network are essential for proper network function. Loss of interneuron synaptic stability and precise organization can lead to disruptions in the excitation/inhibition balance, a characteristic of epilepsy. This study aimed to identify alterations to the GABAergic interneuron network in the piriform cortex (PC: a cortical area believed to be involved in the development of seizures) after kindling-induced seizures. Immunohistochemistry was used to mark perineuronal nets (PNNs: structures in the extracellular matrix that provide synaptic stability and restrict reorganization of inhibitory interneurons) and interneuron nerve terminals in control and kindled tissues. We found that PNNs were significantly decreased around parvalbumin-positive interneurons after the induction of experimental epilepsy. Additionally, we found layer-specific increases in GABA release sites originating from calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin interneurons, implying that there is a re-wiring of the interneuronal network. This increase in release sites was matched by an increase in GABAergic post-synaptic densities. We hypothesized that the breakdown of the PNN could be due to the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and that the prevention of PNN breakdown may reduce the rewiring of interneuronal circuits and suppress seizures. To test this hypothesis we employed doxycycline, a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, to stabilize PNNs in kindled rats. We found that doxycycline prevented PNN breakdown, re-organization of the inhibitory innervation, and seizure genesis. Our observations indicate that PNN degradation may be necessary for the development of seizures by facilitating interneuron plasticity and increased GABAergic activity. PMID:24946277

Pollock, Emily; Everest, Michelle; Brown, Arthur; Poulter, Michael O

2014-10-01

425

Dissociated multimodal hubs and seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective Brain connectivity at rest is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in “hub” areas such as the posterior default mode network (DMN). Although both functional and anatomical connectivity are disturbed in TLE, the relationships between measures as well as to seizure frequency remain unclear. We aim to clarify these associations using connectivity measures specifically sensitive to hubs. Methods Connectivity between 1000 cortical surface parcels was determined in 49 TLE patients and 23 controls with diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two types of hub connectivity were investigated across multiple brain modules (the DMN, motor system, etcetera): (1) within-module connectivity (a measure of local importance that assesses a parcel's communication level within its own subnetwork) and (2) between-module connectivity (a measure that assesses connections across multiple modules). Results In TLE patients, there was lower overall functional integrity of the DMN as well as an increase in posterior hub connections with other modules. Anatomical between-module connectivity was globally decreased. Higher DMN disintegration (DD) coincided with higher anatomical between-module connectivity, whereas both were associated with increased seizure frequency. DD related to seizure frequency through mediating effects of anatomical connectivity, but seizure frequency also correlated with anatomical connectivity through DD, indicating a complex interaction between multimodal networks and symptoms. Interpretation We provide evidence for dissociated anatomical and functional hub connectivity in TLE. Moreover, shifts in functional hub connections from within to outside the DMN, an overall loss of integrative anatomical communication, and the interaction between the two increase seizure frequency.

Douw, Linda; DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Liu, Hesheng; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M

2015-01-01

426

Tacrolimus-related seizure after pediatric liver transplantation--a single-center experience.  

PubMed

To identify the risk factors for new-onset seizures after pediatric LT and to assess their clinical implications and long-term prognosis. The clinical and laboratory data of 27 consecutive children who underwent LT from January 2007 to December 2010 in our center were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into seizures group and a non-seizures group. Pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative data were collected. Seizures occurred in four children, an incidence of 14.8%. All exhibited generalized tonic-clonic seizures within the first two wk after LT. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with seizures after pediatric LT included gender, pediatric end-stage liver disease score before surgery, Child-Pugh score before surgery, serum total bilirubin after surgery, and trough TAC level. Multivariate analysis showed that trough TAC level was the o