Science.gov

Sample records for ptz seizure threshold

  1. Spatiotemporal analysis of Fos expression associated with cocaine- and PTZ-induced seizures in prenatally cocaine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Keller, A; Keller, R W

    2001-07-01

    We previously reported that prenatal cocaine exposure (40 mg/kg s.c., E10-E20) increased susceptibility to convulsant-induced seizures later in life, with female rats becoming more sensitive to seizures induced by cocaine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and males more sensitive to PTZ-induced seizures (Snyder-Keller and Keller, 1995, 2000). In order to determine the locus of enhanced seizure susceptibility in the brains of prenatally cocaine-treated rats, we examined the distribution and density of Fos-immunoreactive cells after cocaine- and PTZ-induced seizures in mature rats. Subconvulsive cocaine doses induced c-fos in cortical areas as well as densely dopamine-innervated regions such as striatum and nucleus accumbens. Following cocaine-induced seizures, intense c-fos induction was observed in piriform cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Quantification of the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the brains of prenatally cocaine-treated versus prenatally saline-treated rats revealed differences in piriform cortex and amygdala that were indicative of a lower threshold in prenatally cocaine-treated female rats. Following PTZ-induced seizures, the same pattern of limbic structures were recruited with increasing seizure severity. Only females exhibited changes in the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells as a result of prenatal cocaine treatment. Pretreatment with the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 blocked both cocaine- and PTZ-induced seizures, and Fos expression in limbic areas was also blocked. The dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 blocked cocaine-induced seizures and associated c-fos induction, but not PTZ-induced seizures or Fos. Examination of the pattern of Fos expression at 15-20 min postseizure revealed that the initial site of c-fos induction associated with PTZ-induced seizures appeared to be the piriform cortex, whereas cocaine-induced seizures induced early expression in both piriform cortex and lateral amygdala. These findings suggest that neural

  2. Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates PTZ-induced seizures through CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Iraj; Rostampour, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammad; Naderi, Nima; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Babaei, Parvin; Khakpour-Taleghani, Behrooz

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Though there are effective medications available to reduce the symptoms of the disease, their side effects have limited their usage. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been shown to attenuate seizure in different animal models. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in this attenuation. Male wistar rats were used for the current experiment. PTZ was injected to induce chemical kindling in animals. After verification of kindling in animals, treatment was performed with PEA, AM251 and AM630 in different groups. Latency to induce seizure, seizure stages and latency and duration of fifth stage of seizure was recorded for each animal. Injection of PTZ led to seizure in the animals. Pretreatment with PEA increased the latency to initiate seizures and reduced the duration of seizure. Pretreatment with different dosages of AM251 had contrary effects so that at lower doses they increased the seizure in animals but at higher doses led to the attenuation of seizure. AM630 increased seizures in a dose dependent manner. Combination of the antagonists increased the seizure parameters and attenuated the effect of PEA on seizure. PEA attenuated the PTZ-induced seizures and pretreatment with CB1 and CB2 antagonists diminished this effect of PEA, but still PEA was effective, which might be attributed to the contribution of other receptors in PEA anti-epileptic properties. Findings of the current study implied that endocannabinoid signaling pathway might have an important role in the effects of PEA. PMID:26370914

  3. Characterization of PTZ-Induced Seizure Susceptibility in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model That Overexpresses CSTB

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Véronique; Martin, Benoît; Costet, Nathalie; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Hérault, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a complex genetic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphism and variable additional physiological traits. Current research progress has begun to decipher the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, leading to new therapeutic perspectives. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) has recently been found to have positive effects on learning and memory capacities of a DS mouse model and is foreseen to treat DS patients. But PTZ is also known to be a convulsant drug at higher dose and DS persons are more prone to epileptic seizures than the general population. This raises concerns over what long-term effects of treatment might be in the DS population. The cause of increased propensity for epilepsy in the DS population and which Hsa21 gene(s) are implicated remain unknown. Among Hsa21 candidate genes in epilepsy, CSTB, coding for the cystein protease inhibitor cystatin B, is involved in progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia in both mice and human. Thus we aim to evaluate the effect of an increase in Cstb gene dosage on spontaneous epileptic activity and susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure. To this end we generated a new mouse model trisomic for Cstb by homologous recombination. We verified that increasing copy number of Cstb from Trisomy (Ts) to Tetrasomy (Tt) was driving overexpression of the gene in the brain, we checked transgenic animals for presence of locomotor activity and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities characteristic of myoclonic epilepsy and we tested if those animals were prone to PTZ-induced seizure. Overall, the results of the analysis shows that an increase in Cstb does not induce any spontaneous epileptic activity and neither increase or decrease the propensity of Ts and Tt mice to myoclonic seizures suggesting that Ctsb dosage should not interfere with PTZ-treatment. PMID:22140471

  4. Anticonvulsant Activity of Teucrium polium Against Seizure Induced by PTZ and MES in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnood-Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Oveisi, Narjes

    2010-01-01

    Teucrium polium (Labiatae) is a plant that widely grows in Iran. Some of species of Teucrium are used for a considerable range of actions in traditional medicine and T. polium has frequently been used as anticonvulsant. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of T. polium ethanolic aqueous extracts and related fractions on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock stimulation (MES). Moreover, presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins and flavonoid contents were evaluated. It was found that aqueous extract (ED50 = 22.4 mg/kg body weight) and related n-butanol fraction (ED50 = 12.6 mg/kg body weight) have antiseizure effects comparing to control groups. There was no difference between preventing of PTZ-induced death and MES-induced hindlimb tonic extension (HLTE) in ethanolic extract comparing to control groups. Our results showed that the amount of flavonoid quantity present in aqueous extract is higher than that of ethanolic extract. These data also showed that the quantity of the flavonoid in n-butanol fraction of aqueous extract is more than other fractions. In conclusion, it was realized that flavonoid rich extracts are more potent than other fractions in showing antiseizure effects. PMID:24381604

  5. Involvement of Scn1b and Kcna1 ion channels in audiogenic seizures and PTZ-induced epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Yang, Qingxiong; Kuang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Hu, Yinghe

    2005-01-01

    We have undertaken chemical genetic approach using Qingyangshenylycosides (QYS), a natural product compound, to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying different types of epilepsy models. Two animal models were used for these studies, i.e., audiogenic seizure (AGS) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced generalized epilepsy in DBA/2J mice. We show that the latency of AGS is prolonged and the severity of seizures (the percentages of the tonus, Tonus_%) is reduced in the QYS-treated animals. These results indicate that QYS has anticonvulsant effect on the AGS model. However, we find that administration of QYS has an opposite effects on PTZ-induced generalized epilepsy. Both the latency of the generalized epilepsy and the latency of death are decreased after QYS treatment in PTZ-induced epilepsy. We examine the molecular basis of the distinct roles of QYS in these two epilepsy models by using gene expression data. Our results show that a voltage-gated sodium channel (Scn1b) and a voltage-gated potassium channel (Kcna1) are differentially expressed in AGS and PTZ-induced epilepsy models as well as in QYS-treated animals. Our results demonstrate that a chemical genetic approach may help to reveal both the molecular mechanisms of different epilepsies and the mechanism of action of the antiepileptic drugs. PMID:16157473

  6. Evaluation of the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test in epileptic mice as surrogate model for drug testing against pharmacoresistant seizures.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Kathrin; Twele, Friederike; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy therapy, so that development of more effective AEDs is an unmet clinical need. Several rat and mouse models of epilepsy with spontaneous difficult-to-treat seizures exist, but because testing of antiseizure drug efficacy is extremely laborious in such models, they are only rarely used in the development of novel AEDs. Recently, the use of acute seizure tests in epileptic rats or mice has been proposed as a novel strategy for evaluating novel AEDs for increased antiseizure efficacy. In the present study, we compared the effects of five AEDs (valproate, phenobarbital, diazepam, lamotrigine, levetiracetam) on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice that were made epileptic by pilocarpine. Experiments were started 6 weeks after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. At this time, control seizure threshold was significantly lower in epileptic than in nonepileptic animals. Unexpectedly, only one AED (valproate) was less effective to increase seizure threshold in epileptic vs. nonepileptic mice, and this difference was restricted to doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, whereas the difference disappeared at 400mg/kg. All other AEDs exerted similar seizure threshold increases in epileptic and nonepileptic mice. Thus, induction of acute seizures with PTZ in mice pretreated with pilocarpine does not provide an effective and valuable surrogate method to screen drugs for antiseizure efficacy in a model of difficult-to-treat chronic epilepsy as previously suggested from experiments with this approach in rats. PMID:26930359

  7. L-Theanine intake increases threshold for limbic seizures but decreases threshold for generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Schallier, Anneleen; Vermoesen, Katia; Loyens, Ellen; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Michotte, Yvette; Smolders, Ilse; Massie, Ann

    2013-03-01

    L-Theanine, an ethylamide derivate of glutamate found in abundance in green tea, has been shown to exert beneficial actions in animal models for several neurological disorders. We here investigated for the first time the effect of L-theanine intake on seizure susceptibility using acute pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) mouse models for studying, respectively, limbic seizures or primarily generalized seizures. Moreover, we studied the effect of l-theanine intake on extracellular hippocampal and cortical glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels, using in vivo microdialysis. Feeding mice with a 4% L-theanine solution significantly decreased their susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures whereas susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was increased. The latter effect was linked to decreased extracellular GABA concentrations in frontal cortex. PMID:23324588

  8. Prediction of seizure incidence probability in PTZ model of kindling through spatial learning ability in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Narges-Al-Sadat; Palizvan, Mohammad Reza; Sadegh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Zohre; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by periodic seizures. Cognitive deficits and impairments in learning and memory are also associated with epilepsy. Neuronal changes and synaptic modifications in kindling model of epilepsy are similar to those occur during the learning procedure and memory formation. Herein we investigated whether seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model of kindling is predictable based on the learning ability in the Morris water maze (MWM) task in male and female rats. Allocentric learning was tested using MWM in present of light while egocentric learning was evaluated by MWM in dark room. The results indicated no significant differences in allocentric learning abilities between male and female rats. However, male rats were able to memorize the location of the platform more effectively compared to females in egocentric test. In addition, a statistically significant negative correlation between learning abilities (working memory) and seizure susceptibility in male rats was found while this correlation was positive in female rats. On the other hand, although there was no significant correlation between retrieval (reference memory) of spatial memories and seizure parameters in male rats, female rats showed a significant negative correlation. These findings may provide some evidences for prediction of seizure susceptibility according to learning ability and memory retention. PMID:27098273

  9. Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodríguez, Stephanie; Jordán, Claudia; Licier, Rígel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, José G.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [3H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II. PMID

  10. Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodríguez, Stephanie; Jordán, Claudia; Licier, Rígel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, José G

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [(3)H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II. PMID

  11. Effects of acute and repeated zolpidem treatment on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold and on locomotor activity: comparison with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Vlainić, Josipa; Pericić, Danka

    2009-06-01

    Zolpidem and diazepam are widely used drugs acting via benzodiazepine binding sites on GABA(A) receptors. While diazepam is non-selective, zolpidem has a high affinity for alpha1-, and no affinity for alpha5-containing receptors. Several studies suggested that behavioral effects of zolpidem might be more similar to classical benzodiazepines than previously thought. To compare the sedative and anticonvulsant properties of these drugs and to evaluate the importance of GABA(A) receptor subunits for development of tolerance during chronic treatment, we tested the effects of acute and repeated administration of zolpidem and diazepam on ambulatory locomotor activity (a measure of sedation) and on the threshold for myoclonic, clonic and tonic seizures in response to i.v. infusion of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Both drugs given acutely in doses 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg reduced locomotion, and in doses 1 and 3 mg/kg elevated the threshold for PTZ-induced seizures. The effects of zolpidem and diazepam on the tonic seizure threshold were greater than on myoclonus and clonic seizure threshold. Diazepam and zolpidem (3 mg/kg), given 18 or 42 h after repeated drug treatment (10 days, 5 mg/kg, twice daily), decreased the PTZ seizure threshold and increased the locomotor activity as compared to control mice, indicating development of tolerance to their anticonvulsant and sedative effects. After repeated treatment the PTZ seizure threshold was not different between the two drugs, while differences in sedation became larger than after the acute treatment. The results suggest that alpha5-containing GABA(A) receptors are not crucial for the development of sedative and anticonvulsant tolerance. PMID:19345234

  12. ABHD6 blockade exerts antiepileptic activity in PTZ-induced seizures and in spontaneous seizures in R6/2 mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Christine S.; Swinney, Katie; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Cao, Jessica K.; Marrs, William; Blankman, Jacqueline L.; Tu, Sarah; Cherry, Allison E.; Fung, Susan; Wen, Andy; Li, Weiwei; Saporito, Michael S.; Selley, Dana E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Oakley, John C.; Stella, Nephi

    2014-01-01

    The serine hydrolase α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) hydrolyzes the most abundant endocannabinoid (eCB) in the brain, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and controls its availability at cannabinoid receptors. We show that ABHD6 inhibition decreases pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized tonic-clonic and myoclonic seizure incidence, and severity. This effect is retained in cnr1−/− or cnr2−/− mice, but blocked by addition of a subconvulsive dose of picrotoxin, suggesting the involvement of GABAA receptors. ABHD6 inhibition also blocked spontaneous seizures in R6/2 mice, a genetic model of Juvenile Huntington’s disease known to exhibit dysregulated eCB signaling. ABHD6 blockade retained its antiepileptic activity over chronic dosing and was not associated with psychomotor or cognitive effects. While the etiology of seizures in R6/2 mice remains unsolved, involvement of the hippocampus is suggested by interictal epileptic discharges, increased expression of vGLUT1 but not vGAT, and reduced Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. We conclude that ABHD6 inhibition may represent a novel antiepileptic strategy. PMID:25033180

  13. The interaction of adenosine and morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Akbarian, Reyhane; Niknahad, Hossein; Shafaroodi, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine agonists or low doses of morphine exert anti-convulsant effects in different models of seizures. On the other hand, a tight interaction has been reported between morphine and adenosine in various paradigms. This study investigated the effect of the interaction of adenosine and morphine on seizure susceptibility in the intravenous mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. The researchers used acute systemic administration of morphine, N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (a selective A1 receptor agonist), naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist) and 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) (a selective A1 receptor antagonist). Acute administration of morphine (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) or CHA (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg) raised the threshold of seizures induced by PTZ. Non-effective dose of 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of sub-effective doses of morphine (0.125 mg/kg) and CHA (0.125 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure latency showing the additive effect of morphine and CHA. The enhanced latency induced by combination of low doses of morphine and CHA completely reversed by 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) or naltrexone (1 mg/kg). Moreover, 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of morphine (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) and naltrexone (1 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of low doses of 8-CPT (1 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.5 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effect of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). In conclusion, adenosine and morphine exhibit an additive effect on the enhancement of the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice, probably through A1 or μ receptors. PMID:23624288

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Lycopene Against PTZ-induced Kindling Seizures in Mice: Possible Behavioural, Biochemical and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Manveen; Kumar, Anil

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major contributing factors in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders. Recently, antioxidant therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress gained a considerable attention in epilepsy treatment. Lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has received scientific interest in recent years. So, the present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of lycopene against the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling epilepsy. Laca mice received lycopene (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and sodium valproate for a period of 29 days and PTZ (40 mg/kg i.p (Intraperitoneal)) injection on alternative days. Various behavioural (kindling score), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase and nitrite) and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) were assessed in the brain. Results depicted that repeated administration of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg) significantly increased kindling score, oxidative damage and impaired mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared with naive animals. Lycopene (5 and 10 mg/kg) and sodium valproate (100 mg/kg) treatment for a duration of 29 days significantly attenuated kindling score, reversed oxidative damage and restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared with control. Thus, present study demonstrates the neuroprotective potential of lycopene in PTZ-induced kindling in mice. PMID:26633078

  15. Antiapoptotic and neuroprotective role of Curcumin in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model in rat.

    PubMed

    Saha, Lekha; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Kumari, Sweta; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyojyoti

    2016-02-01

    Kindling, a sub threshold chemical or electrical stimulation, increases seizure duration and enhances accompanied behavior until it reaches a sort of equilibrium state. The present study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in PTZ kindled rats and its role in apoptosis and neuronal damage. In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of curcumin (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) were administrated orally one hour before the PTZ injections on alternate day during the whole kindling days. The following parameters were compared between control and experimental groups: the course of kindling, stages of seizures, Histopathological scoring of hippocampus, antioxidant parameters in the hippocampus, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in hippocampus, and neuron-specific enolase in the blood. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis and Fischer's Exact test were used for statistical analyses. PTZ, 30 mg/kg, induced kindling in rats after 32.0 ± 1.4 days. Curcumin showed dose-dependent anti-seizure effect. Curcumin (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the latency to myoclonic jerks, clonic seizures as well as generalized tonic-clonic seizures, improved the seizure score and decreased the number of myoclonic jerks. PTZ kindling induced a significant neuronal injury, oxidative stress and apoptosis which were reversed by pretreatment with curcumin in a dose-dependent manner. Our study suggests that curcumin has a potential antiepileptogenic effect on kindling-induced epileptogenesis. PMID:26934781

  16. Continuous bilateral infusion of vigabatrin into the subthalamic nucleus: Effects on seizure threshold and GABA metabolism in two rat models.

    PubMed

    Gey, Laura; Gernert, Manuela; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role as a regulator of basal ganglia outflow but also influences the activity of cortical and limbic structures, so that it is widely used as a therapeutic target in different brain diseases, including epilepsy. In addition to electrical stimulation of the STN, targeted delivery of anti-seizure drugs to the STN may constitute an alternative treatment approach in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. In the present experimental study, we investigated the anti-seizure and adverse effects of chronic infusion of vigabatrin into the STN of rats. Vigabatrin is a clinically approved anti-seizure drug, which acts by increasing brain GABA levels by irreversibly inhibiting GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T). Based on functional and neurochemical effects of acute STN microinjection, doses for continuous infusion were calculated and administered, using an innovative drug infusion technology. Bilateral infusion of only 10μg/day vigabatrin over 3weeks into the STN resulted in an almost complete inhibition of GABA-T and 4-fold increase in GABA in the target region, which was associated with a significant increase in seizure threshold, determined once weekly by i.v. infusion of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Lower doses or unilateral infusion were less effective, both on PTZ seizures and on kindled seizures. Bilateral infusion into substantia nigra pars reticulata was less effective and more toxic than STN infusion. In part of the rats, tolerance to the anti-seizure effect developed. The data demonstrate that chronic administration of very low, nontoxic doses of vigabatrin into STN is an effective means of increasing local GABA concentrations and seizure threshold. PMID:26976738

  17. Stress during first pregnancy increases seizure threshold in adult male offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pajand, Peyman; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Shajiee, Hooman; Abiri, Hasan; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Stress induces many homeostatic aberrations which are followed by lifelong allostatic responses. Epilepsy is developed or influenced by different environmental factors, i.e. prenatal stress which makes many contradictory developmental changes in seizure threshold and intensity. We investigated the potential seizure response of the rat offspring to prenatal stress; the stress which was applied to their mothers. Materials and Methods: Nine day heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) model was used before and during the first and before the second pregnancy. The kindling was induced using 13 IP injections of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) every 48 hr to adult male Wistar rat's offspring. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that, before pregnancy stress decreased the rate of kindling (P<0.05) in the offspring, while stress which was applied during pregnancy completely prevented kindling (P <0.001). Further, their convulsive latency was increased and tonic clonic seizure duration was decreased. In contrast, previous pregnancy and between pregnancies stress could not change kindling process. Although maternal separation stress did not change kindling development, it could increase convulsive intensities by elongating the duration of seizures (P<0.05) and reducing convulsion latency (P <0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that stress detrimental effects could be prevented by stress which was applied around first pregnancy; however this beneficial effect is weakened by before second pregnancy stress. PMID:24592305

  18. Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase elevates the threshold to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure activity in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kaasinen, Selma K; Gröhn, Olli H J; Keinänen, Tuomo A; Alhonen, Leena; Jänne, Juhani

    2003-10-01

    Activation of polyamine catabolism in transgenic mice through an overexpression of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) results in a massive overaccumulation of the diamine putrescine in most tissues including brain. Putrescine pool in transgenic animals was strikingly expanded in every six brain regions analyzed at present. Pons (23-fold), cerebellum (37-fold), cerebrum (34-fold), and hippocampus (16-fold) showed the greatest increases in putrescine levels. Moreover, the molar ratio of putrescine to spermidine was increased in the different brain regions of the transgenic animals on an average of nearly 40-fold. Upon an exposure of the animals to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) infusions, a compound known to induce epilepsy-like seizure activity, the SSAT transgenic mice showed significantly elevated seizure threshold to both clonic and tonic convulsions in comparison with their syngenic littermates. This difference, however, disappeared when the animals were treated with ifenprodil prior to PTZ infusions. The latter compound acts as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by binding to the polyamine site of the receptor. Overexpression of SSAT likewise appeared to protect the transgenic animals from PTZ-induced neuron loss in the hippocampus. As putrescine is known to serve as a precursor to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), we carried out (1)H NMR analyses the results of which revealed that the levels of the inhibitory amino acid GABA and its excitatory counterpart glutamate were indistinguishable in syngenic and transgenic animals in all brain regions analyzed. The present results suggest that the frequently observed enhanced accumulation of putrescine in response to brain insults belongs to neuroprotective measures rather than being a cause of the subsequent injury. PMID:14552906

  19. Comparison between the effects of quercetin on seizure threshold in acute and chronic seizure models.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hajiali, Farid; Taghiloo, Mina; Abbasi, Esmail; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Yousefi, Farbod

    2016-05-01

    Flavonoids are important constituents of food and beverages, and several studies have shown that they have neuroactive properties. Many of these compounds are ligands for γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), which is a flavonoid found in plants, in rats treated with pentylenetetrazole in acute and chronic seizure models. Single intraperitoneal administration of quercetin did not show anticonvulsive effects against acute seizure. Similarly, multiple oral pretreatment with quercetin did not have protective effects against acute seizure. However, multiple intraperitoneal administration of quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg) significantly increased time to death compared with the control (p < 0.001). However, quercetin pretreatment had no significant effects on the pattern of convulsion development during all periods of kindling. But on the test day, quercetin (100 mg/kg) could significantly increase generalized tonic-clonic seizure onset (GTCS) and decrease GTCS duration compared with the control (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). We conclude that quercetin has a narrow therapeutic dose range for anticonvulsant activities in vivo, and it has different effects on the seizure threshold. The different effects of quercetin on seizure threshold may occur through several mechanisms. PMID:24442347

  20. Proactive PTZ Camera Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Faisal Z.; Terzopoulos, Demetri

    We present a visual sensor network—comprising wide field-of-view (FOV) passive cameras and pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) active cameras—capable of automatically capturing closeup video of selected pedestrians in a designated area. The passive cameras can track multiple pedestrians simultaneously and any PTZ camera can observe a single pedestrian at a time. We propose a strategy for proactive PTZ camera control where cameras plan ahead to select optimal camera assignment and handoff with respect to predefined observational goals. The passive cameras supply tracking information that is used to control the PTZ cameras.

  1. [Effect of citicoline on the development of chronic epileptization of the brain (pentylenetetrazole kindling) and acute seizures reaction of kindled mice C57Bl/6].

    PubMed

    Kuznetzova, L V; Karpova, M N; Zinkovsky, K A; Klishina, N V

    2014-01-01

    In experiments on mice C57Bl/6 was studied effects of citicoline (500 mg/kg, i.p.) on development of chronically epileptization of the brain--pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling (30 mg/kg PTZ, i.p. during 24 days) and on acute generalized seizures (i.v., 1% solution of PTZ with the speed of 0.01 ml/s). It was shown that daily injection of citicoline an hour before the introduction of PTZ had no effect on development of chronically epileptization of the brain --PTZ-kindling (the latency of seizures appearance and their severity). However, citicoIine posses anticonvulsive effects on acute seizures in kindled mice. In animals with increased seizure susceptibility of the brain caused by kindling and severity of seizures 2-3 points injection citicoline after 14 days of kindling had anticonvulsive effect, increasing the threshold clonic seizures. Injection of citicoline during 24 days of kindled animals and severity of seizures 3-5 points caused the increase of thresholds as clonic and tonic phase of seizures with lethal outcome. Thus, the anticonvulsant effect of citicoline more pronounced in the long-term use. PMID:25536784

  2. Effect of mobile phone radiation on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kouchaki, Ebrahim; Motaghedifard, Morteza; Banafshe, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Scientific interest in potential mobile phone impact on human brain and performance has significantly increased in recent years. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone radiation on seizure threshold in mice. Materials and methods: BALB/c male mice were randomly divided into three groups: control, acute, and chronic mobile phone radiation for 30, 60, and 90 min with frequency 900 to 950 MHz and pulse of 217 Hz. The chronic group received 30 days of radiation, while the acute group received only once. The intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole (5 mg/ml) was used to induce seizure signs. Results: Although acute mobile radiation did not change seizure threshold, chronic radiation decreased the clonic and tonic seizure thresholds significantly. Conclusion: Our data suggests that the continued and prolonged contact with the mobile phone radiation might increase the risk of seizure attacks and should be limited.

  3. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... two or more seizures may be diagnosed with epilepsy , also known as seizure disorder. Seizure Basics Under ... over and over might indicate the ongoing condition epilepsy . Febrile seizures can happen in children younger than ...

  4. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... minutes The person does not awaken or have normal behavior after a seizure Another seizure starts soon after a seizure ends The person had a seizure in water The person is pregnant, injured, or has diabetes ...

  5. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Seizures KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Seizures Print A A A Text Size en ... Seizures Febrile Seizures Brain and Nervous System Epilepsy First Aid: Febrile Seizures Word! Seizure Epilepsy Epilepsy Contact Us ...

  6. Increase of the seizure threshold in C57BL/6 mice after citicoline administration.

    PubMed

    Karpova, M N; Zin'kovskii, K A; Kuznetsova, L V; Klishina, N V

    2015-01-01

    We studied the dose-dependent effect of preventive intraperitoneal injection of citicoline (cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) on acute generalized epileptiform activity in C57Bl/6 mice. The duration of citicoline action was also evaluated. Administration of citicoline in doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg 1 h before treatment with the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole produced an anticonvulsant effect. This effect was manifested in an increase of the threshold of clonic seizures and tonic phase of seizures with lethal outcome. Moreover, the latency of seizure development was elevated under these conditions. The anticonvulsant effect of citicoline persisted for 6 h after its injection. PMID:25573358

  7. Tanshinone IIA exhibits anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish and mouse seizure models.

    PubMed

    Buenafe, Olivia Erin; Orellana-Paucar, Adriana; Maes, Jan; Huang, Hao; Ying, Xuhui; De Borggraeve, Wim; Crawford, Alexander D; Luyten, Walter; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter

    2013-11-20

    Danshen or Chinese red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza, Bunge) is used by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners to treat neurological, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disorders and is included in some TCM formulations to control epileptic seizures. In this study, acetonic crude extracts of danshen inhibited pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure activity in zebrafish larvae. Subsequent zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four major tanshinones, which suppressed PTZ-induced activity to varying degrees. One of the active tanshinones, tanshinone IIA, also reduced c-fos expression in the brains of PTZ-exposed zebrafish larvae. In rodent seizure models, tanshinone IIA showed anticonvulsive activity in the mouse 6-Hz psychomotor seizure test in a biphasic manner and modified seizure thresholds in a complex manner for the mouse i.v. PTZ seizure assay. Interestingly, tanshinone IIA is used as a prescription drug in China to address cerebral ischemia in patients. Here, we provide the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that tanshinone IIA has anticonvulsant properties as well. PMID:23937066

  8. Systemic availability of guanidinoacetate affects GABAA receptor function and seizure threshold in GAMT deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schulze, A; Tran, C; Levandovskiy, V; Patel, V; Cortez, M A

    2016-08-01

    Deficiency of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) causes creatine depletion and guanidinoacetate accumulation in brain with the latter deemed to be responsible for the severe seizure disorder seen in affected patients. We studied electrical brain activity and GABAA mediated mechanisms of B6J.Cg-Gamt(tm1Isb) mice. Electrocorticographic (ECoG) monitoring of pharmacological treatments with ornithine (5 % in drinking water for 5-18 days) and/or Picrotoxin (PTX) (a GABAA receptor antagonist) (1.5 mg/kg, I.P.) in Gamt(MUT) and Gamt(WT) groups [n = 3, mean age (SEM) = 6.9 (0.2) weeks]. Mice were fitted with two frontal and two parietal epidural electrodes under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. Baseline and test recordings were performed for determination of seizure activity over a 2 h period. The ECoG baseline of Gamt(MUT) exhibited an abnormal monotonous cortical rhythm (7-8 Hz) with little variability during awake and sleep states compared to wild type recordings. Ornithine treatment and also PTX administration led to a relative normalization of the Gamt(MUT) ECoG phenotype. Gamt(WT) on PTX exhibited electro-behavioral seizures, whereas the Gamt(MUT) did not have PTX induced seizures at the same PTX dose. Gamt(MUT) treated with both ornithine and PTX did not show electro-behavioral seizures while ornithine elevated the PTX seizure threshold of Gamt(MUT) mice even further. These data demonstrate: (1) that there is expression of electrical seizure activity in this Gamt-deficient transgenic mouse strain, and (2) that the systemic availability of guanidinoacetate affects GABAA receptor function and seizure thresholds. These findings are directly and clinically relevant for patients with a creatine-deficiency syndrome due to genetic defects in GAMT and provide a rational basis for a combined ornithine/picrotoxin therapeutic intervention. PMID:26898547

  9. [Seizure].

    PubMed

    Saito, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    Seizure is defined as "a strong shrinkage state of the skeletal muscle which is involuntary, and occurs spasmodically" and it is often accompanied by disturbance of consciousness. The typical disease which causes seizure is epilepsy. But there is many conditions causing seizure. Therefore, diagnosis of epilepsy should be careful. Seizure among eldery increases in an era of an aging population in Japan. The risk of recurrence of seizure or epilepsy in elderly is higher than that in youth. In considering of the treatment of seizure among elderly, differential diagnosis from various condition must be done. PMID:23855204

  10. Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects) Brain tumor (rare) Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children) Head injury Heart ... age. There may be a family history of epilepsy or seizures. If seizures continue repeatedly after the ...

  11. Morphine modulates the effects of histamine H1 and H3 receptors on seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model of mice.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hassanipour, Mahsa; Shirzadian, Armin; Gooshe, Maziar; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-12-15

    Histamine regulates release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and also is involved in several functions in central nervous system (CNS). It has been shown that histamine participates in disorders like seizure. It has been well documented that morphine dose-dependently induces anti or proconvulsant effects. In the current study, we firstly showed that morphine (1mg/kg) exerts anticonvulsant effects which significantly reversed by naltrexone administration. Secondly, we determined seizure threshold for H1 and H3 receptors agonists and antagonists in mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. Our results showed that activation of H1 receptors by 2-(2-Pyridyl)-ethylamine exerts anticonvulsant properties while inhibition of H1 receptors by pyrilamine maleate induced proconvulsant effects. Furthermore, we showed that immepip dihydrobromide, a H3 receptor agonist, increased seizure susceptibility to PTZ whereas thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist increased seizure threshold. We also revealed that pretreatment with morphine potently reversed the effects of histaminergic system on seizure threshold suggesting the involvement of opioid system in alteration of seizure threshold by histaminergic drugs. PMID:26500121

  12. Time-course and dose-response relationships of imperatorin in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure threshold model.

    PubMed

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2007-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of imperatorin (a furanocoumarin isolated from fruits of Angelica archangelica) in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure threshold model. The threshold for electroconvulsions in mice was determined at several times: 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after i.p. administration of imperatorin at increasing doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mg/kg. The evaluation of time-course relationship for imperatorin in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test revealed that the agent produced its maximum antielectroshock action at 30 min after its i.p. administration. In this case, imperatorin at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly raised the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice by 38 and 68% (P<0.05 and P<0.001), respectively. The antiseizure effects produced by imperatorin at 15, 60 and 120 min after its systemic (i.p.) administration were less expressed than those observed for imperatorin injected 30 min before the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test. Based on this study, one can conclude that imperatorin produces the anticonvulsant effect in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:17602770

  13. Magnesium Sulfate Treatment Reverses Seizure Susceptibility and Decreases Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Severe Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Abbie Chapman; Tremble, Sarah M.; Chan, Siu-Lung; Moseley, Janae; LaMarca, Babbette; Nagle, Keith J.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Eclampsia, defined as unexplained seizure in a woman with preeclampsia, is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy with unclear etiology. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the leading eclamptic seizure prophylactic, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized severe preeclampsia is a state of increased seizure susceptibility due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuroinflammation that lowers seizure threshold. Further, MgSO4 decreases seizure susceptibility by protecting the BBB and preventing neuroinflammation. To model severe preeclampsia, placental ischemia (reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure; RUPP) was combined with a high cholesterol diet (HC) to cause maternal endothelial dysfunction. RUPP+HC rats developed symptoms associated with severe preeclampsia, including hypertension, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and fetal and placental growth restriction. Seizure threshold was determined by quantifying the amount of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; mg/kg) required to elicit seizure in RUPP+HC±MgSO4 and compared to normal pregnant controls (n = 6/group; gestational day 20). RUPP+HC rats were more sensitive to PTZ with seizure threshold being ∼65% lower vs. control (12.4±1.7 vs. 36.7±3.9 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05) that was reversed by MgSO4 (45.7±8.7 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05 vs. RUPP+HC). BBB permeability to sodium fluorescein, measured in-vivo (n = 5–7/group), was increased in RUPP+HC vs. control rats, with more tracer passing into the brain (15.9±1.0 vs. 12.2±0.3 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05) and was unaffected by MgSO4 (15.6±1.0 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05 vs. controls). In addition, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of neuroinflammation, indicated by 35±2% of microglia being active compared to 9±2% in normal pregnancy (p<0.01; n = 3–8/group). MgSO4 treatment reversed neuroinflammation, reducing microglial activation to 6±2% (p<0.01 vs. RUPP+HC). Overall, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of augmented seizure

  14. Seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole in the adult zebrafish: a detailed behavioral characterization.

    PubMed

    Mussulini, Ben Hur M; Leite, Carlos E; Zenki, Kamila C; Moro, Luana; Baggio, Suelen; Rico, Eduardo P; Rosemberg, Denis B; Dias, Renato D; Souza, Tadeu M; Calcagnotto, Maria E; Campos, Maria M; Battastini, Ana M; de Oliveira, Diogo L

    2013-01-01

    Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is a common convulsant agent used in animal models to investigate the mechanisms of seizures. Although adult zebrafish have been recently used to study epileptic seizures, a thorough characterization of the PTZ-induced seizures in this animal model is missing. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed temporal behavior profile characterization of PTZ-induced seizure in adult zebrafish. The behavioral profile during 20 min of PTZ immersion (5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mM) was characterized by stages defined as scores: (0) short swim, (1) increased swimming activity and high frequency of opercular movement, (2) erratic movements, (3) circular movements, (4) clonic seizure-like behavior, (5) fall to the bottom of the tank and tonic seizure-like behavior, (6) death. Animals exposed to distinct PTZ concentrations presented different seizure profiles, intensities and latencies to reach all scores. Only animals immersed into 15 mM PTZ showed an increased time to return to the normal behavior (score 0), after exposure. Total mortality rate at 10 and 15 mM were 33% and 50%, respectively. Considering all behavioral parameters, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mM PTZ, induced seizures with low, intermediate, and high severity, respectively. Pretreatment with diazepam (DZP) significantly attenuated seizure severity. Finally, the brain PTZ levels in adult zebrafish immersed into the chemoconvulsant solution at 5 and 10 mM were comparable to those described for the rodent model, with a peak after a 20-min of exposure. The PTZ brain levels observed after 2.5-min PTZ exposure and after 60-min removal from exposure were similar. Altogether, our results showed a detailed temporal behavioral characterization of a PTZ epileptic seizure model in adult zebrafish. These behavioral analyses and the simple method for PTZ quantification could be considered as important tools for future investigations and translational research. PMID:23349914

  15. L-type calcium channel mediates anticonvulsant effect of cannabinoids in acute and chronic murine models of seizure.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Nima; Ahmad-Molaei, Leila; Mazar-Atabaki, Ali; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Shirazi-zand, Zahra; Motiei-Langroudi, Seyed Mehrdad; Eslahkar, Somayeh

    2012-02-01

    The anticonvulsant activities of cannabinoid compounds have been shown in various models of seizure and epilepsy. At least, part of antiseizure effects of cannabinoid compounds is mediated through calcium (Ca(2+)) channels. The L-type Ca(2+) channels have been shown to be important in various epilepsy models. However, there is no data regarding the role of L-type Ca(2+) channels in protective action of cannabinoids on acute and chronic models of seizure. In this study, the effects of cannabinoid compounds and L-type Ca(2+) channels blockers, either alone or in combination were investigated using acute model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice and chronic model electrical kindling of amygdala in rats. Pretreatment of mice with both cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and endocannabinoid degradating enzyme inhibitor cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597) produced a protective effect against PTZ-induced seizure. Administration of various doses of the two L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem did not alter PTZ-induced seizure threshold. However, co-administration of verapamil and either ACEA or URB597 attenuated the protective effect of cannabinoid compounds against PTZ-induced seizure. Also, pretreatment of mice with diltiazem blocked the anticonvulsant activity of both ACEA and URB597. Moreover, (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate (WIN55,212-2), the non-selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist showed anticonvulsant effect in amygdala-kindled rats. However, co-administration of WIN55,212-2 and verapamil attenuated the protective properties of WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the anticonvulsant activity of cannabinoid compounds is mediated, at least in part, by L-type Ca(2+) channels in these two models of convulsion and epilepsy. PMID:21928146

  16. Quantitative genetic study of maximal electroshock seizure threshold in mice: evidence for a major seizure susceptibility locus on distal chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, T N; Golden, G T; Smith, G G; Longman, R L; Snyder, R L; DeMuth, D; Szpilzak, I; Mulholland, N; Eng, E; Lohoff, F W; Buono, R J; Berrettini, W H

    2001-07-01

    We conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study to dissect the multifactorial nature of maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) in C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice. MEST determination involved a standard paradigm in which 8- to 12-week-old mice received one shock per day with a daily incremental increase in electrical current until a maximal seizure (tonic hindlimb extension) was induced. Mean MEST values in parental strains were separated by over five standard deviation units, with D2 mice showing lower values than B6 mice. The distribution of MEST values in B6xD2 F2 intercrossed mice spanned the entire phenotypic range defined by parental strains. Statistical mapping yielded significant evidence for QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, and 15, which together explained over 60% of the phenotypic variance in the model. The chromosome 1 QTL represents a locus of major effect, accounting for about one-third of the genetic variance. Experiments involving a congenic strain (B6.D2-Mtv7(a)/Ty) enabled more precise mapping of the chromosome 1 QTL and indicate that it lies in the genetic interval between markers D1Mit145 and D1Mit17. These results support the hypothesis that the distal portion of chromosome 1 harbors a gene(s) that has a fundamental role in regulating seizure susceptibility. PMID:11472065

  17. Mice with a Targeted Disruption of the Cl−/HCO3− Exchanger AE3 Display a Reduced Seizure Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Hentschke, Moritz; Wiemann, Martin; Hentschke, Suna; Kurth, Ingo; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Jentsch, Thomas J.; Gal, Andreas; Hübner, Christian A.

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal activity results in significant pH shifts in neurons, glia, and interstitial space. Several transport mechanisms are involved in the fine-tuning and regulation of extra- and intracellular pH. The sodium-independent electroneutral anion exchangers (AEs) exchange intracellular bicarbonate for extracellular chloride and thereby lower the intracellular pH. Recently, a significant association was found with the variant Ala867Asp of the anion exchanger AE3, which is predominantly expressed in brain and heart, in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To analyze a possible involvement of AE3 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of seizures, we generated an AE3-knockout mouse model by targeted disruption of Slc4a3. AE3-knockout mice were apparently healthy, and neither displayed gross histological and behavioral abnormalities nor spontaneous seizures or spike wave complexes in electrocorticograms. However, the seizure threshold of AE3-knockout mice exposed to bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, or pilocarpine was reduced, and seizure-induced mortality was significantly increased compared to wild-type littermates. In the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 region, where AE3 is strongly expressed, disruption of AE3 abolished sodium-independent chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that AE3 modulates seizure susceptibility and, therefore, are of significance for understanding the role of intracellular pH in epilepsy. PMID:16354689

  18. Montelukast reduces seizures in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, J.; Temp, F.R.; Marafiga, J.R.; Jesse, A.C.; Milanesi, L.H.; Rambo, L.M.; Mello, C.F.

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated in seizures and kindling; however, the effect of CysLT receptor antagonists on seizure frequency in kindled animals and changes in CysLT receptor expression after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated whether the CysLT1 inverse agonist montelukast, and a classical anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, were able to reduce seizures in PTZ-kindled mice and alter CysLT receptor expression. Montelukast (10 mg/kg, sc) and phenobarbital (20 mg/kg, sc) increased the latency to generalized seizures in kindled mice. Montelukast increased CysLT1 immunoreactivity only in non-kindled, PTZ-challenged mice. Interestingly, PTZ challenge decreased CysLT2 immunoreactivity only in kindled mice. CysLT1 antagonists appear to emerge as a promising adjunctive treatment for refractory seizures. Nevertheless, additional studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical implications of this research. PMID:26909785

  19. Montelukast reduces seizures in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice.

    PubMed

    Fleck, J; Temp, F R; Marafiga, J R; Jesse, A C; Milanesi, L H; Rambo, L M; Mello, C F

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated in seizures and kindling; however, the effect of CysLT receptor antagonists on seizure frequency in kindled animals and changes in CysLT receptor expression after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated whether the CysLT1 inverse agonist montelukast, and a classical anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, were able to reduce seizures in PTZ-kindled mice and alter CysLT receptor expression. Montelukast (10 mg/kg, sc) and phenobarbital (20 mg/kg, sc) increased the latency to generalized seizures in kindled mice. Montelukast increased CysLT1 immunoreactivity only in non-kindled, PTZ-challenged mice. Interestingly, PTZ challenge decreased CysLT2 immunoreactivity only in kindled mice. CysLT1 antagonists appear to emerge as a promising adjunctive treatment for refractory seizures. Nevertheless, additional studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical implications of this research. PMID:26909785

  20. Ameliorating effect of quercetin on acute pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sefil, Fatih; Kahraman, Ibrahim; Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tutuk, Okan; Aydin, Mehmet; Ozkan, Umit; Pinar, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study to elicit effects of pure quercetin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and picrotoxin induced seizures. Materials and methods: Each animal group was divided into six groups and composed of six rats. Rats were assigned to the following experiments and groups (G): (G1) PTZ 45 mg/kg + DMSO; (G2) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg quercetin; (G3) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg quercetin; (G4) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 20 mg/kg quercetin; (G5) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 40 mg/kg quercetin; (G6) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + DMSO; (G7) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg quercetin; (G8) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + 20 mg/kg quercetin. In all groups quercetin were injected 30 min before PTZ and picrotoxin applications. Results: Compared to PTZ, quercetin significantly prolonged onset of the seizure in 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and reduced the seizure stage in 10 mg/kg quercetin injected group (P < 0.01). Compared to PTZ, quercetin also declined the generalized seizure duration at 10 mg/kg (P < 0.01) and 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05) doses. At the doses of 5 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg quercetin there were no significant changes in seizure parameters. Development of picrotoxin induced seizures is slower than in PTZ. Quercetin was found to be unable to prevent seizure in picrotoxin induced seizures. Surprisingly, quercetin also significantly reduced the onset of seizures at the dose of 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Conclusion: quercetin (at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p) prevented seizures in PTZ (45 mg/kg i.p) induced seizures. Especially, 10 mg/kg PTZ prolonged onset of seizures, reduced the seizure duration and seizure severity score in comparison with control group. At a higher (40 mg/kg) dose quercetin failed to prevent PTZ induced seizures. In addition 20 mg/kg quercetin significantly reduced the onset of seizures that suggest a preconvulsive effect. 20 mg/kg quercetin reduced the onset of picrotoxin induced seizures. In picrotoxin model, it may be claimed that quercetin at higher doses accelerate the epileptic activity owing to its

  1. Sex differences in effects of mild chronic stress on seizure risk and GABAA receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Chadda, Ritu; Devaud, Leslie L

    2004-07-01

    Social stress is a common occurrence in our society that can negatively impact health. Therefore, we wanted to study the effects of a mild stressor designed to model social stress on seizure susceptibility and GABAA receptors in male and female rats. The mild chronic stress of individual housing consistently decreased bicuculline (but not pentylenetetrazol, PTZ) seizure thresholds by 10-15% in both sexes. Housing conditions did not alter the anticonvulsant activity of diazepam or ethanol, although the anticonvulsant effect of ethanol was significantly greater against PTZ-induced seizures. Experiments testing the addition of an acute restraint stress unmasked sex differences in seizure induction. The acute stress also selectively decreased the potency of GABA to modulate GABAA receptor-mediated chloride uptake in group-housed females. There were additional sex differences by housing condition for GABAA receptor-gated chloride uptake but no differences in [3H]flunitrazepam binding. We also found significant effects of sex and housing on ethanol-induced increases in corticosterone (CORT) levels. In summary, there were complex and sex-selective effects of mild chronic stress on seizure induction and GABAA receptors. Gaining a better understanding of mechanisms underlying interactions between sex and stress has important implications for addressing health concerns about stress in men and women. PMID:15251258

  2. The effects of Nigella sativa on neural damage after pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Alipour, Fatemeh; Shafieian, Reihaneh; Hassanzadeh, Zahra; Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Nigella sativa (NS) has been suggested to have neuroprotective and anti-seizures properties. The aim of current study was to investigate the effects of NS hydro-alcoholic extract on neural damage after pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) - induced repeated seizures. The rats were divided into five groups: (1) control (saline), (2) PTZ (50 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) PTZ-NS 100, PTZ-NS 200 and PTZ-NS 400 (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of NS extract respectively, 30 min prior to each PTZ injection on 5 consecutive days). The passive avoidance (PA) test was done and the brains were then removed for histological measurements. The PTZ-NS 100, PTZ-NS 200 and PTZ-NS 400 groups had lower seizure scores than PTZ group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). The latency to enter the dark compartment by the animals of PTZ group was lower than control in PA test (P < 0.01). Pre-treatment by 400 mg/kg of the extract increased the latency to enter the dark compartment (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, different doses of the extract inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of hippocampus (P < 0.001). The present study allows us to suggest that the NS possesses a potential ability to prevent hippocampal neural damage which is accompanied with improving effects on memory. PMID:27419091

  3. Conditional Disabled-1 Deletion in Mice Alters Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Reduces Seizure Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Matthew J.; Mandle, Quinton J.; Parent, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    Many animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit altered neurogenesis arising from progenitors within the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ). Aberrant integration of new neurons into the existing circuit is thought to contribute to epileptogenesis. In particular, adult-born neurons that exhibit ectopic migration and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs) are suggested to be pro-epileptogenic. Loss of reelin signaling may contribute to these morphological changes in patients with epilepsy. We previously demonstrated that conditional deletion of the reelin adaptor protein, disabled-1 (Dab1), from postnatal mouse SGZ progenitors generated dentate granule cells (DGCs) with abnormal dendritic development and ectopic placement. To determine whether the early postnatal loss of reelin signaling is epileptogenic, we conditionally deleted Dab1 in neural progenitors and their progeny on postnatal days 7–8 and performed chronic video-EEG recordings 8–10 weeks later. Dab1-deficient mice did not have spontaneous seizures but exhibited interictal epileptiform abnormalities and a significantly reduced latency to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. After chemoconvulsant treatment, over 90% of mice deficient for Dab1 developed generalized motor convulsions with tonic-clonic movements, rearing, and falling compared to <20% of wild-type mice. Recombination efficiency, measured by Cre reporter expression, inversely correlated with time to the first sustained seizure. These pro-epileptogenic changes were associated with decreased neurogenesis and increased numbers of hilar ectopic DGCs. Interestingly, neurons co-expressing the Cre reporter comprised a fraction of these hilar ectopic DGCs cells, suggesting a non-cell autonomous effect for the loss of reelin signaling. We also noted a dispersion of the CA1 pyramidal layer, likely due to hypomorphic effects of the conditional Dab1 allele, but this abnormality did not correlate with seizure susceptibility. These findings suggest

  4. Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Thomas; Rust, Marco B.; Maier, Hannes; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Schweizer, Michaela; Keating, Damien J.; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo; Pfeffer, Carsten; Scheel, Olaf; Lemcke, Beate; Horst, Jürgen; Leuwer, Rudolf; Pape, Hans-Christian; Völkl, Harald; Hübner, Christian A.; Jentsch, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl– concentration. Kcc3–/– mice showed severe motor abnormalities correlating with a progressive neurodegeneration in the peripheral and CNS. Although no spontaneous seizures were observed, Kcc3–/– mice displayed reduced seizure threshold and spike-wave complexes on electrocorticograms. These resembled EEG abnormalities in patients with Anderman syndrome. Kcc3–/– mice also displayed arterial hypertension and a slowly progressive deafness. KCC3 was expressed in many, but not all cells of the inner ear K+ recycling pathway. These cells slowly degenerated, as did sensory hair cells. The present mouse model has revealed important cellular and systemic functions of KCC3 and is highly relevant for Anderman syndrome. PMID:14532115

  5. Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Thomas; Rust, Marco B; Maier, Hannes; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Schweizer, Michaela; Keating, Damien J; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo; Pfeffer, Carsten; Scheel, Olaf; Lemcke, Beate; Horst, Jürgen; Leuwer, Rudolf; Pape, Hans-Christian; Völkl, Harald; Hübner, Christian A; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2003-10-15

    K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration. Kcc3(-/-) mice showed severe motor abnormalities correlating with a progressive neurodegeneration in the peripheral and CNS. Although no spontaneous seizures were observed, Kcc3(-/-) mice displayed reduced seizure threshold and spike-wave complexes on electrocorticograms. These resembled EEG abnormalities in patients with Anderman syndrome. Kcc3(-/-) mice also displayed arterial hypertension and a slowly progressive deafness. KCC3 was expressed in many, but not all cells of the inner ear K(+) recycling pathway. These cells slowly degenerated, as did sensory hair cells. The present mouse model has revealed important cellular and systemic functions of KCC3 and is highly relevant for Anderman syndrome. PMID:14532115

  6. Critical Evaluation of P2X7 Receptor Antagonists in Selected Seizure Models

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Müller, Heiko; Dinkel, Klaus; Lord, Brian; Letavic, Michael A.; Henshall, David C.; Engel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective cation channel which senses high extracellular ATP concentrations and has been suggested as a target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of P2X7R antagonists may therefore be a viable approach for treating CNS pathologies, including epileptic disorders. Recent studies showed anticonvulsant potential of P2X7R antagonists in certain animal models. To extend this work, we tested three CNS-permeable P2X7R blocker (Brilliant Blue G, AFC-5128, JNJ-47965567) and a natural compound derivative (tanshinone IIA sulfonate) in four well-characterized animal seizure models. In the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test and the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure threshold test in mice, none of the four compounds demonstrated anticonvulsant effects when given alone. Notably, in combination with carbamazepine, both AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 increased the threshold in the maximal electroshock seizure test. In the PTZ-kindling model in rats, useful for testing antiepileptogenic activities, Brilliant Blue G and tanshinone exhibited a moderate retarding effect, whereas the potent P2X7R blocker AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 showed a significant and long-lasting delay in kindling development. In fully kindled rats, the investigated compounds revealed modest effects to reduce the mean seizure stage. Furthermore, AFC-5128- and JNJ-47965567-treated animals displayed strongly reduced Iba 1 and GFAP immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA3 region. In summary, our results show that P2X7R antagonists possess no remarkable anticonvulsant effects in the used acute screening tests, but can attenuate chemically-induced kindling. Further studies would be of interest to support the concept that P2X7R signalling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders. PMID:27281030

  7. Duration of treatment and activation of α1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Jovana; Timić, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V; Batinić, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Milić, Marija; Joksimović, Srđan; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2014-05-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at α1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator βCCt (5mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of βCCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at α1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type. PMID:24695241

  8. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  9. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    PubMed

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  10. Effects of the non-NMDA antagonists NBQX and the 2,3-benzodiazepine GYKI 52466 on different seizure types in mice: comparison with diazepam and interactions with flumazenil.

    PubMed Central

    Löscher, W; Hönack, D

    1994-01-01

    1. GYKI 52466 is a benzodiazepine derivative that has muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties thought to be mediated by highly selective, noncompetitive antagonism of non-NMDA receptors. However, recent electrophysiological data showed that, in addition to non-NMDA receptors, the GABAA-receptor associated benzodiazepine site is involved in the depressant effect of GYKI 52466 on spinal reflex transmission. In view of the structural similarities between the 2,3 benzodiazepine derivative GYKI 52466 and 1,4-benzodiazepines such as diazepam, the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptor complex could also be involved in the anticonvulsant activity of GYKI 52466, which has not yet been proven. This prompted us to study the effect of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, flumazenil, on anticonvulsant and adverse effects of GYKI 52466 in different seizure models in mice. The non-NMDA antagonist, NBQX and diazepam were used for comparison. 2. Seizure threshold models for different types of generalized seizures were used. The threshold for maximal (tonic) electroshock seizures (MES) was significantly increased by GYKI 52466 (10-20 mg kg-1), NBQX (80-120 mg kg-1) and diazepam (5 mg kg-1) shortly after i.p. drug administration. The same dose-range of the non-NMDA antagonists also significantly increased the threshold for myoclonic and clonic seizures induced by i.v. infusion of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), although the magnitude of threshold increases obtained with the respective drugs, differed, at least in part, from that seen in the MES experiments. GYKI 52466 was clearly less potent in increasing PTZ thresholds for myoclonic and clonic seizures than on the MES threshold, while NBQX exerted about the same potency in both models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889291

  11. ACT-Vision: active collaborative tracking for multiple PTZ cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broaddus, Christopher; Germano, Thomas; Vandervalk, Nicholas; Divakaran, Ajay; Wu, Shunguang; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2009-04-01

    We describe a novel scalable approach for the management of a large number of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras deployed outdoors for persistent tracking of humans and vehicles, without resorting to the large fields of view of associated static cameras. Our system, Active Collaborative Tracking - Vision (ACT-Vision), is essentially a real-time operating system that can control hundreds of PTZ cameras to ensure uninterrupted tracking of target objects while maintaining image quality and coverage of all targets using a minimal number of sensors. The system ensures the visibility of targets between PTZ cameras by using criteria such as distance from sensor and occlusion.

  12. Root extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum ameliorates seizures, seizure-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Monika; Mehla, Jogender; Reeta, K H; Joshi, Sujata; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2012-02-01

    In Ayurveda, Anacyclus pyrethrum has been used as a brain tonic. The present study evaluates the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. pyrethrum (HEAP) root against seizures, seizure-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in experimental models of seizures. Male Wistar rats were used in the study. HEAP was administered in doses of 50, 100, 250, 500 in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model and 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in maximal electroshock (MES) model. Myoclonic jerk latency and generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) were noted in PTZ whereas occurrence of tonic hind limb extension (THLE) was observed in MES seizures. Cognitive deficit was assessed using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. Whole brain reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde levels and cholinesterase activity were measured. HEAP showed 50, 66.7, 83.3 and 100% protection at 50,100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively against GTCS in PTZ induced seizures. In MES induced seizures, HEAP produced 16.7, 33.3 and 50% protection against THLE at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. HEAP administration significantly prevented seizure induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in a dose-dependent manner. HEAP also normalized the decrease in cholinesterase activity caused by seizures. Thus, HEAP showed protective effect against seizures, seizure-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in rats. PMID:21993359

  13. The protective effects of endothelin-A receptor antagonist BQ-123 in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, H; Ekici, F; Katar, M; Kesici, H; Aslan, H

    2014-10-01

    Endothelin-1 has been shown to increase neuronal activity and glutaminergic synaptic transmission by endothelin-A receptors (ETAR) in the nucleus tractus solitarius neurons that play an important role in epileptic seizures. Therefore, BQ-123 as an ETAR antagonist might attenuate neuronal excitability and glutaminergic synaptic transmission. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of acute BQ-123 treatment against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced tonic-clonic seizures. Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control, PTZ, and PTZ + BQ-123 groups. BQ-123 (3 mg/kg, intravenously) was administered for 15 min before injecting with PTZ (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). We determined a delay resulting from BQ-123 in "duration of the seizure onset." "Number of rats with major seizure" also decreased according to scoring with video camera in PTZ + BQ-123 group. In BQ-123-treated group, there were eight rats without a major seizure, but only one rat had a delayed major seizure. The brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly decreased in the PTZ and PTZ + BQ-123 groups. According to the results of the control group, there was a significant increase in the protein carbonyl levels of the PTZ group and a significant increase in the nitric oxide levels of the PTZ + BQ-123 group. Histological examination showed an increase in the number of neuronal hyperchromatic nucleus especially in hippocampal gyrus dentatus region of BQ-123-treated group. We concluded that BQ-123 impeded the formation and spread of seizure to a great degree. The beneficial effects of BQ-123 were comparatively supported with biochemical parameters and histological examinations. PMID:24449761

  14. A Missense Mutation of the Gene Encoding Synaptic Vesicle Glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) Confers Seizure Susceptibility by Disrupting Amygdalar Synaptic GABA Release.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Kentaro; Okumura, Takahiro; Terada, Ryo; Shimizu, Saki; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Mashimo, Tomoji; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is specifically expressed in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of SV2A in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders, we recently generated a novel rat model (Sv2a(L174Q) rat) carrying a missense mutation of the Sv2a gene and showed that the Sv2a(L174Q) rats were hypersensitive to kindling development (Tokudome et al., 2016). Here, we further conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seizure vulnerability in Sv2a(L174Q) rats. Sv2a(L174Q) rats were highly susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, yielding a significantly higher seizure scores and seizure incidence than the control animals. Brain mapping analysis of Fos expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that the seizure threshold level of PTZ region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the amygdala in Sv2a(L174Q) rats. In vivo microdialysis study showed that the Sv2a(L174Q) mutation preferentially reduced high K(+) (depolarization)-evoked GABA release, but not glutamate release, in the amygdala. In addition, specific control of GABA release by SV2A was supported by its predominant expression in GABAergic neurons, which were co-stained with antibodies against SV2A and glutamate decarboxylase 1. The present results suggest that dysfunction of SV2A by the missense mutation elevates seizure susceptibility in rats by preferentially disrupting synaptic GABA release in the amygdala, illustrating the crucial role of amygdalar SV2A-GABAergic system in epileptogenesis. PMID:27471467

  15. A Missense Mutation of the Gene Encoding Synaptic Vesicle Glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) Confers Seizure Susceptibility by Disrupting Amygdalar Synaptic GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Tokudome, Kentaro; Okumura, Takahiro; Terada, Ryo; Shimizu, Saki; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Mashimo, Tomoji; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is specifically expressed in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of SV2A in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders, we recently generated a novel rat model (Sv2aL174Q rat) carrying a missense mutation of the Sv2a gene and showed that the Sv2aL174Q rats were hypersensitive to kindling development (Tokudome et al., 2016). Here, we further conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seizure vulnerability in Sv2aL174Q rats. Sv2aL174Q rats were highly susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, yielding a significantly higher seizure scores and seizure incidence than the control animals. Brain mapping analysis of Fos expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that the seizure threshold level of PTZ region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the amygdala in Sv2aL174Q rats. In vivo microdialysis study showed that the Sv2aL174Q mutation preferentially reduced high K+ (depolarization)-evoked GABA release, but not glutamate release, in the amygdala. In addition, specific control of GABA release by SV2A was supported by its predominant expression in GABAergic neurons, which were co-stained with antibodies against SV2A and glutamate decarboxylase 1. The present results suggest that dysfunction of SV2A by the missense mutation elevates seizure susceptibility in rats by preferentially disrupting synaptic GABA release in the amygdala, illustrating the crucial role of amygdalar SV2A-GABAergic system in epileptogenesis. PMID:27471467

  16. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property.

  17. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property. PMID:27540346

  18. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prolonged seizures are a risk factor for epilepsy but most children who experience febrile seizures do ... develop the reoccurring seizures that re characteristic of epilepsy. Certain children who have febrile seizures face an ...

  19. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... febrile seizure does not mean a child has epilepsy, since that disorder is characterized by reoccurring seizures ... outcome but carry an increased risk of developing epilepsy. How common are febrile seizures? Febrile seizures are ...

  20. Absence seizure

    MedlinePlus

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  1. Absence seizure

    MedlinePlus

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  2. Fluvoxamine alleviates seizure activity and downregulates hippocampal GAP-43 expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice: role of 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Momen W; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy has been documented to lead to many changes in the nervous system including cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. Neuronal loss and aberrant neuroplastic changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus have been identified in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. Antiseizure activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been reported in several studies. In the current study, the protective effect of fluvoxamine against PTZ-kindling was investigated in terms of seizure scores, neuronal loss, and regulation of hippocampal neuroplasticity. Further, the role of 5-HT3 receptors was determined. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg) thrice weekly, for a total of 13 injections. One hundred male albino mice were allocated into 10 groups: (1) saline, (2) PTZ, (3) diazepam (1 mg/kg)+PTZ, (4-6) fluvoxamine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg)+PTZ, (7) ondansetron+fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg)+PTZ, (8) ondansetron+PTZ group, (9) ondansetron (2 mg/kg, i.p.)+saline, and (10) fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg)+saline. PTZ-kindled mice showed high seizure activity, hippocampal neuronal loss, and expression of growth-associated phosphoprotein (GAP-43) compared with saline-treated mice. Repeated administration of fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg) in PTZ-kindled mice suppressed seizure scores, protected against hippocampal neuronal loss, and downregulated GAP-43 expression, without producing any signs of the 5-HT syndrome in healthy rats. Importantly, pretreatment with a selective 5-HT3 receptor blocker (ondansetron) attenuated the aforementioned effects of fluvoxamine. In conclusion, the ameliorating effect of fluvoxamine on hippocampal neurons and neuroplasticity in PTZ-kindled mice was, at least in part, dependent on enhancement of hippocampal serotoninergic transmission at 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:25590967

  3. Reduced susceptibility to induced seizures in the Neuroligin-3(R451C) mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Hill-Yardin, Elisa L; Argyropoulos, Andrew; Hosie, Suzanne; Rind, Gil; Anderson, Paul; Hannan, Anthony J; O'Brien, Terence J

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy is a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and several gene mutations are associated with both of these disorders. In order to determine whether a point mutation in the gene for the synaptic protein, Neuroligin-3 (Nlgn3, R451C), identified in patients with ASD alters seizure susceptibility, we administered the proconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) to adult male Neuroligin-3(R451C) (NL3(R451C)) and wild type (WT) mice. It has previously been reported that NL3(R451C) mice show altered inhibitory GABAergic activity in brain regions relevant to epilepsy, including the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex. PTZ administration induces absence-seizures at low dose, and generalised convulsive seizures at higher dose. Susceptibility to absence seizures was examined by analysing the frequency and duration of spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) events and accompanying motor seizure activity induced by subcutaneous administration of low dosage (20 or 30mg/kg) PTZ. Susceptibility to generalised convulsive seizures was tested by measuring the response to high dosage (60mg/kg) PTZ using a modified Racine scale. There was no change in the number of SWD events exhibited by NL3(R451C) compared to WT mice following administration of both 20mg/kg PTZ (1.17±0.31 compared to 16.0±11.16 events/30min, NL3(R451C) versus WT, respectively) and 30mg/kg PTZ (7.5±6.54 compared with 27.8±19.9 events/30min, NL3(R451C) versus WT, respectively). NL3(R451C) mice were seizure resistant to generalised convulsive seizures induced by high dose PTZ compared to WT littermates (median latency to first >3s duration clonic seizure; 14.5min versus 7.25min, 95% CI: 1.625-2.375, p=0.0009, NL3(R451C) versus WT, respectively). These results indicate that the R451C mutation in the Nlgn3 gene, associated with ASD in humans, confers resistance to induced seizures, suggesting dysfunction of PTZ-sensitive GABAergic signalling in this mouse model of ASD. PMID:25592157

  4. Capparis ovata modulates brain oxidative toxicity and epileptic seizures in pentylentetrazol-induced epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Akay, Mehmet Berk; Çelik, Ömer; Yıldırım, Muhammed İkbal; Balcı, Erdinç; Yürekli, Vedat Ali

    2013-04-01

    It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress products play an important role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Capparis ovata (C. ovata) may useful treatment of epilepsy because it contains antioxidant flavonoids. The current study was designed to determine the effects of C. ovata on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant levels and electroencephalography (EEG) records in pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. First group was used as control although second group was PTZ group. Oral 100 and 200 mg/kg C. ovata were given to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 7 days before PTZ administration. Second, third and forth groups received 60 mg/kg PTZ for induction of epilepsy. Three hours after administration of PTZ, EEG records, brain cortex and blood samples were taken all groups. The lipid peroxidation levels of the brain cortex, number of spikes and epileptiform discharges of EEG were higher in PTZ group than in control and C. ovata group whereas they were decreased by C. ovata administration. Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations of brain cortex and latency to first spike of EEG were decreased by the PTZ administration although the brain cortex and plasma vitamin concentrations, and brain cortex and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were increased in PTZ + 100 and PTZ + 200 mg C. ovata groups. In conclusion, C. ovata administration caused protection against the PTZ-induced brain oxidative toxicity by inhibiting free radical and epileptic seizures, and supporting antioxidant redox system. PMID:23389657

  5. Febrile seizures

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management, Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures. Febrile seizures: clinical practice guideline for the long-term management of the child with simple febrile seizures. Pediatrics . 2008; ...

  6. Mild overexpression of Mecp2 in mice causes a higher susceptibility toward seizures.

    PubMed

    Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Tantra, Martesa; Mollajew, Rustam; Arunachalam, Jayamuruga P; Laccone, Franco A; Can, Karolina; Rosenberger, Albert; Mironov, Sergej L; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Mannan, Ashraf U

    2013-07-01

    An intriguing finding about the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is that the loss-of-function mutations cause Rett syndrome and duplication (gain-of-function) of MECP2 leads to another neurological disorder termed MECP2 duplication syndrome. To ensure proper neurodevelopment, a precise regulation of MeCP2 expression is critical, and any gain or loss of MeCP2 over a narrow threshold level may lead to postnatal neurological impairment. To evaluate MeCP2 dosage effects, we generated Mecp2(WT_EGFP) transgenic (TG) mouse in which MeCP2 (endogenous plus TG) is mildly overexpressed (approximately 1.5×). The TG MeCP2(WT_EGFP) fusion protein is functionally active, as cross breeding of these mice with Mecp2 knockout mice led to alleviation of major phenotypes in the null mutant mice, including premature lethality. To characterize the Mecp2(WT_EGFP) mouse model, we performed an extensive battery of behavioral tests, which revealed that these mice manifest increased aggressiveness and higher pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure propensity. Evaluation of neuronal parameters revealed a reduction in the number of tertiary branching sites and increased spine density in Mecp2(WT_EGFP) transgenic (TG) neurons. Treatment of TG neurons with epileptogenic compound-PTZ led to a marked increase in amplitude and frequency of calcium spikes. Based on our ex vivo and in vivo data, we conclude that epileptic seizures are manifested as the first symptom when MeCP2 is mildly overexpressed in mice. PMID:23684790

  7. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice

    PubMed Central

    ARASH, Akaberi; MOHAMMAD, Mohammad-Zadeh; JAMAL, Mirmoosavi Seyed; MOHAMMAD, Tazari Ali; AZAM, Abarashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill) leaves was studied for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy, by using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. The evaluated plant has a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, additionally, dill has been claimed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Methods: For the PTZ kindling induction, mice were given a dose of PTZ (37 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) every other day, and seizure stages were precisely recorded. During and after kindling, the effects of the non-toxic doses of the aqueous extracts (100, 250, and 400 mg/kg) on seizure latency in stage 2 (S2L), seizure latency in stage 4 (S4L), and seizure duration in stage 5 (S5D) were measured. Results: The aqueous extract of dill leaves had a noticeable anticonvulsant effect. The 400 mg/kg dose of the extract sample decreased with S5D (P < 0.05), and increased with S2L and S4L significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The obtained data shows that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity against seizure induced by PTZ. The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in this medicinal herb suggests further activity and guided fractionation studies in order to introduce this plant as a valuable source of anticonvulsant agents. PMID:24643194

  8. Post-Traumatic Seizures Exacerbate Histopathological Damage after Fluid-Percussion Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying-hui; Bramlett, Helen M.; Atkins, Coleen M.; Truettner, Jessie S.; Lotocki, George; Alonso, Ofelia F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an induced period of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) on the histopathological damage caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were given a moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (1.9–2.1 atm) or sham surgery. At 2 weeks after surgery, seizures were induced by administration of a GABAA receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 30 mg/kg). Seizures were then assessed over a 1-h period using the Racine clinical rating scale. To evaluate whether TBI-induced pathology was exacerbated by the seizures, contusion volume and cortical and hippocampal CA3 neuronal cell loss were measured 3 days after seizures. Nearly all TBI rats showed clinical signs of PTE following the decrease in inhibitory activity. In contrast, clinically evident seizures were not observed in TBI rats given saline or sham-operated rats given PTZ. Contusions in TBI-PTZ-treated rats were significantly increased compared to the TBI-saline-treated group (p < 0.001). In addition, the TBI-PTZ rats showed less NeuN-immunoreactive cells within the ipsilateral parietal cerebral cortex (p < 0.05) and there was a trend for decreased hippocampal CA3 neurons in TBI-PTZ rats compared with TBI-saline or sham-operated rats. These results demonstrate that an induced period of post-traumatic seizures significantly exacerbates the structural damage caused by TBI. These findings emphasize the need to control seizures after TBI to limit even further damage to the injured brain. PMID:20836615

  9. Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures are associated with Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity decrease and alpha subunit phosphorylation state in the mice cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Marquezan, Bárbara P; Funck, Vinícius R; Oliveira, Clarissa V; Pereira, Letícia M; Araújo, Stífani M; Zarzecki, Micheli S; Royes, Luiz Fernando F; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro S

    2013-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state of the catalytic α subunit are altered by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. PTZ (30, 45 or 60 g/kg, i.p.) was administered to adult male Swiss mice, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and phosphorylation state were measured in the cerebral cortex 15 min after PTZ administration. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity significantly decreased after PTZ-induced seizures (60 mg/kg). Immunoreactivity of phosphorylated Ser943 at α subunit was increased after PTZ-induced seizures. A significant positive correlation between Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and latency to myoclonic jerks and generalized seizures was found. Conversely, a strong negative correlation between Ser943 phosphorylation and latency to generalized seizures was detected. Given the role of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a major regulator of brain excitability, Ser943 at Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α subunit may represent a potentially valuable new target for drug development for seizure disorders. PMID:23602551

  10. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-01-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ∼13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R2 = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  11. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-11-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2) = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  12. Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2012-06-01

    Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

  13. Thymoquinone and vitamin C attenuates pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures via activation of GABAB1 receptor in adult rats cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ikram; Badshah, Haroon; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that leads to neuronal excitability and provoke various forms of cellular reorganization in the brain. In this study, we investigate the anti-convulsant and neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and vitamin C against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized seizures. Epileptic seizures were induced in adult rats using systemic intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (50 mg/kg) for 7 days. Animals pretreated with either TQ or vitamin C or in combination attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and mortality in rats as well neurodegeneration in the cells. Compared to PTZ, TQ and vitamin C significantly prolonged the onset of seizures (p > 0.05) as well decrease the high-grade seizures. Analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings revealed that TQ or vitamin C supplementation significantly reduced polyspike and epileptiform discharges. Epileptic seizures caused a decline in expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid B1 receptor (GABAB1R) (p > 0.05), unchanged expression of protein kinase A (PKA), decreased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) (p > 0.05) and inhibit the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (p > 0.05) in cortex and hippocampus, respectively, compared with control. Changes in expression of GABAB1R, CaMKII and CREB by PTZ were reversed by TQ and vitamin C supplementation. Moreover, PTZ significantly increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2 expression and finally the activation of caspase-3. TQ and vitamin C pretreatment reversed all these deleterious effects induced by PTZ. TQ and vitamin C showed anticonvulsant effects via activation of GABAB1R/CaMKII/CREB pathway and suggest a potential therapeutic role in epilepsy. PMID:25429759

  14. [Ecstatic seizures].

    PubMed

    Likhachev, S A; Astapenko, A V; Osos, E L; Zmachynskaya, O L; Gvishch, T G

    2015-01-01

    Ecstatic seizures is a rare manifestation of epilepsy. They were described for the first time by F.M. Dostoevsky. Currently, the description of ecstatic seizures is possible to find in the scientific literature. The description of the own observation of a patient with emotional-affective seizures is presented. A role of the anterior insular cortex in the ecstatic seizures origin is discussed. The similarities between the feelings reported during ecstatic seizures and the feelings experienced under the effect of stimulant addictive drugs are described. The possible reasons of the low frequency of emotional-affective seizures are considered. PMID:26356170

  15. Naloxane enhanced inhibitory effect of verapamil on seizure induced by pentylenetetrazol in male rats.

    PubMed

    Palizvan, M R; Ghaznavi-Rad, E

    2014-01-01

    The role of opioid receptor and voltage dependent calcium channels on the kindling induced by the convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) were investigated in the rats. Experiment involved 24 rats which were divided into four groups. Kindling was established with PTZ in subconvulsive dose (37.5 mg/kg i.p.) every 48 h and effects were observed within 20 min using five-point scoring system. All animals were kindled to three consecutive-stage five seizures and their stability was tested. Saline, verapamil (calcium channel blocker), naloxone (opioid antagonist) or both of them were then administrated 20 min before PTZ application. Convulsant parameters were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by verapamil. Naloxone had no significant effect on the seizure expression of fully kindled animals, whereas simultaneous application of naloxone and verapamil had profound inhibitory effect on all seizure parameters. The results of the present study suggest that naloxane increased the inhibitory effect of verapamil on the seizure induced by PTZ kindling. PMID:25657801

  16. Naloxane enhanced inhibitory effect of verapamil on seizure induced by pentylenetetrazol in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Palizvan, M.R.; Ghaznavi-Rad, E.

    2014-01-01

    The role of opioid receptor and voltage dependent calcium channels on the kindling induced by the convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) were investigated in the rats. Experiment involved 24 rats which were divided into four groups. Kindling was established with PTZ in subconvulsive dose (37.5 mg/kg i.p.) every 48 h and effects were observed within 20 min using five-point scoring system. All animals were kindled to three consecutive-stage five seizures and their stability was tested. Saline, verapamil (calcium channel blocker), naloxone (opioid antagonist) or both of them were then administrated 20 min before PTZ application. Convulsant parameters were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by verapamil. Naloxone had no significant effect on the seizure expression of fully kindled animals, whereas simultaneous application of naloxone and verapamil had profound inhibitory effect on all seizure parameters. The results of the present study suggest that naloxane increased the inhibitory effect of verapamil on the seizure induced by PTZ kindling PMID:25657801

  17. Febrile seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000980.htm Febrile seizures To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A febrile seizure is a convulsion in a child triggered by ...

  18. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE) before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Results: The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010–P < 0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010). Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities. PMID:26056549

  19. Hypnopompic seizures.

    PubMed

    Awad, Amer M; Lüders, Hans O

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between epilepsy and sleep is complex and bidirectional. Ictal awakening is probably a common and well-described phenomenon. In this small observational study we describe arousal from sleep as the only, or at least main, manifestation of some epileptic seizures. We coin the term "hypnopompic seizures" to describe this entity. Five patients with intractable epilepsy were monitored by continuous video-electroencephalogram. Four of them had left temporal lobe epilepsy and one patient had generalised epilepsy. Hypnopompic seizures accounted for 30-100% of their seizure types captured during monitoring. All the seizures occurred during stage II sleep and were brief. Hypnopompic seizures are extremely subtle and may be underdiagnosed and underreported. Future larger studies are needed to shed some light on this unique entity and its neuropathophysiology. Epileptologists should be aware of this type of seizure and careful review of electroencephalograms during the transition from sleep to arousal is imperative to capture these seizures. Physicians, patients and families also need to be aware of such a subtle manifestation of seizures. Improved awareness of hypnopompic seizures and subtle seizures, in general, help guide accurate and early diagnosis, thorough monitoring and appropriate management. PMID:21030341

  20. Effect of age and anticonvulsants on seizure threshold during bilateral electroconvulsive therapy with brief-pulse stimulus: A chart-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitturkar, Abhishek R.; Sinha, Preeti; Bagewadi, Virupakshappa I.; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficacy and adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) depend on the extent to which the electrical stimulus exceeds patients' seizure thresholds (STs). Titration method of estimating ST is recommended. Age and co-prescribed anticonvulsants (ACs) are known to affect ST. Literature on ST in bilateral ECT (BLECT) is sparse. Objective: To explore the clinical and demographic determinants of ST in a clinically representative sample of patients prescribed with BLECT. Materials and Methods: ECT records of 640 patients who received BLECT in 2011 in an academic psychiatric setting were studied. Demographic, clinical, pharmacological, and ECT details were analyzed. As per the standard practice, during the 1st ECT session, ST was determined by titration method, starting with 30 milli-Coulombs (mC) and increasing by 30 mC and thence in steps of 60 mC. Increase in ST over up to 6th session of ECT was noted. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find age cut-off with high specificity for ST ≥120 mC. The associations of ST and increase in ST with the age cut-off and other clinical factors were assessed using Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 30.98 years (+11.23 years) and mean ST at 1st ECT session was 130.36 mC (+51.96 mC). There was significantly high positive correlation (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) between age and ST. Cut-off age of 45 years had high specificity: Only 4.6% of those older than 45 years had ST <120 mC. Higher proportion of patients on AC had ST ≥120 mC. These associations were seen even after controlling for potential confounds of each other using logistic regression analysis. The results were similar for increase in ST over the course of ECT. Sex, diagnosis, use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, lithium, and benzodiazepines (BZPs) had no effect on ST or its increase. Conclusions: For BLECT using brief-pulse stimulus, ST depends on age and use of AC. For patients above the age of 45

  1. The role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on seizure

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazmand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Faizpour, Azadeh; Ghasemabady, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures. Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidate the possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation. Results: Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p<0.05-p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model. PMID:25068139

  2. Effect of magnesium sulfate on hyperthermia and pentylen-tetrazol-induced seizure in developing rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimkhani, Maryam; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Mohammdi, Sedra; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events among children. Its prevalence has been estimated to be 2-5% in children between 3 months and 5 years old. Also, blood and CSF magnesium levels have been demonstrated to be reduced in children with FS. This study investigates the effect of MgSo4 pretreatment on the behaviors caused by hyperthermia (HT) and effect of these two on pentylen-tetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure later in life. Materials and Methods: Thirty two Wistar rats were assigned to 2 groups: saline-hyperthermia-pentylentetrazol (SHP) and magnesium-hyperthermia-pentylentetrazol (MHP). In both groups, HT was induced at the age of 18-19 days old. Before the HT, MHP group received MgSo4 and SHP group received normal saline intraperitoneally (IP). Behaviors of the rats were recorded during the HT. Then, in half of each group (n=8) at the age of 25-26 days old and in other half at the age of 78-79 days, seizure was induced by PTZ. Results: The HT successfully caused convulsive behaviors in the rats and pretreatment with MgSo4 before HT attenuated HT-induced convulsive behaviors. PTZ-induced seizures a week later was more severe than those of 2 months later. Conclusion: It can be concluded that pretreatment with MgSO4 inhibits HT-induced seizure and, in a long run, this intervention reduced PTZ-induced seizure later in life. PMID:27482341

  3. Integration of multispectral face recognition and multi-PTZ camera automated surveillance for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chung-Hao; Yao, Yi; Chang, Hong; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi

    2013-06-01

    Due to increasing security concerns, a complete security system should consist of two major components, a computer-based face-recognition system and a real-time automated video surveillance system. A computerbased face-recognition system can be used in gate access control for identity authentication. In recent studies, multispectral imaging and fusion of multispectral narrow-band images in the visible spectrum have been employed and proven to enhance the recognition performance over conventional broad-band images, especially when the illumination changes. Thus, we present an automated method that specifies the optimal spectral ranges under the given illumination. Experimental results verify the consistent performance of our algorithm via the observation that an identical set of spectral band images is selected under all tested conditions. Our discovery can be practically used for a new customized sensor design associated with given illuminations for an improved face recognition performance over conventional broad-band images. In addition, once a person is authorized to enter a restricted area, we still need to continuously monitor his/her activities for the sake of security. Because pantilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras are capable of covering a panoramic area and maintaining high resolution imagery for real-time behavior understanding, researches in automated surveillance systems with multiple PTZ cameras have become increasingly important. Most existing algorithms require the prior knowledge of intrinsic parameters of the PTZ camera to infer the relative positioning and orientation among multiple PTZ cameras. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel mapping algorithm that derives the relative positioning and orientation between two PTZ cameras based on a unified polynomial model. This reduces the dependence on the knowledge of intrinsic parameters of PTZ camera and relative positions. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm presents substantially

  4. Cognitive performance and convulsion risk after experimentally-induced febrile-seizures in rat.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Ebrahim; Abdeen, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair; Alsaffar, Yousif; Mandeel, Mohammad; Al Shawaaf, Fatima; Al-Ansari, Sali; Kamal, Amer

    2014-05-01

    Many reports indicated that small percentage of children with febrile seizures develop epilepsy and cognitive disorders later in adulthood. In addition, the neuronal network of the hippocampus was reported to be deranged in adult animals after being exposed to hyperthermia-induced seizures in their neonatal life. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) latency and probability of seizures, (2) spatial learning and memory, in adult rats after neonatal hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures (FS). Prolonged FS were elicited in 10-day old, male Sprague Dawleys (n=11/group) by exposure to heated air (48-52 °C) for 30 min; control rats were exposed to 30 °C air. After 1.5 months the animal's cognitive performance was assessed by 5 day trial in the Morris water maze. In another experiment the latency and probability of seizures were measured in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injections (increased doses ranged from 7 to 140 mg/kg; i.p.). In water maze, both groups showed improvements in escape latency and distance swam to reach the platform; effects were significantly greater in control versus hyperthermia-treated animals on days 3 and 4. Latency and probability of PTZ-induced seizures were shorter and higher respectively, in hyperthermia-treated animals compared to controls. We concluded that FS in neonatal rats leads to enhanced susceptibility for seizures, as well as cognitive deficits in adults. PMID:24433986

  5. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seizure - grand mal; Grand mal seizure; Seizure - generalized; Epilepsy - generalized seizure ... occur as part of a repeated, chronic illness (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).

  6. Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT) antagonists decrease pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Q F; Arroyo, D S; Temp, F R; Poersch, A B; Masson, C J; Jesse, A C; Marafiga, J R; Reschke, C R; Iribarren, P; Mello, C F

    2014-09-26

    Current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures. In line with this view, selected pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid derivatives have been reported to facilitate seizures. Kainate-induced seizures are accompanied by leukotriene formation, and are reduced by inhibitors of LOX/COX pathway. Moreover, LTD4 receptor blockade and LTD4 synthesis inhibition suppress pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling and pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures. Although there is convincing evidence supporting that blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction facilitates seizures, no study has investigated whether the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast is associated with its ability to maintain BBB integrity. In this study we investigated whether montelukast and other CysLT receptor antagonists decrease PTZ-induced seizures, as well as whether these antagonists preserve BBB during PTZ-induced seizures. Adult male albino Swiss mice were stereotaxically implanted with a cannula into the right lateral ventricle, and two electrodes were placed over the parietal cortex along with a ground lead positioned over the nasal sinus for electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The effects of montelukast (0.03 or 0.3 μmol/1 μL, i.c.v.), pranlukast (1 or 3 μmol/1 μL, i.c.v.), Bay u-9773 (0.3, 3 or 30 nmol/1 μL, i.c.v.), in the presence or absence of the agonist LTD4 (0.2, 2, 6 or 20 pmol/1 μL, i.c.v.), on PTZ (1.8 μmol/2 μL)-induced seizures and BBB permeability disruption were determined. The animals were injected with the antagonists, agonist or vehicle 30 min before PTZ, and monitored for additional 30 min for the appearance of seizures by electrographic and behavioral methods. BBB permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein method and by confocal microscopy for CD45 and IgG immunoreactivity. Bay-u9973 (3 and 30 nmol), montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 μmol) and pranlukast (1 and 3 μmol), increased the latency to generalized seizures and decreased the

  7. Wnt/β-catenin signaling mediates the seizure-facilitating effect of postischemic reactive astrocytes after pentylenetetrazole-kindling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialei; Zhang, Xiufen; Wu, Yin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Xunyuan; Pan, Yuanhang; Liu, Yonghong; Ding, Yuqiang; Qiu, Mengsheng; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Zhao, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Ischemia not only leads to tissue damage, but also induces seizures, which in turn worsens the outcome of ischemia. Recent studies have revealed the impaired homeostatic functions of reactive astrocytes, which were thought to facilitate the development of seizures. However, how this phenotype of reactive astrocytes is regulated remains unclear. Here, using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling model, we investigated the roles of reactive astrocytes and their intracellular Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the ischemia-increased seizure susceptibility. Our data showed that somatosensory cortical ischemia significantly increased the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure. Genetic ablation of Nestin-positive reactive astrocytes significantly decreased the incidence and severity of seizures. By using a Wnt signaling reporter mice line Topgal mice, we found that Wnt/β-catenin signaling was upregulated in reactive astrocytes after ischemia. Depletion of β-catenin in reactive astrocytes significantly decreased the susceptibility of seizures and the expression of c-Fos induced by PTZ in the ischemic cortex. Overexpression of β-catenin in reactive astrocytes, in contrast, significantly increased seizure susceptibility and the expression of c-Fos. Furthermore, the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) and inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 4.1 (Kir4.1), two molecules reportedly associated with seizure development, was oppositely affected in reactive astrocytes with β-catenin depletion or overexpression. Taken together, these data indicated that astrocytic Wnt/β-catenin signaling accounts, at least partially, for the ischemia-increased seizure susceptibility. Inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling may be utilized in the future for preventing postischemic seizures. GLIA 2016;64:1083-1091. PMID:27003605

  8. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 67. ...

  9. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  10. Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Cleide Correia; de Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos; Grigoletto, Jéssica; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Funck, Vinícius Rafael; Grauncke, Ana Cláudia Beck; de Souza, Thaíze Lopes; Souto, Naieli Schiefelbein; Furian, Ana Flávia; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that plant-derived extracts and their isolated components are useful for treatment of seizures and, hence, constitute a valuable source of new antiepileptic drugs with improved efficacy and better adverse effect profile. β-Caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that occurs in a wide range of plant species and displays a number of biological actions, including neuroprotective activity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that β-caryophyllene displays anticonvulsant effects. In addition, we investigated the effect of β-caryophyllene on behavioral parameters and on seizure-induced oxidative stress. Adult C57BL/6 mice received increasing doses of β-caryophyllene (0, 10, 30, or 100mg/kg). After 60 min, we measured the latencies to myoclonic and generalized seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 60 mg/kg). We found that β-caryophyllene increased the latency to myoclonic jerks induced by PTZ. This result was confirmed by electroencephalographic analysis. In a separate set of experiments, we found that mice treated with an anticonvulsant dose of β-caryophyllene (100mg/kg) displayed an improved recognition index in the object recognition test. This effect was not accompanied by behavioral changes in the open-field, rotarod, or forced swim tests. Administration of an anticonvulsant dose of β-caryophyllene (100mg/kg) did not prevent PTZ-induced oxidative stress (i.e., increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances or the decrease in nonprotein thiols content). Altogether, the present data suggest that β-caryophyllene displays anticonvulsant activity against seizures induced by PTZ in mice. Since no adverse effects were observed in the same dose range of the anticonvulsant effect, β-caryophyllene should be further evaluated in future development of new anticonvulsant drugs. PMID:26827298

  11. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates hyperthermia-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Baik-Lin; Abraham, Jayne; Mlsna, Lauren; Kim, Min Jung; Koh, Sookyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged febrile seizures (FS) have both acute and long-lasting effects on the developing brain. Because FS are often associated with peripheral infection, we aimed to develop a preclinical model of FS that simulates fever and immune activation in order to facilitate the implementation of targeted therapy after prolonged FS in young children. Methods The innate immune activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to postnatal day 14 rat (200 μg/kg) and mouse (100 μg/kg) pups 2–2.5 h prior to hyperthermic seizures (HT) induced by hair dryer or heat lamp. To determine whether simulation of infection enhances neuronal excitability, latency to seizure onset, threshold temperature and total number of seizures were quantified. Behavioral seizures were correlated with electroencephalographic changes in rat pups. Seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was assessed in blood samples at various time points after HT. Seizure-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus was quantified using Cx3cr1GFP/+ mice. Results Lipopolysaccharide priming increased susceptibility of rats and mice to hyperthemic seizures and enhanced seizure-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and microglial activation. Conclusions Peripheral inflammation appears to work synergistically with hyperthermia to potentiate seizures and to exacerbate seizure-induced immune responses. By simulating fever, a regulated increase in body temperature from an immune challenge, we developed a more clinically relevant animal model of prolonged FS. PMID:26357586

  12. Controlling Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

  13. Calibration of a dual-PTZ camera system for stereo vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a calibration process for the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of dual-PTZ camera systems. The calibration is based on a complete definition of six coordinate systems fixed at the image planes, and the pan and tilt rotation axes of the cameras. Misalignments between estimated and ideal coordinates of image corners are formed into cost values to be solved by the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization method. Experimental results show that the system is able to obtain 3D coordinates of objects with a consistent accuracy of 1 mm when the distance between the dual-PTZ camera set and the objects are from 0.9 to 1.1 meters.

  14. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

  15. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance the protective effect of levetiracetam against seizures, cognitive impairment and hippocampal oxidative DNA damage in young kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Basel A; Shaikh, Ibrahim A; Khateeb, Masood M; Habeeb, Shafiuddin M

    2015-08-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a unique, effective, relatively safe antiepileptic drug that preferentially interacts with synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A). This study aimed to explore the effect of combined treatment of LEV with omega 3 (OM3) on cognitive impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by seizures in the PTZ-kindled young rat model. Cognitive functions, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and DNA damage were assessed in PTZ-kindled young rats pretreated with single and combined treatment of LEV (30mg/kg, i.p.) and OM3 (200mg/kg, p.o.). Pretreatment with LEV and OM3 at the tested doses significantly attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and decreased cognitive impairment in both passive avoidance and elevated plus maze tests in the PTZ-kindled rats. Moreover, the increase in hippocampal glutamate, malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, as well as the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and GSH-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities induced by PTZ kindling, significantly decreased. These effects were higher with combined treatment of LEV with OM3 and significantly more than the observed effects of single LEV or OM3. In conclusion, the combined treatment of LEV with OM3 is more effective in seizure control and alleviating the cognitive impairment induced by PTZ kindling in the young rat model, the effects that result from the decrease in hippocampal oxidative stress and DNA damage which can be attributed to the antioxidant properties of both LEV and OM3. These results may be promising for the use of LEV and OM3 combination in the treatment of epileptic children. PMID:26044965

  16. The Effects of Stoichiometry on the Optical Properties of PTZ-TCNQ Charge Transfer Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Iris; Joshi, Jaydeep; Smith, Robert; Melis, Scott; van Keuren, Edward; Vora, Patrick

    Charge transfer (CT) crystals are two-component organic materials formed by stacked pairs of donor and acceptor molecules. Depending on the choice of donor and acceptor molecules it is possible to achieve semiconducting, insulating, or metallic characteristics, making the CT crystal platform potentially transformative for applications in low-cost flexible electronics. The use of phenothiazine (PTZ) donors and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) acceptors is predicted to result in a semiconducting state with high electron and hole mobilities, properties that are ideal for ambipolar transistors. Here, we seek to understand the effect of stoichiometry on the optical and electronic properties of PTZ:TCNQ CT crystals by comparing nanowires with 1:1 stoichiometry to a novel 3:1 stoichiometry using temperature-dependent optical spectroscopy. Ensemble photoluminescence and absorption measurements indicate that a CT state forms in the 1:1 sample, whereas the 3:1 sample exhibits weaker coupling between TCNQ and PTZ. These results support a strong correlation between stoichiometry and optical properties. Our observations give important insight into how the intermolecular coupling varies with stoichiometry and are crucial to future efforts to realize an organic ambipolar transistor.

  17. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Karami, Reza; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1) vehicle, (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg), (3) water fraction (WF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), (4) n-butanol fraction (NBF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), and (5) ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg). Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p<0.01). In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p<0.001). Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in the brain tissues (p<0.05). Pretreatment with WF and NBF significantly elevated thiol concentrations in cortical and hippocampal tissues, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects. PMID:27222836

  18. Simultaneous electroencephalographic recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging during pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in rat.

    PubMed

    Van Camp, Nadja; D'Hooge, Rudi; Verhoye, Marleen; Peeters, Ron R; De Deyn, Peter P; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2003-07-01

    Truly simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were registered in curarized rats injected with convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 65 mg/kg, sc). Rigorous control of physiological parameters like body temperature and ventilation with control of blood gasses helped to avoid potential interference between systemic parameters, and central PTZ-induced blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI recordings demonstrated progressive epileptiform EEG discharges with concomitant BOLD changes, the latter gradually affecting most of the fore- and midbrain. Approximately 15 min after PTZ injection, the first BOLD contrast changes mainly occurred in neocortex, and coincided with the first minor EEG alterations. Most regions that displayed BOLD changes were regions with reportedly high GABA(A) receptor densities. Full-blown epileptiform discharges occurred on the EEG tracing, approximately 30 min after PTZ injection, and coincided with bilateral positive and/or negative BOLD contrast changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Behavioral observations demonstrated the first of several generalized clonic or clonic-tonic seizure episodes to occur also around this time. Approximately 90 min after injection, the electrographic paroxysms gradually decreased in amplitude and duration, whereas the BOLD signal changes still extended with alternating positive and negative traces, and spread to subcortical regions like caudate-putamen and globus pallidus. PMID:12880793

  19. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seizures that cause a loss of consciousness and violent, jerking movements, called grand mal seizures , are especially ... of seizure that causes loss of consciousness and violent, jerking movements. Intrauterine Device: A small device that ...

  20. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  1. Triheptanoin in acute mouse seizure models.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nicola K; Willis, Sarah; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2012-05-01

    Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is used to treat certain hereditary metabolic diseases in USA because of its anaplerotic potential. In two chronic mouse seizure models this clear tasteless oil was found to be reproducibly anticonvulsant. Here we investigated the effects of triheptanoin feeding in C3H and CD1 mice using standard acute seizure models. Feeding 30-40% triheptanoin (caloric intake) consistently elevated blood propionyl-carnitines, but inconsistent anticonvulsant effects were observed in the fluorothyl, pentylenetetrazole and 6Hz seizure models. A 2mA consistent increase in the maximal electroshock threshold was found after 3 weeks of 35% triheptanoin feeding (p=0.018). In summary, triheptanoin shows a unique anticonvulsant profile in seizure models, compared to other treatments that are in the clinic. Therefore, despite small and/or inconsistent effects of triheptanoin in acute seizure models, triheptanoin remains of interest as a potential add-on treatment for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. PMID:22260920

  2. Beta Lactams Antibiotic Ceftriaxone Modulates Seizures, Oxidative Stress and Connexin 43 Expression in Hippocampus of Pentylenetetrazole Kindled Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Abdelaziz M.; Ghalwash, Mohammed; Magdy, Khaled; Abulseoud, Osama A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ceftriaxone on oxidative stress and gap junction protein (connexin 43, Cx-43) expression in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model. Methods: Twenty four Sprague dawely rats were divided into 3 equal groups (a) normal group: normal rats. (b) PTZ kindled group: received PTZ at the dose of 50 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) every other day for 2 weeks (c) ceftriaxone treated group: received ceftriaxone at the dose 200 mg\\kg/12 hrs via i.p. injection daily from the 6th dose of PTZ for 3 days. Racine score, latency before beginning the first myoclonic jerk and duration of the jerks used as parameters of behavioral assessment. Immunohistopathological study for Cx-43 expression in hippocampus and measurement of markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], low reduced glutathione [GSH] and catalase [CAT]) in hippocampal neurons were done. Results: PTZ kindling was associated with behavioral changes (in the form high stage of Racine score, long seizure duration and short latency for the first jerk), enhanced oxidative stress state (as demonstrated by high MDA, low GSH and CAT) and up regulation of Cx43 in hippocampal regions. While, ceftriaxone treatment ameliorated, significantly, PTZ-induced convulsions and caused significant improvement in oxidative stress markers and Cx-43 expression in hippocamal regions (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings support the anticonvulsive effects of some beta-lactams antibiotics which could offer a possible contributor in the basic treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. This effect might be due to reduction of oxidative stress and Cx43 expression. PMID:27390674

  3. In-depth performance analysis of an EEG based neonatal seizure detection algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mathieson, S.; Rennie, J.; Livingstone, V.; Temko, A.; Low, E.; Pressler, R.M.; Boylan, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel neurophysiology based performance analysis of automated seizure detection algorithms for neonatal EEG to characterize features of detected and non-detected seizures and causes of false detections to identify areas for algorithmic improvement. Methods EEGs of 20 term neonates were recorded (10 seizure, 10 non-seizure). Seizures were annotated by an expert and characterized using a novel set of 10 criteria. ANSeR seizure detection algorithm (SDA) seizure annotations were compared to the expert to derive detected and non-detected seizures at three SDA sensitivity thresholds. Differences in seizure characteristics between groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analysis. False detections were characterized. Results The expert detected 421 seizures. The SDA at thresholds 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 detected 60%, 54% and 45% of seizures. At all thresholds, multivariate analyses demonstrated that the odds of detecting seizure increased with 4 criteria: seizure amplitude, duration, rhythmicity and number of EEG channels involved at seizure peak. Major causes of false detections included respiration and sweat artefacts or a highly rhythmic background, often during intermediate sleep. Conclusion This rigorous analysis allows estimation of how key seizure features are exploited by SDAs. Significance This study resulted in a beta version of ANSeR with significantly improved performance. PMID:27072097

  4. Interaction of prenatal stress and morphine alters prolactin and seizure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30 min. In the morphine/saline group, pregnant rats received morphine (10, 12 and 15 mg/kg, IP, on GD17, GD18 and GD19, respectively) or saline (1 ml, IP). In the morphine/saline-stressed group, the rats received morphine or saline and then exposed to stress. On postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 and P15), blood samples were obtained and PBL was determined. At P15 and P25, the rest of the pups was injected with PTZ to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were observed individually. Latency of first convulsion decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increased in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15 (P=0.04). Number of tonic-clonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to control-saline group at P15 (P=0.02). PBL increased in stressed-saline, control-morphine and stress-morphine groups compared to control-saline rats. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure of rats to forced-swim stress and morphine changed their susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure and PBL during infancy and prepubertal period. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on epileptic behaviors. PMID:26056076

  5. Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Methods: Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Results: Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure. PMID:23825891

  6. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced Seizures and Brain GABA Levels in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garbhapu, Asuntha; Yalavarthi, Prasannaraju; Koganti, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Indigofera tinctoria Linn. of Fabaceae family is claimed to be useful to control epileptic seizures in the Indian system of folkore medicine. This study was designed to evaluate tinctoria and to verify the claim. Materials and Methods Seizures were induced in male albino rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The test group animals were administered ethanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (EEIT) orally. The time of onset and duration of clonic convulsions were recorded. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) were induced in animals. The duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was recorded. GABA levels and GABA transaminase activity in brain were estimated. Results In PTZ model, EEIT significantly (P< 0.01, P< 0.001) delayed the onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of seizures in a dose dependent manner. A significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the duration of HLTE at higher doses of EEIT was observed in MES model. Increase in brain GABA levels was observed on treatment with EEIT at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, suggested that the plant may be acting by facilitating GABAergic transmission. A significant reduction (P< 0.05) in the activity of brain GABA transaminase was observed at higher doses. No neurotoxic signs were observed with rotarod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of tinctoria was found to be useful to control and treat the variety of seizures. PMID:23493444

  7. Seizure Termination by Acidosis Depends on ASIC1a

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Adam E.; Schnizler, Mikael K.; Albert, Gregory W.; Severson, Meryl A.; Howard, Matthew A.; Welsh, Michael J.; Wemmie, John A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Most seizures stop spontaneously. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Earlier observations that seizures reduce brain pH and that acidosis inhibits seizures indicated that acidosis halts epileptic activity. Because acid–sensing ion channel–1a (ASIC1a) shows exquisite sensitivity to extracellular pH and regulates neuron excitability, we hypothesized that acidosis might activate ASIC1a to terminate seizures. Disrupting mouse ASIC1a increased the severity of chemoconvulsant–induced seizures, whereas overexpressing ASIC1a had the opposite effect. ASIC1a did not affect seizure threshold or onset, but shortened seizure duration and prevented progression. CO2 inhalation, long known to lower brain pH and inhibit seizures, also required ASIC1a to interrupt tonic–clonic seizures. Acidosis activated inhibitory interneurons through ASIC1a, suggesting that ASIC1a might limit seizures by increasing inhibitory tone. These findings identify ASIC1a as a key element in seizure termination when brain pH falls. The results suggest a molecular mechanism for how the brain stops seizures and suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:18536711

  8. Neonatal seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol or kainic acid disrupt primary cilia growth on developing mouse cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alexander K; Le, Megan M; Smith, Tyler S; Hoang-Minh, Lan B; Atkinson, Eric W; Ugartemendia, George; Semple-Rowland, Susan; Coleman, Jason E; Sarkisian, Matthew R

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal or early-life seizures (ELS) are often associated with life-long neurophysiological, cognitive and behavioral deficits, but the underlying mechanisms contributing to these deficits remain poorly understood. Newborn, post-migratory cortical neurons sprout ciliary buds (procilia) that mature into primary cilia. Disruption of the growth or signaling capabilities of these cilia has been linked to atypical neurite outgrowth from neurons and abnormalities in neuronal circuitry. Here, we tested the hypothesis that generalized seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or kainic acid (KA) during early postnatal development impair neuronal and/or glial ciliogenesis. Mice received PTZ (50 or 100mg/kg), KA (2mg/kg), or saline either once at birth (P0), or once daily from P0 to P4. Using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, the cilia of neurons and glia were examined at P7, P14, and P42. A total of 83 regions were analyzed, representing 13 unique neocortical and hippocampal regions. Neuronal cilia were identified by co-expression of NeuN and type 3 adenylyl cyclase (ACIII) or somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3), while glial cilia were identified by co-expression of GFAP, Arl13b, and gamma-tubulin. We found that PTZ exposure at either P0 or from P0 to P4 induced convulsive behavior, followed by acute and lasting effects on neuronal cilia lengths that varied depending on the cortical region, PTZ dose, injection frequency, and time post-PTZ. Both increases and decreases in neuronal cilia length were observed. No changes in the length of glial cilia were observed under any of the test conditions. Lastly, we found that a single KA seizure at P0 led to similar abnormalities in neuronal cilia lengths. Our results suggest that seizure(s) occurring during early stages of cortical development induce persistent and widespread changes in neuronal cilia length. Given the impact neuronal cilia have on neuronal differentiation, ELS-induced changes in ciliogenesis may

  9. Huperzine A prophylaxis against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats is associated with increased cortical inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gersner, R; Ekstein, D; Dhamne, S C; Schachter, S C; Rotenberg, A

    2015-11-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally occurring compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata. While HupA is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, its full pharmacologic profile is incompletely described. Since previous works suggested a capacity for HupA to prophylax against seizures, we tested the HupA antiepileptic potential in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat epilepsy model and explored its mechanism of action by spectral EEG analysis and by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS), a measure of GABA-mediated intracortical inhibition. We tested whether HupA suppresses seizures in the rat PTZ acute seizure model, and quantified latency to first myoclonus and to generalized tonic-clonic seizure, and spike frequency on EEG. Additionally, we measured power in the EEG gamma frequency band which is associated with GABAergic cortical interneuron activation. Then, as a step toward further examining the HupA antiepileptic mechanism of action, we tested long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) using ppTMS coupled with electromyography to assess whether HupA augments GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential. We also tested whether the HupA effect on paired-pulse inhibition was central or peripheral by comparison of outcomes following administration of HupA or the peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine. We also tested whether the HupA effect was dependent on central muscarinic or GABAA receptors by co-administration of HupA and atropine or PTZ, respectively. In tests of antiepileptic potential, HupA suppressed seizures and epileptic spikes on EEG. Spectral EEG analysis also revealed enhanced gamma frequency band power with HupA treatment. By ppTMS we found that HupA increases intracortical inhibition and blocks PTZ-induced cortical excitation. Atropine co-administration with HupA did not alter HupA-induced intracortical inhibition suggesting independent of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mechanism in this model

  10. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. PMID:26836107

  11. Contrasting effects of Na+, K+-ATPase activation on seizure activity in acute versus chronic models.

    PubMed

    Funck, V R; Ribeiro, L R; Pereira, L M; de Oliveira, C V; Grigoletto, J; Della-Pace, I D; Fighera, M R; Royes, L F F; Furian, A F; Larrick, J W; Oliveira, M S

    2015-07-01

    Epilepsy is a life-shortening brain disorder affecting approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Most epilepsy patients are refractory to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity and probing for new AEDs is fundamental to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Brain Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. Accordingly, a decrease of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase increases neuronal excitability and may predispose to appearing of seizure activity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity with a specific antibody (DRRSAb) raised against a regulatory site in the α subunit would decrease seizure susceptibility. We found that incubation of hippocampal homogenates with DRRSAb (1 μM) increased total and α1 Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. A higher concentration (3 μM) increased total, α1 and α2/α3 Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. Intrahippocampal injection of DRRSAb decreased the susceptibility of post status epilepticus animals to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced myoclonic seizures. In contrast, administration of DRRSAb into the hippocampus of naïve animals facilitated the appearance of PTZ-induced seizures. Quantitative analysis of hippocampal electroencephalography (EEG) recordings revealed that DRRSAb increased the percentage of total power contributed by the delta frequency band (0-3 Hz) to a large irregular amplitude pattern of hippocampal EEG. On the other hand, we found no DRRSAb-induced changes regarding the theta functional state. Further studies are necessary to define the potential of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activation as a new therapeutic approach for seizure disorders. PMID:25907445

  12. Novel Vitamin K analogues suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Jennifer J.; Bestman, Jennifer E.; Josey, Benjamin J.; Inks, Elizabeth S.; Stackley, Krista D.; Rogers, Carolyn E.; Chou, C. James; Chan, Sherine S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world’s population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit HDACs using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, NQN1, significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of VPA. We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogues. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6 Hz) and corneal kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogues for prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production. PMID:24291671

  13. Plic-1, a new target in repressing epileptic seizure by regulation of GABAAR function in patients and a rat model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujiao; Li, Zengyou; Gu, Juan; Zhang, Yanke; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-12-01

    Dysfunction of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors (GABAARs) is a prominent factor affecting intractable epilepsy. Plic-1, an ubiquitin-like protein enriched in the inhibitory synapses connecting GABAARs and the ubiquitin protease system (UPS), plays a key role in the modification of GABAAR functions. However, the relationship between Plic-1 and epileptogenesis is not known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate Plic-1 levels in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, as well as the role of Plic-1 in regulating onset and progression of epilepsy in animal models. We found that Plic-1 expression was significantly decreased in patients with epilepsy as well as pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced rat epileptic models. Intrahippocampal injection of the PePα peptide, which disrupts Plic-1 binding to GABAARs, significantly shortened the latency of seizure onset, and increased the seizure severity and duration in these two epileptic models. Overexpressed Plic-1 through lentivirus transfection into a PTZ model resulted in a reduction in both seizure severity and generalized tonic-clonic seizure duration. Whole-cell clamp recordings revealed that the PePα peptide decreased miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) whereas overexpressed Plic-1 increased mIPSCs in the pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. These effects can be blocked by picrotoxin, a GABAAR inhibitor. Our results indicate that Plic-1 plays an important role in managing epileptic seizures by enhancing seizure inhibition through regulation of GABAARs at synaptic sites. PMID:26415648

  14. Search and Seizure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kenneth T.

    This paper examines the practice of search and seizure from a legal perspective. All issues concerning lawful or unlawful search and seizure, whether in a public school or otherwise, are predicated upon the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The terms "search,""seizure,""probable cause,""reasonable suspicion," and "exclusionary…

  15. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Anethum Graveolens Seed on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Arghavan; Salehi, Peyman; Saadat, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regarding chronic nature of epilepsy and its side effects and to access the effective treatment procedures, herbal medicine has received remarkable interest. The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -induced seizure in male mice. Methods Fifty-six albino male mice were divided randomly into seven groups including the negative control (saline), positive control (Phenobarbital) and treatment groups using different doses of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (50, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg). To provoke convulsion, PTZ was injected to all groups and initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures as well as surveillance after 24 h were measured. Results The results indicated that hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (AGS) delayed the initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with saline group. The latency was considerable for myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures at all above mentioned doses of AGS extract except for the lowest one. Moreover, the protective effect of AGS extract against mortality was statistically significant at all doses except for 50 mg/kg. Discussion As the hydro-alcoholic extract of AGS showed an appropriate response in experimental model of convulsion, it might be considered as an adjuvant therapy with other traditional antiepileptic medications. PMID:25337380

  16. Seizure facilitating activity of the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Younus, Iyan; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2016-03-01

    Contraceptive management is critical in women with epilepsy. Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are widely used by many women with epilepsy, little is known about their impact on epileptic seizures and epileptogenesis. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is the primary component of OC pills. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effect of EE on epileptogenesis and kindled seizures in female mice using the hippocampus kindling model. Animals were stimulated daily with or without EE until generalized stage 5 seizures were elicited. EE treatment significantly accelerated the rate of epileptogenesis. In acute studies, EE caused a significant decrease in the afterdischarge threshold and increased the incidence and severity of seizures in fully-kindled mice. In chronic studies, EE treatment caused a greater susceptibility to kindled seizures. Collectively, these results are consistent with moderate proconvulsant-like activity of EE. Such excitatory effects may affect seizure risk in women with epilepsy taking OC pills. PMID:26874323

  17. Role of Adenosine Signaling on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Siebel, Anna Maria; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Schaefer, Isabel da Costa; Frantz, Juliana Zanetti; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine is a well-known endogenous modulator of neuronal excitability with anticonvulsant properties. Thus, the modulation exerted by adenosine might be an effective tool to control seizures. In this study, we investigated the effects of drugs that are able to modulate adenosinergic signaling on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. The adenosine A1 receptor agonist cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) increased the latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure stage. Both the adenosine A2A receptor agonist and antagonist, CGS 21680 and ZM 241385, respectively, did not promote changes in seizure parameters. Pretreatment with the ecto-5′nucleotidase inhibitor adenosine 5′-(α,β-methylene) diphosphate (AMPCP) decreased the latency to the onset of the tonic-clonic seizure stage. However, when pretreated with the adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (EHNA), or with the nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitors, dipyridamole and S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI), animals showed longer latency to reach the tonic-clonic seizure status. Finally, our molecular analysis of the c-fos gene expression corroborates these behavioral results. Our findings indicate that the activation of adenosine A1 receptors is an important mechanism to control the development of seizures in zebrafish. Furthermore, the actions of ecto-5′-nucleotidase, ADA, and NTs are directly involved in the control of extracellular adenosine levels and have an important role in the development of seizure episodes in zebrafish. PMID:25560904

  18. A positioning system for forest diseases and pests based on GIS and PTZ camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Wang, L. L.; Zhao, F. F.; Wang, C. B.

    2014-03-01

    Forest diseases and pests cause enormous economic losses and ecological damage every year in China. To prevent and control forest diseases and pests, the key is to get accurate information timely. In order to improve monitoring coverage rate and economize on manpower, a cooperative investigation model for forest diseases and pests is put forward. It is composed of video positioning system and manual labor reconnaissance with mobile GIS embedded in PDA. Video system is used to scan the disaster area, and is particularly effective on where trees are withered. Forest diseases prevention and control workers can check disaster area with PDA system. To support this investigation model, we developed a positioning algorithm and a positioning system. The positioning algorithm is based on DEM and PTZ camera. Moreover, the algorithm accuracy is validated. The software consists of 3D GIS subsystem, 2D GIS subsystem, video control subsystem and disaster positioning subsystem. 3D GIS subsystem makes positioning visual, and practically easy to operate. 2D GIS subsystem can output disaster thematic map. Video control subsystem can change Pan/Tilt/Zoom of a digital camera remotely, to focus on the suspected area. Disaster positioning subsystem implements the positioning algorithm. It is proved that the positioning system can observe forest diseases and pests in practical application for forest departments.

  19. [Seizures in newborn infant].

    PubMed

    Eskola, Vesa; Jäntti, Ville; Eriksson, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Seizures in newborn infants are common. The may constitute a neurologic emergency or a nonepileptic, harmless symptom. Diagnostics is becoming more specific with current methodologies. Detailed description of seizures and their connection with EEG abnormalities are the diagnostic cornerstones. The treatment has made slow progress, but newer antiepileptic drugs may aid in the treatment of epileptic seizures in newborn infants in the future. For the time being, evidence-based research results for them are lacking, as well as data on long-term effects. Differential diagnosis of seizures has become increasingly important. PMID:21188877

  20. Comparative profiles of sodium valproate and ethosuximide on electro-behavioural correlates in gamma-hydroxybutyrate and pentylenetetrazol induced absence seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, S; David, J; Joseph, T

    2000-10-01

    Sodium valproate (VPA) and ethosuximide (ESM) were compared on behavioural and EEG changes in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat models of Absence Seizures (AS). Both GHB, 100 mg/kg i.p. and PTZ, 20 mg/kg i.p., produced repetitive episodes of staring and immobility with concomitant 6 to 9 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG. The parameters used for drug evaluation were the number and duration of SWDs/hour. Though the number of SWDs/hour produced by GHB and PTZ were not significantly different, the duration of SWDs was significantly longer in GHB treated rats (P < 0.001) VPA and ESM, at 200 mg/kg i.p., reduced SWD number and duration in GHB pretreated rats, whereas ESM, 50 mg/kg i.p., was four times more effective than VPA, 200 mg/kg i.p., in the PTZ model. Phenytoin (PHY) 20 and Carbamazepine (CBZ) 10 mg/kg i.p., worsened AS, a feature which has also been reported clinically. Both rat models of experimental AS can be used to defect potential anti-absence activity in new chemical entities. PMID:11214495

  1. Brain redox imaging in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Miho C; Yamato, Mayumi; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2015-11-01

    Much evidence supports the idea that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, and therapeutic interventions with antioxidants are expected as adjunct antiepileptic therapy. The aims of this study were to non-invasively obtain spatially resolved redox data from control and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindled mouse brains by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and to visualize the brain regions that are sensitive to oxidative damage. After infusion of the redox-sensitive imaging probe 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (MCP), a series of EPR images of PTZ-induced mouse heads were measured. Based on the pharmacokinetics of the reduction reaction of MCP in the mouse heads, the pixel-based rate constant of its reduction reaction was calculated as an index of redox status in vivo and mapped as a redox map. The obtained redox map showed heterogeneity in the redox status in PTZ-induced mouse brains compared with control. The co-registered image of the redox map and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both control and PTZ-induced mice showed a clear change in the redox status around the hippocampus after PTZ. To examine the role of antioxidants on the brain redox status, the levels of antioxidants were measured in brain tissues of control and PTZ-induced mice. Significantly lower concentrations of glutathione in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice were detected compared with control. From the results of both EPR imaging and the biochemical assay, the hippocampus was found to be susceptible to oxidative damage in the PTZ-induced animal model of epilepsy. PMID:26453762

  2. Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alica M.

    2006-01-01

    The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…

  3. Intrinsic neural circuits between dorsal midbrain neurons that control fear-induced responses and seizure activity and nuclei of the pain inhibitory system elaborating postictal antinociceptive processes: a functional neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato L; Ferreira, Célio M R; Ribeiro, Sandro J; Carvalho, Andressa D; Elias-Filho, Daoud H; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2005-02-01

    The blockade of GABA-mediated Cl(-) influx with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was used in the present work to induce seizures in Rattus norvegicus. The aim of this work was to study the involvement of monoamines in the antinociception induced by convulsions elicited by peripheral administration of PTZ (64 mg/kg). The analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test in seven or eight Wistar rats per group. Convulsions were followed by statistically significant increase in the tail-flick latencies (TFL), at least for 120 min of the postictal period. Peripheral administration of methysergide (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the TFL in seizing animals, as compared to controls, in all postictal periods studied. These findings were corroborated by the pretreatment with ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A/2C)-serotonergic/alpha(1)-noradrenergic receptors antagonist, at the same doses. Peripheral administration of yohimbine (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg), alpha(2)-noradrenergic antagonist, also decreased the postictal analgesia either at initial or more terminal periods of the postictal analgesia. These data were corroborated with peripheral administrations of propranolol, a beta-noradrenergic receptor blocker that caused a decrease in the postictal analgesia consistently in later stages (after the first 20-min post-tonic-clonic convulsive reactions) of the post-seizure analgesia, except for the highest dose. These results indicate that monoamines may be involved in the postictal analgesia. The blockade of 5-HT(2A/2C)-serotoninergic, alpha(1)-noradrenergic, or alpha(2)-noradrenergic receptors before tonic clonic seizure-induced analgesia antagonized the increase in the nociceptive threshold caused by seizures in initial steps of the temporal antinociceptive curve, as compared to the blockade of beta-noradrenergic ones. These findings suggest that the recruitment of alpha-noradrenergic receptor and serotonergic receptors was made immediately after convulsions and in other

  4. Metallothionein expression in the rat brain following KA and PTZ treatment.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Manjarrez, Joaquín; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Flores-Espinosa, Pilar; Heras-Romero, Yesica; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela

    2015-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that has been associated with oxidative stress therefore epilepsy models have been develop such as kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol are usually used to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. We examined the metallothionein expression in rat brains of treated with kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol. Increase in metallothionein and nitrotirosyne immunoreactivity of both seizures epilepsy models was observed. Moreover, we show a significant increase on levels of MT expression. These results suggest that the increase of metallothionein expression is related with kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol treatments as response to damage mediated by oxidative stress. PMID:26318565

  5. Improving Early Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the search for a method able to reliably predict seizures hours in advance has been largely replaced by a more realistic goal of very early detection of seizure onset which would allow therapeutic or warning devices to be triggered prior to the onset of disabling clinical symptoms. We explore in this article the steps along the pathway from data acquisition to closed loop applications that can and should be considered to design the most efficient early seizure detection. Microelectrodes, high-frequency oscillations, high sampling rate, high-density arrays, and modern analysis techniques are all elements of the recording and detection process that in combination with modeling studies can provide new insights into the dynamics of seizure onsets. Each of these step needs to be considered if one wants to implement improved detection devices that will favorably impact the quality of life of patients. PMID:22078518

  6. Fibromyalgia and seizures.

    PubMed

    Tatum, William O; Langston, Michael E; Acton, Emily K

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this case-matched study was to determine how frequently fibromyalgia is associated with different paroxysmal neurological disorders and explore the utility of fibromyalgia as a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The billing diagnosis codes of 1,730 new, non-selected patient encounters were reviewed over a three-year period for an epileptologist in a neurology clinic to identify all patients with historical diagnoses of fibromyalgia. The frequency with which epileptic seizures, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and physiological non-epileptic events were comorbid with fibromyalgia was assessed. Age and gender case-matched controls were used for a between-group comparison. Wilcoxon tests were used to analyse interval data, and Chi-square was used to analyse categorical data (p<0.05). Fibromyalgia was retrospectively identified in 95/1,730 (5.5%) patients in this cohort. Females represented 95% of the fibromyalgia sample (age: 53 years; 95% CI: 57, 51). Forty-three percent of those with fibromyalgia had a non-paroxysmal, neurological primary clinical diagnosis, most commonly chronic pain. Paroxysmal events were present in 57% of fibromyalgia patients and 54% of case-matched controls. Among patients with fibromyalgia and paroxysmal disorders, 11% had epileptic seizures, 74% had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and 15% had physiological non-epileptic events, compared to case-matched controls with 37% epileptic seizures, 51% psychogenic non-epileptic events, and 12% physiological non-epileptic events (p = 0.009). Fibromyalgia was shown to be a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in patients with undifferentiated paroxysmal spells. However, our results suggest that the specificity and sensitivity of fibromyalgia as a marker for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in a mixed general neurological population of patients is less than previously described. PMID:27238051

  7. Reflex operculoinsular seizures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Handsun; Tran, Thi Phuoc Yen; Pétrin, Myriam; Boucher, Olivier; Mohamed, Ismail; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2016-03-01

    Activation of specific cortical territories by certain stimuli is known to trigger focal seizures. We report three cases of well documented operculo-insular reflex seizures, triggered by somatosensory stimuli in two and loud noises in the third. Limited operculoinsular resection resulted in an excellent outcome for all. We discuss these observations in regard to the literature on reflex epilepsy and known functions of the insula. [Published with video sequences online]. PMID:26892245

  8. Report of Seizure Following Intraoperative Monitoring of Transcranial Motor Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Scott F.; Altstadt, Thomas; Flores, Rick; Kaye, Alan; Oremus, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcranial motor evoked potentials are used to detect iatrogenic injury to the corticospinal tracts and vascular territory of the anterior spinal artery. Tongue and lip lacerations are the most common complication of this modality. Theoretical complications include cardiac arrhythmia and seizure although there are no published reports of either. Case Report We report a case of postoperative seizure following motor evoked potential testing in a patient without a seizure history. Although anecdotal reports exist, ours is the first known published report of seizure following transcranial electrical stimulation. Conclusion The intent of this novel report is to encourage the use of anesthetic regimens that raise seizure threshold, decrease stimulation threshold, and increase the specificity of motor evoked potentials. Providers should be prepared to treat intraoperative or perioperative seizure activity when the monitoring protocol includes transcranial motor evoked potentials. PMID:24358008

  9. Seizures in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Born, H A

    2015-02-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk for late-onset seizures and neuronal network abnormalities. An elevated co-occurrence of AD and seizures has been established in the more prevalent sporadic form of AD. Recent evidence suggests that nonconvulsive network abnormalities, including seizures and other electroencephalographic abnormalities, may be more commonly found in patients than previously thought. Patients with familial AD are at an even greater risk for seizures, which have been found in patients with mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP, as well as with APP duplication. This review also provides an overview of seizure and electroencephalography studies in AD mouse models. The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been identified as a possible link between AD and seizures, and while Aβ is known to affect neuronal activity, the full-length amyloid precursor protein (APP) and other APP cleavage products may be important for the development and maintenance of cortical network hyperexcitability. Nonconvulsive epileptiform activity, such as seizures or network abnormalities that are shorter in duration but may occur with higher frequency, may contribute to cognitive impairments characteristic of AD, such as amnestic wandering. Finally, the review discusses recent studies using antiepileptic drugs to rescue cognitive deficits in AD mouse models and human patients. Understanding the mechanistic link between epileptiform activity and AD is a research area of growing interest. Further understanding of the connection between neuronal hyperexcitability and Alzheimer's as well as the potential role of epileptiform activity in the progression of AD will be beneficial for improving treatment strategies. PMID:25484360

  10. Seizure in a nonpredisposed individual induced by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Oliver; Studer, Petra; Barth, Wolfgang; Wangler, Susanne; Hoegl, Thomas; Heinrich, Hartmut; Moll, Gunther H

    2011-03-01

    Seizure induction is a rare, but serious adverse effect of the otherwise very safe method of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). There are only very few single case reports concerning seizure in single-pulse TMS. All of these reports describe individuals with neurological disorders or epileptogenic medication. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe a healthy subject who developed symptoms of a seizure after single-pulse TMS during motor threshold estimation. This case report provides evidence that single-pulse TMS may provoke a seizure even in the absence of neurological risk factors. Differential diagnoses of a classic neurological seizure, that is, convulsive syncope and psychogenic seizure, are discussed. Neurogenic seizure after TMS and convulsive syncope are the most probable hypotheses, although clear specification of this singular incident remains impossible. Therefore, to minimize the risk for such rare adverse effects, existing and new suggestions are combined to provide reasonable precautions to be taken before and during TMS application. PMID:20351571

  11. Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2006-01-01

    In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic…

  12. Epileptic seizures: Quakes of the brain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G.; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures (“focal” in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the system’s dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems.

  13. Teaching about Search and Seizure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Cynthia A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a six-step model to help teachers develop curriculum related to the Fourth Amendment (search and seizure). The model focuses on determining values and attitudes, defining valid and unreasonable search and seizure, recognizing a valid warrant, and using film to teach about search and seizure. Journal available from the American Bar…

  14. Seizure Prediction: Methods

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Paul R.; Myers, Stephen; Geyer, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy, one of the most common neurological diseases, affects over 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy can have a broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Although antiepileptic drugs have helped treat millions of patients, roughly a third of all patients have seizures that are refractory to pharmacological intervention. The evolution of our understanding of this dynamic disease leads to new treatment possibilities. There is great interest in the development of devices that incorporate algorithms capable of detecting early onset of seizures or even predicting them hours before they occur. The lead time provided by these new technologies will allow for new types of interventional treatment. In the near future, seizures may be detected and aborted before physical manifestations begin. In this chapter we discuss the algorithms that make these devices possible and how they have been implemented to date. We also compare and contrast these measures, and review their individual strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we illustrate how these techniques can be combined in a closed-loop seizure prevention system. PMID:22078526

  15. Seizure prediction and its applications.

    PubMed

    Iasemidis, Leon D

    2011-10-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, hypersynchronous electrical activity that may remain localized and/or spread and severely disrupt the brain's normal multitask and multiprocessing function. Epileptic seizures are the hallmarks of such activity. The ability to issue warnings in real time of impending seizures may lead to novel diagnostic tools and treatments for epilepsy. Applications may range from a warning to the patient to avert seizure-associated injuries, to automatic timely administration of an appropriate stimulus. Seizure prediction could become an integral part of the treatment of epilepsy through neuromodulation, especially in the new generation of closed-loop seizure control systems. PMID:21939848

  16. Musicogenic seizures in Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Carpintero, Rocio; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Urrestarazu, Elena

    2013-07-01

    Dravet syndrome is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by multiple types of seizures. We report the first case of musicogenic reflex seizures in a 7-year-old male with a mutation in the SCN1A gene causing Dravet syndrome. Reflex seizures have been reported in patients with Dravet syndrome provoked by body temperature elevation, looking at visual patterns, or under intermittent photic stimulation. The case we report widens the spectrum of reflex seizures recorded in patients with Dravet syndrome. Cortical hyperexcitability of genetic origin could explain the tendency of these patients to experience reflex seizures. PMID:23517304

  17. Effects of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures on acute hippocampal injury and later-life seizure susceptibility and anxiety-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Dunleavy, Mark; Waddington, John L; Boylan, Geraldine B; Henshall, David C

    2015-11-01

    Seizures are common during the neonatal period, often due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and may contribute to acute brain injury and the subsequent development of cognitive deficits and childhood epilepsy. Here we explored short- and long-term consequences of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures in 7 day old C57BL/6J mice. Seizure activity, molecular markers of hypoxia and histological injury were investigated acutely after hypoxia and response to chemoconvulsants and animal behaviour was explored at adulthood. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pups to 5% oxygen for 15 min (global hypoxia). Electrographically defined seizures with behavioral correlates occurred in 95% of these animals and seizures persisted for many minutes after restitution of normoxia. There was minimal morbidity or mortality. Pre- or post-hypoxia injection of phenobarbital (50mg/kg) had limited efficacy at suppressing seizures. The hippocampus from neonatal hypoxia-seizure mice displayed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the immediate early gene c-fos, minimal histological evidence of cell injury and activation of caspase-3 in scattered neurons. Behavioral analysis of mice five weeks after hypoxia-induced seizures detected novel anxiety-related and other behaviors, while performance in a spatial memory test was similar to controls. Seizure threshold tests with kainic acid at six weeks revealed that mice previously subject to neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures developed earlier, more frequent and longer-duration seizures. This study defines a set of electro-clinical, molecular, pharmacological and behavioral consequences of hypoxia-induced seizures that indicate short- and long-term deleterious outcomes and may be a useful model to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of neonatal seizures in humans. PMID:26341542

  18. Neto2-null mice have impaired GABAergic inhibition and are susceptible to seizures.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Dargaei, Zahra; Ivakine, Evgueni A; Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Ng, David; Chevrier, Jonah; Ormond, Jake; Nothwang, Hans Gerd; McInnes, Roderick R; Woodin, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Neto2 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Efficient KCC2 transport is essential for setting the neuronal Cl(-) gradient, which is required for fast GABAergic inhibition. Neto2 is required to maintain the normal abundance of KCC2 in neurons, and increases KCC2 function by binding to the active oligomeric form of this cotransporter. In the present study, we characterized GABAergic inhibition and KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride homeostasis in pyramidal neurons from adult hippocampal slices. Using gramicidin perforated patch clamp recordings we found that the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA) was significantly depolarized. We also observed that surface levels of KCC2 and phosphorylation of KCC2 serine 940 (Ser940) were reduced in Neto2(-/-) neurons compared to wild-type controls. To examine GABAergic inhibition we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and found that Neto2(-/-) neurons had significant reductions in both their amplitude and frequency. Based on the critical role of Neto2 in regulating GABAergic inhibition we rationalized that Neto2-null mice would be prone to seizure activity. We found that Neto2-null mice demonstrated a decrease in the latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and an increase in seizure severity. PMID:26441539

  19. Neto2-null mice have impaired GABAergic inhibition and are susceptible to seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Dargaei, Zahra; Ivakine, Evgueni A.; Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Ng, David; Chevrier, Jonah; Ormond, Jake; Nothwang, Hans Gerd; McInnes, Roderick R.; Woodin, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Neto2 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the neuron-specific K+-Cl− cotransporter (KCC2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Efficient KCC2 transport is essential for setting the neuronal Cl− gradient, which is required for fast GABAergic inhibition. Neto2 is required to maintain the normal abundance of KCC2 in neurons, and increases KCC2 function by binding to the active oligomeric form of this cotransporter. In the present study, we characterized GABAergic inhibition and KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride homeostasis in pyramidal neurons from adult hippocampal slices. Using gramicidin perforated patch clamp recordings we found that the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA) was significantly depolarized. We also observed that surface levels of KCC2 and phosphorylation of KCC2 serine 940 (Ser940) were reduced in Neto2−/− neurons compared to wild-type controls. To examine GABAergic inhibition we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and found that Neto2−/− neurons had significant reductions in both their amplitude and frequency. Based on the critical role of Neto2 in regulating GABAergic inhibition we rationalized that Neto2-null mice would be prone to seizure activity. We found that Neto2-null mice demonstrated a decrease in the latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and an increase in seizure severity. PMID:26441539

  20. Ion dynamics during seizures

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Joseph V.; Burman, Richard J.; Katz, Arieh A.; Akerman, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in membrane voltage brought about by ion fluxes through voltage and transmitter-gated channels represent the basis of neural activity. As such, electrochemical gradients across the membrane determine the direction and driving force for the flow of ions and are therefore crucial in setting the properties of synaptic transmission and signal propagation. Ion concentration gradients are established by a variety of mechanisms, including specialized transporter proteins. However, transmembrane gradients can be affected by ionic fluxes through channels during periods of elevated neural activity, which in turn are predicted to influence the properties of on-going synaptic transmission. Such activity-induced changes to ion concentration gradients are a feature of both physiological and pathological neural processes. An epileptic seizure is an example of severely perturbed neural activity, which is accompanied by pronounced changes in intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations. Appreciating the factors that contribute to these ion dynamics is critical if we are to understand how a seizure event evolves and is sustained and terminated by neural tissue. Indeed, this issue is of significant clinical importance as status epilepticus—a type of seizure that does not stop of its own accord—is a life-threatening medical emergency. In this review we explore how the transmembrane concentration gradient of the six major ions (K+, Na+, Cl−, Ca2+, H+and HCO3−) is altered during an epileptic seizure. We will first examine each ion individually, before describing how multiple interacting mechanisms between ions might contribute to concentration changes and whether these act to prolong or terminate epileptic activity. In doing so, we will consider how the availability of experimental techniques has both advanced and restricted our ability to study these phenomena. PMID:26539081

  1. A low computation cost method for seizure prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Zhou, Weidong; Yuan, Qi; Wu, Qi

    2014-10-01

    The dynamic changes of electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in the period prior to epileptic seizures play a major role in the seizure prediction. This paper proposes a low computation seizure prediction algorithm that combines a fractal dimension with a machine learning algorithm. The presented seizure prediction algorithm extracts the Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD) of EEG signals as features to classify the patient's preictal or interictal state with Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA) as a classifier. The outputs of BLDA are smoothed by a Kalman filter for reducing possible sporadic and isolated false alarms and then the final prediction results are produced using a thresholding procedure. The algorithm was evaluated on the intracranial EEG recordings of 21 patients in the Freiburg EEG database. For seizure occurrence period of 30 min and 50 min, our algorithm obtained an average sensitivity of 86.95% and 89.33%, an average false prediction rate of 0.20/h, and an average prediction time of 24.47 min and 39.39 min, respectively. The results confirm that the changes of HFD can serve as a precursor of ictal activities and be used for distinguishing between interictal and preictal epochs. Both HFD and BLDA classifier have a low computational complexity. All of these make the proposed algorithm suitable for real-time seizure prediction. PMID:25062892

  2. The effects of superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTMPyP on the altered blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental preeclampsia with or without seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nurcan; Ugur Yilmaz, Canan; Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Ahishali, Bulent; Arican, Nadir; Kucuk, Mutlu; Elmas, Imdat; Gürses, Candan; Kalayci, Rivaze; Kaya, Mehmet

    2014-05-14

    We investigated the effects of a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in experimental preeclampsia symptoms induced by N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in pregnant rats. To show the functional and morphological alterations in BBB integrity, quantitative analysis of sodium fluorescein (NaFlu) extravasation, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic assessment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability were performed. Varying degrees of proteinuria were seen and arterial blood pressure increased in l-NAME-treated pregnant rats (p<0.01). MnTMPyP pretreatment and convulsive PTZ challenge significantly decreased the immunoreactivity of occludin in hippocampal capillaries in l-NAME-treated pregnant rats (p<0.01). BBB permeability to NaFlu significantly increased in pregnant rats treated with l-NAME plus PTZ (p<0.01), but MnTMPyP pretreatment did not significantly decrease NaFlu penetration into the brain parenchyma in these animals. Ultrastructurally, frequent vesicles containing HRP reaction products were observed in the capillary endothelial cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of pregnant rats treated with l-NAME and l-NAME plus PTZ with the abundance being more in the latter group. MnTMPyP pretreatment caused a marked reduction in the frequency of HRP reaction product containing vesicles in both experimental settings. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide evidence that MnTMPyP plays an important role in limiting the enhanced vesicle-mediated transcellular transport in BBB endothelium in a rat model of preeclampsia and the differences in the way of transports of NaFlu and HRP might be responsible for the different effects of MnTMPyP on the BBB permeability to these two tracers. PMID:24680906

  3. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  4. Modern concepts of seizure modeling.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Christophe; Naze, Sebastien; Proix, Timothée; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are complex phenomena spanning multiple spatial and temporal scales, from ion dynamics to communication between brain regions, from milliseconds (spikes) to days (interseizure intervals). Because of the existence of such multiple scales, the experimental evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the initiation, propagation, and termination of epileptic seizures is a difficult problem. Theoretical models and numerical simulations provide new tools to investigate seizure mechanisms at multiple scales. In this chapter, we review different theoretical approaches and their contributions to our understanding of seizure mechanisms. PMID:25078501

  5. Seizures induced by playing music.

    PubMed

    Sutherling, W W; Hershman, L M; Miller, J Q; Lee, S I

    1980-09-01

    A 67-year-old organist and minister with diabetes mellitus had stereotyped focal seizures of the left lower face, jaw, and neck. Attacks occurred spontaneously or were induced when he played a specific hymn on the organ. The seizures were not induced by reading, singing, hearing, or playing the hymn silently. The patient had interictal weakness of the left lower face and left side of the tongue. Focal seizures were recorded on an electroencephalogram (EEG) at the right temporofrontal area. This patient illustrates partial seizures induced by playing music. PMID:6775246

  6. Seizure Prediction and its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Iasemidis, Leon D.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, hypersynchronous electrical activity, that may remain localized and/or spread and severely disrupt the brain’s normal multi-task and multi-processing function. Epileptic seizures are the hallmarks of such activity and had been considered unpredictable. It is only recently that research on the dynamics of seizure generation by analysis of the brain’s electrographic activity (EEG) has shed ample light on the predictability of seizures, and illuminated the way to automatic, prospective, long-term prediction of seizures. The ability to issue warnings in real time of impending seizures (e.g., tens of minutes prior to seizure occurrence in the case of focal epilepsy), may lead to novel diagnostic tools and treatments for epilepsy. Applications may range from a simple warning to the patient, in order to avert seizure-associated injuries, to intervention by automatic timely administration of an appropriate stimulus, for example of a chemical nature like an anti-epileptic drug (AED), electromagnetic nature like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial direct current (TDC) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and/or of another nature (e.g., ultrasonic, cryogenic, biofeedback operant conditioning). It is thus expected that seizure prediction could readily become an integral part of the treatment of epilepsy through neuromodulation, especially in the new generation of closed-loop seizure control systems. PMID:21939848

  7. Modeling Glial Contributions to Seizures and Epileptogenesis: Cation-Chloride Cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rusan, Zeid M.; Kingsford, Olivia A.; Tanouye, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl− cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi) of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24–48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl− cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed. PMID:24971529

  8. Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on…

  9. Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

  10. Febrile seizures - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000223.htm Febrile seizures - what to ask your doctor To use the ... please enable JavaScript. Your child has had a febrile seizure. A simple febrile seizure stops by itself within ...

  11. The Impact of Psychoactive Drugs on Seizures and Antiepileptic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mitra; Hart, Felecia; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn

    2016-08-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are very common in patients with epilepsy, and in fact, a bidirectional relationship between epilepsy and some psychiatric disorders have been identified. However, despite their high prevalence, these comorbidities are not routinely recognized or adequately treated causing a significant burden for these patients. Atypical presentations of some of these psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy, the concern that some psychotropic drugs may lower seizure threshold worsening frequency of seizures, possibility of many drug-drug interactions, and the negative impact of some antiepileptic drugs on psychiatric conditions are some of the challenges faced by clinicians. Although the main focus in epilepsy has remained on treatment of seizures, acknowledgment of these comorbidities and their timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment not only can impact patients' quality of life but also may improve their response to antiepileptic therapies. PMID:27315249

  12. [Seizure characteristics in Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Shuichi; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Hara, Keita; Tanabe, Takuya; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that convulsions may occur in clinical course of Kawasaki disease. However, the features of such seizures remain unclear. Recent reports have hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the genesis of febrile convulsions (FC). In the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, proinflammatory cytokines are elevated in serum and CSF. If cytokines play a role in seizure phenomena in patients with Kawasaki disease, FC and seizures in Kawasaki disease might share some clinical features. To clarify the clinical features of convulsion in Kawasaki disease, we investigated 7 patients with Kawasaki disease with convulsions who were diagnosed and treated from November 2003 to November 2005. We found several features of the seizures, as well as the onset age, were diffrent among these clinical entities. The onset of Kawasaki disease was characteristically before six months of age in all patients. Seizure clustering was seen in 5 patients and partial seizures in 4. Prolonged unconsciousness after seizures was seen in one patient, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH) in one other. One patient had markedly elevated IL-6 in CSF. These observations led us to speculate that the convulsion of Kawasaki disease may be attributable to an encephalitis. The results of this study suggest that seizure pathophysiology differs between FC and Kawasaki disease. PMID:18634413

  13. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  14. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  15. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot. PMID:26662874

  16. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  17. Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance

    PubMed Central

    Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

  18. Seizure Treatment in Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Solid organ transplantation is frequently complicated by a spectrum of seizure types, including single partial-onset or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, acute repetitive seizures or status epilepticus, and sometimes the evolution of symptomatic epilepsy. There is currently no specific evidence involving the transplant patient population to guide the selection, administration, or duration of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, so familiarity with clinical AED pharmacology and application of sound judgment are necessary for successful patient outcomes. An initial detailed search for symptomatic seizure etiologies, including metabolic, infectious, cerebrovascular, and calcineurin inhibitor treatment-related neuro-toxic complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), is imperative, as underlying central nervous system disorders may impose additional serious risks to cerebral or general health if not promptly detected and appropriately treated. The mainstay for post-transplant seizure management is AED therapy directed toward the suspected seizure type. Unfavorable drug interactions could place the transplanted organ at risk, so choosing an AED with limited interaction potential is also crucial. When the transplanted organ is dysfunctional or vulnerable to rejection, AEDs without substantial hepatic metabolism are favored in post-liver transplant patients, whereas after renal transplantation, AEDs with predominantly renal elimination may require dosage adjustment to prevent adverse effects. Levetiracetam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and lacosamide are drugs of choice for treatment of partial-onset seizures in post-transplant patients given their efficacy spectrum, generally excellent tolerability, and lack of drug interaction potential. Levetiracetam is the drug of choice for primary generalized seizures in post-transplant patients. When intravenous drugs are necessary for acute seizure management, benzodiazepines and

  19. Nanoparticle formulation improves the anticonvulsant effect of clonazepam on the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures: behavior and electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; González-Trujano, María Eva; López-Ruiz, Edith; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Wekslerg, Babette; Romero, Ignacio; Miller, Florence; Delie, Florence; Allémann, Eric; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2014-08-01

    To document the efficacy of clonazepam (CLZ) either free as a solution or loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles (CLZ-SLN) or mixed micelles (CLZ-MM), the in vitro blood-brain barrier permeability of the formulations was determined. Behavior and/or electroencephalograms (EEGs) of rodents receiving treatments were also studied. The in vitro permeability of CLZ increased when associated with SLN, but decreased in the case of MM. The occurrence of the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice was significantly prevented by CLZ, even when exposed a lower dose of CLZ-SLN after administration by the oral route. The behavioral severity and EEGs showing the PTZ-induced paroxystic activity in rats diminished significantly in the presence of CLZ alone (0.3 mg/kg), and were almost totally prevented in the rats treated with CLZ-SLN (equivalent to 0.3 mg/kg). The frequency, duration, and spreading of the spikes-wave of rats treated with CLZ-SLN decreased significantly as compared with CLZ alone, CLZ-MM, or the vehicle. These results show an in vitro-in vivo correlation in the enhanced blood-brain barrier permeability of SLN formulation, and a contribution of MM to the carrier effect of drugs toward the bloodstream and brain, where this pharmaceutical formulation of CLZ-SLN improves the anticonvulsant effect of this benzodiazepine, thus offering additional advantages after oral administration. PMID:24916334

  20. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. )

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  1. Retrospective study of late febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Webb, D W; Jones, R R; Manzur, A Y; Farrell, K

    1999-04-01

    This retrospective study documents the clinical features, electroencephalographic data, and outcome of 50 children with a history of seizures with fever that occurred after 5 years of age. Children with afebrile seizures before the onset of febrile seizures were excluded. Outcome was based on a cross-sectional survey and the follow-up period was 1-13 years. Of the 50 children, 40 had two or fewer febrile seizures after 5 years of age, and febrile seizures did not occur after 10 years of age. Twenty had complex febrile seizures, and 16 had a first-degree relative with febrile seizures. Five developed afebrile seizures, and 18 had educational difficulties. Epileptiform electroencephalographic abnormalities were observed in 22 but were not predictive of later afebrile seizures. Febrile seizures that occur after 5 years of age recur infrequently and cease by 10 years of age. The risk of developing afebrile seizures in this group is small. PMID:10328275

  2. Determination of seizure propagation across microdomains using spectral measures of causality.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ishita; Kudela, Pawel; Anderson, William S

    2014-01-01

    The use of microelectrode arrays to measure electrical activity from the surface of the brain is increasingly being investigated as a means to improve seizure focus localization. In this work, we determine seizure propagation across microdomains sampled by such microelectrode arrays and compare the results using two widely used frequency domain measures of causality, namely the partial directed coherence and the directed direct transfer function. We show that these two measures produce very similar propagation patterns for simulated microelectrode activity over a relatively smaller number of channels. However as the number of channels increases, partial directed coherence produces better estimates of the actual propagation pattern. Additionally, we apply these two measures to determine seizure propagation over microelectrode arrays measured from a patient undergoing intracranial monitoring for seizure focus localization and find very similar patterns which also agree with a threshold based reconstruction during seizure onset. PMID:25571448

  3. A Hypothesis Regarding the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Dietary Soy-Induced Effects on Seizure Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara Jean

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold. PMID:25232349

  4. Seizures of idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Durón, Reyna M; Medina, Marco T; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Bailey, Julia N; Perez-Gosiengfiao, Katerina Tanya; Ramos-Ramírez, Ricardo; López-Ruiz, Minerva; Alonso, María Elisa; Ortega, Ramón H Castro; Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Machado-Salas, Jesús; Mija, Lizardo; Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V

    2005-01-01

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) comprise at least 40% of epilepsies in the United States, 20% in Mexico, and 8% in Central America. Here, we review seizure phenotypes across IGE syndromes, their response to treatment and advances in molecular genetics that influence nosology. Our review included the Medline database from 1945 to 2005 and our prospectively collected Genetic Epilepsy Studies (GENESS) Consortium database. Generalized seizures occur with different and similar semiologies, frequencies, and patterns, ages at onset, and outcomes in different IGEs, suggesting common neuroanatomical pathways for seizure phenotypes. However, the same seizure phenotypes respond differently to the same treatments in different IGEs, suggesting different molecular defects across syndromes. De novo mutations in SCN1A in sporadic Dravet syndrome and germline mutations in SCN1A, SCN1B, and SCN2A in generalized epilepsies with febrile seizures plus have unraveled the heterogenous myoclonic epilepsies of infancy and early childhood. Mutations in GABRA1, GABRG2, and GABRB3 are associated with absence seizures, while mutations in CLCN2 and myoclonin/EFHC1 substantiate juvenile myoclonic epilepsy as a clinical entity. Refined understanding of seizure phenotypes, their semiology, frequencies, and patterns together with the identification of molecular lesions in IGEs continue to accelerate the development of molecular epileptology. PMID:16302874

  5. Resected Brain Tissue, Seizure Onset Zone and Quantitative EEG Measures: Towards Prediction of Post-Surgical Seizure Control

    PubMed Central

    Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Hauf, Martinus; Pollo, Claudio; Müller, Markus; Weisstanner, Christian; Wiest, Roland; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy surgery is a potentially curative treatment option for pharmacoresistent patients. If non-invasive methods alone do not allow to delineate the epileptogenic brain areas the surgical candidates undergo long-term monitoring with intracranial EEG. Visual EEG analysis is then used to identify the seizure onset zone for targeted resection as a standard procedure. Methods Despite of its great potential to assess the epileptogenicty of brain tissue, quantitative EEG analysis has not yet found its way into routine clinical practice. To demonstrate that quantitative EEG may yield clinically highly relevant information we retrospectively investigated how post-operative seizure control is associated with four selected EEG measures evaluated in the resected brain tissue and the seizure onset zone. Importantly, the exact spatial location of the intracranial electrodes was determined by coregistration of pre-operative MRI and post-implantation CT and coregistration with post-resection MRI was used to delineate the extent of tissue resection. Using data-driven thresholding, quantitative EEG results were separated into normally contributing and salient channels. Results In patients with favorable post-surgical seizure control a significantly larger fraction of salient channels in three of the four quantitative EEG measures was resected than in patients with unfavorable outcome in terms of seizure control (median over the whole peri-ictal recordings). The same statistics revealed no association with post-operative seizure control when EEG channels contributing to the seizure onset zone were studied. Conclusions We conclude that quantitative EEG measures provide clinically relevant and objective markers of target tissue, which may be used to optimize epilepsy surgery. The finding that differentiation between favorable and unfavorable outcome was better for the fraction of salient values in the resected brain tissue than in the seizure onset zone is consistent

  6. LRP12 silencing during brain development results in cortical dyslamination and seizure sensitization.

    PubMed

    Grote, Alexander; Robens, Barbara K; Blümcke, Ingmar; Becker, Albert J; Schoch, Susanne; Gembé, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Correct positioning and differentiation of neurons during brain development is a key precondition for proper function. Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are increasingly recognized as causes of therapy refractory epilepsies. Neuropathological analyses of respective surgical specimens from neurosurgery for seizure control often reveal aberrant cortical architecture and/or aberrantly shaped neurons in FCDs. However, the molecular pathogenesis particularly of FCDs with aberrant lamination (so-called FCD type I) is largely unresolved. Lipoproteins and particularly low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 12 (LRP12) are involved in brain development. Here, we have examined a potential role of LRP12 in the pathogenesis of FCDs. In vitro knockdown of LRP12 in primary neurons results in impaired neuronal arborization. In vivo ablation of LRP12 by intraventricularly in utero electroporated shRNAs elicits cortical maldevelopment, i.e. aberrant lamination by malpositioning of upper cortical layer neurons. Subsequent epilepsy phenotyping revealed pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures to be aggravated in cortical LRP12-silenced mice. Our data demonstrates IUE mediated cortical gene silencing as an excellent approach to study the role of distinct molecules for epilepsy associated focal brain lesions and suggests LRP12 and lipoprotein homeostasis as potential molecular target structures for the emergence of epilepsy-associated FCDs. PMID:26639854

  7. Electroencephalographic seizures during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Stockard, J.; Calanchini, P.; Bickford, R.; Billinger, T.

    1974-01-01

    Eleven cardiac operations are reported in which there was electroencephalographic and/or clinical evidence of seizure activity during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In four patients seizure activity appeared after acute episodes of cerebral ischaemia resulting from either hypotension or pump-generated emboli occurring at the beginning of CPB, or from air embolism occurring at the end of CPB when the myocardium was closed and defibrillated. In the remaining seven patients the seizures appeared to result from the synergistic action of a toxic substance in the perfusate with pre-existing or CPB-induced alterations in cerebral physiology. Images PMID:4819907

  8. Seizures in Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBrien, Dianne M.; Bonthius, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the most frequent causes of seizure disorders in young children and the classification of different seizure types. It discusses current therapies, including alternatives to medication. Emergency response to seizures is covered a well as non-epileptic episodes that may resemble seizures. Epilepsy's potential impact on the…

  9. Metformin protects against seizures, learning and memory impairments and oxidative damage induced by pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran-Ran; Xu, Xiao-Chen; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Wei-Li; Zhang, Wen-Lin; Liu, Liang-Min; Wang, Wei-Ping

    2014-06-13

    Cognitive impairment, the most common and severe comorbidity of epilepsy, greatly diminishes the quality of life. However, current therapeutic interventions for epilepsy can also cause untoward cognitive effects. Thus, there is an urgent need for new kinds of agents targeting both seizures and cognition deficits. Oxidative stress is considered to play an important role in epileptogenesis and cognitive deficits, and antioxidants have a putative antiepileptic potential. Metformin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic oral drug, has antioxidant properties. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effects of metformin on seizures, cognitive impairment and brain oxidative stress markers observed in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered with subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (37 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day for 14 injections. Metformin was injected intraperitoneally in dose of 200mg/kg along with alternate-day PTZ. We found that metformin suppressed the progression of kindling, ameliorated the cognitive impairment and decreased brain oxidative stress. Thus the present study concluded that metformin may be a potential agent for the treatment of epilepsy as well as a protective medicine against cognitive impairment induced by seizures. PMID:24802403

  10. Recent Research on Febrile Seizures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Syndi Seinfeld, DO; Pellock, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. They are the most common cause of seizures in children less than five years of age. There are two categories of febrile seizures, simple and complex. Both the International League against Epilepsy and the National Institute of Health has published definitions on the classification of febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizures are mostly benign, but a prolonged (complex) febrile seizure can have long term consequences. Most children who have a febrile seizure have normal health and development after the event, but there is recent evidence that suggests a small subset of children that present with seizures and fever may have recurrent seizure or develop epilepsy. This review will give an overview of the definition of febrile seizures, epidemiology, evaluation, treatment, outcomes and recent research. PMID:25383238

  11. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, Pınar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association. PMID:25624930

  12. Ranolazine overdose-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Akil, Nour; Bottei, Edward; Kamath, Sameer

    2015-12-01

    Ranolazine is a new anti-anginal medication that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006 for patients with symptomatic chronic angina despite optimized therapy. This paper presents a case report of a fifteen year old male patient admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after ranolazine overdose ingestion. He had recurrent new onset seizures that are most likely due to ranolazine overdose. Seizures have never been reported with ranolazine use or abuse. PMID:26072257

  13. Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rivera, Claudio; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Salmen, Benedikt; Mackie, Ken; Sipilä, Sampsa T; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai

    2006-07-01

    Febrile seizures are frequent during early childhood, and prolonged (complex) febrile seizures are associated with an increased susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy. The pathophysiological consequences of febrile seizures have been extensively studied in rat pups exposed to hyperthermia. The mechanisms that trigger these seizures are unknown, however. A rise in brain pH is known to enhance neuronal excitability. Here we show that hyperthermia causes respiratory alkalosis in the immature brain, with a threshold of 0.2-0.3 pH units for seizure induction. Suppressing alkalosis with 5% ambient CO2 abolished seizures within 20 s. CO2 also prevented two long-term effects of hyperthermic seizures in the hippocampus: the upregulation of the I(h) current and the upregulation of CB1 receptor expression. The effects of hyperthermia were closely mimicked by intraperitoneal injection of bicarbonate. Our work indicates a mechanism for triggering hyperthermic seizures and suggests new strategies in the research and therapy of fever-related epileptic syndromes. PMID:16819552

  14. GABAB receptors as a common target for hypothermia and spike and wave seizures: intersecting mechanisms of thermoregulation and absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Z S; Ilić, T V; Vesković, S M; Andjus, P R

    2013-05-15

    In the current study the link among the γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced absence-like seizures and concomitant decreases in the core temperature, as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during rewarming from deep hypothermia produced by a drug-free protocol were investigated. During the rewarming period after deep cooling, most Wistar rats suffered from bilaterally synchronous spike and waves with no or mild behavioral correlates. Spike and wave seizures were temperature-dependent and were initially registered when body temperature (Tb) reached 25-27°C, but mostly during the mild hypothermia of 0.3-1.3°C (Tb of 36.3-37.3°C). In chemical absence models, spike and wave discharges were also closely accompanied by mild systemic hypothermia, as both PTZ- and GHB-induced temperature decreases ranged from about 1-1.4°C respectively, together with EEG markers of absence activity. Thus, throughout the different experimental designs, the occurrence of spike and wave discharges was always related to a mild (0.3-1.4°C) decrease of Tb. Benzodiazepine diazepam as the GABAA-positive allosteric modulator and CGP 62349 as the selective antagonist of GABAB receptors were used to determine if their well-known anticonvulsant properties also affect hypothermia elicited by these drugs. Finally, during the course of spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, another selective GABAB-blocking agent, CGP 35348, was used to elucidate if GABAB inhibitory system could be critically implicated in the generation of hypothermia-dependent spike and waves. Diazepam prevented both the PTZ-induced hypothermia and electrographic absence seizures, but these two beneficial effects did not occur in the GHB model. Even though diazepam delayed GHB-induced maximal temperature decrease, the GHB effects remained highly significant. The GABAB antagonist CGP 62349 completely prevented hypothermia as well as absence seizures in both chemical models. Likewise, spike and

  15. Assimilating Seizure Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Ghanim; Schiff, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state—the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics. PMID:20463875

  16. Assimilating seizure dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ghanim; Schiff, Steven J

    2010-05-01

    Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state-the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics. PMID:20463875

  17. Anticonvulsant Effect of the Aqueous Extract and Essential Oil of Carum Carvi L. Seeds in a Pentylenetetrazol Model of Seizure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Oftadegan, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carum carvi L. (caraway), known as black zeera in Iran, has been indicated for the treatment of epilepsy in Iranian folk medicine. This study evaluated whether the aqueous extract and essential oil of caraway seeds have anticonvulsant effects in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant effects of the aqueous extract (200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200 mg/kg, i.p.) and essential oil (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) of caraway were assessed using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 95 mg/kg i.p.) induced convulsions. Diazepam (3 mg/kg) was used as positive control. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic convulsions and the percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of caraway on neuromuscular coordination was evaluated using the rotarod performance test. Results: The extract and essential oil dose-dependently increased the latency time to the onset of myoclonic (ED50, 1257 and 62.2 mg/kg, respectively) and clonic (ED50, 929 and 42.3 mg/kg, respectively) seizures. The extract and essential oil of caraway prevented the animals from tonic seizure with ED50s of 2142.4 and 97.6 mg/kg, respectively. The extract and essential oil of caraway protected 28.6 and 71.4% of the animals from PTZ-induced death, respectively, and had no significant effect on neuromuscular coordination. Conclusion: This study showed that the aqueous extract and essential oil of caraway had anticonvulsant properties. However, the essential oil was more potent and effective than was the aqueous extract as an anticonvulsant. Additionally, the anticonvulsant effect of caraway was not due to a muscle relaxant activity. These findings support the acclaimed antiepileptic effect of caraway in folk medicine and propose its potential use in petit mal seizure in humans. PMID:27217604

  18. Involvement of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-1β in Enhancement of Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures Caused by Shigella dysenteriae

    PubMed Central

    Yuhas, Yael; Shulman, Lester; Weizman, Abraham; Kaminsky, Elizabeth; Vanichkin, Alexey; Ashkenazi, Shai

    1999-01-01

    Neurologic manifestations, mainly convulsions, are the most frequent extraintestinal complications of shigellosis. We used an animal model to study the roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) in Shigella-related seizures. Administration of Shigella dysenteriae 60R sonicate enhanced the sensitivity of mice to the proconvulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) within 7 h. This was indicated by a significantly higher mean convulsion score and an increased number of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures in the Shigella-pretreated group. Preinjection of mice with anti-murine TNF-α (anti-mTNF-α) or anti-murine IL-1β (anti-mIL-1β) 30 min prior to administration of Shigella sonicate abolished their enhanced response to PTZ at 7 h. Mean convulsion scores were reduced by anti-mTNF-α from 1.2 to 0.8 (P = 0.017) and by anti-mIL-1β from 1.3 to 0.7 (P = 0.008). Preinjection of anti-mTNF-α also reduced the percentage of mice responding with clonic-tonic seizures, from 48 to 29% (P = 0.002), and preinjection of anti-mIL-1β reduced it from 53 to 21% (P = 0.012). Neutralization of TNF-α or IL-1β did not protect the mice from death due to S. dysenteriae 60R. These findings indicate that TNF-α and IL-1β play a role in the very early sensitization of the central nervous system to convulsive activity after S. dysenteriae administration. Similar mechanisms may trigger neurologic disturbances in other infectious diseases. PMID:10024595

  19. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Menière's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Menière's classical observation. PMID:2529669

  20. Seizures and epilepsy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniel; Honig, Lawrence S; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are at increased risk for developing seizures and epilepsy. However, reported prevalence and incidence of seizures and relationship of seizures to disease measures such as severity, outcome, and progression vary widely between studies. We performed a literature review of the available clinical and epidemiological data on the topic of seizures in patients with AD. We review seizure rates and types, risk factors for seizures, electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, and treatment responses. Finally, we consider limitations and methodological issues. There is considerable variability in the reported prevalence and incidence of seizures in patients with AD-with reported lifetime prevalence rates of 1.5-64%. More recent, prospective, and larger studies in general report lower rates. Some, but not all, studies have noted increased seizure risk with increasing dementia severity or with younger age of AD onset. Generalized convulsive seizures are the most commonly reported type, but often historical information is the only basis used to determine seizure type and the manifestation of seizures may be difficult to distinguish from other behaviors common in demented patients. EEG has infrequently been performed and reported. Data on treatment of seizures in AD are extremely limited. Similarly, the relationship between seizures and cognitive impairment in AD is unclear. We conclude that the literature on seizures and epilepsy in AD, including diagnosis, risk factors, and response to treatment suffers from methodological limitations and gaps. PMID:22070283

  1. The auriculo-vagal afferent pathway and its role in seizure suppression in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The afferent projections from the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) have been proposed as the anatomical basis for the increased parasympathetic tone seen in auriculo-vagal reflexes. As the afferent center of the vagus nerve, the NTS has been considered to play roles in the anticonvulsant effect of cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Here we proposed an “auriculo-vagal afferent pathway” (AVAP), by which transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) suppresses pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures by activating the NTS neurons in rats. Results The afferent projections from the ABVN to the NTS were firstly observed in rats. ta-VNS increased the first grand mal latency of the epileptic seizure and decreased the seizure scores in awake rats. Furthermore, when the firing rates of the NTS neurons decreased, epileptiform activity manifested as electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization increased with 0.37±0.12 s delay in anaesthetized rats. The change of instantaneous frequency, mean frequency of the NTS neurons was negative correlated with the amplitude of the epileptic activity in EEG traces. ta-VNS significantly suppressed epileptiform activity in EEG traces via increasing the firing rates of the neurons of the NTS. In comparison with tan-VNS, the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS were significantly longer (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS (P>0.05). The anticonvulsant effect of ta-VNS was weakened by reversible cold block of the NTS. Conclusions There existed an anatomical relationship between the ABVN and the NTS, which strongly supports the concept that ta-VNS has the potential for suppressing epileptiform activity via the AVAP in rats. ta-VNS will provide alternative treatments for neurological disorders, which can avoid the disadvantage of VNS. PMID:23927528

  2. Osthole suppresses seizures in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model.

    PubMed

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Andres-Mach, Marta; Cisowski, Wojciech; Mazol, Irena; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of osthole {[7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one]--a natural coumarin derivative} in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. The antiseizure effects of osthole were determined at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after its systemic (i.p.) administration. Time course of anticonvulsant action of osthole revealed that the natural coumarin derivative produced a clear-cut antielectroshock activity in mice and the experimentally-derived ED(50) values for osthole ranged from 259 to 631 mg/kg. In conclusion, osthole suppresses seizure activity in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. It may become a novel treatment option following further investigation in other animal models of epilepsy and preclinical studies. PMID:19236860

  3. Generalized versus partial reflex seizures: a review.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Domenico; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Spina, Edoardo; Mondello, Stefania; Labate, Angelo; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2014-08-01

    In this review we assess our currently available knowledge about reflex seizures with special emphasis on the difference between "generalized" reflex seizures induced by visual stimuli, thinking, praxis and language tasks, and "focal" seizures induced by startle, eating, music, hot water, somatosensory stimuli and orgasm. We discuss in particular evidence from animal, clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies supporting the concept that "generalized" reflex seizures, usually occurring in the setting of IGE, should be considered as focal seizures with quick secondary generalization. We also review recent advances in genetic and therapeutic approach of reflex seizures. PMID:24766826

  4. Molecular genetics of febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Junko; Arinami, Tadao

    2006-08-01

    Febrile seizures (FSs) represent the most common form of childhood seizures, occurring in 2-5% of infants in Europe and North America and in 6-9% in Japan. It has been recognized that there is a significant genetic component for susceptibility to this type of seizure. Six susceptibility FS loci have been identified on chromosomes 8q13-q21 (FEB1), 19p (FEB2), 2q23-q24 (FEB3), 5q14-q15 (FEB4), 6q22-q24 (FEB5), and 18p11 (FEB6). Furthermore, mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-1 subunit genes (SCN1A, SCN2A and SCN1B) and the GABA(A) receptor gamma-2 subunit gene (GABRG2) have been identified in families with a clinical subset of seizures termed "generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus (GEFS+)". However, the causative genes have not been identified in most patients with FSs or GEFS+. Common forms of FSs are genetically complex disorders believed to be influenced by variations in several susceptibility genes. Recently, several association studies in FSs have been reported, but the results vary among different groups and no consistent or convincing FS susceptibility genes have emerged. To find a true association, larger sample size and newer methodologic refinements are recommended. PMID:16887333

  5. Intranasal therapies for acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2015-08-01

    Most seizure emergencies occur outside of the hospital, and there is a need for treatment interventions that can be administered quickly and safely by nonclinical caregivers. Intranasal benzodiazepine administration does not require intravenous access and offers rapid seizure cessation. Intranasal midazolam is faster at aborting seizure activity than rectal diazepam and quicker to administer than intravenous diazepam. Although time to seizure cessation varies from study to study, intranasal midazolam is efficacious when administered not only by emergency department personnel but also by paramedics and caregivers in out-of-hospital and home settings. Absorption of midazolam intranasal formulations appears to be relatively rapid compared to diazepam formulations. Its shorter elimination half-life may also be beneficial in that patients may more quickly return to normal function because of rapid offset of effect. On the other hand, the faster rate of elimination of midazolam may expose patients to a higher rate of seizure recurrence compared with diazepam. Two diazepam formulations and one midazolam formulation are being currently developed for intranasal use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:26022649

  6. Utility of different seizure induction protocols in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gourav; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K

    2014-08-01

    Psychogenic non epileptic seizure (PNES) can be induced by several induction tests but their relative usefulness has not been evaluated. In this study, we report the sensitivity and specificity of various induction tests in the diagnosis of PNES and assess their discomfort level. The induction tests were: (a) compression of temple region (CTR), (b) verbal suggestion (VS), (c) tuning fork application (TFA), (d) moist swab application (MSA), (e) torch light stimulation (TLS) and (f) saline injection (SI). Up to 3 trials were done for each test except for normal saline injection which was given once. For comparison of these tests, patients with epileptic seizures were included as controls. The time to precipitate PNES was recorded and patients' discomfort levels were noted on a 0-10 scale. Video EEG was recorded in the PNES patients. 140 patients with PNES and 50 controls with epileptic seizures were included. The diagnostic yield of CTR was 65.7%, TFA 61.4%, MSA 60.7%, SI 55.6%, VS 54.3% and TLS 40.7%. These tests did not induce seizures in the controls. All these tests had 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in the diagnosis of PNES. The maximum discomfort was reported with SI and minimum with MSA. The similarity of efficacy and discomfort with CTR and TFA appear to be the most optimal induction techniques when compared with VS, AMS, TLS, and SI. PMID:24802296

  7. Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Possible Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether they could increase the risk of developing epilepsy later. Febrile seizures are defined as seizures that ... brains of patients who underwent surgery for severe epilepsy. 3 The children with FSE were com- pared ...

  8. Seizure Duration Decreases Over a Course of Bifrontal and Not Bitemporal Electroconvulsive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishekh, Hulegar A.; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Hegde, Anusha; Phutane, Vivek H.; Kumar, Channaveerachari N.; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear. Anticonvulsant action of ECT has also been one among the hypothesized mechanisms. Anticonvulsant effect may manifest during ECT in at least two ways (a) increased seizure threshold (b) decrease in seizure duration. In depression, increased seizure threshold has been shown to be associated with better antidepressant response. However, relationship between seizure duration and antidepressant activity has been inconsistent. These issues are not investigated in conditions other than depression. Aims: We examined seizure duration over the course of ECT in schizophrenia patients. Settings and Design: Material for this analysis was obtained from a clinical trial examining the differential efficacy of bifrontal ECT (BFECT) versus bitemporal ECT (BTECT) in schizophrenia patients. As a part of study 122 schizophrenia patients who were prescribed ECT were randomized to receive either BFECT or BTECT. Subjects and Methods: Final analysis was conducted on data from 70 patients, as the rest of the data either had artifact or there was a significant change in medication status. Electroencephalogram seizure duration was noted in each session for these patients. Results: Seizure duration declined significantly from second ECT to 6th ECT (repeated measures analysis of variance F = 4.255; P = 0.006). When separate analysis was conducted for BTECT and BFECT patients the decline in seizure duration from 2nd to 6th ECT was significant only with BFECT (F = 3.94; P = 0.014) and not with BTECT (F = 0.966; P = 0.424). Conclusions: Better anticonvulsant effects with BFECT may explain the better therapeutic observed with BFECT in schizophrenia as well as mania in our earlier studies. PMID:24701009

  9. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    MedlinePlus

    The doctor will perform a physical exam. This will include a detailed look at the brain and nervous system. An EEG (electroencephalogram) will be done to check the electrical activity in the brain. People with seizures often have abnormal electrical activity ...

  10. Involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and the opioid system in the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem in mice.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mehdi; Shirzadian, Armin; Dehdashtian, Amir; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic medication that mainly exerts its function through activating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. There is some evidence that zolpidem may have anticonvulsive effects. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been elucidated yet. In the present study, we used the pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized seizure model in mice to investigate whether zolpidem can affect seizure threshold. We also further evaluated the roles of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels as well as μ-opioid receptors in the effects of zolpidem on seizure threshold. Our data showed that zolpidem in a dose-dependent manner increased the PTZ-induced seizure threshold. The noneffective (i.e., did not significantly alter the PTZ-induced seizure threshold by itself) doses of KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide) and nonselective opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone) were able to inhibit the anticonvulsive effect of zolpidem. Additionally, noneffective doses of either KATP channel opener (cromakalim) or nonselective μ-opioid receptor agonist (morphine) in combination with a noneffective dose of zolpidem exerted a significant anticonvulsive effect on PTZ-induced seizures in mice. A combination of noneffective doses of naloxone and glibenclamide, which separately did not affect zolpidem effect on seizure threshold, inhibited the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. These results suggest a role for KATP channels and the opioid system, alone or in combination, in the anticonvulsive effects of zolpidem. PMID:27521722

  11. Seizure severity and duration in the cortical stimulation model of experimental epilepsy in rats: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy S; Suhr, Courtney L; Lai, Alan; Halliday, Amy J; Freestone, Dean R; McLean, Karen J; Burkitt, Anthony N; Cook, Mark J

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current intensities necessary to elicit three levels of varying EEG and behavioural phenomena with electrical stimulation, and also to determine the consistency of the EEG and behavioural components of the triggered seizures over time. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor/somatosensory cortex was performed in 16 adult rats with multichannel microwire electrode arrays. Stimulation was delivered at a frequency of 60 Hz (1 ms pulse width), for 2 s duration, as biphasic rectangular pulses over four of the eight available electrode pairs. Current intensity thresholds for interruption of normal behaviour, epileptiform afterdischarge (EAD) longer than 5 s and motor seizures with Racine severity greater than 3 were not correlated to time post-surgery. The Racine threshold was shown to be negatively correlated to the EAD duration and Racine severity of seizures elicited in the following sessions. Seizures were reliably generated in rats through cortical stimulation with microwire electrode arrays and these seizures were not shown to be subject to any kindling type effects up to 53 days post-implantation. Both the electrographic duration and behavioural severity of stimulated seizures remained, on average, constant during this experimental period. Approximately one-third of stimulations did not cause observable motor seizures and of those that did result in seizures, forelimb clonus was the most common manifestation and the mean EAD duration was 18.5 s. No damage beyond that caused by surgical implantation of electrodes was observed in the histological analyses of stimulated and non-stimulated tissue. The consistency, duration and severity of seizures within this timeframe make this cortical stimulation model suitable for investigations into novel therapeutic interventions for epilepsy that require a known seizure focus. PMID:20153951

  12. Electrographic seizures in pediatric ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Daniel H.; Carpenter, Jessica L.; Chapman, Kevin E.; Cornett, Karen M.; Gallentine, William B.; Giza, Christopher C.; Goldstein, Joshua L.; Hahn, Cecil D.; Lerner, Jason T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Matsumoto, Joyce H.; McBain, Kristin; Nash, Kendall B.; Payne, Eric; Sánchez, Sarah M.; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Shults, Justine; Williams, Korwyn; Yang, Amy; Dlugos, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine the incidence of electrographic seizures in children in the pediatric intensive care unit who underwent EEG monitoring, risk factors for electrographic seizures, and whether electrographic seizures were associated with increased odds of mortality. Methods: Eleven sites in North America retrospectively reviewed a total of 550 consecutive children in pediatric intensive care units who underwent EEG monitoring. We collected data on demographics, diagnoses, clinical seizures, mental status at EEG onset, EEG background, interictal epileptiform discharges, electrographic seizures, intensive care unit length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Electrographic seizures occurred in 162 of 550 subjects (30%), of which 61 subjects (38%) had electrographic status epilepticus. Electrographic seizures were exclusively subclinical in 59 of 162 subjects (36%). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that independent risk factors for electrographic seizures included younger age, clinical seizures prior to EEG monitoring, an abnormal initial EEG background, interictal epileptiform discharges, and a diagnosis of epilepsy. Subjects with electrographic status epilepticus had greater odds of in-hospital death, even after adjusting for EEG background and neurologic diagnosis category. Conclusions: Electrographic seizures are common among children in the pediatric intensive care unit, particularly those with specific risk factors. Electrographic status epilepticus occurs in more than one-third of children with electrographic seizures and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. PMID:23794680

  13. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.; Eisenstadt, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

  14. Inferring Seizure Frequency From Brief EEG Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Westover, M. Brandon; Bianchi, Matt T.; Shafi, Mouhsin; Hoch, Daniel B.; Cole, Andrew J.; Chiappa, Keith; Cash, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    Routine EEGs remain a cornerstone test in caring for people with epilepsy. Although rare, a self-limited seizure (clinical or electrographic only) may be observed during such brief EEGs. The implications of observing a seizure in this situation, especially with respect to inferring the underlying seizure frequency, are unclear. The issue is complicated by the inaccuracy of patient-reported estimations of seizure frequency. The treating clinician is often left to wonder whether the single seizure indicates very frequent seizures, or if it is of lesser significance. We applied standard concepts of probabilistic inference to a simple model of seizure incidence to provide some guidance for clinicians facing this situation. Our analysis establishes upper and lower bounds on the seizure rate implied by observing a single seizure during routine EEG. Not surprisingly, with additional information regarding the expected seizure rate, these bounds can be further constrained. This framework should aid the clinician in applying a more principled approach toward decision making in the setting of a single seizure on a routine EEG. PMID:23545768

  15. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  16. GABAergic networks jump-start focal seizures.

    PubMed

    de Curtis, Marco; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Abnormally enhanced glutamatergic excitation is commonly believed to mark the onset of a focal seizure. This notion, however, is not supported by firm evidence, and it will be challenged here. A general reduction of unit firing has been indeed observed in association with low-voltage fast activity at the onset of seizures recorded during presurgical intracranial monitoring in patients with focal, drug-resistant epilepsies. Moreover, focal seizures in animal models start with increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneuronal activity that silences principal cells. In vitro studies have shown that synchronous activation of GABAA receptors occurs at seizure onset and causes sizeable elevations in extracellular potassium, thus facilitating neuronal recruitment and seizure progression. A paradoxical involvement of GABAergic networks is required for the initiation of focal seizures characterized by low-voltage fast activity, which represents the most common seizure-onset pattern in focal epilepsies. PMID:27061793

  17. Glycolysis in energy metabolism during seizures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heng; Wu, Jiongxing; Guo, Ren; Peng, Yufen; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Ding; Song, Zhi

    2013-05-15

    Studies have shown that glycolysis increases during seizures, and that the glycolytic metabolite lactic acid can be used as an energy source. However, how lactic acid provides energy for seizures and how it can participate in the termination of seizures remains unclear. We reviewed possible mechanisms of glycolysis involved in seizure onset. Results showed that lactic acid was involved in seizure onset and provided energy at early stages. As seizures progress, lactic acid reduces the pH of tissue and induces metabolic acidosis, which terminates the seizure. The specific mechanism of lactic acid-induced acidosis involves several aspects, which include lactic acid-induced inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme 6-diphosphate kinase-1, inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, activation of the acid-sensitive 1A ion channel, strengthening of the receptive mechanism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-minobutyric acid, and changes in the intra- and extracellular environment. PMID:25206426

  18. Seizure-induced disinhibition of the HPA axis increases seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Kate K.; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility. PMID:24225328

  19. Cortical alterations in a model for absence epilepsy and febrile seizures: in vivo findings in mice carrying a human GABA(A)R gamma2 subunit mutation.

    PubMed

    Witsch, Jens; Golkowski, Daniel; Hahn, Thomas T G; Petrou, Steven; Spors, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy among children. The study of a large Australian family demonstrated that a point mutation in the gene encoding the gamma2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (G2R43Q) leads to an autosomal dominantly inherited form of CAE and febrile seizures (FS). In a transgenic mouse model carrying the gamma2 (R43Q) mutation heterozygous animals recapitulate the human phenotype. In-vitro experiments indicated that this point mutation impairs cortical inhibition and thus increases the likelihood of seizures. Here, using whole-cell (WC) and extracellular (EC) recordings as well as voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI), we systematically searched for an in vivo correlate of cortical alterations caused by the G2R43Q mutation, as suggested by the mentioned in vitro results. We measured spontaneous and whisker-evoked activity in the primary somatosensory cortex and ventral posteriomedial nucleus of the thalamus (VPM) before and after intraperitoneal injection of the ictogenic substance pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in urethane-anesthetized G2R43Q mice and controls in a blinded setting. Compared to wildtype controls in G2R43Q mice after PTZ injection we found 1.) Increased cortical spontaneous activity in layer 2/3 and layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons (increased standard deviation of the mean membrane potential in WC recordings), 2.) Increased variance of stimulus evoked cortical responses in VSDI experiments. 3.) The cortical effects are not due to increased strength or precision of thalamic output. In summary our findings support the hypothesis of a cortical pathology in this mouse model of human genetic absence epilepsy. Further study is needed to characterize underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:25731747

  20. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. PMID:25038202

  1. Molecular genetics of febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Nakayama, Junko; Hamano, Kenzo; Matsui, Akira; Arinami, Tadao

    2002-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of convulsion, occurring in 2-5% of infants in Europe and North America and in 6-9% in Japan. In large families, the febrile seizure (FS) susceptibility trait is inherited by the autosomal dominant pattern with reduced penetrance. Two putative FS loci, FEB1 (chromosome 8q13-q21) and FEB2 (chromosome 19p13.3) have been mapped. A clinical subset of FS, termed generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), was reported. In GEFS+ families, a mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel beta1 subunit gene (SCN1B) at chromosome 19q13.1 and two mutations of the same alpha1 subunit gene (SCN1A) at chromosome 2q24 were identified. These loci are linked to febrile convulsions in large families. We conducted a genome-wide linkage search for FS in one large family with subsequent linkage confirmation in 39 nuclear families using nonparametric allele-sharing methods, and found a new FS susceptibility locus, FEB4 (chromosome 5q14-q15). In contrast to the FEB1, FEB2, and GEFS+ genetic loci, linkage to FEB4 was suggested in nuclear FS families, indicating that FEB4 may be the most common linkage locus in FS families. PMID:12383277

  2. Aromatase inhibition, testosterone, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Harden, Cynthia; MacLusky, Neil J

    2004-04-01

    The effect of testosterone on brain excitability is unclear. The excitatory aspect of testosterone's action in the brain may be due to its conversion to estrogen via aromatase. We report herein a 61-year-old man with temporal lobe epilepsy and sexual dysfunction due to low testosterone levels. Use of an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, normalized his testosterone level and improved his sexual functioning. Letrozole, in addition to standard antiseizure medication, was also associated with improved seizure control. This was sustained and, further, was associated with seizure exacerbation after withdrawing letrozole, and subsequent seizure improvement after restarting it. During the course of treatment, his serum testosterone level increased, sex hormone-binding globulin decreased (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased, while serum estradiol levels remained undetectable. Letrozole may, therefore, have produced a central alteration in the testosterone/estrogen ratio, thereby impairing estrogen-mediated feedback control of the pituitary, resulting in the observed increase in circulating LH and FSH levels. This experience suggests that aromatase inhibitors should be further investigated as a beneficial treatment modality for male patients with epilepsy. PMID:15123030

  3. Neonatal Seizures: Impact on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok Kyu; Kadam, Shilpa D.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal period is the most vulnerable time for the occurrence of seizures, and neonatal seizures often pose a clinical challenge both for their acute management and frequency of associated long-term co-morbidities. Etiologies of neonatal seizures are known to play a primary role in the anti-epileptic drug responsiveness and the long-term sequelae. Recent studies have suggested that burden of acute recurrent seizures in neonates may also impact chronic outcomes independent of the etiology. However, not many studies, either clinical or pre-clinical, have addressed the long-term outcomes of neonatal seizures in an etiology-specific manner. In this review, we briefly review the available clinical and pre-clinical research for long-term outcomes following neonatal seizures. As the most frequent cause of acquired neonatal seizures, we focus on the studies evaluating long-term effects of HIE-seizures with the goal to evaluate (1) what parameters evaluated during acute stages of neonatal seizures can reliably be used to predict long-term outcomes? and (2) what available clinical and pre-clinical data are available help determine importance of etiology vs. seizure burdens in long-term sequelae. PMID:26636052

  4. Role of the hippocampus in Nav1.6 (Scn8a) mediated seizure resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lamar, Tyra; Goldin, Alan L; Escayg, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    SCN1A mutations are the main cause of the epilepsy disorders Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Mutations that reduce the activity of the mouse Scn8a gene, in contrast, are found to confer seizure resistance and extend the lifespan of mouse models of DS and GEFS+. To investigate the mechanism by which reduced Scn8a expression confers seizure resistance, we induced interictal-like burst discharges in hippocampal slices of heterozygous Scn8a null mice (Scn8amed/+) with elevated extracellular potassium. Scn8amed/+ mutants exhibited reduced epileptiform burst discharge activity after P20, indicating an age-dependent increased threshold for induction of epileptiform discharges. Scn8a deficiency also reduced the occurrence of burst discharges in a GEFS+ mouse model (Scn1aR1648H/+). There was no detectable change in the expression levels of Scn1a (Nav1.1) or Scn2a (Nav1.2) in the hippocampus of adult Scn8amed/+ mutants. To determine whether the increased seizure resistance associated with reduced Scn8a expression was due to alterations that occurred during development, we examined the effect of deleting Scn8a in adult mice. Global Cre-mediated deletion of a heterozygous floxed Scn8a allele in adult mice was found to increase thresholds to chemically and electrically induced seizures. Finally, knockdown of Scn8a gene expression in the adult hippocampus via lentiviral Cre injection resulted in a reduction in the number of EEG-confirmed seizures following the administration of picrotoxin. Our results identify the hippocampus as an important structure in the mediation of Scn8a-dependent seizure protection and suggest that selective targeting of Scn8a activity might be efficacious in patients with epilepsy. PMID:24704313

  5. Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zifkin, Benjamin G; Inoue, Yushi

    2004-01-01

    Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli may be triggered by patterned and flashing displays that are now ubiquitous. The seizures may be clinically generalized, but unilateral and bilateral myoclonic attacks also may be triggered, especially in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and recently, clearly focal reflex occipital lobe seizures have been described. Some seizure-triggering properties of video displays can be identified, such as perceived brightness, pattern, flicker frequency, and color. Knowledge of these is useful in planning individual treatment and in designing regulations for screen content of television broadcasts or for other video displays. Some subjects will also be sensitive to cognitive or action-programming activation, especially when playing video games, and this can increase the chance of seizure triggering. Nonspecific factors such as sleep deprivation, prolonged exposure, and drug or alcohol use also may play a role in reflex seizure occurrence. PMID:14706042

  6. EPSP depression following neocortical seizures in cat.

    PubMed

    Nita, Dragos A; Cissé, Youssouf; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-04-01

    To study the possible mechanism(s) underlying unresponsiveness following neocortical seizures, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of cortical neurons evoked by ipsilateral cortical stimulation before and after spontaneous or elicited seizures. Regular-spiking neurons (n = 32) were intracellularly recorded in association area five of cats under ketamine-xylazine or barbiturate anesthesia. Compared with control responses, cortically evoked EPSPs were characterized by decreased amplitude after electrographic seizures. Synaptic responses and intrinsic properties were measured by applying extracellular electrical stimuli followed by intracellular hyperpolarizing current pulses. The input resistance decreased during seizures but quickly recovered to control level after the paroxysms, whereas the amplitude of evoked EPSPs remained lower following seizures, generally for 2-12 min, suggesting that the decreased EPSPs were not due to an alteration of intrinsic response. Data demonstrate a long-lasting decreased synaptic responsiveness following generalized spike-wave seizures slowly recovering in time. PMID:18031546

  7. Glutamatergic neuron-targeted loss of LGI1 epilepsy gene results in seizures

    PubMed Central

    Boillot, Morgane; Huneau, Clément; Marsan, Elise; Lehongre, Katia; Navarro, Vincent; Ishida, Saeko; Dufresnois, Béatrice; Ozkaynak, Ekim; Garrigue, Jérôme; Miles, Richard; Martin, Benoit; Leguern, Eric; Anderson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Leucin-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted protein linked to human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune aetiology. Mutations in the LGI1 gene are responsible for autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features, whereas LGI1 autoantibodies are involved in limbic encephalitis, an acquired epileptic disorder associated with cognitive impairment. We and others previously reported that Lgi1-deficient mice have early-onset spontaneous seizures leading to premature death at 2–3 weeks of age. Yet, where and when Lgi1 deficiency causes epilepsy remains unknown. To address these questions, we generated Lgi1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice using a set of universal Cre-driver mouse lines. Selective deletion of Lgi1 was achieved in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons during embryonic (Emx1-Lgi1cKO) or late postnatal (CaMKIIα-Lgi1cKO) developmental stages, or in gamma amino butyric acidergic (GABAergic) parvalbumin interneurons (PV-Lgi1cKO). Emx1-Lgi1cKO mice displayed early-onset and lethal seizures, whereas CaMKIIα-Lgi1cKO mice presented late-onset occasional seizures associated with variable reduced lifespan. In contrast, neither spontaneous seizures nor increased seizure susceptibility to convulsant were observed when Lgi1 was deleted in parvalbumin interneurons. Together, these data showed that LGI1 depletion restricted to pyramidal cells is sufficient to generate seizures, whereas seizure thresholds were unchanged after depletion in gamma amino butyric acidergic parvalbumin interneurons. We suggest that LGI1 secreted from excitatory neurons, but not parvalbumin inhibitory neurons, makes a major contribution to the pathogenesis of LGI1-related epilepsies. Our data further indicate that LGI1 is required from embryogenesis to adulthood to achieve proper circuit functioning. PMID:25234641

  8. Behavior of children with seizures. Comparison with norms and effect of seizure type.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Werry, J S; Turbott, S H

    1992-02-01

    Scores for 112 children aged 6 to 12 years, with well-controlled seizures and of average or higher IQ, were compared for problem behavior with established norms. As assessed on the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale, the group with seizures was comparable to the normative group on two subscales and superior on two others. In contrast, parents of children in the seizure group rated them as significantly worse on all six subscales of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist. In a larger group of 133 children with seizures, from which this sample was selected, the relationship of age, sex, and seizure type to behavior problems was examined. Subjects with partial seizures were rated as slightly more aggressive and antisocial than those with generalized seizures. Findings were discussed in regard to differences in perception of behavior by parents and teachers and the possible relevance of seizure type to the expression of behavior problems. PMID:1737974

  9. Seizure Recognition and Observation: A Guide for Allied Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epilepsy Foundation of America, Landover, MD.

    Intended for allied health professionals, this guide provides information on seizure recognition and classification to help them assist the patient, the family, and the treating physician in obtaining control of epileptic seizures. A section on seizure recognition describes epilepsy and seizures, covering seizure classification and the causes of…

  10. Emergency Management of Seizures in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to…

  11. Orgasm Induced Seizures: A Rare Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Chaukimath, SP; Patil, PS

    2015-01-01

    A variety of stimuli can cause reflex seizures, Some triggers include light, music and cognitive phenomenon. There are case reports however where the phenomenon of sexual activity has been a trigger for epileptic seizures. Most of these cases reported are in women so far, and were found to be localized to right cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of a 36-year-old male with orgasm-induced seizures, with other atypical features compared to majority of previous reports. PMID:27057393

  12. Breakthrough seizures after starting vilazodone for depression.

    PubMed

    McKean, James; Watts, Hannah; Mokszycki, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Vilazodone is a new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and serotonin 5-HT1a partial agonist that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration to treat major depression. SSRI-induced seizures are rare and are more likely to be associated with larger doses and severe symptoms such as those present in serotonin syndrome. Several case reports have implicated SSRIs, buspirone, or the combination of these agents as the cause of seizures, but these reports were confounded with either coingestions or doses that exceeded FDA recommendations. We describe a 22-year-old woman with a history of seizure disorder who had been seizure free for the previous 8 years and experienced two breakthrough seizures shortly after starting vilazodone. Her dose of vilazodone had recently been titrated to 40 mg/day when she experienced the first seizure. She was instructed to taper vilazodone over the next several days, then discontinue the drug, and then follow up with her neurologist. Based on the patient's history, physical examination, and recent dose increase, it was plausible that vilazodone was the cause of the seizures. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a possible relationship (score of 4) between her development of seizures and vilazodone therapy. The pharmacodynamics of this particular class of SSRI has both proconvulsive and anticonvulsive mechanisms. This is of particular concern in patients with a history of seizure disorder who are starting antidepressive therapy. In persons with epilepsy who are taking vilazodone and experience breakthrough seizures, practitioners should consider this drug as a potential cause of these seizures. Thus, until future research and experience with vilazodone can provide a definitive answer, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing this medication to treat depression in patients with a history of seizure disorder. PMID:25809181

  13. Orgasm Induced Seizures: A Rare Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chaukimath, S P; Patil, P S

    2015-01-01

    A variety of stimuli can cause reflex seizures, Some triggers include light, music and cognitive phenomenon. There are case reports however where the phenomenon of sexual activity has been a trigger for epileptic seizures. Most of these cases reported are in women so far, and were found to be localized to right cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of a 36-year-old male with orgasm-induced seizures, with other atypical features compared to majority of previous reports. PMID:27057393

  14. 43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States,...

  15. 43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States,...

  16. 43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States,...

  17. 43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States,...

  18. 43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands owned or controlled by the United States,...

  19. Treatment of drug-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Yi; Albertson, Timothy E; Olson, Kent R

    2016-03-01

    Seizures are a common complication of drug intoxication, and up to 9% of status epilepticus cases are caused by a drug or poison. While the specific drugs associated with drug-induced seizures may vary by geography and change over time, common reported causes include antidepressants, stimulants and antihistamines. Seizures occur generally as a result of inadequate inhibitory influences (e.g., gamma aminobutyric acid, GABA) or excessive excitatory stimulation (e.g. glutamate) although many other neurotransmitters play a role. Most drug-induced seizures are self-limited. However, status epilepticus occurs in up to 10% of cases. Prolonged or recurrent seizures can lead to serious complications and require vigorous supportive care and anticonvulsant drugs. Benzodiazepines are generally accepted as the first line anticonvulsant therapy for drug-induced seizures. If benzodiazepines fail to halt seizures promptly, second line drugs include barbiturates and propofol. If isoniazid poisoning is a possibility, pyridoxine is given. Continuous infusion of one or more anticonvulsants may be required in refractory status epilepticus. There is no role for phenytoin in the treatment of drug-induced seizures. The potential role of ketamine and levetiracetam is promising but not established. PMID:26174744

  20. Search and Seizure in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under…

  1. Focal cooling rapidly terminates experimental neocortical seizures.

    PubMed

    Yang, X F; Rothman, S M

    2001-06-01

    The efficacy of surgical resection for epilepsy is considerably lower for neocortical epilepsy than for temporal lobe epilepsy. We have explored focal cooling with a thermoelectric (Peltier) device as a potential therapy for neocortical epilepsy. After creating a cranial window in anesthetized rats, we induced seizures by injecting artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a potassium channel blocker. Within 30 minutes of 4-AP injection, animals developed recurrent seizures (duration 85.7 +/- 26.2 seconds; n = 10 rats) that persisted for 2 hours. When a small Peltier device cooled the exposed cortical surface to 20-25 degrees C at seizure onset, the seizure duration was reduced to 8.4 +/- 5.0 seconds (n = 10 rats; p < 0.001). When the Peltier device was placed close to the cortical surface, but not allowed to make physical contact, there was no effect on seizure duration (104.3 +/- 20.7 seconds; p > 0.05 compared to control). Interestingly, the duration of uncooled seizures was reduced after we allowed the cortex to rewarm from prior cooling. Histological examination of the cortex after cooling has shown no evidence of acute or delayed neuronal injury, and blood pressure and temperature remained stable. It may be possible to use Peltier devices for cortical mapping or, when seizure detection algorithms improve, for chronic seizure control. PMID:11409423

  2. Seizure prediction for therapeutic devices: A review.

    PubMed

    Gadhoumi, Kais; Lina, Jean-Marc; Mormann, Florian; Gotman, Jean

    2016-02-15

    Research in seizure prediction has come a long way since its debut almost 4 decades ago. Early studies suffered methodological caveats leading to overoptimistic results and lack of statistical significance. The publication of guidelines addressing mainly the question of performance evaluation and statistical validation in seizure prediction helped revising the status of the field. While many studies failed to prove that above chance prediction is possible by applying these guidelines, other studies were successful. Methods based on EEG analysis using linear and nonlinear measures were reportedly successful in detecting preictal changes and using them to predict seizures above chance. In this review, we present a selection of studies in seizure prediction published in the last decade. The studies were selected based on the validity of the methods and the statistical significance of performance results. These results varied between studies and many showed acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity that could be appealing for therapeutic devices. The relatively large prediction horizon and early preictal changes reported in most studies suggest that seizure prediction may work better in closed loop seizure control devices rather than as seizure advisory devices. The emergence of a large database of annotated long-term EEG recordings should help prospective assessment of prediction methods. Some questions remain to be addressed before large clinical trials involving seizure prediction can be carried out. PMID:26099549

  3. A method for deciding about the possible safety of modafinil and armodafinil in patients with seizure disorder.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Modafinil or armodafinil (ar/mod) may be considered for patients with approved or unapproved indications, including excessive daytime drowsiness, fatigue, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or addictions. Ar/mod is classified as a psychostimulant, and psychostimulants have been associated with a small risk of seizures. There is no guidance about the use of ar/mod in patients who are at risk of seizures. This article suggests how a physician may explore the safety of ar/mod if indicated in a patient at such risk. In summary, reading the prescribing information, writing to the drug manufacturer, and searching research databases suggest the following: Ar/mod and its metabolites and derivatives have dose-dependent anticonvulsant action in animal models; ar/mod is not associated with seizures as an adverse event in populations at risk, such as those with ADHD, head injury, and brain tumors; it is not associated with worsening of seizure disorder in patients with current seizure disorder; and it is not associated with seizures in overdose. These findings are reassuring. However, not all the data are of high quality, and potential ar/mod interactions with antiepileptic drugs (and other concurrent medications that affect the seizure threshold) need to be considered because ar/mod can induce the metabolism of some drugs and inhibit the metabolism of others. Decisions should be individualized, and decision-making should be a shared effort between patient and physician. PMID:26845275

  4. Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. PMID:26724401

  5. Pharmacodynamics of SMP-601 (PTZ601) against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neutropenic Murine Thigh Infection Models▿

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Ken; Kanazawa, Katsunori; Eriguchi, Yoshiro; Ueda, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    SMP-601 (also known as PTZ601, PZ-601, or SM-216601) is a novel parenteral carbapenem with potent activity against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The pharmacodynamics of SMP-601 against VREF and MRSA were investigated in neutropenic murine thigh infection models. The percentage of the dosing interval that the unbound SMP-601 concentration exceeded the MIC (f%T>MIC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameter that correlated most closely with efficacy with R2 values of 0.81 to 0.84 for two strains of VREF and 0.92 to 0.93 for two strains of MRSA, whereas the R2 values for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h divided by the MIC were 0.12 to 0.89, and the R2 values for the peak level divided by the MIC were 0 to 0.22. The f%T>MIC levels required for static or killing efficacy against two strains of VREF (9 to 19%) apparently were lower than those against two strains of MRSA (23 to 37%). These results suggested that SMP-601 showed time-dependent in vivo efficacy against VREF and MRSA, and SMP-601 had a sufficient therapeutic effect against VREF infections at lower exposure conditions compared to those for with MRSA infections. PMID:19487438

  6. Ketone Bodies Mediate Anti-Seizure Effects Through Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Simeone, Kristina A.; Simeone, Timothy A.; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Wilke, Julianne C.; Ahn, Younghee; Geddes, James W.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Rho, Jong M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ketone bodies (KB) are products of fatty acid oxidation and serve as essential fuels during fasting or treatment with the high-fat anti-seizure ketogenic diet (KD). Despite growing evidence that KB exert broad neuroprotective effects, their role in seizure control has not been firmly demonstrated. The major goal of this study was to demonstrate the direct anti-seizure effects of KB and to identify an underlying target mechanism. Methods We studied the effects of both the KD and KB in spontaneously epileptic Kcna1-null mice using a combination of behavioral, planar multi-electrode, and standard cellular electophysiological techniques. Thresholds for mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) were determined in acutely isolated brain mitochondria. Results KB alone were sufficient to: (1) exert anti-seizure effects in Kcna1-null mice; (2) restore intrinsic impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning-memory defects in Kcna1-null mutants; and (3) raise the threshold for calcium-induced mPT in acutely prepared mitochondria from hippocampi of Kcna1-null animals. Targeted deletion of the cyclophilin D (CypD) subunit of the mPT complex abrogated the effects of KB on mPT, and in vivo pharmacological inhibition and activation of mPT were found to mirror and reverse, respectively, the anti-seizure effects of the KD in Kcna1-null mice. Interpretation The present data reveal the first direct link between mPT and seizure control, and provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the KD. Given that mPT is increasingly being implicated in diverse neurological disorders, our results suggest that metabolism-based treatments and/or metabolic substrates might represent a worthy paradigm for therapeutic development. PMID:25899847

  7. The many etiologies of neonatal hypocalcemic seizures.

    PubMed

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; Dallalzadeh, Keren; Stern, Keren; Paret, Gideon; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit

    2015-03-01

    Seizures during the neonatal period have a broad differential diagnosis. Unlike in developing countries where hypovitaminosis D and hypocalcemia constitutes a major cause of infantile seizures, the number of neonatal seizures attributed to hypocalcemia in developed countries has decreased dramatically due to the improvement of infant formulas and vitamin D supplementation. In these countries, most infants that present with hypocalcemic seizures have underlying endocrinological etiologies rather than dietary insufficiencies. Here, we describe 3 cases of neonatal seizures due to hypocalcemia. Although the symptoms and calcium concentrations at presentation were similar in all 3 cases, the course of the disease and the final diagnosis for each were distinct. The cases are presented along with a brief review of the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of neonatal hypocalcemia. PMID:25738238

  8. From migraine to epilepsy: a threshold mechanism?

    PubMed

    Dainese, Filippo; Mainardi, Federico; Zanchin, Giorgio; Paladin, Francesco

    2012-08-01

    A 67-year-old man complained of a transient blurring of vision in his right visual field lasting 30 min followed by headache. Two weeks later, the visual disturbance changed its pattern; it was described as the occurrence of brown round-shaped images in the right visual field spinning and turning for few seconds. This evolution from visual aura to visual seizures, with video-EEG correlation, supports the hypothesis of modification in threshold of cortical hyperexcitability from migraine to epilepsy. PMID:22080383

  9. Neuronal Ensemble Synchrony during Human Focal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omar J.; Harrison, Matthew T.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Madsen, Joseph R.; Blum, Andrew S.; Potter, N. Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are classically characterized as the expression of hypersynchronous neural activity, yet the true degree of synchrony in neuronal spiking (action potentials) during human seizures remains a fundamental question. We quantified the temporal precision of spike synchrony in ensembles of neocortical neurons during seizures in people with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Two seizure types were analyzed: those characterized by sustained gamma (∼40–60 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations or by spike-wave complexes (SWCs; ∼3 Hz). Fine (<10 ms) temporal synchrony was rarely present during gamma-band seizures, where neuronal spiking remained highly irregular and asynchronous. In SWC seizures, phase locking of neuronal spiking to the SWC spike phase induced synchrony at a coarse 50–100 ms level. In addition, transient fine synchrony occurred primarily during the initial ∼20 ms period of the SWC spike phase and varied across subjects and seizures. Sporadic coherence events between neuronal population spike counts and LFPs were observed during SWC seizures in high (∼80 Hz) gamma-band and during high-frequency oscillations (∼130 Hz). Maximum entropy models of the joint neuronal spiking probability, constrained only on single neurons' nonstationary coarse spiking rates and local network activation, explained most of the fine synchrony in both seizure types. Our findings indicate that fine neuronal ensemble synchrony occurs mostly during SWC, not gamma-band, seizures, and primarily during the initial phase of SWC spikes. Furthermore, these fine synchrony events result mostly from transient increases in overall neuronal network spiking rates, rather than changes in precise spiking correlations between specific pairs of neurons. PMID:25057195

  10. Early detection of human focal seizures based on cortical multiunit activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun S; Hochberg, Leigh R; Eskandar, Emad N; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 50 million people in the world suffer from epileptic seizures. Reliable early seizure detection could bring significantly beneficial therapeutic alternatives. In recent decades, most approaches have relied on scalp EEG and intracranial EEG signals, but practical early detection for closed-loop seizure control remains challenging. In this study, we present preliminary analyses of an early detection approach based on intracortical neuronal multiunit activity (MUA) recorded from a 96-microelectrode array (MEA). The approach consists of (1) MUA detection from broadband field potentials recorded at 30 kHz by the MEA; (2) MUA feature extraction; (3) cost-sensitive support vector machine classification of ictal and interictal samples; and (4) Kalman-filtering postprocessing. MUA was here defined as the number of threshold crossing (spike counts) applied to the 300 Hz-6 kHz bandpass filtered local field potentials in 0.1 sec time windows. MUA features explored in this study included the mean, variance, and Fano-factor, computed across the MEA channels. In addition, we used the leading eigenvalues of MUA spatial and temporal correlation matrices computed in 1-sec moving time windows. We assessed the seizure detection approach on out-of-sample data from one-participant recordings with six seizure events and 4.73-hour interictal data. The proposed MUA-based detection approach yielded a 100% sensitivity (6/6) and no false positives, and a latency of 4.17 ± 2.27 sec (mean ± SD) with respect to ECoG-identified seizure onsets. These preliminary results indicate intracortical MUA may be a useful signal for early detection of human epileptic seizures. PMID:25571313

  11. Quickest detection of drug-resistant seizures: An optimal control approach

    PubMed Central

    Santaniello, Sabato; Burns, Samuel P.; Golby, Alexandra J.; Singer, Jedediah M.; Anderson, William S.; Sarma, Sridevi V.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy affects 50 million people worldwide, and seizures in 30% of the cases remain drug resistant. This has increased interest in responsive neurostimulation, which is most effective when administered during seizure onset. We propose a novel framework for seizure onset detection that involves (i) constructing statistics from multichannel intracranial EEG (iEEG) to distinguish nonictal versus ictal states; (ii) modeling the dynamics of these statistics in each state and the state transitions; you can remove this word if there is no room. (iii) developing an optimal control-based “quickest detection” (QD) strategy to estimate the transition times from nonictal to ictal states from sequential iEEG measurements. The QD strategy minimizes a cost function of detection delay and false positive probability. The solution is a threshold that non-monotonically decreases over time and avoids responding to rare events that normally trigger false positives. We applied QD to four drug resistant epileptic patients (168 hour continuous recordings, 26–44 electrodes, 33 seizures) and achieved 100% sensitivity with low false positive rates (0.16 false positive/hour). This article is part of a Supplemental Special Issue entitled The Future of Automated Seizure Detection and Prediction. PMID:22078519

  12. Early Seizure Detection Using Neuronal Potential Similarity: A Generalized Low-Complexity and Robust Measure.

    PubMed

    Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Rasekhi, Jalil; Teixeira, Cesar A; Netoff, Theoden I; Parhi, Keshab K; Dourado, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    A novel approach using neuronal potential similarity (NPS) of two intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) electrodes placed over the foci is proposed for automated early seizure detection in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. The NPS measure is obtained from the spectral analysis of space-differential iEEG signals. Ratio between the NPS values obtained from two specific frequency bands is then investigated as a robust generalized measure, and reveals invaluable information about seizure initiation trends. A threshold-based classifier is subsequently applied on the proposed measure to generate alarms. The performance of the method was evaluated using cross-validation on a large clinical dataset, involving 183 seizure onsets in 1785 h of long-term continuous iEEG recordings of 11 patients. On average, the results show a high sensitivity of 86.9% (159 out of 183), a very low false detection rate of 1.4 per day, and a mean detection latency of 13.1 s from electrographic seizure onsets, while in average preceding clinical onsets by 6.3 s. These high performance results, specifically the short detection latency, coupled with the very low computational cost of the proposed method make it adequate for using in implantable closed-loop seizure suppression systems. PMID:25997912

  13. Temporal epilepsy seizures monitoring and prediction using cross-correlation and chaos theory

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Hamida, Naim; Talbi, Larbi; Lakhssassi, Ahmed; Aouini, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Temporal seizures due to hippocampal origins are very common among epileptic patients. Presented is a novel seizure prediction approach employing correlation and chaos theories. The early identification of seizure signature allows for various preventive measures to be undertaken. Electro-encephalography signals are spectrally broken down into the following sub-bands: delta; theta; alpha; beta; and gamma. The proposed approach consists of observing a high correlation level between any pair of electrodes for the lower frequencies and a decrease in the Lyapunov index (chaos or entropy) for the higher frequencies. Power spectral density and statistical analysis tools were used to determine threshold levels for the lower frequencies. After studying all five sub-bands, the analysis has revealed that the seizure signature can be extracted from the delta band and the high frequencies. High frequencies are defined as both the gamma band and the ripples occurring within the 60–120 Hz sub-band. To validate the proposed approach, six patients from both sexes and various age groups with temporal epilepsies originating from the hippocampal area were studied using the Freiburg database. An average seizure prediction of 30 min, an anticipation accuracy of 72%, and a false-positive rate of 0% were accomplished throughout 200 h of recording time. PMID:26609376

  14. Nonepileptic seizures: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Perez, David L; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-06-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a functional neurological disorder/conversion disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management, and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions, and outcome studies. Epidemiology and healthcare utilization studies highlight a continued unmet medical need in the comprehensive care of PNES. Consensus guidelines for diagnostic certainty are based on clinical history, semiology of witnessed typical event(s), and EEG findings. While certain semiologic features may aid in the diagnosis of PNES, the gold standard remains capturing a typical event on video electroencephalography (EEG) showing the absence of epileptiform activity with history and semiology consistent with PNES. Medical-neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in PNES; these should be assessed in diagnostic evaluations and integrated into treatment interventions and prognostic considerations. Several studies, including a pilot, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, have now demonstrated that a cognitive behavioral therapy-informed psychotherapy is an efficacious treatment for PNES, and additional efforts are necessary to evaluate the utility of pharmacologic and other psychotherapy treatments. Neuroimaging studies, while requiring replication, suggest that PNES may occur in the context of alterations within and across sensorimotor, emotion regulation/processing, cognitive control, and multimodal integration brain systems. Future research could investigate similarities and differences between PNES and other somatic symptom disorders. PMID:26996600

  15. Oxaliplatin-Induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Truong, Phu V.; Kallail, K. James

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI). After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES. PMID:26491586

  16. ATPergic signalling during seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Engel, Tobias; Alves, Mariana; Sheedy, Caroline; Henshall, David C

    2016-05-01

    Much progress has been made over the last few decades in the identification of new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). However, 30% of epilepsy patients suffer poor seizure control. This underscores the need to identify alternative druggable neurotransmitter systems and drugs with novel mechanisms of action. An emerging concept is that seizure generation involves a complex interplay between neurons and glial cells at the tripartite synapse and neuroinflammation has been proposed as one of the main drivers of epileptogenesis. The ATP-gated purinergic receptor family is expressed throughout the brain and is functional on neurons and glial cells. ATP is released in high amounts into the extracellular space after increased neuronal activity and during chronic inflammation and cell death to act as a neuro- and gliotransmitter. Emerging work shows pharmacological targeting of ATP-gated purinergic P2 receptors can potently modulate seizure generation, inflammatory processes and seizure-induced brain damage. To date, work showing the functional contribution of P2 receptors has been mainly performed in animal models of acute seizures, in particular, by targeting the ionotropic P2X7 receptor subtype. Other ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptor family members have also been implicated in pathological processes following seizures such as the P2X4 receptor and the P2Y12 receptor. However, during epilepsy, the characterization of P2 receptors was mostly restricted to the study of expressional changes of the different receptor subtypes. This review summarizes the work to date on ATP-mediated signalling during seizures and the functional impact of targeting the ATP-gated purinergic receptors on seizures and seizure-induced pathology. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration'. PMID:26549853

  17. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment. PMID:25082395

  18. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  19. Hallervorden–Spatz Syndrome with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Gothwal, Sunil; Nayan, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a disorder characterized by dystonia, parkinsonism, and iron accumulation in the brain. The disease is caused by mutations in gene encoding pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) and patients have pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We present an 8-year-old boy with progressive muscle dystonia, neuroregression, frequent fall and multiple injury marks of different stages. Seizures are rare with PANK2. This child had seizure onset at 4 years of age and seizure free on valproate and levetricetam. The CT scan showed tiger eye appearance and mutations on PANK2 gene. PMID:27303611

  20. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

  1. Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome with Seizures.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Sunil; Nayan, Swati

    2016-04-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a disorder characterized by dystonia, parkinsonism, and iron accumulation in the brain. The disease is caused by mutations in gene encoding pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) and patients have pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We present an 8-year-old boy with progressive muscle dystonia, neuroregression, frequent fall and multiple injury marks of different stages. Seizures are rare with PANK2. This child had seizure onset at 4 years of age and seizure free on valproate and levetricetam. The CT scan showed tiger eye appearance and mutations on PANK2 gene. PMID:27303611

  2. Alterations in sociability and functional brain connectivity caused by early-life seizures are prevented by bumetanide.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L; Tian, Chengju; Hernan, Amanda E; Flynn, Sean; Camp, Devon; Barry, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    There is a well-described association between infantile epilepsy and pervasive cognitive and behavioral deficits, including a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders. Despite the robustness of the relationship between early-life seizures and the development of autism, the pathophysiological mechanism by which this occurs has not been explored. As a result of increasing evidence that autism is a disorder of brain connectivity we hypothesized that early-life seizures would interrupt normal brain connectivity during brain maturation and result in an autistic phenotype. Normal rat pups underwent recurrent flurothyl-induced seizures from postnatal (P)days 5-14 and then tested, along with controls, for developmental alterations of development brain oscillatory activity from P18-P25. Specifically we wished to understand how normal changes in rhythmicity in and between brain regions change as a function of age and if this rhythmicity is altered or interrupted by early life seizures. In rat pups with early-life seizures, field recordings from dorsal and ventral hippocampus and prefrontal cortex demonstrated marked increase in coherence as well as a decrease in voltage correlation at all bandwidths compared to controls while there were minimal differences in total power and relative power spectral densities. Rats with early-life seizures had resulting impairment in the sociability and social novelty tests but demonstrated no evidence of increased activity or generalized anxiety as measured in the open field. In addition, rats with early-life seizures had lower seizure thresholds than controls, indicating long-standing alterations in the excitatory/inhibition balance. Bumetanide, a pharmacological agent that blocks the activity of NKCC1 and induces a significant shift of ECl toward more hyperpolarized values, administration at the time of the seizures precluded the subsequent abnormalities in coherence and voltage correlation and resulted in normal sociability and seizure

  3. Alterations in Sociability and Functional Brain Connectivity Caused by Early-Life Seizures is Reversed by Bumetanide

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Tian, Chengju; Hernan, Amanda E.; Flynn, Sean; Camp, Devon; Barry, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-described association between infantile epilepsy and pervasive cognitive and behavioral deficits, including a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders. Despite the robustness of the relationship between early-life seizures and the development of autism, the pathophysiological mechanism by which this occurs has not been explored. As a result of increasing evidence that autism is a disorder of brain connectivity we hypothesized that early-life seizures would interrupt normal brain connectivity during brain maturation and result in an autistic phenotype. Normal rat pups underwent recurrent flurothyl-induced seizures from postnatal (P) day 5-14 and then tested, along with controls, for developmental alterations of development brain oscillatory activity from P18-25. Specifically we wished to understand how normal changes in rhythmicity in and between brain regions change as a function of age and if this rhythmicity is altered or interrupted by early life seizures. In rat pups with early-life seizures, field recordings from dorsal and ventral hippocampus and prefrontal cortex demonstrated marked increase in coherence as well as a decrease in voltage correlation at all bandwidths compared to controls while there were minimal differences in total power and relative power spectral densities. Rats with early-life seizures had resulting impairment in the sociability and social novelty tests but demonstrated no evidence of increased activity or generalized anxiety as measured in the open field. In addition, rats with early-life seizures had lower seizure thresholds than controls, indicating long-standing alterations in the excitatory/inhibition balance. Bumetanide, a pharmacological agent that blocks the activity of NKCC1 and induces a significant shift of ECl toward more hyperpolarized values, administration at the time of the seizures precluded the subsequent abnormalities in coherence and voltage correlation and resulted in normal sociability and seizure

  4. Provocation of nonepileptic seizures by suggestion in a general seizure population.

    PubMed

    Bazil, C W; Kothari, M; Luciano, D; Moroney, J; Song, S; Vasquez, B; Weinreb, H J; Devinsky, O

    1994-01-01

    Nonepileptic seizures (NES) are common and are often diagnosed at epilepsy centers by video-EEG recording of both spontaneous and suggestion-induced episodes, but no study has evaluated provocative testing in a general seizure population. We studied consecutive patients with a tentative diagnosis of epilepsy using saline provocation during video-EEG recording, suggesting that this could produce a typical seizure. Of 52 patients, 40% had no response, 23% had responses unlike their seizures, and 37% had typical episodes (positive test). Patients whose usual episodes resembled complex partial seizures (CPS) were more likely to have NES than were patients with a history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Of patients with positive provocations, the primary physician predicted NES in 68% of cases. This preliminary study suggests that NES are frequent in a general neurology setting, and that saline provocation is a sensitive method of identifying NES. PMID:8082620

  5. 19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a...) Seizure by state or local authorities. In a case in which property is seized by a state or local law... sent not more than 90 calendar days after the date of seizure by the State or local law...

  6. 19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a...) Seizure by state or local authorities. In a case in which property is seized by a state or local law... sent not more than 90 calendar days after the date of seizure by the State or local law...

  7. 19 CFR 162.22 - Seizure of conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure of conveyances. 162.22 Section 162.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.22 Seizure of conveyances. (a)...

  8. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  9. Increasing Epilepsy Awareness in Schools: A Seizure Smart Schools Project.

    PubMed

    Brook, Heather A; Hiltz, Cynthia M; Kopplin, Vicki L; Lindeke, Linda L

    2015-08-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26) were trained as seizure management educators and instructed staff in 21 schools on seizure awareness and response. School nurses utilized new seizure management resources, a procedural guideline, and care plan updates. The majority of school nurses rated the resources and training interventions as "very helpful." School nurse confidence in managing students with seizures increased, seizure action plan use increased, and 88% of children's records with new seizure diagnoses had completed documentation. School nurses played vital roles in increasing seizure awareness as educators and care managers. EFMN is using this project as an exemplar for expanding its Seizure Smart Schools program. PMID:25589403

  10. Influence of vigilance state on physiological consequences of seizures and seizure-induced death in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Michael A; Buchanan, Gordon F

    2016-05-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. SUDEP occurs more commonly during nighttime sleep. The details of why SUDEP occurs at night are not well understood. Understanding why SUDEP occurs at night during sleep might help to better understand why SUDEP occurs at all and hasten development of preventive strategies. Here we aimed to understand circumstances causing seizures that occur during sleep to result in death. Groups of 12 adult male mice were instrumented for EEG, EMG, and EKG recording and subjected to seizure induction via maximal electroshock (MES) during wakefulness, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Seizure inductions were performed with concomitant EEG, EMG, and EKG recording and breathing assessment via whole body plethysmography. Seizures induced via MES during sleep were associated with more profound respiratory suppression and were more likely to result in death. Despite REM sleep being a time when seizures do not typically occur spontaneously, when seizures were forced to occur during REM sleep, they were invariably fatal in this model. An examination of baseline breathing revealed that mice that died following a seizure had increased baseline respiratory rate variability compared with those that did not die. These data demonstrate that sleep, especially REM sleep, can be a dangerous time for a seizure to occur. These data also demonstrate that there may be baseline respiratory abnormalities that can predict which individuals have higher risk for seizure-induced death. PMID:26888097

  11. Alfentanil anesthetic augmentation lengthens seizure duration in electroconvulsive therapy with older people.

    PubMed

    D'Cunha, Craig; Plakiotis, Christos; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2016-06-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) prescription rates rise with age, making it important that treatments be made as effective and safe as possible (Plakiotis et al., 2012). Older people are vulnerable to post-treatment confusion and to subsequent deficits in attention, new learning, and autobiographical memory (Gardner and O'Connor, 2008). Strategies to minimize cognitive side-effects include unilateral electrode placement and stimulus dose titration whereby electrical charge is individually calibrated to seizure threshold (Sackeim et al., 2000). It remains the case, however, that threshold levels typically rise over the treatment course, leading to an increase both in delivered charge and the risk of adverse sequelae. PMID:26847795

  12. Analysis of epileptic seizures with complex network.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan; Wang, Yinghua; Yu, Tao; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of abnormal neural activities involving large area of brain networks. Until now the nature of functional brain network associated with epilepsy is still unclear. Recent researches indicate that the small world or scale-free attributes and the occurrence of highly clustered connection patterns could represent a general organizational principle in the human brain functional network. In this paper, we seek to find whether the small world or scale-free property of brain network is correlated with epilepsy seizure formation. A mass neural model was adopted to generate multiple channel EEG recordings based on regular, small world, random, and scale-free network models. Whether the connection patterns of cortical networks are directly associated with the epileptic seizures was investigated. The results showed that small world and scale-free cortical networks are highly correlated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures. In particular, the property of small world network is more significant during the epileptic seizures. PMID:25147576

  13. Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

  14. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  15. Endogenous neurosteroid synthesis modulates seizure frequency.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Courtney; Martin, Brandon Scott; Sun, Chengsan; Williamson, John; Kapur, Jaideep

    2010-05-01

    Inhibitory neurosteroids, molecules generated in glia from circulating steroid hormones and de novo from cholesterol, keep seizures in check in epileptic animals. They can enhance inhibitory transmission mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and have anticonvulsant action. PMID:20437568

  16. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  17. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid findings after epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate ictally-induced CSF parameter changes after seizures in adult patients without acute inflammatory diseases or infectious diseases associated with the central nervous system. In total, 151 patients were included in the study. All patients were admitted to our department of neurology following acute seizures and received an extensive work-up including EEG, cerebral imaging, and CSF examinations. CSF protein elevation was found in most patients (92; 60.9%) and was significantly associated with older age, male sex, and generalized seizures. Abnormal CSF-to-serum glucose ratio was found in only nine patients (5.9%) and did not show any significant associations. CSF lactate was elevated in 34 patients (22.5%) and showed a significant association with focal seizures with impaired consciousness, status epilepticus, the presence of EEG abnormalities in general and epileptiform potentials in particular, as well as epileptogenic lesions on cerebral imaging. Our results indicate that non-inflammatory CSF elevation of protein and lactate after epileptic seizures is relatively common, in contrast to changes in CSF-to-serum glucose ratio, and further suggest that these changes are caused by ictal activity and are related to seizure type and intensity. We found no indication that these changes may have further-reaching pathological implications besides their postictal character. PMID:26575850

  19. Monitor for status epilepticus seizures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

  20. Instability detector of a fragile neural network: application to seizure detection in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ehrens, Daniel; Sritharan, Duluxan; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that the epileptic cortex is fragile in the sense that seizures manifest through small perturbations in the synaptic connections that render the entire cortical network unstable. Therefore, one method for detecting seizures is to detect when the neuronal network has gone unstable. This is important for implementing a closed-loop therapy to suppress seizures. In this paper, we consider a widely used nonlinear stochastic model of a neuronal network, and assume that spiking dynamics during non-seizure periods correspond to certain synaptic connections that render its fixed point stable. We then apply a minimum energy perturbation theory we recently developed for networks to determine the changes in the most fragile node's synaptic connections that make the same fixed point unstable (our model during seizure). Then a detector is designed as follows. First a 2-state HMM is constructed (stable=state 1 and unstable=state 2) with fixed state transition probabilities, where the output observation is the firing rate of the most fragile node in the network. The output density functions are assumed to be Gaussian with parameters computed using maximum likelihood estimation on data generated from the nonlinear network model in each state. Then, to detect a transition from stable to unstable, spiking activity is simulated in all nodes from the nonlinear model. The detector first measures the firing rate of the fragile node, and computes the derivative of the cumulative likelihood ratio of the observed firing rate from the HMM's output distributions. When the derivative exceeds a certain threshold, a transition to the unstable state is detected. Various thresholds were tested when firing rate was computed by averaging over a different number of windows of different lengths. High performance was achieved and a tradeoff was found between the accuracy of the detector and the detection delay. PMID:25571501

  1. Threshold quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.

  2. Ketogenic diet protects against epileptogenesis as well as neuronal loss in amygdaloid-kindling seizures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Yao; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Man-Man; Wen, Shu-Qun; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Ketogenic diets (KD) have shown beneficial effects in terms of anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenic properties in several experimental models. However, few studies have investigated the consequences of KD with regards to the anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects in kindling-induced seizures. Here, postnatal day 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats received one of two experimental diets for 4 weeks: (a) a 'classic' 4:1 KD; and (b) a normal regular rodent chow diet (ND). Fully-kindled seizures were achieved by daily electrical stimulation in the amygdala. Seizure stage and after-discharge duration (ADD) were assessed daily. The after-discharge threshold (ADT) was measured every 5 days. The effects of the two diets on neuronal loss were observed before kindling and 20 days after stimulation by Nissl staining. We found that the progression of seizure stage and ADD was delayed by KD. KD prevented the ADT decrease on day 5. The incidence of generalized seizures was lower in the KD group compared to the ND group. The neuronal density was decreased in the ipsilateral hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 area, as well as the contralateral CA1 area before kindling in the KD group. However, KD prevented neuronal loss in the ipsilateral CA1 area 20 days after stimulation. Our data suggest that KD can protect against epileptogenesis by preventing both after-discharge generation and propagation in kindling seizures. In addition, KD also possesses a neuroprotective function during kindling although it changes hippocampal development in early life. PMID:22178860

  3. Increased persistent Na+ current contributes to seizure in the slamdance bang-sensitive Drosophila mutant

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is clinical need to extend the understanding of epilepsy and to find novel approaches to treat this condition. Bang-sensitive (bs) Drosophila mutants, which exhibit reduced thresholds for seizure, offer an attractive possibility to combine tractable genetics, electrophysiology, and high-throughput screening. However, despite these advantages, the precise electrophysiological aberrations that contribute to seizure have not been identified in any bs mutant. Because of this, the applicability of Drosophila as a preclinical model has not yet been established. In this study, we show that electroshock of bs slamdance (sda) larvae was sufficient to induce extended seizure-like episodes. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from identified motoneurons (termed aCC and RP2) showed synaptic currents that were greatly increased in both amplitude and duration. Current-clamp recordings indicated that these inputs produced longer-lived plateau depolarizations and increased action potential firing in these cells. An analysis of voltage-gated currents in these motoneurons, in both first and third instar larvae, revealed a consistently increased persistent Na+ current (INap) and a reduced Ca2+ current in first instar larvae, which appeared normal in older third instar larvae. That increased INap may contribute to seizure-like activity is indicated by the observation that feeding sda larvae the antiepileptic drug phenytoin, which was sufficient to reduce INap, rescued both seizure-like episode duration and synaptic excitation of motoneurons. In contrast, feeding of either anemone toxin, a drug that preferentially increases INap, or phenytoin to wild-type larvae was sufficient to induce a bs behavioral phenotype. Finally, we show that feeding of phenytoin to gravid sda females was sufficient to both reduce INap and synaptic currents and rescue the bs phenotype in their larval progeny, indicating that a heightened predisposition to seizure may arise as a consequence of abnormal

  4. Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

    2006-01-01

    Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical…

  5. Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

  6. Febrile seizures in Kaduna, north western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eseigbe, E. E.; Adama, S. J.; Eseigbe, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Febrile seizure is the most common seizure of childhood and has a good prognosis. However its presentation is fraught with poor management, with grave consequences, in our environment. Thus a review of its current status is important. Objective: To review the status of febrile seizures in Kaduna metropolis. Materials and Methods: A review of cases seen in the Department of Paediatrics, 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital, Kaduna between June 2008 and June 2010. Results: Out of the 635 cases admitted in the department 17 (2.7%) fulfilled the criteria for febrile seizures. There were 11 Males and 6 Females (M: F, 1.8:1). Age range was from 9 months to 5 years with a mean of 2.2 years ± 1.1 and peak age of 3 years. Twelve (70.6%) were in the upper social classes (I-III). Fever, convulsion, catarrh and cough were major presenting symptoms. Incidence of convulsion was least on the 1st day of complaint. Fourteen (82.4%) of the cases were simple febrile seizures while 3 were complex. There was a positive family history in 5 (29.4%) of the cases. Eleven (64.7%) had orthodox medication at home, before presentation, 5 (29.4%) consulted patient medicine sellers and 7 (41.7%) received traditional medication as part of home management. Malaria and acute respiratory infections were the identifiable causes. Standard anti-malaria and anti-biotic therapy were instituted, where indicated. All recovered and were discharged. Conclusion: There was a low prevalence of febrile seizures among the hospitalized children and a poor pre-hospitalization management of cases. It highlighted the need for improved community awareness on the prevention and management of febrile seizures. PMID:23293414

  7. A New Model to Study Sleep Deprivation-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Brendan P.; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Design: Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB9ed4), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (seits1) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB9ed4 flies was also assessed. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB9ed4/+ and seits1 mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB9ed4/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB9ed4/+ became adults. Conclusions: These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. Citation: Lucey BP, Leahy A, Rosas R, Shaw PJ. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure. SLEEP 2015;38(5):777–785. PMID:25515102

  8. A practical approach to uncomplicated seizures in children.

    PubMed

    McAbee, G N; Wark, J E

    2000-09-01

    Uncomplicated seizures and epilepsy are common in infants and children. Family physicians should be aware of certain epilepsy syndromes that occur in children, such as febrile seizures, benign focal epilepsy of childhood, complex partial epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and video game-related epilepsy. Not all uncomplicated childhood seizures require neuroimaging or treatment. Febrile seizures, rolandic seizures and video game-related seizures are childhood epileptic syndromes that are typically not associated with brain structural lesions on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and are often not treated with anticonvulsant drugs. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy does not require neuroimaging but does require treatment because of a high rate of recurrent seizures. Complex partial epilepsy often requires both neuroimaging and treatment. Although seizures are diagnosed primarily on clinical grounds, all children with a possible seizure (except febrile seizures) should have an electroencephalogram. Interictal EEGs may be normal. Computed tomography has demonstrated abnormalities in 7 to 19 percent of children with new-onset seizures. The yield of magnetic resonance imaging for specific childhood seizure types is not known, but it is the preferred modality of neuroimaging for many clinical presentations. Most children's seizures treated with anticonvulsants are controlled by the first drug selected. The value of "therapeutic' serum drug levels is questionable in the management of uncomplicated childhood seizures. PMID:10997534

  9. Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-08-01

    Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. PMID:25174001

  10. Frontal lobe epilepsy with atypical seizure semiology resembling shuddering attacks or wet dog shake seizures.

    PubMed

    Jahodova, Alena; Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Kudr, Martin; Kyncl, Martin; Zamecnik, Josef; Tichy, Michal

    2012-03-01

    We report a girl with a drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia, who exhibited uncommon seizures. The seizures consisted of shoulder or whole body shuddering after a short psychic aura and face grimacing. Consciousness was fully preserved. The seizures resembled "wet dog shake" seizures described in rat models of epilepsy or shuddering attacks in infants. EEG findings were inconclusive, however, MRI showed a clear dysplastic lesion in the right frontal mesial and polar structures. The patient underwent an extended lesionectomy guided by neuronavigation and intraoperative electrocorticography. Focal cortical dysplasia type Ib was histologically confirmed and the patient has been seizure-free for the three years following resection. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:22425715

  11. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  12. Fish Oil Intake and Seizure Control in Children with Medically Resistant Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Diala Mohamed Ali; Abd-El-Fatah, Nesrin Kamal; Omar, Tarek El-Sayed Ismail; Darwish, Olfat Abdel Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is considerable evidence which suggests that Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. Aim: The study was to investigate the effect of Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (as fish oil supplementation) in reducing the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Materials and Methods: In the case-control study, a total of 70 children with medically resistant epilepsy underwent assessment of the frequency and severity of the epileptic attacks at baseline, after one month, two months and three months from the beginning of the study; 35 children received fish oil and the other 35 children received placebo. Results: The number of children who received fish oil, having 0 epileptic attacks increased from 0%, before starting the study, up to 57.1% at the end of the third month, while the improvement was minimal in the placebo group, with a significant difference in the improvement between the intervention and the control groups. There was no statistically significant difference in improvement in the severity of the seizures either between cases and control or between the beginning and the end of the study. Conclusion: Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elevated the seizure threshold in epileptic patients and may help in achieving seizure control. PMID:26258079

  13. The diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuyk, J; Leijten, F; Meinardi, H; Spinhoven; Van Dyck, R

    1997-08-01

    Diagnosing psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is a clinical challenge. There is neither a standard in diagnosing PNES nor a comprehensive theoretical framework for this type of seizure. The diagnosis of PNES must be made by excluding epilepsy. However, epilepsy cannot always be determined and PNES and epileptic seizures may coexist. In this study, the characteristics of PNES and patients are discussed. The diagnosis of PNES and epileptic seizures was facilitated by the simultaneous recording of seizures on video tape and EEG. Seizure provoking techniques, hormonal indices, and psychological methods were also used. The benefits and limitations of these techniques are discussed and proposals are made for clinical guidelines. PMID:9304716

  14. Positron emission tomography in generalized seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.

    1985-05-01

    The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.

  15. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  16. Self-control of epileptic seizures by nonpharmacological strategies.

    PubMed

    Kotwas, Iliana; McGonigal, Aileen; Trebuchon, Agnès; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille; Nagai, Yoko; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur

    2016-02-01

    Despite the unpredictability of epileptic seizures, many patients report that they can anticipate seizure occurrence. Using certain alert symptoms (i.e., auras, prodromes, precipitant factors), patients can adopt behaviors to avoid injury during and after the seizure or may implement spontaneous cognitive and emotional strategies to try to control the seizure itself. From the patient's view point, potential means of enhancing seizure prediction and developing seizure control supports are seen as very important issues, especially when the epilepsy is drug-resistant. In this review, we first describe how some patients anticipate their seizures and whether this is effective in terms of seizure prediction. Secondly, we examine how these anticipatory elements might help patients to prevent or control their seizures and how the patient's neuropsychological profile, specifically parameters of perceived self-control (PSC) and locus of control (LOC), might impact these strategies and quality of life (QOL). Thirdly, we review the external supports that can help patients to better predict seizures. Finally, we look at nonpharmacological means of increasing perceived self-control and achieving potential reduction of seizure frequency (i.e., stress-based and arousal-based strategies). In the past few years, various approaches for detection and control of seizures have gained greater interest, but more research is needed to confirm a positive effect on seizure frequency as well as on QOL. PMID:26780213

  17. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K; Yoshimaru, H; Otake, M; Annegers, J F; Schull, W J

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to "seizure," "epilepsy," or "convulsion." Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures. PMID:2293744

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity in veterans with psychogenic seizures.

    PubMed

    Salinsky, Martin; Evrard, Collette; Storzbach, Daniel; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2012-11-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are frequently encountered in epilepsy monitoring units (EMU) at Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) and cause significant long-term disability. An understanding of psychiatric factors associated with PNES could aid in earlier diagnosis and treatment. We studied 50 consecutive veterans diagnosed with PNES and 37 veterans diagnosed with epileptic seizures (ES), evaluated at a VAMC EMU. We reviewed all available mental health evaluations prior to EMU evaluation. Univariate comparisons included axis I diagnoses, axis II diagnoses, and psychiatric hospitalizations. Predictive models of seizure classification were evaluated by logistic regression. A diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) preceded the diagnosis of PNES in 58% of patients and the diagnosis of ES in 13.5% (p<0.001). On logistic regression, PTSD was the only significant psychiatric diagnosis (odds ratio 9.2). Major depression and alcohol abuse were common diagnoses but did not differentiate PNES and ES groups. PMID:23103308

  19. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219

  20. Reducing premature KCC2 expression rescues seizure susceptibility and spine morphology in atypical febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Awad, Patricia N; Sanon, Nathalie T; Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Carriço, Josianne Nunes; Ouardouz, Mohamed; Gagné, Jonathan; Duss, Sandra; Wolf, Daniele; Desgent, Sébastien; Cancedda, Laura; Carmant, Lionel; Di Cristo, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Atypical febrile seizures are considered a risk factor for epilepsy onset and cognitive impairments later in life. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a history of atypical febrile seizures often carry a cortical malformation. This association has led to the hypothesis that the presence of a cortical dysplasia exacerbates febrile seizures in infancy, in turn increasing the risk for neurological sequelae. The mechanisms linking these events are currently poorly understood. Potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 affects several aspects of neuronal circuit development and function, by modulating GABAergic transmission and excitatory synapse formation. Recent data suggest that KCC2 downregulation contributes to seizure generation in the epileptic adult brain, but its role in the developing brain is still controversial. In a rodent model of atypical febrile seizures, combining a cortical dysplasia and hyperthermia-induced seizures (LHS rats), we found a premature and sustained increase in KCC2 protein levels, accompanied by a negative shift of the reversal potential of GABA. In parallel, we observed a significant reduction in dendritic spine size and mEPSC amplitude in CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by spatial memory deficits. To investigate whether KCC2 premature overexpression plays a role in seizure susceptibility and synaptic alterations, we reduced KCC2 expression selectively in hippocampal pyramidal neurons by in utero electroporation of shRNA. Remarkably, KCC2 shRNA-electroporated LHS rats show reduced hyperthermia-induced seizure susceptibility, while dendritic spine size deficits were rescued. Our findings demonstrate that KCC2 overexpression in a compromised developing brain increases febrile seizure susceptibility and contribute to dendritic spine alterations. PMID:26875662

  1. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES).

    PubMed

    Hingray, C; Biberon, J; El-Hage, W; de Toffol, B

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are defined as change in behavior or consciousness resembling epileptic seizures but which have a psychological origin. PNES are categorized as a manifestation of dissociative or somatoform (conversion) disorders. Video-EEG recording of an event is the gold standard for diagnosis. PNES represent a symptom, not the underlying disease and the mechanism of dissociation is pivotal in the pathophysiology. Predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors should be carefully assessed on a case-by-case basis. The process of communicating the diagnosis using a multidisciplinary approach is an important and effective therapeutic step. PMID:27117433

  2. "Nocturnal seizures" in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Anthony; McSweeney, Julia; Kulik, Thomas; Khatwa, Umakanth; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-10-15

    The usual differential diagnoses of nocturnal events in children include parasomnias, nocturnal seizures, nocturnal reflux (Sandifer syndrome), hypnic jerks, periodic limb movements of sleep, and sleep disordered breathing. We report a previously healthy young girl who presented to the sleep clinic for evaluation of nocturnal events which were diagnosed as medically refractory nocturnal seizures. It was not until a syncopal event occurred in the daytime, which prompted referral for cardiac evaluation, the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hyper-tension (IPAH) was made. Sleep physicians should consider IPAH in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal events in children. PMID:24127156

  3. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  4. Seizures After Overdoses of Bupropion Intake

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayır, Ayşegül; Acar, Demet; İstanbulluoğlu, Rabia; Değirmenci, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bupropion is a new-generation monocyclic antidepressant that has been accidentally found to have potential effects on reducing nicotine addiction. It is structurally similar to stimulants such as amphetamine and inhibits dopamine and noradrenalin reuptake selectively. Case Reports: We report two cases with no history of epilepsy who took oral bupropion for depression and had generalised tonic-clonic type of seizures in their follow-ups. Conclusion: After an overdose of bupropion, clinical effects are seen primarily on the neurological, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. Neurological effects can include tremor, confusion, agitation, hallucinations, coma, and seizures. PMID:25207109

  5. Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

    2014-09-01

    Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in

  6. Epileptiform seizures in captive African vultures.

    PubMed

    Mundy, P J; Foggin, C M

    1981-04-01

    African vultures are held in captivity at Salisbury, Johannesburg, and Durban, and in each place a number of birds showed epileptiform seizures. Of 17 griffon vultures (Gyps africanus and G. coprotheres) in Salisbury, three recovered and 11 died after one or more seizures. Of eight vultures of three other species, one Lappetfaced Vulture (Torgos tracheliotus) recovered and one Whiteheaded Vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis) died. A variety of diagnostic tests, in particular levels of serum calcium and blood glucose, and histological examination of brains, has so far failed to reveal a cause. PMID:7241712

  7. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  8. Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008).

    PubMed

    Browand-Stainback, Laura; Levesque, Donald; McBee, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures in 211 canine and feline patients diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy were evaluated for temporal significance in relation to the lunar cycle. Seizure counts were compared among each of the eight individual lunar phases, among each of eight exact lunar phase dates, and by percent of lunar illumination using generalized estimating equations. No statistical significance was found in any of these comparisons excluding a relationship between the onset of epileptic seizures and the phases of the moon. Alteration in anticonvulsant treatment or monitoring of canine and feline patients with idiopathic epilepsy at large was not warranted based on the lunar cycle. PMID:21852516

  9. Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Poor Attention Is More Than Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Childhood absence epilepsy Poor attention is more than seizures Liu Lin Thio, ... of this article is prohibited. Childhood absence epilepsy: Poor attention is more than seizures Liu Lin Thio ...

  10. Seizures: awareness and observation in the ward environment.

    PubMed

    Spray, Jennifer

    The preconceived 'foaming' and 'violent' seizure stereotypes are misrepresentations, particularly by non-specialist health professionals. Thus the vast semiology (signs and symptoms) of seizures and their subtle signs too easily go unrecognised by the untrained eye. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of adult patients admitted to the ward for treatment of their current illness will have a pre-existing seizure disorder (epilepsy). Furthermore, such hospitalised patients are more likely to suffer a seizure within the ward environment as triggering factors are unavoidably present. Thus, it is essential that nurses are prepared to encounter seizures, irrespective of the reason for admission. This article discusses the clinical semiology of the various seizure types in association with the underpinning neuropathophysiology, as well as the potential seizure triggers. It thereby enhances nurses' awareness and observations of seizure activity in patients in the ward environment. PMID:26500124

  11. A knock-in model of human epilepsy in Drosophila reveals a novel cellular mechanism associated with heat-induced seizure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Gilligan, Jeff; Staber, Cynthia; Schutte, Ryan J.; Nguyen, Vivian; O'Dowd, Diane K.; Reenan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Over 40 missense mutations in the human SCN1A sodium channel gene are linked to an epilepsy syndrome termed genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Inheritance of GEFS+ is dominant but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we report knock-in of a GEFS+ SCN1A mutation (K1270T) into the Drosophila sodium channel gene, para, causes a semi-dominant temperature-induced seizure phenotype. Electrophysiological studies of GABAergic interneurons in the brains of adult GEFS+ flies reveal a novel cellular mechanism underlying heat-induced seizures: the deactivation threshold for persistent sodium currents reversibly shifts to a more negative voltage when the temperature is elevated. This leads to sustained depolarizations in GABAergic neurons and reduced inhibitory activity in the central nervous system. Further, our data indicate a natural temperature-dependent shift in sodium current deactivation (exacerbated by mutation) may contribute to febrile seizures in GEFS+ and perhaps normal individuals. PMID:23055484

  12. Levetiracetam prophylaxis ameliorates seizure epileptogenesis after fluid percussion injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hao; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Kuo, Tung-Tai; Hoffer, Barry J; Wu, Pei-Jie; Ma, Hsin-I; Tsai, Jing-Jr; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether post-traumatic seizure severity would be affected by the interval between seizures and head injury, we measured seizures after various times with or without fluid percussion brain injury (2atm fluid percussion injury; FPI). To determine efficacy of anti-seizure medication, we also determined if levetiracetam (LEV) would alter the relationship between injury and subsequent seizures. Early post-traumatic seizures were induced by Kainic acid (KA) at one week after 2atm fluid percussion injury (FPI) in one group (FPI-ES). Seizures were induced at two weeks after FPI by KA in another group (FPI-LS). In addition, one group had induced seizures by KA without FPI, (sham-ES). Finally one group of animals received the antiepileptic agent (levetiracetam) infusion for one week after FPI and then had seizures induced by KA (FPI-LEV-ES). We measured seizure onset time, ictal duration and severity of seizures using a modified Racine's scale. Histopathological changes in the hippocampus CA1 region were also analyzed. Severity of seizures were increased in the FPI-ES group compared with sham-ES animals. Severity was also enhanced in early post-injury seizures induced by KA (FPI-ES vs. FPI-LS); this exacerbation of seizure severity could be ameliorated by levetiracetam infusion (FPI-ES vs. FPI-LEV-ES). Neuronal degeneration in CA1 was more severe in the FPI-ES group and this degeneration was also diminished by LEV. We conclude that early post injury seizures exacerbate susceptibility and severity of post traumatic seizures and increase neuronal degeneration in the CA1 layer of hippocampus. These changes are partially reversed by LEV infusion after FPI. PMID:27106270

  13. Unraveling the Mystery Behind A Patient with 'Refractory Seizures'.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Mithun Jacob; Lahiri, Anadaroop; Kumar, Vipin; Manuel, Devi A; George, Oommen K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological manifestations such as seizures although rare are well recognized presentations of cardiac arrhythmias. Almost always, such events are primarily generalized in nature leading on to loss of consciousness. Rarely however, cardiac seizures can manifest with focal neurological events. We report a case of a sexagenarian who presented with recurrent focal seizures with secondary generalization, who was misdiagnosed and treated as seizure disorder; only a careful history and focussed investigations helped in realising a precise diagnosis. PMID:27042501

  14. Quadriplegia Following Epileptic Seizure : Things to Keep in Mind

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilbudak, Zülal; Şişman, Lokman; Uca, Ali Ulvi

    2016-01-01

    People with epilepsy are believed to be at a higher risk of incurring accidental injury than people who do not have seizures. The incidence of injury, either due to seizure or accident as a consequent of seizure is also high and varies from 0.03% to 3%. The most common injuries are head contusions, lacerations, burns and fractures. In this article, we present a case of quadriplegia after a generalized epileptic seizure. PMID:27226869

  15. Quadriplegia Following Epileptic Seizure : Things to Keep in Mind.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Hasan Hüseyin; Yeşilbudak, Zülal; Şişman, Lokman; Uca, Ali Ulvi

    2016-05-01

    People with epilepsy are believed to be at a higher risk of incurring accidental injury than people who do not have seizures. The incidence of injury, either due to seizure or accident as a consequent of seizure is also high and varies from 0.03% to 3%. The most common injuries are head contusions, lacerations, burns and fractures. In this article, we present a case of quadriplegia after a generalized epileptic seizure. PMID:27226869

  16. Modification of seizure disorders: the interruption of behavioral chains.

    PubMed Central

    Zlutnick, S; Mayville, W J; Moffat, S

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of interruption and differential reinforcement on seizures in children. Seizures were conceptualized as the terminal link in a behavioral chain, resulting in a strategy aimed at identifying and modifying behaviors that reliably preceded the seizure climax. Seizure frequency was reduced in four of five subjects, whereas the frequency of preseizure behavior was reduced in only three subjects. Parents and school personnel were successfully used as change agents. PMID:1141076

  17. Effectiveness of ketogenic diet in pentylenetetrazol-induced and kindling rats as well as its potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Ding, Yao; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Shen, Chun-Hong; Jin, Bo; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Mei-Ping

    2016-02-12

    The effects and mechanisms of ketogenic diets (KD) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to reveal electrographic and behavioral thresholds in responses to the KD in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, as well as its antiepileptogenic effects on PTZ-kindling rats. Additionally, we investigated the potential link between KD and expression levels of two cation chloride co-transporters: K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1). The KD group had significantly higher electrographic thresholds than the control (ND) group for the first spike-and-wave, subcontinuous spike-and-wave, high amplitude spike-and-wave, and polyspikes both in the cortex and hippocampus. Compared to the ND group, the KD group had higher behavioral thresholds for behavioral absence, first jerk, first overt myoclonia, and generalized seizures. In the PTZ-kindling model, KD not only prolonged the latency of myoclonic and clonic convulsions, but shortened clonic and generalized duration. In addition, KD rats had higher KCC2 protein expression before kindling, during myoclonic jerks, and GTCS compared with ND rats. There were no significant differences in NKCC1 protein levels between both groups following the four-week dietary intervention without PTZ exposure (before kindling). Moreover, KD inhibited the upregulation of NKCC1 expression induced by kindling in myoclonic jerks and GTCS. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that KD had antiepileptic features in elevating thresholds to most electrographic and behavioral seizure patterns in PTZ-induced rats, as well as delaying the progression and alleviating the severity of seizure in PTZ-kindling model. The antiepileptogenic effects of KD may be attributed to its regulatory properties on KCC2 and NKCC1 protein expression. PMID:26751594

  18. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  19. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 74630, December 1, 2011. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of...

  20. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures.

    PubMed

    Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B; Derr, Lori L; Broshek, Donna K

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228

  1. 9 CFR 118.4 - Seizure and condemnation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure and condemnation. 118.4 Section 118.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.4 Seizure and condemnation....

  2. Psychogenic seizures in brain injury: diagnosis, treatment and case study.

    PubMed

    Conder, R L; Zasler, N D

    1990-01-01

    Psychogenic seizures are a functional phenomena in which a person experiences a paroxysmal event that may be interpreted as epileptiform in nature. By definition, psychogenic seizures imply a sudden episode of change in behaviour or psychic state that is not associated with an identifiable process, either vasculogenic or neurogenic, and during which there is an absence of characteristic epileptiform changes on the electroencephalogram. Prevalence rates range from 5% to 50% in outpatient populations seen in epilepsy clinics. However, approximately 20% of true seizure patients also have psychogenic seizures. As psychogenic seizures are not a pathophysiological phenomena, pharmacological interventions do not alter their aetiology and can cloud the cognitive skills necessary to ameliorate the psychogenic seizure behaviour. In non-aphasic true seizure patients, as well as psychogenic seizure patients, self-control relaxation paradigms have been successful where pharmacological intervention has failed. This case involved an aphasic brain-injured patient who had both psychogenic and true seizures. For this patient, the self-control paradigm was modified to include use of gesture and prosody to achieve similar psychotherapeutic effects. Additionally, family therapy was instituted to provide a constructive means for the patient's family to participate in the reduction of psychogenic seizures. As seizures are a common sequelae of brain injury, the differential diagnosis of seizures and knowledge of standard and alternative treatment is essential for rehabilitation professionals. PMID:1701326

  3. Rapidly learned identification of epileptic seizures from sonified EEG.

    PubMed

    Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient's electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

  4. Prognosis of chronic epilepsy with complex partial seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, D

    1984-01-01

    Clinical features associated with a successful or unsuccessful response to high dose antiepileptic drug therapy were evaluated prospectively in 82 patients with chronic complex partial seizures. Complete seizure control was observed during high dose drug therapy in 18 patients at plasma concentrations of either 9-35 micrograms/ml phenytoin, 32 and 40 micrograms/ml phenobarbitone, 8 micrograms/ml carbamazepine, or a combination of 25 micrograms/ml phenobarbitone and 4 micrograms/ml carbamazepine. Patients who became free of seizures had a markedly lower number of three seizures (range: 1-29) in the year before the high dose treatment as compared to 40 seizures (range: 3-328) in patients with an increased or unchanged seizure frequency (p less than 0.0001). Complex partial seizures without automatism were found only in patients with complete seizure control (22%). Patients whose seizures remained uncontrolled more frequently gave a history of severe depression or psychotic episodes, clusters of complex partial seizures, two or more seizures per day, and an aura preceding the attack. The results suggest that taking a careful history will uncover clinical features associated with a successful or unsuccessful response to high dose antiepileptic drug therapy in an epileptic out-patient with chronic complex partial seizures. PMID:6512548

  5. 19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility...

  6. Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

  7. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  8. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures

    PubMed Central

    Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B.; Derr, Lori L.; Broshek, Donna K.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228

  9. Effect of sleep-wake reversal and sleep deprivation on the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, J. D.; Hof, D. G.; Mengel, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Albino Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in a previously O2 flushed, CO2 free chamber. The exposure began with attainment of 60 psi (gauge) and the end point was the first generalized oxygen toxicity seizure. Animals were exposed to reversal diurnal conditions since weanlings until their sleep-wake cycles had completely reversed, and then divided into four groups of 20 based on the time of day exposed. The time of exposure to oxygen at high pressure prior to seizure was now significantly longer in the group exposed from 1900 to 2000 hr and a reversal of the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility was noted. Animals maintained on normal diurnal conditions were deprived of sleep on the day of exposure for the 12 hours prior to exposure at 1900 hr, while controls were allowed to sleep. There was no significant differences in the time prior to seizure between the deprived animals and the controls with an n = 40. Thus the inherent threshold in susceptibility to high-pressure oxygen seizures seems not to be a function of sleep itself, but of some biochemical/physiologic event which manifests a circadian rhythm.

  10. Levetiracetam for Pediatric Posttraumatic Seizure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nita, Dragos A; Hahn, Cecil D

    2016-03-01

    Investigators from Nationwide Children's Hospital performed an observational cohort study of early post-traumatic seizures (EPTS) among 34 children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received levetiracetam (LEV) prophylaxis following admission to their pediatric intensive care unit. PMID:27396956

  11. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  12. Targeting Pannexin1 Improves Seizure Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Marcelo F.; Veliskova, Jana; Patel, Naman K.; Lutz, Sarah E.; Caille, Dorothee; Charollais, Anne; Meda, Paolo; Scemes, Eliana

    2011-01-01

    Imbalance of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is one of several causes of seizures. ATP has also been implicated in epilepsy. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from cells and the consequences of the altered ATP signaling during seizures. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is found in astrocytes and in neurons at high levels in the embryonic and young postnatal brain, declining in adulthood. Panx1 forms large-conductance voltage sensitive plasma membrane channels permeable to ATP that are also activated by elevated extracellular K+ and following P2 receptor stimulation. Based on these properties, we hypothesized that Panx1 channels may contribute to seizures by increasing the levels of extracellular ATP. Using pharmacological tools and two transgenic mice deficient for Panx1 we show here that interference with Panx1 ameliorates the outcome and shortens the duration of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. These data thus indicate that the activation of Panx1 in juvenile mouse hippocampi contributes to neuronal hyperactivity in seizures. PMID:21949881

  13. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. PMID:22677032

  14. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: ‘cardiac arrhythmias’ and ‘epilepsy’. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:26038597

  15. Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Diane

    2007-01-01

    As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…

  16. Immunological perspectives of temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Lehtimäki, Kai; Kai, Lehtimäki; Palmio, Johanna; Johanna, Palmio; Alapirtti, Tiina; Tiina, Alapirtti; Peltola, Jukka; Jukka, Peltola

    2013-10-15

    The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with TLE compared to other epilepsy types suggesting the specific role and structure of the temporal lobe. Abundant experience suggests that activation of both innate and adaptive immunity is associated with epilepsy, particularly refractory focal epilepsy. Limbic encephalitis often triggers temporal lobe seizures, and a proportion of these disorders are immune-mediated. Histological evidence shows activation of specific inflammatory pathways in resected temporal lobes of epileptic patients, and certain epileptic disorders have shown increased incidence in patients with autoimmune diseases. Rapid activation of proinflammatory cytokines is observed after single seizures, but there is also evidence of chronic overproduction of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in patients with TLE, suggesting a neuromodulatory role of inflammation in epilepsy. In this review we summarize current data on the presence and the role of immunological factors in temporal lobe seizures, and their possible involvement in epileptogenesis. PMID:23998423

  17. Effects of chronic inhalation of volatile solvents, malnutrition and their interaction on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole in rats.

    PubMed

    Palencia, G; Calvillo, M; Benita, A; Sotelo, J

    1998-10-01

    Chronic inhalation of volatile solvents induce severe brain damage. In humans, intense exposure to volatile solvents for recreational purposes is frequently associated with chronic malnutrition. We studied in rats the effects of chronic inhalation of volatile solvents and malnutrition, alone and combined, on the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole. Animals were subjected to 14 months of either normal rodent diet or malnutrition induced by a diet based on corn derivatives; some animals were subjected for the last 4 months to daily inhalation of volatile solvents (paint thinner). Afterwards, a trial of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures was conducted in all animals. When compared with controls, malnutrition, chronic inhalation of volatile solvents and their combination greatly reduced the threshold for both, the forebrain and the brain stem components of seizures. However, an expected lowering of the threshold when malnutrition and solvent inhalation were combined was not observed when compared with each condition alone. It is possible that malnutrition plus solvents exposure induce severe brain damage that interferes with the brain structures involved in the propagation of epileptic seizures. PMID:26735120

  18. Interictal spikes and epileptic seizures: their relationship and underlying rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Karoly, Philippa J; Freestone, Dean R; Boston, Ray; Grayden, David B; Himes, David; Leyde, Kent; Seneviratne, Udaya; Berkovic, Samuel; O'Brien, Terence; Cook, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    We report on a quantitative analysis of electrocorticography data from a study that acquired continuous ambulatory recordings in humans over extended periods of time. The objectives were to examine patterns of seizures and spontaneous interictal spikes, their relationship to each other, and the nature of periodic variation. The recorded data were originally acquired for the purpose of seizure prediction, and were subsequently analysed in further detail. A detection algorithm identified potential seizure activity and a template matched filter was used to locate spikes. Seizure events were confirmed manually and classified as either clinically correlated, electroencephalographically identical but not clinically correlated, or subclinical. We found that spike rate was significantly altered prior to seizure in 9 out of 15 subjects. Increased pre-ictal spike rate was linked to improved predictability; however, spike rate was also shown to decrease before seizure (in 6 out of the 9 subjects). The probability distribution of spikes and seizures were notably similar, i.e. at times of high seizure likelihood the probability of epileptic spiking also increased. Both spikes and seizures showed clear evidence of circadian regulation and, for some subjects, there were also longer term patterns visible over weeks to months. Patterns of spike and seizure occurrence were highly subject-specific. The pre-ictal decrease in spike rate is not consistent with spikes promoting seizures. However, the fact that spikes and seizures demonstrate similar probability distributions suggests they are not wholly independent processes. It is possible spikes actively inhibit seizures, or that a decreased spike rate is a secondary symptom of the brain approaching seizure. If spike rate is modulated by common regulatory factors as seizures then spikes may be useful biomarkers of cortical excitability.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww019_video_abstractaww019_video_abstract. PMID:26912639

  19. Pausing at the Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Patrick K.

    2015-01-01

    Since about 2003, the notion of threshold concepts--the central ideas in any field that change how learners think about other ideas--have become difficult to escape at library conferences and in general information literacy discourse. Their visibility will likely only increase because threshold concepts figure prominently in the Framework for…

  20. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  1. Bayesian Threshold Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time…

  2. Neonatal Seizures: An Update on Mechanisms and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frances E.

    2010-01-01

    The lifespan risk of seizures is highest in the neonatal period. Currently used therapies have limited efficacy. Although the treatment of neonatal seizures has not significantly changed in the last several decades, there has been substantial progress in understanding developmental mechanisms that influence seizure generation and responsiveness to anticonvulsants. Here we provide an overview of current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures, identifying some of the recent insights about the pathophysiology of neonatal seizures that may provide the foundation for better treatment. PMID:19944840

  3. How I treat a first single seizure in a child

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sheffali; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar

    2016-01-01

    An epileptic seizure is defined as transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in brain. There are diverse etiologies for acute seizure in infants and children. The present review provides a broad approach to diagnosis and treatment plan for acute seizure in children. The approach to a child with acute seizure is discussed with special emphasis on clinical approach based on history and focused examination with judicious choice of investigation and further management plan. The review also emphasizes on recognizing common nonepileptic events that masquerade as true seizure among infants and children. PMID:27011625

  4. Reflex Seizures Triggered by Diaper Change in Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Subki, Ahmed H; Alasmari, Aishah S; Jan, Fadi M; Moria, Feras A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2016-07-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by early onset of multiple types of seizures. We report the first case of reflex seizures triggered by diaper change in a girl at 9 months old and 2 years old with a mutation in the SCN1A gene causing DS. Reflex seizures have been reported in patients with DS provoked by increased body temperature or visual stimulation. The case we report widens the spectrum of triggers causing reflex seizures in children with DS. Cortical hyperexcitability resulting from the genetic defect explains the tendency to experience such reflex seizures. PMID:26889571

  5. Nerve agent-induced seizures and their pharmacological modulation

    SciTech Connect

    McDonough, J.H.; Shih, T.M.; Adams, N.L.; Koviak, T.A.; Cook, L.A.

    1993-05-13

    Intoxication with nerve agents produces prolonged central nervous system seizures (status epilepticus) that can produce irreversible brain pathology (15). This report summarizes our recent findings regarding the neurotransmitter changes that occur in discrete brain regions as a function of seizure duration and the differential effectiveness of anticholinergic, benzodiazepine and excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonist drugs in terminating soman-induced seizures when given at different times after seizure onset. These results are discussed in relation to a model we have proposed to explain the sequence of electrophysiological, biochemical and neurochemical events and mechanisms controlling nerve agent-induced seizures.

  6. Predictability of uncontrollable multifocal seizures - towards new treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lehnertz, Klaus; Dickten, Henning; Porz, Stephan; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Elger, Christian E

    2016-01-01

    Drug-resistant, multifocal, non-resectable epilepsies are among the most difficult epileptic disorders to manage. An approach to control previously uncontrollable seizures in epilepsy patients would consist of identifying seizure precursors in critical brain areas combined with delivering a counteracting influence to prevent seizure generation. Predictability of seizures with acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity, even in an ambulatory setting, has been repeatedly shown, however, in patients with a single seizure focus only. We did a study to assess feasibility of state-of-the-art, electroencephalogram-based seizure-prediction techniques in patients with uncontrollable multifocal seizures. We obtained significant predictive information about upcoming seizures in more than two thirds of patients. Unexpectedly, the emergence of seizure precursors was confined to non-affected brain areas. Our findings clearly indicate that epileptic networks, spanning lobes and hemispheres, underlie generation of seizures. Our proof-of-concept study is an important milestone towards new therapeutic strategies based on seizure-prediction techniques for clinical practice. PMID:27091239

  7. Cloxacillin-induced seizure in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    El Nekidy, Wasim; Dziamarski, Nicole; Soong, Derrick; Donaldson, Christine; Ibrahim, Muhieldean; Kadri, Albert

    2015-10-01

    We are reporting a cloxacillin-induced seizure in a patient with stage 5 chronic kidney disease requiring hemodialysis. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of seizures induced by parenteral cloxacillin in hemodialysis patients. A young hemodialysis female was admitted to the hospital with decreased level of consciousness. Blood cultures revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus where cloxacillin 2 g intravenously every 4 hours was initiated. Head computed tomography (CT) was not significant. After 14 hours of cloxacillin therapy (4 doses), the patient demonstrated tonic/clonic seizure activity, where phenytoin and lorazepam were initiated. The anti-seizure medications partially reduced seizure activity. Once the cloxacillin was discontinued, the seizures stopped. Two weeks later, all anti-seizure medications were stopped with no further seizure activity. Cloxacillin elimination in hemodialysis patients is similar to patients with normal kidney function. Although cloxacillin does not significantly cross the blood-brain barrier, the correlation between the start of seizures and cloxacillin initiation was confirmed by the negative CT and blood chemistry laboratory results. Moreover, seizure activity was terminated upon discontinuation of cloxacillin. Although further investigation for the cause of such seizures is warranted, clinicians should use caution when giving high doses of cloxacillin in hemodialysis patients. PMID:25582344

  8. Predictability of uncontrollable multifocal seizures – towards new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Lehnertz, Klaus; Dickten, Henning; Porz, Stephan; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Elger, Christian E.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-resistant, multifocal, non-resectable epilepsies are among the most difficult epileptic disorders to manage. An approach to control previously uncontrollable seizures in epilepsy patients would consist of identifying seizure precursors in critical brain areas combined with delivering a counteracting influence to prevent seizure generation. Predictability of seizures with acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity, even in an ambulatory setting, has been repeatedly shown, however, in patients with a single seizure focus only. We did a study to assess feasibility of state-of-the-art, electroencephalogram-based seizure-prediction techniques in patients with uncontrollable multifocal seizures. We obtained significant predictive information about upcoming seizures in more than two thirds of patients. Unexpectedly, the emergence of seizure precursors was confined to non-affected brain areas. Our findings clearly indicate that epileptic networks, spanning lobes and hemispheres, underlie generation of seizures. Our proof-of-concept study is an important milestone towards new therapeutic strategies based on seizure-prediction techniques for clinical practice. PMID:27091239

  9. [Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: overview and implications for practice].

    PubMed

    Szita, Bernadett; Hidasi, Zoltán

    2016-05-15

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are enigmatic disorders at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Seizures resemble epileptic seizures but are not associated with electrical discharges in the brain. Symptoms typically start in early adulthood and women are far more affected than men. Video-EEG is widely considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Still psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are often misdiagnosed and treated as epilepsy for years that is burdensome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Patients having psychogenic nonepileptic seizures show a high prevalence of traumatic life events, therefore, psychosocial factors are thought to play an important role in the etiology. Neurobiological factors may also contribute to the development of seizures as a subgroup of patients are characterized by cognitive impairment and subtle structural and functional brain abnormalities. Treatment includes psychotherapeutic procedures, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy and additional pharmacological interventions. This article presents an overview of the clinical context, diagnosis, etiology and treatment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. PMID:27156524

  10. Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppert, M. M. J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F. H.; Viergever, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scenario predicts exponential distributions of the duration of the seizures and of the inter-ictal intervals. These predictions were validated in rat models of absence epilepsy, as well as in a few human cases. Nonetheless, deviations from the predictions with respect to seizure duration distributions remained unexplained. The objective of the present work is to implement a simple but realistic computational model of a neuronal network including synaptic plasticity and ionic current dynamics and to explore the dynamics of the model with special emphasis on the distributions of seizure and inter-ictal period durations. We use as a basis our lumped model of cortical neuronal circuits. Here we introduce 'activity dependent' parameters, namely post-synaptic voltage-dependent plasticity, as well as a voltage-dependent hyperpolarization-activated current driven by slow and fast activation conductances. We examine the distributions of the durations of the seizure-like model activity and the normal activity, described respectively by the limit cycle and the steady state in the dynamics. We use a parametric γ-distribution fit as a quantifier. Our results show that autonomous, activity-dependent membrane processes can account for experimentally obtained statistical distributions of seizure durations, which were not explainable using the previous model. The activity-dependent membrane processes that display the strongest effect in accounting for these distributions are the hyperpolarization-dependent cationic (Ih) current and the GABAa plastic dynamics. Plastic synapses (NMDA-type) in the interneuron population show only a minor effect. The inter-ictal statistics retain their

  11. Case of singing seizure using syllable names.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Akihiro; Satoh, Masayuki; Ii, Yuichiro; Kuzuhara, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with singing seizures, who was able to sing familiar songs by syllable name with no earlier practice. The patient was a 56-year-old musically naive woman who developed singing seizures when she was in her early 20s. She suddenly began singing familiar sacred songs by syllable name, even though she had never practiced the songs using a musical score or had earlier sung them by syllable name. An electroencephalogram showed bilateral low-voltage spikes that were significantly pronounced in the right temporal lobe. Technetium-99m-bicisate ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography also showed hypoperfusion in the medial right temporal lobe. The right temporal lobe may be involved in singing, and there may be an automatic and unconscious analytical system of music perception that arranges each tone into its syllable name. PMID:21192189

  12. Cerebral hemispherectomy for seizures with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T; Villemure, J G

    1989-01-01

    The risk-benefit ratio of this functionally complete but anatomically subtotal hemispherectomy is strongly in favor of its more widespread and early use for the small group of unfortunate seizure patients who have maximal or near maximal hemiplegia and a complete or high-grade hemianopsia, and whose seizures constitute a significant handicap in regard to schooling and psychosocial development despite an adequate trial of appropriate antiepileptic medication. The earlier the "good" hemisphere and the upper brain are spared the nociferous effect of continual bombardment by wide-spread high-amplitude epileptiform discharges, the more effectively motor, sensory, intellectual, and psychosocial development can take place in the remainder of the nervous system. PMID:2655991

  13. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  14. Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization

    PubMed Central

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S.; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

  15. Signal subspace integration for improved seizure localization.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Chang, Bernard S; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A subspace signal processing approach is proposed for improved scalp EEG-based localization of broad-focus epileptic seizures, and estimation of the directions of source arrivals (DOA). Ictal scalp EEGs from adult and pediatric patients with broad-focus seizures were first decomposed into dominant signal modes, and signal and noise subspaces at each modal frequency, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio while preserving the original data correlation structure. Transformed (focused) modal signals were then resynthesized into wideband signals from which the number of sources and DOA were estimated. These were compared to denoised signals via principal components analysis (PCA). Coherent subspace processing performed better than PCA, significantly improved the localization of ictal EEGs and the estimation of distinct sources and corresponding DOAs. PMID:23366067

  16. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Stephen; Smith, Catrin Tudur; Williamson, Paula R; Marson, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2001. Worldwide, phenytoin and phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. They are more likely to be used in the developing world than the developed world, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarize data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone. Objectives To review the effects of phenobarbitone compared to phenytoin when used as monotherapy in patients with partial onset seizures or generalized tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalized seizure types. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group trials register (20 October 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2009) and MEDLINE (1950 to October week 2, 2009). In addition, we handsearched relevant journals, and contacted pharmaceutical companies and researchers in the field to seek any ongoing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Trials must have included a comparison of phenobarbitone monotherapy with phenytoin monotherapy. Data collection and analysis This was an individual patient data review. Outcomes were time to (a) withdrawal of allocated treatment, (b) 12-month remission and (c) first seizure post randomization. Data were analyzed using a stratified logrank analysis with results expressed as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), where a HR > 1 indicates an event is more likely to occur earlier on phenobarbitone than phenytoin. Main results To date, data have been obtained for four of ten studies meeting the inclusion criteria, amounting to 599 individuals, or approximately 65% of the potential data. The main overall results (HR) were (a) time to treatment withdrawal 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.14); (b) time to 12-month

  17. Animal Models of Posttraumatic Seizures and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Glushakov, Alexander V; Glushakova, Olena Y; Doré, Sylvain; Carney, Paul R; Hayes, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is one of the most common and devastating complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Currently, the etiopathology and mechanisms of PTE are poorly understood and as a result, there is no effective treatment or means to prevent it. Antiepileptic drugs remain common preventive strategies in the management of TBI to control acute posttraumatic seizures and to prevent the development of PTE, although their efficacy in the latter case is disputed. Different strategies of PTE prophylaxis have been showing promise in preclinical models, but their translation to the clinic still remains elusive due in part to the variability of these models and the fact they do not recapitulate all complex pathologies associated with human TBI. TBI is a multifaceted disorder reflected in several potentially epileptogenic alterations in the brain, including mechanical neuronal and vascular damage, parenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhage, subsequent toxicity caused by iron-rich hemoglobin breakdown products, and energy disruption resulting in secondary injuries, including excitotoxicity, gliosis, and neuroinflammation, often coexisting to a different degree. Several in vivo models have been developed to reproduce the acute TBI cascade of events, to reflect its anatomical pathologies, and to replicate neurological deficits. Although acute and chronic recurrent posttraumatic seizures are well-recognized phenomena in these models, there is only a limited number of studies focused on PTE. The most used mechanical TBI models with documented electroencephalographic and behavioral seizures with remote epileptogenesis include fluid percussion, controlled cortical impact, and weight-drop. This chapter describes the most popular models of PTE-induced TBI models, focusing on the controlled cortical impact and the fluid percussion injury models, the methods of behavioral and electroencephalogram seizure assessments, and other approaches to detect epileptogenic properties

  18. Translational Development Strategy for Magnetic Seizure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rowny, Stefan; Benzl, Karla; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has unparalleled antidepressant efficacy, but its cognitive side effects may be persistent. Research suggests that the side effects may be at least partially dissociable from the therapeutic effects of ECT, suggesting that distinct cortical networks may underlie them and introducing a role for focal seizure induction as a means of minimizing side effects. In magnetic seizure therapy (MST), magnetic fields avoid tissue impedance and induce electrical currents confined to superficial cortex, facilitating focal seizure induction. The translational development strategy for MST has included: (1) device development, (2) feasibility in animals and initial human trials, (3) testing in nonhuman primates on safety and mechanisms of action (with neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and cognitive endpoints), (4) safety testing in patients, (5) initial efficacy testing in patients, (6) dosage optimization, and (7) randomized comparison with ECT. These stages have been iterative, with results of early clinical testing prompting device enhancements that were, in turn, tested in nonhuman primates prior to human trials. Safety testing was aided by development of a nonhuman primate model of human ECT, and the validation of a cognitive battery for the monkey that is sensitive to the range of effects of ECT on human memory. Human testing has been facilitated by the development of an international consortium of centers addressing various aspects of technique and dose/response relationships. Challenges facing MST are common to other device based therapies: characterizing dose/response relationships, optimizing efficacy, and developing efficient and reliable methods to induce lasting therapeutic change in the circuitry underlying depression. PMID:19348798

  19. Eslicarbazepine acetate for partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that is chemically related to carbamazepine and partially metabolized to oxcarbazepine, has attracted attention as results of previous Phase II and III studies demonstrated and confirmed efficacy and tolerability of ESL 800 and 1200 mg once daily as add-on therapy for adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. In children, efficacy data point towards a dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency and tolerability analyses showed a low incidence of mild drug-related adverse effects at 5 and 15 mg/kg/day. The most frequently reported adverse effects were dizziness, somnolence, headache, diplopia, nausea and vomiting. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short/simple titration regimen in combination with a comparative efficacy and tolerability profile might promote ESL as a valid alternative to the current adjunctive antiepileptic drug therapy armamentarium for drug-resistant partial seizures in adults. Since clinical trials in children and adolescents on ESL efficacy and safety are ongoing and data already published are far from conclusive, the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population has to be established in the near future. PMID:22091592

  20. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Warning Device

    SciTech Connect

    Elarton, J.K.; Koepsel, K.L.

    1999-06-21

    Flint Hills Scientific, L.L.C. (FHS) has invented what is believed to be the first real-time epileptic seizure detection and short-term prediction method in the world. They have demonstrated an IBM PC prototype with a multi-channel EEG monitoring configuration. This CRADA effort applied AlliedSignal FM and T hardware design, manufacturing miniaturization, and high quality manufacturing expertise in converting the prototype into a small, portable, self-contained, multi-channel EEG epileptic seizure detection and warning device. The purpose of this project was to design and build a proof-of-concept miniaturized prototype of the FHS-developed PC-based prototype. The resultant DSP prototype, measuring 4'' x 6'' x 2'', seizure detection performance compared favorably with the FHS PC prototype, thus validating the DSP design goals. The very successful completion of this project provided valuable engineering information for FHS for future prototype commercialization as well as providing AS/FM and T engineers DSP design experience.

  1. Ictal alterations of consciousness during ecstatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Picard, Fabienne; Kurth, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ecstatic epileptic seizures report an altered consciousness, which they describe as a sense of heightened perception of themselves – they “feel very present” – and an increased vividness of sensory perceptions. Recently, the anterior insula has been proposed as the region where these seizures originate, based on the results of ictal nuclear imaging in three patients, the first induction of ecstatic auras by electrical stimulation, and the functional characteristics of the anterior insula in neuroimaging literature. Specifically, the anterior insula is thought to play a key role in integrating information from within the body, the external world, as well as the emotional states. In addition, the anterior insula is thought to convert this integrated information into successive global emotional moments, thus enabling both the construct of a sentient self as well as a mechanism for predictive coding. As part of the salience network, this region is also involved in switching from mind wandering toward attentional and executive processing. In this review, we will summarize previous patient reports and recap how insular functioning may be involved in the phenomenon of ecstatic seizures. Furthermore, we will relate these hypotheses to the results from research on meditation and effects of drug abuse. PMID:24436968

  2. DC potentials of temporal lobe seizures in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Mayanagi, Y; Walker, A E

    1975-07-01

    In 8 monkeys, made epileptic by alum or penicillin injection into temporal lobe structures, 40 seizures were studied by both DC cortical potential and subcortical EEG recordings. Eighteen seizures of lateral temporal origin had an abrupt negative DC potential shift of 0.5 to 2.0 mV in and around the focus. The frontal, parietal and occipital cortices did not develop DC potential changes, perhaps due to the limited propagation of the neocortical seizures. Twenty-two seizures of medial temporal origin showed a negative shift of the anterior, inferior or lateral temporal cortex in 85% of seizures. The other 15% had a positive or no shift. In hippocampal seizures, a positive displacement was sometimes seen prior to the main negative shift in the lateral temporal cortex. The remote cortex developed only a minimal positive shift in 30% of the mediotemporal seizures. A marked negative shift in the frontocentral cortex was the first sign of impending generalization, which may result from a series of chain reactions with seizure propagation, involving more and more structures of the brain. Registration of DC potentials in temporal lobe seizures may give insight into the nature of abnormal EEG activities and to some extent into the origin of seizures. PMID:51061

  3. Perspectives on seizure clusters: Gaps in lexicon, awareness, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Janice M; Shafer, Patricia; Shinnar, Ruth; Austin, Joan; Dewar, Sandra; Long, Lucretia; O'Hara, Kathryn; Santilli, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Seizure clusters in epilepsy can result in serious outcomes such as missed work or school, postictal psychosis, emergency room visits, or hospitalizations, and yet they are often not included in discussions between health-care professionals (HCPs) and their patients. The purpose of this paper was to describe and compare consumer (patient and caregivers) and professional understanding of seizure clusters and to describe how consumers and HCPs communicate regarding seizure clusters. We reviewed social media discussion sites to explore consumers' understanding of seizure clusters. We analyzed professional (medical) literature to explore the HCPs' understanding of seizure clusters. Major themes were revealed in one or both groups, including: communication about diagnosis; frequency, duration, and time frame; seizure type and pattern; severity; and self-management. When comparing discussions of professionals and consumers, both consumers and clinicians discussed the definition of seizure clusters. Discussions of HCPs were understandably clinically focused, and consumer discussions reflected the experience of seizure clusters; however, both groups struggled with a common lexicon. Seizure cluster events remain a problem associated with serious outcomes. Herein, we outline the lack of a common understanding and recommend the development of a common lexicon to improve communication regarding seizure clusters. PMID:26906403

  4. Characterization of Early Partial Seizure Onset: Frequency, Complexity and Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A clear classification of partial seizures onset features is not yet established. Complexity and entropy have been very widely used to describe dynamical systems, but a systematic evaluation of these measures to characterize partial seizures has never been performed. Methods Eighteen different measures including power in frequency bands up to 300Hz, Gabor atom density (GAD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Lempel-Ziv complexity, Shannon entropy, sample entropy, and permutation entropy, were selected to test sensitivity to partial seizure onset. Intracranial recordings from forty-five patients with mesial temporal, neocortical temporal and neocortical extratemporal seizure foci were included (331 partial seizures). Results GAD, Lempel-Ziv complexity, HFD, high frequency activity, and sample entropy were the most reliable measures to assess early seizure onset. Conclusions Increases in complexity and occurrence of high-frequency components appear to be commonly associated with early stages of partial seizure evolution from all regions. The type of measure (frequency-based, complexity or entropy) does not predict the efficiency of the method to detect seizure onset. Significance Differences between measures such as GAD and HFD highlight the multimodal nature of partial seizure onsets. Improved methods for early seizure detection may be achieved from a better understanding of these underlying dynamics. PMID:21872526

  5. Time to prerandomization monthly seizure count in perampanel trials

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Malerba, Stefano; Kramer, Lynn; Kumar, Dinesh; Bagiella, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a novel endpoint of time to prerandomization monthly seizure count could be used to differentiate efficacious and nonefficacious therapies in clinical trials of new add-on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods: This analysis used data from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trials of perampanel as an add-on therapy in patients with epilepsy who were experiencing refractory partial seizures: studies 304 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00699972), 305 (NCT00699582), and 306 (NCT00700310). Time to prerandomization monthly seizure count was evaluated post hoc for each trial, and findings were compared with the original primary outcomes (median percent change in seizure frequency and 50% responder rate). Outcomes were assessed for all partial-onset seizures, secondarily generalized (SG) tonic-clonic seizures only, and complex partial plus SG (CP + SG) seizures. Results: Perampanel 4–12 mg significantly prolonged median time to prerandomization monthly seizure count, generally by more than 1 week, compared with placebo, across all 3 studies, consistent with the original primary outcomes. Analysis of SG seizures only, and CP + SG seizures, also indicated a significantly prolonged median time to prerandomization monthly seizure count with perampanel 8 mg and 12 mg compared with placebo. Conclusions: Time to prerandomization monthly seizure count is a promising novel alternative to the standard endpoints of median percent change in seizure frequency and 50% responder rates used in trials of add-on AEDs. Use of this endpoint could reduce exposure to placebo or ineffective treatments, thereby facilitating trial recruitment and improving safety. PMID:25878175

  6. The behavioral treatment of epilepsy generation and inhibition of seizures.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, P

    1994-02-01

    These studies provide abundant evidence of the close interrelation between seizure activity and behavior. They reaffirm the point that epileptic seizures do not occur in a behavioral vacuum and strengthen the theoretical framework for behavioral treatment of epilepsy patients. As our understanding of the epileptic focus and its connections to surrounding cerebral systems increases, the concept that seizure control is significantly influenced by altering behavior of the patient becomes more comprehensible. Epileptic seizures should not be thought of as arising randomly. They occur in focal seizures when the pools of neurons surrounding the epilepsy focus are sufficiently excited for seizure activity to spread. Generalized seizures occur when the level of cortical excitability, or corticoreticular excitation, has reached a point at which thalamic recruiting volleys generalize and start to spread. In the partial epilepsies, a detailed clinical history should be taken as to the nature and characteristics of the aura and the form that seizure generalization or spread may take. Charting events surrounding the time of the seizure as described below are the engine which drives the creation of a countermeasure and its application to stopping seizures. They are the heart of a behavioral program and skill in interpreting the data will be repaid by the finding of the appropriate countermeasures for seizure reduction. This information will define those aspects of the patient's psychic life or behavior that will both trigger and inhibit seizure activity. Discussing this information with the patient will help him or her to understand that their seizures are not necessarily random events, but are intimately related to feelings, actions, and thoughts. A complete treatment of epilepsy involves not just medication, but includes teaching the patient about their brain and its functioning, and how they can use their feelings, thinking, and behavior in the control of their epilepsy. PMID

  7. Identification of a neurovascular signaling pathway regulating seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Linda; Stevenson, Tamara K; Su, Enming J; Ragsdale, Margaret; Moore, Shannon; Craciun, Stefan; Schielke, Gerald P; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Lawrence, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability can contribute to the development of seizures. The protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been shown to promote BBB permeability and susceptibility to seizures. In this study, we examined the pathway regulated by tPA in seizures. Methods An experimental model of kainate-induced seizures was used in genetically modified mice, including mice deficient in tPA (tPA−/−), its inhibitor neuroserpin (Nsp−/−), or both (Nsp:tPA−/−), and in mice conditionally deficient in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα). Results Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, Nsp−/− mice have significantly reduced latency to seizure onset and generalization; whereas tPA−/− mice have the opposite phenotype, as do Nsp:tPA−/− mice. Furthermore, interventions that maintain BBB integrity delay seizure propagation, whereas osmotic disruption of the BBB in seizure-resistant tPA−/− mice dramatically reduces the time to seizure onset and accelerates seizure progression. The phenotypic differences in seizure progression between WT, tPA−/−, and Nsp−/− mice are also observed in electroencephalogram recordings in vivo, but absent in ex vivo electrophysiological recordings where regulation of the BBB is no longer necessary to maintain the extracellular environment. Finally, we demonstrate that these effects on seizure progression are mediated through signaling by PDGFRα on perivascular astrocytes. Interpretation Together, these data identify a specific molecular pathway involving tPA-mediated PDGFRα signaling in perivascular astrocytes that regulates seizure progression through control of the BBB. Inhibition of PDGFRα signaling and maintenance of BBB integrity might therefore offer a novel clinical approach for managing seizures. PMID:26273685

  8. Effects of antiepileptics on lateral geniculate nucleus-kindled seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Akinori; Takechi, Kenshi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the characteristics of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) kindling in rats, especially the efficacies of antiepileptics, in comparison with those of amygdala (AMG) kindling. Daily electrical stimulation of the LGN led to the development of a generalized convulsion (kangaroo posture and falling back) in all subjects, similar to AMG kindling. The kindling response of the LGN differed from that of the AMG in a number of respects, that is, a high after-discharge (AD) threshold, a large number of stimulations for completion of kindling, and a different pattern of electroencephalogram (EEG) development. On the other hand, the oral administration of sodium valproate, carbamazepine, clobazam, or zonisamide caused dose-dependent inhibitions of both seizure stage and AD duration of LGN-kindled seizures, whereas ethosuximide had no significant effects. In addition, seizure stage was more potently inhibited than AD duration by these antiepileptics, particularly with clobazam. In conclusion, LGN kindling possesses characteristics that are different from AMG kindling. In addition, it was demonstrated that LGN kindling is a useful model, similar to other types of limbic system kindling, for the evaluation of antiepileptics. PMID:19346673

  9. A Fuzzy Logic System for Seizure Onset Detection in Intracranial EEG

    PubMed Central

    Rabbi, Ahmed Fazle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2012-01-01

    We present a multistage fuzzy rule-based algorithm for epileptic seizure onset detection. Amplitude, frequency, and entropy-based features were extracted from intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings and considered as the inputs for a fuzzy system. These features extracted from multichannel iEEG signals were combined using fuzzy algorithms both in feature domain and in spatial domain. Fuzzy rules were derived based on experts' knowledge and reasoning. An adaptive fuzzy subsystem was used for combining characteristics features extracted from iEEG. For the spatial combination, three channels from epileptogenic zone and one from remote zone were considered into another fuzzy subsystem. Finally, a threshold procedure was applied to the fuzzy output derived from the final fuzzy subsystem. The method was evaluated on iEEG datasets selected from Freiburg Seizure Prediction EEG (FSPEEG) database. A total of 112.45 hours of intracranial EEG recordings was selected from 20 patients having 56 seizures was used for the system performance evaluation. The overall sensitivity of 95.8% with false detection rate of 0.26 per hour and average detection latency of 15.8 seconds was achieved. PMID:22577370

  10. The Drosophila slamdance gene: a mutation in an aminopeptidase can cause seizure, paralysis and neuronal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, HaiGuang; Tan, Jeff; Reynolds, Elaine; Kuebler, Daniel; Faulhaber, Sally; Tanouye, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We report here the characterization of slamdance (sda), a Drosophila melanogaster "bang-sensitive" (BS) paralytic mutant. This mutant exhibits hyperactive behavior and paralysis following a mechanical "bang" or electrical shock. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that this mutant is much more prone to seizure episodes than normal flies because it has a drastically lowered seizure threshold. Through genetic mapping, molecular cloning, and RNA interference, we have demonstrated that the sda phenotype can be attributed to a mutation in the Drosophila homolog of the human aminopeptidase N (APN) gene. Furthermore, using mRNA in situ hybridization and LacZ staining, we have found that the sda gene is expressed specifically in the central nervous system at particular developmental stages. Together, these results suggest that the bang sensitivity in sda mutants is caused by a defective APN gene that somehow increases seizure susceptibility. Finally, by using the sda mutation as a sensitized background, we have been able to identify a rich variety of sda enhancers and other independent BS mutations. PMID:12454073

  11. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Thyrion, Lisa; Raedt, Robrecht; Portelli, Jeanelle; Van Loo, Pieter; Wadman, Wytse J; Glorieux, Griet; Lambrecht, Bart N; Janssens, Sophie; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in seizure generation. This study aimed to unravel the contribution of uric acid to seizure generation in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures. We measured extracellular levels of uric acid in the brain and modulated them using complementary pharmacological and genetic tools. Local extracellular uric acid levels increased three to four times during acute limbic seizures and peaked between 50 and 100 min after kainic acid infusion. Manipulating uric acid levels through administration of allopurinol or knock-out of urate oxidase significantly altered the number of generalized seizures, decreasing and increasing them by a twofold respectively. Taken together, our results consistently show that uric acid is released during limbic seizures and suggest that uric acid facilitates seizure generalization. PMID:26774005

  12. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish

    2016-07-01

    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  13. Intranasal midazolam for seizure cessation in the community setting

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Question There are times when parents arrive to my clinic after their child has had a seizure and a second seizure takes place in the clinic. While waiting for transport to the hospital, are there ways to stop the seizures without the need to obtain intravenous access in the clinic? Answer Intravenous diazepam has been a first-line therapy to stop seizures in children for many years. Other routes of drug administration such as intramuscular, rectal, and buccal are available but have several limitations. More evidence suggests that the intranasal route to administer drugs is quick and effective in children, and the use of midazolam has been continuing to show promise in seizure cessation. With its good safety profile, intranasal midazolam can be used in the clinic and prehospital setting for seizure cessation in children. PMID:27412207

  14. Orgasm-induced seizures: male studied with ictal electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anshuman; Mahmoud, Ali; Tun, Shwe Z; Goulding, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Reflex seizures can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, both sensory and emotional. Common triggers include light and music; however, in a growing number of case reports, the phenomenon of sexual activity triggering epileptic seizures is described. The majority of these case reports have been in women so far, and most have been found to localise to the right cerebral hemisphere on interictal electroencephalography (EEG). We report the case of a 34-year-old male with orgasm-induced seizures, recorded on ictal EEG. This gentleman's electrophysiology localised his seizure focus to the left cerebral hemisphere, making his case atypical in comparison with the majority of previous reports. Orgasm-induced seizures are an increasingly well-described phenomenon and we suggest that this should be taken into account when assessing patients with possible reflex seizures. PMID:20471288

  15. γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. γ-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

  16. Effect of Seizures on the Developing Brain and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a complex disorder, which involves much more than seizures, encompassing a range of associated comorbid health conditions that can have significant health and quality-of-life implications. Of these comorbidities, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and distressing aspects of epilepsy. Clinical studies have demonstrated that refractory seizures, resistant to antiepileptic drugs, and occurring early in life have significant adverse effects on cognitive function. Much of what has been learned about the neurobiological underpinnings of cognitive impairment following early-life seizures has come from animal models. Although early-life seizures in rodents do not result in cell loss, seizures cause in changes in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis and alteration of excitatory or inhibitory balance, network connectivity and temporal coding. These morphological and physiological changes are accompanied by parallel impairment in cognitive skills. This increased understanding of the pathophysiological basis of seizure-induced cognitive deficits should allow investigators to develop novel targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27544468

  17. Tranexamic acid–associated seizures: Causes and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian‐Shi; Whissell, Paul D.; Avramescu, Sinziana; Mazer, C. David

    2015-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays, and increased in‐hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures. The goal of this review is to summarize the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of these seizures. This review also highlights several clinical and preclinical studies that offer mechanistic insights into the potential causes of and treatments for tranexamic acid–associated seizures. This review will aid the medical community by increasing awareness about tranexamic acid–associated seizures and by translating scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for patients. ANN NEUROL 2016;79:18–26 PMID:26580862

  18. Adding Insult to Injury: Nonconvulsive Seizures in Abusive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Mary V; Greiner, Hansel M; Caré, Marguerite M; Owens, Deanna; Shapiro, Robert; Holland, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in patients with abusive head trauma who underwent electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and to describe predictive factors for this population. Children with a diagnosis of abusive head trauma were studied retrospectively to determine the rate of EEG monitoring, the rate of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and the associated neuroimaging findings. Over 11 years, 73 of 199 (36.8%) children with abusive head trauma had electroencephalography monitoring performed. Of these, 20 (27.4%) had nonconvulsive seizures and 3 (4.1%) had nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and cortical T2 / fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal abnormalities were both significantly associated with the presence of nonconvulsive seizures / nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Nonconvulsive seizures are relatively common in abusive head trauma and may go unrecognized. Specific neuroimaging characteristics increase the likelihood of nonconvulsive seizures on EEG. PMID:25900138

  19. Emergency department management of seizures in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Santillanes, Genevieve; Luc, Quyen

    2015-03-01

    Seizures account for 1% of all emergency department visits for children, and the etiologies range from benign to life-threatening. The challenge for emergency clinicians is to diagnose and treat the life-threatening causes of seizures while avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure and painful procedures in patients who are unlikely to have an emergent pathology. When treating patients in status epilepticus, emergency clinicians are also faced with the challenge of choosing anticonvulsant medications that will be efficacious while minimizing harmful side effects. Unfortunately, evidence to guide the evaluation and management of children presenting with new and breakthrough seizures and status epilepticus is limited. This review summarizes available evidence and guidelines on the diagnostic evaluation of first-time, breakthrough, and simple and complex febrile seizures. Management of seizures in neonates and seizures due to toxic ingestions is also reviewed. PMID:25799698

  20. Timing of neonatal seizures and intrapartum obstetrical factors.

    PubMed

    Scher, Mark S; Steppe, Doris A; Beggarly, Marquita

    2008-06-01

    One hundred ninety-three neonates with seizures were available on a neonatal seizure database, which included intrapartum and neonatal factors such as labor duration, fetal heart rate abnormalities, cord blood gas values, Apgar scores and clinical signs of encephalopathy. Regression analyses (analysis of variance) were performed on the entire cohort as well as specific subsets of neonates (eg, neonatal encephalopathy vs no encephalopathy) to assess the relationship between seizure timing and intrapartum/neonatal factors. Seizures were noted earlier for the encephalopathic group than for the nonencephalopathic group. No significant differences were noted for any intrapartum or neonatal factors. Timing of neonatal seizures, with or without an encephalopathy occurs within the first 2 days after birth and is independent of selected intrapartum and neonatal factors, underscoring recent task force recommendations concerning neonatal encephalopathy. Factors other than intrapartum events more likely contribute to the encephalopathic repertoire of the newborn, including seizures. PMID:18281619

  1. Seizure sensitivity is ameliorated by targeted expression of K+-Cl- cotransporter function in the mushroom body of the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Mercado, Adriana; Fajilan, Adriel A; Lee, Ann W; Hsu, Richard; Mount, David B; Tanouye, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The kcc(DHS1) allele of kazachoc (kcc) was identified as a seizure-enhancer mutation exacerbating the bang-sensitive (BS) paralytic behavioral phenotypes of several seizure-sensitive Drosophila mutants. On their own, young kcc(DHS1) flies also display seizure-like behavior and demonstrate a reduced threshold for seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock. The product of kcc shows substantial homology to KCC2, the mammalian neuronal K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter. The kcc(DHS1) allele is a hypomorph, and its seizure-like phenotype reflects reduced expression of the kcc gene. We report here that kcc functions as a K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter when expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes: under hypotonic conditions that induce oocyte swelling, oocytes that express Drosophila kcc display robust ion transport activity observed as a Cl(-)-dependent uptake of the K(+) congener (86)Rb(+). Ectopic, spatially restricted expression of a UAS-kcc(+) transgene was used to determine where cotransporter function is required in order to rescue the kcc(DHS1) BS paralytic phenotype. Interestingly, phenotypic rescue is largely accounted for by targeted, circumscribed expression in the mushroom bodies (MBs) and the ellipsoid body (EB) of the central complex. Intriguingly, we observed that MB induction of kcc(+) functioned as a general seizure suppressor in Drosophila. Drosophila MBs have generated considerable interest especially for their role as the neural substrate for olfactory learning and memory; they have not been previously implicated in seizure susceptibility. We show that kcc(DHS1) seizure sensitivity in MB neurons acts via a weakening of chemical synaptic inhibition by GABAergic transmission and suggest that this is due to disruption of intracellular Cl(-) gradients in MB neurons. PMID:19884312

  2. Ngram-Derived Pattern Recognition for the Detection and Prediction of Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Amir; Juffali, Walid; El-Imad, Jamil; Constandinou, Timothy G.; Toumazou, Christofer

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a new method that combines symbol dynamics methodologies with an Ngram algorithm for the detection and prediction of epileptic seizures. The presented approach specifically applies Ngram-based pattern recognition, after data pre-processing, with similarity metrics, including the Hamming distance and Needlman-Wunsch algorithm, for identifying unique patterns within epochs of time. Pattern counts within each epoch are used as measures to determine seizure detection and prediction markers. Using 623 hours of intracranial electrocorticogram recordings from 21 patients containing a total of 87 seizures, the sensitivity and false prediction/detection rates of this method are quantified. Results are quantified using individual seizures within each case for training of thresholds and prediction time windows. The statistical significance of the predictive power is further investigated. We show that the method presented herein, has significant predictive power in up to 100% of temporal lobe cases, with sensitivities of up to 70–100% and low false predictions (dependant on training procedure). The cases of highest false predictions are found in the frontal origin with 0.31–0.61 false predictions per hour and with significance in 18 out of 21 cases. On average, a prediction sensitivity of 93.81% and false prediction rate of approximately 0.06 false predictions per hour are achieved in the best case scenario. This compares to previous work utilising the same data set that has shown sensitivities of up to 40–50% for a false prediction rate of less than 0.15/hour. PMID:24886714

  3. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  4. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  5. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  6. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  7. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Day, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming. 76 figs.

  8. Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Chaitali; Sarkar, Shatanik; Dasgupta, Malay Kumar; Das, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1½-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise) in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any. PMID:25878755

  9. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Kulikov, Stanislav; Osorio, Ivan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  10. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES): electroencephalographic findings and seizure patterns.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Oliver; Gerwig, Markus; Frings, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2012-07-01

    To better describe seizure type, frequency, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and correlate these data with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we retrospectively assessed medical charts and EEG studies of patients with PRES treated between 2004 and 2011. Data collected included patients' underlying pathology, lesion distribution by MRI, seizure type and frequency, EEG pathologic background activity, focal pathology, and epileptogenic activity. Thirty-eight of 49 adults with PRES suffered from seizures; 17 underwent EEG and were included in the analysis. Perpetuating factors were similar to those reported in the literature. In 15 of 17 patients, MRI showed widespread involvement rather than purely occipital lesions. Nine patients had subcortical and cortical involvement. Seizures were single short grand mal (GM) in 11, serial GM in 2, recurrent GM in 2, and additional focal seizures in 2. No seizures were noted beyond the first day. After discontinuation of antiepileptic medication, no patients experienced seizure recurrence during 6-month follow-up. EEG showed diffuse theta/delta slowing in 13 patients and epileptogenic activity with focal sharp-wave and periodic lateralizing epileptiform discharges in 2 patients. Seizures in PRES are most commonly single GM and are usually of limited duration. EEG shows variable theta/delta slowing. Focal EEG pathology is seen in patients with focal seizures. Seizures occur early after disease onset and terminate spontaneously or under therapy during the first 24 h. Seizure recurrence beyond 24 h and chronic epilepsy were not seen. Seizures in PRES are frequent but appear to be uncomplicated and do not herald worse prognosis. EEG is helpful in evaluating the degree of encephalopathy and monitoring epileptic activity. Long-term antiepileptic medication does not appear to be warranted. PMID:22189837

  11. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.; Clapp, Ned E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Lawkins, William F.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming.

  12. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  13. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  14. The Future of Seizure Prediction and Intervention: Closing the loop

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vivek; Lee, Steven; Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Soltesz, Ivan; Benquet, Pascal; Irazoqui, Pedro; Netoff, Theoden

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of epilepsy therapies is to provide seizure control for all patients while eliminating side effects. Improved specificity of intervention through on-demand approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current intervention strategies. This article reviews progress in seizure prediction and detection, potential new therapies to provide improved specificity, and devices to achieve these ends. Specifically, we discuss 1) potential signal modalities and algorithms for seizure detection and prediction, 2) closed-loop intervention approaches, and 3) hardware for implementing these algorithms and interventions. Seizure prediction and therapies maximize efficacy while minimizing side-effects through improved specificity may represent the future of epilepsy treatments. PMID:26035672

  15. Pharmacotherapy for Neonatal Seizures: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Maria D; Griffin, Brendan T; Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Cryan, John F; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-04-01

    Seizures are the most common neurological emergencies in the neonatal period and are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Seizures affect up to five per 1000 term births and population-based studies suggest that they occur even more frequently in premature infants. Seizures are a sign of an underlying cerebral pathology, the most common of which is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in term infants. Due to a growing body of evidence that seizures exacerbate cerebral injury, effective diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures is of paramount importance to reduce long-term adverse outcomes. Electroencephalography is essential for the diagnosis of seizures in neonates due to their subtle clinical expression, non-specific neurological presentation and a high frequency of electro-clinical uncoupling in the neonatal period. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy may require neuroprotective therapeutic hypothermia, accompanying sedation with opioids, anticonvulsant drugs or a combination of all of these. The efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of seven anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, levetiracetam, lidocaine, midazolam, topiramate and bumetanide) are reviewed. This review is focused only on studies reporting electrographically confirmed seizures and highlights the knowledge gaps that exist in optimal treatment regimens for neonatal seizures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to establish a safe and effective treatment protocol for neonatal seizures. PMID:26943929

  16. Using a structured questionnaire improves seizure description by medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Saher; Shah, Hemang; McNair, Nancy; Pruitt, J. Ned; Murro, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a structured questionnaire for improving a medical students’ ability to identify, describe and interpret a witnessed seizure. Methods Ninety two 3rd year medical students, blinded to seizure diagnosis, viewed videos of a primary generalized seizure and a complex partial seizure.  Students next completed an unstructured questionnaire that asked the students to describe the seizure video recordings. The students then completed a structured questionnaire that asked the student to respond to 17 questions regarding specific features occurring during the seizures.  We determined the number and types of correct responses for each questionnaire. Results Overall, the structured questionnaire was more effective in eliciting an average of 9.25 correct responses compared to the unstructured questionnaire eliciting an average of 5.30 correct responses (p < 0.001). Additionally, 10 of the 17 seizure features were identified more effectively with the structured questionnaire. Potentially confounding factors, prior knowledge of someone with epilepsy or a prior experience of viewing a seizure, did not predict the student’s ability to correctly identify any of the 17 features. Conclusions A structured questionnaire significantly improves a medical student’s ability to provide an accurate clinical description of primary generalized and complex partial witnessed seizures. Our analysis identified the 10 specific features improved by using the structured questionnaire. PMID:26752118

  17. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography: Biomarkers for convulsive seizures.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Pressler, Ronit; Wolf, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Muscle activity during seizures is in electroencephalographical (EEG) praxis often considered an irritating artefact. This article discusses ways by surface electromyography (EMG) to turn it into a valuable tool of epileptology. Muscles are in direct synaptic contact with motor neurons. Therefore, EMG signals provide direct information about the electric activity in the motor cortex. Qualitative analysis of EMG has traditionally been a part of the long-term video-EEG recordings. Recent development in quantitative analysis of EMG signals yielded valuable information on the pathomechanisms of convulsive seizures, demonstrating that it was different from maximal voluntary contraction, and different from convulsive psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Furthermore, the tonic phase of the generalised tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) proved to have different quantitative features than tonic seizures. The high temporal resolution of EMG allowed detailed characterisation of temporal dynamics of the GTCS, suggesting that the same inhibitory mechanisms that try to prevent the build-up of the seizure activity, contribute to ending the seizure. These findings have clinical implications: the quantitative EMG features provided the pathophysiologic substrate for developing neurophysiologic biomarkers that accurately identify GTCS. This proved to be efficient both for seizure detection and for objective, automated distinction between convulsive and non-convulsive epileptic seizures. PMID:27212115

  18. Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

  19. Maternal immune activation increases seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xin-Ting; Li, Jun; Yu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Wen; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Li, Bao-Min

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a relationship between maternal infection and a high incidence of childhood epilepsy in offspring. However, there is little experimental evidence that links maternal infection with later seizure susceptibility in juvenile offspring. Here, we asked whether maternal immune challenge during pregnancy can alter seizure susceptibility and seizure-associated brain damage in adolescence. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (NS) on gestational days 15 and 16. At postnatal day 21, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) was evaluated in male offspring. Four groups were studied, including normal control (NS-NS), prenatal infection (LPS-NS), juvenile seizure (NS-KA), and "two-hit" (LPS-KA) groups. Our results demonstrated that maternal LPS exposure caused long-term reactive astrogliosis and increased seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring. Compared to the juvenile seizure group, animals in the "two-hit" group showed exaggerated astrogliosis, followed by worsened spatial learning ability in adulthood. In addition, prenatal immune challenge alone led to spatial learning impairment in offspring but had no effect on anxiety. These data suggest that prenatal immune challenge causes a long-term increase in juvenile seizure susceptibility and exacerbates seizure-induced brain injury, possibly by priming astroglia. PMID:25982885

  20. Future of seizure prediction and intervention: closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Vivek; Lee, Steven T; Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Soltesz, Ivan; Benquet, Pascal; Irazoqui, Pedro P; Netoff, Theoden I

    2015-06-01

    The ultimate goal of epilepsy therapies is to provide seizure control for all patients while eliminating side effects. Improved specificity of intervention through on-demand approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current intervention strategies. This article reviews the progress in seizure prediction and detection, potential new therapies to provide improved specificity, and devices to achieve these ends. Specifically, we discuss (1) potential signal modalities and algorithms for seizure detection and prediction, (2) closed-loop intervention approaches, and (3) hardware for implementing these algorithms and interventions. Seizure prediction and therapies maximize efficacy, whereas minimizing side effects through improved specificity may represent the future of epilepsy treatments. PMID:26035672

  1. Evolving functional network properties and synchronizability during human epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Kaspar A.; Bialonski, Stephan; Horstmann, Marie-Therese; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2008-09-01

    We assess electrical brain dynamics before, during, and after 100 human epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations by statistical and spectral properties of functionally defined networks. We observe a concave-like temporal evolution of characteristic path length and cluster coefficient indicative of a movement from a more random toward a more regular and then back toward a more random functional topology. Surprisingly, synchronizability was significantly decreased during the seizure state but increased already prior to seizure end. Our findings underline the high relevance of studying complex systems from the viewpoint of complex networks, which may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying epileptic seizures.

  2. Progressive NKCC1-dependent neuronal chloride accumulation during neonatal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Dzhala, Volodymyr I.; Kuchibhotla, Kishore V.; Glykys, Joseph C.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Swiercz, Waldemar B.; Feng, Guoping; Kuner, Thomas; Augustine, George J.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Staley, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Seizures induce excitatory shifts in the reversal potential for GABAA receptor-mediated responses, which may contribute to the intractability of electroencephalographic seizures and preclude the efficacy of widely-used GABAergic anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital. We now report that in intact hippocampi prepared from neonatal rats and transgenic mice expressing Clomeleon, recurrent seizures progressively increase the intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl−]i) assayed by Clomeleon imaging and invert the net effect of GABAA receptor activation from inhibition to excitation assayed by the frequency of action potentials and intracellular Ca2+ transients. These changes correlate with increasing frequency of seizure-like events and reduction in phenobarbital efficacy. The Na+-K+-2Cl− (NKCC1) co-transporter blocker bumetanide inhibited seizure-induced neuronal Cl− accumulation and the consequent facilitation of recurrent seizures. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which seizure activity leads to [Cl−]i accumulation, thereby increasing the probability of subsequent seizures. This provides a potential mechanism for the early crescendo phase of neonatal seizures. PMID:20810895

  3. Preferential inactivation of Scn1a in parvalbumin interneurons increases seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Stacey B.; Makinson, Christopher D.; Papale, Ligia A.; Shankar, Anupama; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nakazawa, Kazu; Escayg, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials in electrically excitable cells. Dominant mutations in SCN1A, which encodes the Nav1.1 VGSC α-subunit, underlie several forms of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Electrophysiological analyses of DS and GEFS+ mouse models have led to the hypothesis that SCN1A mutations reduce the excitability of inhibitory cortical and hippocampal interneurons. To more directly examine the relative contribution of inhibitory interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells to SCN1A-derived epilepsy, we first compared the expression of Nav1.1 in inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and excitatory neurons from P22 mice using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In the hippocampus and neocortex, 69% of Nav1.1 immunoreactive neurons were also positive for PV. In contrast, 13% and 5% of Nav1.1 positive cells in the hippocampus and neocortex, respectively, were found to co-localize with excitatory cells identified by CaMK2α immunoreactivity. Next, we reduced the expression of Scn1a in either a subset of interneurons (mainly PV interneurons) or excitatory cells by crossing mice heterozygous for a floxed Scn1a allele to either the Ppp1r2-Cre or EMX1-Cre transgenic lines, respectively. The inactivation of one Scn1a allele in interneurons of the neocortex and hippocampus was sufficient to reduce thresholds to flurothyl- and hyperthermia-induced seizures, whereas thresholds were unaltered following inactivation in excitatory cells. Reduced interneuron Scn1a expression also resulted in the generation of spontaneous seizures. These findings provide direct evidence for an important role of PV interneurons in the pathogenesis of Scn1a-derived epilepsies. PMID:22926190

  4. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

  5. Yield threshold decision framework

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, B.R.; Younker, L.W.; Hannon, W.J.

    1989-08-17

    The USA is developing a decision analysis framework for evaluating the relative value of lower yield thresholds and related verification policies. The framework facilitates systematic analysis of the major issues in the yield threshold decision. The framework can be used to evaluate options proposed either in the inter-agency process or in the negotiations. In addition, the framework can measure the importance of uncertainties and alternative judgments, and thereby determine the advantages of additional research. Since the model is explicit and quantitative, it provides a rational, defensible approach for reaching important treaty and verification decisions. 9 figs.

  6. Block term decomposition for modelling epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunyadi, Borbála; Camps, Daan; Sorber, Laurent; Paesschen, Wim Van; Vos, Maarten De; Huffel, Sabine Van; Lathauwer, Lieven De

    2014-12-01

    Recordings of neural activity, such as EEG, are an inherent mixture of different ongoing brain processes as well as artefacts and are typically characterised by low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, EEG datasets are often inherently multidimensional, comprising information in time, along different channels, subjects, trials, etc. Additional information may be conveyed by expanding the signal into even more dimensions, e.g. incorporating spectral features applying wavelet transform. The underlying sources might show differences in each of these modes. Therefore, tensor-based blind source separation techniques which can extract the sources of interest from such multiway arrays, simultaneously exploiting the signal characteristics in all dimensions, have gained increasing interest. Canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) has been successfully used to extract epileptic seizure activity from wavelet-transformed EEG data (Bioinformatics 23(13):i10-i18, 2007; NeuroImage 37:844-854, 2007), where each source is described by a rank-1 tensor, i.e. by the combination of one particular temporal, spectral and spatial signature. However, in certain scenarios, where the seizure pattern is nonstationary, such a trilinear signal model is insufficient. Here, we present the application of a recently introduced technique, called block term decomposition (BTD) to separate EEG tensors into rank- ( L r , L r ,1) terms, allowing to model more variability in the data than what would be possible with CPD. In a simulation study, we investigate the robustness of BTD against noise and different choices of model parameters. Furthermore, we show various real EEG recordings where BTD outperforms CPD in capturing complex seizure characteristics.

  7. Seizure recurrence after a first febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Laditan, A A

    1994-01-01

    In this study, 140 children aged from 6 months to 6 years who presented with a first febrile convulsion at the King Fahad Hofuf Hospital, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia were retrospectively identified. Information about these children was obtained from their medical records covering a follow-up period of 3 years from July 1989 to June 1992. Recurrent febrile convulsions occurred in 60 of them (43%). Relevant risk factors that were observed to be significantly associated with seizure recurrence included an age of less than 18 months (odds ratio [OR] = 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.26, 1.58), an initial febrile convulsion that was complex (OR = 4.41; CI = 9.50, 2.05) and a positive family history of febrile convulsions (OR = 4.12; CI = 10.74; 1.58), while a decreased risk of recurrence occurred with a temperature of over 39 degrees C (OR = 4.60; CI = 9.44; 2.24). There was no association between seizure recurrence and the duration of the initial febrile convulsion (OR = 0.93; CI = 2.33; -2.04) or family history of epilepsy (OR = 0.88; CI = 4.22, -3.27). An important observation in the present study is the close association (ORM-H = 2.36; X2M-H = 9.65) between the development of an afebrile convulsion and seizure recurrence among the group of children with CFC. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis should therefore be considered for children whose initial febrile convulsions are complex in nature. PMID:7880092

  8. [Intracranial tumors and epileptic seizures: treatment principles].

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Andrea O; Vulliémoz, Serge

    2016-04-27

    Epileptic seizures represent a relatively frequent issue in patients with intracranial neoplasms, and very frequently imply the start of an antiepileptic treatment as secondary prophylaxis. Even if the current level of evidence is relatively low, compounds with a limited risk of pharmacokinetic interactions are clearly preferred. Levetiracetam is probably the most prescribed agent in this setting, while pregabalin, valproate, lacosamide and lamotrigine are valuable alternatives. The treatment choice has to consider the different profiles of side effects and should be tailored to each patient. In this setting, a multidisciplinary approach including general practicioner, oncologist and neurologist is strongly advocated. PMID:27281943

  9. Intramuscular and rectal therapies of acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Leppik, Ilo E; Patel, Sima I

    2015-08-01

    The intramuscular (IM) and rectal routes are alternative routes of delivery for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when the intravenous route is not practical or possible. For treatment of acute seizures, the AED used should have a short time to maximum concentration (Tmax). Some AEDs have preparations that may be given intramuscularly. These include the benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam) and others (fosphenytoin, levetiracetam). Although phenytoin and valproate have parenteral preparations, these should not be given intramuscularly. A recent study of prehospital treatment of status epilepticus evaluated a midazolam (MDZ) autoinjector delivering IM drug compared to IV lorazepam (LZP). Seizures were absent on arrival to the emergency department in 73.4% of the IM MDZ compared to a 63.4% response in LZP-treated subjects (p < 0.001 for superiority). Almost all AEDs have been evaluated for rectal administration as solutions, gels, and suppositories. In a placebo-controlled study, diazepam (DZP) was administered at home by caregivers in doses that ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg. Diazepam was superior to placebo in reduced seizure frequency in children (p < 0.001) and in adults (p = 0.02) and time to recurrent seizures after an initial treatment (p < 0.001). Thus, at this time, only MZD given intramuscularly and DZP given rectally appear to have the properties required for rapid enough absorption to be useful when intravenous routes are not possible. Some drugs cannot be administered rectally owing to factors such as poor absorption or poor solubility in aqueous solutions. The relative rectal bioavailability of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin is so low that the current formulations are not considered to be suitable for administration by this route. When administered as a solution, diazepam is rapidly absorbed rectally, reaching the Tmax within 5-20 min in children. By contrast, rectal administration of lorazepam is relatively slow, with a Tmax of 1-2h

  10. Diagnostic uncertainty around seizures in advanced malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Hanna, Demiana Lenzi; Pamma, Gurjeet

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old lady with a resected Dukes B colon cancer, receiving adjuvant capecitabine and bevacizumab chemotherapy was admitted with Hickman line sepsis. During her admission, she developed seizures and periods of unresponsiveness and was suspected to have brain metastases. She was started on high dose steroids and sodium valproate and appeared to respond to this treatment. However an MRI scan revealed that she did not have brain metastases but a rare neurological condition called reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, which can be fatal if not treated but has a good prognosis if the cause is identified and treated. PMID:22670001

  11. Perampanel for tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Gregory L.; Wechsler, Robert T.; Wang, Xue-Feng; DiVentura, Bree; Brandt, Christian; Trinka, Eugen; O'Brien, Terence J.; Laurenza, Antonio; Patten, Anna; Bibbiani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of adjunctive perampanel in patients with drug-resistant, primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01393743; funded by Eisai Inc.), patients 12 years or older with PGTC seizures and IGE were randomized to placebo or perampanel during a 4-week titration period (perampanel uptitrated from 2 to 8 mg/d, or highest tolerated dose) and 13-week maintenance period. The primary endpoint was percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (titration plus maintenance vs baseline). The key secondary endpoint (primary endpoint for European Union registration) was 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (patients achieving ≥50% reduction in PGTC seizure frequency; maintenance vs baseline). Treatment-emergent adverse events were monitored. Results: Of 164 randomized patients, 162 comprised the full analysis set (placebo, 81; perampanel, 81). Compared with placebo, perampanel conferred a greater median percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (−38.4% vs −76.5%; p < 0.0001) and greater 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (39.5% vs 64.2%; p = 0.0019). During maintenance, 12.3% of placebo-treated patients and 30.9% of perampanel-treated patients achieved PGTC seizure freedom. For the safety analysis (placebo, 82; perampanel, 81), the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events with perampanel were dizziness (32.1%) and fatigue (14.8%). Conclusions: Adjunctive perampanel was well tolerated and improved control of drug-resistant PGTC seizures in patients with IGE. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that adjunctive perampanel reduces PGTC seizure frequency, compared with placebo, in patients with drug-resistant PGTC seizures in IGE. PMID:26296511

  12. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  13. Prospective Study of 2 Bed Alarms for Detection of Nocturnal Seizures.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Stephen; Poppel, Kate Van; McGregor, Amy; Ellis, Michelle; Patters, Andrea; Wheless, James

    2013-11-01

    For parents of children with epilepsy, seizures occurring in sleep are a major concern. Risk factors for sudden unexplained death in epilepsy patients include being in bed and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A device for detecting nocturnal seizure activity would be valuable. Children with various seizure types undergoing evaluation had standard video electroencephalography (EEG), cardiopulmonary and nursing monitoring, and 1 of 2 models (ST-2 and MP5) of a Medpage bed alarm. The video EEG record was reviewed to detect any seizures missed by the bed alarms or caregivers. The ability of the bed alarms to detect motor seizures in general and specific seizure types was tested. In 15 patients, 69 seizures were recorded by video EEG. The ST-2 did not detect any nocturnal seizures. The MP5 alarm detected 1 of 15 in sleeping patients: a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The Medpage seizure alarms do not appear to adequately detect nocturnal seizures. PMID:23076428

  14. Electric field strength and focality in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a finite element simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced the maximum electric field of 2.1-2.5 V cm-1 and 1.1-2.2 V cm-1 in the brain, corresponding to 6.2-7.2 times and 1.2-2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much larger with ECT (up to 100%) than with MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double-cone coil was the most focal, and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800-900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects.

  15. Seizure prediction using polynomial SVM classification.

    PubMed

    Zisheng Zhang; Parhi, Keshab K

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel patient-specific algorithm for prediction of seizures in epileptic patients with low hardware complexity and low power consumption. In the proposed approach, we first compute the spectrogram of the input fragmented EEG signals from a few electrodes. Each fragmented data clip is ten minutes in duration. Band powers, relative spectral powers and ratios of spectral powers are extracted as features. The features are then subjected to electrode selection and feature selection using classification and regression tree. The baseline experiment uses all features from selected electrodes and these features are then subjected to a radial basis function kernel support vector machine (RBF-SVM) classifier. The proposed method further selects a small number features from the selected electrodes and train a polynomial support vector machine (SVM) classifier with degree of 2 on these features. Prediction performances are compared between the baseline experiment and the proposed method. The algorithm is tested using intra-cranial EEG (iEEG) from the American Epilepsy Society Seizure Prediction Challenge database. The baseline experiment using a large number of features and RBF-SVM achieves a 100% sensitivity and an average AUC of 0.9985, while the proposed algorithm using only a small number of features and polynomial SVM with degree of 2 can achieve a sensitivity of 100.0%, an average area under curve (AUC) of 0.9795. For both experiments, only 10% of the available training data are used for training. PMID:26737598

  16. Chronic omega-3 supplementation in seizure-prone versus seizure-resistant rat strains: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gilby, K L; Jans, J; McIntyre, D C

    2009-10-20

    Several studies have shown fatty acid supplementation to be efficacious in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/autism spectrum disorder (ADHD/ASD) and epilepsy. Interestingly, rats bred to be seizure-prone (Fast), unlike those bred for seizure-resistance (Slow), naturally exhibit behaviors and physiology reminiscent of ADHD/ASD in humans, suggesting a fundamental link between seizure disposition and these developmental disorders. To determine whether chronic omega-3 supplementation might ameliorate ADHD-like behaviors in the seizure-prone rat strain and/or alter natural predispositions for or against seizure in either strain, Fast and Slow weanlings were maintained on a control or omega-3-supplemented diet. As adults, rats were tested in paradigms known to elicit ADHD-like behaviors from Fast rats and then kindled from the amygdala to assess relative seizure disposition. While omega-3 supplementation did not significantly alter the relative hyperactivity, learning deficits or heightened seizure sensitivity naturally exhibited by Fast rats, it dramatically reduced their impulsivity to Slow-like levels. In contrast, typical behavioral patterns in Slow rats were largely unaffected by omega-3 supplementation yet their proclivity for seizure was greatly increased. This heightened vulnerability to seizure in Slow rats was paralleled by a drop in circulating plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) to match levels normally observed in Fast rats. These findings suggest a delicate balance between seizure predisposition and ADHD-like behaviors that can be influenced by omega-3 treatment. Further, a relationship between circulating NEFA levels and seizure susceptibility has surfaced that advocates caution when treating different genetic backgrounds with omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19596053

  17. Using trend templates in a neonatal seizure algorithm improves detection of short seizures in a foetal ovine model.

    PubMed

    Zwanenburg, Alex; Andriessen, Peter; Jellema, Reint K; Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Delhaas, Tammo

    2015-03-01

    Seizures below one minute in duration are difficult to assess correctly using seizure detection algorithms. We aimed to improve neonatal detection algorithm performance for short seizures through the use of trend templates for seizure onset and end. Bipolar EEG were recorded within a transiently asphyxiated ovine model at 0.7 gestational age, a common experimental model for studying brain development in humans of 30-34 weeks of gestation. Transient asphyxia led to electrographic seizures within 6-8 h. A total of 3159 seizures, 2386 shorter than one minute, were annotated in 1976 h-long EEG recordings from 17 foetal lambs. To capture EEG characteristics, five features, sensitive to seizures, were calculated and used to derive trend information. Feature values and trend information were used as input for support vector machine classification and subsequently post-processed. Performance metrics, calculated after post-processing, were compared between analyses with and without employing trend information. Detector performance was assessed after five-fold cross-validation conducted ten times with random splits. The use of trend templates for seizure onset and end in a neonatal seizure detection algorithm significantly improves the correct detection of short seizures using two-channel EEG recordings from 54.3% (52.6-56.1) to 59.5% (58.5-59.9) at FDR 2.0 (median (range); p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Using trend templates might therefore aid in detection of short seizures by EEG monitoring at the NICU. PMID:25651839

  18. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  19. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  20. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  1. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a)...

  2. Ictal whistling: a rare automatism during temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Seetharam; Mirsattari, Seyed; McLachlan, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    One of the most unusual ictal automatisms reported is whistling. Two patients, both males, are described who had prominent whistling as a component of their complex partial seizures. Both had temporal lobe epilepsy with resolution of seizures after a temporal lobectomy. Ictal whistling appears to localize to the temporal lobe but may not be useful for lateralization. PMID:20478766

  3. Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

  4. Increasing Epilepsy Awareness in Schools: A Seizure Smart Schools Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Heather A.; Hiltz, Cynthia M.; Kopplin, Vicki L.; Lindeke, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26)…

  5. Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days…

  6. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  7. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  8. Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

  9. Search & Seizure in the Schools. A Model Policy and Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Larry; And Others

    The issue of search and seizure in the public schools is clouded by conflicting legal decisions. School policies and rules on the issue should be made only after considerable deliberation and community input. Because of the lack of clarity, this model of search and seizure policy and rules is intended only as a basis for consideration of the…

  10. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark H; Padmanabha, Akshay; Hossain, Gahangir; de Jongh Curry, Amy L; Blaha, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a "closed-loop" system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998; Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event. PLV is used as the seizure prediction marker and signifies the emergence of abnormal neuronal activations through local neuron populations. PLV/ALVs are used as seizure detection markers to demarcate the seizure event, or when the local seizure event has propagated throughout the brain turning into a grand-mal event. We verify the performance of this methodology against the "CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database" which features seizure attributes for testing. Through this testing, we can demonstrate a high degree of sensivity and precision of our methodology between pre-ictal and ictal events. PMID:27014017

  11. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  12. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  13. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  14. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  15. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  16. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  17. Seizure Disorders: An Alternative Explanation for Students' Inattention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Christina M.; Nystul, Michael S.; Conner, Mary Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of seizure disorders. They are more common than previously thought, and most have their onset in adolescence. Types of seizure disorders common in children, their symptoms, and treatment are described. A case example illustrates behavior in school and a paradoxical medication effect. (EMK)

  18. Neuropeptide FF receptors as novel targets for limbic seizure attenuation.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Meurs, Alfred; Bihel, Frederic; Hammoud, Hassan; Schmitt, Martine; De Kock, Joery; Utard, Valerie; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Buffel, Ine; Coppens, Jessica; Tourwe, Dirk; Maes, Veronique; De Prins, An; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Massie, Ann; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Boon, Paul; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well established anticonvulsant and first-in-class antiepileptic neuropeptide. In this study, the controversial role of NPY1 receptors in epilepsy was reassessed by testing two highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands and a mixed NPY1/NPFF receptor antagonist BIBP3226 in a rat model for limbic seizures. While BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the pilocarpine-induced seizures, neither of the highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands altered the seizure severity. Administration of the NPFF1/NPFF2 receptor antagonist RF9 also significantly attenuated limbic seizure activity. To further prove the involvement of NPFF receptors in these seizure-modulating effects, low and high affinity antagonists for the NPFF receptors were tested. We observed that the low affinity ligand failed to exhibit anticonvulsant properties while the two high affinity ligands significantly attenuated the seizures. Continuous NPFF1 receptor agonist administration also inhibited limbic seizures whereas bolus administration of the NPFF1 receptor agonist was without effect. This suggests that continuous agonist perfusion could result in NPFF1 receptor desensitization and mimic NPFF1 receptor antagonist administration. Our data unveil for the first time the involvement of the NPFF system in the management of limbic seizures. PMID:25963417

  19. 26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section 301.7321-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject to forfeiture to the United...

  20. 27 CFR 478.152 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) of the Act, where the firearm or ammunition intended to be used in such offense is involved in a... firearm or ammunition is intended to be used in such offense by the transferor of such firearm or... Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.152 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Any firearm or...

  1. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark H.; Padmanabha, Akshay; Hossain, Gahangir; de Jongh Curry, Amy L.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a “closed-loop” system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998; Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event. PLV is used as the seizure prediction marker and signifies the emergence of abnormal neuronal activations through local neuron populations. PLV/ALVs are used as seizure detection markers to demarcate the seizure event, or when the local seizure event has propagated throughout the brain turning into a grand-mal event. We verify the performance of this methodology against the “CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database” which features seizure attributes for testing. Through this testing, we can demonstrate a high degree of sensivity and precision of our methodology between pre-ictal and ictal events. PMID:27014017

  2. [Seizure and Bourneville tuberous sclerosis: think about insulinoma].

    PubMed

    Le Berre, J-P; Bey Boeglin, M; Duverger, V; Garcia, C; Bordier, L; Dupuy, O; Mayaudon, H; Bauduceau, B

    2009-02-01

    Bourneville tuberous sclerosis is a phacomatosis characterized by skin, neurological and ophthalmological lesions. At first, seizure can reveal cerebral lesions, but other causes may be suspected. We report a case of a Bourneville tuberous sclerosis in a 41-year-old-man with hypoglycemia leading to seizures, resulting from an insulinoma. PMID:18539363

  3. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  4. The piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortex in seizure generation

    PubMed Central

    Vismer, Marta S.; Forcelli, Patrick A.; Skopin, Mark D.; Gale, Karen; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of mammalian limbic and neocortical brain regions provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC), perirhinal (PRC), and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are discussed. In addition, the neurotransmitters, intrinsic and extrinsic connections, and the interaction of these regions are described. Furthermore, we provide evidence based on clinical research and animal models that suggest that these cortical regions may act as key seizure-trigger zones and, even, epileptogenesis. PMID:26074779

  5. γ-Hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P; Duntley, Stephen P; Darken, Rachel S

    2014-07-15

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. PMID:25024661

  6. Sleep Related Hypermotor Seizures with a Right Parietal Onset.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Steve A; Figorilli, Michela; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Proserpio, Paola; Nobili, Lino

    2015-08-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a syndrome characterized by the occurrence of sleep related seizures of variable complexity and duration. Hypermotor seizures (HMS) represent a classic manifestation of this syndrome, associated with a perturbation of the ventromesial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus regions. Nevertheless, in recent years, reports have showed that the seizure onset zone (SOZ) need not be of frontal origin to generate HMS. Here we report an unusual case of a patient presenting with a seven-year history of drug-resistant sleep related HMS arising from the mesial parietal region. The presence of an infrequent feeling of levitation before the HMS was key to suspecting a subtle focal cortical dysplasia in the right precuneus region. A stereo-EEG investigation confirmed the extra-frontal seizure onset of the HMS and highlighted the interrelationship between unstable sleep and seizure precipitation. PMID:25902821

  7. Seizure in Pregnancy Following Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Farnoush; Abdollahzadeh, Mehrsima; Faraji, Roya; Chavoushi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seizure involves less than 1% of pregnancies; however it is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare, but potentially life-threatening cause of seizure during pregnancy, presenting primarily as seizure in 12% - 31.9% of cases. Pregnancy and puerperium are known as the risk factors of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Case Presentation: Here is presented a case of seizure after delivery by cesarean section in an otherwise healthy woman. The final diagnosis was cerebral venous sinus thrombosis probably due to hypercoagulable state in pregnancy. Conclusions: If seizure occurs during the peripartum period, along with providing complete cardiovascular and respiratory support, advanced diagnostic measures are needed and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be considered as a possible diagnosis. PMID:26161329

  8. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a ``pre-seizure'' state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  9. Neonatal seizure detection using blind distributed detection with correlated decisions.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaying; Jeremíc, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Seizure is the result of excessive electrical discharges of neurons, which usually develops synchronously and happens suddenly in the central nervous system. Clinically, it is difficult for physician to identify neonatal seizures visually, while EEG seizures can be recognized by the trained experts. By extending our previous results on multichannel information fusion, we propose an automated distributed detection system consisting of the existing detectors and a fusion centre to detect the seizure activities in the newborn EEG assuming that the decisions of local detectors are correlated. The advantage of this proposed technique is that it accounts for correlated decisions of the local detectors. It has been shown that correlation between local detectors can lead to severe performance degradation if not modelled properly. Therefore our proposed technique can potentially improve the performance of existing single and multichannel neonatal seizure detection algorithms. PMID:22255847

  10. Clinically silent seizures in a neonate with tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Mitsuru; Okumura, Akihisa; Abe, Shinpei; Igarashi, Ayuko; Hisata, Ken; Shoji, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Although seizures during infancy in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are common, seizures in neonates are infrequent. Here, we report the clinical course and electroencephalography (EEG) findings of a neonate with tuberous sclerosis complex associated with clinically silent seizures. The patient was a girl in whom cardiac tumors were detected on fetal ultrasonography. Brain magnetic resonance imaging during the neonatal period showed subependymal and cortical tubers. Routine EEG indicated unexpected ictal changes with no noticeable clinical symptoms. Ictal EEG was associated with a subtle increase in heart rate and a brief increase in chin electromyogram. These changes were difficult to identify clinically. The patient later developed focal seizures and epileptic spasms and had severe psychomotor delay. The present case suggests the occurrence of clinically silent seizures before the appearance of epileptic spasms in infants with tuberous sclerosis, and that EEG is an option for neonates with a prenatal diagnosis. PMID:26712128

  11. Prolactin and gonadotrophin changes following generalised and partial seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Dana-Haeri, J; Trimble, M r; Oxley, J

    1983-01-01

    Postictal values of prolactin, LH and FSH have been recorded in patients with both generalised tonic-clonic and partial seizures. Elevations of prolactin and LH were seen immediately and at 20 minutes in males and females with generalised attacks. At sixty minutes values for prolactin had fallen to baseline levels, but LH remained elevated. FSH values were increased in females only, at twenty and sixty minutes. Following partial seizures prolactin was elevated, especially with complex partial seizures, at twenty minutes. These results are discussed in the light of known electrophysiological mechanisms relating to partial seizures, and clinical guidelines for the use of neurohormonal tests in the evaluation of seizures are suggested. PMID:6405014

  12. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  13. MRI and Ultrasound Injury in Preterm Infants with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Sullivan, Joseph; Rogers, Elizabeth; Ferriero, Donna M.; Goldstein, Ruth; Barkovich, A. James

    2010-01-01

    The utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a universal screening tool in preterm infants has been contested; however, MR is increasingly used in investigation of neonatal seizures. We evaluated 236 infants <34 weeks gestation at birth. Seizures were documented according to clinical standard of care. Infants were imaged using MRI and head ultrasound during the neonatal period. A neuroradiologist and ultrasonologist performed detailed reviews of the images. Nine infants (3.8%) had clinical suspicion of seizures during the hospital course. MRI was abnormal in each case (three with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular hemorrhagic infarct, two with findings of hypoxia-ischemia, three with white matter injury (WMI) and one each with schizencephaly and dysplasia –one infant had two lesions). Periventricular hemorrhagic infarct was more common in infants with seizures (33% vs 6% of those without seizures, OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.8-36.7). Infants with seizures were more likely to have WMI, though the difference was not significant (RR 2.4, 95% CI 0.54-11.1, P=0.3). Head ultrasound failed to detect the extent of brain abnormality in eight (89%) of the infants. In this large cohort, infants with clinical suspicion of seizures had a high rate of MRI abnormalities that were not as well characterized by head ultrasound. MRI may be the study of choice for evaluating preterm infants with seizures. Further studies using better seizure monitoring are necessary to evaluate electrographic seizures and their relationship to brain injury on MRI. PMID:19745086

  14. Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination

    PubMed Central

    Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

  15. Modeling Seizure Self-Prediction: An E-Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Haut, Sheryl R.; Hall, Charles B.; Borkowski, Thomas; Tennen, Howard; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A subset of patients with epilepsy successfully self-predicted seizures in a paper diary study. We conducted an e-diary study to ensure that prediction precedes seizures, and to characterize the prodromal features and time windows that underlie self-prediction. Methods Subjects 18 or older with LRE and ≥3 seizures/month maintained an e-diary, reporting AM/PM data daily, including mood, premonitory symptoms, and all seizures. Self-prediction was rated by, “How likely are you to experience a seizure [time frame]”? Five choices ranged from almost certain (>95% chance) to very unlikely. Relative odds of seizure (OR) within time frames was examined using Poisson models with log normal random effects to adjust for multiple observations. Key Findings Nineteen subjects reported 244 eligible seizures. OR for prediction choices within 6hrs was as high as 9.31 (1.92,45.23) for “almost certain”. Prediction was most robust within 6hrs of diary entry, and remained significant up to 12hrs. For 9 best predictors, average sensitivity was 50%. Older age contributed to successful self-prediction, and self-prediction appeared to be driven by mood and premonitory symptoms. In multivariate modeling of seizure occurrence, self-prediction (2.84; 1.68,4.81), favorable change in mood (0.82; 0.67,0.99) and number of premonitory symptoms (1,11; 1.00,1.24) were significant. Significance Some persons with epilepsy can self-predict seizures. In these individuals, the odds of a seizure following a positive prediction are high. Predictions were robust, not attributable to recall bias, and were related to self awareness of mood and premonitory features. The 6-hour prediction window is suitable for the development of pre-emptive therapy. PMID:24111898

  16. Network problem threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

    1992-01-01

    Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

  17. Elaborating on threshold concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account for both the important and the problematic characteristics of TCs in terms of the Knowledge/Strategies/Mental Models Framework defined in previous work.

  18. Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…

  19. Why Are Seizures Rare in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep? Review of the Frequency of Seizures in Different Sleep Stages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia. Multiple independent studies confirm that, in REM sleep, there is a strikingly low proportion of seizures (~1% or less). We review a total of 42 distinct conventional and intracranial studies in the literature which comprised a net of 1458 patients. Indexed to duration, we found that REM sleep was the most protective stage of sleep against focal seizures, generalized seizures, focal interictal discharges, and two particular epilepsy syndromes. REM sleep had an additional protective effect compared to wakefulness with an average 7.83 times fewer focal seizures, 3.25 times fewer generalized seizures, and 1.11 times fewer focal interictal discharges. In further studies REM sleep has also demonstrated utility in localizing epileptogenic foci with potential translation into postsurgical seizure freedom. Based on emerging connectivity data in sleep, we hypothesize that the influence of REM sleep on seizures is due to a desynchronized EEG pattern which reflects important connectivity differences unique to this sleep stage. PMID:23853720

  20. Ontogenic profile of seizures evoked by the beta-carboline DMCM (methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kulick, Catherine; Gutherz, Samuel; Kondratyev, Alexei; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta-carboline, methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), is a potent chemoconvulsant. While it has been utilized in adult rodents, it has not been previously examined for effects across postnatal development. DMCM is a negative allosteric modulator of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors, receptor subtypes that are particularly enriched in limbic brain regions. This raises the possibility that DMCM may be particularly effective at evoking forebrain seizures, which is a challenge in neonatal animals due to the relative immaturity of the forebrain seizure network. The ability to selectively evoke forebrain seizures is desirable when screening for drugs to use in temporal lobe epilepsy, which is characterized by seizures within the forebrain (limbic) network. To determine the profile of DMCM action across development, we examined the dose-dependent ability of DMCM to induce seizures in rats at P7, P10, P13, P14, P21 and in adulthood. We found that the highest sensitivity to DMCM occurred in P10, P13, and P14 rats. The lowest sensitivity occurred in P21 rats. Neonatal (P7) and adult (P60+) rats displayed moderate sensitivity. With moderate (0.2–0.4mg/kg) doses of DMCM, we were able to reliably evoke limbic motor seizures without tonic-clonic components in animals as young as P7. These data support the utility of DMCM in assessing seizure threshold during development and raise the possibility for future exploration of DMCM as an agent to screen anticonvulsant drugs during the postnatal period. PMID:24967532

  1. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in children: a review.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Colin; Menlove, Leanne; Fenton, Virginia; Das, Krishna B

    2013-10-01

    One of the considerations when a child presents with paroxysmal events is psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). PNES are discernible changes in behavior or consciousness that resemble epileptic seizures but are not accompanied by electrophysiologic changes. They are usually understood as the manifestation of a conversion disorder that reflects underlying psychological distress. There is a lack of population-based data on the prevalence or incidence of PNES in pediatric populations. The prevalence of PNES in children would appear to be lower than that in the adult population, but the prevalence of PNES seems to increase with age, and nonepileptic paroxysmal events are more likely to be PNES in adolescence than earlier in childhood. In terms of manifestation, PNES in childhood have been described using various categorizations and terminology, making comparisons across studies difficult. There is some evidence that events are more likely to involve unresponsiveness in younger children and prominent motor symptoms in older children. The most common precipitating factors would appear to be school-related difficulties and interpersonal conflict within the child's family. In terms of psychopathology, children with PNES are at high risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Accurate diagnosis of PNES in children is likely to involve taking a comprehensive description of the episodes, garnering the child's medical/developmental history, video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) to rule out epileptic seizures, and an evaluation of family functioning. The importance of effective and sensitive communication of the diagnosis of PNES has been emphasized and management approaches will typically involve multidisciplinary efforts to safely manage the events at home and at school. Interventions to reduce the effect of precipitating psychosocial stressors and the involvement of a mental health professional to treat comorbid psychopathology will also form part of an effective

  2. Fifteen-minute consultation: when is a seizure not a seizure? Part 2, the older child.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Mohamed O E; Prasad, Manish

    2015-12-01

    Paroxysmal non-epileptic events (PNEs) refer to episodic changes in behaviour, sensation or consciousness that lead to unusual movements, which may resemble epileptic seizures, but are not, due to excessive neuronal firing in the cerebral cortex. A significant proportion of patients seen in epilepsy clinics do not actually have epilepsy. Therefore, it is paramount for clinicians to be able to recognise these transient non-epileptic events in order to avoid unnecessary antiepileptic treatments and to provide appropriate management as required. These PNEs can be observed within the context of a neurological disorder such as migraine or with no direct neurological basis such as simple tics. In this review, we have described common PNEs presenting in school-age children and adolescents alongside the clinical approach to differentiate them from epileptic seizures. PNEs occurring in infancy and younger children have been covered in our first review of this series. PMID:26135356

  3. Microscale spatiotemporal dynamics during neocortical propagation of human focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Fabien B; Eskandar, Emad N; Cosgrove, G Rees; Madsen, Joseph R; Blum, Andrew S; Potter, N Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

    2015-11-15

    Some of the most clinically consequential aspects of focal epilepsy, e.g. loss of consciousness, arise from the generalization or propagation of seizures through local and large-scale neocortical networks. Yet, the dynamics of such neocortical propagation remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the microdynamics of focal seizure propagation in neocortical patches (4×4 mm) recorded via high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) implanted in people with pharmacologically resistant epilepsy. Our main findings are threefold: (1) a newly developed stage segmentation method, applied to local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity (MUA), revealed a succession of discrete seizure stages, each lasting several seconds. These different stages showed characteristic evolutions in overall activity and spatial patterns, which were relatively consistent across seizures within each of the 5 patients studied. Interestingly, segmented seizure stages based on LFPs or MUA showed a dissociation of their spatiotemporal dynamics, likely reflecting different contributions of non-local synaptic inputs and local network activity. (2) As previously reported, some of the seizures showed a peak in MUA that happened several seconds after local seizure onset and slowly propagated across the MEA. However, other seizures had a more complex structure characterized by, for example, several MUA peaks, more consistent with the succession of discrete stages than the slow propagation of a simple wavefront of increased MUA. In both cases, nevertheless, seizures characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWDs, ~2-3 Hz) eventually evolved into patterns of phase-locked MUA and LFPs. (3) Individual SWDs or gamma oscillation cycles (25-60 Hz), characteristic of two different types of recorded seizures, tended to propagate with varying degrees of directionality, directions of propagation and speeds, depending on the identified seizure stage. However, no clear relationship was observed between the MUA

  4. Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)…

  5. Seizures as imbalanced up states: excitatory and inhibitory conductances during seizure-like events.

    PubMed

    Žiburkus, Jokubas; Cressman, John R; Schiff, Steven J

    2013-03-01

    Precisely timed and dynamically balanced excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) conductances underlie the basis of neural network activity. Normal E/I balance is often shifted in epilepsy, resulting in neuronal network hyperexcitability and recurrent seizures. However, dynamics of the actual excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances (ge and gi, respectively) during seizures remain unknown. To study the dynamics of E and I network balance, we calculated ge and gi during the initiation, body, and termination of seizure-like events (SLEs) in the rat hippocampus in vitro. Repetitive emergent SLEs in 4-aminopyridine (100 μM) and reduced extracellular magnesium (0.6 mM) were recorded in the identified CA1 pyramidal cells (PC) and oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons. Calculated ge/gi ratio dynamics showed that the initiation stage of the SLEs was dominated by inhibition in the PCs and was more balanced in the O-LM cells. During the body of the SLEs, the balance shifted toward excitation, with ge and gi peaking in both cell types at nearly the same time. In the termination phase, PCs were again dominated by inhibition, whereas O-LM cells experienced persistent excitatory synaptic barrage. In this way, increased excitability of interneurons may play roles in both seizure initiation (žiburkus J, Cressman JR, Barreto E, Schiff SJ. J Neurophysiol 95: 3948-3954, 2006) and in their termination. Overall, SLE stages can be characterized in PC and O-LM cells by dynamically distinct changes in the balance of ge and gi, where a temporal sequence of imbalance shifts with the changing firing patterns of the cellular subtypes comprising the hyperexcitable microcircuits. PMID:23221405

  6. Epileptic Seizure Forewarning by Nonlinear Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2001-02-05

    Nicolet Biomedical Inc. (NBI) is collaborating with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to convert ORNL.s patented technology for forewarning of epileptic seizures to a clinical prototype. This technical report describes the highlights of the first year.s effort. The software requirements for the clinical device were specified from which the hardware specifications were obtained. ORNL's research-class FORTRAN was converted to run under a graphical user interface (GUI) that was custom-built for this application by NBI. The resulting software package was cloned to desktop computers that are being tested in five different clinical sites. Two hundred electroencephalogram (EEG) datasets from those clinical sites were provided to ORNL for detailed analysis and improvement of the forewarning methodology. Effort under this CRADA is continuing into the second year as planned.

  7. Body packing: from seizures to laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Joanna M; Beutner, Ulrich; Hasler, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25883813

  8. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Joanna M.; Beutner, Ulrich; Hasler, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25883813

  9. Mortality in late post-traumatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Englander, Jeffrey; Bushnik, Tamara; Wright, Jerry M; Jamison, Laura; Duong, Thao T

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mortality rates in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were classified as having experienced late post-traumatic seizures (LPTS) in the first 2 years post-TBI compared to those who were seizure-free (non-LPTS). Participants were a pooled sample (n = 508) from two studies which enrolled individuals with TBI who were injured between March 31, 1992 and December 20, 1999. The first sample was made up of individuals enrolled in a study of risk factors for LPTS development; the second sample was composed of individuals enrolled in the TBI National Database from a single rehabilitation center. Seventy-one (14%) participants had LPTS, of which 27% had died at 8-15 years post-injury, as compared to 10% of non-LPTS participants. Individuals with LPTS died at a younger age (54.1 versus 67.7 years; p = 0.01), but there were no statistically significant differences in either time from date of injury to death or highest GCS score in the first 24 h. Causes of death were variable and not specifically related to epilepsy. Of those with LPTS, risk factors for death include advanced age at time of injury and presence of subdural hematoma. The higher mortality rate and death at younger age with variable causes in TBI individuals with LPTS warrant close medical evaluation and monitoring of these individuals, particularly accessibility and compliance with ongoing general medical care, and education of primary care colleagues of the unique needs of this at-risk population. PMID:19508123

  10. Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

  11. A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

  12. Phenotypes and genotypes in epilepsy with febrile seizures plus.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Yamakawa, K; Sugawara, T; Hirose, S; Fukuma, G; Kaneko, S

    2006-08-01

    In the last several years, mutations of sodium channel genes, SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN1B, and GABA(A) receptor gene, GABRG2 were identified as causes of some febrile seizures related epilepsies. In 19 unrelated Japanese families whose probands had febrile seizures plus or epilepsy following febrile seizures plus, we identified 2 missense mutations of SCN1A to be responsible for the seizure phenotypes in two FS+ families and another mutation of SCN2A in one family. The combined frequency of SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN1B, SCN2B, and GABRG2 mutations in Japanese patients with FS+ was 15.8%. One family, which had R188W mutation in SCN2A, showed digenic inheritance, and another modifier gene was thought to take part in the seizure phenotype. The phenotypes of probands were FS+ in 5, FS+ and partial epilepsy in 10, FS+ and generalized epilepsy in 3, and FS+ and unclassified epilepsy in 1. We proposed the term epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (EFS+), because autosomal-dominant inheritance in EFS+ might be rare, and most of EFS+ display a complex pattern of inheritance, even when it appears to be an autosomal-dominant inheritance. There is a possibility of simultaneous involvement of multiple genes for seizure phenotypes. PMID:16884893

  13. A case of seizures induced by abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro

    2010-04-01

    We describe a case of reflex seizures induced by abstract reasoning but not other cognitive processes. The patient, a 46-year-old man, experienced myoclonic seizures whenever he played shogi (Japanese chess). To identify the critical thought processes responsible for inducing his seizures, we monitored his clinical seizures and epileptiform discharges while he performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), spatial working memory, mental rotation, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) tasks. A myoclonic seizure occurred only during the WCST. Generalized 3- to 5-Hz spike-and-slow-wave bursts occurred repeatedly during the Block Design subtest of the WAIS-R and the WCST, whereas no discharges occurred during other subtests of the WAIS-R including the calculation, spatial working memory, and mental rotation tasks. These results indicate that abstract reasoning, independent of other cognitive processes, could induce the patient's epileptiform discharges, suggesting that his reflex seizures might be a distinct subtype of nonverbal thinking-induced seizures. PMID:20171146

  14. Epidemiology of Acute Symptomatic Seizures among Adult Medical Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Nwani, Paul Osemeke; Nwosu, Maduaburochukwu Cosmas; Nwosu, Monica Nonyelum

    2016-01-01

    Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring in close temporal relationship with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of presentation and etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures among adult medical admissions. It was a two-year retrospective study of the medical files of adults patients admitted with acute symptomatic seizures as the first presenting event. There were 94 cases of acute symptomatic seizures accounting for 5.2% (95% CI: 4.17–6.23) of the 1,802 medical admissions during the period under review. There were 49 (52.1%) males and 45 (47.9%) females aged between 18 years and 84 years. The etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures were infections in 36.2% (n = 34) of cases, stroke in 29.8% (n = 28), metabolic in 12.8% (n = 12), toxic in 10.6% (n = 10), and other causes in 10.6% (n = 10). Infective causes were more among those below fifty years while stroke was more in those aged fifty years and above. CNS infections and stroke were the prominent causes of acute symptomatic seizures. This is an evidence of the “double tragedy” facing developing countries, the unresolved threat of infectious diseases on one hand and the increasing impact of noncommunicable diseases on the other one. PMID:26904280

  15. A novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction.

    PubMed

    Han, Min; Ge, Sunan; Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

  16. Seizure suppression by gain-of-function escargot mutations.

    PubMed

    Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Dang, Kim N; Tanouye, Mark A

    2005-03-01

    Suppressor mutations provide potentially powerful tools for examining mechanisms underlying neurological disorders and identifying novel targets for pharmacological intervention. Here we describe mutations that suppress seizures in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy. A screen utilizing the Drosophila easily shocked (eas) "epilepsy" mutant identified dominant suppressors of seizure sensitivity. Among several mutations identified, neuronal escargot (esg) reduced eas seizures almost 90%. The esg gene encodes a member of the snail family of transcription factors. Whereas esg is normally expressed in a limited number of neurons during a defined period of nervous system development, here normal esg was expressed in all neurons and throughout development. This greatly ameliorated both the electrophysiological and the behavioral epilepsy phenotypes of eas. Neuronal esg appears to act as a general seizure suppressor in the Drosophila epilepsy model as it reduces the susceptibility of several seizure-prone mutants. We observed that esg must be ectopically expressed during nervous system development to reduce seizure susceptibility in adults. Furthermore, induction of esg in a small subset of neurons (interneurons) will reduce seizure susceptibility. A combination of microarray and computational analyses revealed 100 genes that represent possible targets of neuronal esg. We anticipate that some of these genes may ultimately serve as targets for novel antiepileptic drugs. PMID:15654097

  17. Optimal control based seizure abatement using patient derived connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Thomas, Jijju; Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Thesen, Thomas; Ruths, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which patients have recurrent seizures. Seizures occur in conjunction with abnormal electrical brain activity which can be recorded by the electroencephalogram (EEG). Often, this abnormal brain activity consists of high amplitude regular spike-wave oscillations as opposed to low amplitude irregular oscillations in the non-seizure state. Active brain stimulation has been proposed as a method to terminate seizures prematurely, however, a general and widely-applicable approach to optimal stimulation protocols is still lacking. In this study we use a computational model of epileptic spike-wave dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of a pseudospectral method to simulated seizure abatement. We incorporate brain connectivity derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a subject with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We find that the pseudospectral method can successfully generate time-varying stimuli that abate simulated seizures, even when including heterogeneous patient specific brain connectivity. The strength of the stimulus required varies in different brain areas. Our results suggest that seizure abatement, modeled as an optimal control problem and solved with the pseudospectral method, offers an attractive approach to treatment for in vivo stimulation techniques. Further, if optimal brain stimulation protocols are to be experimentally successful, then the heterogeneity of cortical connectivity should be accounted for in the development of those protocols and thus more spatially localized solutions may be preferable. PMID:26089775

  18. High frequency oscillations can pinpoint seizures progressing to status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Salami, Pariya; Lévesque, Maxime; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a seizure lasting more than 5min or a period of recurrent seizures without recovery between them. SE is a serious emergency condition that requires immediate intervention; therefore, identifying SE electrophysiological markers may translate in prompt care to stop it. Here, we analyzed the EEG signals recorded from the CA3 region of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex in rats that responded to systemic administration of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) by generating either isolated seizures or seizures progressing to SE. We found that high frequency oscillations (HFOs) - which can be categorized as ripples (80-200Hz) and fast ripples (250-500Hz) - had different patterns of occurrence in the two groups (n=5 for each group). Specifically, fast ripples in CA3 and entorhinal cortex of the SE group occurred at higher rates than ripples, both during the ictal and post-ictal periods when compared to the HFOs recorded from the isolated seizure group. Our data reveal that different patterns of HFO occurrence can pinpoint seizures progressing to SE, thus suggesting the involvement of different neuronal networks at the termination of seizure discharges. PMID:27018321

  19. Thalamotemporal alteration and postoperative seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Mark P.; Schoene‐Bake, Jan‐Christoph; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elkommos, Samia; Kreilkamp, Barbara; Goh, Yee Yen; Marson, Anthony G.; Elger, Christian; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are competing explanations for persistent postoperative seizures after temporal lobe surgery. One is that 1 or more particular subtypes of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) exist that are particularly resistant to surgery. We sought to identify a common brain structural and connectivity alteration in patients with persistent postoperative seizures using preoperative quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods We performed a series of studies in 87 patients with mTLE (47 subsequently rendered seizure free, 40 who continued to experience postoperative seizures) and 80 healthy controls. We investigated the relationship between imaging variables and postoperative seizure outcome. All patients had unilateral temporal lobe seizure onset, had ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis as the only brain lesion, and underwent amygdalohippocampectomy. Results Quantitative imaging factors found not to be significantly associated with persistent seizures were volumes of ipsilateral and contralateral mesial temporal lobe structures, generalized brain atrophy, and extent of resection. There were nonsignificant trends for larger amygdala and entorhinal resections to be associated with improved outcome. However, patients with persistent seizures had significant atrophy of bilateral dorsomedial and pulvinar thalamic regions, and significant alterations of DTI‐derived thalamotemporal probabilistic paths bilaterally relative to those patients rendered seizure free and controls, even when corrected for extent of mesial temporal lobe resection. Interpretation Patients with bihemispheric alterations of thalamotemporal structural networks may represent a subtype of mTLE that is resistant to temporal lobe surgery. Increasingly sensitive multimodal imaging techniques should endeavor to transform these group‐based findings to individualize prediction of patient outcomes. Ann Neurol 2015;77:760–774 PMID:25627477

  20. 'Tickling' seizures originating in the left frontoparietal region.

    PubMed

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J; Stein, Michael; McNulty, Maggie; Romantseva, Lubov; Heydemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report a 10-year-old boy with mild developmental delay and epilepsy with new events of right back tickling and emotional upset. These initially appeared behavioral, causing postulation of habit behaviors or psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Several ictal and interictal EEGs were unrevealing. Continuous EEG revealed only poorly localized frontal ictal activity. Given that his clinical symptoms suggested a parietal localization, double-density EEG electrodes were placed to better localize the epileptogenic and symptomatogenic zones. These revealed evolution of left greater than right frontoparietal discharges consistent with seizures at the time of the attacks. Medical management has significantly reduced the patient's seizures. PMID:27579251

  1. Clinical decision making in seizures and status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Teran, Felipe; Harper-Kirksey, Katrina; Jagoda, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Seizures and status epilepticus are frequent neurologic emergencies in the emergency department, accounting for 1% of all emergency department visits. The management of this time-sensitive and potentially life-threatening condition is challenging for both prehospital providers and emergency clinicians. The approach to seizing patients begins with differentiating seizure activity from mimics and follows with identifying potential secondary etiologies, such as alcohol-related seizures. The approach to the patient in status epilepticus and the patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus constitutes a special clinical challenge. This review summarizes the best available evidence and recommendations regarding diagnosis and resuscitation of the seizing patient in the emergency setting. PMID:25902572

  2. Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.

    PubMed

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

    2013-11-01

    Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

  3. A new approach towards predictability of epileptic seizures: KLT dimension.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Rajeshkumar; Narayanan, K; Prasad, Awadhesh; Spanias, A; Sackellares, J C; Iasemidis, L D

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a measure of complexity of the epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG) based on the dimensionality of the Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) in the time domain. We estimate the KLT dimensionality by assuming the same observation noise level in the EEG during the interictal period (between the seizures) as the one during an epileptic seizure (ictal period). Utilizing an optimality criterion based on the T-index [1] and the predictability time, derived from the created KLT dimensionality profiles, we show that 10 out of 15 seizures in one patient with temporal lobe epilepsy were predictable with an average predictability time of about 36 minutes. PMID:12724880

  4. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Shin, Hyeeun; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kwon, Ohyun; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26157671

  5. Enhanced susceptibility to spontaneous seizures of noda epileptic rats by loss of synaptic zn(2+).

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Iida, Masashi; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis in the brain is associated with the etiology and manifestation of epileptic seizures. Adult Noda epileptic rats (NER, >12-week-old) exhibit spontaneously generalized tonic-clonic convulsion about once a day. To pursue the involvement of synaptic Zn(2+) signal in susceptibility to spontaneous seizures, in the present study, the effect of zinc chelators on epileptogenesis was examined using adult NER. Clioquinol (CQ) and TPEN are lipophilic zinc chelotors, transported into the brain and reduce the levels of synaptic Zn(2+). The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion was markedly increased after i.p. injection of CQ (30-100 mg/kg) and TPEN (1 mg/kg). The basal levels of extracellular Zn(2+) measured by ZnAF-2 were decreased before tonic-clonic convulsion was induced with zinc chelators. The hippocampal electroencephalograms during CQ (30 mg/kg)-induced convulsions were similar to those during sound-induced convulsions in NER reported previously. Exocytosis of hippocampal mossy fibers, which was measured with FM4-64, was significantly increased in hippocampal slices from CQ-injected NER that did not show tonic-clonic convulsion yet. These results indicate that the abnormal excitability of mossy fibers is induced prior to epileptic seizures by injection of zinc chelators into NER. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion induced with CQ (30 mg/kg) was significantly reduced by co-injection with aminooxyacetic acid (5-10 mg/kg), an anticonvulsant drug enhancing GABAergic activity, which did not affect locomotor activity. The present paper demonstrates that the abnormal excitability in the brain, especially in mossy fibers, which is potentially associated with the insufficient GABAergic neuron activity, may be a factor to reduce the threshold for epileptogenesis in NER. PMID:23951148

  6. Enhanced Susceptibility to Spontaneous Seizures of Noda Epileptic Rats by Loss of Synaptic Zn2+

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsushi; Iida, Masashi; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis in the brain is associated with the etiology and manifestation of epileptic seizures. Adult Noda epileptic rats (NER, >12-week-old) exhibit spontaneously generalized tonic-clonic convulsion about once a day. To pursue the involvement of synaptic Zn2+ signal in susceptibility to spontaneous seizures, in the present study, the effect of zinc chelators on epileptogenesis was examined using adult NER. Clioquinol (CQ) and TPEN are lipophilic zinc chelotors, transported into the brain and reduce the levels of synaptic Zn2+. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion was markedly increased after i.p. injection of CQ (30–100 mg/kg) and TPEN (1 mg/kg). The basal levels of extracellular Zn2+ measured by ZnAF-2 were decreased before tonic-clonic convulsion was induced with zinc chelators. The hippocampal electroencephalograms during CQ (30 mg/kg)-induced convulsions were similar to those during sound-induced convulsions in NER reported previously. Exocytosis of hippocampal mossy fibers, which was measured with FM4-64, was significantly increased in hippocampal slices from CQ-injected NER that did not show tonic-clonic convulsion yet. These results indicate that the abnormal excitability of mossy fibers is induced prior to epileptic seizures by injection of zinc chelators into NER. The incidence of tonic-clonic convulsion induced with CQ (30 mg/kg) was significantly reduced by co-injection with aminooxyacetic acid (5–10 mg/kg), an anticonvulsant drug enhancing GABAergic activity, which did not affect locomotor activity. The present paper demonstrates that the abnormal excitability in the brain, especially in mossy fibers, which is potentially associated with the insufficient GABAergic neuron activity, may be a factor to reduce the threshold for epileptogenesis in NER. PMID:23951148

  7. Blockade of T-type calcium channels prevents tonic-clonic seizures in a maximal electroshock seizure model.

    PubMed

    Sakkaki, Sophie; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Lerat, Benoit; Françon, Dominique; Forichon, Luc; Chemin, Jean; Valjent, Emmanuel; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Lory, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    T-type (Cav3) calcium channels play important roles in neuronal excitability, both in normal and pathological activities of the brain. In particular, they contribute to hyper-excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Here we have characterized the anticonvulsant properties of TTA-A2, a selective T-type channel blocker, in mouse. Using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) as a model of tonic-clonic generalized seizures, we report that mice treated with TTA-A2 (0.3 mg/kg and higher doses) were significantly protected against tonic seizures. Although no major change in Local Field Potential (LFP) pattern was observed during the MES seizure, analysis of the late post-ictal period revealed a significant increase in the delta frequency power in animals treated with TTA-A2. Similar results were obtained for Cav3.1-/- mice, which were less prone to develop tonic seizures in the MES test, but not for Cav3.2-/- mice. Analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and c-Fos expression revealed a rapid and elevated neuronal activation in the hippocampus following MES clonic seizures, which was unchanged in TTA-A2 treated animals. Overall, our data indicate that TTA-A2 is a potent anticonvulsant and that the Cav3.1 isoform plays a prominent role in mediating TTA-A2 tonic seizure protection. PMID:26456350

  8. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  9. Laser threshold magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new type of sensor, which uses diamond containing the optically active nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) centres as a laser medium. The magnetometer can be operated at room-temperature and generates light that can be readily fibre coupled, thereby permitting use in industrial applications and remote sensing. By combining laser pumping with a radio-frequency Rabi-drive field, an external magnetic field changes the fluorescence of the NV- centres. We use this change in fluorescence level to push the laser above threshold, turning it on with an intensity controlled by the external magnetic field, which provides a coherent amplification of the readout signal with very high contrast. This mechanism is qualitatively different from conventional NV--based magnetometers which use fluorescence measurements, based on incoherent photon emission. We term our approach laser threshold magnetometer (LTM). We predict that an NV--based LTM with a volume of 1 mm3 can achieve shot-noise limited dc sensitivity of 1.86 fT /\\sqrt{{{Hz}}} and ac sensitivity of 3.97 fT /\\sqrt{{{Hz}}}.

  10. Seizure Risk in Patients with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Joachim F.; Holdridge, Karen Chilcott; Jin, Ling; Edison, Timothy; Zhang, Shuyu; Bangs, Mark E.; Allen, Albert J.; Ball, Susan; Dunn, David

    2007-01-01

    The comorbidity of seizures, epilepsy, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the examination of whether atomoxetine use for ADHD is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizures and seizure-related symptoms were reviewed from two independent Eli Lilly and Company databases: the atomoxetine clinical trials database…

  11. A study of the dynamics of seizure propagation across micro domains in the vicinity of the seizure onset zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Ishita; Kudela, Pawel; Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Anderson, William S.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The use of micro-electrode arrays to measure electrical activity from the surface of the brain is increasingly being investigated as a means to improve seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization. In this work, we used a multivariate autoregressive model to determine the evolution of seizure dynamics in the 70-110 Hz high frequency band across micro-domains sampled by such micro-electrode arrays. We showed that a directed transfer function (DTF) can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with known propagation pattern. Approach. We used seven complex partial seizures recorded from four patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for surgical evaluation to reconstruct the seizure propagation pattern over sliding windows using a DTF measure. Main results. We showed that a DTF can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with a known propagation pattern. In general, depending on the location of the micro-electrode grid with respect to the clinical SOZ and the time from seizure onset, ictal propagation changed in directional characteristics over a 2-10 s time scale, with gross directionality limited to spatial dimensions of approximately 9 m{{m}2}. It was also seen that the strongest seizure patterns in the high frequency band and their sources over such micro-domains are more stable over time and across seizures bordering the clinically determined SOZ than inside. Significance. This type of propagation analysis might in future provide an additional tool to epileptologists for characterizing epileptogenic tissue. This will potentially help narrowing down resection zones without compromising essential brain functions as well as provide important information about targeting anti-epileptic stimulation devices.

  12. Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures. Methods Forty-eight children who experienced their first unprovoked seizure with epileptiform discharges were included in the study. They were randomly placed into treatment (n = 24) and control (n = 24) groups. Children in the treatment group listened to Mozart K.448 daily before bedtime for at least six months. Two patients in the treatment group were excluded from analysis due to discontinuation intervention. Finally, forty-six patients were analyzed. Most of these patients (89.1%) were idiopathic in etiology. Seizure recurrence rates and reduction of epileptiform discharges were compared. Results The average follow-up durations in the treatment and control groups were 18.6 ± 6.6 and 20.1 ± 5.1 months, respectively. The seizure recurrence rate was estimated to be significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group over 24 months (37.2% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.0109). Significant decreases in epileptiform discharges were also observed after 1, 2, and 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448 when compared with EEGs before listening to music. There were no significant differences in gender, mentality, seizure type, and etiology between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Conclusions Although the case number was limited and control music was not performed in this study, the study revealed that listening to Mozart K.448 reduced the seizure recurrence rate and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures, especially of idiopathic etiology. We believe that Mozart K.448

  13. Fumonisin B1 facilitates seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol in mice.

    PubMed

    Poersch, Alice Bertotto; Trombetta, Francielle; Souto, Naiéli Schiefelbein; de Oliveira Lima, Camilla; Braga, Ana Cláudia Monteiro; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia

    2015-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium spp. mycotoxin which constitutes a major public health issue because of its worldwide distribution and diversity of toxic effects.While the liver and kidney are considered the major target organs of FB1 toxicity in several species, evidence indicates that FB1 may be toxic to the brain. To further investigate the effects of FB1 on the central nervous system the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that acute FB1 exposure causes brain hyperexcitability and the potential underlying mechanisms. For these purposes, adult male C57BL/6 mice were injected with FB1 (8 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle and 30 min thereafter received with a low dose of the classical convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle. After behavioral evaluation the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus were collected for analysis of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial complex I and II activities. We found that FB1 reduced the latency for PTZ-induced myoclonic jerks and increased the number of these events. After exposure to FB1 total and α1 Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities increased in cerebral cortex, whereas the same enzyme activities decreased in the hippocampus. Although no changes in mitochondrial complex I and II activities were found, acute exposure to FB1 increased ΔΨm in the cerebral cortex. Altogether, present results indicate that FB1 causes brain hyperexcitability in vivo, and that mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a potential underlying mechanism. PMID:26342287

  14. Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

  15. Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models.

    PubMed

    Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

  16. The design and hardware implementation of a low-power real-time seizure detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K.; Ward, Matthew P.; Worth, Robert M.; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

    2009-10-01

    Epilepsy affects more than 1% of the world's population. Responsive neurostimulation is emerging as an alternative therapy for the 30% of the epileptic patient population that does not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Efficient seizure detection algorithms will enable closed-loop epilepsy prostheses by stimulating the epileptogenic focus within an early onset window. Critically, this is expected to reduce neuronal desensitization over time and lead to longer-term device efficacy. This work presents a novel event-based seizure detection algorithm along with a low-power digital circuit implementation. Hippocampal depth-electrode recordings from six kainate-treated rats are used to validate the algorithm and hardware performance in this preliminary study. The design process illustrates crucial trade-offs in translating mathematical models into hardware implementations and validates statistical optimizations made with empirical data analyses on results obtained using a real-time functioning hardware prototype. Using quantitatively predicted thresholds from the depth-electrode recordings, the auto-updating algorithm performs with an average sensitivity and selectivity of 95.3 ± 0.02% and 88.9 ± 0.01% (mean ± SEα = 0.05), respectively, on untrained data with a detection delay of 8.5 s [5.97, 11.04] from electrographic onset. The hardware implementation is shown feasible using CMOS circuits consuming under 350 nW of power from a 250 mV supply voltage from simulations on the MIT 180 nm SOI process.

  17. The effect of oral and subcutaneous meperidine on the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) in mice.

    PubMed

    Yillar, D O; Akkan, A G; Akcasu, A; Ozüner, Z; Eşkazan, E; Küçukhüseyin, C

    2009-01-01

    The likely effect of oral and subcutaneous meperidine on maximal electroshock seizure (MES) in mice was studied. Convulsive current fifty (CC50) was assessed to be 46m A, an electrical pulse causing seizure in 50% of test animals. Doses of 15, 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg meperidine given orally or subcutaneously increased the convulsion threshold of MES as evidenced by a significant dose-dependent reduction of MES below control value (p < .05). An initial hyperactivity reaction that was worsened by noisy and tactile stimuli and tail erection followed by sedation was observed after s.c. injection of 60 or 120 mg/kg meperidine. No significant difference was found between meperidine-induced reductions of control MES values obtained one and two hours after oral doses; the depressed MES values obtained one hour after oral administration of meperidine were significantly different and more powerful than those obtained two hours after s.c. drug administrations (p < .05). Combining previous literature information with the present results, we conclude that such an effect of meperidine can be attributed to cerebellar stimulation. PMID:19662718

  18. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Santos, Daniela F.; Santos, Ana I.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO). In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA) induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons. PMID:26587180

  19. Estimation of Eeg Signal Dispersion During Seizure Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Chang, Bernard S.; Madsen, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Localization of the seizure focus in the brain is a challenging problem in the field of epilepsy. The complexity of the seizure-related EEG waveform, its non-stationarity and degradation with distance due to the dispersive nature of the brain as a propagation medium, make localization difficult. Yet, precise estimation of the focus is critical, particularly when surgical resection is the only therapeutic option. The first step to solving this inverse problem is to estimate and account for frequency- or mode-specific signal dispersion, which is present in both scalp and intracranial EEG recordings during seizures. We estimated dispersion curves in both types of signals using a spatial correlation method and mode-based semblance analysis. We showed that, despite the assumption of spatial stationarity and a simplified array geometry, there is measurable inter-modal and intra-modal dispersion during seizures in both types of EEG recordings, affecting the estimated arrival times and consequently focus localization. PMID:20436687

  20. On the pathogenesis of epileptic and hysterical seizures

    PubMed Central

    Krapf, E. E.

    1957-01-01

    In discussing the problem of differentiating between epileptic and hysterical seizures, the author maintains that electroencephalographic and psychosomatic research indicates that all “epileptiform” seizures are the outcome of a constant interplay of stress and predisposition in which both these factors are of a polygenetic origin. He points out that behind these reactions manifested in consciousness and motility, there lies a fundamental function of defence and that the nature of the seizures occurring is decided by the level of physiogenic or psychogenic regression which prevails in different cases, and which is to a great extent codetermined by a complementary “inviting” level of physical and psychical subevolution (lack of maturation). He holds that the pathogenesis of “epileptiform” seizures is of a truly psychosomatic nature and that this circumstance should be reflected in the therapeutic approach to these disorders. PMID:13472429

  1. Mapping preictal networks preceding childhood absence seizures using magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Jacobs-Brichford, Eliza; Horn, Paul S; Tenney, Jeffrey R

    2014-10-01

    The electrographic hallmark of childhood absence seizures is 3 Hz generalized spike and wave discharges; however, there is likely a focal thalamic or cortical onset that cannot be detected using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). The purpose of this study was to study the earliest preictal changes in children with absence epilepsy. In this report, magnetoencephalography recordings of 44 absence seizures recorded from 12 children with drug-naïve childhood absence seizures were used to perform time frequency analysis and source localization prior to the onset of the seizures. Evidence of preictal magnetoencephalography frequency changes were detected a mean of 694 ms before the initial spike on the EEG. A consistent pattern of focal sources was present in the frontal cortex and thalamus during this preictal period, but source localization occurred synchronously so that independent activity between the 2 structures could not be distinguished. PMID:24532809

  2. Hypermotor seizures in lateral and mesial parietal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Montavont, Alexandra; Kahane, Philippe; Catenoix, Hélène; Ostrowsky-Coste, Karine; Isnard, Jean; Guénot, Marc; Rheims, Sylvain; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    Four patients with refractory epilepsy and hypermotor seizures (HMS) benefited from an intracerebral investigation after a presurgical evaluation and demonstrated an ictal onset zone primarily involving the posterior cortex, specifically the posterior cingulate gyrus in two patients. At seizure onset, these two patients reported a falling sensation, followed by HMSs characterized by swinging movements of the trunk with intense grasping of the bed railing. The two other patients with lateral parietal seizure onset reported blurred vision and dizziness, followed by a mixed pattern of the previously described type 1 and 2 HMSs. Three patients have been operated on, including two class I of Engel after 36 and 52months of follow-up. One patient developed a postoperative infection and continues to suffer seizures. Pathological findings disclosed a type IIa focal cortical dysplasia in all the patients. The last patient is awaiting surgery. Posterior cortex epilepsies, including those originating from the posterior cingulate cortex, can be responsible for HMSs. PMID:23872083

  3. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a “pre-seizure” state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

  4. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  5. Refractory Seizure in Childhood: Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome Revisited.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Abhijit; Bose, Sagar; Sen, Kaushik; Pandit, Narayan; Sharma, Samarth

    2016-07-01

    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia, radiologic features of cerebral hemiatrophy, and ipsilateral compensatory hypertrophy of the skull bone and sinuses. We describe three cases of children with DDMS, who initially presented with refractory seizure to the pediatric department of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, India. In each case, the clinical features noted along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging helped confirm the diagnosis of DDMS. DDMS should be considered as a differential diagnosis of refractory seizures in children. We seek to emphasize the importance of thorough clinical and neuroimaging workup of seizure disorder in children for the proper management of the condition. PMID:27403244

  6. A preterm neonate with seizures unresponsive to conventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Francesco; Mills, Philippa; Clayton, Peter T; Del Giudice, Ennio

    2015-01-01

    The case of a patient who presented with neonatal seizures unresponsive to conventional antiepileptic drugs and pyridoxine is reported. The baby girl was subsequently treated with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) on day 20 of life, and showed rapid seizure control and normal development, with only mildly abnormal liver function tests at the current age of 6 years. Sequencing of the pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) gene revealed a heterozygous insertion of a single base in exon 7. The second allele was found to be normal although the patient may carry a mutation in another gene of the vitamin B6 pathway. Follow-up at 6 years of age showed a seizure-free young girl (on 42 mg/kg/day PLP) with normal development but mild elevation of liver function tests. A high index of suspicion for metabolic disease must be kept in mind with neonatal seizures unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:25979913

  7. Refractory Seizure in Childhood: Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Abhijit; Bose, Sagar; Sen, Kaushik; Pandit, Narayan; Sharma, Samarth

    2016-01-01

    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia, radiologic features of cerebral hemiatrophy, and ipsilateral compensatory hypertrophy of the skull bone and sinuses. We describe three cases of children with DDMS, who initially presented with refractory seizure to the pediatric department of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, India. In each case, the clinical features noted along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging helped confirm the diagnosis of DDMS. DDMS should be considered as a differential diagnosis of refractory seizures in children. We seek to emphasize the importance of thorough clinical and neuroimaging workup of seizure disorder in children for the proper management of the condition. PMID:27403244

  8. Impaired Serotonergic Brainstem Function during and after Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qiong; Buchanan, Gordon F.; Motelow, Joshua E.; Andrews, John; Vitkovskiy, Petr; Chen, William C.; Serout, Florian; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Kundishora, Adam; Furman, Moran; Li, Wei; Bo, Xiao; Richerson, George B.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired breathing, cardiac function, and arousal during and after seizures are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Previous work suggests that these changes are associated with depressed brainstem function in the ictal and post-ictal periods. Lower brainstem serotonergic systems are postulated to play an important role in cardiorespiratory changes during and after seizures, whereas upper brainstem serotonergic and other systems regulate arousal. However, direct demonstration of seizure-associated neuronal activity changes in brainstem serotonergic regions has been lacking. Here, we performed multiunit and single-unit recordings from medullary raphe and midbrain dorsal raphe nuclei in an established rat seizure model while measuring changes in breathing rate and depth as well as heart rate. Serotonergic neurons were identified by immunohistochemistry. Respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation were all significantly decreased during and after seizures in this model. We found that population firing of neurons in the medullary and midbrain raphe on multiunit recordings was significantly decreased during the ictal and post-ictal periods. Single-unit recordings from identified serotonergic neurons in the medullary raphe revealed highly consistently decreased firing during and after seizures. In contrast, firing of midbrain raphe serotonergic neurons was more variable, with a mixture of increases and decreases. The markedly suppressed firing of medullary serotonergic neurons supports their possible role in simultaneously impaired cardiorespiratory function in seizures. Decreased arousal likely arises from depressed population activity of several neuronal pools in the upper brainstem and forebrain. These findings have important implications for preventing morbidity and mortality in people living with epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Seizures often cause impaired breathing, cardiac dysfunction, and loss of consciousness. The brainstem and

  9. Oscillatory Threshold Logic

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory. PMID:23173034

  10. No association between ApoE polymorphism and febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Cachat, François; Gehri, Mario; Juvet, Typhaine

    2016-01-01

    Seizures associated with fever are a common pediatric problem, affecting about 2-7 % of children between 3 months and 5 years of age. Differentiation of febrile seizures from acute symptomatic seizures secondary to central nervous system infections or seizures associated with fever in children with epilepsy is essential to provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care. Here, we tested the hypothesis that children who exhibit simple febrile seizures during early childhood, but do not develop epileptic seizures later in life, might preferentially carry the ApoE2 allele of the gene coding for the apolipoprotein E. We did not find any differences in the distribution of ApoE alleles or genotypes between individuals who exhibited simple febrile seizures (n = 93) and age-matched, typically developing subjects (n = 80). We found that the observed allele and genotype frequencies did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which suggests that the frequencies of ApoE alleles and genotypes are stable in the Swiss population from which our samples were derived. Across both groups of subjects (n = 173), we found an ApoE2 allele frequency of 0.064, an ApoE3 frequency of 0.829 and an ApoE4 frequency of 0.107. Our findings are consistent with previous reports of the distribution of ApoE polymorphism for European subjects free of any neurological disorders, and show that the different alleles of the gene coding for the apolipoprotein E are not associated with the occurrence of simple febrile seizures. PMID:26233231

  11. Pediatric febrile seizures and childhood headaches in primary care.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, J; Bentti, A L

    2000-03-01

    Febrile seizures and migraine headaches in children are two of the most common neurological diagnoses seen by primary care practitioners. It is essential that a knowledge base be developed to better care for this population. This article reviews pediatric febrile seizures, including management and treatment recommendations and childhood headaches, with an emphasis on migraine headaches. Diagnosis, management, and referral criteria are also reviewed. PMID:10673570

  12. Detection of Epileptic Seizure Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Borujeny, Golshan Taheri; Yazdi, Mehran; Keshavarz-Haddad, Alireza; Borujeny, Arash Rafie

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of epileptic seizures is mainly done by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Although this method is accurate, it is not comfortable for the patient as the EEG-electrodes have to be attached to the scalp which hampers the patient's movement. This makes long-term home monitoring not feasible. In this paper, the aim is to propose a seizure detection system based on accelerometry for the detection of epileptic seizure. The used sensors are wireless, which can improve quality of life for the patients. In this system, three 2D accelerometer sensors are positioned on the right arm, left arm, and left thigh of an epileptic patient. Datasets from three patients suffering from severe epilepsy are used in this paper for the development of an automatic detection algorithm. This monitoring system is based on Wireless Sensor Networks and can determine the location of the patient when a seizure is detected and then send an alarm to hospital staff or the patient's relatives. Our wireless sensor nodes are MICAz Motes developed by Crossbow Technology. The proposed system can be used for patients living in a clinical environment or at their home, where they do only their daily routines. The analysis of the recorded data is done by an Artificial Neural Network and K Nearest-Neighbor to recognize seizure movements from normal movements. The results show that K Nearest Neighbor performs better than Artificial Neural Network for detecting these seizures. The results also show that if at least 50% of the signal consists of seizure samples, we can detect the seizure accurately. In addition, there is no need for training the algorithm for each new patient. PMID:24098859

  13. Seizures and brain regulatory systems: Consciousness, sleep, and autonomic systems

    PubMed Central

    Sedigh-Sarvestani, Madineh; Blumenfeld, Hal; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Bateman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Research into the physiological underpinnings of epilepsy has revealed reciprocal relationships between seizures and the activity of several regulatory systems in the brain, including those governing sleep, consciousness and autonomic functions. This review highlights recent progress in understanding and utilizing the relationships between seizures and the arousal or consciousness system, the sleep-wake and associated circadian system, and the central autonomic network. PMID:25233249

  14. Somatic Overgrowth Predisposes to Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brachini, Francesca; Apicella, Fabio; Cosenza, Angela; Ferrari, Anna Rita; Guerrini, Renzo; Muratori, Filippo; Romano, Maria Francesca; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Tancredi, Raffaella; Sicca, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders with seizures or abnormal EEG (Autism-Epilepsy Phenotype) suggests shared pathomechanisms, and might be a starting point to identify distinct populations within the clinical complexity of the autistic spectrum. In this study, we tried to assess whether distinct subgroups, having distinctive clinical hallmarks, emerge from this comorbid condition. Methods Two-hundred and six individuals with idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorders were subgrouped into three experimental classes depending on the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. Neurobehavioral, electroclinical and auxological parameters were investigated to identify differences among groups and features which increase the risk of seizures. Our statistical analyses used ANOVA, post-hoc multiple comparisons, and the Chi-squared test to analyze continuous and categorical variables. A correspondence analysis was also used to decompose significant Chi-squared and reduce variables dimensions. Results The high percentage of children with seizures (28.2% of our whole cohort) and EEG abnormalities (64.1%) confirmed that the prevalence of epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders exceeds that of the general population. Seizures were associated with severe intellectual disability, and not with autism severity. Interestingly, tall stature (without macrocephaly) was significantly associated with EEG abnormalities or later onset seizures. However, isolated macrocephaly was equally distributed among groups or associated with early onset seizures when accompanied by tall stature. Conclusions Tall stature seems to be a phenotypic “biomarker” of susceptibility to EEG abnormalities or late epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders and, when concurring with macrocephaly, predisposes to early onset seizures. Growth pattern might act as an endophenotypic marker in Autism-Epilepsy comorbidity, delineating distinct pathophysiological subtypes and addressing personalized diagnostic work

  15. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  16. Sleep Related Hypermotor Seizures with a Right Parietal Onset

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Steve A.; Figorilli, Michela; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Proserpio, Paola; Nobili, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a syndrome characterized by the occurrence of sleep related seizures of variable complexity and duration. Hypermotor seizures (HMS) represent a classic manifestation of this syndrome, associated with a perturbation of the ventromesial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus regions. Nevertheless, in recent years, reports have showed that the seizure onset zone (SOZ) need not be of frontal origin to generate HMS. Here we report an unusual case of a patient presenting with a seven-year history of drug-resistant sleep related HMS arising from the mesial parietal region. The presence of an infrequent feeling of levitation before the HMS was key to suspecting a subtle focal cortical dysplasia in the right precuneus region. A stereo-EEG investigation confirmed the extra-frontal seizure onset of the HMS and highlighted the interrelationship between unstable sleep and seizure precipitation. Citation: Gibbs SA, Figorilli M, Casaceli G, Proserpio P, Nobili L. Sleep related hypermotor seizures with a right parietal onset. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):953–955. PMID:25902821

  17. Acute and chronic pharmacological models of generalized absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Miguel A; Kostopoulos, George K; Snead, O Carter

    2016-02-15

    This article reviews the contribution of pharmacologically induced acute and chronic animal models to our understanding of epilepsies featuring non-convulsive generalized seizures, the typical and atypical absence seizures. Typical absences comprise about 5% of all epilepsies regardless of age and the atypical ones are even more common. Although absence epilepsy was thought to be relatively benign, children with childhood epilepsy (CAE) turn out to have a high rate of pretreatment attention deficits that persist despite seizure freedom. The phenomenon of the absence seizure has long attracted research interest because of the clear temporal relationship of the conspicuous EEG rhythm of 3 Hz generalized spike and wave discharges (GSWD) and the parallel transient "loss of consciousness" characterizing these seizures which is time-locked with the GSWD. Indeed, clinical epileptologists, basic scientists and neurophysiologists have long recognized in GSWD a unique electrographic and behavioral marker of the genetic predisposition to most types of epilepsy. Interestingly, the subject is still controversial since it has recently been proposed that both classification terms of CAE currently in use: idiopathic and primary generalized, be abandoned - a point of debate. Both issues - underlying mechanisms and focal origin of absence seizures - may be further enlightened by observations in valid animal models. PMID:26343323

  18. Mutations affecting GABAergic signaling in seizures and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2010-01-01

    The causes of epilepsies and epileptic seizures are multifactorial. Genetic predisposition may contribute in certain types of epilepsies and seizures, whether idiopathic or symptomatic of genetic origin. Although these are not very common, they have offered a unique opportunity to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. Among the implicated gene mutations, a number of GABAA receptor subunit mutations have been recently identified that contribute to several idiopathic epilepsies, febrile seizures, and rarely to certain types of symptomatic epilepsies, like the severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Deletion of GABAA receptor genes has also been linked to Angelman syndrome. Furthermore, mutations of proteins controlling chloride homeostasis, which indirectly defines the functional consequences of GABAA signaling, have been identified. These include the chloride channel 2 (CLCN2) and the potassium chloride cotransporter KCC3. The pathogenic role of CLCN2 mutations has not been clearly demonstrated and may represent either susceptibility genes or, in certain cases, innocuous polymorphisms. KCC3 mutations have been associated with hereditary motor and sensory polyneuropathy with corpus callosum agenesis (Andermann syndrome) that often manifests with epileptic seizures. This review summarizes the recent progress in the genetic linkages of epilepsies and seizures to the above genes and discusses potential pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the age, sex, and conditional expression of these seizures in carriers of these mutations. PMID:20352446

  19. Clinical and EEG response to anticonvulsants in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Connell, J; Oozeer, R; de Vries, L; Dubowitz, L M; Dubowitz, V

    1989-01-01

    During a two year period prospective continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring of 275 infants identified seizure activity in 55 cases, 31 of whom were treated with anticonvulsant drugs on clinical grounds. EEG and clinical response was complete in only two and equivocal in another six. Clinical response with persistent EEG seizures occurred in 13 and neither clinical nor EEG response in 10. There was no significant improvement in the generally poor neurological outcome compared with that in 24 infants whose seizures were not treated because of limited or absent clinical manifestations. Background EEG abnormality (as an index of associated cerebral dysfunction) was a guide to potential lack of response to anticonvulsant drugs; it was also predictive of subsequent clinical outcome irrespective of treatment. This study shows that commonly used anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbitone, paraldehyde, phenytoin, and diazepam) have little effect on seizure control or neurological outcome in neonatal seizures associated with haemorrhagic, hypoxic, or ischaemic cerebral lesions. In view of the variable clinical appearance of EEG seizure activity, continuous EEG monitoring should be an essential feature of further study of neonatal anticonvulsant treatment. PMID:2730114

  20. The quantitative measurement of consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Nani, Andrea; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of consciousness is a fundamental element in the classification of epileptic seizures. It is, therefore, of great importance for clinical practice to develop instruments that enable an accurate and reliable measurement of the alteration of consciousness during seizures. Over the last few years, three psychometric scales have been specifically proposed to measure ictal consciousness: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI), the Consciousness Seizure Scale (CSS), and the Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale--versions I and II (RES-I and RES-II). The ICI is a self-report psychometric instrument which retrospectively assesses ictal consciousness along the dimensions of the level/arousal and contents/awareness. The CSS has been used by clinicians to quantify the impairment of consciousness in order to establish correlations with the brain mechanisms underlying alterations of consciousness during temporal lobe seizures. The most recently developed observer-rated instrument is the RES-I, which has been used to assess responsiveness during epileptic seizures in patients undergoing video-EEG. The implementation of standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of ictal consciousness can complement clinical observations and contribute to improve accuracy in seizure classification. PMID:24113569