Sample records for ptz seizure threshold

  1. Calorie restriction of a high-carbohydrate diet elevates the threshold of PTZ-induced seizures to values equal to those seen with a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Douglas A; Boyd, Suzanne Jabbour; Kotak, Anandi; Allan, Fiona

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contributions of ketonemia, caloric restriction, and carbohydrates to seizure protection in rats fed selected diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed experimental diets of two basic types, one high in carbohydrates and restricted to 90, 65, or 50% of the normal daily caloric requirement and the other a normal rodent chow diet restricted to 90 or 65% of the daily caloric requirement. After consuming their respective diets for 20 days, animals were subjected to tail-vein infusion of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) to determine seizure threshold, taken as the dose required to evoke the first clonic reaction. Seizure thresholds were compared to those of rats fed control diets of either normal rodent chow fed ad libitum or a standard high-fat (ketogenic) diet calorie-restricted to 90% of daily caloric requirement, all animals age- and weight-matched at the time of diet onset. All diets were balanced for vitamins and minerals and contained at least 10% protein (by weight). Seizure threshold and ketonemia were elevated in both experimental diets in approximate proportion to the degree of calorie restriction. Animals fed the most severely restricted high-carbohydrate diet (50%) had seizure thresholds equal to those fed the ketogenic diet but had significantly lower ketonemia. PMID:12742595

  2. Interference of TRPV1 function altered the susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Li, Ying-Chao; Tang, Yan-Ping; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) including hippocampus, and regulates the balance of excitation and inhibition in CNS, which imply its important role in epilepsy. We used both pharmacological manipulations and transgenic mice to disturb the function of TRPV1 and then studied the effects of these alterations on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Our results showed that systemic administration of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP, 40 mg/kg) directly induced tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) without PTZ induction. The severity of seizure was increased in lower doses of CAP groups (5 and 10 mg/kg), although the latency to TCS was delayed. On the other hand, systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) and TRPV1 knockout mice exhibited delayed latency to TCS and reduced mortality. Furthermore, hippocampal administration of CPZ (10 and 33 nmol/?L/side) was firstly reported to increase the latency to TCS, decrease the maximal grade of seizure and mortality. It is worth noting that decreased susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures was observed in hippocampal TRPV1 overexpression mice and hippocampal CAP administration (33 nmol/?L/side), which is opposite from results of systemic agonist CAP. Our findings suggest that the systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist may be a novel therapeutic target for epilepsy, and alteration of hippocampal TRPV1 function exerts a critical role in seizure susceptibility. PMID:25713512

  3. Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodríguez, Stephanie; Jordán, Claudia; Licier, Rígel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, José G

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [(3)H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II. PMID:25762932

  4. Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodríguez, Stephanie; Jordán, Claudia; Licier, Rígel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, José G.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [3H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II. PMID:25762932

  5. The effect of PTZ-induced epileptic seizures on hippocampal expression of PSA-NCAM in offspring born to kindled rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy can affect the hippocampal neurons in the offspring. The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), which is expressed in the developing central nervous system, may play important roles in neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. This study was designed to assess the effects of kindling either with or without maternal seizures on hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in rat offspring. Methods Forty timed-pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups: A) Kind+/Seiz+, pregnant kindled (induced two weeks prior to pregnancy) rats that received repeated intraperitoneal (i.p.) pentylenetetrazol, PTZ injections on gestational days (GD) 14-19; B) Kind-/Seiz+, pregnant non-kindled rats that received PTZ injections on GD14-GD19; C) Kind+/Seiz-, pregnant kindled rats that did not receive any PTZ injections; and D) Kind-/Seiz-, the sham controls. Following birth, the pups were sacrificed on PD1 and PD14, and PSA-NCAM expression and localization in neonates’ hippocampi were analyzed by Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Results Our data show a significant down regulation of hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in the offspring of Kind+/Seiz+ (p?=?0.001) and Kind-/Seiz+ (p?=?0.001) groups compared to the sham control group. The PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity was markedly decreased in all parts of the hippocampus, especially in the CA3 region, in Kind+/Seiz+ (p?=?0.007) and Kind-/Seiz+ (p?=?0.007) group’s newborns on both PD1 and 14. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that maternal seizures but not kindling influence the expression of PSA-NCAM in the offspring’s hippocampi, which may be considered as a factor for learning/memory and cognitive impairments reported in children born to epileptic mothers. PMID:22651102

  6. Differential effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) on pharmacologically-induced seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce E. Fishman; Gerald Gianutsos

    1987-01-01

    Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH), the active ingredient of the insecticide lindane, has been shown to decrease seizure threshold to pentylenetrazol (PTZ) 3 h after exposure to gamma-HCH and conversely increase threshold to PTZ-induced seizures 24 h after exposure to gamma-HCH (Vohland et al. 1981). In this study, the severity of response to other seizure-inducing agents was tested in mice 1 and 24

  7. Traxoprodil decreases pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Naspolini, Ana Paula; Cocco, Ariane Rubin; Villa Martignoni, Felipe; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Rubin, Maribel Antonello; Barron, Susan; Mello, Carlos Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Polyamines, including spermidine, facilitate seizures by positively modulating N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAr). Although NMDAr antagonists decrease seizures, it remains to be determined whether traxoprodil, a selective antagonist at the NR2B subunit of the NMDAr, decreases seizures and whether spermidine facilitates pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Adult male Wistar rats were injected in the lateral ventricle with 0.9% NaCl (1?l, i.c.v.), spermidine (0.02, 0.2 or 2nmol/site, i.c.v.) or traxoprodil (0.2, 2 or 20nmol, i.c.v.) and with PTZ (35 or 70mg/kg, i.p.). The effect of orally administered traxoprodil (60mg/kg, p.o.) on seizures was also investigated. Latencies to clonic and generalized seizures, as well the total time spent in seizures were recorded by behavioral and electrographic methods (EEG). Spermidine (2nmol/site; i.c.v.) facilitated the seizures induced by a sub-threshold dose of PTZ (35mg/kg; i.p.), but did not alter seizure activity induced by a convulsant dose of PTZ (70mg/kg; i.p.). Traxoprodil (20nmol i.c.v.) increased the latency to generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by PTZ (70mg/kg; i.p.). Traxoprodil (60mg/kg, p.o.) increased the latency to clonic and generalized seizures, and decreased the total time spent in seizures. These results support the role for the NR2B subunit in PTZ-induced seizures. PMID:22281061

  8. Mice Lacking Melanin Concentrating Hormone 1 Receptor are Resistant to Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Gregory S.; Okumura, Sean M.; Gohil, Krupa; Civelli, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The Melanin Concentrating Hormone (MCH) system is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system and regulates a variety of physiological functions. It has been reported that acute central administration of MCH inhibits pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. In the present study MCH1 receptor knockout mice (MCH1R-KO) were used to investigate the role of MCH signaling in modulating seizure susceptibility. Seizure behaviors were compared between MCH1R-KO and wild type (MCH1R-WT) mice following administration of the convulsant compounds PTZ or pilocarpine. PTZ injection induced clonic seizures in MCH1R-WT mice but failed to induce them in MCH1R-KO mice. More than twice as many injections of intermittently administered low dose PTZ were required to induce clonic seizures in MCH1R-KO mice than in MCH1R-WT mice. Following pilocarpine injection, MCH1R-WT mice experienced clonic seizures and most had tonic seizures and entered status epilepticus, while all MCH1R-KO mice were completely resistant to these effects. MCH1R-KO mice were also observed to be strongly protected from the development of PTZ kindling. Genetic deletion of MCH1R conferred resistance to all seizure models tested in this study. The data indicate that the MCH system is involved in the regulation of PTZ and pilocarpine seizure threshold. PMID:20709149

  9. Seizure protection by intrapulmonary delivery of midazolam in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Zolkowska, Dorota; Rogawski, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    The lung provides a portal of entry that could be used to rapidly deliver anticonvulsant substances to the brain to treat seizures. In the present study, we demonstrate that midazolam, a water-soluble anticonvulsant benzodiazepine, confers potent seizure protection when administered via the intrapulmonary route. High dose (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneal midazolam induced loss-of-righting reflex in mice. Lower doses of midazolam (100-1000 ?g/kg) when administered intraperitoneally did not induce loss-of-righting reflex but protected animals against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Intrapulmonary administration of midazolam via a tracheal cannula protected against intraperitoneal PTZ seizures at lower doses. The minimal intraperitoneal and intravenous doses of midazolam required to elevate the threshold for seizure signs induced by intravenous PTZ were 500 and 100 ?g/kg, respectively, whereas the minimal intrapulmonary midazolam dose was 12.5 ?g/kg. Intratracheal midazolam caused a large increase in intravenous PTZ threshold 5 min after administration but the effect declined rapidly over 60 min and no antiseizure activity was evident at 120 min. The minimal intraperitoneal doses of midazolam required to elevate the threshold for seizure signs induced by intravenous picrotoxin and kainic acid were 100 and 2000 ?g/kg, respectively; the corresponding values for intratracheal midazolam were 25 and 100 ?g/kg, respectively. We conclude that midazolam is a highly effective anticonvulsant when administered by the intrapulmonary route. Midazolam is substantially more potent when delivered into the lung than when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Inhalation could be an alternative to other routes of administration for the delivery of midazolam to rapidly abort acute seizures. PMID:23774136

  10. Tanshinone IIA Exhibits Anticonvulsant Activity in Zebrafish and Mouse Seizure Models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Danshen or Chinese red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza, Bunge) is used by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners to treat neurological, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disorders and is included in some TCM formulations to control epileptic seizures. In this study, acetonic crude extracts of danshen inhibited pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure activity in zebrafish larvae. Subsequent zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four major tanshinones, which suppressed PTZ-induced activity to varying degrees. One of the active tanshinones, tanshinone IIA, also reduced c-fos expression in the brains of PTZ-exposed zebrafish larvae. In rodent seizure models, tanshinone IIA showed anticonvulsive activity in the mouse 6-Hz psychomotor seizure test in a biphasic manner and modified seizure thresholds in a complex manner for the mouse i.v. PTZ seizure assay. Interestingly, tanshinone IIA is used as a prescription drug in China to address cerebral ischemia in patients. Here, we provide the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that tanshinone IIA has anticonvulsant properties as well. PMID:23937066

  11. Tanshinone IIA exhibits anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish and mouse seizure models.

    PubMed

    Buenafe, Olivia Erin; Orellana-Paucar, Adriana; Maes, Jan; Huang, Hao; Ying, Xuhui; De Borggraeve, Wim; Crawford, Alexander D; Luyten, Walter; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter

    2013-11-20

    Danshen or Chinese red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza, Bunge) is used by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners to treat neurological, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disorders and is included in some TCM formulations to control epileptic seizures. In this study, acetonic crude extracts of danshen inhibited pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure activity in zebrafish larvae. Subsequent zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four major tanshinones, which suppressed PTZ-induced activity to varying degrees. One of the active tanshinones, tanshinone IIA, also reduced c-fos expression in the brains of PTZ-exposed zebrafish larvae. In rodent seizure models, tanshinone IIA showed anticonvulsive activity in the mouse 6-Hz psychomotor seizure test in a biphasic manner and modified seizure thresholds in a complex manner for the mouse i.v. PTZ seizure assay. Interestingly, tanshinone IIA is used as a prescription drug in China to address cerebral ischemia in patients. Here, we provide the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that tanshinone IIA has anticonvulsant properties as well. PMID:23937066

  12. Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... defects) Brain tumor (rare) Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children) Head injury Heart ... age. There may be a family history of epilepsy or seizures. If seizures continue repeatedly after the ...

  13. Permanent Reduction of Seizure Threshold in Post-Ischemic CA3 Pyramidal Neurons

    E-print Network

    Cossart, Rosa

    Permanent Reduction of Seizure Threshold in Post-Ischemic CA3 Pyramidal Neurons PATRICE CONGAR thresh- old in post-ischemic CA3 pyramidal neurons. J. Neurophysiol. 83: 2040­2046, 2000. The effects of ischemia were examined on CA3 pyramidal neurons recorded in hippocampal slices 2­4 mo after a global

  14. An Excitatory Loop with Astrocytes Contributes to Drive Neurons to Seizure Threshold

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    An Excitatory Loop with Astrocytes Contributes to Drive Neurons to Seizure Threshold Marta Go´ mez at restricted brain sites and subsequently spreads to large portions of the brain. Despite intense experimental of astrocytes in ictogenesis was recently proposed. We test here whether a cooperation between astrocytes

  15. Mice with a targeted disruption of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger AE3 display a reduced seizure threshold.

    PubMed

    Hentschke, Moritz; Wiemann, Martin; Hentschke, Suna; Kurth, Ingo; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Jentsch, Thomas J; Gal, Andreas; Hübner, Christian A

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal activity results in significant pH shifts in neurons, glia, and interstitial space. Several transport mechanisms are involved in the fine-tuning and regulation of extra- and intracellular pH. The sodium-independent electroneutral anion exchangers (AEs) exchange intracellular bicarbonate for extracellular chloride and thereby lower the intracellular pH. Recently, a significant association was found with the variant Ala867Asp of the anion exchanger AE3, which is predominantly expressed in brain and heart, in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To analyze a possible involvement of AE3 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of seizures, we generated an AE3-knockout mouse model by targeted disruption of Slc4a3. AE3-knockout mice were apparently healthy, and neither displayed gross histological and behavioral abnormalities nor spontaneous seizures or spike wave complexes in electrocorticograms. However, the seizure threshold of AE3-knockout mice exposed to bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, or pilocarpine was reduced, and seizure-induced mortality was significantly increased compared to wild-type littermates. In the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 region, where AE3 is strongly expressed, disruption of AE3 abolished sodium-independent chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that AE3 modulates seizure susceptibility and, therefore, are of significance for understanding the role of intracellular pH in epilepsy. PMID:16354689

  16. ?-Hydroxybutyrate increases the pilocarpine-induced seizure threshold in young mice.

    PubMed

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dong Wook

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in young mice. Eighty-five male, postnatal day 21, ICR mice were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide (1 mg/kg) 30 min prior to pilocarpine administration. Experimental mice (n=46) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20 mmol/kg), 15 min prior to pilocarpine administration; control animals (n=39) were administered normal saline. Pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) was then administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures. Mice were monitored for 2 h after pilocarpine injection, and seizure behavior grades were evaluated according to Racine's scale. All mice developed typical seizure behaviors of grade 3 or higher. Although the severity in terms of seizure behavior grade was not significantly different between groups, the mean (±SD) latency to the onset of seizure was significantly prolonged in BHB-treated mice (5.15±2.19 min) compared with controls (2.95±1.06 min; p<0.001). This study demonstrates that treatment with BHB significantly prolongs the latency to the onset of seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice and suggests that BHB, one of the ketone bodies, may be direct anticonvulsant. PMID:21723679

  17. Hyperexcitability and epileptic seizures in a model of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrero, Ana M; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Giráldez, Beatriz G; Llorens-Martín, María; Avila, Jesús; Serratosa, José M; Sánchez, Marina P

    2013-10-01

    Epileptic seizures are more common in patients with Alzheimer disease than in the general elderly population. Abnormal forms of hyperphosphorylated tau accumulate in Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies. Aggregates of tau are also found in patients with epilepsy and in experimental models of epilepsy. We report here the analysis of epileptic activity and neuropathological correlates of a transgenic line over-expressing human mutant tau, a model of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The FTDP-17 model displays spontaneous epileptic activity and seizures with spike-wave complexes in the EEG, and a higher sensitivity to the GABAA receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) when compared to age-matched controls, showing a notably increased seizure length and a shorter latency to develop severe seizures. FTDP-17 human tau mutants also display lower convulsive thresholds and higher lethality after PTZ injections. Astrocytosis and activated microglia are prominent in the hippocampus and other brain regions of young FTDP-17 mice where the human mutant tau transgene is expressed, before the appearance of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in these structures. FTDP-17 human mutant tau over-expression produces epilepsy and increased GABAA receptor-mediated hyperexcitability in the absence of A? pathology. Although aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau have been observed in patients with epilepsy and in different chemically and electrically generated models of epilepsy, the FTDP-17 tau mutant analyzed here is the first model of genetically modified tau that presents with epilepsy. This model may represent a valuable tool to assay novel treatments in order to reduce tau pathology, a potential factor which may be involved in the development of epileptic seizures in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23774255

  18. ?-Hydroxybutyrate increases the pilocarpine-induced seizure threshold in young mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Sun Yum; Tae-Sung Ko; Dong Wook Kim

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on pilocarpine-induced seizures in young mice. Eighty-five male, postnatal day 21, ICR mice were used. All mice were pretreated with scopolamine methylbromide (1mg\\/kg) 30min prior to pilocarpine administration. Experimental mice (n=46) were injected intraperitoneally with BHB (20mmol\\/kg), 15min prior to pilocarpine administration; control animals (n=39) were administered normal saline.

  19. Duration of treatment and activation of ?1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kova?evi?, Jovana; Timi?, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V.; Batini?, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Mili?, Marija; Joksimovi?, Sr?an; Cook, James M.; Savi?, Miroslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of ?1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24 h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2 mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at ?1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator ?CCt (5 mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of ?CCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of ?1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at ?1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type. PMID:24695241

  20. Duration of treatment and activation of ?1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Kova?evi?, Jovana; Timi?, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V; Batini?, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Mili?, Marija; Joksimovi?, Sr?an; Cook, James M; Savi?, Miroslav M

    2014-05-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of ?1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at ?1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator ?CCt (5mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of ?CCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of ?1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at ?1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type. PMID:24695241

  1. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  2. Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Thomas; Rust, Marco B.; Maier, Hannes; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Schweizer, Michaela; Keating, Damien J.; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo; Pfeffer, Carsten; Scheel, Olaf; Lemcke, Beate; Horst, Jürgen; Leuwer, Rudolf; Pape, Hans-Christian; Völkl, Harald; Hübner, Christian A.; Jentsch, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl– concentration. Kcc3–/– mice showed severe motor abnormalities correlating with a progressive neurodegeneration in the peripheral and CNS. Although no spontaneous seizures were observed, Kcc3–/– mice displayed reduced seizure threshold and spike-wave complexes on electrocorticograms. These resembled EEG abnormalities in patients with Anderman syndrome. Kcc3–/– mice also displayed arterial hypertension and a slowly progressive deafness. KCC3 was expressed in many, but not all cells of the inner ear K+ recycling pathway. These cells slowly degenerated, as did sensory hair cells. The present mouse model has revealed important cellular and systemic functions of KCC3 and is highly relevant for Anderman syndrome. PMID:14532115

  3. Stereo Localization Using Dual PTZ Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio

    In this paper, we present a cooperative stereo system based on two pant-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras that can localize a moving target in a complex environment. Given an approximate target position that can be estimated by a fixed camera with a wide field of view, two PTZ cameras with a large baseline are pointed toward the target in order to estimate precisely its position. The overall method is divided in three parts: offline construction of a look-up-table (LUT) of rectification matrices, use of the LUT in real time for computing the rectification transformations for arbitrary camera positions, and finally 3D target localization. A chain of homographic transformations are used for finding the matching between different pairs of wide baseline stereo images. The proposed stereo localization system has two advantages: improved localization on a partially occluded target and monitoring a large environment using only two PTZ cameras without missing significant information. Finally, through experimental results, we show that the proposed system is able to make required localization of targets with good accuracy.

  4. Suppression of epileptogenesis-associated changes in response to seizures in FGF22-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clara H.; Umemori, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    In the developing hippocampus, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 22 promotes the formation of excitatory presynaptic terminals. Remarkably, FGF22 knockout (KO) mice show resistance to generalized seizures in adults as assessed by chemical kindling, a model that is widely used to study epileptogenesis (Terauchi et al., 2010). Repeated injections of low dose pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induce generalized seizures (“kindled”) in wild type (WT) mice. With additional PTZ injections, FGF22KO mice do show moderate seizures, but they do not kindle. Thus, analyses of how FGF22 impacts seizure susceptibility will contribute to the better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epileptogenesis. To decipher the roles of FGF22 in the seizure phenotype, we examine four pathophysiological changes in the hippocampus associated with epileptogenesis: enhancement of dentate neurogenesis, hilar ectopic dentate granule cells (DGCs), increase in hilar cell death, and formation of mossy fiber sprouting (MFS). Dentate neurogenesis is enhanced, hilar ectopic DGCs appeared, and hilar cell death is increased in PTZ-kindled WT mice relative to PBS-injected WT mice. Even in WT mice with fewer PTZ injections, which showed only mild seizures (so were not kindled), neurogenesis, hilar ectopic DGCs, and hilar cell death are increased, suggesting that mild seizures are enough to induce these changes in WT mice. In contrast, PTZ-injected FGF22KO mice do not show these changes despite having moderate seizures: neurogenesis is rather suppressed, hilar ectopic DGCs do not appear, and hilar cell death is unchanged in PTZ-injected FGF22KO mice relative to PBS-injected FGF22KO mice. These results indicate that FGF22 plays important roles in controlling neurogenesis, ectopic migration of DGCs, and hilar cell death after seizures, which may contribute to the generalized seizure-resistant phenotype of FGF22KO mice and suggests a possibility that inhibition of FGF22 may alleviate epileptogenesis. PMID:23616746

  5. Neuropharmacological effects of carvacryl acetate on ?-aminolevulinic dehydratase, Na+, K+-ATPase activities and amino acids levels in mice hippocampus after seizures.

    PubMed

    Pires, Lúcio Fernandes; Costa, Luciana Muratori; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; Silva, Oskar Almeida; Santos Cerqueira, Gilberto; de Sousa, Damiăo Pergentino; Pires, Rosana Martins Carneiro; Satyal, Prabodh; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-01-25

    Epileptic syndromes are highly prevalent neurological conditions and can often be disabling. In order to find an alternative for treatment, this study evaluated anticonvulsant effects of carvacryl acetate (CA), a derivative of monoterpene carvacrol, after seizures induced by pilocarpine (P400), picrotoxin (PIC) or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). We also analyzed the CA effects on Na+, K+-ATPase and ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALA-D) activities in hippocampus mice after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ. In addition, glutamate, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine and aspartate levels in mice hippocampus treated with CA after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ were also measured. CA produced anticonvulsant effects against seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ, and its effects were reversed by flumazenil, suggesting that action mechanism can be mediated by GABAergic system. CA increased GABA levels, but did not alter glutamate and aspartate concentrations in mice hippocampus after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ when compared with seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ (p<0.05), respectively, as well as decreased glutamine content in mice hippocampus after seizures induced by PIC when compared with seizures induced by PIC (p<0.05). In addition, CA also increased Na+, K+-ATPase and ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activities after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ when compared with seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ (p<0.05), respectively. This study demonstrated that CA could be a future therapeutic option for treatment of epilepsy, with a multifactorial brain action mechanism. PMID:25490531

  6. EXAMINATION OF THE PROCONVULSANT ACTION OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES USING PENTYLENETETRAZOL AND AMYGDALA KINDLING SEIZURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The seizure-inducing properties of two pyrethroids were assessed by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure models (repeated ip, suprathreshold ip, and iv), and electrical kindling of the amygdala. he efficacy of po versus ip routes of deltamethrin administration was compared using iv-PT...

  7. Vitis labrusca leaf extract prevents pentylenetetrazol-induced oxidative damage but not seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, A S; da Costa, B M; Dos Santos, M T; Fank, B; Hackmann, C L; Salvador, M; Dani, C

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a very common disease in which approximately 30% of patients do not respond favorably to treatment with anticonvulsants. Oxidative stress is associated with neuronal damage arising from epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the possible anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of a leaf extract of Vitis labrusca in an animal model of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The animals received injections of V. labrusca extract (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or vehicle and, 30 minutes later, they received an injection of PTZ, and were then observed for 30 minutes. The latency time and tonic—clonic seizure time were registered. Oxidative damage in lipids and proteins was quantified in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It was observed that the leaf extract were capable of reducing lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by PTZ at all doses tested. PMID:26025400

  8. The Effects of Nigella Sativa Hydro-alcoholic Extract on Memory and Brain Tissues Oxidative Damage after Repeated Seizures in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee, Farzaneh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Zahra; Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Amani, Atefeh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the therapeutic properties of Nigella sativa (NS), the effects of the plant hydro – alcoholic extract on learning, memory and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in penthylenetetrazole (PTZ) - induced repeated seizures. There were 4 experimental groups including: 1- control group; received saline, 2- PTZ group ; received saline and PTZ (50 mg/Kg, i.p) , 3-PTZ- NS 200 and 4- PTZ- NS 400 ; received 200 and 400 mg/Kg of NS extract respectively, before PTZ injection in 5 consecutive days. Seizure scores were lower in PTZ – NS 200 and 400, furthermore the seizure onset latencies were higher in these groups than PTZ group (P<0.05 and P<0.01 ). In Morris water maze, the time spent in target quadrant by PTZ group was lower than control group (P<0.05); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.01). In the passive avoidance test, delay time to enter the dark by PTZ group was lower than control at 1 and 24 hours after training (P<0.01- P<0.001); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.05). The total thiol concentration in hippocampal and cortical tissues of PTZ group was reduced while, MDA concentration was higher than control (p<0.05 - p<0.001). Administration of the extract increased the total thiol and decreased the MDA concentrations (p<0.01- p<0.001). It is concluded that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS possess beneficial effects on learning and memory impairments in repeated seizures model which is accompanied by antioxidant effects in the brain. PMID:25901163

  9. Induction of Prolonged Electrographic Seizures In Vitro Has a Defined Threshold and Is All or None: Implications for Diagnosis of Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Azhar; Gong, Qui-Zhi; Lyeth, Bruce G.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.; Coulter, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose To study whether induction of prolonged (>30-min duration) in vitro electrographic seizure discharges resembling status epilepticus (SE) is graded or all-or-none, and to determine the critical factors mediating SE induction. Methods Prolonged electrographic seizure discharges were induced in combined hippocampal–entorhinal cortical (HEC) brain slices by electrical stimulation of the Schaeffer collaterals. Discharges were recorded by using field-potential electrodes in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and entorhinal cortex. Slices were prepared from rats that were (a) 21- to 30-day-old naive, (b) 60- to 120-day old naive, (c) epileptic, and (d) status post a prior traumatic brain injury. Results Induction of SE discharges was dependent on the duration, but not amplitude of the preceding stimulus train–induced afterdischarge in HEC slices from 21- to 30-day-old control, brain-injured, and epileptic animals, but not from 60- to 120-day-old animals. In slices from 21- to 30-day-old control animals, once afterdischarges exceeded 4 min in duration, SE was induced in 50% of slices, and after ?6 min 37 s seizure activity; SE was induced in 95% of slices. A defined SE threshold also was evident in brain-damaged rats, including rats in which an epileptic condition was induced by pilocarpine injection 4–16 weeks before recording, and rats subjected to a fluid percussive head trauma 1–8 weeks before recording. However, in these brain-damaged animals, mean SE threshold was considerably lower (24 and 44 s, respectively). HEC slices from 60- to 120-day-old controls for the brain-injured and epileptic animals did not develop SE even after 20 stimulations, demonstrating the pronounced effect of brain injury and epilepsy on the development of SE in the HEC slice preparation compared with that in age-matched controls. Conclusions In vitro, SE discharges have a defined temporal threshold for initiation. Once a seizure exceeds 6–7 min in duration in control animals, and 30–55 s in brain-damaged animals, the probability of SE induction is greatly increased. This demonstrates that brain injury lowers the afterdischarge duration required to produce SE and suggests that brains injured from trauma or SE are more susceptible to develop status epilepticus. PMID:12887434

  10. Mapping loci for pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure susceptibility in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas N. Ferraro; Gregory T. Golden; George G. Smith; N J Schork; N Mulholland; C Ballas; J Schill; R J Buono; W H Berrettini

    1999-01-01

    DBA\\/2J (D2) and C57BL\\/6J (B6) mice exhibit differential sensitivity to seizures induced by various chemical and physical methods, with D2 mice being relatively sensitive and B6 mice relatively resistant. We conducted studies in mature D2, B6, F1, and F2 intercross mice to investigate behavioral seizure responses to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and to map the location of genes that influence this trait.

  11. Influence of aminophylline on the anticonvulsive action of gabapentin in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure threshold model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Luszczki; K. Jankiewicz; M. Jankiewicz; S. J. Czuczwar

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Accumulating evidence indicates that aminophylline [theophylline2 · ethylenediamine] markedly attenuates the anticonvulsant action of conventional antiepileptic drugs in experimental animal\\u000a models of epilepsy and evokes severe seizure activity in patients treated with this methylxanthine.\\u000a \\u000a The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute (single) and chronic (twice daily for 14 consecutive days)\\u000a treatments with aminophylline on the

  12. Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid?

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pishan; Walker, Matthew C.; Williams, Robin S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3–5) trisphosphate (PIP3) is a central regulator of diverse neuronal functions that are critical for seizure progression, however its role in seizures is unclear. We have recently hypothesised that valproic acid (VPA), one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy, may target PIP3 signalling as a therapeutic mode of action. Here, we show that seizure induction using kainic acid in a rat in vivo epilepsy model resulted in a decrease in hippocampal PIP3 levels and reduced protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) phosphorylation, measured using ELISA mass assays and Western blot analysis, and both changes were restored following VPA treatment. These finding were reproduced in cultured rat hippocampal primary neurons and entorhinal cortex–hippocampal slices during exposure to the GABA(A) receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), which is widely used to generate seizures and seizure-like (paroxysmal) activity. Moreover, VPA's effect on paroxysmal activity in the PTZ slice model is blocked by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition or PIP2 sequestration by neomycin, indicating that VPA's efficacy is dependent upon PIP3 signalling. PIP3 depletion following PTZ treatment may also provide a positive feedback loop, since enhancing PIP3 depletion increases, and conversely, reducing PIP3 dephosphorylation reduces paroxysmal activity and this effect is dependent upon AMPA receptor activation. Our results therefore indicate that PIP3 depletion occurs with seizure activity, and that VPA functions to reverse these effects, providing a novel mechanism for VPA in epilepsy treatment. PMID:24148856

  13. The Anticonvulsant Effects of SR 57227 on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingjin; Wang, Liang; Sun, Zhihui; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Dongyuan; Zhao, Jing; Song, Yunong; Lv, Jiayin; Dong, Xue; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, studies have shown that serotonin plays an important role in the control of seizure. However, the specific role of 5-HT receptor subtypes is not yet well described, in particular that of the 5-HT3 receptor. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. Firstly, seizure latency was significantly prolonged by a 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR 57227 in a dose-dependent manner. Seizure score and mortality were also decreased by SR 57227 in PTZ-treated mice. Furthermore, these anticonvulsant effects of SR 57227 were inhibited by a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. However, ondansetron alone had no effect on seizure latency, seizure score or mortality at different doses. Immunohistochemical studies have also shown that c-Fos expression was significantly increased in hippocampus (dentate gyrus, CA1, CA3 and CA4) of PTZ-treated mice. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was significantly inhibited by ondansetron in mice treated with PTZ and SR 57227. An ELISA study showed that SR 57227 attenuated the PTZ-induced inhibitory effects of GABA levels in hippocampus and cortex, and the attenuated effects of SR 57227 were antagonized by ondansetron in hippocampus but not cortex. Our findings suggest that activation of 5-HT3 receptor by SR 57227, which plays an important role on the control of seizure induced by PTZ, may be related to GABA activity in hippocampus. Therefore, 5-HT3 receptor subtype is a potential target for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24690630

  14. Fluvoxamine alleviates seizure activity and downregulates hippocampal GAP-43 expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice: role of 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Momen W; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy has been documented to lead to many changes in the nervous system including cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. Neuronal loss and aberrant neuroplastic changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus have been identified in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. Antiseizure activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been reported in several studies. In the current study, the protective effect of fluvoxamine against PTZ-kindling was investigated in terms of seizure scores, neuronal loss, and regulation of hippocampal neuroplasticity. Further, the role of 5-HT3 receptors was determined. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of PTZ (35?mg/kg) thrice weekly, for a total of 13 injections. One hundred male albino mice were allocated into 10 groups: (1) saline, (2) PTZ, (3) diazepam (1?mg/kg)+PTZ, (4-6) fluvoxamine (5, 10 or 20?mg/kg)+PTZ, (7) ondansetron+fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg)+PTZ, (8) ondansetron+PTZ group, (9) ondansetron (2?mg/kg, i.p.)+saline, and (10) fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg)+saline. PTZ-kindled mice showed high seizure activity, hippocampal neuronal loss, and expression of growth-associated phosphoprotein (GAP-43) compared with saline-treated mice. Repeated administration of fluvoxamine (20?mg/kg) in PTZ-kindled mice suppressed seizure scores, protected against hippocampal neuronal loss, and downregulated GAP-43 expression, without producing any signs of the 5-HT syndrome in healthy rats. Importantly, pretreatment with a selective 5-HT3 receptor blocker (ondansetron) attenuated the aforementioned effects of fluvoxamine. In conclusion, the ameliorating effect of fluvoxamine on hippocampal neurons and neuroplasticity in PTZ-kindled mice was, at least in part, dependent on enhancement of hippocampal serotoninergic transmission at 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:25590967

  15. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice

    PubMed Central

    ARASH, Akaberi; MOHAMMAD, Mohammad-Zadeh; JAMAL, Mirmoosavi Seyed; MOHAMMAD, Tazari Ali; AZAM, Abarashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill) leaves was studied for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy, by using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. The evaluated plant has a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, additionally, dill has been claimed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Methods: For the PTZ kindling induction, mice were given a dose of PTZ (37 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) every other day, and seizure stages were precisely recorded. During and after kindling, the effects of the non-toxic doses of the aqueous extracts (100, 250, and 400 mg/kg) on seizure latency in stage 2 (S2L), seizure latency in stage 4 (S4L), and seizure duration in stage 5 (S5D) were measured. Results: The aqueous extract of dill leaves had a noticeable anticonvulsant effect. The 400 mg/kg dose of the extract sample decreased with S5D (P < 0.05), and increased with S2L and S4L significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The obtained data shows that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity against seizure induced by PTZ. The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in this medicinal herb suggests further activity and guided fractionation studies in order to introduce this plant as a valuable source of anticonvulsant agents. PMID:24643194

  16. Post-traumatic seizures exacerbate histopathological damage after fluid-percussion brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying-hui; Bramlett, Helen M; Atkins, Coleen M; Truettner, Jessie S; Lotocki, George; Alonso, Ofelia F; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an induced period of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) on the histopathological damage caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were given a moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (1.9-2.1 atm) or sham surgery. At 2 weeks after surgery, seizures were induced by administration of a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 30?mg/kg). Seizures were then assessed over a 1-h period using the Racine clinical rating scale. To evaluate whether TBI-induced pathology was exacerbated by the seizures, contusion volume and cortical and hippocampal CA3 neuronal cell loss were measured 3 days after seizures. Nearly all TBI rats showed clinical signs of PTE following the decrease in inhibitory activity. In contrast, clinically evident seizures were not observed in TBI rats given saline or sham-operated rats given PTZ. Contusions in TBI-PTZ-treated rats were significantly increased compared to the TBI-saline-treated group (p?PTZ rats showed less NeuN-immunoreactive cells within the ipsilateral parietal cerebral cortex (p?PTZ rats compared with TBI-saline or sham-operated rats. These results demonstrate that an induced period of post-traumatic seizures significantly exacerbates the structural damage caused by TBI. These findings emphasize the need to control seizures after TBI to limit even further damage to the injured brain. PMID:20836615

  17. Self-calibration of spherical rectification for a PTZ-stereo system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dingrui Wan; Jie Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Since PTZ (pan–tilt–zoom) camera is able to obtain multi-view-angle and multi-resolution information, PTZ-stereo system using two PTZ cameras has much higher capability and flexibility compared with traditional stereo system. In this paper, we propose a self-calibration framework to deal with the calibration of spherical rectification, which can be deemed as a kind of relative pose estimation, for a PTZ-stereo system.

  18. Absence seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or other misbehavior Unexplained difficulties in school and learning difficulties may be the first sign of absence seizures. During the seizure, the person may: Stop walking and start again a few seconds later Stop ...

  19. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... febrile seizures may be treated with the drug diazepam orally or rectally, whenever they have a fever. ... treated with a rectal form of the drug diazepam to stop the seizure and prevent it from ...

  20. PTZ Camera Network Calibration from Moving People in Sports Broadcasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Puwein; ETH Zurich; Remo Ziegler; Luca Ballan; Marc Pollefeys

    In sports broadcasts, networks consisting of pan-tilt- zoom (PTZ) cameras usually exhibit very wide baselines, making standard matching techniques for camera calibra- tion very hard to apply. If, additionally, there is a lack of texture, finding corresponding image regions becomes al- most impossible. However, such networks are often set up to observe dynamic scenes on a ground plane. Corresponding image

  1. Planning Ahead for PTZ Camera Assignment and Handoff

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    to predefined observational goals. I. INTRODUCTION Automated human surveillance systems comprising fixed CCTV in the scene. This has led to surveillance systems that combine traditional passive CCTV cameras with active PTZ cameras in master/slave configurations. Tracking information collected by the fixed CCTV cameras

  2. Post-traumatic seizure susceptibility is attenuated by hypothermia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Coleen M.; Truettner, Jessie S.; Lotocki, George; Sanchez-Molano, Juliana; Kang, Yuan; Alonso, Ofelia F.; Sick, Thomas J.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Bramlett, Helen M.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for the subsequent development of epilepsy. Currently, chronic seizures after brain injury are often poorly controlled by available anti-epileptic drugs. Hypothermia treatment, a modest reduction in brain temperature, reduces inflammation, activates pro-survival signaling pathways, and improves cognitive outcome after TBI. Given the well-known effect of therapeutic hypothermia to ameliorate pathological changes in the brain after TBI, we hypothesized that hypothermia therapy may attenuate the development of post-traumatic epilepsy and some of the pathomechanisms that underlie seizure formation. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague Dawley rats received moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury, and then were maintained at normothermic or moderate hypothermic temperatures for 4 hr. At 12 weeks after recovery, seizure susceptibility was assessed by challenging the animals with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), a GABAA receptor antagonist. PTZ elicited a significant increase in seizure frequency in TBI normothermic animals as compared to sham surgery animals and this was significantly reduced in TBI hypothermic animals. Early hypothermia treatment did not rescue chronic dentate hilar neuronal loss, nor did it improve loss of doublecortin-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus post-seizure. However, mossy fiber sprouting was significantly attenuated by hypothermia therapy. These findings demonstrate that reductions in seizure susceptibility after TBI are improved with post-traumatic hypothermia and provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy. PMID:21044182

  3. Naloxane enhanced inhibitory effect of verapamil on seizure induced by pentylenetetrazol in male rats.

    PubMed

    Palizvan, M R; Ghaznavi-Rad, E

    2014-01-01

    The role of opioid receptor and voltage dependent calcium channels on the kindling induced by the convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) were investigated in the rats. Experiment involved 24 rats which were divided into four groups. Kindling was established with PTZ in subconvulsive dose (37.5 mg/kg i.p.) every 48 h and effects were observed within 20 min using five-point scoring system. All animals were kindled to three consecutive-stage five seizures and their stability was tested. Saline, verapamil (calcium channel blocker), naloxone (opioid antagonist) or both of them were then administrated 20 min before PTZ application. Convulsant parameters were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by verapamil. Naloxone had no significant effect on the seizure expression of fully kindled animals, whereas simultaneous application of naloxone and verapamil had profound inhibitory effect on all seizure parameters. The results of the present study suggest that naloxane increased the inhibitory effect of verapamil on the seizure induced by PTZ kindling. PMID:25657801

  4. Seizure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Sackellares, J Chris

    2008-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that seizures are preceded by characteristic changes in the EEG that are detectable minutes before seizure onset. Using novel signal analysis techniques, researchers are beginning to characterize the transition from the interictal to the ictal state in quantitative terms. This research has led to the development of automated seizure prediction algorithms. Active debate persists regarding the interpretation of research results, methods of signal analysis, as well as experimental and statistical methods for testing seizure prediction algorithms. Developments in this field have led to new theories on the mechanism of seizure development and resolution. The ability to predict seizures could lead the way to novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods for the treatment of patients with epilepsy. PMID:18488065

  5. Effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Besio, W.G.; Makeyev, O.; Medvedev, A.; Gale, K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) on the electrographic and behavioral activity from pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. Methods The TCREs were attached to the rat scalp. PTZ was administered and, after the first myoclonic jerk was observed, TFS was applied to the TFS treated group. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral activity were recorded and studied. Results In the case of the TFS treated group, after TFS, there was a significant (p = 0.001) decrease in power compared to the control group in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands. The number of myoclonic jerks was significantly different (p = 0.002) with median of 22 and 4.5 for the control group and the TFS treated groups, respectively. The duration of myoclonic activity was also significantly different (p= 0.031) with median of 17.56 min for the control group versus 8.63 min for the TFS treated group. At the same time there was no significant difference in seizure onset latency and maximal behavioral seizure activity score between control and TFS treated groups. Conclusions TFS via TCREs interrupted PTZ-induced seizures and electrographic activity was reduced towards the “baseline.” The significantly reduced electrographic power, number of myoclonic jerks, and duration of myoclonic activity of PTZ-induced seizures suggests that TFS may have an anticonvulsant effect. PMID:23290195

  6. Nonepileptic seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth S. Bowman

    2000-01-01

    Opinion statement  The primary goal of treatment in nonepileptic seizures (NES) is to improve the patient’s quality of life by terminating seizure\\u000a production or reducing seizure frequency. Initial treatment consists of explaining the diagnosis and its psychological nature\\u000a to patients without judging them or giving the NES excessive attention. Next, help patients identify stresses and refer them\\u000a for mental health treatment.

  7. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE) before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Results: The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010–P < 0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010). Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities. PMID:26056549

  8. Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure-like behavior and neural hyperactivity in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Elizabeth; Burrell, Brian

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the capacity of a known pro-epileptic drug, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to elicit seizure-like activity in the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. During in vivo experiments, PTZ elicited increased motor activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest concentration (10 mM) eliciting episodes of highly uncoordinated exploratory and swimming behavior. Co-application of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin, failed to reduce the absolute amount of PTZ-induced motor behavior, but was able to prevent expression of abnormal exploratory and swimming behaviors. During in vitro experiments in which extracellular recordings of connective nerve activity were made, bath application of 1 ?M PTZ in Mg(2+)-free saline elicited a significant increase in spontaneous activity. This PTZ-induced increase in activity was completely inhibited by phenytoin. Interestingly, PTZ-induced hyperactivity was also blocked by co-application of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. These findings suggest that the leech can be a useful system in which to study potential anti-epileptic treatments. PMID:25572075

  9. Prostaglandin D(2) is crucial for seizure suppression and postictal sleep.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Mahesh K; Aritake, Kosuke; Kamauchi, Shinya; Hayaishi, Osamu; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with the occurrence of seizures, which are often accompanied by sleep. Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is produced by hematopoietic or lipocalin-type PGD synthase (H- or L-PGDS) and involved in the regulation of physiological sleep. Here, we show that H-PGDS, L/H-PGDS or DP1 receptor (DP1R) KO mice exhibited more intense pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in terms of latency of seizure onset, duration of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and number of seizure spikes. Seizures significantly increased the PGD2 content of the brain in wild-type mice. This PTZ-induced increase in PGD2 was attenuated in the brains of L- or H-PGDS KO and abolished in L/H-PGDS KO mice. Postictal non-rapid eye movement sleep was observed in the wild-type and H-PGDS or DP2R KO, but not in the L-, L/H-PGDS or DP1R KO, mice. These findings demonstrate that PGD2 produced by H-PGDS and acting on DP1R is essential for seizure suppression and that the L-PGDS/PGD2/DP1R system regulates sleep that follows seizures. PMID:24333565

  10. Protective effects of lithium chloride on seizure susceptibility: Involvement of ?2-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Payandemehr, Borna; Bahremand, Arash; Ebrahimi, Ali; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Rahimian, Reza; Bahremand, Taraneh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-06-01

    For more than 60years, lithium has been the mainstay in the treatment of mental disorders as a mood stabilizer. In addition to the antimanic and antidepressant responses, lithium also shows some anticonvulsant properties. In spite of the ascertained neuroprotective effects of this alkali metal, the underlying mechanisms through which lithium regulates behavior are still poorly understood. Among different targets, some authors suggest neuromodulatory effects of lithium are the consequences of interaction of this agent with the brain neurotransmitters including adrenergic system. In order to study the involvement of ?2-adrenergic system in anticonvulsant effect of lithium, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice. Injection of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (30mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the seizure threshold (p<0.01). The anticonvulsant effect of an effective dose of lithium was prevented by pre-treatment with low and per se non-effective dose of clonidine [?2-adrenoceptor agonist] (0.05, 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg). On the other hand, yohimbine [?2-adrenoceptor antagonist] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of sub-effective dose of lithium (10mg/kgi.p.) at relatively low doses (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2.5mg/kg). Moreover, UK14304 [a potent and selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonist] (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) and RX821008 [a potent and selective ?2D-adrenoceptor antagonist] (0.05, 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg) repeated the same results confirming that these modulatory effects are conducted specifically through the ?2D-adrenoceptors. In summary, our findings demonstrated that ?2-adrenoceptor pathway could be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of lithium chloride in the model of chemically induced clonic seizure. PMID:25824982

  11. The role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on seizure

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazmand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Faizpour, Azadeh; Ghasemabady, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures. Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidate the possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation. Results: Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p<0.05-p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model. PMID:25068139

  12. Protective effect of safranal on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the rat: Involvement of GABAergic and opioids systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hosseinzadeh; H. R. Sadeghnia

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of safranal, an active constituent of Crocus sativus L. stigmas, on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinjection of safranal (4.84, 9.68 and 24.2?mol) had no effects on tonic and clonic phases as well as mortality upon seizures induced by PTZ (90mg\\/kg body wt., i.p.). Peripheral administration of safranal

  13. The ameliorative effects of sesamol against seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in the experimental model of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Arbabi, Elham; Rostami, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): A growing interest has recently been attracted towards the identification of plant-based medications including those with protective effects against cognitive impairment. Sesamol has shown promising antioxidant and neuroprotective effects, therefore, we aimed to evaluate its therapeutic potential in epilepsy which is commonly associated with oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats received pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (30 mg/kg, IP) once every other day until the development of kindling, i.e., the occurrence of stage 5 of seizures for three consecutive trials. After the completion of kindling procedure, behavioural tests including elevated plus maze and passive avoidance were performed in order to assess learning and memory. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimation of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The effects of pretreatment with sesamol (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, IP) against PTZ-induced seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress were investigated. Results: 32.45 ± 1.86 days after treatment with PTZ, kindling was developed that was associated with myoclonic jerks and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Moreover, PTZ kindling induced a remarkable cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. Sesamol (30 mg/kg) significantly delayed the development of kindling and prevented seizure-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. Conclusion: Sesamol exerts ameliorative effects in the experimental model of epilepsy. This phytochemical may be considered as a beneficial adjuvant for antiepileptic drugs. PMID:24711892

  14. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... febrile seizures face an increased risk of developing epilepsy. These children include those who have cerebral palsy, ... intelligence, behavior, school achievement, and the development of epilepsy. Investigators also continue to explore which drugs can ...

  15. Febrile seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    Seizure - fever induced ... an illness, and may not occur when the fever is highest. Ear infections, a cold or viral ... other than symptoms of the illness causing the fever. Often, the child will not need a full ...

  16. Effects of JIP3 on epileptic seizures: Evidence from temporal lobe epilepsy patients, kainic-induced acute seizures and pentylenetetrazole-induced kindled seizures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Chen, Y; Lü, Y; Chen, X; Cheng, L; Mi, X; Xu, X; Deng, W; Zhang, Y; Wang, N; Li, J; Li, Y; Wang, X

    2015-08-01

    JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP3), also known as JNK stress-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (JSAP1), is a scaffold protein mainly involved in the regulation of the pro-apoptotic signaling cascade mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Overexpression of JIP3 in neurons in vitro has been reported to lead to accelerated activation of JNK and enhanced apoptosis response to cellular stress. However, the occurrence and the functional significance of stress-induced modulations of JIP3 levels in vivo remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression of JIP3 in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a kainic acid (KA)-induced mouse model of epileptic seizures, and determined whether down-regulation of JIP3 can decrease susceptibility to seizures and neuron damage induced by KA. We found that JIP3 was markedly increased in TLE patients and a mouse model of epileptic seizures; mice underexpressing JIP3 through lentivirus bearing LV-Letm1-RNAi showed decreased susceptibility, delayed first seizure and decreased seizure duration response to the epileptogenic properties of KA. Subsequently, a decreased activation of JNK following seizure induction was observed in mice underexpressing JIP3, which also exhibited less neuronal apoptosis in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, as assessed three days after KA administration. We also found that mice underexpressing JIP3 exhibited a delayed pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling seizure process. PMID:26002316

  17. Modulation of benzodiazepine by lysine and pipecolic acid on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.F.; Hargest, V.; Chen, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    L-lysine and its metabolite pipecolic acid (PA) have been studied for their effects on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. L-Lysine of L-Pa i.p. significantly increased clonic and tonic latencies in a dose-dependent manner against 90 mg/kg PTZ-induced seizures. L-Lysine but not L-Pa enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of diazepam (DZ). L-Pa i.c.v. showed a slight decrease in clonic latency; it did not enhance the antiseizure activity of DZ; it caused seizures at 0.6 mmol/kg. D-PA i.c.v. displayed an opposite effect compared to its L-isomer. The anticonvulsant effect of L-lysine in terms of increase in seizure latency and survival was even more amplified when tested with a submaximal PTZ concentration. L-Lysine showed an enhancement of specific /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam(FZ) binding to mouse brain membranes both in vitro an din vivo. The possibility of L-lysine acting as a modulator for the GABA/benzodiazepine receptors was demonstrated. Since L-PA showed enhancement of /sup 3/H-FZ binding only in vitro but not in vivo, the anticonvulsant effect of L-PA may not be linked to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor.

  18. Nonepileptic Seizures.

    PubMed

    Bowman

    2000-11-01

    The primary goal of treatment in nonepileptic seizures (NES) is to improve the patient's quality of life by terminating seizure production or reducing seizure frequency. Initial treatment consists of explaining the diagnosis and its psychological nature to patients without judging them or giving the NES excessive attention. Next, help patients identify stresses and refer them for mental health treatment. Neurologists should continue to see patients intermittently to wean anticonvulsants, and encourage compliance with mental health care. Psychiatric treatment of NES has the following three aims: 1) Help patients identify and eliminate contributing stresses. 2) Teach better coping mechanisms and increased expression of suppressed feelings that are being communicated somatically. 3) Diagnose and treat comorbid psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, dissociation, or post-traumatic symptoms. The mainstay of psychiatric treatment for NES is some kind of individual or family psychotherapy or hypnosis. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant medications (first-line drugs) or tricyclic antidepressants (second-line drugs) may be needed to treat comorbid depression, panic, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but medications should nearly always be combined with psychotherapeutic approaches. Benzodiazepines should be used only with psychotherapy to teach better coping. Families or caregivers may need to learn behavior modification to minimize covert environmental rewards for NES. With proper diagnosis and treatment, about 45% of patients will become seizure-free, and another one third of patients will show reduced seizure frequency. PMID:11096780

  19. Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT) antagonists decrease pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Q F; Arroyo, D S; Temp, F R; Poersch, A B; Masson, C J; Jesse, A C; Marafiga, J R; Reschke, C R; Iribarren, P; Mello, C F

    2014-09-26

    Current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures. In line with this view, selected pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid derivatives have been reported to facilitate seizures. Kainate-induced seizures are accompanied by leukotriene formation, and are reduced by inhibitors of LOX/COX pathway. Moreover, LTD4 receptor blockade and LTD4 synthesis inhibition suppress pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling and pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures. Although there is convincing evidence supporting that blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction facilitates seizures, no study has investigated whether the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast is associated with its ability to maintain BBB integrity. In this study we investigated whether montelukast and other CysLT receptor antagonists decrease PTZ-induced seizures, as well as whether these antagonists preserve BBB during PTZ-induced seizures. Adult male albino Swiss mice were stereotaxically implanted with a cannula into the right lateral ventricle, and two electrodes were placed over the parietal cortex along with a ground lead positioned over the nasal sinus for electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The effects of montelukast (0.03 or 0.3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), pranlukast (1 or 3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), Bay u-9773 (0.3, 3 or 30 nmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), in the presence or absence of the agonist LTD4 (0.2, 2, 6 or 20 pmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), on PTZ (1.8 ?mol/2 ?L)-induced seizures and BBB permeability disruption were determined. The animals were injected with the antagonists, agonist or vehicle 30 min before PTZ, and monitored for additional 30 min for the appearance of seizures by electrographic and behavioral methods. BBB permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein method and by confocal microscopy for CD45 and IgG immunoreactivity. Bay-u9973 (3 and 30 nmol), montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) and pranlukast (1 and 3 ?mol), increased the latency to generalized seizures and decreased the mean amplitude of EEG recordings during seizures. LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) reverted the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast (0.3 ?mol). Montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) prevented PTZ-induced BBB disruption, an effect that was reversed by LTD4 at the dose of 6 pmol, but not at the doses 0.2 and 2 pmol. Moreover, the doses of LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) that reverted the effect of montelukast on seizures did not alter montelukast-induced protection of BBB, dissociating BBB protection and anticonvulsant activity. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that 1. PTZ increased the number of CD45+ and double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cerebral cortex, indicating BBB leakage with leukocyte infiltration; 2. while LTD4 (6 pmol) potentiated, montelukast decreased the effect of PTZ on leukocyte migration and BBB, assessed by double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cannulated hemisphere. Our data do not allow us ruling out that mechanisms unrelated and related to BBB protection may co-exist, resulting in decreased seizure susceptibility by montelukast. Notwithstanding, they suggest that CysLT1 receptors may be a suitable target for anticonvulsant development. PMID:25090924

  20. Acute creatine administration improves mitochondrial membrane potential and protects against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Della-Pace, Iuri Domingues; Stamm, Daniel Neis; da Rosa Gerbatin, Rogério; Prigol, Marina; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2013-03-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that creatine (Cr) exerts beneficial effects on a variety of pathologies where energy metabolism and oxidative stress play an etiological role. However, the benefits of Cr treatment for epileptics are still shrouded in controversy. In the present study, we found that acute Cr treatment (300 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented the increase in electroencephalographic wave amplitude typically elicited by PTZ (30, 45 or 60 mg/kg, i.p.). Cr treatment also increased the latency periods of first myoclonic jerks, lengthened the latency periods of the generalized tonic-clonic seizures and reduced the time spent in the generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg). Administration of PTZ (all doses) decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate levels in the cerebral cortex, but Cr treatment prevented these effects. Cr administration also prevented increases in xanthine oxidase activity, adenosine monophosphate levels, adenosine levels, inosine levels and uric acid levels that normally occur after PTZ treatment (60 mg/kg, i.p.). We also showed that Cr treatment increased the total Cr (Cr + PCr) content, creatine kinase activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential (??) in the cerebral cortex. In addition, Cr prevented PTZ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by decreasing ??, increasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels and increasing protein carbonylation. These experimental findings reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in models of epileptic seizures and suggest that buffering brain energy levels through Cr treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of this neurological disease. PMID:23064877

  1. Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2012-06-01

    Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

  2. Offsetting of aberrations associated with seizure proneness in rat hippocampus area CA1 by theta pulse stimulation–induced activity pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Salmani; J. Mirnajafizadeh; Y. Fathollahi

    2007-01-01

    Epileptiform activity induces long term aberrations in hippocampal network functions. This study was conducted in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -kindled rats to examine offsetting of aberrations associated with seizure proneness in hippocampus area CA1 by theta pulse stimulation (TPS: 5 Hz trains for 3 min) –induced activity pattern. In hippocampal slices from both control and kindled rats, the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials

  3. A Real-Time Face Tracking System Based On A Single PTZ Camera

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seoktae

    2014-12-12

    due to the movement of the PTZ camera and the network delay which varies the video frame rate which alters the performance from a software perspective. The main contributions include the low cost and flexibility regarding installation. Preliminaries...

  4. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

  5. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in mood, emotions, consciousness, or movement. What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is one kind of seizure disorder. It is ... preterm birth. • What is a seizure? • What is epilepsy? • Can seizures be controlled? • If I have a ...

  6. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance the protective effect of levetiracetam against seizures, cognitive impairment and hippocampal oxidative DNA damage in young kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Basel A; Shaikh, Ibrahim A; Khateeb, Masood M; Habeeb, Shafiuddin M

    2015-08-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a unique, effective, relatively safe antiepileptic drug that preferentially interacts with synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A). This study aimed to explore the effect of combined treatment of LEV with omega 3 (OM3) on cognitive impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by seizures in the PTZ-kindled young rat model. Cognitive functions, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and DNA damage were assessed in PTZ-kindled young rats pretreated with single and combined treatment of LEV (30mg/kg, i.p.) and OM3 (200mg/kg, p.o.). Pretreatment with LEV and OM3 at the tested doses significantly attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and decreased cognitive impairment in both passive avoidance and elevated plus maze tests in the PTZ-kindled rats. Moreover, the increase in hippocampal glutamate, malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, as well as the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and GSH-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities induced by PTZ kindling, significantly decreased. These effects were higher with combined treatment of LEV with OM3 and significantly more than the observed effects of single LEV or OM3. In conclusion, the combined treatment of LEV with OM3 is more effective in seizure control and alleviating the cognitive impairment induced by PTZ kindling in the young rat model, the effects that result from the decrease in hippocampal oxidative stress and DNA damage which can be attributed to the antioxidant properties of both LEV and OM3. These results may be promising for the use of LEV and OM3 combination in the treatment of epileptic children. PMID:26044965

  7. Treadmill exercise protects against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogério da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2013-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35?mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na?,K?-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na?/K?-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility. PMID:23530735

  8. Treadmill Exercise Protects Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures and Oxidative Stress after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogério da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35?mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na+/K+-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility. PMID:23530735

  9. Hierarchical ensemble of background models for PTZ-based video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wu, Hefeng; Lin, Liang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study a novel hierarchical background model for intelligent video surveillance with the pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera, and give rise to an integrated system consisting of three key components: background modeling, observed frame registration, and object tracking. First, we build the hierarchical background model by separating the full range of continuous focal lengths of a PTZ camera into several discrete levels and then partitioning the wide scene at each level into many partial fixed scenes. In this way, the wide scenes captured by a PTZ camera through rotation and zoom are represented by a hierarchical collection of partial fixed scenes. A new robust feature is presented for background modeling of each partial scene. Second, we locate the partial scenes corresponding to the observed frame in the hierarchical background model. Frame registration is then achieved by feature descriptor matching via fast approximate nearest neighbor search. Afterwards, foreground objects can be detected using background subtraction. Last, we configure the hierarchical background model into a framework to facilitate existing object tracking algorithms under the PTZ camera. Foreground extraction is used to assist tracking an object of interest. The tracking outputs are fed back to the PTZ controller for adjusting the camera properly so as to maintain the tracked object in the image plane. We apply our system on several challenging scenarios and achieve promising results. PMID:24860044

  10. Acceleration of pentylenetetrazol seizure kindling associated with induction of sensitized visual responses evoked by strobe stimulation.

    PubMed

    Manning, K A; Uhlrich, D J

    2009-10-01

    Exposure of normal adult rats of a variety of species to trains of light flashes leads to acquisition of an enduring high amplitude visual cortical response [Uhlrich DJ, Manning KA, O'Laughlin ML, Lytton WW (2005) Photic-induced sensitization: acquisition of an augmenting spike-wave response in the adult rat through repeated strobe exposure. J Neurophysiol 94:3925-3937]. The photically-induced sensitized response exhibits epileptiform characteristics, including spike-wave morphology, tendency to generalize across the brain, and sensitivity to the anti-epileptic drug ethosuximide. These findings and anecdotal clinical reports raise the possibility that certain sensory stimulation could induce neural plastic changes that affect seizures in some individuals. We hypothesize that photic-induced sensitization can prime seizure-related neural circuitry, resulting in exacerbation of seizures. To test this we compared seizure kindling rates using the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model of epileptogenesis in sensitized and unsensitized adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental group rats were sensitized by exposure to repetitive stroboscopic stimulation over 4-6 days until the sensitized photic response fully developed and response magnitude stabilized at its highest plateau. Rats then received a sub-convulsive injection of PTZ (24 mg/kg i.p.) every other day until they attained class 5 seizures. Control rats were not strobed or sensitized, but were otherwise treated identically. Chronic electrodes overlying the dura in occipital cortex recorded the primary visual response. Similar electrodes near the border of somatosensory and motor cortex (SM) were used to record spread of the sensitized response to a patently non-visual region. Rat behavior was monitored by direct observation and digital audio/video recording. All control rats and seven of 14 photically sensitized rats kindled seizures at rates consistent with those reported previously. However, the seven other photically sensitized rats displayed markedly accelerated seizure kindling. Rats with accelerated kindling showed greater spread of the sensitized visual response to somato-motor cortex and, when tested in a post hoc experiment, exhibited a higher likelihood of photo-triggered seizures. These results indicate that photic-induced sensitization in susceptible individuals can prime neural circuitry involved in the generation of PTZ-kindled seizures. PMID:19576967

  11. Commentary on Kaushik et al.: Prostaglandin D2 is crucial for seizure suppression and postictal sleep. Novel evidence supporting a role for prostanoid receptors in seizure control.

    PubMed

    Mello, Carlos Fernando; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2014-07-01

    Accumulating clinical and experimental evidence suggests a role for prostaglandins (PGs) in epilepsy and isolated seizures. Prostaglandin levels are increased in the hippocampus of epileptic patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with febrile seizures. Moreover, increased PGD2, PGE2 and PGF2? levels are found in the brain after chemically-induced seizures and in spontaneously epileptic mice. However, whether prostaglandins facilitate or decrease seizures has been a matter of debate in the literature. Both pro- and anticonvulsant activities have been described for most of prostaglandins, except for PGD2 and DP receptor agonists, for which a consistent anticonvulsant action has been reported. The study by Kaushik and colleagues elegantly extends this view by showing that hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) and DP1 receptors are essential for seizure suppression and that lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS)/PGD2/DP1 system regulates sleep that follows PTZ-induced seizures using knockout animals. This commentary discusses the experimental approach of the studies that have implicated prostaglandins and their receptors in seizures, the interesting approach and results of Kaushik and colleagues, and the challenges of considering PGD2 signaling as a therapeutic target in epilepsy. PMID:24814715

  12. Due to the capacity of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras to simultaneously cover a panoramic area and maintain high

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    Abstract Due to the capacity of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras to simultaneously cover a panoramic cameras to direct their poses, namely pan, tilt, and zoom values, whenever a change is needed. In other that directly derives a unified polynomial model between the pan, tilt, and zoom values of PTZ cameras

  13. [Concussive convulsions: seizure or no seizure?].

    PubMed

    Nass, R D; Elger, C E; Fink, G R; Burghaus, L

    2011-11-01

    Convulsions following traumatic brain injury (TBI) represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They can be differentiated into late (> 7 days after TBI), early (1 - 7 days after TBI), immediate (within the first 24 h after TBI), and impact seizures (within seconds after TBI). Some authors suggest that most impact seizures are non-epileptic in origin and hence coined the term "concussive convulsions" for benign impact seizures. Early and late post-traumatic seizures frequently indicate structural brain damage and transition to chronic, post-traumatic epilepsy. The data for impact seizures or concussive convulsions is less clear: only a small percentage of impact seizures is associated with structural brain damage and the development of post-traumatic epilepsy, rather the majority of cases are benign and associated with an excellent prognosis. Here, we present a case report as a starting point for pathophysiological and clinical considerations regarding convulsions that start within seconds after TBI. PMID:22002819

  14. Interaction of prenatal stress and morphine alters prolactin and seizure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30min. In the morphine/saline group, pregnant rats received morphine (10, 12 and 15mg/kg, IP, on GD17, GD18 and GD19, respectively) or saline (1ml, IP). In the morphine/saline-stressed group, the rats received morphine or saline and then exposed to stress. On postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 and P15), blood samples were obtained and PBL was determined. At P15 and P25, the rest of the pups was injected with PTZ to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were observed individually. Latency of first convulsion decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increased in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15 (P=0.04). Number of tonic-clonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to control-saline group at P15 (P=0.02). PBL increased in stressed-saline, control-morphine and stress-morphine groups compared to control-saline rats. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure of rats to forced-swim stress and morphine changed their susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure and PBL during infancy and prepubertal period. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on epileptic behaviors. PMID:26056076

  15. Effect of pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptic seizure on thiol redox state in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Zervoudakis, George; Georgiou, Christos D; Angelatou, Fevronia; Matsokis, Nikolaos A; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos T

    2004-11-01

    In the present study we examined the effects of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) administration on the thiol redox state (TRS), lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in left and right mouse cerebral cortex in order (a) to quantitate the major components of the thiol redox state and relate them with oxidative stress and cortical laterality, and (b) to investigate whether neuronal activation without synchronization, induced by subconvulsive doses of PTZ, can cause similar qualitative effects on the thiol redox state. Specifically, we examined the TRS components [glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), cysteine (CSH), protein (P) thiols (PSH) and protein and non-protein (NP) mixed/symmetric disulfides (PSSR, NPSSR, NPSSC, PSSP)]. At 15 min after seizure, GSH, GSSG, CSH, NPSSC, PSSR and PSSC levels are decreased in left (14-50%) and right (11-53%) cortex while PSSP levels are increased in both left (1400%) and right (1600%) cortex. At 30 min after seizure, GSSG, CSH, NPSSC, PSSR and PSSC levels are decreased in left (14-51%) and right (18-56%) cortex while PSSP and protein carbonyl levels are increased in left (2300% and 20%, respectively) and right (2800% and 21%, respectively) cortex. At 24 h after seizure, the TRS components return to normal and protein carbonyl levels are decreased in left (16%) and right (20%) cortex. The significant decrease in GSH, GSSG, CSH, NPSSC, PSSR and PSSC, as well as the increase in protein carbonyl and the high increase in PSSP levels after PTZ-induced seizure indicate increased oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of mice, and of similar magnitude and TRS-component profiles between left and right cerebral cortex. PMID:15519133

  16. Constipation enhances the propensity to seizure in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure models of mice.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Pirsalami, Fatema; Inaloo, Soroor

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and represents one of the most frequent neurological diseases, affecting about 60 million people worldwide. The cellular and neurocircuit bases of epilepsy are poorly understood. Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by symptoms such as straining, hard stool, and infrequent defecation. Population-based studies have shown that the prevalence of constipation is up to 30% of the population in developed countries. The causal link between seizure and constipation is a common belief among patients and physicians, but there are no scientific data to support this association. The current investigation evaluated the effects of constipation induced by loperamide (a peripheral ?-opioid receptor agonist without effect on central nervous system receptors) and clidinium (a quaternary amine antimuscarinic agent with reduced central nervous system effects) on two different seizure models of mice: (1) myoclonic, clonic, and generalized tonic seizures and death induced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole and (2) clonic seizure threshold induced by intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole. We demonstrated that the measured intestinal transit (%intestinal transit) decreased after loperamide or clidinium treatment for 3days. Constipation in mice which was induced by loperamide or clonidine caused a decrease in threshold to clonic seizure in the intravenous pentylenetetrazole seizure model. Moreover loperamide- or clidinium-induced constipation decreased latencies to, clonic, and tonic seizures and death in the intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole model of mice. Serum ammonia levels were slightly elevated in both loperamide- and clidinium-treated mice. In conclusion, loperamide- or clidinium-induced constipated mice are more prone to seizure which might confirm the belief of patients and physicians about constipation as a trigger of seizure. PMID:25745976

  17. Dual PTZ Stereo Rectification for Target Localization and Depth Map Computation

    E-print Network

    and Christian Micheloni, Member, IEEE Abstract--We present an active stereo vision system composed by two pan rectification. This stereo active vision system is used for two different video surveillance applications understanding. Index Terms--Disparities, Look-Up-Table (LUT), PTZ Cam- era, Sigmoid Interpolation, Stereo Vision

  18. Stereo Localization Using Dual PTZ Cameras Sanjeev Kumar, Christian Micheloni, and Claudio Piciarelli

    E-print Network

    such a problem, stereo vision can be taken into account. Stereo vision has the advantage that it is able images [5]. Traditional stereo vision research usually uses static cameras for their low cost, PTZ cameras based stereo vision is much more challenging when compared to traditional static cameras

  19. Effects of novel 6-desfluoroquinolones and classic quinolones on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    De Sarro, A; Cecchetti, V; Fravolini, V; Naccari, F; Tabarrini, O; De Sarro, G

    1999-07-01

    There have been several reports that convulsions, although rare, occur in patients who receive fluoroquinolones. In this study, the proconvulsant effects exhibited by a novel series of 6-desfluoroquinolones and some classic quinolones on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice were evaluated and compared. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or quinolone derivatives (5 to 100 microg/g of body weight) 30 min before the subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of PTZ (40 microg/g). In each experiment, mice were then observed for 1 h to monitor for the incidence and onset of clonic seizures. The order of proconvulsant activity in our epileptic model was MF5184 > MF5187 > pefloxacin > MF5189 > ofloxacin > ciprofloxacin > MF5140 > MF5181 > MF5137 > rufloxacin > MF5143 > MF5158 > MF5191 > MF5128 > MF5138 > cinoxacin > MF5142 > norfloxacin > nalidixic acid. The relationship between the chemical structure and the proconvulsant activity of 6-desfluoroquinolone derivatives was studied. We observed that, in terms of toxicity to the central nervous system (CNS), besides the heterocyclic side chain (moiety) at the C-7 position, the C-6 substituent also appears to play an important role. In particular, a hydrogen at the C-6 position seemed to be responsible for major neurotoxic activity in comparison to an amino group located in the same position. The relationship between lipophilicity and proconvulsant activity was also investigated. We did not find any clear relationship between a higher level of lipophilicity and major proconvulsant properties. Although the principal mechanism by which quinolones induce potentiation of the proconvulsant effects of PTZ cannot be easily determined, it is possible that the convulsions are caused by drug interactions, because both PTZ and quinolones are believed to increase excitation of the CNS by inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid binding to receptors. PMID:10390231

  20. Effects of Novel 6-Desfluoroquinolones and Classic Quinolones on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures in Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Sarro, A.; Cecchetti, V.; Fravolini, V.; Naccari, F.; Tabarrini, O.; De Sarro, G.

    1999-01-01

    There have been several reports that convulsions, although rare, occur in patients who receive fluoroquinolones. In this study, the proconvulsant effects exhibited by a novel series of 6-desfluoroquinolones and some classic quinolones on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice were evaluated and compared. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or quinolone derivatives (5 to 100 ?g/g of body weight) 30 min before the subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of PTZ (40 ?g/g). In each experiment, mice were then observed for 1 h to monitor for the incidence and onset of clonic seizures. The order of proconvulsant activity in our epileptic model was MF5184 > MF5187 > pefloxacin > MF5189 > ofloxacin > ciprofloxacin > MF5140 > MF5181 > MF5137 > rufloxacin > MF5143 > MF5158 > MF5191 > MF5128 > MF5138 > cinoxacin > MF5142 > norfloxacin > nalidixic acid. The relationship between the chemical structure and the proconvulsant activity of 6-desfluoroquinolone derivatives was studied. We observed that, in terms of toxicity to the central nervous system (CNS), besides the heterocyclic side chain (moiety) at the C-7 position, the C-6 substituent also appears to play an important role. In particular, a hydrogen at the C-6 position seemed to be responsible for major neurotoxic activity in comparison to an amino group located in the same position. The relationship between lipophilicity and proconvulsant activity was also investigated. We did not find any clear relationship between a higher level of lipophilicity and major proconvulsant properties. Although the principal mechanism by which quinolones induce potentiation of the proconvulsant effects of PTZ cannot be easily determined, it is possible that the convulsions are caused by drug interactions, because both PTZ and quinolones are believed to increase excitation of the CNS by inhibition of ?-aminobutyric acid binding to receptors. PMID:10390231

  1. JAMA Patient Page: Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 seizure, you may be diagnosed as having epilepsy , meaning you are prone to seizures. Types of ... Treatment • Medication. If you are diagnosed as having epilepsy, you will likely be prescribed 1 or more ...

  2. Seizure First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical I.D. bracelet or necklace that says “epilepsy” or “seizure disorder.” Some individuals wear a medical ... of knowing whether or not the person has epilepsy. The person having a seizure does not have ...

  3. Video game induced seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

  4. Search and Seizure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kenneth T.

    This paper examines the practice of search and seizure from a legal perspective. All issues concerning lawful or unlawful search and seizure, whether in a public school or otherwise, are predicated upon the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The terms "search,""seizure,""probable cause,""reasonable suspicion," and "exclusionary…

  5. Novel Vitamin K analogues suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Jennifer J.; Bestman, Jennifer E.; Josey, Benjamin J.; Inks, Elizabeth S.; Stackley, Krista D.; Rogers, Carolyn E.; Chou, C. James; Chan, Sherine S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world’s population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit HDACs using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, NQN1, significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of VPA. We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogues. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6 Hz) and corneal kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogues for prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production. PMID:24291671

  6. Contrasting effects of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activation on seizure activity in acute versus chronic models.

    PubMed

    Funck, V R; Ribeiro, L R; Pereira, L M; de Oliveira, C V; Grigoletto, J; Della-Pace, I D; Fighera, M R; Royes, L F F; Furian, A F; Larrick, J W; Oliveira, M S

    2015-07-01

    Epilepsy is a life-shortening brain disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Most epilepsy patients are refractory to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity and probing for new AEDs is fundamental to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Brain Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. Accordingly, a decrease of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase increases neuronal excitability and may predispose to appearing of seizure activity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity with a specific antibody (DRRSAb) raised against a regulatory site in the ? subunit would decrease seizure susceptibility. We found that incubation of hippocampal homogenates with DRRSAb (1?M) increased total and ?1 Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. A higher concentration (3?M) increased total, ?1 and ?2/?3 Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. Intrahippocampal injection of DRRSAb decreased the susceptibility of post status epilepticus animals to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced myoclonic seizures. In contrast, administration of DRRSAb into the hippocampus of naďve animals facilitated the appearance of PTZ-induced seizures. Quantitative analysis of hippocampal electroencephalography (EEG) recordings revealed that DRRSAb increased the percentage of total power contributed by the delta frequency band (0-3Hz) to a large irregular amplitude pattern of hippocampal EEG. On the other hand, we found no DRRSAb-induced changes regarding the theta functional state. Further studies are necessary to define the potential of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activation as a new therapeutic approach for seizure disorders. PMID:25907445

  7. Mygalin: a new anticonvulsant polyamine in acute seizure model and neuroethological schedule.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Lívea Dornela; Liberato, José Luiz; da Silva Junior, Pedro Ismael; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Polyamines are compounds that interact with ionotropic receptors, mainly modulating the NMDA receptor, which is strictly related to many neurologic diseases such as epilepsy. Consequently, polyamines rise as potential neuropharmacological tools in the prospection of new therapeutic drugs. In this paper, we report on the biological activity of synthetic polyamine Mygalin, which was tested as an anticonvulsant in model of chemically induced seizures. Male Wistar rats were injected with vehicle, diazepam, MK-801 or Mygalin at different doses followed by Pentylenetetrazole or N-Methyl-D-Aspartate administration. Mygalin presented protection against seizures induced by both NMDA injections and PTZ administration by 83.3% and 16.6%, respectively. Moreover, it prolonged the onset of tonic-clonic seizures induced by PTZ. Furthermore, it was tested in neuroethological schedule evaluating possible side-effects and it presented mild changes in Open Field, Rotarod and Morris Water Maze tests when compared to available anticonvulsant drugs. The mechanism underlying the anticonvulsant effect of Mygalin is noteworthy of further investigation, nevertheless, based on these findings, we hypothesize that it may be wholly or in part due to a possible NMDA receptor antagonism. Altogether, the results demonstrate that Mygalin has an anticonvulsant activity that may be an important tool in the study of prospection of therapeutics in epilepsy neuropharmacology. PMID:24195634

  8. Collaborative real-time scheduling of multiple PTZ cameras for multiple object tracking in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Che; Huang, Chung-Lin

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a multi-PTZ-camera control mechanism to acquire close-up imagery of human objects in a surveillance system. The control algorithm is based on the output of multi-camera, multi-target tracking. Three main concerns of the algorithm are (1) the imagery of human object's face for biometric purposes, (2) the optimal video quality of the human objects, and (3) minimum hand-off time. Here, we define an objective function based on the expected capture conditions such as the camera-subject distance, pan tile angles of capture, face visibility and others. Such objective function serves to effectively balance the number of captures per subject and quality of captures. In the experiments, we demonstrate the performance of the system which operates in real-time under real world conditions on three PTZ cameras.

  9. Calibration of a dual-PTZ camera system for stereo vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a calibration process for the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of dual-PTZ camera systems. The calibration is based on a complete definition of six coordinate systems fixed at the image planes, and the pan and tilt rotation axes of the cameras. Misalignments between estimated and ideal coordinates of image corners are formed into cost values to be solved by the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization method. Experimental results show that the system is able to obtain 3D coordinates of objects with a consistent accuracy of 1 mm when the distance between the dual-PTZ camera set and the objects are from 0.9 to 1.1 meters.

  10. Robust Environmental Change Detection Using PTZ Camera via Spatial-Temporal Probabilistic Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jwu-Sheng Hu; Tzung-Min Su

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel procedure for detecting environmental changes by using a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera. Conventional approaches based on pixel space and stationary cameras need time-consuming image registration to yield pixel statistics. This work proposes an alternative approach to describe each scene with a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) via a spatial-temporal statistical method. Although details of the environment covered

  11. Treatment of neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, Linda G M; Hellström-Westas, Lena; de Vries, Linda S

    2013-08-01

    Seizures occur more often during the neonatal period than at any other period of life. Precise incidence is difficult to delineate and depends on study population and criteria used for diagnosis of seizures. Controversy exists as to whether neonatal seizures themselves cause damage to the developing brain, or if the damage is primarily due to the underlying cause of the seizures. As a result of this controversy there is an ongoing discussion as to whether all seizures (both clinical and subclinical) should be treated. When (sub)clinical seizures are treated, there is no consensus about the most appropriate treatment for neonatal seizures and how to assess the efficacy of treatment. Current therapeutic options to treat neonatal seizures (i.e. primarily first generation antiepileptics) are relatively ineffective. There is an urgent need for prospective, randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and safety of these second-generation antiepileptic drugs in neonates. The aim of this review is to survey current knowledge regarding treatment of neonatal seizures in both term and preterm infants. PMID:23402893

  12. Protective effect of safranal on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the rat: involvement of GABAergic and opioids systems.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of safranal, an active constituent of Crocus sativus L. stigmas, on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinjection of safranal (4.84, 9.68 and 24.2 micromol) had no effects on tonic and clonic phases as well as mortality upon seizures induced by PTZ (90mg/kg body wt., i.p.). Peripheral administration of safranal (72.75, 145.5 and 291 mg/kg body wt., i.p.), however, induced a dose-dependent decrease in the incidence of both minimal clonic seizures (MCS) (145.5 mg/kg body wt., p<0.01) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) (145.5 mg/kg body wt., p<0.001) following PTZ administration. Safranal also increased MCS and GTCS latency, significantly. Percent of protection against GTCS was 30%, 100% and 100% and mortality protection percent was 40%, 100% and 100% for the mentioned doses, respectively. Pretreatment with flumazenil (5 nmol, i.c.v.) and naloxone (5.5 nmol, i.c.v. and 2 mg/kg body wt., i.p.), 15 min prior to safranal administration (145.5 mg/kg body wt., i.p.), abolished the protective effect of safranal on MCS. Flumazenil also decreased the effect of safranal on incidence as well as latency of GTCS, significantly. These effects were not, however, significant for naloxone (5.5 nmol, i.c.v. and 2mg/kg body wt., i.p.). Results of this study demonstrated that safranal could exert anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ model and this effect may be mediated, at least partly, through GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex. PMID:16707256

  13. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... grand mal seizure. The terms seizure , convulsion, or epilepsy are most often associated with generalized tonic-clonic ... occur as part of a repeated, chronic illness (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).

  14. Prolactin and seizure activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bye, A M; Nunn, K P; Wilson, J

    1985-01-01

    Prolactin secretion after tonic-clonic seizures (10 patients), complex partial seizures (five) and non-epileptic attacks (three) was studied in a group of children aged between 0.3 and 14 years. Seven patients with other subcategories of seizure disorders were also studied. Eight children with tonic-clonic seizures exhibited post ictal concentrations of prolactin greater than 500 mU/l. One of the children, who responded on one occasion, did not do so on another. Three children with complex partial seizures had post ictal prolactin concentrations greater than 500 mU/l, while in two the increased values were more modest (390 mU/l and 420 mU/l). The timing of the peak post ictal prolactin concentration varied from less than 20 minutes to a prolonged plateau for three hours. Other seizure types--simple partial with motor signs (2), absence seizure (1), myoclonic seizure (1), minor epileptic status (3) (with one exception), and non-epileptic attacks (3) were not associated with post ictal concentrations greater than 500 mU/l. PMID:3931564

  15. Seizures and intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Karen L; Alexander, James M

    2013-03-01

    Seizures and intracranial hemorrhage are possible medical diseases that any obstetrician may encounter. This article reviews the cause, treatment, and medical management in pregnancy for seizures and intracranial hemorrhage, and how the two can overlap into preeclampsia or eclampsia. This article also highlights some challenging management issues from the obstetrician's perspective. PMID:23466140

  16. Management of provoked seizure

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee

    2011-01-01

    A provoked seizure may be due to structural damage (resulting from traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, stroke, tuberculosis, or neurocysticercosis) or due to metabolic abnormalities (such as alcohol withdrawal and renal or hepatic failure). This article is a part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy in India. This article reviews the problem of provoked seizure and its management and also provides recommendations based on currently available information. Seizure provoked by metabolic disturbances requires correction of the triggering factors. Benzodiazepines are recommended for treatment of seizure due to alcohol withdrawal; gabapentin for seizure seen in porphyria; and antiepileptic drugs (AED), that are not inducer of hepatic enzymes, in the seizures seen in hepatic dysfunction. In severe traumatic brain injury, with or without seizure, phenytoin (PHT) may be given for 7 days. In ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke one may individualize the AED therapy. In cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), AED may be prescribed if there is seizure or computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities or focal weakness; the treatment, in these cases, has to be continued for 1 year. Prophylactic AED is not recommended in cases of brain tumor and neurosurgical procedures and if patient is on an AED it can be stopped after 1 week. PMID:21633606

  17. Creatine reduces oxidative stress markers but does not protect against seizure susceptibility after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, André Luis Lopes; Ferreira, Ana Paula Oliveira; Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Dutra, Fabrício Diniz; Furian, Ana Flavia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2012-02-10

    Achievements made over the last years have highlighted the important role of creatine in health and disease. However, its effects on hyperexcitable circuit and oxidative damage induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not well understood. In the present study we revealed that severe TBI elicited by fluid percussion brain injury induced oxidative damage characterized by protein carbonylation, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) increase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition 4 and 8 days after neuronal injury. Statistical analysis showed that after TBI creatine supplementation (300 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased the levels of protein carbonyl and TBARS but did not protect against TBI-induced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition. Electroencephalography (EEG) analysis revealed that the injection of a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (35 mg/kg, i.p.), 4 but not 8 days after neuronal injury, decreased latency for the first clonic seizures and increased the time of spent generalized tonic-clonic seizures compared with the sham group. In addition, creatine supplementation had no effect on convulsive parameters induced by a subconvulsant dose of PTZ. Current experiments provide evidence that lipid and protein oxidation represents a separate pathway in the early post-traumatic seizures susceptibility. Furthermore, the lack of consistent anticonvulsant effect exerted by creatine in this early phase suggests that its apparent antioxidant effect does not protect against excitatory input generation induced by TBI. PMID:22051612

  18. Improving Early Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the search for a method able to reliably predict seizures hours in advance has been largely replaced by a more realistic goal of very early detection of seizure onset which would allow therapeutic or warning devices to be triggered prior to the onset of disabling clinical symptoms. We explore in this article the steps along the pathway from data acquisition to closed loop applications that can and should be considered to design the most efficient early seizure detection. Microelectrodes, high-frequency oscillations, high sampling rate, high-density arrays, and modern analysis techniques are all elements of the recording and detection process that in combination with modeling studies can provide new insights into the dynamics of seizure onsets. Each of these step needs to be considered if one wants to implement improved detection devices that will favorably impact the quality of life of patients. PMID:22078518

  19. Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: All patients who exhibit seizure-like behavior cannot be evaluated by video-electroencephalography if their routine EEGs are negative, as this would be impractical and cost-prohibitive. The present article reviews a decision-making process that can be used for determining if further neurological evaluation is needed, the differential diagnoses and potential comorbidities involved when making this determination, and an approach to conveying the psychogenic nonepileptic seizure diagnosis to the patient that may help reduce symptom frequency. Design: Literature review. Conclusion: Psychogenic seizures are not caused by abnormal brain electrical activity. The symptoms of psychogenic seizures usually reflect a psychological conflict or a psychiatric disorder. However, psychogenic seizures are not “purposely” produced by the patient, and the patient is not aware that the seizures are non-epileptic, so the patient may become very anxious over having these symptoms. The presentation of the differential diagnosis should be done early in the course of treatment for better patient acceptance, and treatment options should be presented early in the evaluation period. PMID:24563816

  20. The involvement of Na+, K+-ATPase activity and free radical generation in the susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Lima, Frederico Diniz; Furian, Ana Flavia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2011-09-15

    Although the importance of brain trauma as risk factor for the development of epilepsy is well established, the mechanisms of epileptogenesis are not well understood. In the present study, we revealed that the injection of a subthreshold dose of PTZ (30 mg/Kg, i.p.) after 5 weeks of injury induced by Fluid Percussion Brain Injury (FPI) decreased latency for first clonic seizures, increased the time of spent generalized tonic-clonic seizures and electrocorticographic (EEG) wave amplitude. In addition, statistical analysis revealed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (100mg/kg) supplementation during 5 weeks after neuronal injury protected against behavioral and electrographical seizure activity elicited by subthreshold dose of PTZ. The supplementation of this antioxidant compound also protected against the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition and concomitant increase in the levels of oxidative stress markers (protein carbonylation and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances-TBARS) in site and peri-contusional cortical tissue. In summary, the current experiments clearly showed that FPI model induces early posttraumatic seizures and suggest that an alteration in the lipid/protein oxidation, membrane fluidity, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity may be correlated with neuronal excitability, a significant component of the secondary injury cascade that accompanies TBI. PMID:21737104

  1. Correlation of seizures and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in experimentally induced inflammatory rat models.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ramya S; Medhi, Bikash; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Pandhi, Promila

    2010-06-01

    The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various conditions including epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis is evolving. The aim of this study was to find out the correlation between various inflammatory models with seizures and antioxidant parameters. Fifty-four male rats were divided into three groups of colitis, adjuvant arthritis and cotton wool granuloma (CWG). Each group had three subgroups of control, model and treatment. Thalidomide was used as treatment in colitis and arthritis group, whereas etoricoxib was used in CWG group. In colitis and arthritis groups, thalidomide was administered for 3 and 17 days, respectively, whereas etoricoxib was administered for 7 days in CWG group. At the end of treatment protocols, a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (40 mg/kg i.p.) was injected intraperitoneally to note seizure onset and score. After confirming the presence of inflammation by morphological and histological studies, plasma and brain biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were estimated. The models of colitis, arthritis and CWG were effectively produced as evidenced by morphological scores (P < 0.001). Thalidomide reduced the morphological score (P < 0.002) and seizure grade (P < 0.001), whereas increased seizure onset (P < 0.001) in the arthritis group. There was an increase in malondialdehyde levels in the brain of thalidomide-treated groups (P < 0.002) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. There was neither improvement in seizure nor any significant changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels in etoricoxib-treated group. Thalidomide was effective in reducing the extent of arthritis as well as reducing the seizure scoring and increasing seizure onset in the adjuvant arthritis group. As it increased lipid peroxidation and reduced SOD and GPx, further evaluation is necessary with respect to oxidative stress. PMID:20584211

  2. DDT Exposure of Zebrafish Embryos Enhances Seizure Susceptibility: Relationship to Fetal p,p?-DDE Burden and Domoic Acid Exposure of California Sea Lions

    PubMed Central

    Tiedeken, Jessica A.; Ramsdell, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Background California sea lions have a large body burden of organochlorine pesticides, and over the last decade they have also been subject to domoic acid poisoning. Domoic acid poisoning, previously recognized in adult animals, is now viewed as a major cause of prenatal mortality. The appearance of a chronic juvenile domoic acid disease in the sea lions, characterized by behavioral abnormalities and epilepsy, is consistent with early life poisoning and may be potentiated by organochlorine burden. Objective We investigated the interactive effect of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) on neurodevelopment using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model for seizure behavior to examine the susceptibility to domoic acid–induced seizures after completion of neurodevelopment. Methods Embryos were exposed (6–30 hr postfertilization) to either o,p?-DDT or p,p?-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) during neurodevelopment via a 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide solution. These larval (7 days postfertilization) fish were then exposed to either the seizure-inducing drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was monitored and analyzed for changes using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Results Embryonic exposure to DDTs enhanced PTZ seizures and caused distinct and increased seizure behaviors to domoic acid, most notably a type of head-shaking behavior. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that embryonic exposure to DDTs leads to asymptomatic animals at completion of neurodevelopment with greater sensitivity to domoic acid–induced seizures. The body burden levels of p,p?-DDE are close to the range recently found in fetal California sea lions and suggest a potential interactive effect of p,p?-DDE embryonic poisoning and domoic acid toxicity. PMID:19165389

  3. Seizure susceptibility decreases with enhancement of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Raju, T R

    2001-12-20

    The study examined the effect of enhanced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration on the seizure threshold determined by electrical stimulation of the amygdala in rats. The duration of REM sleep was specifically increased by the microinjection of a cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into the pontine reticular formation. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the threshold current required to elicit an afterdischarge in the amygdala. The results suggest that an increase in REM sleep decreases the likelihood of cortical seizure activity, an effect that is manifest even in other stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle and not only in the REM state, per se. PMID:11743963

  4. 3D TARGET SCALE ESTIMATION FOR SIZE PRESERVING IN PTZ VIDEO TRACKING Yi Yao, Besma Abidi, and Mongi Abidi

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    3D TARGET SCALE ESTIMATION FOR SIZE PRESERVING IN PTZ VIDEO TRACKING Yi Yao, Besma Abidi, and Mongi ABSTRACT In size preserving video tracking, the camera's focal length (zoom) is adjusted automatically to compensate for the changes in the target's image size caused by the relative motion between the camera

  5. Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2006-01-01

    In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic…

  6. Seizures and Epilepsy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses different types of seizures including epileptic. The causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for epilepsy are reviewed. It also covers what to do when a seizure occurs, how to live with seizures, and preventive measures. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  7. Dermatoglyphics in seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Schaumann, B; Johnson, S B; Jantz, R L

    1982-01-01

    A dermatoglyphic study of 197 adult Caucasian males with a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy was carried out in an attempt to ascertain possible associations between aberrant dermatoglyphic and seizures and to estimate their diagnostic usefulness. Qualitative and quantitative fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic traits were evaluated. The data were analyzed by etiology seizures. Previous studies and our own earlier data (Schaumann 1979) analyzed by univariate statistical methods indicated the presence of some dermatoglyphic deviations in patients with epilepsy, suggesting the existence of a genetic predisposition to seizures of various etiologies. In the present study, a multivariate analysis was employed on an enlarged patient sample. Three variables were found to be significant: an increased main line index on the right palm (p less than .01) and decreased a-b ridge counts on both left and right palms (p less than .001). Tests of the eigenvalues showed only one value to be significant and accounting for 71.8% of the intergroup variation. PMID:6808522

  8. Neuropsychology of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Drane; Erica L. Coady; David J. Williamson; John W. Miller; Selim Benbadis

    \\u000a Nonepileptic seizures (NES) are operationally defined as episodes of ­involuntary movement, altered responsiveness, or subjective\\u000a experience that resemble epileptic seizures (ES), but are not accompanied by the abnormal electrical discharges in the brain\\u000a that is a seizure. (Lesser, 1996; Reuber and Elger, 2003). When these episodes are caused by psychological processes, they\\u000a are termed psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Other terms,

  9. Iopamidol Myelography-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Rajpal, Chitra; Nannapeneni, Srikanth; Venkatesh, Sundar

    2005-01-01

    Iopamidol, a water-soluble contrast agent, has been rarely associated with seizures. We describe a case of generalized tonic-clonic seizure after cervical myelography with iopamidol in a previously healthy young man. In patients presenting with seizures, a history of recent myelography should be considered as an etiology. Iopamidol myelography may be associated with a risk of seizures. Clinicians need to be aware of this complication and inform their patients about such risk. PMID:16369390

  10. Terminology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Bongiovanni, Luigi Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-03-01

    Several different terms have been used to describe "psychogenic nonepileptic seizures" (PNES) in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the most common English terms used to describe PNES on Google and in PubMed using multiple search terms (https://www.google.com and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). The information prevalence of the five terms most frequently used to refer to PNES in PubMed were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by pseudo(-)seizure(s), non(-)epileptic seizure(s), psychogenic seizure(s), and non(-)epileptic event(s). The five most frequently adopted terms to describe PNES in Google were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by non(-)epileptic event(s), psychogenic attack(s), non(-)epileptic attack(s), and psychogenic non(-)epileptic attack(s). The broad spectrum of synonyms used to refer to PNES in the medical literature reflects a lack of internationally accepted, uniform terminology for PNES. In addition to "seizure(s)," lay people use the word "attack(s)" to describe PNES. Although considered obsolete, some terms, e.g., pseudoseizure(s), are still used in the recent medical literature. Adopting a uniform terminology to describe PNES could facilitate communication between epileptologists, physicians without specific expertise in epilepsy, and patients. PMID:25631657

  11. Reflex seizures in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roche Martínez, Ana; Alonso Colmenero, M Itziar; Gomes Pereira, Andreia; Sanmartí Vilaplana, Francesc X; Armstrong Morón, Judith; Pineda Marfa, Mercé

    2011-12-01

    Reflex seizures are a rare phenomenon among epileptic patients, in which an epileptic discharge is triggered by various kinds of stimuli (visual, auditory, tactile or gustatory). Epilepsy is common in Rett syndrome patients (up to 70%), but to the authors' knowledge, no pressure or eating-triggered seizures have yet been reported in Rett children. We describe three epileptic Rett patients with reflex seizures, triggered by food intake or proprioception. One patient with congenital Rett Sd. developed infantile epileptic spasms at around seven months and two patients with classic Rett Sd. presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures at around five years. Reflex seizures appeared when the patients were teenagers. The congenital-Rett patient presented eating-triggered seizures at the beginning of almost every meal, demonstrated by EEG recording. Both classic Rett patients showed self-provoked pressure -triggered attacks, influenced by stress or excitement. Non-triggered seizures were controlled with carbamazepine or valproate, but reflex seizures did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Risperidone partially improved self-provoked seizures. When reflex seizures are suspected, reproducing the trigger during EEG recording is fundamental; however, self-provoked seizures depend largely on the patient's will. Optimal therapy (though not always possible) consists of avoiding the trigger. Stress modifiers such as risperidone may help control self-provoked seizures. PMID:22258043

  12. Loss of Zebrafish lgi1b Leads to Hydrocephalus and Sensitization to Pentylenetetrazol Induced Seizure-Like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; Saxena, Meera; Kozlowski, David J.; Mumm, Jeff S.; Cowell, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the LGI1 gene predispose to a hereditary epilepsy syndrome and is the first gene associated with this disease which does not encode an ion channel protein. In zebrafish, there are two paralogs of the LGI1 gene, lgi1a and lgi1b. Knockdown of lgi1a results in a seizure-like hyperactivity phenotype with associated developmental abnormalities characterized by cellular loss in the eyes and brain. We have now generated knockdown morphants for the lgi1b gene which also show developmental abnormalities but do not show a seizure-like behavior. Instead, the most striking phenotype involves significant enlargement of the ventricles (hydrocephalus). As shown for the lgi1a morphants, however, lgi1b morphants are also sensitized to PTZ-induced hyperactivity. The different phenotypes between the two lgi1 morphants support a subfunctionalization model for the two paralogs. PMID:22053218

  13. Seizure Prediction: Methods

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Paul R.; Myers, Stephen; Geyer, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy, one of the most common neurological diseases, affects over 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy can have a broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Although antiepileptic drugs have helped treat millions of patients, roughly a third of all patients have seizures that are refractory to pharmacological intervention. The evolution of our understanding of this dynamic disease leads to new treatment possibilities. There is great interest in the development of devices that incorporate algorithms capable of detecting early onset of seizures or even predicting them hours before they occur. The lead time provided by these new technologies will allow for new types of interventional treatment. In the near future, seizures may be detected and aborted before physical manifestations begin. In this chapter we discuss the algorithms that make these devices possible and how they have been implemented to date. We also compare and contrast these measures, and review their individual strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we illustrate how these techniques can be combined in a closed-loop seizure prevention system. PMID:22078526

  14. Quenching: inhibition of development and expression of amygdala kindled seizures with low frequency stimulation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S R; Li, X L; Rosen, J B; Li, H; Heynen, T; Post, R M

    1995-11-13

    Using low frequency (quenching) stimulation parameters (1 Hz for 15 min), similar to those that induce long-term depression (LTD) in vitro, we attempted to alter amygdala kindling in vivo in rats. Quenching completely blocked the development and progression of after-discharges and seizures in seven of eight animals. In fully kindled animals, once-daily quenching stimulation for one week (without concurrent kindling) suppressed the seizures when kindling stimulation was resumed. These effects of quenching probably resulted from the marked and long-lasting increases in the afterdischarge and seizure thresholds that were observed in these animals. These data indicate that quenching with low frequency electrical stimulation (which does not disrupt ongoing behavior) can have profound and long-lasting effects on seizure development, expression, and thresholds. The ultimate clinical applicability of low frequency stimulation in the treatment of seizures and related neuropsychiatric disorders remains to be explored. PMID:8595196

  15. Screening of the anticonvulsant activity of some plants from Fabaceae family in experimental seizure models in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, M.; Khodaparast, A.; Yazdi, A.; Sardari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Albizzia julibrissin, Acacia juliflora, Acacia nubica and aerial parts of Astragalus obtusifolius was evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure tests. Methods The hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were obtained by percolation. Different doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50Hz, 1sec) were monitored up to 30 min after administration. Acute toxicity of the extracts was also assessed. The safe and effective extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and anticonvulsant activity of the fractions was determined. Finally, the constituents of the extract and the fractions were screened by thin layer chromatography. Results Among the extracts, only A. obtusifolius extract showed low toxicity and protective effect against clonic seizures with ED50 value of 3.97 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract led to increase in anticonvulsant activity and ED50 value of 2.86 g/kg was obtained for the aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthrones and saponins in the aqueous fraction. Major conclusion The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in A. obtusifolius suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find out the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agent. PMID:22615673

  16. Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Animal models for seizures and epilepsy have played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of basic mechanisms underlying ictogenesis and epileptogenesis and have been instrumental in the discovery and preclinical development of novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, there is growing concern that the efficacy of drug treatment of epilepsy has not substantially improved with the introduction of new AEDs, which, at least in part, may be due to the fact that the same simple screening models, i.e., the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and s.c. pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure tests, have been used as gatekeepers in AED discovery for >6 decades. It has been argued that these old models may identify only drugs that share characteristics with existing drugs, and are unlikely to have an effect on refractory epilepsies. Indeed, accumulating evidence with several novel AEDs, including levetiracetan, has shown that the MES and PTZ models do not identify all potential AEDs but instead may fail to discover compounds that have great potential efficacy but work through mechanisms not tested by these models. Awareness of the limitations of acute seizure models comes at a critical crossroad. Clearly, preclinical strategies of AED discovery and development need a conceptual shift that is moving away from using models that identify therapies for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy to those that may be useful for identifying therapies that are more effective in the refractory population and that may ultimately lead to an effective cure in susceptible individuals by interfering with the processes underlying epilepsy. To realize this goal, the molecular mechanisms of the next generation of therapies must necessarily evolve to include targets that contribute to epileptogenesis and pharmacoresistance in relevant epilepsy models. PMID:21292505

  17. A low computation cost method for seizure prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Zhou, Weidong; Yuan, Qi; Wu, Qi

    2014-10-01

    The dynamic changes of electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in the period prior to epileptic seizures play a major role in the seizure prediction. This paper proposes a low computation seizure prediction algorithm that combines a fractal dimension with a machine learning algorithm. The presented seizure prediction algorithm extracts the Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD) of EEG signals as features to classify the patient's preictal or interictal state with Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA) as a classifier. The outputs of BLDA are smoothed by a Kalman filter for reducing possible sporadic and isolated false alarms and then the final prediction results are produced using a thresholding procedure. The algorithm was evaluated on the intracranial EEG recordings of 21 patients in the Freiburg EEG database. For seizure occurrence period of 30 min and 50 min, our algorithm obtained an average sensitivity of 86.95% and 89.33%, an average false prediction rate of 0.20/h, and an average prediction time of 24.47 min and 39.39 min, respectively. The results confirm that the changes of HFD can serve as a precursor of ictal activities and be used for distinguishing between interictal and preictal epochs. Both HFD and BLDA classifier have a low computational complexity. All of these make the proposed algorithm suitable for real-time seizure prediction. PMID:25062892

  18. A positioning system for forest diseases and pests based on GIS and PTZ camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Wang, L. L.; Zhao, F. F.; Wang, C. B.

    2014-03-01

    Forest diseases and pests cause enormous economic losses and ecological damage every year in China. To prevent and control forest diseases and pests, the key is to get accurate information timely. In order to improve monitoring coverage rate and economize on manpower, a cooperative investigation model for forest diseases and pests is put forward. It is composed of video positioning system and manual labor reconnaissance with mobile GIS embedded in PDA. Video system is used to scan the disaster area, and is particularly effective on where trees are withered. Forest diseases prevention and control workers can check disaster area with PDA system. To support this investigation model, we developed a positioning algorithm and a positioning system. The positioning algorithm is based on DEM and PTZ camera. Moreover, the algorithm accuracy is validated. The software consists of 3D GIS subsystem, 2D GIS subsystem, video control subsystem and disaster positioning subsystem. 3D GIS subsystem makes positioning visual, and practically easy to operate. 2D GIS subsystem can output disaster thematic map. Video control subsystem can change Pan/Tilt/Zoom of a digital camera remotely, to focus on the suspected area. Disaster positioning subsystem implements the positioning algorithm. It is proved that the positioning system can observe forest diseases and pests in practical application for forest departments.

  19. Hypersexuality and limbic system seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J. Andy

    1977-01-01

    Hypersexual behavior was induced in adult male cats by repeatedly evoked limbic system seizures. Accentuation of Dopaminergic\\u000a activity with drugs was used to facilitate development of the seizure induced hypersexuality. Hypersexuality consisted of\\u000a biting knap of neck, mounting, thrusting and coital intromission. The gradual development and eventual disappearance of hypersexuality\\u000a was correlated with the progressive prolongation of the seizures in

  20. Modeling Glial Contributions to Seizures and Epileptogenesis: Cation-Chloride Cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rusan, Zeid M.; Kingsford, Olivia A.; Tanouye, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl? cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi) of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24–48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl? cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed. PMID:24971529

  1. Hypocalcemia-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Bradley J.; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is essential for both neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction. Given these important physiological processes, it seems reasonable to assume that hypocalcemia may lead to reduced neuromuscular excitability. Counterintuitively, however, clinical observation has frequently documented hypocalcemia’s role in induction of seizures and general excitability processes such as tetany, Chvostek’s sign, and bronchospasm. The mechanism of this calcium paradox remains elusive, and very few pathophysiological studies have addressed this conundrum. Nevertheless, several studies primarily addressing other biophysical issues have provided some clues. In this review, we analyze the data of these studies and propose an integrative model to explain this hypocalcemic paradox. PMID:25810356

  2. Pathology Case Study: Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickman, Paul S.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

  3. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basim M Uthman

    2000-01-01

    It is agreed that 1% of the general population is afflicted with epilepsy and close to 30% of epilepsy patients are intractable to medications. In spite of a recent increase in the number of new medications that are available on the market, many patients continue to have seizures or their seizures are controlled at the expense of intolerable side effects.

  4. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 ?g/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  5. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  6. Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance

    PubMed Central

    Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

  7. Seizure Treatment in Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Solid organ transplantation is frequently complicated by a spectrum of seizure types, including single partial-onset or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, acute repetitive seizures or status epilepticus, and sometimes the evolution of symptomatic epilepsy. There is currently no specific evidence involving the transplant patient population to guide the selection, administration, or duration of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, so familiarity with clinical AED pharmacology and application of sound judgment are necessary for successful patient outcomes. An initial detailed search for symptomatic seizure etiologies, including metabolic, infectious, cerebrovascular, and calcineurin inhibitor treatment-related neuro-toxic complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), is imperative, as underlying central nervous system disorders may impose additional serious risks to cerebral or general health if not promptly detected and appropriately treated. The mainstay for post-transplant seizure management is AED therapy directed toward the suspected seizure type. Unfavorable drug interactions could place the transplanted organ at risk, so choosing an AED with limited interaction potential is also crucial. When the transplanted organ is dysfunctional or vulnerable to rejection, AEDs without substantial hepatic metabolism are favored in post-liver transplant patients, whereas after renal transplantation, AEDs with predominantly renal elimination may require dosage adjustment to prevent adverse effects. Levetiracetam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and lacosamide are drugs of choice for treatment of partial-onset seizures in post-transplant patients given their efficacy spectrum, generally excellent tolerability, and lack of drug interaction potential. Levetiracetam is the drug of choice for primary generalized seizures in post-transplant patients. When intravenous drugs are necessary for acute seizure management, benzodiazepines and fosphenytoin are the traditional and best evidence-based options, although intravenous levetiracetam, valproate, and lacosamide are emerging options. Availability of several newer AEDs has greatly expanded the therapeutic armamentarium for safe and efficacious treatment of post-transplant seizures, but future prospective clinical trials and pharmacokinetic studies within this specific patient population are needed. PMID:22660960

  8. Seizures as a manifestation of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sponsler, Jeffrey L; Kendrick-Adey, Anastasia C

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of seizures is generally accepted to be greater in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) than in the general population, and rarely, MS can initially present as seizure. To present a case report of seizure as the initial symptom of MS, to quantify the occurrence of seizures among MS patients, and to classify patients according to when seizures occur relative to onset of MS. The medical history of patients presenting with MS and seizure in our clinic was examined. In addition, 25 scientific papers were reviewed and the number and characteristics of patients with MS and seizure recorded. Data from the literature review and from our own clinical series were combined and examined. Of the MS patients, 1.95% experienced seizures at any time during life. Patients experiencing seizures before MS diagnosis were classified into three categories: (a) 25 (7.3% of patients with MS and seizures) with seizure as the initial presentation of MS; (b) 27 (7.9%) with seizures appearing with other signs and symptoms of MS; and (c) 68 (20%) with seizures occurring years or an unknown period of time before MS onset. Seizure occurring as a symptom of MS relapse was found in 29 patients. The prevalence of seizures among MS patients was higher than that in the general population, indicating a relationship between seizures and MS. Seizures occurred before MS diagnosis in a small percentage of patients. PMID:22258045

  9. Common dynamics in temporal lobe seizures and absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Schiff, N D; Labar, D R; Victor, J D

    1999-01-01

    Similarities among the clinical features of complex partial temporal lobe seizures and absence (petit mal) seizures suggest shared underlying mechanisms, but dissimilar electrographic features of the two seizure types have cast doubt on common neuronal substrates. However, visual inspection and traditional approaches to quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram and electrocorticogram, such as Fourier analysis, may not be appropriate to identify and characterize the highly non-linear mechanisms likely to underlie ictal events. We previously introduced a technique, non-linear autoregressive analysis, that is designed to identify non-linear dynamics in the electroencephalogram [Schiff N. D. et al. (1991) Society of Neuroscience 21st Annual Meeting, 638.6; Schiff N. D. et al. (1995) Biol. Cybern. 72, 519-526, 527-533]. The non-linear autoregressive analysis technique is aimed at describing seizure discharges as a disturbance of synchrony at the level of neuronal circuits. In absence seizures, we showed that non-linear autoregressive analysis revealed a consistent "fingerprint" of these non-linearities in 3/s discharges within and across patients. Here, we investigate the possibility that non-linear autoregressive modeling of seizure records from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy might reveal common circuit mechanisms when compared with the non-linear autoregressive analysis fingerprint of absence seizures. Electrocorticographic records of seizure activity were obtained in four patients who had received subdural grids or strips implanted in preparation for epilepsy surgery. Decomposition of the multichannel data recorded from these patients by principal component analysis revealed that at least three to five independent "generators" were required to model the data from each patient. Non-linear autoregressive analysis of these extracted generators revealed non-linear dynamics in two patients. In both patients, the temporal aspects of these non-linearities were similar to the characteristic non-linearities identified in the non-linear autoregressive analysis fingerprint of absence seizures. In particular, both patients showed a non-linear interaction of signals 90 ms in the past with signals 150 ms in the past. This was the most prominent interaction seen in all patients with absence seizures (typical and atypical). These results suggest that seizures from some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy may share common underlying circuit mechanisms with those of absence seizures. Physiological interpretations of these results are considered and proposed mechanisms are placed into the context of the alterations of consciousness seen in both epilepsies. PMID:10365999

  10. Running wheel activity protects against increased seizure susceptibility in ethanol withdrawn male rats

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Walter D.; Walls, Shawn A.; Khurana, Ritu C.; Rosenwasser, Alan M.; Devaud, Leslie L.

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol withdrawal is a dysphoric condition that arises from termination of ethanol intake by dependent individuals. Common withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, increased reactivity to stimuli and increased seizure susceptibility as well as the risk of increased seizure severity. We use an animal model of dependence and withdrawal to study withdrawal behaviors and potential underlying neurobiological mechanisms. For a number of years, we have quantified pentylenetetrazol seizure thresholds as an assessment of ethanol withdrawal at both one day and three days of withdrawal. Typically, we see a significant decrease in seizure threshold (increased sensitivity to seizure induction) that persists through three days of withdrawal for male rats. Increasing evidence indicates that voluntary exercise affords protection against various challenges to physical and psychological health, including ethanol-related challenges. Therefore, the current study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on seizure susceptibility following chronic ethanol administration and withdrawal. We found that voluntary wheel running attenuated the increased sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures observed with ethanol withdrawal, at both the one-day and three-day time points. This result was especially interesting as animals with access to the running wheels consumed more of the ethanol-containing diet. These findings showed that chronic voluntary wheel running reduces the severity of ethanol withdrawal in our animal model and suggest that exercise-based interventions may have some utility in the clinical management of heavy drinking and alcohol withdrawal. PMID:22037408

  11. Elevated expression of pleiotrophin in pilocarpine-induced seizures of immature rats and in pentylenetetrazole-induced hippocampal astrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Liang, Feng; Wang, Bing; Le, Yuan; Wang, Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated cytokine that has emerged as an important neuromodulator with multiple neuronal functions. In the present study, we detected and compared the dynamic expression of PTN in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex of immature rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Moreover, we also confirmed the results by examining PTN expression in hippocampal astrocytes cultured in the presence of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Immunohistochemistry showed faint immunostaining of PTN in the control hippocampus and adjacent cortex. Notably, PTN immunoreactivity began to increase in relatively small cells in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 2h and 3 weeks after seizures, and the labeling intensity reached the maximum level in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 8 weeks after seizures. Furthermore, we also found that PTZ treatment significantly reduced astrocytic viability in a dose-dependent manner and time-dependently increased expression levels of PTN in hippocampal astrocytes. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased expression of PTN in the brain tissues may be involved in epileptogenesis. PMID:24157126

  12. Networking Property During Epileptic Seizure with Multichannel EEG Recordings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huihua Wu; Xiaoli Li; Xinping Guan

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a EEG recordings are widely used in epilepsy research. We intend to address a question whether small world network property\\u000a exists in neural networks when epileptic seizures occur. In this paper, we introduce a bispectrum analysis to calculate the\\u000a interaction between two EEG recordings; then, a suitable threshold is chosen to convert the interaction of the six channels\\u000a at five frequency

  13. Occipital seizures imitating migraine aura.

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotopoulos, C P; Sharoqi, I A; Agathonikou, A

    1997-01-01

    Three cases are reported in which symptoms of occipital seizures resembled the visual aura of migraine. Careful recording of the characteristics and timing of such visual effects will often resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:9204019

  14. Electroclinical characterization of epileptic seizures in leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Chabrol, Elodie; Navarro, Vincent; Provenzano, Giovanni; Cohen, Ivan; Dinocourt, Céline; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Fricker, Desdemona; Baulac, Michel; Miles, Richard; LeGuern, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the LGI1 (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1) gene underlie autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, a focal idiopathic inherited epilepsy syndrome. The LGI1 gene encodes a protein secreted by neurons, one of the only non-ion channel genes implicated in idiopathic familial epilepsy. While mutations probably result in a loss of function, the role of LGI1 in the pathophysiology of epilepsy remains unclear. Here we generated a germline knockout mouse for LGI1 and examined spontaneous seizure characteristics, changes in threshold for induced seizures and hippocampal pathology. Frequent spontaneous seizures emerged in homozygous LGI1?/? mice during the second postnatal week. Properties of these spontaneous events were examined in a simultaneous video and intracranial electroencephalographic recording. Their mean duration was 120 ± 12?s, and behavioural correlates consisted of an initial immobility, automatisms, sometimes followed by wild running and tonic and/or clonic movements. Electroencephalographic monitoring indicated that seizures originated earlier in the hippocampus than in the cortex. LGI1?/? mice did not survive beyond postnatal day 20, probably due to seizures and failure to feed. While no major developmental abnormalities were observed, after recurrent seizures we detected neuronal loss, mossy fibre sprouting, astrocyte reactivity and granule cell dispersion in the hippocampus of LGI1?/? mice. In contrast, heterozygous LGI1+/? littermates displayed no spontaneous behavioural epileptic seizures, but auditory stimuli induced seizures at a lower threshold, reflecting the human pathology of sound-triggered seizures in some patients. We conclude that LGI1+/? and LGI1?/? mice may provide useful models for lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, and more generally idiopathic focal epilepsy. PMID:20659958

  15. Decreased Seizure Activity in a Human Neonate Treated With Bumetanide, an Inhibitor of the Na+-K+-2Cl Cotransporter NKCC1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristopher T. Kahle; Sarah M. Barnett; Kenneth C. Sassower; Kevin J. Staley

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal seizures have devastating consequences for brain development and are inadequately treated by available antiepileptics. In neonates, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an excitatory neurotransmitter due to elevated levels of intraneuronal chloride achieved by robust activity of the Na+-K+-2Cl - cotransporter (NKCC1). This depolarizing action of GABA likely contributes to the lowered seizure threshold, increased seizure propensity, and poor efficacy of

  16. Can venous blood gas analysis be used for predicting seizure recurrence in emergency department?

    PubMed Central

    K?l?c, Turgay Y?lmaz; Yesilaras, Murat; Atilla, Ozge Duman; Sever, Mustafa; Aksay, Ersin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epileptic seizures account for 1%–2% of all admissions of patients to the emergency department (ED). The present study aimed to determine whether venous blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate levels taken within 1 hour of the last seizure episode help to determine seizure recurrence in emergency departments. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) between January and July, 2012. Patients who were admitted to the emergency department consecutively were included in the study if they were 14 years or older and within 1 hour after last seizure. Demographics, seizure type, use of antiepileptic drugs, observation period at the emergency department, seizure recurrence, pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate levels from venous blood gas analysis were determined. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients aged 14 years or older were included in the study. Of these patients, 10.6% (n=10) experienced recurrent seizures in the observation period at the emergency department. To predict recurrent seizures in ED, threshold venous blood gas values were determined as follows: pH<7.245 [sensitivity 80% (95%CI: 44–96), negative predictive value 96.9% (95%CI: 88.3–99.4)], bicarbonate<17.1 mmol/L [sensitivity 80% (95%CI: 44–96), negative predictive value 97% (95%CI: 89–99.5)], base excess<–11.1 mEq/L [sensitivity 80% (95%CI: 44–96), negative predictive value 97% (95%CI: 89–99)], and lactate>7.65 mmol/L [sensitivity 80% (95%CI: 44–96), negative predictive value 96.6% (95%CI: 87–99)]. CONCLUSION: If venous blood gas analysis is made on pH, base excess, lactate and bicarbonate immediately one hour after the last epileptic seizure episode, it is possible to predict whether the patient will have seizure recurrence. PMID:25225582

  17. Management and Prophylaxis of Seizures in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The National Child Development Study, U.K., provides a perspective of the types of seizures that might be anticipated in a representative childhood population. Management is considered under the broad headings of general and specific considerations. A classification enables a physician to perform a rapid triage of a child experiencing a seizure. Specific management considerations are outlined for status epilepticus, febrile seizures, and recurrent afebrile seizures, particularly of absence and temporal lobe type. Prophylaxis of post traumatic seizures, and the importance of recognizing the group of childhood disorders mimicking seizures, are also discussed. Imagesp1183-a PMID:21293681

  18. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Meničre's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Meničre's classical observation. PMID:2529669

  19. Networks involved in seizure initiation

    PubMed Central

    Vaudano, Anna E.; Carmichael, David W.; Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Lemieux, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To define the ictal cortical/subcortical network of reading-induced seizures. Methods: We analyzed ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) and EEG-correlated fMRI (EEG-fMRI) data in a unique patient with reading epilepsy (RE) affected by frequent perioral reflex myocloni triggered by reading silently. Results: Ictal MEG corroborated EEG localization and revealed activity extending precentrally into Brodmann area (BA) 6. fMRI blood oxygen level?dependent (BOLD) signal changes in the left deep piriform cortex (PFC) and left BA6 preceded seizures and occurred before BOLD changes were observed in thalamus and right inferior frontal gyrus (BA44). Dynamic causal modeling provided evidence of a causal link between hemodynamic changes in the left PFC and reading-evoked seizures. Conclusion: Our findings support the important role of deep cortical and subcortical structures, in particular the frontal PFC, as key regions in initiating and modulating seizure activity. In our patient with RE, BA6 appeared to be the area linking cognitive activation and seizure activity. PMID:22764255

  20. Epileptic seizure prediction and control.

    PubMed

    Iasemidis, Leon D

    2003-05-01

    Epileptic seizures are manifestations of epilepsy, a serious brain dynamical disorder second only to strokes. Of the world's approximately 50 million people with epilepsy, fully 1/3 have seizures that are not controlled by anti-convulsant medication. The field of seizure prediction, in which engineering technologies are used to decode brain signals and search for precursors of impending epileptic seizures, holds great promise to elucidate the dynamical mechanisms underlying the disorder, as well as to enable implantable devices to intervene in time to treat epilepsy. There is currently an explosion of interest in this field in academic centers and medical industry with clinical trials underway to test potential prediction and intervention methodology and devices for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. This invited paper presents an overview of the application of signal processing methodologies based upon the theory of nonlinear dynamics to the problem of seizure prediction. Broader application of these developments to a variety of systems requiring monitoring, forecasting and control is a natural outgrowth of this field. PMID:12769431

  1. A novel low-power-implantable epileptic seizure-onset detector.

    PubMed

    Salam, M T; Sawan, M; Dang Khoa Nguyen

    2011-12-01

    A novel implantable low-power integrated circuit is proposed for real-time epileptic seizure detection. The presented chip is part of an epilepsy prosthesis device that triggers focal treatment to disrupt seizure progression. The proposed chip integrates a front-end preamplifier, voltage-level detectors, digital demodulators, and a high-frequency detector. The preamplifier uses a new chopper stabilizer topology that reduces instrumentation low-frequency and ripple noises by modulating the signal in the analog domain and demodulating it in the digital domain. Moreover, each voltage-level detector consists of an ultra-low-power comparator with an adjustable threshold voltage. The digitally integrated high-frequency detector is tunable to recognize the high-frequency activities for the unique detection of seizure patterns specific to each patient. The digitally controlled circuits perform accurate seizure detection. A mathematical model of the proposed seizure detection algorithm was validated in Matlab and circuits were implemented in a 2 mm(2) chip using the CMOS 0.18- ?m process. The proposed detector was tested by using intracerebral electroencephalography (icEEG) recordings from seven patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. The seizure signals were assessed by the proposed detector and the average seizure detection delay was 13.5 s, well before the onset of clinical manifestations. The measured total power consumption of the detector is 51 ?W. PMID:23852554

  2. The auriculo-vagal afferent pathway and its role in seizure suppression in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The afferent projections from the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) have been proposed as the anatomical basis for the increased parasympathetic tone seen in auriculo-vagal reflexes. As the afferent center of the vagus nerve, the NTS has been considered to play roles in the anticonvulsant effect of cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Here we proposed an “auriculo-vagal afferent pathway” (AVAP), by which transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) suppresses pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures by activating the NTS neurons in rats. Results The afferent projections from the ABVN to the NTS were firstly observed in rats. ta-VNS increased the first grand mal latency of the epileptic seizure and decreased the seizure scores in awake rats. Furthermore, when the firing rates of the NTS neurons decreased, epileptiform activity manifested as electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization increased with 0.37±0.12 s delay in anaesthetized rats. The change of instantaneous frequency, mean frequency of the NTS neurons was negative correlated with the amplitude of the epileptic activity in EEG traces. ta-VNS significantly suppressed epileptiform activity in EEG traces via increasing the firing rates of the neurons of the NTS. In comparison with tan-VNS, the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS were significantly longer (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS (P>0.05). The anticonvulsant effect of ta-VNS was weakened by reversible cold block of the NTS. Conclusions There existed an anatomical relationship between the ABVN and the NTS, which strongly supports the concept that ta-VNS has the potential for suppressing epileptiform activity via the AVAP in rats. ta-VNS will provide alternative treatments for neurological disorders, which can avoid the disadvantage of VNS. PMID:23927528

  3. Cardiorespiratory abnormalities during epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Kothare, Sanjeev V; Singh, Kanwaljit

    2014-12-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of death in young and otherwise healthy patients with epilepsy, and sudden death is at least 20 times more common in epilepsy patients as compared to patients without epilepsy. A significant proportion of patients with epilepsy experience cardiac and respiratory complications during seizures. These cardiorespiratory complications are suspected to be a significant risk factor for SUDEP. Sleep physicians are increasingly involved in the care of epilepsy patients and a recognition of these changes in relation to seizures while a patient is under their care may improve their awareness of these potentially life-threatening complications that may occur during sleep studies. This paper details these cardiopulmonary changes that take place in relation to epileptic seizures and how these changes may relate to the occurrence of SUDEP. PMID:25311834

  4. Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Possible Outcomes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... BETWEEN FE- BRILE SEIZURES AND LATER DEVELOPMENT OF EPILEPSY? Overall, about 6% of children who experienced febrile ... SEIZURES AND LATER DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFIC TYPES OF EPILEPSY? Epilepsy that does not respond well to standard ...

  5. Electrolytic entorhinal lesions cause seizures.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; McNamara, J O

    1982-01-14

    The entorhinal cortex is a key site of interneuronal communication between a variety of cortical and subcortical areas and hippocampal formation. Lesioning the entorhinal cortex is commonly used in studies of the hippocampal formation, animal behavior and neuronal plasticity. We have found that electrolytic destruction of the entorhinal cortex consistently produces limbic seizure activity in rats. The propensity of lesions in this area for producing seizure activity may facilitate insights into the normal function of this network of neural connections. This unexpected phenomenon represents a potential confounding variable for all researchers using this method for making brain lesions. PMID:7055687

  6. The serotonin axis: Shared mechanisms in seizures, depression and SUDEP

    PubMed Central

    Richerson, George B.; Buchanan, Gordon F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary There is a growing appreciation that patients with seizures are also affected by a number of co-morbid conditions, including an increase in prevalence of depression (Kanner, 2009), sleep apnea (Chihorek et al, 2007), and sudden death (Ryvlin et al, 2006; Tomson et al, 2008). The mechanisms responsible for these associations are unclear. Here we discuss the possibility that underlying pathology in the serotonin (5-HT) system of epilepsy patients lowers the threshold for seizures, while also increasing the risk of depression and sudden death. We propose that post-ictal dysfunction of 5-HT neurons causes depression of breathing and arousal in some epilepsy patients, and this can lead to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We further draw parallels between SUDEP and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which may share pathophysiological mechanisms, and which have both been linked to defects in the 5-HT system. PMID:21214537

  7. Utility of different seizure induction protocols in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gourav; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K

    2014-08-01

    Psychogenic non epileptic seizure (PNES) can be induced by several induction tests but their relative usefulness has not been evaluated. In this study, we report the sensitivity and specificity of various induction tests in the diagnosis of PNES and assess their discomfort level. The induction tests were: (a) compression of temple region (CTR), (b) verbal suggestion (VS), (c) tuning fork application (TFA), (d) moist swab application (MSA), (e) torch light stimulation (TLS) and (f) saline injection (SI). Up to 3 trials were done for each test except for normal saline injection which was given once. For comparison of these tests, patients with epileptic seizures were included as controls. The time to precipitate PNES was recorded and patients' discomfort levels were noted on a 0-10 scale. Video EEG was recorded in the PNES patients. 140 patients with PNES and 50 controls with epileptic seizures were included. The diagnostic yield of CTR was 65.7%, TFA 61.4%, MSA 60.7%, SI 55.6%, VS 54.3% and TLS 40.7%. These tests did not induce seizures in the controls. All these tests had 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in the diagnosis of PNES. The maximum discomfort was reported with SI and minimum with MSA. The similarity of efficacy and discomfort with CTR and TFA appear to be the most optimal induction techniques when compared with VS, AMS, TLS, and SI. PMID:24802296

  8. Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Page 1 of 20 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Distribution authorized to all. Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Submitted by Nicolas Roy University) 393 8351 Email nroy@usc.edu Date: April 27, 2010 Work performed at USC #12;Veterinary Seizure Detector

  9. An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus…

  10. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  11. Seizure-induced disinhibition of the HPA axis increases seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Kate K; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility. PMID:24225328

  12. Seizure-induced disinhibition of the HPA axis increases seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Kate K.; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility. PMID:24225328

  13. Primarily generalized seizures are more effective than partial seizures in arousing patients from sleep.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, Richard M; Kofke, W Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of generalized and partial seizures which awaken patients from sleep, using a retrospective review of intracranial EEG recordings in 8017 electrographic and 7571 clinical seizures in 172 patients undergoing evaluation for epilepsy brain surgery. Seizure onset during sleep followed by awakening occurred in 99% of 308 seizures in 22 patients during daytime naps. Four events consisted of spontaneous awakening followed by the seizure. In contrast electrographic seizures almost never awakened the patient if they were partial in onset (0.02% temporal, 0% frontal), but did so 26% of the time if they were generalized (p < 0.001). Conversely, generalized clinical seizures awakened the patient only 0.3% of the time (p < 0.001) versus 3% for temporal and 6% for frontal lobe. Partial and generalized seizures differ during sleep. Partial seizures do not awaken until they propagate outside the lobe and evolve into a clinical seizure. Generalized seizures when only electrographic, include wake-regulating structures at their onset (presumably thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem). Our results suggest that rather than sleep transitions being a facilitatory cause of seizures, seizures awaken us from sleep via endogenous stimulation of the brain's sleep/wake structures. This pathway information may be relevant to planning epilepsy brain surgery. PMID:12564128

  14. Des-acyl ghrelin attenuates pilocarpine-induced limbic seizures via the ghrelin receptor and not the orexin pathway.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Coppens, Jessica; Demuyser, Thomas; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    Des-acyl ghrelin, widely accepted to work independently of the ghrelin receptor, is increasingly being implicated in a number of biological functions. The involvement of des-acyl ghrelin in epilepsy has only been recently reported. In this study, apart from unravelling the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on seizure thresholds and seizure severity in two models of pilocarpine-induced seizures, we mainly attempted to unravel its anticonvulsant mechanism of action. Since it was found that des-acyl ghrelin administration affected food intake via the orexin pathway, we first determined whether this pathway was responsible for des-acyl ghrelin's seizure-attenuating properties using the dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant. We noted that, while des-acyl ghrelin showed dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects against focal pilocarpine-evoked seizures in rats, almorexant did not affect seizure severity and did not reverse des-acyl ghrelin's anticonvulsant effect. Subsequently, to investigate whether the ghrelin receptor was implicated in des-acyl ghrelin's anticonvulsant properties, we tested this peptide in ghrelin receptor deficient mice and wild type mice, all infused with pilocarpine intravenously. Unexpectedly, we found that des-acyl ghrelin significantly elevated seizure thresholds in C57Bl/6 and wild type mice but not in ghrelin receptor knock-out mice. Taken together, our results indicate the involvement of the ghrelin receptor in the anticonvulsant effects of des-acyl ghrelin on pilocarpine-induced seizures. We also show for the first time that dual antagonism of hippocampal orexin receptors does not affect seizure severity. PMID:26002375

  15. [Dacrystic and asystolic epileptic seizures].

    PubMed

    de Sčze, J; Caparros-Lefebvre, D; Girard-Buttaz, I; Carlioz, R; Pruvo, J P; Petit, H

    1995-01-01

    A 33-year-man with an encephalopathy of unknown aetiology, had an history of epilepsia for 30 years. Different types of seizures were seen, including grand mal and frontal attacks. Epilepsia was associated with mental retardation and behavioral disorders. At the age of 33, he was admitted for repetitive general convulsions. Epilepticus status lasted for two weeks and improved with vigabatrin et clonazepam. General seizures, frontal motor convulsions with arms and trunk antepulsion, and dacrystic attacks were seen. The latter seemed to be like normal crying because they were accompanied by lacrimation, contorted and mournful facies, and sobbing sounds. One year later, repetitive cardiac arrests occurred during a new epilepticus status. Cardiac arrests, observed on ECG holter lasted 10 to 24 seconds, without cardiac dysfunction. EEG patterns on ECG holter lasted 10 to 24 seconds, without cardiac dysfunction. EEG patterns included theta and delta activity with rhythmic slow wave epileptic activity, predominating on right side, in temporal areas. CT scan was normal. MRI showed right cerebral atrophy, prevailing in the temporo-mesial region, with right temporal horn enlargement. This case report of dacrystic seizures, the first one with MRI study, suggests that temporo-mesial structures of the non-dominant hemisphere may be involved in dacrystic and asystolic attacks. PMID:7481407

  16. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2014-07-18

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. PMID:25038202

  17. Emergency Management of Seizures in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to…

  18. ?-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. ?-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

  19. Patterns of seizure occurrence in catamenial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Herkes, G K; Eadie, M J; Sharbrough, F; Moyer, T

    1993-05-01

    The pattern of seizure occurrence was analysed over 44 menstrual cycles in 12 epileptic women who considered they had menstrually related seizures. Two peaks in the daily seizure rate were apparent. A significant increase in seizures occurred during the days of menstrual flow and the two days preceding it, with a second peak in the four days at midcycle. The lowest seizure rate was in the late phase of the menstrual cycle. Daily salivary progesterone levels were assayed in 11 women, and 12 ovulatory and eight anovulatory cycles were identified on this basis. No increase in seizures occurred at midcycle if ovulation did not occur, but the perimenstrual increase took place irrespective of ovulatory status. PMID:8325277

  20. Breakthrough seizures after starting vilazodone for depression.

    PubMed

    McKean, James; Watts, Hannah; Mokszycki, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Vilazodone is a new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and serotonin 5-HT1a partial agonist that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration to treat major depression. SSRI-induced seizures are rare and are more likely to be associated with larger doses and severe symptoms such as those present in serotonin syndrome. Several case reports have implicated SSRIs, buspirone, or the combination of these agents as the cause of seizures, but these reports were confounded with either coingestions or doses that exceeded FDA recommendations. We describe a 22-year-old woman with a history of seizure disorder who had been seizure free for the previous 8 years and experienced two breakthrough seizures shortly after starting vilazodone. Her dose of vilazodone had recently been titrated to 40 mg/day when she experienced the first seizure. She was instructed to taper vilazodone over the next several days, then discontinue the drug, and then follow up with her neurologist. Based on the patient's history, physical examination, and recent dose increase, it was plausible that vilazodone was the cause of the seizures. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a possible relationship (score of 4) between her development of seizures and vilazodone therapy. The pharmacodynamics of this particular class of SSRI has both proconvulsive and anticonvulsive mechanisms. This is of particular concern in patients with a history of seizure disorder who are starting antidepressive therapy. In persons with epilepsy who are taking vilazodone and experience breakthrough seizures, practitioners should consider this drug as a potential cause of these seizures. Thus, until future research and experience with vilazodone can provide a definitive answer, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing this medication to treat depression in patients with a history of seizure disorder. PMID:25809181

  1. Extreme Hypertension, Eclampsia and Critical Care Seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Errol Gordon; Michel T. Torbey

    \\u000a The association between seizures and blood pressure elevation remains a common medical emergency encountered in an ICU setting.\\u000a Syndromes such as pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, hypertensive encephalopathy, and posterior leukoencephalopathy commonly present\\u000a with seizures. The primary treatment goal is to reduce the arterial blood pressure. In most cases seizure control is thus\\u000a achieved, but unique medications, such as magnesium sulfate, may

  2. Extreme Hypertension, Eclampsia, and Critical Care Seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Errol Gordon; Michel T. Torbey

    The association between seizures and blood pressure elevation remains a common medical emergency encountered in the setting\\u000a of an intensive care unit. Syndromes such as preeclampsia or eclampsia, hypertensive encephalopathy, and posterior leukoencephalopathy\\u000a commonly present with seizures. The primary treatment goal is to reduce the arterial blood pressure. In most cases, seizure\\u000a control is thus achieved, but unique medications, such

  3. Possible causes of seizure after spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Seizure after laminectomy for spinal procedure is very rare and has not been reported after lipomyelomeningocele surgery beforehand. Here, two cases of seizure following laminectomy for lipomyelomeningocele are reported. The exact etiology of the event is unknown but anesthetic material, pneumocephalus, intracranial hypotension subsequent to cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal procedures, spinal-induced seizure and the potential toxic effect of fat molecules could be considered. PMID:21042506

  4. Levetiracetam in neonatal seizures: a review.

    PubMed

    Mruk, Allison L; Garlitz, Karen L; Leung, Noelle R

    2015-01-01

    Phenobarbital and phenytoin have been the mainstay treatment modalities for neonatal seizures. Studies have revealed these agents control seizures in less than half of neonates, can cause neuronal apoptosis in vitro, and have highly variable pharmacokinetics in neonates. In contrast, there have been no reports of levetiracetam causing these neurotoxic effects. Due to its favorable side effect and pharmacokinetic profiles and positive efficacy outcomes in neonatal studies to date, there is great interest in the use of levetiracetam for neonatal seizures. This article reviews the literature regarding the safety of levetiracetam in neonates and its efficacy in neonatal seizures. PMID:25964725

  5. Importance of cardiological evaluation for first seizures.

    PubMed

    Choong, Ho; Hanna, Ibrahim; Beran, Roy

    2015-04-16

    This paper reports two cases of long QT syndrome (LQTS) which presented with seizures as their initial feature. Case 1, AB was seen in emergency department with post-partum seizure, discharged and re-presented following cardiac arrest associated with LQTS. Case 2, CD presented initially with tonic-clonic seizure and because of experience with AB, CD was assessed for LQTS which was subsequently confirmed. The legal medicine experience re Dobler v Halverson, which involved a young boy with LQTS, who suffered cardiac arrest without prior diagnosis of LQTS, has reinforced the requirement to seriously consider LQTS as an aetiological factor in first seizure presentations. PMID:25879012

  6. Postictal serum creatine kinase for the differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Erro, Roberto; Bongiovanni, Luigi Giuseppe; Marangi, Antonio; Nardone, Raffaele; Tinazzi, Michele; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of postictal creatine kinase (CK) levels in the differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). A systematic search was conducted for studies that evaluated postictal CK levels in patients with ES (all types) and PNES. Sensitivity and specificity with 95 % confidence intervals were determined for each study, taking into account: (a) the upper limits adopted; and (b) the 95.7th percentile values, which are recently proposed practical upper reference limits for CK activity. Four studies, comprising a total of 343 events (248 ES and 95 PNES), were available for analysis. Most patients (47/78, 60 %) with ES considered had primarily or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The sensitivity of increased postictal CK levels for ES ranged from 14.6 to 87.5, whereas specificity ranged from 85.0 to 100.0. At the 95.7th percentile threshold, sensitivity ranged from 14.6 to 62.5 and specificity was 100.0. The limited number of studies available, their small sample size, and lack of individual event data prevented further stratification analysis by seizure type. Despite the clinical heterogeneity and the limitations of the included studies, increased postictal CK levels are highly specific for the diagnosis of ES, although no definite conclusion on its role in differentiating between convulsive and non-convulsive ES can be drawn. Postictal serum CK levels can provide valuable retrospective information at the later stages of the differential diagnosis of ES and PNES. Due to low sensitivity, normal postictal CK levels do not exclude ES. PMID:24824225

  7. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84...

  8. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84...

  9. Informing patients about the impact of provocation methods increases the rate of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures during EEG recording.

    PubMed

    Hoepner, Robert; Labudda, Kirsten; Schoendienst, Martin; May, Theodor W; Bien, Christian G; Brandt, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Observation of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) during video-EEG represents the diagnostic gold standard for PNESs. Different provocative techniques have been used to increase PNES frequency during EEG. These techniques include placebo administration, suggestion strategies, or both. In order to avoid the appearance of deception, we investigated the following hypothesis: If patients with PNESs were informed about the possible reduction of seizure threshold caused by hyperventilation and photic stimulation prior to EEG without any other suggestive strategies, PNESs would occur more frequently. In total, 34 inpatients with a diagnosis of PNESs, who had been informed prior to EEG about the increased seizure risk during hyperventilation and photic stimulation (study group), and 80 "noninformed" patients (control group) were enrolled. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures occurred significantly more often in the study group compared to controls (38% vs. 10.0%, p=0.001). Our results imply that simply providing correct and explicit information about provocation techniques substantially increased the PNES rate. PMID:23891767

  10. ASSESSMENT OF A SCALP EEG-BASED AUTOMATED SEIZURE DETECTION SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, K.M.; Shiau, D.S.; Kern, R.T.; Chien, J.H.; Yang, M.C.K.; Yandora, K.A.; Valeriano, J.P.; Halford, J.J.; Sackellares, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate and validate an offline, automated scalp EEG-based seizure detection system and to compare its performance to commercially available seizure detection software. Methods The test seizure detection system, IdentEvent™, was developed to enhance the efficiency of post-hoc long-term EEG review in epilepsy monitoring units. It translates multi-channel scalp EEG signals into multiple EEG descriptors and recognizes ictal EEG patterns. Detection criteria and thresholds were optimized in 47 long-term scalp EEG recordings selected for training (47 subjects, ~3653 hours with 141 seizures). The detection performance of IdentEvent was evaluated using a separate test dataset consisting of 436 EEG segments obtained from 55 subjects (~1200 hours with 146 seizures). Each of the test EEG segments was reviewed by three independent epileptologists and the presence or absence of seizures in each epoch was determined by majority rule. Seizure detection sensitivity and false detection rate were calculated for IdentEvent as well as for the comparable detection software (Persyst’s Reveal®, version 2008.03.13, with three parameter settings). Bootstrap re-sampling was applied to establish the 95% confidence intervals of the estimates and for the performance comparison between two detection algorithms. Results The overall detection sensitivity of IdentEvent was 79.5% with a false detection rate (FDR) of 2 per 24 hours, whereas the comparison system had 80.8%, 76%, and 74% sensitivity using its three detection thresholds (perception score) with FDRs of 13, 8, and 6 per 24 hours, respectively. Bootstrap 95% confidence intervals of the performance difference revealed that the two detection systems had comparable detection sensitivity, but IdentEvent generated a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller FDR. Conclusions The study validates the performance of the IdentEvent™ .seizure detection system. Significance With comparable detection sensitivity, an improved false detection rate makes the automated seizure detection software more useful in clinical practice. PMID:20471311

  11. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Reuber; Christian E. Elger

    2003-01-01

    The population incidence of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) may be only 4% that of epilepsy, but many patients with PNES have a tendency to seek medical attention, and PNES make up a larger share of the workload of neurologists and emergency and general physicians. Although a great number of publications describe how PNES can be distinguished from epileptic seizures, it

  12. Lifelong history of injuries related to seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MiriamY Neufeld; Tali Vishne; Vladimir Chistik; AmosD Korczyn

    1999-01-01

    There is meager information in the literature regarding the characteristics and risk factors for injuries caused during epileptic seizures in adults. Previous studies focused mainly on specific types of injuries incurred, and only few explored associated risk factors. A questionnaire regarding lifetime seizures and their traumatic consequences was administered to 298 consecutive epileptic patients and their caretakers or relatives. Ninety-one

  13. Substance P Causes Seizures in Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Prema; Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Serpa, Jose A.; Goodman, Jerry Clay; Eckols, Kristian T.; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a helminth infection of the brain, is a major cause of seizures. The mediators responsible for seizures in NCC are unknown, and their management remains controversial. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide produced by neurons, endothelial cells and immunocytes. The current studies examined the hypothesis that SP mediates seizures in NCC. We demonstrated by immunostaining that 5 of 5 brain biopsies from NCC patients contained substance P (SP)-positive (+) cells adjacent to but not distant from degenerating worms; no SP+ cells were detected in uninfected brains. In a rodent model of NCC, seizures were induced after intrahippocampal injection of SP alone or after injection of extracts of cysticercosis granuloma obtained from infected wild type (WT), but not from infected SP precursor-deficient mice. Seizure activity correlated with SP levels within WT granuloma extracts and was prevented by intrahippocampal pre-injection of SP receptor antagonist. Furthermore, extracts of granulomas from WT mice caused seizures when injected into the hippocampus of WT mice, but not when injected into SP receptor (NK1R) deficient mice. These findings indicate that SP causes seizures in NCC, and, suggests that seizures in NCC in humans may be prevented and/or treated with SP-receptor antagonists. PMID:22346746

  14. Anticonvulsants for soman-induced seizure activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Ming Shih; John H. McDonough; Irwin Koplovitz

    1999-01-01

    This report describes studies of anticonvulsants for the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent soman: a basic research effort to understand how different pharmacological classes of compounds influence the expression of seizure produced by soman in rats, and a drug screening effort to determine whether clinically useful antiepileptics can modulate soman-induced seizures in rats. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were used in these studies.

  15. Focal cooling rapidly terminates experimental neocortical seizures.

    PubMed

    Yang, X F; Rothman, S M

    2001-06-01

    The efficacy of surgical resection for epilepsy is considerably lower for neocortical epilepsy than for temporal lobe epilepsy. We have explored focal cooling with a thermoelectric (Peltier) device as a potential therapy for neocortical epilepsy. After creating a cranial window in anesthetized rats, we induced seizures by injecting artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a potassium channel blocker. Within 30 minutes of 4-AP injection, animals developed recurrent seizures (duration 85.7 +/- 26.2 seconds; n = 10 rats) that persisted for 2 hours. When a small Peltier device cooled the exposed cortical surface to 20-25 degrees C at seizure onset, the seizure duration was reduced to 8.4 +/- 5.0 seconds (n = 10 rats; p < 0.001). When the Peltier device was placed close to the cortical surface, but not allowed to make physical contact, there was no effect on seizure duration (104.3 +/- 20.7 seconds; p > 0.05 compared to control). Interestingly, the duration of uncooled seizures was reduced after we allowed the cortex to rewarm from prior cooling. Histological examination of the cortex after cooling has shown no evidence of acute or delayed neuronal injury, and blood pressure and temperature remained stable. It may be possible to use Peltier devices for cortical mapping or, when seizure detection algorithms improve, for chronic seizure control. PMID:11409423

  16. Effect of different patterns of low-frequency stimulation on piriform cortex kindled seizures.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Parviz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2007-10-01

    Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is an antiepileptic and antiepileptogenic electrical stimulation. In this study the effect of changes in some LFS (1Hz, monophasic square wave) parameters (intensity, pulse duration and train duration) on piriform cortex kindled seizures was investigated both in fully kindled rats and during kindling acquisition. In fully kindled animals, application of different patterns of LFS immediately before kindling stimulation had no significant effect on seizure parameters. However, daily (15 min) application of LFS (0.1 ms pulse duration at intensity equal to after-discharge threshold (ADT) and 1 ms pulse duration at intensity equal to 1/4 ADT) during inter-seizure interval of 7 days significantly reduced the stage 5 duration of the next kindled seizure. Application of the same two LFS protocols for 3 days and 2 weeks had no effect on seizure parameters. The effect of LFS was also tested using different paradigms during kindling acquisition. When LFS (0.1 and 1 ms pulse duration, intensity equal to ADT and 1/4 ADT) was delivered daily after each kindling stimulation, it could significantly decrease after-discharge duration in various days during kindling development. In this experiment, only LFS with 0.1 ms pulse duration and intensity equal to ADT significantly delayed the appearance of seizure stages 1 and 2. According to obtained results, it may be concluded that in fully kindled rats application of different patterns of LFS before kindling stimulation has no anticonvulsant effect, but it can exert an inhibitory effect when applied during an inter-seizure interval of 7 days. In addition, LFS has antiepileptogenic effect during kindling acquisition. These effects depend on the applied LFS parameters (e.g. intensity, pulse duration and train duration). PMID:17868994

  17. ?-Hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P; Duntley, Stephen P; Darken, Rachel S

    2014-07-15

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. PMID:25024661

  18. Helicopter mishap attributed to single seizure.

    PubMed

    Simon, Esan; Watts, Darron; Bohnker, Bruce K

    2008-03-01

    A case report is presented of a 36-year-old U.S. Coast Guard aviator who had a single seizure while operating a helicopter on the ground. His seizure activity produced a loss of consciousness during which he pushed the cyclic to the left anterior quadrant that resulted in a ground mishap. No risk factors were identified in an extensive neurological workup. The current guidance for handling seizures in military aviation personnel is reviewed, along with considerations for treatment. Although the military aviation selection process carefully screens applicants for seizure history and potential, occasional seizures in the aviation population remain possible. Such events may result in military aircraft mishaps despite careful risk factor surveillance, as demonstrated by this case. PMID:18419038

  19. Polarization anatomy of a kainic acid seizure.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; Sacks, D S

    1997-06-01

    Slow voltage-sensitive dyes work by accumulating in brain tissue and report the average membrane potential of neurons and glia. The voltage-sensitive dye diO-C2-5 was used to monitor the polarization state of 27 brain structures in the rat during a systemically induced, behaviorally mild, kainic acid seizure using a 20 s recording period. The effects of the anesthetic agent used in the experiment were minimized by delaying the dye injection and seizure mapping for one day. Eleven areas were depolarized during the seizure, but 16 other areas did not change their polarization state compared to controls. The effects of pentobarbital appear to have no measurable effect on seizure propagation once the animal has behaviorally recovered from the anesthesia. The technique allows for mapping areas of seizure involvement with a unique combination of spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:9225379

  20. Molecular mechanism of circadian rhythmicity of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chang-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The circadian pattern of seizures in people with epilepsy (PWE) was first described two millennia ago. However, these phenomena have not received enough scientific attention, possibly due to the lack of promising hypotheses to address the interaction between seizure generation and a physiological clock. To propose testable hypotheses at the molecular level, interactions between circadian rhythm, especially transcription factors governing clock genes expression, and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, the major signaling pathway in epilepsy, will be reviewed. Then, two closely related hypotheses will be proposed: (1) Rhythmic activity of hyperactivated mTOR signaling molecules results in rhythmic increases in neuronal excitability. These rhythmic increases in excitability periodically exceed the seizure threshold, displaying the behavioral seizures. (2) Oscillation of neuronal excitability in SCN modulates the rhythmic excitability in the hippocampus through subiculum via long-range projections. Findings from published results, their implications, and proposals for new experiments will be discussed. These attempts may ignite further discussion on what we still need to learn about the rhythmicity of spontaneous seizures. PMID:23189039

  1. Early Seizure Detection Using Neuronal Potential Similarity: A Generalized Low-Complexity and Robust Measure.

    PubMed

    Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Rasekhi, Jalil; Teixeira, Cesar A; Netoff, Theoden I; Parhi, Keshab K; Dourado, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    A novel approach using neuronal potential similarity (NPS) of two intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) electrodes placed over the foci is proposed for automated early seizure detection in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. The NPS measure is obtained from the spectral analysis of space-differential iEEG signals. Ratio between the NPS values obtained from two specific frequency bands is then investigated as a robust generalized measure, and reveals invaluable information about seizure initiation trends. A threshold-based classifier is subsequently applied on the proposed measure to generate alarms. The performance of the method was evaluated using cross-validation on a large clinical dataset, involving 183 seizure onsets in 1785 h of long-term continuous iEEG recordings of 11 patients. On average, the results show a high sensitivity of 86.9% (159 out of 183), a very low false detection rate of 1.4 per day, and a mean detection latency of 13.1 s from electrographic seizure onsets, while in average preceding clinical onsets by 6.3 s. These high performance results, specifically the short detection latency, coupled with the very low computational cost of the proposed method make it adequate for using in implantable closed-loop seizure suppression systems. PMID:25997912

  2. EPILAB: a software package for studies on the prediction of epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C A; Direito, B; Feldwisch-Drentrup, H; Valderrama, M; Costa, R P; Alvarado-Rojas, C; Nikolopoulos, S; Le Van Quyen, M; Timmer, J; Schelter, B; Dourado, A

    2011-09-15

    A Matlab®-based software package, EPILAB, was developed for supporting researchers in performing studies on the prediction of epileptic seizures. It provides an intuitive and convenient graphical user interface. Fundamental concepts that are crucial for epileptic seizure prediction studies were implemented. This includes, for example, the development and statistical validation of prediction methodologies in long-term continuous recordings. Seizure prediction is usually based on electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) signals. EPILAB is able to process both EEG and ECG data stored in different formats. More than 35 time and frequency domain measures (features) can be extracted based on univariate and multivariate data analysis. These features can be post-processed and used for prediction purposes. The predictions may be conducted based on optimized thresholds or by applying classifications methods such as artificial neural networks, cellular neuronal networks, and support vector machines. EPILAB proved to be an efficient tool for seizure prediction, and aims to be a way to communicate, evaluate, and compare results and data among the seizure prediction community. PMID:21763347

  3. A computational environment for long-term multi-feature and multi-algorithm seizure prediction.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C A; Direito, B; Costa, R P; Valderrama, M; Feldwisch-Drentrup, H; Nikolopoulos, S; Le Van Quyen, M; Schelter, B; Dourado, A

    2010-01-01

    The daily life of epilepsy patients is constrained by the possibility of occurrence of seizures. Until now, seizures cannot be predicted with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Most of the seizure prediction studies have been focused on a small number of patients, and frequently assuming unrealistic hypothesis. This paper adopts the view that for an appropriate development of reliable predictors one should consider long-term recordings and several features and algorithms integrated in one software tool. A computational environment, based on Matlab (®), is presented, aiming to be an innovative tool for seizure prediction. It results from the need of a powerful and flexible tool for long-term EEG/ECG analysis by multiple features and algorithms. After being extracted, features can be subjected to several reduction and selection methods, and then used for prediction. The predictions can be conducted based on optimized thresholds or by applying computational intelligence methods. One important aspect is the integrated evaluation of the seizure prediction characteristic of the developed predictors. PMID:21097174

  4. Neuronal Ensemble Synchrony during Human Focal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omar J.; Harrison, Matthew T.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Madsen, Joseph R.; Blum, Andrew S.; Potter, N. Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are classically characterized as the expression of hypersynchronous neural activity, yet the true degree of synchrony in neuronal spiking (action potentials) during human seizures remains a fundamental question. We quantified the temporal precision of spike synchrony in ensembles of neocortical neurons during seizures in people with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Two seizure types were analyzed: those characterized by sustained gamma (?40–60 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations or by spike-wave complexes (SWCs; ?3 Hz). Fine (<10 ms) temporal synchrony was rarely present during gamma-band seizures, where neuronal spiking remained highly irregular and asynchronous. In SWC seizures, phase locking of neuronal spiking to the SWC spike phase induced synchrony at a coarse 50–100 ms level. In addition, transient fine synchrony occurred primarily during the initial ?20 ms period of the SWC spike phase and varied across subjects and seizures. Sporadic coherence events between neuronal population spike counts and LFPs were observed during SWC seizures in high (?80 Hz) gamma-band and during high-frequency oscillations (?130 Hz). Maximum entropy models of the joint neuronal spiking probability, constrained only on single neurons' nonstationary coarse spiking rates and local network activation, explained most of the fine synchrony in both seizure types. Our findings indicate that fine neuronal ensemble synchrony occurs mostly during SWC, not gamma-band, seizures, and primarily during the initial phase of SWC spikes. Furthermore, these fine synchrony events result mostly from transient increases in overall neuronal network spiking rates, rather than changes in precise spiking correlations between specific pairs of neurons. PMID:25057195

  5. Seizure frequency, patient-perceived seizure severity and the psychosocial consequences of intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F; Baker, G A; Dewey, M; Jacoby, A; Chadwick, D W

    1991-09-01

    It is generally recognised that the assessment of treatment effects in epilepsy using seizure frequency as the only outcome measure may lack sensitivity. A patient-based seizure severity scale has been developed and initial results confirm its reliability and validity. As part of the further development of this scale it is important to explore the relationship between seizure severity, seizure frequency and the psychosocial consequences of intractable epilepsy. One hundred patients with medically refractory partial seizures completed a quality of life questionnaire including measures of physical (seizure severity and frequency), social and psychological well-being (anxiety, depression, self-esteem, locus of control and happiness). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that individual psychological variables were best predicted by other psychological variables. However, when these were removed from analysis, seizure severity was the most significant predictor of self-esteem (P = 0.005), locus of control P = 0.039) and anxiety (P = 0.048). Seizure frequency did not contribute significantly to the variance of any of the psychological factors. These results highlight the importance of considering seizure severity when assessing treatment effects in epilepsy and provide further evidence for the construct validity of a novel patient-based seizure severity scale. PMID:1743185

  6. Pediatric Stroke Presenting as a Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Katie L.; Bhardwaj, Vartika; Johnson, Steven A.; Kane, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is rare and may be difficult to diagnose. Management of acute stroke in any age group is time sensitive, so awareness of the manifestations and appropriate diagnostic procedures for pediatric AIS is vital to establishing care. We present a pediatric case of arterial ischemic stroke that presented to the emergency department (ED) after two seizures. Case Report. A five-year-old female with an existing seizure disorder presented to a pediatric ED after having two seizures. Postictal upon arrival, she underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of her head. Family reported that she had complained of a severe headache and vomited; her seizures were described as different from those she had experienced in the past. Loss of grey white matter differentiation on the CT warranted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a right-sided stroke. After a complicated course in the hospital, the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation hospital. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? It is important that emergency physicians recognize that a seizure may be the initial symptom of a pediatric stroke regardless of an established seizure history. Pediatric seizures are relatively common; however consideration of the diagnosis of pediatric stroke may prevent unnecessary delays in treatment. PMID:25587467

  7. Seizure circuit analysis with voltage sensitive dye.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; Sacks, D S

    1992-06-01

    Voltage sensitive dye was used to produce a map of average membrane polarization for the purpose of analysing the circuitry involved in seizures. Dorsal hippocampus, ventral hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, substantia nigra and occipital cortex were selected to calculate the relative changes in polarization. Rats were induced with bicuculline to have convulsive seizures and mild limbic seizures with kainic acid. A 20 second sample of these seizures were recorded using the voltage sensitive dye. Control animals showed a relatively uniform polarization state in the five brain areas. The bicuculline seizure produced hyperpolarization in all five areas. The magnitude of the hyperpolarization varied among the regions to produce a distinctive pattern. The kainic acid seizure produced depolarization in the four limbic areas. The magnitude of the depolarization also varied, producing a different pattern compared with bicuculline or control. Future applications of this technique in animal models could help identify those areas in the brain which regulate seizure propagation, and the anatomical loci in which antiepileptic drugs interfere with this propagation. Ultimately, human applications would include linking voltage sensitive dyes with paramagnetic or positron emitting traces so that epileptic processes could be visualized using magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission computed tomography. PMID:1344333

  8. Advances in management of neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Vesoulis, Zachary A; Mathur, Amit M

    2014-06-01

    Seizures are more common in the neonatal period than any other time in the human lifespan. A high index of suspicion for seizures should be maintained for infants who present with encephalopathy soon after birth, have had a stroke, central nervous system (CNS) infection or intracranial hemorrhage or have a genetic or metabolic condition associated with CNS malformations. Complicating the matter, most neonatal seizures lack a clinical correlate with only subtle autonomic changes and often no clinical indication at all. Over the last three decades, several tools have been developed to enhance the detection and treatment of neonatal seizures. The use of electroencephalography (EEG) and the later development of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), allows for Neurologists and non-Neurologists alike, to significantly increase the sensitivity of seizure detection. When applied to the appropriate clinical setting, time to diagnosis and start of therapy is greatly reduced. Phenobarbital maintains the status of first-line therapy in worldwide use. However, newer anti-epileptic agents such as, levetiracetam, bumetanide, and topiramate are increasingly being applied to the neonatal population, offering the potential for seizure treatment with a significantly better side-effect profile. Seizures in premature infants, continue to confound clinicians and researchers alike. Though the apparent seizure burden is significant and there is an association between seizures and adverse outcomes, the two are not cleanly correlated. Compounding the issue, GABA-ergic anti-epileptic drugs are not only less effective in this age group due to reversed neuronal ion gradients but may cause harm. Selecting an appropriate treatment group remains a challenge. PMID:24796413

  9. Epidemiology of seizures in children with brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd H. Gilles; Eugene Sobel; Alan Leviton; E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte; C. Jane Tavare; Lester S. Adelman; Raymond A. Sobel

    1992-01-01

    We examined potential clinical and pathologic correlates of seizures among the 3,291 children in the Childhood Brain Tumor Consortium database. Fourteen percent had seizures prior to their hospitalization for a brain tumor. Among children who had a supratentorial tumor, seizures occurred in 22% of those less than 14 years of age. The prevalence of seizures increased to 68% of older

  10. Remote effects of focal hippocampal seizures on the rat neocortex.

    PubMed

    Englot, Dario J; Mishra, Asht M; Mansuripur, Peter K; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2008-09-01

    Seizures have both local and remote effects on nervous system function. Whereas propagated seizures are known to disrupt cerebral activity, little work has been done on remote network effects of seizures that do not propagate. Human focal temporal lobe seizures demonstrate remote changes including slow waves on electroencephalography (EEG) and decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the neocortex. Ictal neocortical slow waves have been interpreted as seizure propagation; however, we hypothesize that they reflect a depressed cortical state resembling sleep or coma. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed multimodal studies of partial and secondarily generalized limbic seizures in rats. Video/EEG monitoring of spontaneous seizures revealed slow waves in the frontal cortex during behaviorally mild partial seizures, contrasted with fast polyspike activity during convulsive generalized seizures. Seizures induced by hippocampal stimulation produced a similar pattern, and were used to perform functional magnetic resonance imaging weighted for blood oxygenation and blood volume, demonstrating increased signals in hippocampus, thalamus and septum, but decreases in orbitofrontal, cingulate, and retrosplenial cortex during partial seizures, and increases in all of these regions during propagated seizures. Combining these results with neuronal recordings and CBF measurements, we related neocortical slow waves to reduced neuronal activity and cerebral metabolism during partial seizures, but found increased neuronal activity and metabolism during propagated seizures. These findings suggest that ictal neocortical slow waves represent an altered cortical state of depressed function, not propagated seizure activity. This remote effect of partial seizures may cause impaired cerebral functions, including loss of consciousness. PMID:18768701

  11. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  12. [Effect of REM sleep deprivation on the each seizure stage in feline amygdaloid kindling].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, R; Hamazaki, Y; Takeshita, H

    1994-01-01

    The effect of REM sleep deprivation (RD) on the each seizure stage in feline amygdaloid kindling (AM-K) was studied. RD for 12 hours (12-h RD) was performed by applying the platform procedure at stages 2 and 4, and immediately after RD the triggering threshold of each seizure stage and the duration of after discharge was measured. At stage 6, 12-h and 72-h RD were performed, and the generalized seizure triggering threshold (GST), the duration of after discharge, and the latency to generalized convulsive seizure (LGS) were measured. For the controls, a platform sufficiently large to allow a cat to lie down and sleep was used under the same conditions as those for RD (Non-RD). With the platform procedure employed in this study, the %REM decreased significantly to 2% of what it was before 12-h RD (p < 0.01). After the 12-h RD, the %REM and %S-2 increased significantly compared with those during the RD (p < 0.05-0.01), revealing a rebound phenomenon. After the 12-h RD, the %W-2 also showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). The results were as follows: (1) The triggering seizure threshold of stage 2 after the 12-h RD showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01). Though the AD duration after RD prolonged than those after Non-RD, significant differences was not noted. (2) The triggering threshold and AD duration of stage 4 after 12-h RD showed no significant change. (3) GST, AD duration, LGS showed no significant change by 12-and 72-h RD. The results of present study led to the following conclusions: At stage 2 of AM-K, REM sleep increased temporarily, and consequently the REM pressure is elevated after RD so much that it lowers the triggering threshold at stage 2 of AM-K. On the other hand, at stages 4 and 6 of AM-K, REM sleep is temporarily decreased, and consequently the REM pressure is not elevated by RD so that the triggering threshold at stages 4 and 6 of AM-K were not lowered. PMID:8177913

  13. EEG, CT and neurosonographic findings in patients with postischemic seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna Horner; Xiu-Shi Ni; Margret Duft; Kurt Niederkorn; Helmut Lechner

    1995-01-01

    Seventy-two patients with postischemic seizures were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG), computerized tomography (CT) and neurosonography. There were 24% early-onset and 76% late-onset initial seizures. Early-onset seizure was more likely to be simple partial (53%), whereas late-onset seizure was more likely to be primarily generalized (56%). 76% early-onset and 80% late-onset seizures were single. Status epilepticus was more frequent in early-onset

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Benign familial neonatal seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 15 percent of people with BFNS, recurrent seizures (epilepsy) will come back later in life after the ... with BFNS have gone away. The age that epilepsy begins is variable. How common is BFNS? Benign ...

  15. Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

  16. Vagal nerve stimulation does not unkindle seizures.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; Sandberg, T; Thompson, J; Arrambide, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a mechanism of action for the effect of vagal nerve stimulation on reducing seizures in patients with complex partial epilepsy. The hypothesis tested was that vagal nerve stimulation has an antikindling effect on epilepsy. The databases of two large clinical trials (E03, E05) were accessed, and statistical methods were applied using logarithmic transforms and regression analysis. Two parameters--duration of a patient's epilepsy before entering the clinical trial and the patient's seizure density before entering the clinical trial--were used as markers of subsequent seizure control during vagal nerve stimulation. In general, there was not a good fit to the regression lines, and the slope of the lines did not conform to the hypothesis. The hypothesis that vagal nerve stimulation may unkindle epileptic seizures was not supported. PMID:11290941

  17. [Vagus nerve stimulation for partial seizures].

    PubMed

    Neufeld, M; Quaknine, G; Korczyn, A

    1995-07-01

    Cerebellar and thalamic stimulation has been known for many years to improve control of epileptic seizures. In the past few years electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been introduced and has been effective in controlling seizures in animal models. These encouraging results led to the development of a transcutaneous programmable pulse generator and electrode lead for human use. 2 pilot studies and a multicenter, prospectively-randomized, parallel, double-blind study of patients with refractory partial seizures were performed. In a 3-22 month follow-up, in about 50% of patients seizures were reduced by 30-50%. There were no significant complications of the implant. Side-effects associated with VNS included intermittent hoarseness, coughing and throat pain. Additional controlled clinical trials with many patients and long follow-up are needed. We report 2 patients, the first in Israel, who underwent VNS. PMID:7557711

  18. Instability detector of a fragile neural network: application to seizure detection in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ehrens, Daniel; Sritharan, Duluxan; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that the epileptic cortex is fragile in the sense that seizures manifest through small perturbations in the synaptic connections that render the entire cortical network unstable. Therefore, one method for detecting seizures is to detect when the neuronal network has gone unstable. This is important for implementing a closed-loop therapy to suppress seizures. In this paper, we consider a widely used nonlinear stochastic model of a neuronal network, and assume that spiking dynamics during non-seizure periods correspond to certain synaptic connections that render its fixed point stable. We then apply a minimum energy perturbation theory we recently developed for networks to determine the changes in the most fragile node's synaptic connections that make the same fixed point unstable (our model during seizure). Then a detector is designed as follows. First a 2-state HMM is constructed (stable=state 1 and unstable=state 2) with fixed state transition probabilities, where the output observation is the firing rate of the most fragile node in the network. The output density functions are assumed to be Gaussian with parameters computed using maximum likelihood estimation on data generated from the nonlinear network model in each state. Then, to detect a transition from stable to unstable, spiking activity is simulated in all nodes from the nonlinear model. The detector first measures the firing rate of the fragile node, and computes the derivative of the cumulative likelihood ratio of the observed firing rate from the HMM's output distributions. When the derivative exceeds a certain threshold, a transition to the unstable state is detected. Various thresholds were tested when firing rate was computed by averaging over a different number of windows of different lengths. High performance was achieved and a tradeoff was found between the accuracy of the detector and the detection delay. PMID:25571501

  19. Alcohol-Related Seizures in the ICU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary Webb

    Alcohol abuse is a common cause of seizures resulting in admission to the intensive care unit. The cause of the alcohol-related\\u000a seizures (ARS) is usually abstinence in a chronic alcoholic, although some patients may still have detectable levels of alcohol\\u000a in their blood. ARS generally occur between 7 and 48 h after abstinence. Approximately half of patients presenting with ARS

  20. Progressive facial hemiatrophy after epileptic seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamami Yano; Yukio Sawaishi; Miyuki Toyono; Iwao Takaku; Goro Takada

    2000-01-01

    Intractable complex partial seizures developed in a 3-year-old female with normal intracranial findings on computed tomography. Frontal paramedian band-like depression of the skin gradually developed thereafter, and progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry–Romberg syndrome) was diagnosed. Computed tomography scanning at 5 years of age revealed multiple parenchymal calcifications and low-density areas in the white matter of the frontoparietal lobes. Epileptic seizures, one

  1. Increased persistent Na+ current contributes to seizure in the slamdance bang-sensitive Drosophila mutant

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is clinical need to extend the understanding of epilepsy and to find novel approaches to treat this condition. Bang-sensitive (bs) Drosophila mutants, which exhibit reduced thresholds for seizure, offer an attractive possibility to combine tractable genetics, electrophysiology, and high-throughput screening. However, despite these advantages, the precise electrophysiological aberrations that contribute to seizure have not been identified in any bs mutant. Because of this, the applicability of Drosophila as a preclinical model has not yet been established. In this study, we show that electroshock of bs slamdance (sda) larvae was sufficient to induce extended seizure-like episodes. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from identified motoneurons (termed aCC and RP2) showed synaptic currents that were greatly increased in both amplitude and duration. Current-clamp recordings indicated that these inputs produced longer-lived plateau depolarizations and increased action potential firing in these cells. An analysis of voltage-gated currents in these motoneurons, in both first and third instar larvae, revealed a consistently increased persistent Na+ current (INap) and a reduced Ca2+ current in first instar larvae, which appeared normal in older third instar larvae. That increased INap may contribute to seizure-like activity is indicated by the observation that feeding sda larvae the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, which was sufficient to reduce INap, rescued both seizure-like episode duration and synaptic excitation of motoneurons. In contrast, feeding of either anemone toxin, a drug that preferentially increases INap, or phenytoin to wild-type larvae was sufficient to induce a bs behavioral phenotype. Finally, we show that feeding of phenytoin to gravid sda females was sufficient to both reduce INap and synaptic currents and rescue the bs phenotype in their larval progeny, indicating that a heightened predisposition to seizure may arise as a consequence of abnormal embryonic neural development. PMID:21451059

  2. Monitor for status epilepticus seizures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

  3. Frontal lobe epilepsy with atypical seizure semiology resembling shuddering attacks or wet dog shake seizures.

    PubMed

    Jahodova, Alena; Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Kudr, Martin; Kyncl, Martin; Zamecnik, Josef; Tichy, Michal

    2012-03-01

    We report a girl with a drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia, who exhibited uncommon seizures. The seizures consisted of shoulder or whole body shuddering after a short psychic aura and face grimacing. Consciousness was fully preserved. The seizures resembled "wet dog shake" seizures described in rat models of epilepsy or shuddering attacks in infants. EEG findings were inconclusive, however, MRI showed a clear dysplastic lesion in the right frontal mesial and polar structures. The patient underwent an extended lesionectomy guided by neuronavigation and intraoperative electrocorticography. Focal cortical dysplasia type Ib was histologically confirmed and the patient has been seizure-free for the three years following resection. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:22425715

  4. Protective role of Ashwagandharishta and flax seed oil against maximal electroshock induced seizures in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanna, Ila R.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B. K.; Chandola, H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Ashwagandharishta, an Ayurvedic classical formulation, is the remedy for Apasmara (epilepsy), Murchha (syncope), Unmada (psychosis), etc. Recent studies in animal models have shown that n-3 PUFAs can raise the threshold of epileptic seizures. The indigenous medicinal plant, called Atasi (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) in Ayurveda, or flax seed, is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acids. The present study is designed to investigate whether Ashwagandharishta and Atasi taila (flax seed oil) protect against maximal electroshock (MES) seizures in albino rats. Further, a possible protective role of flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta in its anticonvulsant activity has also been evaluated in the study. MES seizures were induced for rats and seizure severity was assessed by the duration of hind limb extensor phase. Phenytoin was used as the standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Both flax seed oil and Ashwagandharishta significantly decreased convulsion phase. Pre-treatment with flax seed oil exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Contrary to the expectations, pre-treatment with flax seed oil as an adjuvant to Ashwagandharishta failed to decrease the tonic extensor phase; however, it significantly decreased the flexion phase (P < 0.001) and duration of the convulsions (P < 0.05). Both the drugs exhibited an excellent anti-post-ictal depression effect and complete protection against mortality. PMID:23049195

  5. Space-Time Adaptive Processing for Improved Estimation of Preictal Seizure Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Chang, Bernard S.

    2012-01-01

    Detection of precursory, seizure-related activity in electroencephalograms (EEG) is a clinically important and difficult problem in the field of epilepsy. Seizure detection methods often aim to identify specific features and correlations between preictal EEG signals that differentiate them from interictal/ nonictal signals. Typically, these methods use information from nonictal EEGs to establish detection thresholds, and do not otherwise incorporate their characteristics into the detection. A space-time adaptive approach is proposed to improve detection of seizure-related preictal activity in scalp EEG, using multiple patient-specific baseline signals to optimize the estimate of the baseline covariance matrix. A simplified model of the preictal EEG is assumed, which describes this signal as a linear superposition of seizure-related activity and baseline activity (treated as an interference signal). It is shown that when an improved estimate of the baseline covariance is included in the preictal detector, the true positive rate increases significantly and also the false positive rate decreases significantly. PMID:23367334

  6. Predictors of febrile seizure: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, A K; Bener, A; Al-Suweidi, E K; Al-Tatari, H M; Khadir, A E

    2001-12-01

    In a prospective matched case-control study carried out to determine risk factors of febrile seizures among children in the United Arab Emirates, 84 patients with febrile seizure were identified and were matched with 84 control febrile patients without seizure in the same age range, who attended the same hospital during the same period of time. Logistic regression analysis showed that the age at first seizure, family history of febrile seizure, duration of fever, and height of temperature were the only significant predictors for febrile seizures. PMID:11827305

  7. Dynamic time warping based neonatal seizure detection system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rehan; Temko, Andrey; Marnane, William; Boylan, Geraldine; Lighbody, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal seizures patterns evolve with changing frequency, morphology and propagation. This study is an initial attempt to incorporate the characteristics of temporal evolution of neonatal seizures into our developed neonatal seizure detector. The previously designed SVM-based neonatal seizure detector is modified by substituting the Gaussian kernel with the Gaussian dynamic time warping kernel, to enable the SVM to classify variable length sequences of feature vectors of neonatal seizures. The preliminary results obtained compare favorably with the conventional SVM. The fusion of the two approaches is expected to improve the current state of the art neonatal seizure detection system. PMID:23367031

  8. Comparison of three nonlinear seizure prediction methods by means of the seizure prediction characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, Thomas; Winterhalder, Matthias; Aschenbrenner-Scheibe, Richard; Voss, Henning U.; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Timmer, Jens

    2004-07-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by the spontaneous and unforeseeable occurrence of seizures, during which the perception or behavior of patients is disturbed. The predictability of these seizures would render novel therapeutic approaches possible. Several prediction methods have claimed to be able to predict seizures based on EEG recordings minutes in advance. However, the term seizure prediction is not unequivocally defined, different criteria to assess prediction methods exist, and only little attention has been paid to issues of sensitivity and false prediction rate. We introduce an assessment criterion called the seizure prediction characteristic that incorporates the assessment of sensitivity and false prediction rate. Within this framework, three nonlinear seizure prediction methods were evaluated on a large EEG data pool of 21 patients. Altogether, 582 h intracranial EEG data and 88 seizures were examined. With a rate of 1-3.6 false predictions per day, the “dynamical similarity index” achieves a sensitivity between 21 and 42%, which was the best result of the three methods. Sensitivity was between 18 and 31% for the extended, prospective version of the “accumulated energy” and between 13 and 30% for the “effective correlation dimension”. These results still are not sufficient for clinical applications.

  9. Comparable seizure characteristics in magnetic seizure therapy and electroconvulsive therapy for major depression.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Sarah; Bewernick, Bettina H; Hurlemann, René; Soehle, Martin; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly effective for treatment-resistant depression (TRD); however, its use for less severe forms of depression is somewhat limited by a lack of control over current spreading to medial temporal lobe memory structures, resulting in various cognitive side effects. In contrast, magnetic seizure therapy (MST), which uses high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for local seizure induction, has been associated with reduced cognitive side effects. To assess whether different characteristics of seizures induced by both methods are responsible for the differences in neuropsychological side-effect profile, we studied seven TRD-patients undergoing both MST and ECT in an open-label, within subject, controlled crossover pilot study. Comparison parameters included seizure-related ictal characteristics, including motor activity, electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and postictal recovery and reorientation times.Our results showed no differences in motor activity or EMG and EEG characteristics, thus implicating similar electrophysiological processes in seizure induction with MST and ECT. In line with previous studies, we observed shorter postictal recovery and reorientation times following MST.The ictal characteristics of induced seizures were found similar with ECT and MST suggesting that the more focal seizure induction associated with MST may account for the more beneficial neuropsychological side effect profile of MST. PMID:23820052

  10. Propranolol-induced seizures in mice: the role of noradrenaline.

    PubMed

    Amabeoku, G J; Syce, J A

    1997-08-01

    The effects of some noradrenergic agents, phenobarbitone, diazepam and phenytoin on seizures produced by propranolol were investigated in mice. Isoprenaline and DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS) effectively antagonized the seizures elicited by propranolol. Pargyline and imipramine significantly attenuated propranolol-induced seizures and also significantly potentiated the protecting effect of DOPS against the seizures. alpha-Methyl-p-tyrosine, disulfiram and reserpine significantly potentiated propranolol-elicited seizures. However, DOPS significantly antagonized the seizure-potentiating effects of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, disulfiram and reserpine. Phenylephrine, clonidine, prazosin, idazoxan, phenobarbitone, diazepam and phenytoin did not significantly alter propranolol-induced seizures. These results suggest that propranolol-induced seizures in mice may involve a noradrenergic mechanism mediated via central beta-adrenoceptors. PMID:9351467

  11. Treatment of Seizures in Children (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... table 1 ). (See "Antiepileptic drugs: Mechanism of action, pharmacology, and adverse effects" .) OTHER TREATMENTS Dietary treatment — A ... and clinical features Antiepileptic drugs: Mechanism of action, pharmacology, and adverse effects Treatment of neonatal seizures Seizures ...

  12. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Perucca, Piero; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal), and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline). Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma) and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples). At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development), but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures. PMID:24260523

  13. Fish oil attenuates methylmalonate-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Banderó, Cristina Ruedell Reschke; Salvadori, Mirian G S S; Gomes, Anajara Teixeira; Dal Ri, Nadja M K; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Scorza, Fulvio A; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Mello, Carlos Fernando

    2013-07-01

    Methylmalonic acidemias are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by methylmalonate (MMA) accumulation and neurological dysfunction, including seizures. Dietary fatty acids are known as an important energy source and reduce seizure activity in selected acute animal models. This study investigated whether chronic treatment with fish oil or with oleic acid attenuates MMA-induced seizures and whether maintenance of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was involved in such an effect. Adult male Wistar rats were given fish oil (85 mg/kg), oleic acid (85 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.42% aqueous Cremophor EL™, 4 mL/kg/body weight/day), p.o., for 75 days. On the 73th day a cannula was implanted in the right lateral ventricle with electrodes over the parietal cortex for EEG recording. On the 76th day the animals were injected with NaCl (2.5 ?mol/2.5 ?L, i.c.v.), or with MMA (2.5 ?mol/2.5 ?L, i.c.v.), and seizure activity was measured by electroencephagraphic (EEG) recording with concomitant behavior monitoring. The effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity of slices of cerebral cortex from NaCl-injected animals was determined. Fish oil increased the latency to MMA-induced tonic-clonic seizures, reduced the mean amplitude of ictal EEG recordings, and prevented PGE2-induced decrease of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in cortical slices in vitro. Oleic acid decreased mean amplitude of ictal EEG recordings. The results support that fish oil decreases MMA-induced seizures. The decreased sensitivity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase to the inhibitory effect of PGE2 in fish oil-treated animals may be related to the currently reported anticonvulsant activity. PMID:23375884

  14. Complex partial seizures of frontal lobe onset statistical analysis of ictal semiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P KOTAGAL; G ARUNKUMAR; J HAMMEL; ED MASCHA

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the ictal semiology of complex partial seizures originating from the frontal lobe (FLCPS) and mesial temporal lobe (MTLE) in patients who became seizure free after surgery.Methods: We analysed 149 seizures from 42 patients, 28 with MTLE (75 seizures) and 14 with FLCPS (74 seizures) seizure free for at least 1 year after surgery. Fifty-eight symptoms and signs

  15. Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008).

    PubMed

    Browand-Stainback, Laura; Levesque, Donald; McBee, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures in 211 canine and feline patients diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy were evaluated for temporal significance in relation to the lunar cycle. Seizure counts were compared among each of the eight individual lunar phases, among each of eight exact lunar phase dates, and by percent of lunar illumination using generalized estimating equations. No statistical significance was found in any of these comparisons excluding a relationship between the onset of epileptic seizures and the phases of the moon. Alteration in anticonvulsant treatment or monitoring of canine and feline patients with idiopathic epilepsy at large was not warranted based on the lunar cycle. PMID:21852516

  16. Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

  17. Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

    2014-09-01

    Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in clinical expression, as evidenced, for example, by studies of ictal fear-related behavior (decorrelation of activity between structures inducing "release" phenomena) and of déjŕ vu (increased synchronization). Studies of functional coupling within networks underlying complex ictal behavior indicate that the clinical semiology of a given seizure depends upon neither the anatomical origin of ictal discharge nor the target areas of its propagation alone but on the dynamic interaction between these. Careful mapping of the ictal network in its full spread offers essential information as to the localization of seizure onset, by deducing that a given network configuration could only be generated by a given area or group of areas. PMID:24424286

  18. Neonatal seizures and therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gano, Dawn; Orbach, Sharon A.; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Glass, Hannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are associated with morbidity and mortality. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most common cause of seizures in newborns. Neonatal animal models suggest that therapeutic hypothermia can reduce seizures and epileptiform activity in the setting of hypoxia-ischemia, however data from human studies have conflicting results. In this research highlight, we will discuss the findings of our recent study that demonstrated a decreased seizure burden in term newborns with moderate HIE treated with hypothermia.

  19. Spike-wave complexes and fast components of cortically generated seizures. IV. Paroxysmal fast runs in cortical and thalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Timofeev, I; Grenier, F; Steriade, M

    1998-09-01

    In the preceding papers of this series, we have analyzed the cellular patterns and synchronization of neocortical seizures occurring spontaneously or induced by electrical stimulation or cortical infusion of bicuculline under a variety of experimental conditions, including natural states of vigilance in behaving animals and acute preparations under different anesthetics. The seizures consisted of two distinct components: spike-wave (SW) or polyspike-wave (PSW) at 2-3 Hz and fast runs at 10-15 Hz. Because the thalamus is an input source and target of cortical neurons, we investigated here the seizure behavior of thalamic reticular (RE) and thalamocortical (TC) neurons, two major cellular classes that have often been implicated in the generation of paroxysmal episodes. We performed single and dual simultaneous intracellular recordings, in conjunction with multisite field potential and extracellular unit recordings, from neocortical areas and RE and/or dorsal thalamic nuclei under ketamine-xylazine and barbiturate anesthesia. Both components of seizures were analyzed, but emphasis was placed on the fast runs because of their recent investigation at the cellular level. 1) The fast runs occurred at slightly different frequencies and, therefore, were asynchronous in various cortical neuronal pools. Consequently, dorsal thalamic nuclei, although receiving convergent inputs from different neocortical areas involved in seizure, did not express strongly synchronized fast runs. 2) Both RE and TC cells were hyperpolarized during seizure episodes with SW/PSW complexes and relatively depolarized during the fast runs. As known, hyperpolarization of thalamic neurons deinactivates a low-threshold conductance that generates high-frequency spike bursts. Accordingly, RE neurons discharged prolonged high-frequency spike bursts in close time relation with the spiky component of cortical SW/PSW complexes, whereas they fired single action potentials, spike doublets, or triplets during the fast runs. In TC cells, the cortical fast runs were reflected as excitatory postsynaptic potentials appearing after short latencies that were compatible with monosynaptic activation through corticothalamic pathways. 3) The above data suggested the cortical origin of these seizures. To further test this hypothesis, we performed experiments on completely isolated cortical slabs from suprasylvian areas 5 or 7 and demonstrated that electrical stimulation within the slab induces seizures with fast runs and SW/PSW complexes, virtually identical to those elicited in intact-brain animals. The conclusion of all papers in this series is that complex seizure patterns, resembling those described at the electroencephalogram level in different forms of clinical seizures with SW/PSW complexes and, particularly, in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome of humans, are generated in neocortex. Thalamic neurons reflect cortical events as a function of membrane potential in RE/TC cells and degree of synchronization in cortical neuronal networks. PMID:9744954

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Presenting as an Isolated Seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Y Herman

    1998-01-01

    Seizures are generally regarded as a manifestation of extreme, generally near-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. A case is described in which a seizure attributable to carbon monoxide poisoning occurred in a small child at a level not thought to be associated with serious neurologic toxicity. A literature review of the occurrence of seizures in carbon monoxide poisoning found that no particular

  1. Synaptic reorganization following kainic acid-induced seizures during development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yili Yang; Pushpa Tandon; Zhao Liu; Matthew R. Sarkisian; Carl E. Stafstrom; Gregory L. Holmes

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged seizures in the adult brain causes neuronal loss in the hippocampus and aberrant growth (sprouting) of granule cell axons (mossy fibers) in the supragranular zone of the fascia dentata and stratum infrapyramidale of CA3. There is considerable evidence that these changes in neuronal growth following seizures are age related, with younger animals having fewer reactive changes following prolonged seizures

  2. Successful Management of Refractory Neonatal Seizures With Midazolam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepa Sirsi; Srishti Nangia; Jacqueline LaMothe; Barry E. Kosofsky; Gail E. Solomon

    2008-01-01

    Seizures are indicative of underlying neurologic dysfunction in neonates. Repeated seizures may be deleterious to the brain even without disturbances of ventilation or perfusion. First-line antiepileptic drugs such as phenobarbital and phenytoin are not very effective in controlling seizures in neonates. Rapid control of status epilepticus with midazolam has been demonstrated in 2 previous studies with complete clinical and electrographic

  3. Temporal lobe epilepsy: Where do the seizures really begin?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward H. Bertram

    2009-01-01

    Defining precisely the site of seizure onset has important implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy, as well as for the surgical treatment of the disorder. Removal of the limbic areas of the medial temporal lobe has led to a high rate of seizure control, but the relatively large number of patients for whom seizure control

  4. Changes in seizure susceptibility, sleep time and sleep spindles following thalamic and cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Shouse, M N; Sterman, M B

    1979-01-01

    The present experiment attempted to clarify conflicting evidence on the relationship of sleep spindles to seizure activation. Seizure thresholds were calculated in minutes post-injection following IP administration of the convulsant drug monomethylhydrazine (MMH) to cats with lesions intended to alter the occurrence of spontaneous 12-15 c/sec sleep spindles recorded from sensorimotor cortex. Twelve cats with bilateral cortical and subcortical recording electrodes were divided into 3 groups receiving electrolytic lesions in the dentate nucleus (group I), the ventrobasal (VB) thalamus (group II), or in one of various 'control' regions (group III). Lesion sites in group III animals avoided primary afferent pathways to VB thalamus, destruction of which has been found to enhance sleep spindle activity, and included cerebellar white matter and ventral pontine tegmentum. Prior to the MMH trials, baseline EEGs were obtained during pre- and post-lesion conditions. Following the MMH trial, lesions were verified histologically. Results of the MMH trial revealed that animals with dentate and ventrobasal thalamic lesions showed elevated seizure thresholds and slow wave sleep times relative to their own pre-lesion EEG baselines and to the pre- and post-lesion baselines of control animals. Furthermore, an increased incidence of sleep spindles was associated with dentate lesions while animals with ventrobasal thalamic lesions showed a shift in frequency from 8-11 c/sec to 12-15 c/sec activity during that state. These findings are compatible with the view that sleep spindles do not facilitate seizure activation and may, in fact, exert a protective influence. PMID:88323

  5. Seizures beget seizures in temporal lobe epilepsies: the boomerang effects of newly formed aberrant kainatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Crepel, Valérie; Represa, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Do temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures in adults promote further seizures? Clinical and experimental data suggest that new synapses are formed after an initial episode of status epilepticus, however their contribution to the transformation of a naive network to an epileptogenic one has been debated. Recent experimental data show that newly formed aberrant excitatory synapses on the granule cells of the fascia dentate operate by means of kainate receptor-operated signals that are not present on naive granule cells. Therefore, genuine epileptic networks rely on signaling cascades that differentiate them from naive networks. Recurrent limbic seizures generated by the activation of kainate receptors and synapses in naive animals lead to the formation of novel synapses that facilitate the emergence of further seizures. This negative, vicious cycle illustrates the central role of reactive plasticity in neurological disorders. PMID:18488058

  6. Seizures Beget Seizures in Temporal Lobe Epilepsies: The Boomerang Effects of Newly Formed Aberrant Kainatergic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Crepel, Valérie; Represa, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Do temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures in adults promote further seizures? Clinical and experimental data suggest that new synapses are formed after an initial episode of status epilepticus, however their contribution to the transformation of a naive network to an epileptogenic one has been debated. Recent experimental data show that newly formed aberrant excitatory synapses on the granule cells of the fascia dentate operate by means of kainate receptor-operated signals that are not present on naive granule cells. Therefore, genuine epileptic networks rely on signaling cascades that differentiate them from naive networks. Recurrent limbic seizures generated by the activation of kainate receptors and synapses in naive animals lead to the formation of novel synapses that facilitate the emergence of further seizures. This negative, vicious cycle illustrates the central role of reactive plasticity in neurological disorders. PMID:18488058

  7. Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Acute Symptomatic Seizures and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Beslow, Lauren A; Abend, Nicholas S; Gindville, Melissa C; Bastian, Rachel A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Hillis, Argye E.; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To define the incidence of and explore risk factors for seizures and epilepsy in children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Participants Seventy-three pediatric subjects with spontaneous ICH including 20 perinatal (?37 weeks gestation to 28 days) and 53 childhood subjects (>28 days to <18 years at presentation). Main outcome measures Acute symptomatic seizures (clinically evident and electrographic-only within 7 days), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy. Results Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 subjects (48%). Acute symptomatic seizures as a presenting symptom of ICH occurred in 12 (60%) perinatal and 19 (36%) childhood subjects, P=.07. Acute symptomatic seizures after presentation occurred in 7 children. Electrographic-only seizures were present in 9/32 (28%) with continuous EEG monitoring. One-and two-year remote symptomatic seizure-free survival were 82% (95% CI 68%–90%) and 67% (95% CI 46%–82%), respectively. One- and two-year epilepsy-free survival were 96% (95% CI 83%–99%) and 87% (95% CI 65%–95%), respectively. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention was a risk factor for acute seizures after presentation, remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy (P=.014, P=.025 and P=.0365, respectively log-rank test). Conclusions Presenting seizures are common in perinatal and childhood ICH. Continuous EEG may detect electrographic seizures in some subjects. Single remote symptomatic seizures occur in many, and development of epilepsy is estimated to occur in 13% at two-years. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention is a risk factor for acute seizures after presentation, remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy. PMID:23392319

  8. Malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy (MMPSI) was first reported in 1995, and is now included among the childhood epileptic syndromes in the revision proposal of the ILAE Commission on classification and terminology. The main clinical features are seizure onset in the first 6 months of life, occurrence of almost continuous migrating polymorphous focal seizures, associated with multifocal ictal EEG discharges, progressive deterioration of psychomotor development combined with frequent evolution of acquired microcephaly, and lack of a significant familial and etiological context. Eventually, children develop major axial hypotonia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs with athetotic movements and strabismus. Neuroradiological, biochemical, and genetic investigations thus far have note contributed to our knowledge about this syndrome. Etiology is still unknown, though it appears reasonable to suspect a genetic etiology for MMPSI; a channelopathy may be responsible for the age-dependent cortical neuronal hyperexcitability. Seizures are markedly drug resistant and outcome is generally severe. However, some patients may respond favourably to bromide, stiripentol associated with clonazepam, and, more recently, to levetiracetam. Vagus nerve stimulation and a ketogenic diet have been tried also but with poor or inconclusive results. Based on age at onset, MMPEI may be placed between early epileptic encephalopthies and infantile spasms. PMID:23622207

  9. EEG seizure prediction: Measures and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aarabi; R. Fazel-Rezai; Y. Aghakhani

    2009-01-01

    Different types of analyses of scalp and intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) recordings using linear and nonlinear time series analysis method have been done. They showed strong evidence of detectable changes in the EEG dynamics from minutes up to several hours in advance of seizure onset. The predictive performance of univariate and bivariate measures, comprising both linear and non-linear approaches have been

  10. Seizures and epilepsy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R J

    1997-03-24

    Seizures and epilepsy in the elderly are an important and increasingly common clinical problem. Major known causes include cerebrovascular disease, brain tumor, degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and toxic-metabolic syndromes such as nonketotic hyperglycemia, postcardiac arrest, and drug-induced seizures. Recognition of seizures may be complicated by relatively unique clinical presentations and differential diagnosis. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus may present as recurrent episodes of confusion. The electroencephalogram is less useful than in the pediatric age group, but has a role in the evaluation of a first seizure and may rarely show characteristic patterns, such as poststroke periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Convulsive status, especially that associated with drug toxicity, is associated with increased mortality in the elderly. Pharmacological treatment is complicated by age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Some of the new antiepileptic drugs may offer advantages for use in the elderly. Oxcarbazepine has fewer drug interactions than carbamazepine, and gabapentin has one, a reduction of felbamate renal elimination. Vigabatrin causes little cognitive dysfunction, while drugs that reduce excitatory amino acid neurotransmission, such as lamotrigine and felbamate, have potentially protective effects in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The use of barbiturates, primidone, the benzodiazepine clobazam, and the calcium blockers flunarizine and cinnarizine should preferably be avoided in the elderly. PMID:9080915

  11. Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Diane

    2007-01-01

    As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…

  12. Brain chirps: spectrographic signatures of epileptic seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J Schiff; David Colella; Gary M Jacyna; Elizabeth Hughes; Joseph W Creekmore; Angela Marshall; Maribeth Bozek-Kuzmicki; George Benke; William D Gaillard; Joan Conry; Steven R Weinstein

    2000-01-01

    Objective: A chirp is a brief signal within which the frequency content changes rapidly. Spectrographic chirps are found in signals produced from many biological and physical phenomena. In radar and sonar engineering, signals with chirps are used to localize direction and range to the signal source. Although characteristic frequency changes during epileptic seizures have long been observed, the correlation with

  13. Levetiracetam seizure prophylaxis in craniotomy patients at high risk for postoperative seizures

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Khan, Shariq Ali; Agrawal, Abhishek; Friedman, Allan H.; McDonagh, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing immediate postoperative seizures in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor surgery without anti-epileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis is 15-20%. Patients who present with pre-operative seizures and patients with supratentorial meningioma or supratentorial low grade gliomas are at significantly higher risk. There is little data on the efficacy of levetiracetam as a prophylactic AED in the immediate postoperative period (within 7 days of surgery) in these patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 165 adult patients classified as higher risk for postoperative seizures who underwent brain tumor resection at Duke University Hospital between time May 2010 and December 2011. All patients had received levetiracetam monotherapy in doses of 1000-3000 mg/day in the immediate postoperative period. Results: We identified 165 patients with following tumor locations: Frontal 83 (50.3%), Temporal 37 (22.4%), Parietal 30 (18.2%), Occipital 2 (1.2%) and 13 (7.8%) with single lesions involving more than one lobe. Histology revealed: Glioma 98 (59.4%), Meningioma 57 (34.5%) and Brain Metastases 6 (3.6%). Preoperatively, 88/165 (53.3%) patients had presented with seizures. 12/165 patients (7.3%) developed clinical seizures (generalized 10, partial 2) in the immediate post-operative period. Other than somnolence in 7 patients (4.2%), no major side-effects were noted. Conclusions: The incidence of seizures was significantly lower in patients treated with levetiracetam (7.3%) when compared with the expected (15-20%) rate without AED prophylaxis based on the previous literature. Levetiracetam appears effective and safe for seizure prevention in patients undergoing brain tumor resection and who are at significantly higher risk of developing post-operative seizures. These findings warrant confirmation in a prospective randomized trial. PMID:24550999

  14. Predicting lactate threshold using ventilatory threshold.

    PubMed

    Plato, P A; McNulty, M; Crunk, S M; Tug Ergun, A

    2008-09-01

    Lactate threshold is an important reference point when setting training intensities for endurance athletes. Ventilatory threshold has been used as a noninvasive estimate of lactate threshold, but appears to underestimate training intensity for many athletes. This study evaluated whether data obtained during a noninvasive, maximal exercise test could be used to predict lactate threshold. Maximal oxygen consumption (55+/-2 ml O(2) x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and heart rate at the ventilatory threshold (V-slope method) were determined for 19 cyclists (10 men, 9 women, 35+/-2 years). Cyclists also performed a lactate threshold test, consisting of 8 min stages at power outputs below, at, and above the ventilatory threshold. Heart rate associated with the lactate threshold was determined using the Dmax method. The correlation coefficient between heart rates at the ventilatory and lactate thresholds was 0.67, indicating 45% shared variance. The best fitting model to predict heart rate at the lactate threshold included heart rate at the ventilatory threshold, gender, body weight, and an interaction between gender and body weight. Using this model, R(2) was 0.70. Thus, heart rate at the ventilatory threshold may be adjusted to more accurately predict a heart rate that corresponds to the lactate threshold for recreational cyclists. PMID:18214811

  15. Benzodiazepine receptor declines in hippocampal formation following limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Kraus, V M; Dasheiff, R M; Fanelli, R J; McNamara, J O

    1983-10-31

    Electrolytic lesions of entorhinal cortex have previously been shown to consistently produce limbic seizures. We report a bilateral and symmetrical decline in benzodiazepine receptor number in dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in unilateral entorhinal cortex-lesioned animals. We think this decline is caused by seizures since phenobarbital pretreatment prevented the appearance of limbic seizures and blocked the receptor decline. We postulate that these receptor declines may contribute to decreased endogenous recurrent inhibition (a presumed GABAergic synapse) of dentate granule cells which could lead to their repetitive firing. Thus these benzodiazepine receptor declines may be a consequence of limbic seizures yet increase the likelihood of subsequent seizures. PMID:6315144

  16. Initial evaluation and management of a first seizure in children.

    PubMed

    Chelse, A B; Kelley, Kent; Hageman, Joseph R; Koh, Sookyong

    2013-12-01

    The pediatrician is often the first health professional notified of a child's first seizure. First seizures cause much anxiety for parents and practitioners. Parents are frightened as they witness a paroxysmal event that involves convulsions or altered mental status, and as a result, they seek answers, reassurance, and support. Every pediatrician faces the challenge of determining whether a child who had a paroxysmal event had a seizure. Therefore, it is important for the general pediatrician to have a good understanding of the diagnosis and management of a child's first seizure. This review will discuss the definition of seizures and epilepsy, the critical questions to answer during the initial evaluation of a child's first seizure, guidance for initial management, risk factors for seizure recurrence, and the value of electroencephalography in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24295157

  17. Metabolic Disruption in Drosophila Bang-Sensitive Seizure Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Fergestad, Tim; Bostwick, Bret; Ganetzky, Barry

    2006-01-01

    We examined a number of Drosophila mutants with increased susceptibility to seizures following mechanical or electrical stimulation to better understand the underlying factors that predispose neurons to aberrant activity. Several mutations in this class have been molecularly identified and suggest metabolic disruption as a possible source for increased seizure susceptibility. We mapped the bang-sensitive seizure mutation knockdown (kdn) to cytological position 5F3 and identified citrate synthase as the affected gene. These results further support a role for mitochondrial metabolism in controlling neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility. Biochemical analysis in bang-sensitive mutants revealed reductions in ATP levels consistent with disruption of mitochondrial energy production in these mutants. Electrophysiological analysis of mutants affecting mitochondrial proteins revealed an increased likelihood for a specific pattern of seizure activity. Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. PMID:16648587

  18. Seizures down-regulate muscarinic cholinergic receptors in hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; Savage, D D; McNamara, J O

    1982-03-11

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors (MCR) have been previously shown to decline in the hippocampal formation (HPF) of amygdala-kindled rats. Seizures have been proposed as the process responsible for this down-regulation. We now demonstrate similar down-regulation of MCR within HPF in 3 additional methods of inducing seizures: electroconvulsive shock, entorhinal kindling and entorhinal lesion. Two key parameters which causally link the MCR declines with seizures are their time course and reversal with anticonvulsants. The transient decline of MCR induced by entorhinal lesion-induced seizures parallels the time course established in amygdala kindling. Further, phenobarbital could block both these seizures and the MCR declines. Together, this supports the relationship of seizures causing the declines. We postulate that the MCR down-regulation represents an endogenous inhibitory response of neurons that are intensely and repeatedly depolarized during the seizures. PMID:7188331

  19. Review-of-systems questionnaire as a predictive tool for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Robles, Liliana; Chiang, Sharon; Haneef, Zulfi

    2015-04-01

    Patients with refractory epilepsy undergo video-electroencephalography for seizure characterization, among whom approximately 10-30% will be discharged with the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Clinical PNES predictors have been described but in general are not sensitive or specific. We evaluated whether multiple complaints in a routine review-of-system (ROS) questionnaire could serve as a sensitive and specific marker of PNESs. We performed a retrospective analysis of a standardized ROS questionnaire completed by patients with definite PNESs and epileptic seizures (ESs) diagnosed in our adult epilepsy monitoring unit. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to determine whether groups with PNES and ES differed with respect to the percentage of complaints in the ROS questionnaire. Tenfold cross-validation was used to evaluate the predictive error of a logistic regression classifier for PNES status based on the percentage of positive complaints in the ROS questionnaire. A total of 44 patients were included for analysis. Patients with PNESs had a significantly higher number of complaints in the ROS questionnaire compared to patients with epilepsy. A threshold of 17% positive complaints achieved a 78% specificity and 85% sensitivity for discriminating between PNESs and ESs. We conclude that the routine ROS questionnaire may be a sensitive and specific predictive tool for discriminating between PNESs and ESs. PMID:25812935

  20. Effects of antiepileptics on lateral geniculate nucleus-kindled seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Akinori; Takechi, Kenshi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the characteristics of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) kindling in rats, especially the efficacies of antiepileptics, in comparison with those of amygdala (AMG) kindling. Daily electrical stimulation of the LGN led to the development of a generalized convulsion (kangaroo posture and falling back) in all subjects, similar to AMG kindling. The kindling response of the LGN differed from that of the AMG in a number of respects, that is, a high after-discharge (AD) threshold, a large number of stimulations for completion of kindling, and a different pattern of electroencephalogram (EEG) development. On the other hand, the oral administration of sodium valproate, carbamazepine, clobazam, or zonisamide caused dose-dependent inhibitions of both seizure stage and AD duration of LGN-kindled seizures, whereas ethosuximide had no significant effects. In addition, seizure stage was more potently inhibited than AD duration by these antiepileptics, particularly with clobazam. In conclusion, LGN kindling possesses characteristics that are different from AMG kindling. In addition, it was demonstrated that LGN kindling is a useful model, similar to other types of limbic system kindling, for the evaluation of antiepileptics. PMID:19346673

  1. A mouse model of Alzheimer's disease displays increased susceptibility to kindling and seizure-associated death.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jianxiong; Jones, Nigel C; Bush, Ashley I; O'Brien, Terence J; Kwan, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are up to 10 times more likely to develop epilepsy than the age-matched general population. However, given that only a proportion of patients with AD develop epilepsy, it is likely that additional factors may be required for the epilepsy to emerge. This study aimed to better understand the relationship between AD pathology and seizure susceptibility. It also aimed to investigate a "two-hit" hypothesis for seizure susceptibility through amygdala kindling of rodent AD models. Aged AD mice (Tg2576 model) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent electrical amygdala kindling. Compared with WT mice, Tg2576 mice had significantly lower afterdischarge threshold. Significantly fewer stimulations were required for the Tg2576 mice to reach the first class V seizure. Higher death rate was observed with Tg2576 mice in the kindling group. Both sham and kindled Tg2576 animals had increased levels of sprouting in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus compared with the WT counterparts. These findings support the "two-hit" hypothesis and represent a potentially novel research model to help better understand the relationship between AD pathology and epilepsy. PMID:25879152

  2. Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

  3. Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization

    PubMed Central

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S.; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

  4. Hyponatremic seizure associated with acute respiratory infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Iwazu; Sumiko Honma; Genro Fujisawa; Kiyoko Uki; Ichiro Yanaka; Yoshiaki Sato; Mitsunobu Murata; Eiji Kusano; Yasushi Asano

    2007-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of vomiting and appetite loss. For the 2 days prior to admission,\\u000a she had a cold, which had developed into acute viral bronchitis on admission. Because laboratory data on admission showed\\u000a hyponatremia, intravenous infusion of Ringer's lactate solution was started. However, generalized seizures appeared, and she\\u000a developed a coma on the

  5. Language dysfunction after frontal lobe partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Gadoth, Nathan; Cahill, William; Privitera, Michael

    2004-05-11

    Postictal language delay (PILD) patterns can lateralize temporal lobe complex partial seizures (CPS). The authors studied PILD in 24 patients with 118 frontal lobe CPS. Prolonged PILD occurred in only 7% of CPS confined to the dominant frontal lobe compared with 91% of CPS that started as frontal and spread to the dominant temporal lobe (p = 0.0001). Postictal language testing provides important information on frontal CPS localization and spread. PMID:15136702

  6. Hypocalcaemic seizures: sign of intestinal disease?

    PubMed

    Van Biervliet, S; Velde, S Vande; Robberecht, E; Van Winckel, M

    2007-01-01

    We describe a baby admitted with convulsions, fever, low protein level and coagulation abnormalities where congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia was confirmed by endoscopy and histology. Treatment with a low fat diet, supplemented with medium chain triglycerides (MCT), resulted in a disappearance of the symptoms and normal growth. When confronted with seizure-like attacks, electrolyte disturbances and hypo-albuminemia one should consider the possibility of protein losing enteropathy. PMID:17715644

  7. Eslicarbazepine acetate for partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that is chemically related to carbamazepine and partially metabolized to oxcarbazepine, has attracted attention as results of previous Phase II and III studies demonstrated and confirmed efficacy and tolerability of ESL 800 and 1200 mg once daily as add-on therapy for adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. In children, efficacy data point towards a dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency and tolerability analyses showed a low incidence of mild drug-related adverse effects at 5 and 15 mg/kg/day. The most frequently reported adverse effects were dizziness, somnolence, headache, diplopia, nausea and vomiting. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short/simple titration regimen in combination with a comparative efficacy and tolerability profile might promote ESL as a valid alternative to the current adjunctive antiepileptic drug therapy armamentarium for drug-resistant partial seizures in adults. Since clinical trials in children and adolescents on ESL efficacy and safety are ongoing and data already published are far from conclusive, the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population has to be established in the near future. PMID:22091592

  8. Ictal alterations of consciousness during ecstatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Picard, Fabienne; Kurth, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ecstatic epileptic seizures report an altered consciousness, which they describe as a sense of heightened perception of themselves – they “feel very present” – and an increased vividness of sensory perceptions. Recently, the anterior insula has been proposed as the region where these seizures originate, based on the results of ictal nuclear imaging in three patients, the first induction of ecstatic auras by electrical stimulation, and the functional characteristics of the anterior insula in neuroimaging literature. Specifically, the anterior insula is thought to play a key role in integrating information from within the body, the external world, as well as the emotional states. In addition, the anterior insula is thought to convert this integrated information into successive global emotional moments, thus enabling both the construct of a sentient self as well as a mechanism for predictive coding. As part of the salience network, this region is also involved in switching from mind wandering toward attentional and executive processing. In this review, we will summarize previous patient reports and recap how insular functioning may be involved in the phenomenon of ecstatic seizures. Furthermore, we will relate these hypotheses to the results from research on meditation and effects of drug abuse. PMID:24436968

  9. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Warning Device

    SciTech Connect

    Elarton, J.K.; Koepsel, K.L.

    1999-06-21

    Flint Hills Scientific, L.L.C. (FHS) has invented what is believed to be the first real-time epileptic seizure detection and short-term prediction method in the world. They have demonstrated an IBM PC prototype with a multi-channel EEG monitoring configuration. This CRADA effort applied AlliedSignal FM and T hardware design, manufacturing miniaturization, and high quality manufacturing expertise in converting the prototype into a small, portable, self-contained, multi-channel EEG epileptic seizure detection and warning device. The purpose of this project was to design and build a proof-of-concept miniaturized prototype of the FHS-developed PC-based prototype. The resultant DSP prototype, measuring 4'' x 6'' x 2'', seizure detection performance compared favorably with the FHS PC prototype, thus validating the DSP design goals. The very successful completion of this project provided valuable engineering information for FHS for future prototype commercialization as well as providing AS/FM and T engineers DSP design experience.

  10. Uncrossed epileptic seizures in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    López Ruiz, Pedro; García García, Maria Eugenia; Dicapua Sacoto, Daniela; Marcos-Dolado, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Joubert syndrome and related disorders comprise a subgroup of ciliopathies defined by the presence of the 'molar tooth sign', a midbrain-hindbrain malformation identifiable by neuroimaging. Characteristically, the corticospinal tract and superior cerebellar peduncles do not decussate. Epileptic seizures are uncommon. We present a case of a 28-year-old man with a background of Leber's congenital amaurosis with nephronophthisis, requiring kidney transplantation, and mental retardation, who developed epileptic seizures consisting of a short muffled cry and involuntary shaking movements of the extremities beginning in the left upper limb; these episodes lasted several seconds and occurred in clusters. Simultaneous video-EEG recording showed an ictal pattern in the left frontal lobe. Brain MRI revealed the pathognomonic 'molar tooth sign'; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-tractography showed a lack of decussation of both corticospinal tracts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that DTI-tractography has been used to uncover the anatomical substrate underlying the semiology of epileptic seizures. PMID:26002775

  11. Low-power CMOS-based epileptic seizure onset detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Tariqus Salam; Mohamad Sawan; Anas Hamoui; Dang Khoa Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an implantable CMOS integrated device that automatically detects epileptic seizure onsets. By recognizing partial-onset seizures, it can improve epilepsy treatment. The circuit consists of a chopper stabilized preamplifier, comprising a modulator, an amplifier, a high-pass filter with low cut-off frequency, and a voltage span detector. The proposed low-power detector extracts seizure onset information from neural

  12. Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Chaitali; Sarkar, Shatanik; Dasgupta, Malay Kumar; Das, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1˝-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise) in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any. PMID:25878755

  13. Forecasting Seizures in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Stead, S. Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H.; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W. Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz), low-gamma (30–70 Hz), and high-gamma (70–180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring. PMID:24416133

  14. Offsetting of aberrations associated with seizure proneness in rat hippocampus area CA1 by theta pulse stimulation-induced activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Salmani, M E; Mirnajafizadeh, J; Fathollahi, Y

    2007-11-01

    Epileptiform activity induces long term aberrations in hippocampal network functions. This study was conducted in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -kindled rats to examine offsetting of aberrations associated with seizure proneness in hippocampus area CA1 by theta pulse stimulation (TPS: 5 Hz trains for 3 min) -induced activity pattern. In hippocampal slices from both control and kindled rats, the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and population spikes (PS) were simultaneously recorded through electrodes in the apical dendrites and stratum pyramidale, respectively. The following changes in kindled vs. control slices were observed. The fEPSP needed to be greater to produce the PS recorded in the cell body layer. The fEPSP was reduced by paired stimuli whereas the PS amplitude was increased. TPS selectively depressed the PS in a lasting fashion, and shifted the fEPSP slope and the PS amplitude relation toward what was observed in controls. Both the fEPSP and PS were increased by paired stimuli at 60 min after TPS application. The lasting depressive effect of TPS on the PS amplitude was converted into facilitation by adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (CPX). Potentiation of the PS amplitude by TPS in the presence of CPX was blocked by an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist AP5. We hypothesize that the extracellular adenosine spillover, acting through adenosine A1 receptors, during TPS-induced activity pattern could trigger a homeostatic process for correcting network imbalances caused by epileptiform activity. PMID:17900816

  15. Maternal immune activation increases seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xin-Ting; Li, Jun; Yu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Wen; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Li, Bao-Min

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a relationship between maternal infection and a high incidence of childhood epilepsy in offspring. However, there is little experimental evidence that links maternal infection with later seizure susceptibility in juvenile offspring. Here, we asked whether maternal immune challenge during pregnancy can alter seizure susceptibility and seizure-associated brain damage in adolescence. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (NS) on gestational days 15 and 16. At postnatal day 21, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) was evaluated in male offspring. Four groups were studied, including normal control (NS-NS), prenatal infection (LPS-NS), juvenile seizure (NS-KA), and "two-hit" (LPS-KA) groups. Our results demonstrated that maternal LPS exposure caused long-term reactive astrogliosis and increased seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring. Compared to the juvenile seizure group, animals in the "two-hit" group showed exaggerated astrogliosis, followed by worsened spatial learning ability in adulthood. In addition, prenatal immune challenge alone led to spatial learning impairment in offspring but had no effect on anxiety. These data suggest that prenatal immune challenge causes a long-term increase in juvenile seizure susceptibility and exacerbates seizure-induced brain injury, possibly by priming astroglia. PMID:25982885

  16. Does Naloxone Prevent Seizure in Tramadol Intoxicated Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Ozcan, Dilek; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Hedaiaty, Mahrang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tramadol poisoning has increased in recent years. Seizure is one of the side-effects of tramadol toxicity. There is a controversy about possible preventive effect of naloxone in tramadol poisoning induced seizure. Therefore, this study was performed to compare seizure incidence in tramadol poisoning patients who received and did not receive naloxone, as an opioid antagonist. Methods: This study involved prospective data collection followed by retrospective analysis on 104 tramadol poisoning patients who were admitted in a referral poisoning center. The incidences of seizure were compared between patients received naloxone and those did not. Outcome was considered as survived without or with complications and death. Logistic Regression analysis was used to determine the effects of different variables on seizure incidence. Results: 70 (67.3%) of the patients were men. The mean age of the patients was 26.3 ± 9 years old. 18.3% of the patients received naloxone in their treatment period. Seizure incidence was significantly higher among tramadol poisoning patients who did not receive naloxone compare with those received naloxone (14.1% vs. 5.1%). Among different variable studied, age had a significant effect on predicting of seizure (odds ratio = 2.09; 95% of confidence interval: 1.82-2.26; P value, 0.004). Conclusions: Although the seizure incidence was lower in patients with tramadol poisoning who received naloxone, the logistic regression did not support the preventive effect of naloxone on seizure in tramadol poisoning cases. PMID:24829714

  17. The neural correlates of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Bagshaw, Andrew P; McCorry, Dougall

    2009-06-01

    Epileptic seizures are characterized by a multifaceted spectrum of alterations in the general level of awareness and/or the subjective contents of consciousness. Complete loss of consciousness occurs when epileptic activity involves both cortical and subcortical structures, as in generalized seizures. On the other hand, simple partial seizures can spare both the level and contents of consciousness. Finally, complex partial seizures associated with medial temporal lobe discharges can selectively impair the patient's subjective experiences with variable degrees of responsiveness. The differences in ictal semiology between patients with epilepsy offer unique avenues for understanding the relationship between pathological brain function and altered conscious states. PMID:19772840

  18. Brain mechanisms of altered conscious states during epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; Monaco, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    Impaired consciousness has long been considered the hallmark of epileptic seizures. Both generalized seizures and complex partial seizures are characterized by a multifaceted spectrum of altered conscious states, in terms of the general level of awareness and the subjective contents of consciousness. Complete loss of consciousness occurs when epileptic activity involves both cortical and subcortical structures, as in tonic-clonic seizures and absence seizures. Medial temporal lobe discharges can selectively impair experience in complex partial seizures (with affected responsiveness) and certain simple partial seizures (with unaffected responsiveness). Electrical stimulation of temporal lobe structures has been shown to evoke similar subjective experiences. Findings from neurophysiological and brain-imaging studies in epilepsy have now demonstrated that involvement of the bilateral thalamus and upper brainstem leads to selective impairment of frontoparietal association cortices and midline 'default mode' networks, which results in ictal loss of consciousness. The spread of epileptic discharges from the medial temporal lobe to the same subcortical structures can ultimately cause impairment in the level of consciousness in the late ictal and immediate postictal phase of complex partial seizures. This paper reviews novel insights into the brain mechanisms that underlie alterations of consciousness during epileptic seizures and the implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and management. PMID:19488084

  19. Pitfall of bispectral index during intraoperative seizure -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungdong

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 42-year-old male who developed generalized tonic-clonic seizure with sudden, brief decrease in bispectral index (BIS) value while undergoing emergency kidney transplantation. Few reports have been made on intraoperative pitfall of BIS value associated with seizure. This case report suggests seizure should be taken into account as a reason for such brief fall of BIS, especially while under general anesthesia or in other specific cases in which clinical signs of seizure are unseen. PMID:24363849

  20. Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

  1. Embryonic Exposure to Domoic Acid Increases the Susceptibility of Zebrafish Larvae to the Chemical Convulsant Pentylenetetrazole

    PubMed Central

    Tiedeken, Jessica A.; Ramsdell, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia that targets the limbic system to induce tonic–clonic seizures and memory impairment. In utero DA exposure of mice leads to a reduction in seizure threshold to subsequent DA exposures in mid-postnatal life, and similar studies have shown neurotoxic effects in rats that were delayed until adolescence. Objective We used in ovo microinjection of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to characterize the effect of embryonic exposure of DA on seizure-inducing agents later in life as an alternative species model to screen environmental contaminants that might induce a fetal-originating adult disease. Methods Embryos were microinjected within hours of fertilization to DA concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 1.26 ng/mg egg weight. Seven days later, the larval animals were characterized for sensitivity to the chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), an agent that is well-defined in laboratory rodents and, more recently, in zebrafish. Results In ovo DA exposure, most significantly at 0.4 ng/mg, reduces the latency time until first PTZ seizure in larval fish and increases the severity of seizures as determined by seizure stage and movement parameters. The interaction between in ovo DA exposure and PTZ caused seizure behaviors to individually asymptomatic doses of PTZ (1.0 and 1.25 mM) and DA (0.13 and 0.22 ng/mg). Conclusion These studies demonstrate that in ovo exposure to DA reduces the threshold to chemically induced seizures in larval fish and increases the severity of seizure behavior in a manner that is consistent with in utero studies of laboratory rodents. PMID:18007982

  2. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

  3. Threshold quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Yuuki [NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847 (Japan); Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Okamoto, Tatsuaki [NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847 (Japan); Imoto, Nobuyuki [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.

  4. How to Differentiate Syncope from Seizure.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Convulsive syncope is a common cause of misdiagnosis in patients who present with a transient loss of consciousness. This misdiagnosis contributes significantly to the numbers of patients with a questionable diagnosis of epilepsy, and to those with apparently drug-resistant epilepsy. The most important step to an accurate diagnosis is a fastidious history. Inducing syncope with tilt table testing and documenting heart rate changes during events with implantable loop recorders have proved to be useful. These suggest the need for closer and ongoing collaboration among neurologists and cardiologists to provide optimal care for patients with the diagnostic dilemma of syncope or epileptic seizures. PMID:26115824

  5. A micropower support vector machine based seizure detection architecture for embedded medical devices

    E-print Network

    Shoeb, Ali H.

    Implantable neurostimulators for the treatment of epilepsy that are capable of sensing seizures can enable novel therapeutic applications. However, detecting seizures is challenging due to significant intracranial EEG ...

  6. A micropower support vector machine based seizure detection architecture embedded medical devices

    E-print Network

    Denison, Timothy

    Implantable neurostimulators for the treatment of epilepsy that are capable of sensing seizures can enable novel therapeutic applications. However, detecting seizures is challenging due to significant intracranial EEG ...

  7. Neuropharmacological mechanisms of nerve agent-induced seizure and neuropathology.

    PubMed

    McDonough, J H; Shih, T M

    1997-09-01

    This paper proposes a three phase "model" of the neuropharmacological processes responsible for the seizures and neuropathology produced by nerve agent intoxication. Initiation and early expression of the seizures are cholinergic phenomenon; anticholinergics readily terminate seizures at this stage and no neuropathology is evident. However, if not checked, a transition phase occurs during which the neuronal excitation of the seizure per se perturbs other neurotransmitter systems: excitatory amino acid (EAA) levels increase reinforcing the seizure activity; control with anticholinergics becomes less effective; mild neuropathology is occasionally observed. With prolonged epileptiform activity the seizure enters a predominantly non-cholinergic phase: it becomes refractory to some anticholinergics; benzodiazepines and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists remain effective as anticonvulsants, but require anticholinergic co-administration; mild neuropathology is evident in multiple brain regions. Excessive influx of calcium due to repeated seizure-induced depolarization and prolonged stimulation of NMDA receptors is proposed as the ultimate cause of neuropathology. The model and data indicate that rapid and aggressive management of seizures is essential to prevent neuropathology from nerve agent exposure. PMID:9353792

  8. Seizures and brain regulatory systems: consciousness, sleep, and autonomic systems.

    PubMed

    Sedigh-Sarvestani, Madineh; Blumenfeld, Hal; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Bateman, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Research into the physiologic underpinnings of epilepsy has revealed reciprocal relationships between seizures and the activity of several regulatory systems in the brain. This review highlights recent progress in understanding and using the relationships between seizures and the arousal or consciousness system, the sleep-wake and associated circadian system, and the central autonomic network. PMID:25233249

  9. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  10. Electrically Induced Limbic Seizures: Preliminary Findings in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Kowski, Alexander B; Holtkamp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In epilepsy, novel pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment approaches are commonly assessed in model systems of acute motor and often generalized seizures. We developed a rodent model with short-term electrical stimulation of the perforant path resulting in stereotyped limbic seizures. Limbic structures play a major role in human intractable epilepsy. In 10 rats, single electrical 5-second and 20-Hz stimuli to the perforant path reliably produced limbic seizures characterized by resting behavior and subtle motor signs. Electrophysiological recordings from the dentate gyrus demonstrated a seizure pattern with 4-Hz to 5-Hz discharges. Multiple inductions of seizures within 72 hours did not alter behavioral and electrophysiological seizure characteristics. Electrophysiological excitatory and inhibitory parameters assessed by evoked single and paired pulses did not change with increasing number of seizures. We present preliminary findings on a new model of electrically induced limbic seizures of mesiotemporal origin. This model may represent a reliable screening tool for new treatment approaches such as deep brain stimulation. PMID:25861223

  11. Development of spontaneous seizures over extended electrical kindling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michalakis Michael; Damian Holsinger; Candace Ikeda-Douglas; Sam Cammisuli; Janina Ferbinteanu; Cheryl DeSouza; Sandra DeSouza; Jillian Fecteau; Ronald J Racine; Norton W Milgram

    1998-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating an extended kindling model of spontaneous epilepsy. Behavioral and electrographic responses to repeated kindling of either the perforant path or amygdala were monitored for up to 300 trials. Kindling initially led to generalized convulsions equivalent to the level 5 seizure on the rating scale developed by Racine. The evoked seizures became progressively more

  12. Neuropeptide FF receptors as novel targets for limbic seizure attenuation.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Meurs, Alfred; Bihel, Frederic; Hammoud, Hassan; Schmitt, Martine; De Kock, Joery; Utard, Valerie; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Buffel, Ine; Coppens, Jessica; Tourwe, Dirk; Maes, Veronique; De Prins, An; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Massie, Ann; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Boon, Paul; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well established anticonvulsant and first-in-class antiepileptic neuropeptide. In this study, the controversial role of NPY1 receptors in epilepsy was reassessed by testing two highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands and a mixed NPY1/NPFF receptor antagonist BIBP3226 in a rat model for limbic seizures. While BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the pilocarpine-induced seizures, neither of the highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands altered the seizure severity. Administration of the NPFF1/NPFF2 receptor antagonist RF9 also significantly attenuated limbic seizure activity. To further prove the involvement of NPFF receptors in these seizure-modulating effects, low and high affinity antagonists for the NPFF receptors were tested. We observed that the low affinity ligand failed to exhibit anticonvulsant properties while the two high affinity ligands significantly attenuated the seizures. Continuous NPFF1 receptor agonist administration also inhibited limbic seizures whereas bolus administration of the NPFF1 receptor agonist was without effect. This suggests that continuous agonist perfusion could result in NPFF1 receptor desensitization and mimic NPFF1 receptor antagonist administration. Our data unveil for the first time the involvement of the NPFF system in the management of limbic seizures. PMID:25963417

  13. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  14. Pathological yawning as an ictal seizure manifestation in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Alessia; Khalil, Nofal M; Owbridge, P; Hakda, Mina; Beitverda, Younatan

    2012-01-01

    Excessive yawning has been reported in the peri-ictal period preceding or following seizures. We describe an exceptional case of an elderly man with impairment of consciousness and paroxysmal excessive yawning. We hypothesise that this can be regarded as an autonomic seizure originating from diencephalic/brainstem structures, manifesting with yawning as an ictal phenomenon. PMID:23076687

  15. Chronic focal seizure disorder as a manifestation of intracranial iophendylate.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, R M; Roos, K L; Scott, J A

    1988-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman developed focal seizures 10-15 years following iophendylate myelography. Focal epileptogenic abnormalities on electroencephalogram corresponded to the localization of residual iophendylate in the right sylvian fissure. Intracranial iophendylate may have produced chronic meningeal reaction leading to cortical irritation and a chronic seizure disorder. PMID:3131136

  16. Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

  17. Development of seizures in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriett Kaplan; Charles Miezejeski

    1972-01-01

    Studied the frequency of occurrence of seizures in 102 male and 126 female Mongolian gerbils. Frequency was a function of age but not sex. Seizures lst appeared at 2 mo. of age, and at 6 mo. their frequency was still increasing. The trigger appeared to be increased, possibly stressful, stimulus input. Early stimulation in the form of weekly tests, from

  18. Seizure activity and unresponsiveness after hydroxycut ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kockler, D R; McCarthy, M W; Lawson, C L

    2001-05-01

    A 22-year-old man was hospitalized after unexplained seizure-like activity and unresponsiveness. A urine toxicology screen was negative for salicylates, acetaminophen, alcohol, and drugs of abuse. Medical history was insignificant with the exception of recent (within 2 wks) ingestion of Hydroxycut is a dietary supplement purported to be energy enhancing, muscle building, and fat burning. The agent contains ephedra alkaloids and caffeine, which are both central nervous system stimulants; the etiology of seizure was attributed to their consumption. Due to a significant number of reported adverse events, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed regulations for dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids and requested an independent review of case reports linked to these products. Because herbal products are not subject to the same rigorous FDA regulations required for prescription and over-the-counter products, consumers unknowingly risk adverse effects when taking these products. Questioning patients about consumption of herbal products should be part of routine medical visits. PMID:11349754

  19. Management of reflex anoxic seizures in children.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anand; Appleton, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) are important in the differential diagnosis of non-epileptic paroxysmal events in infants and preschool-aged children. They are classically provoked by a sudden distressing stimulus, which causes loss of consciousness followed by stiffening and brief clonic movements affecting some or all limbs, often misinterpreted as an epileptic seizure. The underlying pathophysiology is a vagal-induced brief cardiac asystole with resultant transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Parents and carers who witness the event are understandably anxious, and the mainstay of management are ensuring the appropriate timely diagnosis of RAS and excluding cardiac arrhythmia. A detailed history from a witness is all that is needed to diagnose this condition and investigations like EEG or neuroimaging should be avoided. Education and reassurance remain the mainstay in the management. Some children benefit from medical treatment with atropine or fluoxetine; however, there is a lack of evidence for pharmacological treatment. Cardiac pacing is the only definitive treatment, and is reserved for frequent, severe cases in joint consultation with the cardiologist. PMID:23814085

  20. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  1. Seizure in Pregnancy Following Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Farnoush; Abdollahzadeh, Mehrsima; Faraji, Roya; Chavoushi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seizure involves less than 1% of pregnancies; however it is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare, but potentially life-threatening cause of seizure during pregnancy, presenting primarily as seizure in 12% - 31.9% of cases. Pregnancy and puerperium are known as the risk factors of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Case Presentation: Here is presented a case of seizure after delivery by cesarean section in an otherwise healthy woman. The final diagnosis was cerebral venous sinus thrombosis probably due to hypercoagulable state in pregnancy. Conclusions: If seizure occurs during the peripartum period, along with providing complete cardiovascular and respiratory support, advanced diagnostic measures are needed and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be considered as a possible diagnosis. PMID:26161329

  2. The piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortex in seizure generation

    PubMed Central

    Vismer, Marta S.; Forcelli, Patrick A.; Skopin, Mark D.; Gale, Karen; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of mammalian limbic and neocortical brain regions provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC), perirhinal (PRC), and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are discussed. In addition, the neurotransmitters, intrinsic and extrinsic connections, and the interaction of these regions are described. Furthermore, we provide evidence based on clinical research and animal models that suggest that these cortical regions may act as key seizure-trigger zones and, even, epileptogenesis. PMID:26074779

  3. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a “pre-seizure” state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

  4. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a ``pre-seizure'' state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  5. Regional voltage map of the hippocampus during seizures.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M

    1989-08-01

    The hallmark of brain tissue is its electrical activity. However, few techniques are available to directly monitor voltage changes in neural tissue, especially in whole brain preparation. A technique has been developed using a fluorescent voltage-sensitive dye and digital image analysis to produce a high spatial resolution map of the voltage changes induced by seizures in the hippocampus. Eight different anatomical regions within the septal hippocampus of the rat were analyzed. Seizures were produced in vivo by methods which use entirely different mechanisms and produce electrographically and behaviorally different types of seizures. Kainic acid produced depolarization during the seizure, whereas bicuculline produced hyperpolarization. The results provide experimental evidence that all seizures do not induce a depolarized state in the brain. PMID:2666149

  6. Enhanced sensitivity of laforin- and malin-deficient mice to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrero, Ana M; Sánchez-Elexpuru, Gentzane; Serratosa, José M; Sánchez, Marina P

    2014-01-01

    Lafora disease is a rare form of inherited progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A gene encoding laforin, or in the EPM2B gene, which encodes malin. It is characterized by the presence of polyglucosan inclusion bodies (Lafora bodies) in brain and other tissues. Genetically engineered mice lacking expression of either the laforin (Epm2a(-/-) ) or malin (Epm2b(-/-) ) genes display a number of neurological and behavioral abnormalities that resemble those found in patients suffering from Lafora disease; of these, both Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice have shown altered motor activity, impaired motor coordination, episodic memory deficits, and different degrees of spontaneous epileptic activity. In this study, we analyze the sensitivity of Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an antagonist of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, commonly used to induce epileptic tonic-clonic seizures in laboratory animals. PTZ-induced epileptic activity, including myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, was analyzed in 2 age groups of mice comprising representative samples of young adult and aged mice, after administration of PTZ at sub-convulsive and convulsive doses. Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice showed a lower convulsive threshold after PTZ injections at sub-convulsive doses. A lower convulsive threshold and shorter latencies to develop epileptic seizures were observed after PTZ injections at convulsive doses. Different patterns of generalized seizures and of discharges were observed in Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice. Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice present an increased sensitivity to the convulsant agent PTZ that may reflect different degrees of increased GABAA receptor-mediated hyperexcitability. PMID:25309313

  7. Enhanced sensitivity of laforin- and malin-deficient mice to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabrero, Ana M.; Sánchez-Elexpuru, Gentzane; Serratosa, José M.; Sánchez, Marina P.

    2014-01-01

    Lafora disease is a rare form of inherited progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A gene encoding laforin, or in the EPM2B gene, which encodes malin. It is characterized by the presence of polyglucosan inclusion bodies (Lafora bodies) in brain and other tissues. Genetically engineered mice lacking expression of either the laforin (Epm2a?/?) or malin (Epm2b?/?) genes display a number of neurological and behavioral abnormalities that resemble those found in patients suffering from Lafora disease; of these, both Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice have shown altered motor activity, impaired motor coordination, episodic memory deficits, and different degrees of spontaneous epileptic activity. In this study, we analyze the sensitivity of Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an antagonist of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, commonly used to induce epileptic tonic-clonic seizures in laboratory animals. PTZ-induced epileptic activity, including myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, was analyzed in 2 age groups of mice comprising representative samples of young adult and aged mice, after administration of PTZ at sub-convulsive and convulsive doses. Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice showed a lower convulsive threshold after PTZ injections at sub-convulsive doses. A lower convulsive threshold and shorter latencies to develop epileptic seizures were observed after PTZ injections at convulsive doses. Different patterns of generalized seizures and of discharges were observed in Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice. Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice present an increased sensitivity to the convulsant agent PTZ that may reflect different degrees of increased GABAA receptor-mediated hyperexcitability. PMID:25309313

  8. Voluntary wheel running attenuates ethanol withdrawal-induced increases in seizure susceptibility in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, Leslie L.; Walls, Shawn A.; McCulley, Walter D.; Rosenwasser, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    We recently found that voluntary wheel running attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced increased susceptibility to chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male rats. Since female rats recover from ethanol withdrawal (EW) more quickly than male rats across several behavioral measures, this study was designed to determine whether the effects of exercise on EW seizures also exhibited sex differences. Animals were maintained under No-Wheel, Locked-Wheel or Free-Wheel conditions and ethanol was administered by liquid diet for 14 days with control animals pair-fed an isocaloric diet, after which seizure thresholds were determined at 1 day or 3 days of EW. Consistent with previous reports, females ran significantly more than males, regardless of diet condition. Introduction of the ethanol-containing liquid diet dramatically increased running for females during the day (rest) phase, with little impact on night phase activity. Consistent with previous reports, EW increased seizure susceptibility at 1 day in non-exercising males and females and at 3 days in males. These effects were attenuated by access to running wheels in both sexes. We also assessed the effects of sex, ethanol diet and exercise on ethanol clearance following an acute ethanol administration at 1 day EW in a separate set of animals. Blood ethanol concentrations at 30 min post-injection were lower in males, ethanol-exposed animals, and runners, but no interactions among these factors were detected. Interestingly, females displayed more rapid ethanol clearance than males and there were no effects of either diet or wheel access on clearance rates. Taken together, these data suggest that voluntary wheel running during ethanol administration provides protective effects against EW seizures in both males and females. This effect may be mediated, in part, in male, but not female rat, by effects of exercise on early pharmacokinetic contributions. This supports the idea that encouraging alcoholics to exercise may benefit their recovery. PMID:22871538

  9. Impaired consciousness in partial seizures is bimodally distributed

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Courtney; Chen, William C.; Shorten, Andrew; McClurkin, Michael; Choezom, Tenzin; Schmidt, Christian P.; Chu, Victoria; Bozik, Anne; Best, Cameron; Chapman, Melissa; Furman, Moran; Detyniecki, Kamil; Giacino, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether impaired consciousness in partial seizures can usually be attributed to specific deficits in the content of consciousness or to a more general decrease in the overall level of consciousness. Methods: Prospective testing during partial seizures was performed in patients with epilepsy using the Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale (n = 83 partial seizures, 30 patients). Results were compared with responsiveness scores in a cohort of patients with severe traumatic brain injury evaluated with the JFK Coma Recovery Scale–Revised (n = 552 test administrations, 184 patients). Results: Standardized testing during partial seizures reveals a bimodal scoring distribution, such that most patients were either fully impaired or relatively spared in their ability to respond on multiple cognitive tests. Seizures with impaired performance on initial test items remained consistently impaired on subsequent items, while other seizures showed spared performance throughout. In the comparison group, we found that scores of patients with brain injury were more evenly distributed across the full range in severity of impairment. Conclusions: Partial seizures can often be cleanly separated into those with vs without overall impaired responsiveness. Results from similar testing in a comparison group of patients with brain injury suggest that the bimodal nature of Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale scores is not a result of scale bias but may be a finding unique to partial seizures. These findings support a model in which seizures either propagate or do not propagate to key structures that regulate overall arousal and thalamocortical function. Future investigations are needed to relate these behavioral findings to the physiology underlying impaired consciousness in partial seizures. PMID:24727311

  10. Modeling Seizure Self-Prediction: An E-Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Haut, Sheryl R.; Hall, Charles B.; Borkowski, Thomas; Tennen, Howard; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A subset of patients with epilepsy successfully self-predicted seizures in a paper diary study. We conducted an e-diary study to ensure that prediction precedes seizures, and to characterize the prodromal features and time windows that underlie self-prediction. Methods Subjects 18 or older with LRE and ?3 seizures/month maintained an e-diary, reporting AM/PM data daily, including mood, premonitory symptoms, and all seizures. Self-prediction was rated by, “How likely are you to experience a seizure [time frame]”? Five choices ranged from almost certain (>95% chance) to very unlikely. Relative odds of seizure (OR) within time frames was examined using Poisson models with log normal random effects to adjust for multiple observations. Key Findings Nineteen subjects reported 244 eligible seizures. OR for prediction choices within 6hrs was as high as 9.31 (1.92,45.23) for “almost certain”. Prediction was most robust within 6hrs of diary entry, and remained significant up to 12hrs. For 9 best predictors, average sensitivity was 50%. Older age contributed to successful self-prediction, and self-prediction appeared to be driven by mood and premonitory symptoms. In multivariate modeling of seizure occurrence, self-prediction (2.84; 1.68,4.81), favorable change in mood (0.82; 0.67,0.99) and number of premonitory symptoms (1,11; 1.00,1.24) were significant. Significance Some persons with epilepsy can self-predict seizures. In these individuals, the odds of a seizure following a positive prediction are high. Predictions were robust, not attributable to recall bias, and were related to self awareness of mood and premonitory features. The 6-hour prediction window is suitable for the development of pre-emptive therapy. PMID:24111898

  11. Optogenetically Induced Seizure and the Longitudinal Hippocampal Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Shin-ichiro; Iwasaki, Masaki; Hosaka, Ryosuke; Matsuzaka, Yoshiya; Tomita, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Toru; Sugano, Eriko; Okumura, Eiichi; Yawo, Hiromu; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Tominaga, Teiji; Mushiake, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic seizure is a paroxysmal and self-limited phenomenon characterized by abnormal hypersynchrony of a large population of neurons. However, our current understanding of seizure dynamics is still limited. Here we propose a novel in vivo model of seizure-like afterdischarges using optogenetics, and report on investigation of directional network dynamics during seizure along the septo-temporal (ST) axis of hippocampus. Repetitive pulse photostimulation was applied to the rodent hippocampus, in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed, under simultaneous recording of local field potentials (LFPs). Seizure-like afterdischarges were successfully induced after the stimulation in both W-TChR2V4 transgenic (ChR2V-TG) rats and in wild type rats transfected with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors carrying ChR2. Pulse frequency at 10 and 20 Hz, and a 0.05 duty ratio were optimal for afterdischarge induction. Immunohistochemical c-Fos staining after a single induced afterdischarge confirmed neuronal activation of the entire hippocampus. LFPs were recorded during seizure-like afterdischarges with a multi-contact array electrode inserted along the ST axis of hippocampus. Granger causality analysis of the LFPs showed a bidirectional but asymmetric increase in signal flow along the ST direction. State space presentation of the causality and coherence revealed three discrete states of the seizure-like afterdischarge phenomenon: 1) resting state; 2) afterdischarge initiation with moderate coherence and dominant septal-to-temporal causality; and 3) afterdischarge termination with increased coherence and dominant temporal-to-septal causality. A novel in vivo model of seizure-like afterdischarge was developed using optogenetics, which was advantageous in its reproducibility and artifact-free electrophysiological observations. Our results provide additional evidence for the potential role of hippocampal septo-temporal interactions in seizure dynamics in vivo. Bidirectional networks work hierarchically along the ST hippocampus in the genesis and termination of epileptic seizures. PMID:23593349

  12. Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…

  13. Reduction of Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizure Activity in Awake Rats by Seizure-Triggered Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika E. Fanselow; Ashlan P. Reid; Miguel A. L. Nicolelis

    2000-01-01

    Stimulation of the vagus nerve has become an effective method for desynchronizing the highly coherent neural activity typically associated with epileptic seizures. This technique has been used in several animal models of seizures as well as in humans suf- fering from epilepsy. However, application of this technique has been limited to unilateral stimulation of the vagus nerve, typically delivered according

  14. Anticonvulsant activity of delta-HCH, calcium channel blockers and calmodulin antagonists in seizures induced by lindane and other convulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Tusell, J M; Barrón, S; Serratosa, J

    1993-09-17

    The anticonvulsant activity of delta-HCH and of a calmodulin antagonist, W-7 were investigated on convulsions induced in mice by lindane (ED100 100 mg/kg), by GABAergic antagonists PTZ (ED100 60 mg/kg) and PTX(ED100 4 mg/kg), by calcium channel agonist BAY-K-8644 (ED100 5 mg/kg), by two agonists of excitatory amino acid receptors, kainic acid (ED100 80 mg/kg) and NMDA (ED100 160 mg/kg and by the atypical benzodiazepine Ro 5-4864 (ED100 40 mg/kg). The anticonvulsant activity of a voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine was also investigated on convulsions induced by Ro 5-4864, BAY-K-8644, kainic acid and NMDA. delta-HCH antagonized lindane- and BAY-K-8644-induced convulsions (ED50 231 (172-309) mg/kg and 148 (142-154) mg/kg, respectively) and at concentrations up to 300 mg/kg failed to antagonize Ro 5-4864, kainic acid and NMDA convulsions. In contrast delta-HCH potentiated PTX-induced seizures. Nifedipine antagonized BAY-K-8644- and kainic acid-induced convulsions (ED50 6.5 (4.3-9.7) mg/kg and 30 (13-70) mg/kg but at concentrations up to 20 mg/kg failed to antagonize Ro 5-4864 and 25% of protection was observed on NMDA-induced convulsions at the highest dose (20 mg/kg). The ED50 of W-7 to antagonize convulsions induced by lindane and BAY-K-8644 were 12 (8-19) mg/kg and 49 (29-85) mg/kg, respectively. Some anticonvulsant effect was observed against PTZ and NMDA but without any dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity. W-7 did not protect against PTX and kainic acid convulsions and 30% of protection was observed against convulsions at the highest dose of W-7 (75 mg/kg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7694769

  15. The antiepileptic activity of Vitex agnus castus extract on amygdala kindled seizures in male rats.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Mehdi; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2008-08-22

    The antiepileptic activity of hydrophilic extract of Vitex agnus castus fruit (Vitex) was evaluated by the kindling model of epilepsy. Intact male rats (250-300 g) were stereotaxically implanted with a tripolar and two monopolar electrodes in amygdala and dura, respectively. The afterdischarge (AD) threshold was determined in each animal and stimulated daily until fully kindled. The animals were administered different doses (60, 120 or 180 mg/kg) of Vitex or 0.1 ml of hydro alcoholic solvent intra-peritoneally (i.p.) and kindling parameters including AD threshold, seizure stages (SS), afterdischarge duration (ADD), stage 4 latency (S4L) and stage 5 duration (S5D) were recorded 30 min post-injection. The obtained data showed that even low dose (60 mg/kg) of Vitex could significantly increase the AD threshold and decrease the ADD and S5D (P<0.05). These changes were more significant with higher doses (120 or 180 mg/kg) for ADD (P<0.01) and S5D (P<0.001). Vitex at the dose of 120 mg/kg, induced significant increment in S4L (P<0.05). This effect was more prominent at the dose of 180 mg/kg (P<0.001). The latter dose could significantly reduce seizure stage (P<0.01) and most of the animals did not show S5. These results indicate that Vitex can reduce or prevent epileptic activity as demonstrated by reduction of ADD and S5D (length of convulsion) in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, Vitex at appropriate dose can probably reduce or control epileptic activities. PMID:18577418

  16. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in children: a review.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Colin; Menlove, Leanne; Fenton, Virginia; Das, Krishna B

    2013-10-01

    One of the considerations when a child presents with paroxysmal events is psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). PNES are discernible changes in behavior or consciousness that resemble epileptic seizures but are not accompanied by electrophysiologic changes. They are usually understood as the manifestation of a conversion disorder that reflects underlying psychological distress. There is a lack of population-based data on the prevalence or incidence of PNES in pediatric populations. The prevalence of PNES in children would appear to be lower than that in the adult population, but the prevalence of PNES seems to increase with age, and nonepileptic paroxysmal events are more likely to be PNES in adolescence than earlier in childhood. In terms of manifestation, PNES in childhood have been described using various categorizations and terminology, making comparisons across studies difficult. There is some evidence that events are more likely to involve unresponsiveness in younger children and prominent motor symptoms in older children. The most common precipitating factors would appear to be school-related difficulties and interpersonal conflict within the child's family. In terms of psychopathology, children with PNES are at high risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Accurate diagnosis of PNES in children is likely to involve taking a comprehensive description of the episodes, garnering the child's medical/developmental history, video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) to rule out epileptic seizures, and an evaluation of family functioning. The importance of effective and sensitive communication of the diagnosis of PNES has been emphasized and management approaches will typically involve multidisciplinary efforts to safely manage the events at home and at school. Interventions to reduce the effect of precipitating psychosocial stressors and the involvement of a mental health professional to treat comorbid psychopathology will also form part of an effective management plan. Outcome at follow-up is reported to be largely positive, although studies have not been able to follow all children, and few studies have focused on predictors of a good outcome. Future controlled intervention studies using a range of outcome measures are needed to identify efficacious approaches and predictors of best outcome. PMID:23944981

  17. The Role of Resting State Networks in Focal Neocortical Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Bandt, S. Kathleen; Bundy, David T.; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ayoub, Kareem W.; Sharma, Mohit; Hacker, Carl D.; Pahwa, Mrinal; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of resting state functional networks in epilepsy is incompletely understood. While some pathologic diagnoses have been shown to have maintained but altered resting state connectivity, others have implicated resting state connectivity in disease progression. However little is known about how these resting state networks influence the behavior of a focal neocortical seizure. Methods Using data taken from invasively monitored patients with intractable focal neocortical epilepsy, we evaluated network connectivity (as determined by oscillatory covariance of the slow cortical potential (<0.5 Hz)) as it relates to neocortical seizure foci both in the interictal and ictal states. Results Similar to what has been shown in the past for sleep and anesthesia, electophysiologic resting state networks that are defined by this slow cortical potential covariance maintain their topographic correlation structure throughout an ictal event. Moreover, in the context of focal epilepsy in which the seizure has a specific site of onset, seizure propagation is not chaotic or random. Rather, the seizure (reflected by an elevation of high frequency power) preferentially propagates along the network that contains the seizure onset zone. Significance Taken together, these findings further undergird the fundamental role of resting state networks, provide novel insights into the network-influenced behavior of seizures, and potentially identify additional targets for surgical disconnection including informing the location for the completion of multiple subpial transections (MSPTs). PMID:25247680

  18. Optimal control based seizure abatement using patient derived connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Thomas, Jijju; Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Thesen, Thomas; Ruths, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which patients have recurrent seizures. Seizures occur in conjunction with abnormal electrical brain activity which can be recorded by the electroencephalogram (EEG). Often, this abnormal brain activity consists of high amplitude regular spike-wave oscillations as opposed to low amplitude irregular oscillations in the non-seizure state. Active brain stimulation has been proposed as a method to terminate seizures prematurely, however, a general and widely-applicable approach to optimal stimulation protocols is still lacking. In this study we use a computational model of epileptic spike-wave dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of a pseudospectral method to simulated seizure abatement. We incorporate brain connectivity derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a subject with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We find that the pseudospectral method can successfully generate time-varying stimuli that abate simulated seizures, even when including heterogeneous patient specific brain connectivity. The strength of the stimulus required varies in different brain areas. Our results suggest that seizure abatement, modeled as an optimal control problem and solved with the pseudospectral method, offers an attractive approach to treatment for in vivo stimulation techniques. Further, if optimal brain stimulation protocols are to be experimentally successful, then the heterogeneity of cortical connectivity should be accounted for in the development of those protocols and thus more spatially localized solutions may be preferable.

  19. Evidence for Consolidation of Neuronal Assemblies after Seizures in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stead, Matt; Bower, Regina S.; Kucewicz, Michal T.; Sulc, Vlastimil; Cimbalnik, Jan; Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; Vasoli, Vincent M.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of memories involves reactivation of waking neuronal activity patterns and strengthening of associated neural circuits during slow-wave sleep (SWS), a process known as “cellular consolidation” (Dudai and Morris, 2013). Reactivation of neural activity patterns during waking behaviors that occurs on a timescale of seconds to minutes is thought to constitute memory recall (O'Keefe and Nadel, 1978), whereas consolidation of memory traces may be revealed and served by correlated firing (reactivation) that appears during sleep under conditions suitable for synaptic modification (Buhry et al., 2011). Although reactivation has been observed in human neuronal recordings (Gelbard-Sagiv et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2013), reactivation during sleep has not, likely because data are difficult to obtain and the effect is subtle. Seizures, however, provide intense and synchronous, yet sparse activation (Bower et al., 2012) that could produce a stronger consolidation effect if seizures activate learning-related mechanisms similar to those activated by learned tasks. Continuous wide-bandwidth recordings from patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for drug-resistant epilepsy revealed reactivation of seizure-related neuronal activity during subsequent SWS, but not wakefulness. Those neuronal assemblies that were most strongly activated during seizures showed the largest correlation changes, suggesting that consolidation selectively strengthened neuronal circuits activated by seizures. These results suggest that seizures “hijack” physiological learning mechanisms and also suggest a novel epilepsy therapy targeting neuronal dynamics during post-seizure sleep. PMID:25609617

  20. Stability of Synchronization Clusters and Seizurability in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Palmigiano, Agostina; Pastor, Jesús; García de Sola, Rafael; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Identification of critical areas in presurgical evaluations of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy is the most important step prior to resection. According to the “epileptic focus model”, localization of seizure onset zones is the main task to be accomplished. Nevertheless, a significant minority of epileptic patients continue to experience seizures after surgery (even when the focus is correctly located), an observation that is difficult to explain under this approach. However, if attention is shifted from a specific cortical location toward the network properties themselves, then the epileptic network model does allow us to explain unsuccessful surgical outcomes. Methods The intraoperative electrocorticography records of 20 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were analyzed in search of interictal synchronization clusters. Synchronization was analyzed, and the stability of highly synchronized areas was quantified. Surrogate data were constructed and used to statistically validate the results. Our results show the existence of highly localized and stable synchronization areas in both the lateral and the mesial areas of the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the clinical seizures. Synchronization areas seem to play a central role in the capacity of the epileptic network to generate clinical seizures. Resection of stable synchronization areas is associated with elimination of seizures; nonresection of synchronization clusters is associated with the persistence of seizures after surgery. Discussion We suggest that synchronization clusters and their stability play a central role in the epileptic network, favoring seizure onset and propagation. We further speculate that the stability distribution of these synchronization areas would differentiate normal from pathologic cases. PMID:22844524

  1. Seizure-like phenomena and propofol: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Walder, Bernhard; Tramčr, Martin R; Seeck, Margitta

    2002-05-14

    Data on seizure-like phenomena (SLP) in patients receiving propofol were systematically reviewed. Reports had to provide detailed information on SLP in individual patients who received propofol. Phenomena were classified according to the time point of their occurrence during anesthesia or sedation (induction, maintenance, emergence, delayed [>30 minutes after emergence]) and their clinical presentation (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, focal motor seizures, events presented as increased tone with twitching and rhythmic movements not perceived as generalized tonic-clonic seizures, opisthotonos, involuntary movements). In 70 patients without epilepsy, SLP happened during induction in 24 (34%), during maintenance in two (3%), during emergence in 28 (40%), and was delayed in 16 (23%). Most frequent clinical presentations of SLP were generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 30 patients (43%), events presented as increased tone with twitching and rhythmic movements not perceived as generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 20 (36%), and involuntary movements in 11 (16%). Of 11 patients with epilepsy, seven (64%) had generalized tonic-clonic seizure during emergence. Of all 81 patients, 26 (32%) only had an EEG, and 12 (15%) only a neurologic consultation. SLP may happen in patients with or without epilepsy receiving propofol. The time point of the occurrence of SLP suggests that a change in cerebral concentration of propofol may be causal. To confirm this hypothesis, to estimate the prevalence of propofol-related SLP, and to identify patients at risk, data of higher quality are needed. PMID:12017156

  2. Body packing: from seizures to laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Joanna M; Beutner, Ulrich; Hasler, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25883813

  3. Pathology Case Study: Recent Onset Seizures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biernat, Wojciech

    This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 12-year-old boy presents with a history of headaches, â??and a recent onset of right-sided seizures followed by the loss of consciousnessâ?ť. Visitors are shown CT scan images of the patientâ??s brain, along with microscopic images. The official diagnosis found in the â??Final Diagnosisâ?ť section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâ??s findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâ??s conditions.

  4. Prenatal and Perinatal Determinants of Neonatal Seizures Occurring in the First Week of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Arpino; Sergio Domizio; Maria Patrizia Carrieri; Sonia Brescianini; Giuseppe Sabatino; Paolo Curatolo

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for early neonatal seizures, we conducted a case-control study including 100 newborns with neonatal seizures in the first week of life and 204 controls randomly selected from a list of healthy newborns born in the same hospital during the study period. Generalized tonic seizures were the most common seizures observed (29%), although the

  5. Validation of a new automated neonatal seizure detection system: A clinician's perspective

    E-print Network

    is important for detecting seizures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our automated algorithmValidation of a new automated neonatal seizure detection system: A clinician's perspective P: Neonatal seizures Automated seizure detection Perinatal asphyxia HIE NICU a b s t r a c t Objective

  6. The epidemiology of clinical neonatal seizures in Newfoundland: A population-based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel M. Ronen; Sharon Penney; Wayne Andrews

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence, clinical features, etiologic distribution, and day of seizure onset by etiology in neonates with seizures. Design: Prospective, population-based study involving all the obstetric and neonatal units across the province of Newfoundland, Canada. All units were given educational sessions on neonatal seizure symptomatology. Subjects: Detailed questionnaires were prospectively collected for all infants with probable neonatal seizures

  7. Targeted treatment of migrating partial seizures of infancy with quinidine.

    PubMed

    Bearden, David; Strong, Alanna; Ehnot, Jessica; DiGiovine, Marissa; Dlugos, Dennis; Goldberg, Ethan M

    2014-09-01

    Migrating partial seizures of infancy is an early onset epileptic encephalopathy syndrome that is typically resistant to treatment. The most common cause is a gain of function mutation in the potassium channel KCNT1. The antiarrhythmic drug quinidine is a partial antagonist of KCNT1 and hence may be a candidate drug for treatment of this condition. We report the case of a child with migrating partial seizures of infancy secondary to an activating mutation in KCNT1 treated with quinidine. Treatment with quinidine was correlated with a marked reduction in seizure frequency and improved psychomotor development. PMID:25042079

  8. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Shin, Hyeeun; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kwon, Ohyun; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26157671

  9. Clinical decision making in seizures and status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Teran, Felipe; Harper-Kirksey, Katrina; Jagoda, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Seizures and status epilepticus are frequent neurologic emergencies in the emergency department, accounting for 1% of all emergency department visits. The management of this time-sensitive and potentially life-threatening condition is challenging for both prehospital providers and emergency clinicians. The approach to seizing patients begins with differentiating seizure activity from mimics and follows with identifying potential secondary etiologies, such as alcohol-related seizures. The approach to the patient in status epilepticus and the patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus constitutes a special clinical challenge. This review summarizes the best available evidence and recommendations regarding diagnosis and resuscitation of the seizing patient in the emergency setting. PMID:25902572

  10. Automated differentiation between epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai; Jennum, Poul; Fabricius, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina; Andersen, Noémi; Hjalgrim, Helle; Wolf, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed with the algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures. PMID:25545895

  11. Diagnosis and management of catamenial seizures: a review

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; D’Egidio, Claudia; Agostinelli, Sergio; Verrotti, Carla; Pavone, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Catamenial epilepsy is defined as a pattern of seizures that changes in severity during particular phases of the menstrual cycle, wherein estrogens are proconvulsant, increasing the neuronal excitability; and progesterone is anticonvulsant, enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition. Thus, changes in serum estradiol/progesterone ratio throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence. To date, there are no specific drug treatments for catamenial epilepsy however, non-hormonal and hormonal therapies have been proposed. The aim of this review is to report preclinical and clinical evidences about the relationship between female reproductive steroids and epileptic seizures, and to describe treatment approaches for catamenial epilepsy. PMID:23071424

  12. Seizure Localization using Three-Dimensional Surface Projections of Intracranial EEG Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Youngblood, Mark W.; Farooque, Pue; Han, Xiao; Jhun, Stephen; Chen, William; Goncharova, Irina; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D.; Zaveri, Hitten; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial EEG (icEEG) provides a critical road map for epilepsy surgery but has become increasingly difficult to interpret as technology has allowed the number of icEEG channels to grow. Borrowing methods from neuroimaging, we aimed to simplify data analysis and increase consistency between reviewers by using 3D Surface Projections of Intracranial EEG poweR (3D-SPIER). We analyzed 139 seizures from 48 intractable epilepsy patients (28 temporal and 20 extratemporal) who had icEEG recordings, epilepsy surgery, and at least one year of post-surgical follow-up. We coregistered and plotted icEEG ? frequency band signal power over time onto MRI-based surface renderings for each patient, to create color 3D-SPIER movies. Two independent reviewers interpreted the icEEG data using visual analysis vs. 3D-SPIER, blinded to any clinical information. Overall agreement rates between 3D-SPIER and icEEG visual analysis or surgery were about 90% for side of seizure onset, 80% for lobe, and just under 80% for sublobar localization. These agreement rates were improved when flexible thresholds or frequency ranges were allowed for 3D SPIER, especially for sublobar localization. Interestingly, agreement was better for patients with good surgical outcome than for patients with poor outcome. Localization using 3D-SPIER was measurably faster and considered qualitatively easier to interpret than visual analysis. These findings suggest that 3D-SPIER could be an improved diagnostic method for presurgical seizure localization in patients with intractable epilepsy and may also be useful for mapping normal brain function. PMID:23850575

  13. Seizure localization using three-dimensional surface projections of intracranial EEG power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyang Woon; Youngblood, Mark W; Farooque, Pue; Han, Xiao; Jhun, Stephen; Chen, William C; Goncharova, Irina; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D; Zaveri, Hitten; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-12-01

    Intracranial EEG (icEEG) provides a critical road map for epilepsy surgery but it has become increasingly difficult to interpret as technology has allowed the number of icEEG channels to grow. Borrowing methods from neuroimaging, we aimed to simplify data analysis and increase consistency between reviewers by using 3D surface projections of intracranial EEG poweR (3D-SPIER). We analyzed 139 seizures from 48 intractable epilepsy patients (28 temporal and 20 extratemporal) who had icEEG recordings, epilepsy surgery, and at least one year of post-surgical follow-up. We coregistered and plotted icEEG ? frequency band signal power over time onto MRI-based surface renderings for each patient, to create color 3D-SPIER movies. Two independent reviewers interpreted the icEEG data using visual analysis vs. 3D-SPIER, blinded to any clinical information. Overall agreement rates between 3D-SPIER and icEEG visual analysis or surgery were about 90% for side of seizure onset, 80% for lobe, and just under 80% for sublobar localization. These agreement rates were improved when flexible thresholds or frequency ranges were allowed for 3D-SPIER, especially for sublobar localization. Interestingly, agreement was better for patients with good surgical outcome than for patients with poor outcome. Localization using 3D-SPIER was measurably faster and considered qualitatively easier to interpret than visual analysis. These findings suggest that 3D-SPIER could be an improved diagnostic method for presurgical seizure localization in patients with intractable epilepsy and may also be useful for mapping normal brain function. PMID:23850575

  14. Enhanced susceptibility to the GABA antagonist pentylenetetrazole during the latent period following a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    Rattka, Marta; Brandt, Claudia; Bankstahl, Marion; Bröer, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    A variety of acute brain insults bear the risk of subsequent development of chronic epilepsy. Enhanced understanding of the brain alterations underlying this process may ultimately lead to interventions that prevent, interrupt or reverse epileptogenesis in people at risk. Various interventions have been evaluated in rat models of symptomatic epilepsy, in which epileptogenesis was induced by status epilepticus (SE) or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Paradoxically, recent data indicated that administration of proconvulsant drugs after TBI or SE exerts antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying effects, although epilepsy is often considered to represent a decrease in seizure threshold. Surprisingly, to our knowledge, it is not known whether alterations in seizure threshold occur during the latent period following SE. This prompted us to study seizure threshold during and after the latent period following SE induced by lithium/pilocarpine in rats. Timed intravenous infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was used for this purpose. The duration of the latent period was determined by continuous video/EEG monitoring. Compared to control seizure threshold determined before SE, threshold significantly decreased two days after SE, but returned to pre-SE control thereafter. Moreover, the duration of PTZ-induced seizures was significantly increased throughout the latent period, which ranged from 6 to 10 days after SE. This increased susceptibility to PTZ likely reflects the complex alterations in GABA-mediated transmission that occur during the latent period following SE. The data will allow developing dosing regimens for evaluation of whether treatment with subconvulsant doses of PTZ during the latent period affects the development of epilepsy. PMID:21075125

  15. The design and hardware implementation of a low-power real-time seizure detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K.; Ward, Matthew P.; Worth, Robert M.; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

    2009-10-01

    Epilepsy affects more than 1% of the world's population. Responsive neurostimulation is emerging as an alternative therapy for the 30% of the epileptic patient population that does not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Efficient seizure detection algorithms will enable closed-loop epilepsy prostheses by stimulating the epileptogenic focus within an early onset window. Critically, this is expected to reduce neuronal desensitization over time and lead to longer-term device efficacy. This work presents a novel event-based seizure detection algorithm along with a low-power digital circuit implementation. Hippocampal depth-electrode recordings from six kainate-treated rats are used to validate the algorithm and hardware performance in this preliminary study. The design process illustrates crucial trade-offs in translating mathematical models into hardware implementations and validates statistical optimizations made with empirical data analyses on results obtained using a real-time functioning hardware prototype. Using quantitatively predicted thresholds from the depth-electrode recordings, the auto-updating algorithm performs with an average sensitivity and selectivity of 95.3 ± 0.02% and 88.9 ± 0.01% (mean ± SE? = 0.05), respectively, on untrained data with a detection delay of 8.5 s [5.97, 11.04] from electrographic onset. The hardware implementation is shown feasible using CMOS circuits consuming under 350 nW of power from a 250 mV supply voltage from simulations on the MIT 180 nm SOI process.

  16. Epileptic seizure onset detection prior to clinical manifestation.

    PubMed

    Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Sawan, Mohamad; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of an epilepticseizure detector. This circuit is part of an implantable device used to continuously record intracerebral electroencephalographic signals through subdural and depth electrodes. The implemented seizure detector is based on a detection algorithm validated in Matlab tools and the circuits were implemented using CMOS 0.18-microm process. The proposed system was tested using intracerebral EEG recordings from two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Four seizures were assessed by the proposed CMOS building blocks and the required delays to detect these seizures were 3, 8, 11, and 11 sec, respectively after electric onset. The simulated total power consumption of the detector was 6.71 microW. Together, these preliminary results indicate the possibility of building implantable ultra-low power seizure-detection devices. PMID:21097161

  17. Prognosis and Outcome Predictors in Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Joseph; Rickards, Hugh; Cavanna, Andrea E.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that one in five patients referred to specialist epilepsy clinics for refractory seizures have psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Despite the high prevalence, little is known about the prognosis of patients with PNES. In this paper we set out to systematically assess published original studies on the prognosis and outcome predictors of patients with PNES. Our literature search across the databases Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE generated 18 original studies meeting the search criteria. Prognosis was found to be poor in adults, but good in children. Predictors of poor outcome included the presence of coexisting epilepsy or psychiatric comorbidities, violent seizure phenomenology, dependent lifestyle, and poor relationships. Overall, too much reliance is placed on seizure remission as an outcome measurement for patients with PNES, and the impact of many of the outcome predictors requires evaluation using larger studies with longer followup. PMID:22937230

  18. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Yates, Erica

    2014-05-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, as a functional neurological symptom disorder. This disorder is often misdiagnosed as epilepsy, with the consequence that older adults may have been treated for years for epilepsy before they learn their seizures are non-epileptic. Video electroencephalography monitoring, which is the standardized approach for ruling out epilepsy, is often performed in a specialized epilepsy monitoring unit where the patient lies in bed 24 hours per day waiting for a seizure to be recorded. The immobility, loss of independence, and anxiety that occurs during the monitoring process can be difficult for older adults. It is important for all nurses to be aware of PNES and to be sensitive to the unique needs of older adults who are experiencing these seizures. PMID:24815758

  19. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10?g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  20. Effect of Contraceptive Estradiol on Hippocampus Kindling Seizure Activity 

    E-print Network

    Younus, Iyan

    2014-09-15

    by several million women worldwide. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential adverse effect of EE on epileptogenesis and seizure activity using the hippocampus kindling model in female mice. Animals were stimulated daily without...

  1. Medical Groups Issue Guidelines for Treating First Seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Groups Issue Guidelines for Treating First Seizure Epilepsy medication recommended to help stave off second attack ... the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. After a review of all available evidence, ...

  2. Appearing and disappearing CT scan abnormalities and seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P K Sethi; B R Kumar; V S Madan; V Mohan

    1985-01-01

    A group of patients presenting with seizures (focal or generalised) and abnormal CT scans who, on follow up, showed complete resolution of the CT scan changes, without any treatment other than anticonvulsants, are described.

  3. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Alpay; Kutlu, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Sigirci, Ahmet; Orkan, Ismet; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2004-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent seizures are an extremely rare genetic disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of permanent brain damage. Elevated levels of glutamate and decreased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the frontal and parietal cortices are among the characteristic features of this disorder. These metabolic abnormalities eventually lead to seizures and neuronal loss. In this case report, we present magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings of a 9-year-old girl with pyridoxine-dependent seizures with mental retardation. The N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine ratio was found to be decreased in the frontal and parieto-occipital cortices, which could indicate neuronal loss. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy could be a useful tool in the neuroimaging evaluation for assessment of parenchymal changes despite a normal-appearing brain magnetic resonance image in patients with pyridoxine-dependent seizures. PMID:15032392

  4. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for partial onset seizure therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique C. G. Ventureyra

    2000-01-01

    A new concept for transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for control of partial onset seizures is described. The rationale\\u000a for the application of this innovative noninvasive method is discussed.

  5. Seizure control after radiosurgery on cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihisa Kida; Tatsuya Kobayashi; Takayuki Tanaka; Yoshimasa Mori; Tosinori Hasegawa; Toshiki Kondoh

    2000-01-01

    Among 462 cases of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) treated with gamma-radiosurgery, the initial presentations were haemorrhage in 68%, epilepsy in 12.8%, neurological deficits in 3.2%, minor symptoms in 7.6% and asymptomatic in 4.5% respectively. There were 79 cases (17.1%) who had had a convulsive seizure before radiosurgery and they were classified into two groups: 58 cases presented with seizure as

  6. Development of hippocampal sclerosis after a complex febrile seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Merkenschlager; Horst Todt; Thomas Pfluger; Matthias K. Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    The role of prolonged febrile seizures in the genesis of hippocampal sclerosis is controversial; statistical analysis and\\u000a data from epilepsy surgery suggest a causal relationship. A three-year-old boy had an initial febrile seizure with a transient\\u000a postictal flaccid hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormality of the hippocampal areas of both sides.\\u000a At the age of four a prolonged

  7. Wavelet based automatic seizure detection in intracerebral electroencephalogram

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. U. Khan; J. Gotman

    2003-01-01

    Background: Automatic seizure detection is often used during long-term monitoring, and is particularly important during intracerebral investigations. Existing methods make many false detections, particularly in intracerebral electroencephalogram (EEG) because of frequent large amplitude rhythmic activity bursts that are non-epileptiform.Objective: To develop a seizure detection method for intracerebral monitoring that is as sensitive as existing methods but has fewer false detections.Methods:

  8. Alcohol-Related Seizures in the Intensive Care Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary Webb; Panayiotis Varelas

    \\u000a Alcohol abuse is a common cause of seizures resulting in admission to the intensive care unit. The cause of the alcohol-related\\u000a seizures (ARS) is usually abstinence in a chronic alcoholic, although some patients may still have detectable levels of alcohol\\u000a in their blood. ARS generally occur between 7 and 48 h after abstinence. Approximately half the patients presenting with ARS

  9. Seizure after flumazenil administration in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    McDuffee, A T; Tobias, J D

    1995-06-01

    Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist used to reverse sedation and respiratory depression induced by benzodiazepines. Seizures and cardiac arrhythmias have complicated its use in adult patients. Overdose patients who have coingested tricyclic antidepressants have a higher risk of these complications. Little information exists concerning adverse effects of flumazenil in children. We report the occurrence of a generalized tonic-clonic seizure in a pediatric patient following the administration of flumazenil. PMID:7651879

  10. Seizure-Induced Alterations in Cerebrovascular Function in the Neonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aliz Zimmermann; Ferenc Domoki; Ferenc Bari

    2008-01-01

    Epileptiform seizures are most common during the neonatal period, affecting at least 0.3% of term neonates and more than 10% of preterm neonates. The adverse impact of neonatal seizures on the long-term neurological outcome has been well documented, but their cerebrovascular consequences are rarely emphasized. The cerebral blood flow is controlled by the interaction of the vascular and parenchymal cells

  11. Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

    2015-01-01

    Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. PMID:25145652

  12. Severe new seizures after initiation of vagus nerve stimulation therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najib I. Murr; Nabil J. Azar

    2011-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation is considered to be a safe and effective adjunctive therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Contrary to some antiepileptic drugs, vagus nerve stimulation is not known to precipitate or aggravate new or preexisting seizures. We describe the emergence of a new type of disabling, recurrent partial seizure immediately after initiation of vagus nerve stimulation in a 51-year-old

  13. Tracking and detection of epileptiform activity in multichannel ictal EEG using signal subspace correlation of seizure source scalp topographies.

    PubMed

    Hesse, C W; James, C J

    2007-10-01

    Conventional methods for monitoring clinical (epileptiform) multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals often involve morphological, spectral or time-frequency analysis on individual channels to determine waveform features for detecting and classifying ictal events (seizures) and inter-ictal spikes. Blind source separation (BSS) methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA), are increasingly being used in biomedical signal processing and EEG analysis for extracting a set of underlying source waveforms and sensor projections from multivariate time-series data, some of which reflect clinically relevant neurophysiological (epileptiform) activity. The work presents an alternative spatial approach to source tracking and detection in multichannel EEG that exploits prior knowledge of the spatial topographies of the sensor projections associated with the target sources. The target source sensor projections are obtained by ICA decomposition of data segments containing representative examples of target source activity, e.g. a seizure or ocular artifact. Source tracking and detection are then based on the subspace correlation between individual target sensor projections and the signal subspace over a moving window. Different window lengths and subspace correlation threshold criteria reflect transient or sustained target source activity. To study the behaviour and potential application of this spatial source tracking and detection approach, the method was used to detect (transient) ocular artifacts and (sustained) seizure activity in two segments of 25-channel EEG data recorded from one epilepsy patient on two separate occasions, with promising and intuitive results. PMID:17701236

  14. Tracking and detection of epileptiform activity in multichannel ictal EEG using signal subspace correlation of seizure source scalp topographies.

    PubMed

    Hesse, C W; James, C J

    2005-11-01

    Conventional methods for monitoring clinical (epileptiform) multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals often involve morphological, spectral or time-frequency analysis on individual channels to determine waveform features for detecting and classifying ictal events (seizures) and inter-ictal spikes. Blind source separation (BSS) methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA), are increasingly being used in biomedical signal processing and EEG analysis for extracting a set of underlying source waveforms and sensor projections from multivariate time-series data, some of which reflect clinically relevant neurophysiological (epileptiform) activity. The work presents an alternative spatial approach to source tracking and detection in multichannel EEG that exploits prior knowledge of the spatial topographies of the sensor projections associated with the target sources. The target source sensor projections are obtained by ICA decomposition of data segments containing representative examples of target source activity, e.g. a seizure or ocular artifact. Source tracking and detection are then based on the subspace correlation between individual target sensor projections and the signal subspace over a moving window. Different window lengths and subspace correlation threshold criteria reflect transient or sustained target source activity. To study the behaviour and potential application of this spatial source tracking and detection approach, the method was used to detect (transient) ocular artifacts and (sustained) seizure activity in two segments of 25-channel EEG data recorded from one epilepsy patient on two separate occasions, with promising and intuitive results. PMID:16594304

  15. RDX Binds to the GABAA Receptor–Convulsant Site and Blocks GABAA Receptor–Mediated Currents in the Amygdala: A Mechanism for RDX-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Larry R.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Qashu, Felicia; Finne, Huckelberry; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr; Bannon, Desmond I.; Braga, Maria F. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high-energy, trinitrated cyclic compound that has been used worldwide since World War II as an explosive in both military and civilian applications. RDX can be released in the environment by way of waste streams generated during the manufacture, use, and disposal of RDX-containing munitions and can leach into groundwater from unexploded munitions found on training ranges. For > 60 years, it has been known that exposure to high doses of RDX causes generalized seizures, but the mechanism has remained unknown. Objective We investigated the mechanism by which RDX induces seizures. Methods and results By screening the affinity of RDX for a number of neurotransmitter receptors, we found that RDX binds exclusively to the picrotoxin convulsant site of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) ionophore. Whole-cell in vitro recordings in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) showed that RDX reduces the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous GABAA receptor–mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents and the amplitude of GABA-evoked postsynaptic currents. In extracellular field recordings from the BLA, RDX induced prolonged, seizure-like neuronal discharges. Conclusions These results suggest that binding to the GABAA receptor convulsant site is the primary mechanism of seizure induction by RDX and that reduction of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is involved in the generation of RDX-induced seizures. Knowledge of the molecular site and the mechanism of RDX action with respect to seizure induction can guide therapeutic strategies, allow more accurate development of safe thresholds for exposures, and help prevent the development of new explosives or other munitions that could pose similar health risks. PMID:21362589

  16. Role of Organochlorine Pesticides in Children with Idiopathic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Gupta, Sushan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are persistent organic pollutants that have been implicated in causing several deleterious effects in humans. These are known neurotoxins in high doses, but the role of environmentally acquired OCPs in the body to induce seizures in children has not been investigated yet. Objectives. To assess the serum levels of OCPs in children aged 2–12 with idiopathic seizure and to find out any association between the two are our objectives. Methods. It was a cross-sectional pilot study. Twenty developmentally normal children aged 2–12, presenting with idiopathic generalized seizures, were recruited. Twenty age-matched controls without any history of seizures were also taken. Their serum levels of ?, ?, and ? hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); and aldrin; dieldrin; p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p-DDT, and p,p dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); and ? and ? endosulfan were analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare OCP levels between the groups. Spearman correlation was used to find the correlation between individual pesticide levels with age and seizure duration. Results. Levels of ?, ?, and total HCH were significantly higher among cases as compared to the control group (P ? 0.05). Conclusion. There exists a possible association between idiopathic seizures and high serum levels of OCPs, especially HCH. PMID:24368944

  17. Automated seizure detection using a self-organizing neural network.

    PubMed

    Gabor, A J; Leach, R R; Dowla, F U

    1996-09-01

    An algorithm for automated seizure detection using the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network (NN), with unsupervised training, was used to detect seizures in 24 long-term EEG recordings. The detection paradigm was tested on a constant 8 channel subset of 18 channel scalp EEG recordings. The NN was trained to recognize seizures using 98 training examples. A strategy was devised using wavelet transform to construct a filter that was 'matched' to the frequency features of examples used to train the NN. Four second epochs of training examples and EEGs being tested were transformed into time-independent representations of spectrograms resulting in a time-frequency representation of the time-series. Rule-based long and short term contextual features were used for detection in association with the NN. Fifty-six seizures were detected from a possible 62 (90%) associated with an average 0.71 +/- 0.79 false-positive errors per hour using the same 'population' detection parameters. When the sensitivity for detection was increased, all but one of the 62 seizures were detected (98%). Less than 1.0 false-positive error per hour occurred in all but 5 records when using the 'population' parameters. The combination of rule-based detection criteria employing contextual parameters and unsupervised training of NNs to recognize time-frequency patterns is a promising direction for automated seizure detection. PMID:8862115

  18. Behaviors induced or disrupted by complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Leung, L S; Ma, J; McLachlan, R S

    2000-09-01

    We reviewed the neural mechanisms underlying some postictal behaviors that are induced or disrupted by temporal lobe seizures in humans and animals. It is proposed that the psychomotor behaviors and automatisms induced by temporal lobe seizures are mediated by the nucleus accumbens. A non-convulsive hippocampal afterdischarge in rats induced an increase in locomotor activity, which was suppressed by the injection of dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist in the nucleus accumbens, and blocked by inactivation of the medial septum. In contrast, a convulsive hippocampal or amygdala seizure induced behavioral hypoactivity, perhaps by the spread of the seizure into the frontal cortex and opiate-mediated postictal depression. Mechanisms underlying postictal psychosis, memory disruption and other long-term behavioral alterations after temporal lobe seizures, are discussed. In conclusion, many of the changes of postictal behaviors observed after temporal lobe seizures in humans may be found in animals, and the basis of the behavioral change may be explained as a change in neural processing in the temporal lobe and the connecting subcortical structures. PMID:10974356

  19. Rapid arrest of seizures with an inhalation aerosol containing diazepam.

    PubMed

    Xi, L Y; Zheng, W M; Zhen, S M; Xian, N S

    1994-01-01

    Diazepam (DZP) and a mixture of Chinese herbs customarily used to treat epilepsy were prepared as an aerosol under the trade name Aerosolum Diaiepami Compositae or Flvalscop (FVS). FVS was studied in a single-blind trial in 101 patients with seizures preceded by an aura and in 19 without an aura to whom was administered by another person. FVS or a control preparation was administered. In 16-22 s, (average 18.5 s), the aura was interrupted and no seizure ensued in 90% of the cases treated with FVS and in 26% of cases treated with the control preparation. Of the 120 patients, 8 had elementary partial seizures with Jacksonian march, 18 had complex partial seizures (CPS), 7 had simple partial seizures with autonomic symptoms, and 87 had secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Eleven patients have now received FVS for 2 years (400 ml each). Forty patients for 1 year (150-200 ml each); none of these patients have shown any side effects or abnormal laboratory findings. An aerosol-administered drug may be a valuable adjunct to the antiepileptic drug (AED) arsenal and merits more extensive evaluation. PMID:8156957

  20. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0?mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30?mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  1. Sturge-Weber syndrome: a favourable surgical outcome in a case with contralateral seizure onset and myoclonic-astatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Jiruska, Premysl; Marusic, Petr; Jefferys, John G R; Krsek, Pavel; Cmejla, Roman; Sebronova, Vera; Komarek, Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a neurocutaneous disorder classically characterized by the presence of facial port-wine stain and ipsilateral leptomeningeal angiomatosis. It is often associated with refractory epilepsy which requires surgical treatment. We present a case of a patient who initially presented with partial seizures of temporo-occipital origin, ipsilateral to the pial angiomatosis. During the course of the disease, the patient developed medically refractory epilepsy with partial seizures originating predominantly from the contralateral temporo-occipital area as well as myoclonic and myoclonic-astatic seizures. Resection of the occipital and temporal lobe affected by the pial angioma resulted in favourable outcome. Bilateral dysfunction observed in Sturge-Weber syndrome may result in an increased capability of focal discharges to generate synchronous epileptiform activity leading to an increased incidence of generalised seizures, most probably via a mechanism of secondary bilateral synchrony. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:21393095

  2. From treatment to cure: stopping seizures, preventing seizures, and reducing brain propensity to seize.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Schorge, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Current antiepileptic treatments are aimed at stopping or preventing seizures rather than curing epilepsy. Here, we discuss how recent advances in genetics and neurophysiological research may not only help us better understand the pathophysiology of different epilepsies, but may also drive the development of novel approaches, including treatments that can modify the underlying disease. Although these new therapeutic strategies are still in the very early stages, rapid progress in this direction means that the ability to stop or even to reverse changes caused by epileptogenesis may not be that far away. PMID:25078506

  3. The perils of thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font-Clos, Francesc; Pruessner, Gunnar; Moloney, Nicholas R.; Deluca, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The thresholding of time series of activity or intensity is frequently used to define and differentiate events. This is either implicit, for example due to resolution limits, or explicit, in order to filter certain small scale physics from the supposed true asymptotic events. Thresholding the birth–death process, however, introduces a scaling region into the event size distribution, which is characterized by an exponent that is unrelated to the actual asymptote and is rather an artefact of thresholding. As a result, numerical fits of simulation data produce a range of exponents, with the true asymptote visible only in the tail of the distribution. This tail is increasingly difficult to sample as the threshold is increased. In the present case, the exponents and the spurious nature of the scaling region can be determined analytically, thus demonstrating the way in which thresholding conceals the true asymptote. The analysis also suggests a procedure for detecting the influence of the threshold by means of a data collapse involving the threshold-imposed scale.

  4. Postnatal Inflammation Increases Seizure Susceptibility in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Galic, Michael A.; Riazi, Kiarash; Heida, James G.; Mouihate, Abdeslam; Fournier, Neil M.; Spencer, Sarah J.; Kalynchuk, Lisa E.; Teskey, G. Campbell; Pittman, Quentin J.

    2012-01-01

    There are critical postnatal periods during which even subtle interventions can have long-lasting effects on adult physiology. We asked whether an immune challenge during early postnatal development can alter neuronal excitability and seizure susceptibility in adults. Postnatal day 14 (P14) male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and control animals received sterile saline. Three weeks later, extracellular recordings from hippocampal slices revealed enhanced field EPSP slopes after Schaffer collateral stimulation and increased epileptiform burst-firing activity in CA1 after 4-aminopyridine application. Six to 8 weeks after postnatal LPS injection, seizure susceptibility was assessed in response to lithium–pilocarpine, kainic acid, and pentylenetetrazol. Rats treated with LPS showed significantly greater adult seizure susceptibility to all convulsants, as well as increased cytokine release and enhanced neuronal degeneration within the hippocampus after limbic seizures. These persistent increases in seizure susceptibility occurred only when LPS was given during a critical postnatal period (P7 and P14) and not before (P1) or after (P20). This early effect of LPS on adult seizures was blocked by concurrent intracerebroventricular administration of a tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) antibody and mimicked by intracerebroventricular injection of rat recombinant TNF?. Postnatal LPS injection did not result in permanent changes in microglial (Iba1) activity or hippocampal cytokine [IL-1?(interleukin-1?) and TNF?] levels, but caused a slight increase in astrocyte (GFAP) numbers. These novel results indicate that a single LPS injection during a critical postnatal period causes a long-lasting increase in seizure susceptibility that is strongly dependent on TNF?. PMID:18596165

  5. Star Formation Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaye, Joop

    2008-05-01

    To make predictions for the existence of “dark galaxies”, it is necessary to understand what determines whether a gas cloud will form stars. Star formation thresholds are generally explained in terms of the Toomre criterion for gravitational instability. I contrast this theory with the thermo-gravitational instability hypothesis of Schaye (2004), in which star formation is triggered by the formation of a cold gas phase and which predicts a nearly constant surface density threshold. I argue that although the Toomre analysis is useful for the global stability of disc galaxies, it relies on assumptions that break down in the outer regions, where star formation thresholds are observed. The thermo-gravitational instability hypothesis can account for a number of observed phenomena, some of which were thought to be unrelated to star formation thresholds.

  6. Threshold voltage extraction circuit 

    E-print Network

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01

    A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

  7. Threshold voltage extraction circuit

    E-print Network

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01

    A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

  8. Malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy controlled by stiripentol and clonazepam.

    PubMed

    Merdariu, Dana; Delanoë, Catherine; Mahfoufi, Nora; Bellavoine, Vanina; Auvin, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The syndrome of malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy (MMPSI) is characterized by early onset of multiple seizure types and overall poor prognosis. Seizures are markedly drug resistant and few reports have suggested the efficacy of some antiepileptic drugs. We report one case of MMPSI in which prolonged seizure control is obtained with an association of clonazepam, levetiracetam and stiripentol, confirming thus the possibility of complete sustained seizure control in this epileptic syndrome. Of more than 60 cases reported to date, ours is the forth in which sustained complete control of seizures was obtained. PMID:22521903

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, L.H.; Chalder, T.; Chigwedere, C.; Khondoker, M.R.; Moriarty, J.; Toone, B.K.; Mellers, J.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical care (SMC) as treatments for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods: Our randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared CBT with SMC in an outpatient neuropsychiatric setting. Sixty-six PNES patients were randomized to either CBT (plus SMC) or SMC alone, scheduled to occur over 4 months. PNES diagnosis was established by video-EEG telemetry for most patients. Exclusion criteria included comorbid history of epilepsy, <2 PNES/month, and IQ <70. The primary outcome was seizure frequency at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included 3 months of seizure freedom at 6-month follow-up, measures of psychosocial functioning, health service use, and employment. Results: In an intention-to-treat analysis, seizure reduction following CBT was superior at treatment end (group × time interaction p < 0.0001; large to medium effect sizes). At follow-up, the CBT group tended to be more likely to have experienced 3 months of seizure freedom (odds ratio 3.125, p = 0.086). Both groups improved in some health service use measures and on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Mood and employment status showed no change. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than standard medical care alone in reducing seizure frequency in PNES patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT in addition to SMC, as compared to SMC alone, significantly reduces seizure frequency in patients with PNES (change in median monthly seizure frequency: baseline to 6 months follow-up, CBT group, 12 to 1.5; SMC alone group, 8 to 5). GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy; CI = confidence interval; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IQR = interquartile range; ITT = intention-to-treat; OR = odds ratio; PNES = psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SMC = standard medical care; WASAS = Work and Social Adjustment Scale. PMID:20548043

  10. Zonisamide – a review of experience and use in partial seizures

    PubMed Central

    Wilfong, Angus A; Willmore, L James

    2006-01-01

    Zonisamide is a modern antiepileptic drug (AED) that is distinguished from other AEDs by its unique structure and broad mechanistic profile. Preclinical studies have reported a range of potential mechanisms of action for zonisamide, such as blocking voltage-gated sodium channels, reduction of T-type calcium channel currents, and enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition, which are indicative of its broad antiseizure effects. Zonisamide has a favorable linear pharmacokinetic profile, a long half-life, and a low incidence of protein-binding interactions with other AEDs. Hepatically metabolized through the cytochrome P450 pathway, zonisamide does not induce its own metabolism or liver enzymes. For more than 2 decades, zonisamide has been extensively used as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial and generalized seizures in pediatric and adult patients in Japan. Zonisamide was approved in the USA in 2000 as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures in adults. With over 2 million patient-years of exposure internationally, zonisamide has demonstrated safety and efficacy against a multitude of epilepsy and seizure types, including both partial and generalized seizures. This review focuses on the experience and use of zonisamide in partial seizures, as well as possible new uses for zonisamide. PMID:19412474

  11. A patient with atonic seizures mimicking transient ischemic attacks?

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Ju; Choi, Jun Young; An, Young-Sil; Park, Ki-Hyung; Park, Hyeon-Mi; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Sung, Young Hee; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    A focal atonic seizure is a partial seizure in which the ictal manifestation consists of paresis of the extremities or muscles on one side of the body, and this phenomenon can easily be misdiagnosed as a transient ischemic attack. An 86-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of transient right upper extremity weakness lasting for 10 min following an unusual sensation in her chest accompanied by palpitations. On the third hospital day, she again complained of right arm weakness, which progressed to jerky movements of her right extremity accompanied by facial twitching and then generalized into a tonic–clonic seizure. The EEG displayed several interictal spikes in the contralateral temporal area, and the ictal SPECT, analyzed using the SISCOM system, showed an increased signal in both the contralateral superior parietal area and the mesial frontal area. In this case, the patient was diagnosed with focal atonic seizures as the cause of the monolimb weakness, which had been initially misdiagnosed aas transient ischemic attacks. In cases in which a patient presents with monolimb paresis, physicians should consider the possibility of an atonic seizure as the cause. PMID:25870790

  12. Cross Sectional Imaging of Post Partum Headache and Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mundaganur, Praveen; Sonwalkar, Pradeep; N S, Vishal; G S, Narendra; P, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate spectrum of causes & their characteristic findings in peripartum head ache and seizures on computed tomography & magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with complaints of peripartum headache and seizures underwent cross sectional imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging during period of June 2011 to May 2012. Age group of subjects in this study was 18 to 38 y. Out of 40 patients 15 had history of eclampsia and remaining 25 patients were normotensive. Subjects with complaints of headache and seizures after six weeks of delivery were excluded from the study. Intravenous contrast was administered in cases with diagnostic dilemma. All results were reported and informed to the referring physicians on priority bases. Results: Nine patients with peripartum headache and seizures revealed no brain parenchymal or cerebral vascular abnormalities on imaging. Eleven patients with a history of eclampsia showed features of eclamptic encephalopathy. Out 40 patients, 17 patients revealed cortical venous thrombosis with 14 patients showing parenchymal changes. One patient each showed features of meningoencephalitis, ischemic watershed territory infarct & region of gliosis. All results were analysed & tabulated. Conclusion: Eclamptic encephalopathy and cortical venous thrombosis are the major causes for post partum headache and seizures. Rational use of CT & MRI in the early course of the disease helps in characterizing the lesion and providing the appropriate treatment. PMID:25654004

  13. Clinical implementation of a neonatal seizure detection algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Temko, Andriy; Marnane, William; Boylan, Geraldine; Lightbody, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Technologies for automated detection of neonatal seizures are gradually moving towards cot-side implementation. The aim of this paper is to present different ways to visualize the output of a neonatal seizure detection system and analyse their influence on performance in a clinical environment. Three different ways to visualize the detector output are considered: a binary output, a probabilistic trace, and a spatio-temporal colormap of seizure observability. As an alternative to visual aids, audified neonatal EEG is also considered. Additionally, a survey on the usefulness and accuracy of the presented methods has been performed among clinical personnel. The main advantages and disadvantages of the presented methods are discussed. The connection between information visualization and different methods to compute conventional metrics is established. The results of the visualization methods along with the system validation results indicate that the developed neonatal seizure detector with its current level of performance would unambiguously be of benefit to clinicians as a decision support system. The results of the survey suggest that a suitable way to visualize the output of neonatal seizure detection systems in a clinical environment is a combination of a binary output and a probabilistic trace. The main healthcare benefits of the tool are outlined. The decision support system with the chosen visualization interface is currently undergoing pre-market European multi-centre clinical investigation to support its regulatory approval and clinical adoption. PMID:25892834

  14. EEG seizure detection and prediction algorithms: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaiby, Turkey N.; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Alshawi, Tariq; Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2014-12-01

    Epilepsy patients experience challenges in daily life due to precautions they have to take in order to cope with this condition. When a seizure occurs, it might cause injuries or endanger the life of the patients or others, especially when they are using heavy machinery, e.g., deriving cars. Studies of epilepsy often rely on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in order to analyze the behavior of the brain during seizures. Locating the seizure period in EEG recordings manually is difficult and time consuming; one often needs to skim through tens or even hundreds of hours of EEG recordings. Therefore, automatic detection of such an activity is of great importance. Another potential usage of EEG signal analysis is in the prediction of epileptic activities before they occur, as this will enable the patients (and caregivers) to take appropriate precautions. In this paper, we first present an overview of seizure detection and prediction problem and provide insights on the challenges in this area. Second, we cover some of the state-of-the-art seizure detection and prediction algorithms and provide comparison between these algorithms. Finally, we conclude with future research directions and open problems in this topic.

  15. Risk factors for EEG seizures in neonates treated with hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Wusthoff, Courtney J.; Shellhaas, Renée A.; Tsuchida, Tammy N.; Bonifacio, Sonia Lomeli; Cordeiro, Malaika; Sullivan, Joseph; Abend, Nicholas S.; Chang, Taeun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors for electrographic seizures among neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods: Three-center observational cohort study of 90 term neonates treated with hypothermia, monitored with continuous video-EEG (cEEG) within the first day of life (median age at onset of recording 9.5 hours, interquartile range 6.3–14.5), and continued for >24 hours (total recording 93.3 hours, interquartile range 80.1–112.8 among survivors). A pediatric electroencephalographer at each site reviewed cEEGs for electrographic seizures and initial EEG background category. Results: A total of 43 (48%) had electrographic seizures, including 9 (10%) with electrographic status epilepticus. Abnormal initial EEG background classification (excessively discontinuous, depressed and undifferentiated, burst suppression, or extremely low voltage), but not clinical variables (including pH <6.8, base excess ??20, or 10-minute Apgar ?3), was strongly associated with seizures. Conclusions: Electrographic seizures are common among neonates with HIE undergoing hypothermia and are difficult to predict based on clinical features. These results justify the recommendation for cEEG monitoring in neonates treated with hypothermia. PMID:24610326

  16. Seizures in public places in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, R; Oppenheimer, G; Susser, M

    1986-01-01

    The frequency of police aid to persons experiencing seizures in public in New York City in 1977 was examined as an index of uncontrolled seizure disorders, and as a pointer to variations in seizure frequencies by age, sex, and ethnicity. The overall rate of assistance to persons with public seizures was 5.4 per 10,000 person years. For Blacks the rate was more than double that for Whites and "Hispanics" (10, 4.7, and 4 per 10,000 person years, respectively). Males were assisted about 2.5 times more often than females (8.2 vs 3.3 per 10,000 person years). Among Black males, young adults and those of late middle age had the most pronounced excess over White males of the same ages (26.1 and 23.1 vs 7.8 and 4.0, respectively, per 10,000 person years). These variations underscore an unmet need for medical care for seizures that is especially marked in particular ethnic, sex, and age groups. PMID:3740336

  17. Distribution of seizures across the menstrual cycle in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Andrew G; Fowler, Kristen M; Sperling, Michael R; Massaro, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether seizure frequency and cycle days with seizure occurrence vary across the menstrual cycle. The subjects were the first 100 women with intractable focal onset seizures, 13-45 years old, who completed the baseline phase of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Progesterone Trial. Each subject recorded seizures and menses during a 3-month baseline phase. Data consisted of (1) seizure numbers for each cycle day and (2) cycle days with seizure occurrence. Statistical comparisons of seizure frequency and days with seizures were performed using generalized estimating equation one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression followed by pairwise multiple comparisons of days based on the least square means. Seizure numbers and cycle days with seizure occurrence varied across the menstrual cycle. There was an approximately twofold difference between the highest (day 1) and lowest (day -8) values for both seizure frequency and days with occurrence. The demonstration of variation in seizure frequency and cycle days with seizure occurrence across the menstrual cycle, as well as identification of specific days that have substantially higher or lower frequencies than other days, supports the existence of catamenial epilepsy. PMID:25823700

  18. Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures after Head Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Scévola, Laura; D'Alessio, Luciana; Saferstein, Dario; Centurión, Estela; Consalvo, Damián; Kochen, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) are diagnosed when disruptive changes in behaviour, thinking, or emotion resemble epileptic seizures (ESs), but no paroxysmal discharges are seen on electroencephalogram (EEG) and do not originate from another medical illness. The gold standard for PNES diagnosis is video electroencephalogram (Video-EEG). PNESs are defined by modern psychiatry as conversion and dissociative disorders but these disorders may coexist with many others psychiatric disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. It is well known that epileptic seizures are a frequent and well-studied complication of traumatic head injury (THI). However, THI may also generate psychic symptoms including PNES. In this paper we describe a patient who developed PNES after THI in a bus accident and received a diagnosis of refractory epilepsy for 24 years until she underwent Video-EEG. PMID:19859582

  19. Issues related to development of new anti-seizure treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Karen S.; Dixon-Salazar, Tracy; Sills, Graeme J.; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; White, H. Steve; Porter, Roger J.; Dichter, Marc A.; Moshé, Solomon L.; Noebels, Jeffery L.; Privitera, Michael D.; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This report represents a summary of the discussions led by the anti-seizure treatment working group of the ILAE/AES Working Groups joint meeting in London (London Meeting). We review here what is currently known about the pharmacological characteristics of current models of refractory seizures, both for adult and pediatric epilepsy. In addition, we address how the NINDS-funded Anticonvulsant Screening Program (ASP) is evolving to incorporate appropriate animal models in the search for molecules that might be sufficiently novel to warrant further pharmacological development. We also briefly address what we believe is necessary, going forward, to achieve the goal of stopping seizures in all patients, with a call to arms for funding agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and basic researchers. PMID:23909851

  20. A case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with seizures and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Joo; Lee, Hae-Sang; Hwang, Jin-Soon; Jung, Da-Eun

    2012-03-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare, poorly understood, autoimmune disease characterized by symptoms of acute or subacute encephalopathy associated with increased anti-thyroid antibody levels. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with HE and briefly review the literature. The patient presented with acute mental changes and seizures, but no evidence of infectious encephalitis. In the acute stage, the seizures did not respond to conventional antiepileptic drugs, including valproic acid, phenytoin, and topiramate. The clinical course was complicated by the development of acute psychosis, including bipolar mood, insomnia, agitation, and hallucinations. The diagnosis of HE was supported by positive results for antithyroperoxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Treatment with methylprednisolone was effective; her psychosis improved and the number of seizures decreased. HE is a serious but curable, condition, which might be underdiagnosed if not suspected. Anti-thyroid antibodies must be measured for the diagnosis. HE should be considered in patients with diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations. PMID:22474467

  1. Quinolones potentiate cefazolin-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice.

    PubMed

    De Sarro, A; Zappalá, M; Chimirri, A; Grasso, S; De Sarro, G B

    1993-07-01

    The behavioral and convulsant effects of cefazolin, a beta-lactam derivative, were studied after intraperitoneal administration to DBA/2 mice, a strain genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures, and Swiss mice. DBA/2 mice were more susceptible to seizures induced by cefazolin than were Swiss mice. The proconvulsant effects of some quinolones on seizures evoked by intraperitoneal administration of cefazolin were also evaluated in DBA/2 mice. Our study also demonstrated that the order of proconvulsant activity in our epileptic model was pefloxacin > enoxacin > ofloxacin > rufloxacin > norfloxacin > cinoxacin > ciprofloxacin > nalidixic acid. The relationships between the chemical structures and proconvulsant activities of quinolone derivatives were studied. The relationship between lipophilicity and proconvulsant activity was also investigated. PMID:8395790

  2. Quinolones potentiate cefazolin-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice.

    PubMed Central

    De Sarro, A; Zappalá, M; Chimirri, A; Grasso, S; De Sarro, G B

    1993-01-01

    The behavioral and convulsant effects of cefazolin, a beta-lactam derivative, were studied after intraperitoneal administration to DBA/2 mice, a strain genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures, and Swiss mice. DBA/2 mice were more susceptible to seizures induced by cefazolin than were Swiss mice. The proconvulsant effects of some quinolones on seizures evoked by intraperitoneal administration of cefazolin were also evaluated in DBA/2 mice. Our study also demonstrated that the order of proconvulsant activity in our epileptic model was pefloxacin > enoxacin > ofloxacin > rufloxacin > norfloxacin > cinoxacin > ciprofloxacin > nalidixic acid. The relationships between the chemical structures and proconvulsant activities of quinolone derivatives were studied. The relationship between lipophilicity and proconvulsant activity was also investigated. PMID:8395790

  3. Canonical Decomposition of scalp EEG in epileptic seizure localisation Maarten De Vos 1,

    E-print Network

    the seizures. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is then recorded over several days as it is the direct measurement of seizure onset zone is recording of ictal scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) [10]. The EEG measures electric

  4. Assessment of a scalp EEG-based automated seizure detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Kelly; D. S. Shiau; R. T. Kern; J. H. Chien; M. C. K. Yang; K. A. Yandora; J. P. Valeriano; J. J. Halford; J. C. Sackellares

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to evaluate and validate an offline, automated scalp EEG-based seizure detection system and to compare its performance to commercially available seizure detection software.

  5. Automatic detection of epileptic seizure onset and termination using intracranial EEG

    E-print Network

    Kharbouch, Alaa Amin

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of real-time epileptic seizure detection from intracranial EEG (IEEG). One difficulty in creating an approach that can be used for many patients is the heterogeneity of seizure IEEG patterns ...

  6. Electroacupuncture Reduces Cocaine-Induced Seizures and Mortality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the protective profile of electroacupuncture (EA) on cocaine-induced seizures and mortality in mice. Mice were treated with EA (2?Hz, 50?Hz, and 100?Hz), or they underwent needle insertion without anesthesia at the Dazhui (GV14) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints before cocaine administration. EA at 50 Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 significantly reduced the seizure severity induced by a single dose of cocaine (75?mg/kg; i.p.). Furthermore, needle insertion into GV14 and GV20 and EA at 2 Hz and 50 Hz at both acupoints significantly reduced the mortality rate induced by a single lethal dose of cocaine (125?mg/kg; i.p.). In the sham control group, EA at 50?Hz applied to bilateral Tianzong (SI11) acupoints had no protective effects against cocaine. In addition, EA at 50?Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 failed to reduce the incidence of seizures and mortality induced by the local anesthetic procaine. In an immunohistochemistry study, EA (50 Hz) pretreatment at GV14 and GV20 decreased cocaine (75?mg/kg; i.p.)-induced c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamus. While the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SB-277011-A (30?mg/kg; s.c), did not by itself affect cocaine-induced seizure severity, it prevented the effects of EA on cocaine-induced seizures. These results suggest that EA alleviates cocaine-induced seizures and mortality and that the dopamine D3 receptor is involved, at least in part, in the anticonvulsant effects of EA in mice. PMID:23690833

  7. A distinct phenotype of childhood leukodystrophy presenting as absence seizure

    PubMed Central

    Dweikat, Imad Mohammad; Damsah, Nadera; Khalaf, Reham

    2014-01-01

    Leukoencephalopathy refers to any disease of the white matter including hereditary as well as acquired and toxic causes. Inherited leukodystrophies are diseases of myelin including abnormal myelin development, hypomyelination, or degeneration of myelin. We report a 6-year old female who presented with absence seizure at the age of 4 years. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed bilateral periventricular confluent high signal intensity. The seizure responded to anticonvulsant therapy, and the clinical course was characterized by normal development and neurological examination. PMID:24891910

  8. Enflurane-Induced Grand Mal Seizures During Otic Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    DeWolf, Andre M.; Chang, Juei-Ling; Larson, Christopher E.; Caparosa, Ralph J.

    1984-01-01

    Abnormal electroencephalographic seizure-like activity and myoclonic movements have been recognized during enflurane anesthesia. This is most commonly seen in the presence of respiratory alkalosis and high concentrations of enflurane. Immediate and delayed postoperative generalized tonic-clonic convulsions have also been reported after enflurane anesthesia. Experimental studies have shown that auditory stimuli could facilitate seizure activity during deep enflurane anesthesia. Here we report a case of intraoperative generalized tonic-clonic convulsion during low concentrations of enflurane without evidence of hyperventilation and the presence of auditory stimulation. PMID:6591846

  9. Susceptibility of immature rats to seizures induced by unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine 

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Dale Duaine

    1963-01-01

    of convulsions in male and female rats was also compared and no significant difference was found. Interval Between In ection of UDMH and Onset of Seizures The effect of age on the time interval between injection of UDMH and the onset of seizures is shown... and decreases steadily as age increased (with the exception of the 24-day-old group), when analyzed by the analysis of regression method the relationship between age and interval of time between in)ection and onset of convulsions proved not to be a strictly...

  10. Similar semiology of epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures recorded during stereo-EEG.

    PubMed

    Ostrowsky-Coste, Karine; Montavont, Alexandra; Keo-Kosal, Pascale; Guenot, Marc; Chatillon, Claude-Edouard; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    We report two adolescents with refractory seizure disorders in whom both epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) were recorded with intracerebral EEG. The ictal phenomenology of epileptic seizures (ES) and PNES, consisting of hypermotor attacks in the first patient and left-sided painful episodes in the second patient, proved remarkably similar in both cases, highlighting the difficulties which can arise with the distinction of epileptic seizures and PNES based on ictal phenomenology alone. PMID:23972997

  11. Nonlinear dynamics in EEG from epileptic patients: Is it possible to predict seizures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterhalder, M.; Schelter, B.; Maiwald, T.; Aschenbrenner-Scheibe, R.; Brandt, A.; Schulze-Bonhage, A.; Timmer, J.

    2004-12-01

    Several concepts and analysis techniques originating from Nonlinear Dynamics have been applied to electroencephalography recordings of epilepsy patients to predict seizures. An early prediction of an upcoming seizure would dramatically increase the therapeutic possibilities for this common neurological disease. We suggest standards to assess seizure prediction performance of time series analysis techniques. We present assessment of three methods originating from Nonlinear Dynamics with respect to their ability in predicting epileptic seizures.

  12. Seizures and electroencephalographic findings in CDKL5 mutations: Case report and review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Grosso; A. Brogna; S. Bazzotti; A. Renieri; G. Morgese; P. Balestri

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been detected in patients presenting with seizures in the first few months of life and Rett syndrome features. Twenty-seven cases have been detected to date. Generalized intractable seizures, as infantile spasms, and generalized tonic–clonic seizures and myoclonic seizures characterize the clinical picture of CDKL5 mutations. Here we report on a

  13. Ictal analgesia in temporal lobe epilepsy - The mechanism of seizure-related burns.

    PubMed

    Sz?cs, Anna; Horváth, András; Rásonyi, György; Fabó, Dániel; Szabó, Géza; Sákovics, Anna; Kamondi, Anita

    2015-08-01

    Seizure-related injuries have major impact in the excess mortality and morbidity of epilepsy patients. Experimental data suggest that analgesia may develop during seizures contributing to the severity of seizure-related accidents, especially burns. We aimed to identify those seizure-types that may lead to burn-injuries by seizure-related analgesia. In our tertiary epilepsy centre, we asked 100 epilepsy patients having a history of seizure-related injury, to complete our burn-and-pain questionnaire. Fifty-one patients completed the survey; their epileptology data were collected and those with a seizure-related burn were interviewed. Forty-two out of the 51 patients (82%) had partial epilepsy and 9 (18%) had idiopathic generalised epilepsy. Twenty-six persons (51%) reported decreased pain perception during or after seizures in general. Twelve patients (23%) had suffered one or more seizure-related burn. Five of them fell onto a hot surface or fire accidentally, during generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Seven out of the 12 burnt patients (58%) grasped a hot object or reached into boiling fluid during complex partial seizures; without experiencing-, or reacting in response to pain. These patients had temporal lobe epilepsy, 5 of them had left temporal seizure onset. Our hypothesis based on the circumstantial analysis of our patients' burn-injuries; is that temporal lobe seizures may cause ictal/postictal analgesia. It may be caused by the seizure-related epileptic facilitation of the periaqueductal gray matter; the central pain-inhibiting structure of the brain. Seizure-related endogenous opioid-release my have a contributory role in inhibiting pain-perception. Ictal analgesia warrants better burn-prevention in temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Understanding the mechanism of ictal analgesia and specifying those seizures-types prone to cause it; may help indentifying human pain-inhibiting pathways. PMID:25953092

  14. A crossover, add-on trial of talampanel in patients with refractory partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Chappell, A S; Sander, J W; Brodie, M J; Chadwick, D; Lledo, A; Zhang, D; Bjerke, J; Kiesler, G M; Arroyo, S

    2002-06-11

    The authors report a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of talampanel in 49 patients with refractory partial seizures. Three doses of talampanel were investigated based on differences in patients' concomitant antiepileptic drug usage. Talampanel showed efficacy in reducing seizure frequency (p = 0.001) with a median seizure reduction of 21%. Eighty percent of patients had fewer seizures on talampanel than on placebo. Dizziness (52%) and ataxia (26%) were the only significant adverse events. PMID:12058100

  15. Near threshold fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.C.; Strum, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10{sup {minus}5} mm/cycle (4{times}10{sup {minus}7} inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed by the authors for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail here to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, we describe techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity.

  16. Near threshold fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.C.; Strum, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10[sup [minus]5] mm/cycle (4[times]10[sup [minus]7] inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed by the authors for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail here to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, we describe techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity.

  17. Subacute encephalopathy and seizures in alcoholics (SESA) presenting with non-convulsive status epilepticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzette M. LaRoche; Rosita Shivdat-Nanhoe

    2011-01-01

    Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholism (SESA) was first described in 1981 by Niedermeyer who reported alcoholic patients presenting with confusion, seizures and focal neurological deficits and is quite distinct from patients presenting with typical alcohol withdrawal seizures. EEG often reveals periodic discharges and spikes, but SESA presenting with non-convulsive status epilepticus has rarely been described.We report a case

  18. Synergistic GABA-Enhancing Therapy against Seizures in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, John C.; Cho, Alvin R.; Cheah, Christine S.; Scheuer, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Seizures remain uncontrolled in 30% of patients with epilepsy, even with concurrent use of multiple drugs, and uncontrolled seizures result in increased morbidity and mortality. An extreme example is Dravet syndrome (DS), an infantile-onset severe epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Studies in Scn1a heterozygous knockout mice demonstrate reduced excitability of GABAergic interneurons, suggesting that enhancement of GABA signaling may improve seizure control and comorbidities. We studied the efficacy of two GABA-enhancing drugs, clonazepam and tiagabine, alone and in combination, against thermally evoked myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Clonazepam, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors, protected against myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Tiagabine, a presynaptic GABA reuptake inhibitor, was protective against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but only minimally protective against myoclonic seizures and enhanced myoclonic seizure susceptibility at high doses. Combined therapy with clonazepam and tiagabine was synergistic against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but was additive against myoclonic seizures. Toxicity determined by rotorod testing was additive for combination therapy. The synergistic actions of clonazepam and tiagabine gave enhanced seizure protection and reduced toxicity, suggesting that combination therapy may be well tolerated and effective for seizures in DS. PMID:23424217

  19. Diagnosis of neonatal seizure by continuous recording and rapid analysis of the electroencephalogram

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Eyre; R C Oozeer; A R Wilkinson

    1983-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of neonatal seizure is difficult and repeated seizures may be unrecognised. To assist in early diagnosis we recorded continuously the electroencephalogram (EEG) of very sick newborns while intensive care continued. In 25 babies at high risk of seizure a continuous record of two channels of EEG, ECG, and respiration was made for periods varying from 11 hours to

  20. Clinical features of seizures in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Chin, Bum Sik; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

    2015-06-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a higher burden of seizures, but few studies have examined seizures in HIV-infected individuals in Korea. A retrospective study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of seizures in patients with HIV infection. Among a total of 1,141 patients, 34 (3%) had seizures or epilepsy; 4 of these individuals had epilepsy before HIV infection, and the others showed new-onset seizures. Most patients exhibited moderate (200 to 500, n = 13) or low (below 200, n = 16) CD4 counts. The most common seizure etiology was progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (n = 14), followed by other HIV-associated central nervous system (CNS) complications (n = 6). Imaging studies revealed brain lesions in 21 patients. A total of 9 patients experienced only one seizure during the follow-up period, and 25 patients experienced multiple seizures or status epilepticus (n = 2). Multiple seizures were more common in patients with brain etiologies (P = 0.019) or epileptiform discharges on EEG (P = 0.032). Most seizures were controlled without anticonvulsants (n = 12) or with a single anticonvulsant (n = 12). Among patients with HIV infection, seizures are significantly more prevalent than in the general population. Most seizures, with the exception of status epilepticus, have a benign clinical course and few complications. PMID:26028919

  1. The Effects of Seizures on the Connectivity and Circuitry of the Developing Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Recurring seizures in infants and children are often associated with cognitive deficits, but the reason for the learning difficulties is unclear. Recent studies in several animal models suggest that seizures themselves may contribute in important ways to these deficits. Other studies in animals have shown that recurring seizures result in…

  2. Psychomotor seizures of temporal lobe onset: Analysis of symptom clusters and sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prakash Kotagal; Hans Otto Lüders; George Williams; Thom R. Nichols; Joseph McPherson

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed 91 psychomotor seizures from 31 patients seizure free at least one year after temporal lobectomy (implying temporal lobe onset). Fifty symptoms were looked for in every seizure and their time of onset and ending noted. Statistical analysis was used to define symptom clusters and the order of appearance of symptoms. Of the eighteen most common symptoms examined, all

  3. Case Report Shared vulnerability between seizures and psychosis in cocaine addiction?

    E-print Network

    Hayar, Abdallah

    Case Report Shared vulnerability between seizures and psychosis in cocaine addiction? Benjamin Available online 15 September 2011 Keywords: Cocaine Seizures Psychosis N-methyl-D-aspartate Dopamine Kindling effect Cocaine-induced seizures (CIS) and cocaine-induced psychosis (CIP) may be complications

  4. Risk of seizures and neurocysticercosis in household family contacts of children with single enhancing lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gagandeep Singh; S Ram; V Kaushal; Sheel Kumar; R. C Bhatia; N Raizada; R. K Kaushal

    2000-01-01

    A small, single enhancing lesion (SEL) is often noted upon computed tomography (CT) in children and young adults with recent focal or generalized seizures. A high frequency of seizures has been reported in family members of persons with SEL. We studied the prevalence of seizures and cysticercus electro-immuno-transfer blot (EITB) based seropositivity among family members, specifically household family contacts of

  5. A computational environment for long-term multi-feature and multi-algorithm seizure prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Teixeira; B. Direito; R. P. Costa; M. Valderrama; H. Feldwisch-Drentrup; S. Nikolopoulos; M. Le Van Quyen; B. Schelter; A. Dourado

    2010-01-01

    The daily life of epilepsy patients is constrained by the possibility of occurrence of seizures. Until now, seizures cannot be predicted with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Most of the seizure prediction studies have been focused on a small number of patients, and frequently assuming unrealistic hypothesis. This paper adopts the view that for an appropriate development of reliable predictors one

  6. Downregulated GABA and BDNF-TrkB Pathway in Chronic Cyclothiazide Seizure Model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cyclothiazide (CTZ) has been reported to simultaneously enhance glutamate receptor excitation and inhibit GABAA receptor inhibition, and in turn it evokes epileptiform activities in hippocampal neurons. It has also been shown to acutely induce epileptic seizure behavior in freely moving rats. However, whether CTZ induced seizure rats could develop to have recurrent seizure still remains unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 46% of the CTZ induced seizure rats developed to have recurrent seizure behavior as well as epileptic EEG with a starting latency between 2 weeks and several months. In those chronic seizure rats 6 months after the seizure induction by the CTZ, our immunohistochemistry results showed that both GAD and GAT-1 were significantly decreased across CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus area of the hippocampus studied. In addition, both BDNF and its receptor TrkB were also decreased in hippocampus of the chronic CTZ seizure rats. Our results indicate that CTZ induced seizure is capable of developing to have recurrent seizure, and the decreased GABA synthesis and transport as well as the impaired BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway may contribute to the development of the recurrent seizure. Thus, CTZ seizure rats may provide a novel animal model for epilepsy study and anticonvulsant drug testing in the future. PMID:24757570

  7. Patients with coexistent psychogenic pseudoepileptic and epileptic seizures: a psychological profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Owczarek; Joanna J?drzejczak

    2001-01-01

    Despite significant advances in epileptology, the differential diagnosis of epileptic and pseudoepileptic seizures continues to be a considerable challenge. The problem becomes even more complicated when epileptic and psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures coexist in the same patient . Appropriate psychological measures may be helpful in the diagnosis and may improve knowledge about aetiological factors which can provoke psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. The

  8. + neurobiotin mean spike threshold

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Rachel

    -80 -60 -40 Vm(mV) KCH3SO3 + neurobiotin n=5 KCH3S03 n=16 Kaspartate n=5 Kaspartate + biocytin, and the reversal potential EGABA was determined, along with the spike threshold for that cell. With a KCH3SO3-based the KCH3SO3+neurobiotin internal (supplemental Fig. 2). #12;Supplemental Figure 2. PN odor tuning

  9. Designing Acoustic Thresholds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Rebelo; Maarten van Walstijn

    This paper introduces the notion of acoustic thresholds as a metaphor for the design of sound objects. We present an approach to sound design which is based on the idea of intervention rather than creation, actively transforming sound by manipulating the acoustic entity itself. By addressing the acoustic specificity of sound objects, as in physical modelling, and by introducing technological

  10. Undervoltage Breakdown Threshold Criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Cooley; Edgar Choueiri

    2006-01-01

    Undervoltage breakdown, the process by which a pulse of electrons induces a discharge gap to break down when it is near but has not achieved its self-breakdown conditions, is discussed. Specifically, threshold criteria that determine the number of electrons required to induce breakdown both to glow and arc discharges are presented. Numerical and theoretical predictions of these criteria are compared

  11. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  12. Seizures after Onyx embolization for the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    de Los Reyes, K; Patel, A; Doshi, A; Egorova, N; Panov, F; Bederson, J B; Frontera, J A

    2011-09-01

    Onyx embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) has become increasingly common. We explored the risk of seizures after Onyx use.A retrospective review was conducted of 20 patients with supratentorial brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) who received Onyx embolization between 2006 and 2009. Baseline demographics, clinical history, seizure history, AVM characteristics and treatment were compared between those who developed post-onyx seizure and those who did not. MRIs were reviewed for edema following Onyx treatment.Of 20 patients who underwent Onyx embolization, the initial AVM presentation was hemorrhage in 40% (N=8). The median number of embolizations was two (range 1-4) and the median final obliteration amount was 90% (range 50-100%). A history of seizure was present in 50% (N=10) of patients pre-embolization and 12 (60%) patients received seizure medications (treatment or prophylaxis) prior to embolization. Seizur post-Onyx embolization occurred in 45% (N=9). The median time to seizur post-Onyx was seven days (range 0.3-210). Four patients (20%) with seizures post-Onyx had no seizure history. Two of these patients (10%) had no other identifiable cause for seizure other than recent Onyx embolization. Seizures in these two patients occurred within 24 hours of Onyx administration. Among patients with post-Onyx seizures, there was a trend toward larger AVM size (P=0.091) and lower percent obliteration (P=0.062). Peri-AVM edema was present in 75% of MRIs performed within one month of Onyx treatment and may represent a possible etiology for seizures.New onset seizures post-Onyx embolization are not uncommon. Further study of seizure prevention is warranted. PMID:22005695

  13. Early Postnatal EEG Features of Perinatal Arterial Ischaemic Stroke with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Low, Evonne; Mathieson, Sean R.; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Livingstone, Vicki; Ryan, C. Anthony; Bogue, Conor O.; Rennie, Janet M.; Boylan, Geraldine B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is the second most common cause of seizures in term neonates and is associated with abnormal long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in some cases. Objective To aid diagnosis earlier in the postnatal period, our aim was to describe the characteristic EEG patterns in term neonates with perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (PAIS) seizures. Design Retrospective observational study. Patients Neonates >37 weeks born between 2003 and 2011 in two hospitals. Method Continuous multichannel video-EEG was used to analyze the background patterns and characteristics of seizures. Each EEG was assessed for continuity, symmetry, characteristic features and sleep cycling; morphology of electrographic seizures was also examined. Each seizure was categorized as electrographic-only or electroclinical; the percentage of seizure events for each seizure type was also summarized. Results Nine neonates with PAIS seizures and EEG monitoring were identified. While EEG continuity was present in all cases, the background pattern showed suppression over the infarcted side; this was quite marked (>50% amplitude reduction) when the lesion was large. Characteristic unilateral bursts of theta activity with sharp or spike waves intermixed were seen in all cases. Sleep cycling was generally present but was more disturbed over the infarcted side. Seizures demonstrated a characteristic pattern; focal sharp waves/spike-polyspikes were seen at frequency of 1–2 Hz and phase reversal over the central region was common. Electrographic-only seizure events were more frequent compared to electroclinical seizure events (78 vs 22%). Conclusions Focal electrographic and electroclinical seizures with ipsilateral suppression of the background activity and focal sharp waves are strong indicators of PAIS. Approximately 80% of seizure events were the result of clinically unsuspected seizures in neonates with PAIS. Prolonged and continuous multichannel video-EEG monitoring is advocated for adequate seizure surveillance. PMID:25051161

  14. Does the teddy bear sign predict psychogenic nonepileptic seizures?

    PubMed

    Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Lesser, Ronald; Tran, Tung T; Fortuné, Taryn; Muthugovindan, Deivasumathy; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated whether adults and older teenagers who bring toy stuffed animals to an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU), i.e., the "teddy bear sign," were more likely to be diagnosed to have psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) than to have epilepsy. We prospectively evaluated 335 patients, aged 15 years and older, admitted to our EMU over a 19-month period, assessing age at seizure onset, duration of seizures, gender, seizure diagnosis, presence of intellectual disabilities, presence of psychiatric illness, and possession of a toy stuffed animal in the EMU. Among all ages, patients who brought toy stuffed animals were not more likely to have PNES or both PNES and epilepsy than to have epilepsy alone. For those 18 and over, there was a significant difference but only after adjusting for all other patient characteristics, and absolute differences were small. Patients 18 and older with stuffed animals had a 3.21 (95% confidence interval = 1.58, 8.90) times greater odds of being diagnosed to have PNES or both PNES and epilepsy than to have epilepsy alone after adjusting for other patient characteristics (p = 0.022). We conclude that patient possession of toy stuffed animals in the EMU is not a reliable sign of PNES. PMID:23770681

  15. Search and Seizure: What Your School's Rights Are.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; O'Brien, G. Michaele

    1996-01-01

    Unlike most school-security strategies, search and seizure procedures can be largely determined by studying landmark court cases. The U.S. Supreme Court set standards for conducting school searches in "New Jersey v. T.L.O." (1985) and for drug testing student athletes in "Vernonia School District v. Acton" (1995). School officials should also be…

  16. Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of cation-chloride cotransporters in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Puskarjov, Martin; Kahle, Kristopher T; Ruusuvuori, Eva; Kaila, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Seizures are a common manifestation of acute neurologic insults in neonates and are often resistant to the standard antiepileptic drugs that are efficacious in children and adults. The paucity of evidence-based treatment guidelines, coupled with a rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis, has made the current treatment of neonatal seizures empiric and often ineffective, highlighting the need for novel therapies. Key developmental differences in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission between the immature and mature brain, and trauma-induced alterations in the function of the cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) NKCC1 and KCC2, probably contribute to the poor efficacy of standard antiepileptic drugs used in the treatment of neonatal seizures. Although CCCs are attractive drug targets, bumetanide and other existing CCC inhibitors are suboptimal because of pharmacokinetic constraints and lack of target specificity. Newer approaches including isoform-specific NKCC1 inhibitors with increased central nervous system penetration, and direct and indirect strategies to enhance KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride extrusion, might allow therapeutic modulation of the GABAergic system for neonatal seizure treatment. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. PMID:24802699

  17. Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of cation-chloride cotransporters in neonatal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Puskarjov, Martin; Kahle, Kristopher T; Ruusuvuori, Eva; Kaila, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a common manifestation of acute neurologic insults in neonates and are often resistant to the standard antiepileptic drugs that are efficacious in children and adults. The paucity of evidence-based treatment guidelines, coupled with a rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis, has made the current treatment of neonatal seizures empiric and often ineffective, highlighting the need for novel therapies. Key developmental differences in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission between the immature and mature brain, and trauma-induced alterations in the function of the cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) NKCC1 and KCC2, probably contribute to the poor efficacy of standard antiepileptic drugs used in the treatment of neonatal seizures. Although CCCs are attractive drug targets, bumetanide and other existing CCC inhibitors are suboptimal because of pharmacokinetic constraints and lack of target specificity. Newer approaches including isoform-specific NKCC1 inhibitors with increased central nervous system penetration, and direct and indirect strategies to enhance KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride extrusion, might allow therapeutic modulation of the GABAergic system for neonatal seizure treatment. PMID:24802699

  18. Community Use of Intranasal Midazolam for Managing Prolonged Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrkou, Margaret; Harbord, Michael; Kyrkou, Nicole; Kay, Debra; Coulthard, Kingsley

    2006-01-01

    Background: Until a few years ago, rectal diazepam (RD) was the only option available to parents and carers managing prolonged seizures. However, its use in the community was limited due to the requirement for privacy, and because education staff in South Australia are not permitted to carry out invasive procedures. Method: Following a literature…

  19. Search and Seizure: The Meaning of the Fourth Amendment Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbetman, Lee; Perry, Michelle

    1997-01-01

    Traces the application of the constitutional protection from "unreasonable searches and seizures" as it has evolved in response to public attitudes and changes in technology. Includes a synopsis of relevant cases and two lesson plans. The cases concern a police search through trash bags and drug testing for athletes. (MJP)

  20. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Control of Intractable Seizures in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Paul Amar; Michael L. Levy; J. Gordon McComb; Michael L. J. Apuzzo

    2001-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is gaining increasing popularity and credibility as a treatment option for children with intractable epilepsy. VNS offers several advantages over extant treatments. Its efficacy is maintained during prolonged stimulation, and seizure control actually improves with time. There is no associated cognitive impairment and no adverse drug interactions. Unlike cerebral surgery, VNS is a potentially reversible form

  1. Moonstruck? The effect of the lunar cycle on seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sallie Baxendale; Jennifer Fisher

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports on the effects of the lunar cycle on seizure occurrence have yielded mixed results. If the moon phase is influential, we hypothesized that this would be due to the moon’s contribution to nocturnal illumination, rather than its waxing or waning state, and that significant correlations would not be apparent if local cloud cover were controlled for. We found

  2. Real-time seizure monitoring and spectral analysis microsystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Y. Aziz; Rafal Karakiewicz; Roman Genov; B. L. Bardakjian; M. Derchansky; P. L. Carlen

    2006-01-01

    SPECTRAL Abstract- Wepresent aneural recording andspectral analysis RECORDING ANALYSIS integrated microsystem. Itistheinstrumentational andcomputa- INTERACE PROCESSOR tional coreofanenvisioned miniature implantable brain implant forautomated epileptic seizure therapy. Themicrosystem com- WAVELET bines twofunctional blocks: theneural recording interface and TRANSFORM thespectral analysis processor. Theneural interface contains 256 signal acquisition channels recording neural field potentials from anarrayof16x16electrodes simultaneously, ina distributed \\\\ fashion. Thespectral analysis processor

  3. On the proper selection of preictal period for seizure prediction.

    PubMed

    Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Rasekhi, Jalil; Teixeira, César A; Karami, Mohammad R; Dourado, António

    2015-05-01

    Supervised machine learning-based seizure prediction methods consider preictal period as an important prerequisite parameter during training. However, the exact length of the preictal state is unclear and varies from seizure to seizure. We propose a novel statistical approach for proper selection of the preictal period, which can also be considered either as a measure of predictability of a seizure or as the prediction capability of an understudy feature. The optimal preictal periods (OPPs) obtained from the training samples can be used for building a more accurate classifier model. The proposed method uses amplitude distribution histograms of features extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. To evaluate this method, we extract spectral power features in different frequency bands from monopolar and space-differential EEG signals of 18 patients suffering from pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Furthermore, comparisons among monopolar channels with space-differential channels, as well as intracranial EEG (iEEG) and surface EEG (sEEG) signals, indicate that while monopolar signals perform better in iEEG recordings, no significant difference is noticeable in sEEG recordings. PMID:25944112

  4. Medical image. Reflex anoxic seizures in a toddler.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Tilak; Pennock, Victoria; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2013-02-15

    We report a toddler with frequent pallid type breath-holding or reflex anoxic seizure episodes successfully treated with pacemaker implantation. A rhythm strip (from an ambulatory ECG monitor that shows an 18-second period of asystole) is shown. PMID:23463115

  5. ROBUST NEONATAL EEG SEIZURE DETECTION THROUGH ADAPTIVE BACKGROUND MODELLING

    PubMed Central

    TEMKO, ANDRIY; BOYLAN, GERALDINE; MARNANE, WILLIAM; LIGHTBODY, GORDON

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive probabilistic modelling of the EEG background is proposed for seizure detection in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The decision is made based on the temporal derivative of the seizure probability with respect to the adaptively modeled level of background activity. The robustness of the system to long duration ‘seizure-like’ artifacts, in particular those due to respiration, is improved. The system was developed using statistical leave-one-patient-out performance assessment, on a large clinical dataset, comprising 38 patients of 1479 hours total duration. The developed technique was then validated by a single test on a separate totally unseen randomized prospective dataset of 51 neonates totaling 2540 hours of duration. By exploiting the proposed adaptation, the ROC area is increased from 93.4% to 96.1% (41% relative improvement). The number of false detections per hour is decreased from 0.42 to 0.24, while maintaining the correct detection of seizure burden at 70%. These results on the unseen data were predicted from the rigorous leave-one-patient-out validation and confirm the validity of our algorithm development process. PMID:23746291

  6. In vivo effects of bumetanide at brain concentrations incompatible with NKCC1 inhibition on newborn DGC structure and spontaneous EEG seizures following hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Zhang, X Q; Song, C G; Xiao, T; Zhao, M; Zhu, G; Zhao, C S

    2015-02-12

    Neonatal seizures caused by perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy can be refractory to conventional anticonvulsants. This may be due to the depolarizing effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) achieved by the activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1). The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of bumetanide, a NKCC1 inhibitor, on hippocampal neurogenesis and seizure susceptibility in hypoxia-induced neonatal seizure model. Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures at postnatal day 10 (P10). Following acute seizures, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of bumetanide at a dose of 0.5mg/kg for 3 weeks. In later adulthood, hypoxia-induced seizures increased the number of newborn dentate gyrus cells (DGCs), promoted mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) and reduced the apical dendritic complexity of newborn DGCs 1 month after the insults. In addition, these seizures resulted in long-lasting consequences, such as spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) seizures, though spatial learning impairments were not seen. Bumetanide treatments significantly enhanced cell proliferation and dendritic development of newborn DGCs after neonatal seizures, accompanied by the decreased seizure activity. However, systemic administration of bumetanide resulted in much lower brain concentrations, and was incompatible with NKCC1 inhibition in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected brain tissue. Our results suggested that bumetanide might have long-term effects in suppressing seizure activity, and altering the neurogenesis after neonatal seizures. These effects of bumetanide may be mediated by the targets outside the BBB-protected central nerve system (CNS) or CNS-located target(s) other than NKCC1. PMID:25463517

  7. Dissociated multimodal hubs and seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Douw, Linda; DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Liu, Hesheng; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain connectivity at rest is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in “hub” areas such as the posterior default mode network (DMN). Although both functional and anatomical connectivity are disturbed in TLE, the relationships between measures as well as to seizure frequency remain unclear. We aim to clarify these associations using connectivity measures specifically sensitive to hubs. Methods Connectivity between 1000 cortical surface parcels was determined in 49 TLE patients and 23 controls with diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two types of hub connectivity were investigated across multiple brain modules (the DMN, motor system, etcetera): (1) within-module connectivity (a measure of local importance that assesses a parcel's communication level within its own subnetwork) and (2) between-module connectivity (a measure that assesses connections across multiple modules). Results In TLE patients, there was lower overall functional integrity of the DMN as well as an increase in posterior hub connections with other modules. Anatomical between-module connectivity was globally decreased. Higher DMN disintegration (DD) coincided with higher anatomical between-module connectivity, whereas both were associated with increased seizure frequency. DD related to seizure frequency through mediating effects of anatomical connectivity, but seizure frequency also correlated with anatomical connectivity through DD, indicating a complex interaction between multimodal networks and symptoms. Interpretation We provide evidence for dissociated anatomical and functional hub connectivity in TLE. Moreover, shifts in functional hub connections from within to outside the DMN, an overall loss of integrative anatomical communication, and the interaction between the two increase seizure frequency. PMID:25909080

  8. Population dose-response analysis of daily seizure count following vigabatrin therapy in adult and pediatric patients with refractory complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jace C; Hutmacher, Matthew M; Wesche, David L; Tolbert, Dwain; Patel, Mahlaqa; Kowalski, Kenneth G

    2015-01-01

    Vigabatrin is an irreversible inhibitor of ?-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) and is used as an adjunctive therapy for adult patients with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS). The purpose of this investigation was to describe the relationship between vigabatrin dosage and daily seizure rate for adults and children with rCPS and identify relevant covariates that might impact seizure frequency. This population dose-response analysis used seizure-count data from three pediatric and two adult randomized controlled studies of rCPS patients. A negative binomial distribution model adequately described daily seizure data. Mean seizure rate decreased with time after first dose and was described using an asymptotic model. Vigabatrin drug effects were best characterized by a quadratic model using normalized dosage as the exposure metric. Normalized dosage was an estimated parameter that allowed for individualized changes in vigabatrin exposure based on body weight. Baseline seizure rate increased with decreasing age, but age had no impact on vigabatrin drug effects after dosage was normalized for body weight differences. Posterior predictive checks indicated the final model was capable of simulating data consistent with observed daily seizure counts. Total normalized vigabatrin dosages of 1, 3, and 6?g/day were predicted to reduce seizure rates 23.2%, 45.6%, and 48.5%, respectively. PMID:25117853

  9. Threshold properties of a microcavity laser with submicroampere threshold current

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Lear, K.L.; Chow, W.W.; Mar, A.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    We report the threshold characteristics of small oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers. Abrupt threshold transitions 105 times the spontaneous emission background are obtained at injection currents as low as 470 nanoampere.

  10. Diurnal rhythms in seizures detected by intracranial electrocorticographic monitoring: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, Wytske A; Spetgens, Willy P J; Leijten, Frans S S; van Rijen, Peter C; Gosselaar, Peter; van der Palen, Job; de Weerd, Al W

    2009-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated human seizure occurrence over the 24-hour day, and only one group has employed intracranial electrocorticography monitoring to record seizures. Circadian patterns in seizures may have important implications in diagnosis and therapy and provide opportunities in research. We have analyzed spontaneous seizures in 33 consecutive patients with long-term intracranial EEG and video monitoring. Several aspects of seizures were noted, including time of day, origin, type, and behavioral state (sleeping/awake). We recorded 450 seizures that showed an uneven distribution over the day, depending on lobe of origin: temporal lobe seizures occurred preferentially between 1100 and 1700 hours, frontal seizures between 2300 and 0500 hours, and parietal seizures between 1700 and 2300 hours. In the awake state, larger proportions of clinical seizures were seen from 0500 to 1100 hours and from 1700 to 2300 hours. During sleep, larger proportions occurred from 1100 to 1700 hours and from 2300 to 0500 hours. Our results suggest that seizures from different brain regions have a strong tendency to occur in different diurnal patterns. PMID:19435581

  11. Functional and anatomic correlates of two frequently observed temporal lobe seizure-onset patterns.

    PubMed

    Velasco, A L; Wilson, C L; Babb, T L; Engel, J

    2000-01-01

    Intracranial depth electrode EEG records of 478 seizures, recorded in 68 patients undergoing diagnostic monitoring with depth electrodes, were evaluated to investigate the correlates of electrographic onset patterns in patients with temporal lobe seizures. The seizure onsets in 78% of these patients were identified as either hypersynchronous onsets, beginning with low-frequency, high-amplitude spikes, or low-voltage fast (LVF) onsets, increasing in amplitude as the seizure progressed. The number of patients (35) having hypersynchronous seizure onsets was nearly twice that of patients (18) having LVF onsets. Three major differences were seen among patients with the two seizure-onset patterns. When compared with patients having LVF onsets, patients with hypersynchronous seizure onsets had a significantly greater probability of having (1) focal rather than regional seizure onsets (p < 0.01), (2) seizures spreading more slowly to the contralateral mesial temporal lobe (p < 0.003), and (3) cell counts in resected hippocampal tissue showing greater neuronal loss (p < 0.001). The results provide evidence that the most frequent electrographic abnormality associated with mesial temporal seizures is local hypersynchrony, a condition associated with major neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The results also indicate that LVF seizure onsets more frequently represent widely distributed discharges, which interact with and spread more rapidly to surrounding neocortical areas. PMID:10709214

  12. Pyridoxine does not prevent hyperbaric oxygen-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Walter, Frank G; Chase, Peter B; Fernandez, Miguel C; Cameron, Diane; Roe, Denise J; Wolfson, Mark

    2006-08-01

    Normobaric supplemental oxygen can prolong seizures not caused by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In addition, hyperbaric oxygen therapy can cause seizures. The mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen-induced seizures is unknown. We hypothesized that pretreatment with pyridoxine may delay the onset of hyperbaric oxygen-induced seizures, recognizing that pyridoxine is already an antidote for some epileptogenic poisons such as isoniazid and monomethylhydrazine. Therefore, rats were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of pyridoxine at 48, 24, and 2 h before undergoing hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment at 3 atmospheres absolute with 100% oxygen and were compared to a control group of HBO-treated rats for time to onset of seizures. There was no difference in onset of seizure time between the pyridoxine-treated group of rats and the control rats. Supplemental pyridoxine pretreatment did not alter the time to onset of seizures during HBO treatment in this study. PMID:17044573

  13. Seizures and electroencephalographic findings in CDKL5 mutations: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Grosso, S; Brogna, A; Bazzotti, S; Renieri, A; Morgese, G; Balestri, P

    2007-05-01

    Mutations in the X-linked gene cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been detected in patients presenting with seizures in the first few months of life and Rett syndrome features. Twenty-seven cases have been detected to date. Generalized intractable seizures, as infantile spasms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures and myoclonic seizures characterize the clinical picture of CDKL5 mutations. Here we report on a patient who presented with sleep-related hyperkinetic seizures. Our observation and review of the literature suggest that a broader polymorphic electroclinical pattern with both generalized and focal seizures may occur in patients with CDKL5 mutations. A screen for CDKL5 mutations is useful in patients, mainly females, with a history of early onset intractable seizures and becomes mandatory when idiopathic infantile spasms and/or atypical Rett syndrome features are also present. PMID:17049193

  14. Wavelet Shrinkage: Unification of Basic Thresholding Functions and Thresholds

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in a huge number of wavelet based methods for image denoising. In addition, there exist many ways to improveWavelet Shrinkage: Unification of Basic Thresholding Functions and Thresholds Abdourrahmane M. Atto and thresholds used in non- parametric estimation of signals by shrinkage in the wavelet domain. The Soft

  15. Nitrogen threshold experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treat, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    In order to obtain data on Earth geologic processes associated with wind erosion, Mar's and Venus' atmospheres were simulated. Experiments were designed to observe the effects of pressure, gravity, and density on sand movement. An experiment designed to test the operator variance was a comparative test between nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Pressure and therefore density was increased until threshold was noted. Threshold was determined at precisely the same densities of the two gases. If viscosity were a contributing factor in grain saltation the effect would be noted at low pressures. The experiment showed no such variance between carbon dioxide and nitrogen runs for low pressure (density). The largest difference in viscosity between carbon dioxide and nitrogen occurs at low pressures (densities).

  16. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) adversely effects on pilocarpine seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min; Lee, Song Hee; Choi, Hui Chul; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-01-21

    Citicoline (CDP-choline; cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids. Citicoline serves as a choline donor in the biosynthetic pathways of acetylcholine and neuronal membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine. The ability of citicoline to reverse neuronal injury has been tested in animal models of cerebral ischemia and clinical trials have been performed in stroke patients. However, no studies have examined the effect of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death. To clarify the potential therapeutic effects of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death, we used an animal model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25mg/kg) in adult male rats. Citicoline (100 or 300 mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space two hours after seizure onset and a second injection was performed 24h after the seizure. Citicoline was injected once per day for one week after pilocarpine- or kainate-induced seizure. Neuronal injury and microglial activation were evaluated at 1 week post-seizure. Surprisingly, rather than offering protection, citicoline treatment actually enhanced seizure-induced neuronal death and microglial activation in the hippocampus compared to vehicle treated controls. Citicoline administration after seizure-induction increased immunoglobulin leakage via BBB disruption in the hippocampus compared with the vehicle-only group. To clarify if this adverse effect of citicoline is generalizable across alternative seizure models, we induced seizure by kainate injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) and then injected citicoline as in pilocarpine-induced seizure. We found that citicoline did not modulate kainate seizure-induced neuronal death, BBB disruption or microglial activation. These results suggest that citicoline may not have neuroprotective effects after seizure and that clinical application of citicoline after seizure needs careful consideration. PMID:25446447

  17. Image Denoising Using Wavelet Thresholding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakhwinder Kaur; Savita Gupta; R. C. Chauhan

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive threshold estimation method for image denoising in the wavelet domain based on the generalized Guassian distribution (GGD) modeling of subband coefficients. The proposed method called NormalShrink is computationally more efficient and adaptive because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on subband data. The threshold is computed by ?? 2\\/? y where ? and

  18. Making Diagnostic Thresholds Less Arbitrary 

    E-print Network

    Unger, Alexis Ariana

    2012-07-16

    MAKING DIAGNOSTIC THRESHOLDS LESS ARBITRARY A Thesis by ALEXIS ARIANA UNGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 2011 Major Subject: Psychology Making Diagnostic Thresholds Less Arbitrary Copyright 2011 Alexis Ariana Unger MAKING DIAGNOSTIC THRESHOLDS LESS ARBITRARY A Thesis by ALEXIS ARIANA...

  19. The Bootstrap in Threshold Regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the nonparametric bootstrap is inconsistent, and the parametric bootstrap is consistent for inference of the threshold point in discontinuous threshold regression. An interesting phenomenon is that the asymptotic nonparametric bootstrap distribution of the threshold point is discrete and depends on the sampling path of the original data. Furthermore, the remedies to the nonparametric bootstrap failure in

  20. Hyperventilation and photic stimulation are useful additions to a placebo-based suggestive seizure induction protocol in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    The early and definitive diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures is a common challenge in epileptology practice. Suggestive seizure induction is a valuable tool to aid the differentiation between epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, especially when long-term video-EEG monitoring is inconclusive or unavailable. In this retrospective analysis, we compared the diagnostic yield of a classical, placebo-based induction protocol with that of an extended protocol that includes hyperventilation and photic stimulation as means of suggestion while also implementing more open, standardized patient information. We investigated whether the diversification of suggestive seizure induction has an effect on diagnostic yield and whether it preempts the administration of placebo. Data from 52 patients with confirmed psychogenic nonepileptic seizures were analyzed. While suggestive seizure induction using only placebo-based suggestion provoked a typical event in 13 of 20 patients (65%), the extended protocol was positive in 27 of 34 cases (84%); this improvement was not significant (p=0.11). Noninvasive suggestion techniques accounted for 78% of inductions, avoiding placebo administration in a majority of patients. Still, placebo remains an important part of suggestive seizure induction, responsible for 22% (6 out of 27) of successful inductions using our extended protocol. Our study demonstrates that the diversification of suggestive seizure induction is feasible and beneficial for both patients and diagnosticians. PMID:25934586

  1. Mutant LGI1 Inhibits Seizure-Induced Trafficking of Kv4.2 Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen E.P.; Xu, Lin; Kasten, Michael R.; Anderson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent redistribution of ion channels mediates neuronal circuit plasticity and homeostasis, and could provide pro-epileptic or compensatory anti-epileptic responses to a seizure. Thalamocortical neurons transmit sensory information to the cerebral cortex and through reciprocal corticothalamic connections are intensely activated during a seizure. Therefore, we assessed whether a seizure alters ion channel surface expression and consequent neurophysiologic function of thalamocortical neurons. We report a seizure triggers a rapid (?2 hrs) decrease of EPSC-like current-induced phasic firing associated with increased transient A-type K+ current. Seizures also rapidly redistributed the A-type K+ channel subunit Kv4.2 to the neuronal surface implicating a molecular substrate for the increased K+ current. Glutamate applied in vitro mimicked the effect, suggesting a direct effect of glutamatergic transmission. Importantly, LGI1, a secreted synaptic protein mutated to cause human partial epilepsy, regulated this seizure-induced circuit response. Human epilepsy-associated dominant negative truncated mutant LGI1 inhibited the seizure-induced suppression of phasic firing, increase of A-type K+ current, and recruitment of Kv4.2 surface expression (in vivo and in vitro). The results identify a response of thalamocortical neurons to seizures involving Kv4.2 surface recruitment associated with dampened phasic firing. The results also identify impaired seizure-induced increases of A-type K+ current as an additional defect produced by the autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy gene mutant might contribute to the seizure disorder. PMID:22122031

  2. Depression and symptoms affect quality of life in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    LaFrance, W Curt; Syc, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Background: In patients with active epilepsy, adverse medication effects and severity of depression are correlated with health-related quality of life, but seizure frequency is not. We sought to examine if the same pattern exists in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods: We administered seizure calendars, quality of life (QOL) scales, depression scales, and symptom checklists to 49 patients with video EEG–confirmed PNES. Data analysis consisted of performing Pearson correlation coefficients, scatter plots, and t tests. Results: Depression and symptom scores significantly increased as health-related QOL scores decreased (partial correlation coefficient r = ?0.73 for both comparisons), whereas seizure count was nonsignificant (partial correlation coefficient r = ?0.19). Conclusions: As is seen in epilepsy, patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures demonstrate that higher depressive symptoms and somatic symptoms are independently related to worsening quality of life (QOL); however, seizure frequency is not. Seizure frequency is an important focus in patient care and treatment trials. The findings underscore the importance of, along with seizure counts, also examining QOL, depression, and somatic symptoms in patients with seizures. GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; AEP = Adverse Events Profile; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HRQOL = health-related QOL; NPE = neuropsychiatric examination; PNES = psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; QOL = quality of life; QOLIE-31 = Quality of Life in Epilepsy–31; RIH = Rhode Island Hospital; SCL-90 = Symptom Checklist–90; vEEG = video EEG. PMID:19652140

  3. Slow Spatial Recruitment of Neocortex during Secondarily Generalized Seizures and Its Relation to Surgical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Louis-Emmanuel; Ahmed, Omar J; Lepage, Kyle Q; Cash, Sydney S; Kramer, Mark A

    2015-06-24

    Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of brain activity is crucial for inferring the underlying synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms of brain dysfunction. Focal seizures with secondary generalization are traditionally considered to begin in a limited spatial region and spread to connected areas, which can include both pathological and normal brain tissue. The mechanisms underlying this spread are important to our understanding of seizures and to improve therapies for surgical intervention. Here we study the properties of seizure recruitment-how electrical brain activity transitions to large voltage fluctuations characteristic of spike-and-wave seizures. We do so using invasive subdural electrode arrays from a population of 16 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We find an average delay of ?30 s for a broad area of cortex (8 × 8 cm) to be recruited into the seizure, at an estimated speed of ?4 mm/s. The spatiotemporal characteristics of recruitment reveal two categories of patients: one in which seizure recruitment of neighboring cortical regions follows a spatially organized pattern consistent from seizure to seizure, and a second group without consistent spatial organization of activity during recruitment. The consistent, organized recruitment correlates with a more regular, compared with small-world, connectivity pattern in simulation and successful surgical treatment of epilepsy. We propose that an improved understanding of how the seizure recruits brain regions into large amplitude voltage fluctuations provides novel information to improve surgical treatment of epilepsy and highlights the slow spread of massive local activity across a vast extent of cortex during seizure. PMID:26109670

  4. A fully-asynchronous low-power implantable seizure detector for self-triggering treatment.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Marjan; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Nguyen, Dang K; Sawan, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new asynchronous seizure detector that is part of an implantable integrated device intended to identify electrographic seizure onset and trigger a focal treatment to block the seizure progression. The proposed system has a low-power front-end bioamplifier and a seizure detector with intelligent mechanism to reduce power dissipation. This system eliminates the unnecessary clock gating during normal neural activity monitoring mode and reduces power dissipation in the seizure detector; as a result, this device is suitable for long-term implantable applications. The proposed system includes analog and digital building blocks with programmable parameters for extracting electrographic seizure onset information from real-time EEG recordings. Sensitivity of the detector is enhanced by optimizing the variable parameters based on specific electrographic seizure onset activities of each patient. The detection algorithm was validated using Matlab tools and implemented in standard 0.13 ?m CMOS process with total die area of 1.5 × 1.5 mm˛. The fabricated chip is validated offline using intracranial EEG recordings from two patients with refractory epilepsy. Total power consumption of the chip is 9 ?W and average detection delay is 13.7 s after seizure onset, well before the onset of clinical manifestation. The proposed system achieves an accurate detection performance with 100% sensitivity and no false alarms during the analyses of 15 seizures and 19 non-seizure datasets. PMID:24232623

  5. Early seizure detection in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talathi, Sachin S.; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Ditto, William; Carney, Paul R.

    2007-11-01

    The performance of five seizure detection schemes, i.e., Nonlinear embedding delay, Hurst scaling, Wavelet Scale, autocorrelation and gradient of accumulated energy, in their ability to detect EEG seizures close to the seizure onset time were evaluated to determine the feasibility of their application in the development of a real time closed loop seizure intervention program (RCLSIP). The criteria chosen for the performance evaluation were, high statistical robustness as determined through the predictability index, the sensitivity and the specificity of a given measure to detect an EEG seizure, the lag in seizure detection with respect to the EEG seizure onset time, as determined through visual inspection and the computational efficiency for each detection measure. An optimality function was designed to evaluate the overall performance of each measure dependent on the criteria chosen. While each of the above measures analyzed for seizure detection performed very well in terms of the statistical parameters, the nonlinear embedding delay measure was found to have the highest optimality index due to its ability to detect seizure very close to the EEG seizure onset time, thereby making it the most suitable dynamical measure in the development of RCLSIP in rat model with chronic limbic epilepsy.

  6. Perilesional brain edema and seizure activity in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Theodore E.; Pretell, E. Javier; Lescano, Andres. G.; Bustos, Javier A.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Héctor H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis due to Taenia solium is a leading cause of adult acquired seizures and epilepsy that frequently occurs in patients with only calcified larval cysts. Transient episodes of perilesional brain edema occur around calcified foci but its importance, association with seizures, incidence, and pathophysiology are unknown. Methods One hundred and ten persons with only calcified lesions and a history of seizures or severe headaches were followed prospectively in a cohort design to assess the incidence of seizure relapses. In a nested case-control sub study, perilesional edema was assessed by MRI at the time a seizure occurred in the symptomatic patient and in a matched asymptomatic control, amongst the 110 followed. Results Median follow up was 32.33 months (SD 19.99). Twenty-nine people had an incident seizure with an estimated 5 year seizure incidence of 36%. Twenty-four patients of the 29 with seizure relapse had an MRI evaluation within five days of the event. Perilesional edema was found in 12 (50.0%) compared to 2 of 23 asymptomatic matched controls (8.7%). Conclusions Perilesional edema occurs frequently and is associated with episodic seizure activity in calcified neurocysticercosis. Our findings are likely representative of symptomatic patients in endemic regions and suggest a unique and possibly preventable cause of seizures in this population. PMID:18986841

  7. Complex partial seizures: cerebral structure and cerebral function.

    PubMed

    Theodore, W H; Holmes, M D; Dorwart, R H; Porter, R J; Di Chiro, G; Sato, S; Rose, D

    1986-01-01

    We studied the relationships between cerebral structure and function in 10 patients with complex partial seizures who had major cerebral lesions, including porencephalic cysts, tuberose sclerosis, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cerebral hemiatrophy. Evaluation included computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, EEG, and positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]-2-deoxyglucose. Surface EEG usually showed widespread, bilateral epileptiform discharges even if pathology was clearly restricted to one hemisphere. In several cases, interictal PET hypometabolism was more widespread than structural changes seen on CT and MRI, extending to involve the ipsilateral temporal lobe in patients with extratemporal lesions. This study shows that patterns of metabolic and electrophysiologic dysfunction may not be predicted by structural lesions in patients with partial seizure disorders. PMID:3489612

  8. Seizures in the life and works of Edgar Allan Poe.

    PubMed

    Bazil, C W

    1999-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the most celebrated of American storytellers, lived through and wrote descriptions of episodic unconsciousness, confusion, and paranoia. These symptoms have been attributed to alcohol or drug abuse but also could represent complex partial seizures, prolonged postictal states, or postictal psychosis. Complex partial seizures were not well described in Poe's time, which could explain a misdiagnosis. Alternatively, he may have suffered from complex partial epilepsy that was complicated or caused by substance abuse. Even today, persons who have epilepsy are mistaken for substance abusers and occasionally are arrested during postictal confusional states. Poe was able to use creative genius and experiences from illness to create memorable tales and poignant poems. PMID:10369317

  9. Intermittent prophylaxis of recurrent febrile seizures with clobazam versus diazepam.

    PubMed

    Sattar, S; Saha, S K; Parveen, F; Banu, L A; Momen, A; Ahmed, A U; Quddush, M R; Karim, M M; Begum, S A; Haque, M A; Hoque, M R

    2014-10-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common type of seizure among children that can be prevented by using prophylactic drugs like Clobazam and Diazepam. The present prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital and Community Based Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh over a period of 1 year from July 2012 to June 2013 to compare the effectiveness of intermittent Clobazam versus Diazepam therapy in preventing the recurrence of febrile seizures and assessed adverse effects of each drug. A total of 65 patients (32 children administered Clobazam and rest 33 children received Diazepam) of simple and complex febrile seizures aged 6 months to 5 years of both sexes were the study population. Data were collected by interview of the patients, clinical examination and laboratory investigations using the research instrument. Data were analyzed by using Chi-square (?2) Test, Student's 't' Test and Fisher's Exact Test. For all analytical tests, the level of significance was set at 0.05 and p<0.05 was considered significant. The proportion of patients was higher between age 12-36 months and male was predominant in the both Clobazam and Diazepam groups. Over 31% of patients in Clobazam group who experienced episode of fever within 3 months, 40.6% within 6 months and 9.4% within 9 months compared to 36.4% in Diazepam group within 3 months, 45.5% within 6 months & 12.1% within 9 months after discharge from the hospital. Three (9.4%) patients in Clobazam group and 7(21.3%) in Diazepam group who experienced febrile convulsion during the follow up period. From the data adverse effects within 3 and 6 months experienced by the patient's drowsiness, sedation and ataxia were higher in Diazepam group than those in Clobazam group. However, within 9 months lethargy and irritability were somewhat higher in Clobazam group than those in Diazepam group. The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in Diazepam group compared to Clobazam group (6.0±1.0 vs. 4.6±0.08 days, P<0.001). Seven (21.2%) out of 33 children with febrile seizures in Diazepam group had a history of recurrent seizures, whereas 3(9.4%) of 32 children in the Clobazam group. The risks of recurrent febrile seizure in the Diazepam group was 2.6 times greater compared to those in the Clobazam group (P=0.186). The result indicates that Clobazam is safe, efficacious, requires less frequent dosing and has less adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, ataxia and irritability as compared to Diazepam. So, Clobazam may be an alternative to Diazepam given intermittently for prevention of recurrent febrile seizures. PMID:25481585

  10. The adolescent or adult with generalized tonic–clonic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Gursahani, Roop; Gupta, Namit

    2012-01-01

    Primary and secondary generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTCs) together constitute up to 50% of adolescent and adult patients with epilepsy as diagnosed by history and EEG. Syncope and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are major differential diagnoses and must be carefully excluded in therapy-resistant cases. Individual episodes can have up to seven phases in secondarily generalized GTCs. The distinction between primary and secondary GTCs depends mainly on history and EEG, and yield can be improved with sleep deprivation or overnight recording. Epilepsies with primary or unclassified GTCs can respond to any one of the five broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): valproate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, topiramate and zonisamide. Unless a focal onset is clearly confirmed, a sodium-channel blocking AED should not be used in the initial treatment of these conditions. PMID:22566718

  11. Optical triggered seizures using a caged 4-Aminopyridine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingrui; McGarry, Laura M.; Ma, Hongtao; Harris, Samuel; Berwick, Jason; Yuste, Rafael; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of epilepsy are critical not only for understanding the fundamental mechanism of epilepsy but also for testing the efficacy of new antiepileptic drugs and novel therapeutic interventions. Photorelease of caged molecules is widely used in biological research to control pharmacologic events with high spatio-temporal resolution. We developed a technique for in vivo optical triggering of neocortical seizures using a novel caged compound based on ruthenium photochemistry (RuBi-4AP). Epileptiform events in mouse cortex were induced with blue light in both whole brain and focal illumination. Multi-electrode array recording and optical techniques were used to characterize the propagation of these epileptic events, including interictal spikes, polyspikes, and ictal discharges. These results demonstrate a novel optically-triggered seizure model, with high spatio-temporal control, that could have widespread application in the investigation of ictal onset, propagation and to develop novel light-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25698919

  12. Clinical significance of recurrent psychogenic nonepileptic seizure status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Reuber; Ralf Pukrop; Alex J. Mitchell; Jürgen Bauer; Christian E. Elger

    2003-01-01

    To explore the clinical significance of a history of recurrent psychogenic nonepileptic seizure status (PNES-status), this study describes the frequency of PNES-status in 85 consecutive PNES patients and examines whether there are relevant differences between patients with a history of recurrent PNES-status and other PNES-patients. PNES patients were also compared with 64 patients with epilepsy. Data were extracted from hospital

  13. Bicoherence of intracranial EEG in sleep, wakefulness and seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Bullock; J. Z. Achimowicz; R. B. Duckrow; S. S. Spencer; V. J. Iragui-Madoz

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that the intracranial EEG has local structure and short-term non-stationarity is tested with a little-studied measure of nonlinear phase coupling, the bicoherence in human subdural and deep temporal lobe probe data from 11 subjects during sleeping, waking and seizure states. This measure of cooperativity estimates the proportion of energy in every possible pair of frequency components, F1, F2

  14. Dynamical diseases of brain systems: different routes to epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Lopes da Silva, Fernando H; Blanes, Wouter; Kalitzin, Stiliyan N; Parra, Jaime; Suffczynski, Piotr; Velis, Demetrios N

    2003-05-01

    In this overview, we consider epilepsies as dynamical diseases of brain systems since they are manifestations of the property of neuronal networks to display multistable dynamics. To illustrate this concept we may assume that at least two states of the epileptic brain are possible: the interictal state characterized by a normal, apparently random, steady-state electroencephalography (EEG) ongoing activity, and the ictal state, that is characterized by paroxysmal occurrence of synchronous oscillations and is generally called, in neurology, a seizure. The transition between these two states can either occur: 1) as a continuous sequence of phases, like in some cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); or 2) as a sudden leap, like in most cases of absence seizures. In the mathematical terminology of nonlinear systems, we can say that in the first case the system's attractor gradually deforms from an interictal to an ictal attractor. The causes for such a deformation can be either endogenous or external. In this type of ictal transition, the seizure possibly may be anticipated in its early, preclinical phases. In the second case, where a sharp critical transition takes place, we can assume that the system has at least two simultaneous interictal and ictal attractors all the time. To which attractor the trajectories converge, depends on the initial conditions and the system's parameters. An essential question in this scenario is how the transition between the normal ongoing and the seizure activity takes place. Such a transition can occur either due to the influence of external or endogenous factors or due to a random perturbation and, thus, it will be unpredictable. These dynamical changes may not be detectable from the analysis of the ongoing EEG, but they may be observable only by measuring the system's response to externally administered stimuli. In the special cases of reflex epilepsy, the leap between the normal ongoing attractor and the ictal attractor is caused by a well-defined external perturbation. Examples from these different scenarios are presented and discussed. PMID:12769430

  15. Inability of Lyapunov Exponents to Predict Epileptic Seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Harrison, Mary Ann F.; Frei, Mark G.; Osorio, Ivan

    2003-08-01

    It has been claimed that Lyapunov exponents computed from electroencephalogram or electrocorticogram (ECoG) time series are useful for early prediction of epileptic seizures. We show, by utilizing a paradigmatic chaotic system, that there are two major obstacles that can fundamentally hinder the predictive power of Lyapunov exponents computed from time series: finite-time statistical fluctuations and noise. A case study with an ECoG signal recorded from a patient with epilepsy is presented.

  16. Risk factors for complications of drug-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Thundiyil, Josef G; Rowley, Freda; Papa, Linda; Olson, Kent R; Kearney, Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine clinical factors associated with complications of drug-induced seizures. This prospective observational study was conducted at an American Association of Poison Control Centers-certified regional poison control center (PCC) over a 1-year period. All consecutive cases reported to a PCC involving seizures were forwarded to investigators, who obtained standardized information including the specific drug or medication exposure, dose, reason for exposure, vital signs, laboratory data, treatment, and outcome. Patients were monitored by daily telephone follow-up until death or discharge. Subjects were excluded if the seizure was deemed to be unrelated to exposure. Odds ratios were used to analyze variables for associations with admission to the hospital for >72 h, endotracheal intubation, status epilepticus, anoxic brain injury, or death. One hundred twenty-one cases met inclusion criteria. Sixty-three (52%) were male, and the mean age was 30 (SD14) years. Common exposures included: antidepressants (33%), stimulants (15%), and anticholinergics (10%). One hundred and three (85%) of the exposures were intentional, of which 74 were suicide attempts and 16 were drug abuse or misuse. Forty-nine (40%) patients required endotracheal intubation, 12(10%) had status epilepticus, 50(41%) were hospitalized for more than 72 h, and one patient died. Median hospital stay was 3 days. Variables significantly associated with complications included stimulant exposure (odds ratios, OR=11 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.9-52]), suicide attempt (OR=2.2 [95% CI 1.02-4.7]), initial hypotension (OR=11.2 [95% CI 1.4-89.3]), admission glucose >130 mg/dL (OR=5.4 [95% CI 1.6-18.1]), and admission HCO(3)?<20 mEq/L (OR=4.0 [95% CI 1.4-11.3]). Significant clinical factors associated with complications of drug-related seizures include stimulant exposure, suicide attempt, initial hypotension, and admission acidosis or hyperglycemia. PMID:20661684

  17. Unstable Particles near Threshold

    E-print Network

    Dongjin Chway; Tae Hyun Jung; Hyung Do Kim

    2015-02-12

    We explore physics of unstable particles when mother particle mass is around the sum of its daughter particle masses. In this case, the conventional wave function renormalization factor is ill-defined. We propose a simple resolution of the threshold singularity problem which still allows the use of narrow width approximation by defining branching ratio in terms of spectral density. The resonance peak and shape is different for different decay channels and no single decay width can be assigned to the unstable particles. Non-exponential decay happens in all time scales.

  18. Seizure and coma following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) exposure.

    PubMed

    Nelsen, Jamie L; Lapoint, Jeff; Hodgman, Michael J; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2010-12-01

    Reports of toxicity secondary to Kratom are rare and lack of diagnostic testing in human specimens has prevented confirmatory explanation of observed clinical effects. We present a novel case of serious human toxicity following Kratom use confirmed via quantitative analysis of urine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A 64 year-old male was witnessed to have a seizure at home following kratom consumption. Upon arrival to the emergency department (ED), the patient was unresponsive. While in the ED, the patient sustained a second seizure. He was intubated to protect his airway. The remainder of his hospital course was uneventful. A urine specimen was collected shortly after admission and sent for analysis. The mitragynine concentration in the urine was 167?±?15 ng/ml. We report a rare case of Kratom toxicity characterized by a seizure and coma confirmed by urinary analysis of mitragynine by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed mechanism for this reaction is unclear but suggested mechanisms include adenosine binding or stimulation of adrenergic and/or serotonergic receptors similar to tramadol. PMID:20411370

  19. [Diagnostic significance of sleep EEG in children with febrile seizures].

    PubMed

    Kovelenova, M V; Rozhkov, V P; Guzeva, V I

    2002-01-01

    To obtain effective criteria for febrile seizures (FS) differential diagnosis and prognosis, clinical examination and EEG recorded during wakefulness and daytime sleep were studied in 75 FS children and 15 controls aged from 6 months to 6 years. According to duration, frequency and complications of FS, all patients were divided into three groups: "simple" FS (n = 35), "complex" FS (n = 25) and "afebrile seizures" (AFS), i.e. those who developed non-febrile seizures after febrile ones (n = 15). In waking state EEG, epileptic activity was found in only 60% of AFS patients. During sleep stages I-III, in 84% of the patients with complex FS as well as in all AFS patients generalized discharges of (poly) spike-waves and (or) focal spikes were detected. Paroxysmal changes, atypical scalp distribution, vertex-potentials and sleep spindles generalization as well as insertion of spikes into arousal-rhythms were determined as additional criteria for unfavorable FS course. In the patients with main features of sympathetic-adrenal reaction during febrile paroxysms, complicated FS course was not found. EEG examination during sleep in children with FS increases an efficacy of differential disease diagnosis. Epileptic discharge detection, along with exposure of paroxysmal transformation of physiological sleep EEG transients, that may be earlier sign of epileptic dysfunction, are recommended for proper prevention and treatment of FS. PMID:11915706

  20. New developments in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy.

    PubMed

    Lisanby, Sarah H; Morales, Oscar; Payne, Nancy; Kwon, Edward; Fitzsimons, Linda; Luber, Bruce; Nobler, Mitchell S; Sackeim, Harold A

    2003-07-01

    New findings regarding the mechanisms of action of electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) have led to novel developments in treatment technique to further improve this highly effective treatment for major depression. These new approaches include novel placements, optimization of electrical stimulus parameters, and new methods for inducing more targeted seizures(eg, magnetic seizure therapy [MST]). MST is the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation to induce a seizure. Magnetic fields pass through tissue unimpeded, providing more control over the site and extent of stimulation than can be achieved with ECT. This enhanced control represents a means of focusing the treatment on target cortical structures thought to be essential to antidepressant response and reducing spread to medial temporal regions implicated in the cognitive side effects of ECT. MST is at an early stage of development. Preliminary results suggest that MST may have some advantages over ECT in terms of subjective side effects and acute cognitive functioning. Studies designed to address the antidepressant efficacy of MST are underway. As with all attempts to improve convulsive therapy technique, the clinical value of MST will need to be established through controlled clinical trials. This article reviews the experience to date with MST, and places this work in the broader context of other means of optimizing convulsive therapy in the treatment of depression. PMID:12894034

  1. Terminology and classification of seizures and epilepsy in veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Christopher L

    2013-05-01

    The classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsy is a controversial and dynamic topic that has undergone many iterations in human medicine. The International League against Epilepsy is a multinational organization that has formed a number of task forces and subcommittees to study this issue, and has ratified several reports outlining recommended terminology and classification schemes for human patients. Veterinary publications on this issue have generally adapted these schemes to fit small animal patients, but a formally endorsed system to classify seizures and epilepsy has never been developed for veterinary patients. This review outlines the classification systems that have been published for human patients and summarizes previous efforts by veterinary authors to utilize these methods. Finally, a set of definitions and terminology for use in veterinary patients is proposed, which includes a glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology and a diagnostic scheme for classification of individual patients. This document is intended as a starting point of discussion, which will hopefully eventually result in a formally ratified document that will be useful for communication between health professionals, the design of clinical trials and for guiding treatment decisions and prognostication for veterinary patients with seizures. PMID:24070679

  2. Integrating electrodermal biofeedback into pharmacologic treatment of grand mal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Scrimali, Tullio; Tomasello, Damiana; Sciuto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrodermal biofeedback, when integrated with pharmacologic treatments, indicate promising methods for the treatment of grand mal seizures. They can be used to monitor patient arousal and help patients learn new strategies to better cope with stress and anxiety. Our proposed method can possibly reduce the number of crises for patients who are dependent on pharmacologic therapy and can improve their quality of life. This article describes the scientific background of electrodermal monitoring and electrodermal biofeedback for patients affected by grand mal seizures. In this study, we have reported a clinical case study. The patient was treated for 2 years with electrodermal biofeedback to augment pharmacologic treatments. The trial has been designed in accordance with “n = 1 case study research”. Our results have shown that our methods could achieve a significant reduction in grand mal seizures and sympathetic arousal when applied. The patient under consideration was also relaxed and exhibited greater competency to cope with stress. Additionally, the patient’s sense of mastery and self-efficacy was enhanced. PMID:26029078

  3. Behavioral and physiological studies of seizures induced by systemic injection of metrazol in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ookawa, T; Takagi, K

    1976-11-01

    The influence of systemically administered Metrazol on behavior, electroencephalogram and body temperature has been studied in young and adult chickens. Distinct convulsions were induced by 30--50 mg./kg. Metrazol administered intravenously in adults: they consisted of an initial excited state, a tonic convulsion accompanied with opisthotonos, and finally, convulsive movements. During recovery from these convulsions, three distinct behaviors were observed: violent peck-like movement, watchful state and finally panting behavior. All of the birds receiving higher intravenous doses (60--100 mg./kg.) exhibited vigorous convulsions immediately after injection and death occurred in 100% of the birds receiving these doses. An intraperitoneal injection of 75--100 mg./kg. Metrazol produced typical convulsions in young and adult chickens. At these doses, convulsions consisted of an initial excited state, a tonic convulsion accompanied with opisthotonos, and convulsive movements which involved clonic and tonic phases. The threshold for evoking typical convulsions with intraperitoneal injection ranges between 50 and 60 mg./kg. Metrazol in young chickens. The intravenous threshold doses for evoking high amplitude (1--2 mV.) in the EEG of adult chickens was 60 mg./kg. Metrazol. High intraperitoneal doses of Metrazol(75-100 mg./kg.) produced typical spikes with large amplitude which were synchronous in the two hemispheres in both young and adult chickens. There was a marked increase in body temperature within 10 minutes after injection in all cases of 50 mg./kg. intravenous dose: maximum increase (at 40 min.) was 1.5 degrees C. as compared with controls, however, it decreased rapidly with panting behavior. The highest does (100 mg./kg.) produced a maximum increase in body temperature of 3 degrees C. Discussion of epileptic seizure susceptibility to Metrazol in aves, in the light of phylogenesis, is discussed. PMID:1019081

  4. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  5. Nav1.1 Modulation by a Novel Triazole Compound Attenuates Epileptic Seizures in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the discovery of a novel anticonvulsant drug with a molecular organization based on the unique scaffold of rufinamide, an anti-epileptic compound used in a clinical setting to treat severe epilepsy disorders such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Although accumulating evidence supports a working mechanism through voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels, we found that a clinically relevant rufinamide concentration inhibits human (h)Nav1.1 activation, a distinct working mechanism among anticonvulsants and a feature worth exploring for treating a growing number of debilitating disorders involving hNav1.1. Subsequent structure–activity relationship experiments with related N-benzyl triazole compounds on four brain hNav channel isoforms revealed a novel drug variant that (1) shifts hNav1.1 opening to more depolarized voltages without further alterations in the gating properties of hNav1.1, hNav1.2, hNav1.3, and hNav1.6; (2) increases the threshold to action potential initiation in hippocampal neurons; and (3) greatly reduces the frequency of seizures in three animal models. Altogether, our results provide novel molecular insights into the rational development of Nav channel-targeting molecules based on the unique rufinamide scaffold, an outcome that may be exploited to design drugs for treating disorders involving particular Nav channel isoforms while limiting adverse effects. PMID:24635129

  6. Adaptive functioning in pediatric epilepsy: contributions of seizure-related variables and parental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kerne, Valerie; Chapieski, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    Young people with epilepsy are less likely to achieve the level of independence attained by their peers. We examined the seizure-related variables that placed a group of 97 pediatric patients with intractable seizures at risk for poor adaptive functioning. Analyses evaluated both the direct effects of the medical variables and indirect effects that were mediated through increased parental anxiety about their child's epilepsy. Higher numbers of anticonvulsants, presence of seizures that secondarily generalize, longer duration of seizure disorder, and younger age at onset were all identified as risk factors for poor adaptive functioning. Depending on the specific behavioral domain of adaptive functioning, the effects were sometimes direct and sometimes indirect. Lower levels of parental education and positive family history of seizures were associated with higher levels of parental anxiety. Interventions that target parental anxiety about seizures may mitigate the deleterious effects of epilepsy on social development. PMID:25556576

  7. Pharmacological studies on mechanisms of aminophylline-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Ray, Arunabha; Gulati, Kavita; Anand, Seema; Vijayan, V K

    2005-10-01

    In the present study, the possible role of free radicals in aminophylline-induced seizures was evaluated in albino rats. Aminophylline (theophylline in ethylene diamine; 50 - 300 mg/kg) induced convulsions in rats in a dose-dependent manner, and both incidence of seizure and mortality were maximum at 300 mg/kg. Conventional anti-epileptics, diphenylhydantoin and dizocilpine, as well as adenosine agonists were ineffective in antagonizing these seizures. On the other hand, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, pentoxyphylline and rolipram, showed insignificant seizurogenic effects. Pretreatment with antioxidants (ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and melatonin) showed differential attenuating effects on aminophylline seizures and lethality. Further, prior administration of 1-buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO, glutathione depletor) and triethyltetramine (TETA, superoxide dismutase inhibitor), precipitated seizures and enhanced lethality in response to subthreshold doses of aminophylline. The present results suggested of the possible involvement of oxidative stress during aminophylline-induced seizures. PMID:16235715

  8. In vivo mapping of drug-induced seizures with voltage-sensitive dye.

    PubMed

    Sacks, D S; Dasheiff, R M

    1992-11-01

    The voltage-sensitive dye diO-C2-5 was used to produce an in vivo map of the membrane potential in two types of seizures. Mild limbic seizures were induced in rats with kainic acid; clonic convulsive seizures were induced with bicuculline. Kainic acid animals showed various levels of neural depolarization during their seizures in limbic, thalamic, cortical, and brainstem sites. The bicuculline animals showed uniformly greater levels of neural depolarization during their seizures. The magnitude of these changes relative to controls varied across seizure models and reflected the different underlying neural mechanisms for each model. The ability of the technique to capture local electrical events provides a new tool in which to explore brain activity. PMID:1467962

  9. Failure of antiepileptic drugs in controlling seizures in epilepsy: What do we do next?

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Mendez, Brahyan; Mayor, Luis C.; Velandia-Hurtado, Fernando; Calderon-Ospina, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Medically intractable epilepsy is a clinical condition of concern that arises when a patient with epilepsy suffers seizures, despite a trial of two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) suitable for the type of epilepsy that are prescribed at maximum tolerated doses, does not achieve control of seizures. This diagnosis could be related to cortical dysplasias. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with a previous normal neurological development and no family history of epilepsy who presented with focal-type seizures at age 4. She started treatment by taking different AEDs for seizure control. She continued having frequent seizures that sometimes progressed to generalized seizures and status epilepticus. After a focal cortical resection performed in the area where interictal spikes were detected, the pathology confirmed a type IIb cortical dysplasia as the cause of the epilepsy. This article discusses cortical dysplasias as a cause of pharmacoresistant epilepsy and its treatment. PMID:26101746

  10. Optimising threshold levels for information transmission in binary threshold networks: Independent multiplicative noise on each threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bingchang; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2015-02-01

    The problem of optimising the threshold levels in multilevel threshold system subject to multiplicative Gaussian and uniform noise is considered. Similar to previous results for additive noise, we find a bifurcation phenomenon in the optimal threshold values, as the noise intensity changes. This occurs when the number of threshold units is greater than one. We also study the optimal thresholds for combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian noise, and find that all threshold levels need to be identical to optimise the system when the additive noise intensity is a constant. However, this identical value is not equal to the signal mean, unlike the case of additive noise. When the multiplicative noise intensity is instead held constant, the optimal threshold levels are not all identical for small additive noise intensity but are all equal to zero for large additive noise intensity. The model and our results are potentially relevant for sensor network design and understanding neurobiological sensory neurons such as in the peripheral auditory system.

  11. Stimulation of central A1 adenosine receptors suppresses seizure and neuropathology in a soman nerve agent seizure rat model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thaddeus P; Shih, Tsung-Ming

    2014-09-01

    The current regimen for treating nerve agent poisoning does not sufficiently suppress the excitotoxic activity that causes severe brain damage, especially in cases where treatment is delayed and nerve agent-induced status epilepticus develops. New therapeutic targets are required to improve survivability and minimize neuropathology after irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivation. Earlier studies have shown that systemic delivery of adenosine agonists decreases nerve agent lethality; however, the mechanism of protection remains to be understood. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of central adenosine receptor (AR) stimulation in neuroprotection by directly injecting (6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine agonist specific to the A1 receptor subtype (A1R), into the brain intracerebroventricularly (ICV) in a soman seizure rat model. In addition to general A1R stimulation, we hypothesized that bilateral micro-injection of CPA into the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) could also suppress excitotoxic activity. The results from these studies demonstrated that centrally administered adenosine agonists are anti-seizure and neuroprotective. CPA-delivered ICV prevented seizure and convulsion in 100% of the animals. Moreover, neuropathological evaluation indicated that adenosine treatments reduced brain damage from severe to minimal. Inhibition of the BF via CPA had varied results. Some animals were protected by treatment; however, others displayed similar pathology to the control. Overall, these data suggest that stimulating central ARs could be an effective target for the next generation countermeasures for nerve agent intoxication. PMID:24785252

  12. Repetitive generalized seizure-like activity during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Mohanram; Vikram Kumar; Zafar Iqbal; Sandeep Markan; Paul S. Pagel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Sevoflurane-induced seizures are most often described during mask induction of anesthesia when high concentrations of the volatile agent are administered concomitant with alveolar hyperventilation. The occurrence of seizure-like activity during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia has been rarely reported. Clinical features: We describe a patient who developed several episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizure-like activity during and immediately after emergence from

  13. Clinical and electroencephalographic follow-up after a first unprovoked seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Isabel B Winckler; Newra T Rotta

    2004-01-01

    We studied the role of clinical and electroencephalographic factors in the follow-up of children and adolescents after a first unprovoked seizure, and their correlation with recurrence and risk for epilepsy. We conducted a 24-month follow-up of 109 patients aged 1 month to 16 years who had a first unprovoked seizure. We analyzed the characteristics of the first seizure, perinatal history,

  14. Network dynamics of the brain and influence of the epileptic seizure onset zone.

    PubMed

    Burns, Samuel P; Santaniello, Sabato; Yaffe, Robert B; Jouny, Christophe C; Crone, Nathan E; Bergey, Gregory K; Anderson, William S; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2014-12-01

    The human brain is a dynamic networked system. Patients with partial epileptic seizures have focal regions that periodically diverge from normal brain network dynamics during seizures. We studied the evolution of brain connectivity before, during, and after seizures with graph-theoretic techniques on continuous electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings (5.4 ± 1.7 d per patient, mean ± SD) from 12 patients with temporal, occipital, or frontal lobe partial onset seizures. Each electrode was considered a node in a graph, and edges between pairs of nodes were weighted by their coherence within a frequency band. The leading eigenvector of the connectivity matrix, which captures network structure, was tracked over time and clustered to uncover a finite set of brain network states. Across patients, we found that (i) the network connectivity is structured and defines a finite set of brain states, (ii) seizures are characterized by a consistent sequence of states, (iii) a subset of nodes is isolated from the network at seizure onset and becomes more connected with the network toward seizure termination, and (iv) the isolated nodes may identify the seizure onset zone with high specificity and sensitivity. To localize a seizure, clinicians visually inspect seizures recorded from multiple intracranial electrode contacts, a time-consuming process that may not always result in definitive localization. We show that network metrics computed from all ECoG channels capture the dynamics of the seizure onset zone as it diverges from normal overall network structure. This suggests that a state space model can be used to help localize the seizure onset zone in ECoG recordings. PMID:25404339

  15. Experimental and analytical investigation of the seizure process in aluminum-silicon alloy\\/steel tribocontacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaozhou He

    1998-01-01

    This research is an experimental and analytical investigation of the scuffing\\/seizure mechanism in Al-Si alloy\\/steel tribocontacts. An analytical model is developed based on analyses and experiments to predict scuffing\\/seizure failure in Al-Si alloy\\/steel tribocontacts, which can be applied to tribo-components in engines, refrigerators and air conditioners. The wear and scuffing\\/seizure experiments have been conducted through a block-on-ring tester for 339

  16. Statin inhibits kainic acid-induced seizure and associated inflammation and hippocampal cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Koo Lee; Je-Seong Won; Avtar K. Singh; Inderjit Singh

    2008-01-01

    Statins are inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase that have been recently recognized as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs. Herein, we investigated anti-excitotoxic and anti-seizure effects of statins by using kainic acid (KA)-rat seizure model, an animal model for temporal lobe epilepsy and excitotoxic neurodegeneration. We observed that pre-treatment with Lipitor (atorvastatin) efficiently reduced KA-induced seizure activities, hippocampal neuron death, monocyte infiltration and

  17. Network dynamics of the brain and influence of the epileptic seizure onset zone

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Samuel P.; Santaniello, Sabato; Yaffe, Robert B.; Jouny, Christophe C.; Crone, Nathan E.; Bergey, Gregory K.; Anderson, William S.; Sarma, Sridevi V.

    2014-01-01

    The human brain is a dynamic networked system. Patients with partial epileptic seizures have focal regions that periodically diverge from normal brain network dynamics during seizures. We studied the evolution of brain connectivity before, during, and after seizures with graph-theoretic techniques on continuous electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings (5.4 ± 1.7 d per patient, mean ± SD) from 12 patients with temporal, occipital, or frontal lobe partial onset seizures. Each electrode was considered a node in a graph, and edges between pairs of nodes were weighted by their coherence within a frequency band. The leading eigenvector of the connectivity matrix, which captures network structure, was tracked over time and clustered to uncover a finite set of brain network states. Across patients, we found that (i) the network connectivity is structured and defines a finite set of brain states, (ii) seizures are characterized by a consistent sequence of states, (iii) a subset of nodes is isolated from the network at seizure onset and becomes more connected with the network toward seizure termination, and (iv) the isolated nodes may identify the seizure onset zone with high specificity and sensitivity. To localize a seizure, clinicians visually inspect seizures recorded from multiple intracranial electrode contacts, a time-consuming process that may not always result in definitive localization. We show that network metrics computed from all ECoG channels capture the dynamics of the seizure onset zone as it diverges from normal overall network structure. This suggests that a state space model can be used to help localize the seizure onset zone in ECoG recordings. PMID:25404339

  18. Role of cerebral blood flow in seizures from hyperbaric oxygen exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Chavko; J. C Braisted; N. J Outsa; A. L Harabin

    1998-01-01

    Hyperbaric O2 exposure causes seizures by an unknown mechanism. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) may affect seizure latency, although no studies have demonstrated a direct relationship. Awake rats (male, Sprague–Dawley, 350–450 g), instrumented for measuring electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and CBF (laser-Doppler flowmetry), were exposed to 100% O2 at 4 or 5 atm (gauge pressure) until EEG seizures. Compression with O2 caused

  19. Cardiac asystole associated with epileptic seizures: a case report with simultaneous EEG and ECG.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, S J; Blumhardt, L D

    1989-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias occurring in association with epileptic seizures are a potential source of diagnostic confusion and a possible cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. A case is described in which simultaneous ambulatory electroencephalography and electrocardiography revealed periods of asystole coinciding with epileptic seizures. The aystole appeared to precede obvious changes in the scalp recorded electroencephalogram (EEG), but clinical attacks and EEG seizure activity were not altered by pacemaker correction of the cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:2501457

  20. How effective is surgery to cure seizures in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Schmidt; Wolfgang Löscher

    2003-01-01

    It is well recognized that two-thirds of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy will be free of disabling seizures with continued medical treatment after temporal resection. Seizure recurrence has been noted during a five-year follow-up in approximately one-third of these seizure-free patients mostly but not exclusively following planned complete discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This leaves one-third of patients without

  1. The incidence of seizures in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after resuscitation from cardiac arrest?

    PubMed Central

    Knight, William A.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Adeoye, Opeolu M.; Bonomo, Jordan B.; Keegan, Shaun P.; Ficker, David M.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Privitera, Michael D.; Lindsell, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Study objective Non-convulsive seizures/status epilepticus occur in approximately 20% of comatose, non-cardiac arrest intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and are associated with increased mortality. The prevalence and clinical significance of seizures in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest undergoing therapeutic hypothermia is not well described. Methods At this urban level I trauma center, every patient undergoing therapeutic hypothermia is monitored with continuous video encephalography (cvEEG). We abstracted medical records for all cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia during 2010. Clinical data were extracted in duplicate. cvEEGs were independently reviewed for seizures by two board-certified epileptologists. Results There were 33 patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in 2010 who met inclusion criteria for this study. Median age was 58 (range 28–86 years), 63% were white, 55% were male, and 9% had a history of seizures or epilepsy. During cooling, seizures occurred in 5/33 patients (15%, 95%CI 6%–33%). 11/33 patients (33%, 95% CI 19%–52%) had seizures at some time during hospitalization. 13/33 (39%) survived to discharge and of these, 7/13 (54%) survived to 30 days. 9/11 patients with seizures died during hospitalization, compared with 11/22 patients without seizures (82% vs. 50%; difference 32%, CI951%–63%). No patient with seizures was alive at 30 days. Conclusions Seizures are common in comatose patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. All patients with seizures were deceased within 30 days of discharge. Routine use of EEG monitoring could assist in early detection of seizures in this patient population, providing an opportunity for intervention to potentially improve outcomes. PMID:23906560

  2. Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures: role of cortical slow activity.

    PubMed

    Englot, Dario J; Yang, Li; Hamid, Hamada; Danielson, Nathan; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Marfeo, Anthony; Yu, Lissa; Gordon, Aliza; Purcaro, Michael J; Motelow, Joshua E; Agarwal, Ravi; Ellens, Damien J; Golomb, Julie D; Shamy, Michel C F; Zhang, Heping; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D; Spencer, Susan S; Schevon, Catherine; Zaveri, Hitten P; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-12-01

    Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered consciousness may occur with bilateral or dominant temporal lobe seizure involvement. However, other bilateral temporal lobe disorders do not impair consciousness. More recent work supports a 'network inhibition hypothesis' in which temporal lobe seizures disrupt brainstem-diencephalic arousal systems, leading indirectly to depressed cortical function and impaired consciousness. Indeed, prior studies show subcortical involvement in temporal lobe seizures and bilateral frontoparietal slow wave activity on intracranial electroencephalography. However, the relationships between frontoparietal slow waves and impaired consciousness and between cortical slowing and fast seizure activity have not been directly investigated. We analysed intracranial electroencephalography recordings during 63 partial seizures in 26 patients with surgically confirmed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Behavioural responsiveness was determined based on blinded review of video during seizures and classified as impaired (complex-partial seizures) or unimpaired (simple-partial seizures). We observed significantly increased delta-range 1-2 Hz slow wave activity in the bilateral frontal and parietal neocortices during complex-partial compared with simple-partial seizures. In addition, we confirmed prior work suggesting that propagation of unilateral mesial temporal fast seizure activity to the bilateral temporal lobes was significantly greater in complex-partial than in simple-partial seizures. Interestingly, we found that the signal power of frontoparietal slow wave activity was significantly correlated with the temporal lobe fast seizure activity in each hemisphere. Finally, we observed that complex-partial seizures were somewhat more common with onset in the language-dominant temporal lobe. These findings provide direct evidence for cortical dysfunction in the form of bilateral frontoparietal slow waves associated with impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures. We hypothesize that bilateral temporal lobe seizures may exert a powerful inhibitory effect on subcortical arousal systems. Further investigations will be needed to fully determine the role of cortical-subcortical networks in ictal neocortical dysfunction and may reveal treatments to prevent this important negative consequence of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:21081551

  3. Spectral and spatial shifts of post-ictal slow waves in temporal lobe seizures

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Worrell, Gregory A.; Nelson, Cindy; Brinkmann, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe seizures have a significant chance to induce impairment of normal brain functions. Even after the termination of ictal discharges, during the post-ictal period, loss of consciousness, decreased responsiveness or other cognitive dysfunctions can persist. Previous studies have found various anatomical and functional abnormalities accompanying temporal lobe seizures, including an abnormal elevation of cortical slow waves. Intracranial electroencephalography studies have shown a prominent increase of lower frequency components during and following seizures that impair (complex partial seizures) but not those that preserve (simple partial seizures) normal consciousness and responsiveness. However, due to the limited spatial coverage of intracranial electroencephalography, the investigation of cortical slow waves cannot be easily extended to the whole brain. In this study, we used scalp electroencephalography to study the spectral features and spatial distribution of post-ictal slow waves with comprehensive spatial coverage. We studied simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures in 28 patients with temporal lobe seizures. We used dense-array electroencephalography and source imaging to reconstruct the post-ictal slow-wave distribution. In the studied cohort, we found that a ‘global’ spectral power shift to lower frequencies accompanied the increased severity of seizures. The delta spectral power relative to higher frequency bands was highest for secondarily generalized seizures, followed by complex partial seizures and lastly simple partial seizures. In addition to this ‘global’ spectral shift, we found a ‘regional’ spatial shift in slow-wave activity. Secondarily generalized seizures and complex partial seizures exhibited increased slow waves distributed to frontal areas with spread to contralateral temporal and parietal regions than in simple partial seizures. These results revealed that a widespread cortical network including temporal and fronto-parietal cortex is involved in abnormal slow-wave activity following temporal lobe seizures. The differential spectral and spatial shifts of post-ictal electroencephalography activity in simple partial, complex partial and secondarily generalized seizures suggest a possible connection between cortical slow waves and behavioural and cognitive changes in a human epilepsy model. PMID:22923634

  4. Heart rate changes in partial seizures: analysis of influencing factors among refractory patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We analyzed the frequency of heart rate (HR) changes related to seizures, and we sought to identify the influencing factors of these changes during partial seizures, to summarize the regularity of the HR changes and gain some insight into the mechanisms involved in the neuronal regulation of cardiovascular function. To date, detailed information on influencing factors of HR changes related to seizures by multiple linear regression analysis remains scarce. Methods Using video-electroencephalograph (EEG)-electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings, we retrospectively assessed the changes in the HR of 81 patients during a total of 181 seizures, including 27 simple partial seizures (SPS), 110 complex partial seizures (CPS) and 44 complex partial seizures secondarily generalized (CPS-G). The epileptogenic focus and the seizure type, age, gender, and sleep/wakefulness state of each patient were evaluated during and after the seizure onset. The HR changes were evaluated in the stage of epilepsy as time varies. Results Of the 181 seizures from 81 patients with ictal ECGs, 152 seizures (83.98%) from 74 patients were accompanied by ictal tachycardia (IT). And only 1 patient was accompanied by ictal bradycardia (IB). A patient has both IT and IB. We observed that HR difference was independently correlated with side, type and sleep/wakefulness state. In this analysis, the HR changes were related to the side, gender, seizure type, and sleep/wakefulness state. Right focus, male, sleep, and CPS-G showed more significant increases than that were observed in left, female, wakefulness, SPS and CPS. HR increases rapidly within 10 seconds before seizure onset and ictus, and typically slows to normal with seizure offset. Conclusion CPS-G, sleep and right focus led to higher ictal HR. The HR in the stage of epilepsy has regularly been observed to change to become time-varying. The risk factors of ictal HR need to be controlled along with sleep, CPS-G and right focus. Our study first explains that the HR in seizures has a regular evolution varying with time. Our study might help to further clarify the basic mechanisms of interactions between heart and brain, making seizure detection and closed-loop systems a possible therapeutic alternative in refractory patients. PMID:24950859

  5. Oscillatory Threshold Logic

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory. PMID:23173034

  6. Perfusion Network Shift during Seizures in Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Karen M.; Tabesh, Ali; Sainju, Rup K.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Naselaris, Thomas; Joseph, Jane E.; Ahlman, Mark A.; Spicer, Kenneth M.; Glazier, Steve S.; Edwards, Jonathan C.; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is associated with limbic atrophy involving the hippocampus, peri-hippocampal and extra-temporal structures. While MTLE is related to static structural limbic compromise, it is unknown whether the limbic system undergoes dynamic regional perfusion network alterations during seizures. In this study, we aimed to investigate state specific (i.e. ictal versus interictal) perfusional limbic networks in patients with MTLE. Methods We studied clinical information and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images obtained with intravenous infusion of the radioactive tracer Technetium- Tc 99 m Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime (Tc-99 m HMPAO) during ictal and interictal state confirmed by video-electroencephalography (VEEG) in 20 patients with unilateral MTLE (12 left and 8 right MTLE). Pair-wise voxel-based analyses were used to define global changes in tracer between states. Regional tracer uptake was calculated and state specific adjacency matrices were constructed based on regional correlation of uptake across subjects. Graph theoretical measures were applied to investigate global and regional state specific network reconfigurations. Results A significant increase in tracer uptake was observed during the ictal state in the medial temporal region, cerebellum, thalamus, insula and putamen. From network analyses, we observed a relative decreased correlation between the epileptogenic temporal region and remaining cortex during the interictal state, followed by a surge of cross-correlated perfusion in epileptogenic temporal-limbic structures during a seizure, corresponding to local network integration. Conclusions These results suggest that MTLE is associated with a state specific perfusion and possibly functional organization consisting of a surge of limbic cross-correlated tracer uptake during a seizure, with a relative disconnection of the epileptogenic temporal lobe in the interictal period. This pattern of state specific shift in metabolic networks in MTLE may improve the understanding of epileptogenesis and neuropsychological impairments associated with MTLE. PMID:23341932

  7. Magnetic seizure therapy improves mood in refractory major depression.

    PubMed

    Kosel, Markus; Frick, Caroline; Lisanby, Sarah H; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the successful treatment of a patient suffering from an episode of drug-resistant major depression using magnetic seizure therapy (MST). The patient suffered from recurrent major depression since adolescence. MST is a novel brain stimulation method using transcranial magnetic stimulation at convulsive parameters in order to induce therapeutic seizures under general anesthesia in the same setting used for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The first use of therapeutic magnetic seizure induction in a psychiatric patient took place at the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland, in May 2000. Results of a recent randomized, within-subject, double-masked trial comparing ECT and MST in 10 patients indicate that MST appears to have less subjective and objective side effects, is associated with faster recovery of orientation, and is superior to ECT on measures of attention, retrograde amnesia, and category fluency. ECT has an unparalleled and well-documented efficacy in severe depression but is associated with cognitive side effects. MST is currently under study in several centers with respect to its antidepressant efficacy. We report here on the treatment of a patient with refractory major depression (DSM IV-R), who underwent a series of 12 sessions of MST in an inpatient setting. Baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD-21) of 33 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) of 40 decreased to 6 and 11 respectively, 1 week after completion of the MST trial. Measures of cognitive functions support the hypothesis that MST is associated with a less severe profile of cognitive side effects. [(99m)Tc]-HMPAO SPECT studies (baseline and 4 days after the completion of the MST trial) point to a raise of blood flow at baseline in the left fronto-parietal region and the brainstem. Our preliminary data support the prospect of antidepressant efficacy of MST and point to a benign cognitive side-effect profile in a patient suffering from severe treatment-resistant major depression. PMID:12942146

  8. Hypoxia markers are expressed in interneurons exposed to recurrent seizures.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Fabio; Marinelli, Carla; Longo, Daniela; Pugnaghi, Matteo; Nichelli, Paolo F; Meletti, Stefano; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    An early but transient decrease in oxygen availability occurs during experimentally induced seizures. Using pimonidazole, which probes hypoxic insults, we found that by increasing the duration of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) from 30 to 120 min, counts of pimonidazole-immunoreactive neurons also increased (P < 0.01, 120 vs 60 and 30 min). All the animals exposed to SE were immunopositive to pimonidazole, but a different scenario emerged during epileptogenesis when a decrease in pimonidazole-immunostained cells occurred from 7 to 14 days, so that only 1 out of 4 rats presented with pimonidazole-immunopositive cells. Pimonidazole-immunoreactive cells robustly reappeared at 21 days post-SE induction when all animals (7 out of 7) had developed spontaneous recurrent seizures. Specific neuronal markers revealed that immunopositivity to pimonidazole was present in cells identified by neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin antibodies. At variance, neurons immunopositive to parvalbumin or cholecystokinin were not immunopositive to pimonidazole. Pimonidazole-immunopositive neurons expressed remarkable immunoreactivity to hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?). Interestingly, surgical samples obtained from pharmacoresistant patients showed neurons co-labeled by HIF-1? and NPY antibodies. These interneurons, along with parvalbumin-positive interneurons that were negative to HIF-1?, showed immunopositivity to markers of cell damage, such as high-mobility group box 1 in the cytoplasm and cleaved caspase-3 in the nucleus. These findings suggest that interneurons are continuously endangered in rodent and human epileptogenic tissue. The presence of hypoxia and cell damage markers in NPY interneurons of rats and patients presenting with recurrent seizures indicates a mechanism of selective vulnerability in a specific neuronal subpopulation. PMID:23073716

  9. The probability of seizures during EEG monitoring in critically ill adults

    PubMed Central

    Westover, M. Brandon; Shafi, Mouhsin M.; Bianchi, Matt T.; Moura, Lidia M.V.R.; O’Rourke, Deirdre; Rosenthal, Eric S.; Chu, Catherine J.; Donovan, Samantha; Hoch, Daniel B.; Kilbride, Ronan D.; Cole, Andrew J.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the risk for seizures over time in relation to EEG findings in hospitalized adults undergoing continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG). Methods Retrospective analysis of cEEG data and medical records from 625 consecutive adult inpatients monitored at a tertiary medical center. Using survival analysis methods, we estimated the time-dependent probability that a seizure will occur within the next 72-h, if no seizure has occurred yet, as a function of EEG abnormalities detected so far. Results Seizures occurred in 27% (168/625). The first seizure occurred early (<30 min of monitoring) in 58% (98/168). In 527 patients without early seizures, 159 (30%) had early epileptiform abnormalities, versus 368 (70%) without. Seizures were eventually detected in 25% of patients with early epileptiform discharges, versus 8% without early discharges. The 72-h risk of seizures declined below 5% if no epileptiform abnormalities were present in the first two hours, whereas 16 h of monitoring were required when epileptiform discharges were present. 20% (74/388) of patients without early epileptiform abnormalities later developed them; 23% (17/74) of these ultimately had seizures. Only 4% (12/294) experienced a seizure without preceding epileptiform abnormalities. Conclusions Seizure risk in acute neurological illness decays rapidly, at a rate dependent on abnormalities detected early during monitoring. This study demonstrates that substantial risk stratification is possible based on early EEG abnormalities. Significance These findings have implications for patient-specific determination of the required duration of cEEG monitoring in hospitalized patients. PMID:25082090

  10. Involvement of the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ in kainate seizures.

    PubMed

    Bregola, Gianni; Zucchini, Silvia; Rodi, Donata; Binaschi, Anna; D'Addario, Claudio; Landuzzi, Daniela; Reinscheid, Rainer; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia; Simonato, Michele

    2002-11-15

    The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) has been shown to modulate neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Previous studies indicate that the mRNA levels for the N/OFQ precursor (proN/OFQ) are increased after seizures. However, it is unclear whether N/OFQ plays a role in seizure expression. Therefore, (1) we analyzed proN/OFQ mRNA levels and NOP (the N/OFQ receptor) mRNA levels and receptor density in the kainate model of epilepsy, using Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and receptor binding assay, and (2) we examined susceptibility to kainate seizure in mice treated with 1-[(3R, 4R)-1-cyclooctylmethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-4-piperidyl]-3-ethyl-1, 3-dihydro-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397), a selective NOP receptor antagonist, and in proN/OFQ knock-out mice. After kainate administration, increased proN/OFQ gene expression was observed in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus and in the medial nucleus of the amygdala. In contrast, NOP mRNA levels and receptor density decreased in the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex. Mice treated with the NOP receptor antagonist J-113397 displayed reduced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures (i.e., significant reduction of behavioral seizure scores). N/OFQ knock-out mice were less susceptible to kainate seizures compared with their wild-type littermates, in that lethality was reduced, latency to generalized seizure onset was prolonged, and behavioral seizure scores decreased. Intracerebroventricular administration of N/OFQ prevented reduced susceptibility to kainate seizures in N/OFQ knock-out mice. These data indicate that acute limbic seizures are associated with increased N/OFQ release in selected areas, causing downregulation of NOP receptors and activation of N/OFQ biosynthesis, and support the notion that the N/OFQ-NOP system plays a facilitatory role in kainate seizure expression. PMID:12427860

  11. Seizures in Sleep: Clinical Spectrum, Diagnostic Features, and Management.

    PubMed

    Eliashiv, Dawn; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-07-01

    Sleep is disrupted in most patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and the disturbances are even more profound in patients impacted by epilepsy. Nocturnal seizures must be differentiated from other common nocturnal events, such as delirium, parasomnias, and sedation. Many antiepileptic drugs produce undesirable side effects on sleep architecture that may further predispose patients to insomnia during the night and excessive sedation and hypersomnolence during the day. Failure to recognize, correctly diagnose, and adequately manage these disturbances may lead to more prolonged hospitalization, increased risk for nosocomial infections, poorer health-related qualify of life, and greater health care financial burden. PMID:26118918

  12. Optimized feature subsets for epileptic seizure prediction studies.

    PubMed

    Direito, Bruno; Ventura, Francisco; Teixeira, César; Dourado, António

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of the number of EEG features to give as inputs to epilepsy seizure predictors is a needed step towards the development of a transportable device for real-time warning. This paper presents a comparative study of three feature selection methods, based on Support Vector Machines. Minimum-Redundancy Maximum-Relevance, Recursive Feature Elimination, Genetic Algorithms, show that, for three patients of the European Database on Epilepsy, the most important univariate features are related to spectral information and statistical moments. PMID:22254637

  13. Automatic optimization of parameters for seizure detection systems.

    PubMed

    Dollfuß, P; Hartmann, M M; Skupch, A; Fürbaß, F; Kluge, T

    2013-01-01

    A parameter optimization method for an automatic seizure detection algorithm using the Nelder Mead algorithm is presented. A suitable cost function for joint optimization of sensitivity and false alarm rate is proposed. The optimization is done using EEG datasets from 23 patients and validated on datasets from another 23 patients. The resulting sensitivity was 82.3% with a false alarm rate of 0.24 FA/h. This is a reduction of the false alarm rate by 1.58 FA/h with an acceptable loss of sensitivity of 4.3%. PMID:24110103

  14. Hypocalcemia-induced seizure: demystifying the calcium paradox.

    PubMed

    Han, Pengcheng; Trinidad, Bradley J; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is essential for both neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction. Given these important physiological processes, it seems reasonable to assume that hypocalcemia may lead to reduced neuromuscular excitability. Counterintuitively, however, clinical observation has frequently documented hypocalcemia's role in induction of seizures and general excitability processes such as tetany, Chvostek's sign, and bronchospasm. The mechanism of this calcium paradox remains elusive, and very few pathophysiological studies have addressed this conundrum. Nevertheless, several studies primarily addressing other biophysical issues have provided some clues. In this review, we analyze the data of these studies and propose an integrative model to explain this hypocalcemic paradox. PMID:25810356

  15. Iterative Thresholding Algorithms Massimo Fornasier

    E-print Network

    for denoising signals and images. When the signal is represented in terms of a suitable basis (for instance a wavelet basis) small coefficients are set to zero and larger coefficients above some threshold] established a varia- tional formulation for denoising by 1 penalization, which results in simple soft-thresholding

  16. Threshold Hypothesis: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwowski, Maciej; Gralewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The threshold hypothesis (TH) assumes the existence of complex relations between creative abilities and intelligence: linear associations below 120 points of IQ and weaker or lack of associations above the threshold. However, diverse results have been obtained over the last six decades--some confirmed the hypothesis and some rejected it. In this…

  17. The Nature of Psychological Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Following G. T. Fechner (1966), thresholds have been conceptualized as the amount of intensity needed to transition between mental states, such as between a states of unconsciousness and consciousness. With the advent of the theory of signal detection, however, discrete-state theory and the corresponding notion of threshold have been discounted.…

  18. Modulation of absence seizures by branched-chain amino acids: correlation with brain amino acid concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franck Dufour; Katarzyna A Nalecz; Maciej J Nalecz; Astrid Nehlig

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of absence seizures might be due to a disturbance of the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmissions in the thalamo-cortical loop. In this study, we explored the consequences of buffering the glutamate content of brain cells on the occurrence and duration of seizures in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a genetic model of generalized non-convulsive epilepsy.

  19. Involvement of Thalamus in Initiation of Epileptic Seizures Induced by Pilocarpine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Hua; Li, Jia-Jia; Lu, Qin-Chi; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested that thalamus is involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, but the role of thalamus is still unclear. We obtained local filed potentials (LFPs) and single-unit activities from CA1 of hippocampus and parafascicular nucleus of thalamus during the development of epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine in mice. Two measures, redundancy and directionality index, were used to analyze the electrophysiological characters of neuronal activities and the information flow between thalamus and hippocampus. We found that LFPs became more regular during the seizure in both hippocampus and thalamus, and in some cases LFPs showed a transient disorder at seizure onset. The variation tendency of the peak values of cross-correlation function between neurons matched the variation tendency of the redundancy of LFPs. The information tended to flow from thalamus to hippocampus during seizure initiation period no matter what the information flow direction was before the seizure. In some cases the information flow was symmetrically bidirectional, but none was found in which the information flowed from hippocampus to thalamus during the seizure initiation period. In addition, inactivation of thalamus by tetrodotoxin (TTX) resulted in a suppression of seizures. These results suggest that thalamus may play an important role in the initiation of epileptic seizures. PMID:24778885

  20. Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Feenstra, Bjarke; Pasternak, Björn; Geller, Frank; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Wang, Tongfei; Huang, Fen; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Svanström, Henrik; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hougaard, David M.; Schoggins, John W.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures represent a recognized serious adverse event following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination, and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures, harboring the interferon-stimulated gene IFI44L (rs273259; P = 5.9×10?12 vs. controls; P =1.2×10?9 vs. MMR-unrelated febrile seizures) and the measles virus receptor CD46 (rs1318653; P = 9.6×10?11 vs. controls; P = 1.6×10?9 vs. MMR-unrelated febrile seizures). Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general implicating the sodium channel genes SCN1A (rs6432860; P = 2.2×10?16) and SCN2A (rs3769955; P = 3.1×10?10), a TMEM16 family gene (TMEM16C; rs114444506; P = 3.7×10?20), and a region associated with magnesium levels (12q21.33; rs11105468; P = 3.4×10?11). Finally, functional relevance of TMEM16C was demonstrated with electrophysiological experiments in wild-type and knockout rats. PMID:25344690

  1. Seizure Expression During Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships with Clinical Outcome and Cognitive Side Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarique D Perera; Bruce Luber; Mitchell S Nobler; Joan Prudic; Christopher Anderson; Harold A Sackeim

    2004-01-01

    Since electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can result in generalized seizures that lack efficacy, physiological markers of treatment adequacy are needed. Specific electroencephalographic (EEG) features differentiate seizures produced with barely suprathreshold right unilateral (RUL) ECT, an ineffective treatment, from effective forms of ECT. This study determined whether EEG features are sensitive to treatment condition using a broad dosing range for RUL ECT,

  2. Effects of lamotrigine and levetiracetam on seizure development in a rat amygdala kindling model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon C Stratton; Charles H Large; Brian Cox; Gary Davies; Russell M Hagan

    2003-01-01

    In kindling models of epilepsy, the period during which repeated stimulation evokes intensifying seizures is attributed to an underlying epileptogenic process, and the point at which class 5 kindled seizures occur is considered the established epileptic state. Previous studies have indicated that a separation can occur between drug effects on these two components. For example, carbamazepine and phenytoin inhibit kindled

  3. Automatic muscle artifact removal as a preprocessing technique for seizure detection

    E-print Network

    Automatic muscle artifact removal as a preprocessing technique for seizure detection A. Vergult1, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Muscle artifacts often deteriorate the quality of scalp EEGs, including at the onset of epileptic seizures. Therefore, this paper investigates the influence of removing muscle

  4. Vagus nerve stimulation for treatment of medically intractable seizures. Evaluation of long-term outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Tanganelli; Sergio Ferrero; Patrizio Colotto; Giovanni Regesta

    2002-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) constitutes an adjunctive, modern management of medically intractable seizures, especially when surgery is inadvisable. Objective: To evaluate the long-term results as regards efficacy, safety and tolerability of VNS in epileptic subjects, with focal and\\/or generalised seizures, refractory to old and new AEDs, without indication for resective surgery. Patients: 51 epileptic subjects (30 males, 21 females), aged

  5. Strychnine-like multifocal myoclonus and seizures in extremely high-dose opioid administration: Treatment strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Hagen; Rick Swanson

    1997-01-01

    While occasional myoclonic jerks are prevalent in cancer patients receiving opioids, severe myoclonic jerks and seizures due to opioids are uncommon. In this retrospective case series, we describe five cancer patients with refractory cancer pain and severe neuroexcitatory toxicity associated with extremely high-dose opioid therapy to characterize better the syndrome, its treatment, and its outcome. Two patients died following seizures,

  6. Acute Cognitive Effects of Nonconvulsive Difficult-to-Detect Epileptic Seizures and Epileptiform Electroencephalographic Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert P. Aldenkamp; Johan Arends; Truus C. G. Overweg-Plandsoen; Karin C. van Bronswijk; Angelique Schyns-Soeterboek; Inge v. d. Linden; Leonie Diepman

    2001-01-01

    This study compares the acute cognitive effects of short nonconvulsive seizures with the effects of interictal epileptiform electroencephalographic (EEG) discharges in children. The study is a prospective, standardized, nonrandomized, and open clinical comparative study. Eligible patients were included when they had (a) unclear seizures and fluctuations in cognitive performance and (b) frequent epileptiform EEG discharges in a recent EEG. All

  7. Supratentorial cavernous malformations and epilepsy: seizure outcome after lesionectomy on a series of 35 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Cappabianca; A. Alfieri; F. Maiuri; G. Mariniello; S. Cirillo; E. de Divitiis

    1997-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most frequent presenting sign in patients with cavernous angiomas and is the major cause of morbility. Persistence of seizures after surgical treatment prompted many authors to examine the possibility of removing the cavernoma and the surrounding tissue. In our series of 53 cavernous angiomas, all the 35 patients with preoperative seizures underwent surgery by means of lesionectomy

  8. Role of Subdural Electrocorticography in Prediction of Long-Term Seizure Outcome in Epilepsy Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Eishi; Juhasz, Csaba; Shah, Aashit; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    Since prediction of long-term seizure outcome using preoperative diagnostic modalities remains suboptimal in epilepsy surgery, we evaluated whether interictal spike frequency measures obtained from extraoperative subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) recording could predict long-term seizure outcome. This study included 61 young patients (age…

  9. Gelastic seizures: incidence, clinical and EEG features in adult patients undergoing video-EEG telemetry.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Stjepana; Diehl, Beate; Wehner, Tim; Fois, Chiara; Toms, Nathan; Walker, Matthew C; Duncan, John S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine clinical features of adult patients with gelastic seizures recorded on video -electroencephalography (EEG) over a 5-year period. We screened video-EEG telemetry reports for the occurrence of the term "gelastic" seizures, and assessed the semiology, EEG features, and duration of those seizures. Gelastic seizures were identified in 19 (0.8%) of 2,446 admissions. The presumed epileptogenic zone was in the hypothalamus in one third of the cases, temporal lobe epilepsy was diagnosed in another third, and the remainder of the cases presenting with gelastic seizures were classified as frontal, parietal lobe epilepsy or remained undetermined or were multifocal. Gelastic seizures were embedded in a semiology, with part of the seizure showing features of automotor seizures. A small proportion of patients underwent epilepsy surgery. Outcome of epilepsy surgery was related to the underlying pathology; two patients with hippocampal sclerosis had good outcomes following temporal lobe resection and one of four patients with hypothalamic hamartomas undergoing gamma knife surgery had a good outcome. PMID:25516460

  10. Frequency-dependent effects of contralateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on penicillin-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Li, Kevin; Franic, Linda; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Lin, Vernon W; Najm, Imad; Lee, Yu-Shang

    2014-09-18

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to modulate multiple brain functions, warranting further exploration in clinical applications. TMS treatment for epilepsy is particularly promising because of its anti-convulsive capabilities. However, TMS has been found to both inhibit and facilitate various experimental and clinical seizures, depending on the TMS parameters used. Repetitive TMS (rTMS) pulse frequency is recognized as one of the most influential parameters and thus was investigated in this study at 1, 5 and 10 Hz for its effects on a rat model of penicillin-induced seizures. High-dose penicillin-induced seizures were characterized by a combination of myoclonic and tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures. rTMS effects were analyzed with intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) data and video-captured behaviors. Animals treated with 1 and 5 Hz consistently showed evidence of anti-convulsive properties in their iEEG-based seizure profiles when compared to sham rTMS treatment. In contrast, data from 10 Hz rTMS suggested facilitative characteristics. Our results showed that 5 Hz rTMS consistently outperformed 1 Hz rTMS in seizure suppression. This re-emphasizes the importance in accurately characterizing TMS effects on seizure suppression due to the heterogeneous nature of seizures. Thus, finely tuned TMS treatment has great potential to become a powerful asset in combating epilepsy. PMID:24937795

  11. Early Seizure Frequency and Aetiology Predict Long-Term Medical Outcome in Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice, it is important to predict as soon as possible after diagnosis and starting treatment, which children are destined to develop medically intractable seizures and be at risk of increased mortality. In this study, we determined factors predictive of long-term seizure and mortality outcome in a population-based cohort of 102…

  12. Seizure-Induced Axonal Sprouting: Assessing Connections Between Injury, Local Circuits, and Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sutula, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Neurons and neural circuits undergo extensive structural and functional remodeling in response to seizures. Sprouting of axons in the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus is a prominent example of a seizure-induced structural alteration which has received particular attention because it is easily detected, is induced by intense or repeated brief seizures in focal chronic models of epilepsy, and is also observed in the human epileptic hippocampus. During the last decade the association of mossy fiber sprouting with seizures and epilepsy has been firmly established. Many anatomical features of mossy fiber sprouting have been described in considerable detail, and there is evidence that sprouting occurs in a variety of other pathways in association with seizures and injury. There is uncertainty, however, about how or when mossy fiber sprouting may contribute to hippocampal dysfunction and generation of seizures. Study of mossy fiber sprouting has provided a strong theoretical and conceptual framework for efforts to understand how seizures and injury may contribute to epileptogenesis and its consequences. It is likely that investigation of mossy fiber sprouting will continure to offer significant opportunities for insights into seizure-induced plasticity of neural circuits at molecular, cellular, and systems levels. PMID:15309153

  13. Development of an AR-pole statistic for ECoG seizure detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bozek-Kuzmicki; S. L. Weinstein; G. Benke; S. J. Schiff

    1995-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of epileptic seizure detection and focus localization from ECoG signals. ECoG are subdural recordings of electric potentials collected by invasively placing a grid on the surface of the brain. A statistic based on an autoregressive (AR) model has been developed to aid in seizure detection and localization. Specifically, the authors build a statistic based on

  14. Corpus callosum section in the treatment of intractable seizures in the Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    The Sturge-Weber syndrome includes unilateral cerebral cortical angiomatosis, which often leads to progressive cerebral dysfunction and epileptic seizures that are medically difficult to control. Cerebral resections and hemispherectomy have been successfully performed in the past in intractable epileptic cases. Two children with medically unresponsive generalized seizure activity secondary to the Sturge-Weber syndrome have been surgically treated by dividing their corpus

  15. Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures: three patients treated with the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Roberto; Noli, Daniel; Cachia, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    We present three patients with epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures treated with the ketogenic diet. Between February 1, 2012 and January 31, 2014, three patients who met the diagnostic criteria for migrating focal seizures in infancy at our department were placed on the ketogenic diet and followed for a minimum of seven months. Two of the three children responded well to the ketogenic diet. One of these patients became seizure-free and his neuropsychological performance also significantly improved. The other child had a seizure reduction of 75% to 99% with only weekly seizures and moderate psychomotor improvement. For these two patients who responded well to the ketogenic diet, hospital admission was not required. The remaining patient had a seizure reduction of less than 50%. Tolerability of the diet was good in all three patients. Early treatment with the ketogenic diet should be considered for epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures to control seizures and status epilepticus, and avoid progressive cognitive impairment. PMID:25895661

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Detecting Epileptic Seizures in Long-term Human EEG

    E-print Network

    , Polymorphic seizure patterns, Support Vec- tor Machines. (J Clin Neurophysiol 2008;25: 000­000) Epileptic seizures are caused by excessive, synchronized activity of large groups of neurons. Among the wide spectrum for detec- tion systems. Here, we present a novel system and associated signal analysis procedures

  17. Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of

    E-print Network

    Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B (received for review September 1, 2004) Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol with- drawal (EW). Here we show that tissue

  18. Altered Short-Term Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex After Early Life Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Hernan, A.E.; Holmes, G. L.; Isaev, D.; Scott, R. C.; Isaeva, E.

    2012-01-01

    Seizures during development are a relatively common occurrence and are often associated with poor cognitive outcomes. Recent studies show that early life seizures alter the function of various brain structures and have long-term consequences on seizure susceptibility and behavioral regulation. While many neocortical functions could be disrupted by epileptic seizures we have concentrated on studying the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as disturbance of PFC functions is involved in numerous co-morbid disorders associated with epilepsy. In the present work we report an alteration of short-term plasticity in the PFC in rats that have experienced early life seizures. The most robust alteration occurs in the layer II/III to layer V network of neurons. However short-term plasticity of layer V to layer V network was also affected, indicating that the PFC function is broadly influenced by early life seizures. These data strongly suggest that repetitive seizures early in development cause substantial alteration in PFC function, which may be an important component underlying cognitive deficits in individuals with a history of seizures during development. PMID:23064435

  19. The paradox of the paroxysm: can seizure precipitants help explain human ictogenesis?

    PubMed

    Huberfeld, Gilles; Le Duigou, Caroline; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Navarro, Vincent; Baulac, Michel; Miles, Richard

    2013-10-01

    An epileptic brain is permanently in a diseased state, but seizures occur rarely and without warning. Here we examine this paradox, common to paroxysmal diseases. We review the problem in the context of the prototypic acquired epilepsies of the medial temporal lobe. We ask how an epileptic temporal lobe differs from a healthy one and examine biological mechanisms that may explain the transition to seizure. Attempts to predict seizure timing from analyses of brain electrical activity suggest that the neurological processes involved may be initiated significantly before a seizure. Furthermore, whereas seizures are said to occur without warning, some patients say they know when a seizure is imminent. Several factors, including sleep deprivation, oscillations in hormonal levels, or withdrawal from drugs, increase the probability of a seizure. We ask whether these seizure precipitants might act through common neuronal mechanisms. Several precipitating factors seem to involve relief from a neurosteroid modulation of gamma-amino butyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) receptors. We propose tests of this hypothesis. PMID:23881918

  20. Early Electrographic Seizures, Brain Injury an Neurodevelopmental Risk in the Very Preterm Infant

    PubMed Central

    Vesoulis, Zachary A.; Inder, Terrie E.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Buse, Bradley; Vavasseur, Claudine; Mathur, Amit M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies of very preterm (VPT) infants have shown a wide range of seizure prevalence and association with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), white matter injury (WMI) and death. However, the impact of seizures on neurodevelopment is not well known. We hypothesized that seizures in the first three days after VPT birth would be associated with increased radiographic brain injury and later neurodevelopmental risk. Methods For 72 hours after birth 95 VPT infants underwent aEEG monitoring. High and low seizure burdens were related to radiographic brain injury, death in the neonatal period and children’s Bayley III performance at 2 years corrected age in a subgroup of 59 infants. Results The overall incidence of seizures in this sample was 48%. High seizure burden was associated with increased risk of IVH on day 1; IVH, WMI and death on day 2 and high grade IVH on day 3. The presence of seizures on any day was associated with decreased language performance at age 2, even after controlling for family social risk. Conclusions Seizures during the first three days after birth are common and are associated with an increased risk of IVH, WMI and death. They were also associated with poorer early language development. PMID:24366515