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Sample records for ptz seizure threshold

  1. Thioperamide, a selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, protects against PTZ-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Vohora, D; Pal, S N; Pillai, K K

    2000-04-21

    The effect of selective histamine H3-receptor antagonist thioperamide was studied on PTZ-induced seizures in mice. Thioperamide significantly protected clonic seizures induced by PTZ in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of thioperamide was completely countered by pretreatment with R (alpha)-methylhistamine (RAMH), a selective H3-receptor agonist suggesting that the observed effect of thioperamide was elicited by histamine H3-receptors. RAMH alone did not significantly modify PTZ seizures. The findings are consistent with a role for the histaminergic neuronal system in seizures and suggest that H3-receptors may play an important role in modulating clonic seizures induced by PTZ in mice. PMID:10834305

  2. Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates PTZ-induced seizures through CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Iraj; Rostampour, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammad; Naderi, Nima; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Babaei, Parvin; Khakpour-Taleghani, Behrooz

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Though there are effective medications available to reduce the symptoms of the disease, their side effects have limited their usage. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been shown to attenuate seizure in different animal models. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in this attenuation. Male wistar rats were used for the current experiment. PTZ was injected to induce chemical kindling in animals. After verification of kindling in animals, treatment was performed with PEA, AM251 and AM630 in different groups. Latency to induce seizure, seizure stages and latency and duration of fifth stage of seizure was recorded for each animal. Injection of PTZ led to seizure in the animals. Pretreatment with PEA increased the latency to initiate seizures and reduced the duration of seizure. Pretreatment with different dosages of AM251 had contrary effects so that at lower doses they increased the seizure in animals but at higher doses led to the attenuation of seizure. AM630 increased seizures in a dose dependent manner. Combination of the antagonists increased the seizure parameters and attenuated the effect of PEA on seizure. PEA attenuated the PTZ-induced seizures and pretreatment with CB1 and CB2 antagonists diminished this effect of PEA, but still PEA was effective, which might be attributed to the contribution of other receptors in PEA anti-epileptic properties. Findings of the current study implied that endocannabinoid signaling pathway might have an important role in the effects of PEA. PMID:26370914

  3. ?-Spinasterol, a TRPV1 receptor antagonist, elevates the seizure threshold in three acute seizure tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Soca?a, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Wla?, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    ?-Spinasterol is a plant-derived compound which was reported to act as a selective antagonist for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor. Several studies revealed that the TRPV1 receptors might modulate seizure activity in animal models of seizures and epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ?-spinasterol on the seizure threshold in three acute models of seizures, i.e., in the intravenous (i.v.) pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure test, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test and in the model of psychomotor seizures induced by 6 Hz stimulation in mice. Our results revealed significant anticonvulsant effect of ?-spinasterol in all the used seizure tests. In the i.v. PTZ test, statistically significant elevation was noted in case of the threshold for myoclonic twitches (doses of 0.1-1 mg/kg) and generalized clonus seizures (doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) but not for tonic seizures. The studied TRPV1 antagonist also increased the threshold for tonic hindlimb extension in the MEST (doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and 6 Hz psychomotor seizure (doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) tests in mice. Furthermore, ?-spinasterol did not produce any significant impairment of motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test) and muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test) and it did not provoke significant changes in body temperature in mice. Based on the results of our study and the fact that ?-spinasterol is characterized by good blood-brain permeability, we postulate further investigation of this compound to precisely evaluate mechanism of its anticonvulsant action and opportunity of its usage in clinical practice. PMID:25764210

  4. Effect of inferior olive lesion on seizure threshold in the rat.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M C; Chung, E Y; Van Woert, M H

    1987-06-15

    Cerebellar stimulation has been associated with anticonvulsant activity in several experimental seizure models. We examined the effect of destruction of cerebellar climbing fibers, by systemic administration of 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) or electrothermic lesion of the inferior olive, on seizures produced by various chemical convulsants in rats. We found that inferior olive lesioned rats had lower threshold to seizures induced by strychnine and brucine, both glycine antagonists. The dose response curve for strychnine seizure was shifted 2.5 times to the left in 3AP lesioned rats. No difference in seizure threshold was seen when picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole PTZ) were used to produce seizures. Abnormal motor behavior (AMB) including myoclonus, backward movement and hyperextension, produced by all of the convulsants tested, was significantly aggravated in 3AP pretreated rats. The inferior olive-climbing fiber projection to the cerebellum appears to modulate seizures induced by inhibition of glycinergic neurotransmission. PMID:2884546

  5. Citrus aurantium increases seizure latency to PTZ induced seizures in zebrafish thru NMDA and mGluR's I and II

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torres-Rodríguez, Stephanie; Jordán, Claudia; Licier, Rígel; Santiago, Yolimar; Toledo, Zuleyma; Santiago, Marely; Serrano, Kiara; Sosa, Jeffrey; Ortiz, José G.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition and pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients and causes serious adverse effects and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Natural products and ethnobotanical resources can help develop new therapeutic options for conditions like epilepsy. In Puerto Rico, ethnobotanical resources highlight the anxiolytic properties of a tea like preparation made from the leaves of the Citrus aurantium tree or bitter orange. Studies performed with essential oils from the peel of the fruit have shown to increase seizure latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure in mice. We characterized the extract composition, and used a model of PTZ induces seizures in the zebrafish and a receptor-ligand binding assay to determine if this preparation has anticonvulsant properties and its mechanism of action. We determined that the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree contains hesperidin, neohesperidin, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Using our zebrafish model, we determined that exposure to the C. aurantium 28 mg/mL extract in aquarium water increases seizure latency by 119% compared to controls. We ruled out a mechanism involving GABAA receptors using the selective antagonist gabazine. We used two approaches to study the role of glutamate in the mechanism of the C. aurantium extract. The ligand binding assay revealed C. aurantium extracts at concentrations of 0.42 to 5.6 mg/mL significantly reduced [3H]Glu binding indicating an interaction with glutamate receptors, in particular with NMDA receptors and mGluR II. This interaction was confirmed with our animal model using selective receptor antagonists and we identified an interaction with mGluR I, not observed in the ligand binding experiment. These study provide evidence of the anticonvulsant properties of the aqueous extract made from the leaves of the C. aurantium tree and a mechanism involving NMDA and mGluR's I and II. PMID:25762932

  6. The interaction of adenosine and morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Akbarian, Reyhane; Niknahad, Hossein; Shafaroodi, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine agonists or low doses of morphine exert anti-convulsant effects in different models of seizures. On the other hand, a tight interaction has been reported between morphine and adenosine in various paradigms. This study investigated the effect of the interaction of adenosine and morphine on seizure susceptibility in the intravenous mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. The researchers used acute systemic administration of morphine, N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (a selective A1 receptor agonist), naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist) and 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) (a selective A1 receptor antagonist). Acute administration of morphine (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) or CHA (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg) raised the threshold of seizures induced by PTZ. Non-effective dose of 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of sub-effective doses of morphine (0.125 mg/kg) and CHA (0.125 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure latency showing the additive effect of morphine and CHA. The enhanced latency induced by combination of low doses of morphine and CHA completely reversed by 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) or naltrexone (1 mg/kg). Moreover, 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of morphine (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) and naltrexone (1 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of low doses of 8-CPT (1 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.5 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effect of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). In conclusion, adenosine and morphine exhibit an additive effect on the enhancement of the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice, probably through A1 or ? receptors. PMID:23624288

  7. Stress during first pregnancy increases seizure threshold in adult male offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pajand, Peyman; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Shajiee, Hooman; Abiri, Hasan; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Stress induces many homeostatic aberrations which are followed by lifelong allostatic responses. Epilepsy is developed or influenced by different environmental factors, i.e. prenatal stress which makes many contradictory developmental changes in seizure threshold and intensity. We investigated the potential seizure response of the rat offspring to prenatal stress; the stress which was applied to their mothers. Materials and Methods: Nine day heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) model was used before and during the first and before the second pregnancy. The kindling was induced using 13 IP injections of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) every 48 hr to adult male Wistar rat's offspring. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that, before pregnancy stress decreased the rate of kindling (P<0.05) in the offspring, while stress which was applied during pregnancy completely prevented kindling (P <0.001). Further, their convulsive latency was increased and tonic clonic seizure duration was decreased. In contrast, previous pregnancy and between pregnancies stress could not change kindling process. Although maternal separation stress did not change kindling development, it could increase convulsive intensities by elongating the duration of seizures (P<0.05) and reducing convulsion latency (P <0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that stress detrimental effects could be prevented by stress which was applied around first pregnancy; however this beneficial effect is weakened by before second pregnancy stress. PMID:24592305

  8. The novel antiepileptic drug imepitoin compares favourably to other GABA-mimetic drugs in a seizure threshold model in mice and dogs.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Katrin; Twele, Friederike; Potschka, Heidrun; Töllner, Kathrin

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the imidazolinone derivative imepitoin has been approved for treatment of canine epilepsy. Imepitoin acts as a low-affinity partial agonist at the benzodiazepine (BZD) site of the GABAA receptor and is the first compound with such mechanism that has been developed as an antiepileptic drug (AED). This mechanism offers several advantages compared to full agonists, including less severe adverse effects and a lack of tolerance and dependence liability, which has been demonstrated in rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates. In clinical trials in epileptic dogs, imepitoin was shown to be an effective and safe AED. Recently, seizures in dogs have been proposed as a translational platform for human therapeutic trials on new epilepsy treatments. In the present study, we compared the anticonvulsant efficacy of imepitoin, phenobarbital and the high-affinity partial BZD agonist abecarnil in the timed i.v. pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold test in dogs and, for comparison, in mice. Furthermore, adverse effects of treatments were compared in both species. All drugs dose-dependently increased the PTZ threshold in both species, but anticonvulsant efficacy was higher in dogs than mice. At the doses selected for this study, imepitoin was slightly less potent than phenobarbital in increasing seizure threshold, but markedly more tolerable in both species. Effective doses of imepitoin in the PTZ seizure model were in the same range as those suppressing spontaneous recurrent seizures in epileptic dogs. The study demonstrates that low-affinity partial agonists at the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, such as imepitoin, offer advantages as a new category of AEDs. PMID:24056205

  9. SULFOLANE EFFECTS ON AUDIOGENIC, PENTYLENETETRAZOL AND AFTERDISCHARGE SEIZURE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfolane dosages that alter seizure susceptibility were determined using audiogenic (AG), pentylenetrazol (PTZ) and hippocampal afterdischarge (AD) seizure models. The presence of AG seizures and potentiation of PTZ seizures were investigated in rats injected IP with 0, 200, 400...

  10. A role for opioid system in the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil on the pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice.

    PubMed

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Payandemehr, Borna; Gholipour, Taha; Ziai, Pouya; Nabavizadeh, Pooneh; Ghasemi, Abbas; Bahremand, Arash; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2011-06-01

    There are several lines of evidence that opioidergic and nitrergic systems could modulate the seizure threshold. We previously have shown that sildenafil had proconvulsant effects in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or bicuculline. In the present study, we examined whether the opioid system participates in the action of sildenafil on the PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice. Sildenafil (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the seizure threshold in a dose-dependent manner, whereas morphine had both anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects at low (0.5, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) and high (60 mg/kg, s.c.) doses. A sub-effective dose of sildenafil (5 mg/kg) combined with a dose of morphine (7.5 mg/kg) which was sub-effective for its proconvulsant effects significantly decreased the seizure threshold. Although naltrexone at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg had no effect on the seizure threshold, it significantly prevented both the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil as well as the anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of morphine on the PTZ-induced seizure thresholds. Our data suggested a role for opioidergic system in the proconvulsant effects of sildenafil on the PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice. PMID:21377383

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury During Development Reduces Minimal Clonic Seizure Thresholds At Maturity

    PubMed Central

    Statler, Kimberly D.; Swank, Seth; Abildskov, Tracy; Bigler, Erin D.; White, H. Steve

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic seizures affect 12 – 35% of children after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are associated with worse cognitive and functional outcome, even after adjustment for severity of injury. Unfortunately, experimental models of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy are lacking, and pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We have applied a standard model of TBI in immature rats to determine the effect of TBI on electroconvulsive seizure thresholds later in life. Male rats underwent controlled cortical impact to left parietal cortex on post-natal day (PND) 16-18. Hindbrain, forebrain, and limbic seizure thresholds were assessed, respectively, by tonic hindlimb extension (THE), minimal clonic, and partial psychomotor seizure responses during adolescence (PND 34 - 40) and at maturity (PND 60 - 63). Post-traumatic seizure thresholds were compared to those obtained in age- and litter-matched sham craniotomy and naïve controls. TBI during immaturity had no clear effect on THE seizure thresholds. In contrast, TBI lowered minimal clonic seizure thresholds at maturity (p < 0.05 vs. sham or naïve rats), but not during adolescence. Consequently, minimal clonic seizure thresholds increased with age for sham and naïve rats but remained similar for TBI rats during adolescence and at maturity. TBI also tended to lower partial psychomotor seizure thresholds, which were determined only during adolescence (p < 0.1 vs. naive). Controlled cortical impact causes both focal cortical injury at the site of impact and ipsilateral hippocampal neuronal death. Since minimal clonic seizures are mediated by the forebrain, partial psychomotor seizures by the limbic system, and THE seizures by the brainstem, the observed pattern of changes in post-traumatic seizure thresholds is not surprising. The apparent age-dependent effects of TBI, however, are unexpected and likely due to a combination of attenuated maturational increases and progressive epileptogenesis. Additional study is needed to delineate the relative contributions of these processes. Given the sustained reduction in post-traumatic minimal clonic seizure thresholds, controlled cortical impact may hold promise as an experimental model of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy. PMID:18490145

  12. Tanshinone IIA Exhibits Anticonvulsant Activity in Zebrafish and Mouse Seizure Models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Danshen or Chinese red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza, Bunge) is used by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners to treat neurological, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disorders and is included in some TCM formulations to control epileptic seizures. In this study, acetonic crude extracts of danshen inhibited pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure activity in zebrafish larvae. Subsequent zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four major tanshinones, which suppressed PTZ-induced activity to varying degrees. One of the active tanshinones, tanshinone IIA, also reduced c-fos expression in the brains of PTZ-exposed zebrafish larvae. In rodent seizure models, tanshinone IIA showed anticonvulsive activity in the mouse 6-Hz psychomotor seizure test in a biphasic manner and modified seizure thresholds in a complex manner for the mouse i.v. PTZ seizure assay. Interestingly, tanshinone IIA is used as a prescription drug in China to address cerebral ischemia in patients. Here, we provide the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that tanshinone IIA has anticonvulsant properties as well. PMID:23937066

  13. Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... defects) Brain tumor (rare) Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children) Head injury Heart ... age. There may be a family history of epilepsy or seizures. If seizures continue repeatedly after the ...

  14. Morphine modulates the effects of histamine H1 and H3 receptors on seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model of mice.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hassanipour, Mahsa; Shirzadian, Armin; Gooshe, Maziar; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-12-15

    Histamine regulates release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and also is involved in several functions in central nervous system (CNS). It has been shown that histamine participates in disorders like seizure. It has been well documented that morphine dose-dependently induces anti or proconvulsant effects. In the current study, we firstly showed that morphine (1mg/kg) exerts anticonvulsant effects which significantly reversed by naltrexone administration. Secondly, we determined seizure threshold for H1 and H3 receptors agonists and antagonists in mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. Our results showed that activation of H1 receptors by 2-(2-Pyridyl)-ethylamine exerts anticonvulsant properties while inhibition of H1 receptors by pyrilamine maleate induced proconvulsant effects. Furthermore, we showed that immepip dihydrobromide, a H3 receptor agonist, increased seizure susceptibility to PTZ whereas thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist increased seizure threshold. We also revealed that pretreatment with morphine potently reversed the effects of histaminergic system on seizure threshold suggesting the involvement of opioid system in alteration of seizure threshold by histaminergic drugs. PMID:26500121

  15. Experiencing neonatal maternal separation increased the seizure threshold in adult male mice: Involvement of the opioid system.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Amiri, Shayan; Shirzadian, Armin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Hassanipour, Mahsa; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-11-01

    Experiencing early-life stress has been considered as a potent risk factor for the development of many of brain disorders, including seizures. Intervening mechanisms through which neonatal maternal separation (MS) alters the seizure susceptibility in adulthood have not been well studied. In the current study, by applying 180min of MS stress (PND 2-14), we determined the seizure susceptibility and considered the role of the opioid system. Maternal separation increased the seizure threshold, and administration of anticonvulsant/proconvulsant doses of morphine (1 and 30mg/kg, respectively) reversed the impact of MS. Using tail flick and hot plate tests, we exposed animals to 30min Restraint stress (RS) and found that MS decreased the pain threshold, suggesting the hyporesponsiveness of the opioid system. These results supported the abnormal seizure activity observed in the MS mice and suggested that abnormalities in the opioid system following MS alter seizure susceptibility in later life. PMID:26409126

  16. Intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid for 14days increases serum unesterified DHA and seizure latency in the maximal pentylenetetrazol model.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lim, Joonbum; Lai, Terence K Y; Cho, Hye Jin; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Taha, Ameer Y; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2014-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) which has been shown to raise seizure thresholds following acute administration in rats. The aims of the present experiment were the following: 1) to test whether subchronic DHA administration raises seizure threshold in the maximal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model 24h following the last injection and 2) to determine whether the increase in seizure threshold is correlated with an increase in serum and/or brain DHA. Animals received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 50mg/kg of DHA, DHA ethyl ester (DHA EE), or volume-matched vehicle (albumin/saline) for 14days. On day 15, one subset of animals was seizure tested in the maximal PTZ model (Experiment 1). In a separate (non-seizure tested) subset of animals, blood was collected, and brains were excised following high-energy, head-focused microwave fixation. Lipid analysis was performed on serum and brain (Experiment 2). For data analysis, the DHA and DHA EE groups were combined since they did not differ significantly from each other. In the maximal PTZ model, DHA significantly increased seizure latency by approximately 3-fold as compared to vehicle-injected animals. This increase in seizure latency was associated with an increase in serum unesterified DHA. Total brain DHA and brain unesterified DHA concentrations, however, did not differ significantly in the treatment and control groups. An increase in serum unesterified DHA concentration reflecting increased flux of DHA to the brain appears to explain changes in seizure threshold, independent of changes in brain DHA concentrations. PMID:24662925

  17. Magnesium Sulfate Treatment Reverses Seizure Susceptibility and Decreases Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Severe Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Abbie Chapman; Tremble, Sarah M.; Chan, Siu-Lung; Moseley, Janae; LaMarca, Babbette; Nagle, Keith J.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Eclampsia, defined as unexplained seizure in a woman with preeclampsia, is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy with unclear etiology. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the leading eclamptic seizure prophylactic, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized severe preeclampsia is a state of increased seizure susceptibility due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuroinflammation that lowers seizure threshold. Further, MgSO4 decreases seizure susceptibility by protecting the BBB and preventing neuroinflammation. To model severe preeclampsia, placental ischemia (reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure; RUPP) was combined with a high cholesterol diet (HC) to cause maternal endothelial dysfunction. RUPP+HC rats developed symptoms associated with severe preeclampsia, including hypertension, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and fetal and placental growth restriction. Seizure threshold was determined by quantifying the amount of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; mg/kg) required to elicit seizure in RUPP+HC±MgSO4 and compared to normal pregnant controls (n?=?6/group; gestational day 20). RUPP+HC rats were more sensitive to PTZ with seizure threshold being ?65% lower vs. control (12.4±1.7 vs. 36.7±3.9 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05) that was reversed by MgSO4 (45.7±8.7 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05 vs. RUPP+HC). BBB permeability to sodium fluorescein, measured in-vivo (n?=?5–7/group), was increased in RUPP+HC vs. control rats, with more tracer passing into the brain (15.9±1.0 vs. 12.2±0.3 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05) and was unaffected by MgSO4 (15.6±1.0 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05 vs. controls). In addition, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of neuroinflammation, indicated by 35±2% of microglia being active compared to 9±2% in normal pregnancy (p<0.01; n?=?3–8/group). MgSO4 treatment reversed neuroinflammation, reducing microglial activation to 6±2% (p<0.01 vs. RUPP+HC). Overall, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of augmented seizure susceptibility potentially due to increased BBB permeability and neuroinflammation. MgSO4 treatment reversed this, increasing seizure threshold and decreasing neuroinflammation, without affecting BBB permeability. Thus, reducing neuroinflammation may be one mechanism by which MgSO4 prevents eclampsia during severe preeclampsia. PMID:25409522

  18. Comparative efficacy of liposome-entrapped amiloride and free amiloride in animal models of seizures and serum potassium in mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Kolappa Pillai, Krishna; Jalees Ahmad, Farhan; Dua, Yashomati; Iqbal Khan, Zeenat; Vohora, Divya

    2007-02-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate a liposomal formulation of amiloride on experimental seizure models including the increasing current electroshock seizure threshold test (ICES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and PTZ-induced status epilepticus in mice. Further, the effect of liposomal amiloride on serum K(+) levels was also investigated using flame photometry. We found an improved anticonvulsant action with liposome-entrapped amiloride as compared to free amiloride. Further, free amiloride showed an increase in serum K(+) levels, however the latter was unaffected with liposomal formulation treatment. These results, together with previously published data, suggest that as drug delivery vehicles, liposomes can enhance the effectiveness of drugs in the CNS without producing peripheral toxicity (hyperkalemia). PMID:16843647

  19. Adenosine receptor modulation of seizure susceptibility in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Szot, P.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine is considered to be a neuromodulator or cotransmitter in the periphery and CNS. This neuromodulatory action of adenosine may be observed as an anticonvulsant effect. Dose-response curves for R-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA), cycohexyladenosine (CHA), 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAdo), N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and S-PIA were generated against PTZ seizure thresholds in the rat. The rank order of potency for adenosine agonists to elevate PTZ seizure threshold was R-PIA > 2-ClAdo > NECA > CHA > S-PIA. R-PIA was approximately 80-fold more potent than S-PIA. This 80-fold difference in potency between the diasteriomers of PIA was consistent with an A{sub 1} adenoise receptor-mediated response. The anticonvulsant action of 2-ClAdo was reversed by pretreatment with theoplylline. Chronic administration of theophylline significantly increased the specific binding of {sup 3}H-cyclohexyladenosine in membranes of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the rat. Chronic exposure to theophylline produced a significant increase in the densities of both the high- and low-affinity forms of A{sub 1} adenosine receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  20. Proconvulsant effects of estriol, the third estrogen, in the mouse PTZ-kindling model.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aakifa; Vohora, Divya

    2014-10-01

    The effect of estriol, the third estrogen, was evaluated for its effect on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling model of epileptogenesis in mice followed by evaluation on kindling-induced changes in cognitive and motor functions. Kindling was induced by once every 2 days treatment with PTZ (25 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 weeks. The seizure severity during induction of kindling and percentage incidence of animals kindled at the end of 5 weeks was recorded. Motor function was assessed using a grip strength meter while spatial memory was assessed in a cross maze. Estriol (0.005 and 0.01 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the time for induction of kindling from 5 weeks to 3 and 2 weeks for male and female mice respectively and enhanced the percentage incidence of seizures. Clomiphene (0.9 mg/kg i.p.) delayed the development of kindling and produced anticonvulsant effects. It also partially reversed the proconvulsant effects of estriol. On grip strength test and spontaneous alternation behaviour, a significant decline was observed in kindled mice which was further reduced by pre-treatment with estriol. Both clomiphene and diazepam were unable to reverse the reduced GS of PTZ-kindled mice but enhanced the percentage alternation of such animals. The study shows that estriol has powerful proconvulsant effects. Its administration in hormone replacement therapy or other indications, thus, requires careful monitoring in patients susceptible to epileptic seizures. The anticonvulsant effects of clomiphene requires further investigations. PMID:24748480

  1. Anticonvulsant properties of an oral ketone ester in a pentylenetetrazole-model of seizure.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Andrea; Pilla, Raffaele; Arnold, Patrick; Monda, Marcellino; D'Agostino, Dominic; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2015-08-27

    The ketogenic diet is known to have an anti-epileptic effect; in fact it is currently used to treat drug resistant epilepsies. The efficacy of this diet is thought to be correlated to the elevation of blood ketone bodies. Because of problems with compliance to this diet, there is an interest in evaluating alternative pharmacological treatments that can have anti-seizure effects by elevating ketone bodies. In the present experiment, an orally administered synthetic ketone ester (R,S - 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester, or BD-AcAc2) was evaluated for its anti-seizure efficacy in a rat model. The threshold for seizure induction with progressive intravenous infusion of pentylenetrazole (PTZ) was evaluated in anesthetized Wistar rats two hours after a single 1 ml intragastric administration of BD-AcAc2 (i.e. 4 g/kg b.w., treated group) or water (control group). After correction for the dose of anesthetic, the results showed that the administration of BD-AcAc2 induced an elevation of the PTZ threshold (140 ± 11 mg/kg for the treated group, 122 ± 6 mg/kg for the control group), along with an increased level of blood ?-hydroxybutyrate (2.7 ± 0.3mM for the treated group, 1.4 ± 0.1mM for the control group). This result suggests that ketone esters may pave the road towards the establishment of a "ketogenic diet in a pill". PMID:26026798

  2. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  3. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    PubMed

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  4. Acute seizure suppression by transcranial direct current stimulation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhamne, Sameer C; Ekstein, Dana; Zhuo, Zhihong; Gersner, Roman; Zurakowski, David; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jensen, Frances E; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a focal neuromodulation technique that suppresses cortical excitability by low-amplitude constant electrical current, and may have an antiepileptic effect. Yet, tDCS has not been tested in status epilepticus (SE). Furthermore, a combined tDCS and pharmacotherapy antiseizure approach is unexplored. We therefore examined in the rat pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) SE model whether cathodal tDCS (1) suppresses seizures, (2) augments lorazepam (LZP) efficacy, and (3) enhances GABAergic cortical inhibition. Methods Experiment 1 aimed to identify an effective cathodal tDCS intensity. Rats received intraperitoneal PTZ followed by tDCS (sham, cathodal 1 mA, or cathodal 0.1 mA; for 20 min), and then a second PTZ challenge. In Experiment 2, two additional animal groups received a subtherapeutic LZP dose after PTZ, and then verum or sham tDCS. Clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) epileptic activity were compared between all groups. In Experiment 3, we measured GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) in rats that received PTZ or saline, and either verum or sham tDCS. Results Cathodal 1 mA tDCS (1) reduced EEG spike bursts, and suppressed clinical seizures after the second PTZ challenge, (2) in combination with LZP was more effective in seizure suppression and improved the clinical seizure outcomes compared to either tDCS or LZP alone, and (3) prevented the loss of ppTMS motor cortex inhibition that accompanied PTZ injection. Interpretation These results suggest that cathodal 1 mA tDCS alone and in combination with LZP can suppress seizures by augmenting GABAergic cortical inhibition. PMID:26339678

  5. The Effects of Nigella Sativa Hydro-alcoholic Extract on Memory and Brain Tissues Oxidative Damage after Repeated Seizures in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee, Farzaneh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Zahra; Edalatmanesh, Mohammad Amin; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Amani, Atefeh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the therapeutic properties of Nigella sativa (NS), the effects of the plant hydro – alcoholic extract on learning, memory and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in penthylenetetrazole (PTZ) - induced repeated seizures. There were 4 experimental groups including: 1- control group; received saline, 2- PTZ group ; received saline and PTZ (50 mg/Kg, i.p) , 3-PTZ- NS 200 and 4- PTZ- NS 400 ; received 200 and 400 mg/Kg of NS extract respectively, before PTZ injection in 5 consecutive days. Seizure scores were lower in PTZ – NS 200 and 400, furthermore the seizure onset latencies were higher in these groups than PTZ group (P<0.05 and P<0.01 ). In Morris water maze, the time spent in target quadrant by PTZ group was lower than control group (P<0.05); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.01). In the passive avoidance test, delay time to enter the dark by PTZ group was lower than control at 1 and 24 hours after training (P<0.01- P<0.001); while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it (P<0.05). The total thiol concentration in hippocampal and cortical tissues of PTZ group was reduced while, MDA concentration was higher than control (p<0.05 - p<0.001). Administration of the extract increased the total thiol and decreased the MDA concentrations (p<0.01- p<0.001). It is concluded that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS possess beneficial effects on learning and memory impairments in repeated seizures model which is accompanied by antioxidant effects in the brain. PMID:25901163

  6. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or prolonged seizures are a risk factor for epilepsy but most children who experience febrile seizures do ... develop the reoccurring seizures that re characteristic of epilepsy. Certain children who have febrile seizures face an ...

  7. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... febrile seizure does not mean a child has epilepsy, since that disorder is characterized by reoccurring seizures ... outcome but carry an increased risk of developing epilepsy. How common are febrile seizures? Febrile seizures are ...

  8. Absence seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  9. Panchagavya Ghrita, an Ayurvedic formulation attenuates seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R; Reeta, K H; Sharma, S K; Tripathi, M; Gupta, Y K

    2015-07-01

    Panchagavya Ghrita (PG), according to Ayurvedic formulary of India (AFI), is used to treat epilepsy (apasmara), fever (jvara), mania (unmade) and jaundice (kamala). In the present study, we examined its effect on convulsions, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in rats. PG @ 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg was administered orally for 7 days to male Wistar rats. On day 7, PTZ (60 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 2 h after the last dose of PG. Sodium valproate (300 mg/kg) was used as positive control. Latency to myoclonic jerks, clonus and generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded for seizure severity. Cognitive impairment was assessed using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. Malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels were measured in rat brain. The results have shown that pretreatment with PG @ 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg exhibited 16.6, 33.3, 50 and 100% protection against occurrence of GTCS. The pretreatment with PG has significantly improved cognitive functions and the oxidative stress induced by seizures demonstrating its protective effect against PTZ induced seizures, and further, use of PG as an anticonvulsant in Ayurvedic system of medicine. PMID:26245029

  10. Real-time video tracking using PTZ cameras Sangkyu Kanga

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    as possible to the targets, to get accurate tracking sangkyu@iristown.engr.utk.edu, phone: +1Real-time video tracking using PTZ cameras Sangkyu Kanga , Joonki Paikab , Andreas Koschana , Besma-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul, 157-756, Korea ABSTRACT Automatic tracking is essential for a 24 hours intruder

  11. Capparis ovata modulates brain oxidative toxicity and epileptic seizures in pentylentetrazol-induced epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Akay, Mehmet Berk; Çelik, Ömer; Y?ld?r?m, Muhammed ?kbal; Balc?, Erdinç; Yürekli, Vedat Ali

    2013-04-01

    It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress products play an important role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Capparis ovata (C. ovata) may useful treatment of epilepsy because it contains antioxidant flavonoids. The current study was designed to determine the effects of C. ovata on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant levels and electroencephalography (EEG) records in pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. First group was used as control although second group was PTZ group. Oral 100 and 200 mg/kg C. ovata were given to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 7 days before PTZ administration. Second, third and forth groups received 60 mg/kg PTZ for induction of epilepsy. Three hours after administration of PTZ, EEG records, brain cortex and blood samples were taken all groups. The lipid peroxidation levels of the brain cortex, number of spikes and epileptiform discharges of EEG were higher in PTZ group than in control and C. ovata group whereas they were decreased by C. ovata administration. Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and ?-carotene concentrations of brain cortex and latency to first spike of EEG were decreased by the PTZ administration although the brain cortex and plasma vitamin concentrations, and brain cortex and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values were increased in PTZ + 100 and PTZ + 200 mg C. ovata groups. In conclusion, C. ovata administration caused protection against the PTZ-induced brain oxidative toxicity by inhibiting free radical and epileptic seizures, and supporting antioxidant redox system. PMID:23389657

  12. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice

    PubMed Central

    ARASH, Akaberi; MOHAMMAD, Mohammad-Zadeh; JAMAL, Mirmoosavi Seyed; MOHAMMAD, Tazari Ali; AZAM, Abarashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill) leaves was studied for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy, by using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. The evaluated plant has a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, additionally, dill has been claimed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Methods: For the PTZ kindling induction, mice were given a dose of PTZ (37 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) every other day, and seizure stages were precisely recorded. During and after kindling, the effects of the non-toxic doses of the aqueous extracts (100, 250, and 400 mg/kg) on seizure latency in stage 2 (S2L), seizure latency in stage 4 (S4L), and seizure duration in stage 5 (S5D) were measured. Results: The aqueous extract of dill leaves had a noticeable anticonvulsant effect. The 400 mg/kg dose of the extract sample decreased with S5D (P < 0.05), and increased with S2L and S4L significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The obtained data shows that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity against seizure induced by PTZ. The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in this medicinal herb suggests further activity and guided fractionation studies in order to introduce this plant as a valuable source of anticonvulsant agents. PMID:24643194

  13. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-11-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R(2) = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  14. Placental ischemia increases seizure susceptibility and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Junie P

    2015-01-01

    Eclampsia is diagnosed in preeclamptic patients who develop unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum. Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, accounting for ?13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Little is known about the mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of eclampsia, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. This study tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero-placental perfusion, increases susceptibility to seizures, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation, and neurokinin B (NKB) expression in brain and plasma. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsive drug, was injected into pregnant and placental ischemic rats (40 mg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 19 followed by video monitoring for 30 min. Seizure scoring was blindly conducted. Placental ischemia hastened the onset of seizures compared to pregnant controls but had no effect on seizure duration. Placental ischemia increased CSF levels of IL-2, IL-17, IL-18 and eotaxin (CCL11), had no effect on plasma NKB; however, PTZ increased plasma NKB in both pregnant and placental ischemic rats. NKB was strongly correlated with latency to seizure in normal pregnant rats (R2 = 0.88 vs. 0.02 in placental ischemic rats). Lastly, NKB decreased in the anterior cerebrum in response to placental ischemia and PTZ treatment but was unchanged in the posterior cerebrum. These data demonstrate that placental ischemia is associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and CSF inflammation; thus provides an excellent model for elucidating mechanisms of eclampsia-like symptoms. Further studies are required to determine the role of CSF cytokines/chemokines in mediating increased seizure susceptibility. PMID:26603461

  15. Montelukast Inhibits Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cevik, Betul; Solmaz, Volkan; Aksoy, Durdane; Erbas, Oytun

    2015-01-01

    Background Montelukast is an antiinflammatory drug with an antioxidant property. In this study, we aimed to reveal whether montelukast has a preventive effect against seizures and post-seizure oxidative stress in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. Material/Methods Of the 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study, 24 were assigned to EEG recordings (group A) and 24 were assigned to behavioral studies (group B). In group A, the electrodes were implanted on dura over the left frontal cortex for EEG recording. After 10 days, in group A, i.p. saline, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg montelukast+35 mg/kg PTZ was administered to the rats. EEG was recorded and spike percentage was evaluated. In group B, i.p. saline, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg montelukast+70 mg/kg PTZ was administered to the rats. Racine’s Convulsion Scale (RCS) and onset times of first myoclonic jerk (FMJ) was used to evaluate the seizures. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined in the brain tissue of animals. Results Animals treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg montelukast had significantly lower RCS and significantly increased FMJ onset time compared to the saline-treated animals. Moreover, groups given 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg montelukast had significantly lower MDA and higher SOD levels compared to the saline-treated group. The differences were more pronounced in the 100 mg/kg montelukast-pretreated group (p<0.001). Conclusions Montelukast showed anticonvulsant action and led to amelioration of oxidative stress markers in PTZ-induced seizures in rats. PMID:25803241

  16. Febrile seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... does not have a history of seizure disorders (epilepsy). A grand mal seizure involves the entire body. ... no evidence that they cause death, brain damage, epilepsy, a decrease in IQ, or learning problems. Most ...

  17. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE) before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Results: The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010–P < 0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010). Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities. PMID:26056549

  18. Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure-like behavior and neural hyperactivity in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Elizabeth; Burrell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the capacity of a known pro-epileptic drug, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to elicit seizure-like activity in the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. During in vivo experiments, PTZ elicited increased motor activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest concentration (10 mM) eliciting episodes of highly uncoordinated exploratory and swimming behavior. Co-application of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin, failed to reduce the absolute amount of PTZ-induced motor behavior, but was able to prevent expression of abnormal exploratory and swimming behaviors. During in vitro experiments in which extracellular recordings of connective nerve activity were made, bath application of 1 ?M PTZ in Mg(2+)-free saline elicited a significant increase in spontaneous activity. This PTZ-induced increase in activity was completely inhibited by phenytoin. Interestingly, PTZ-induced hyperactivity was also blocked by co-application of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. These findings suggest that the leech can be a useful system in which to study potential anti-epileptic treatments. PMID:25572075

  19. Piperine exerts anti-seizure effects via the TRPV1 receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Yuan; Li, Wen; Qu, Kun-Peng; Chen, Chang-Rui

    2013-08-15

    The mechanisms involved in the anti-seizure property of piperine (1-[5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]-(E,E)-piperidine, C17H19NO3) are still unclear. Piperine could activate transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) receptor, and the rapid activation of whole-cell currents is antagonized by the competitive TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Interestingly, recent studies have reported that TRPV1 may be a novel anti-epileptogenic target which led us to hypothesize that the anti-seizure property of piperine involves the TRPV1 receptor. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of piperine on seizures induced in mice and identified the receptors involved in the suppression of seizure caused by maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) models. Piperine, administered at doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg, significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and generalized clonic seizures, and decreased the seizure stage and mortality compared with the vehicle-treated animals. Piperine also significantly reduced the incidence of MES-induced tonic hindlimb extension (THE) and PTZ-induced Fos immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. The anti-seizure effects of piperine were blocked by a TRPV1-selective antagonist capsazepine. Taken together, these data support the further investigation of piperine as a TRPV1 agonist for anti-seizure therapy. PMID:23911889

  20. Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2012-06-01

    Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

  1. Increased Seizure Susceptibility in Mice 30?Days after Fluid Percussion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sanjib; Zeitouni, Suzanne; Cavarsan, Clarissa Fantin; Shapiro, Lee A.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been reported to increase seizure susceptibility and also contribute to the development of epilepsy. However, the mechanistic basis of the development of increased seizure susceptibility and epilepsy is not clear. Though there is substantial work done using rats, data are lacking regarding the use of mice in the fluid percussion injury (FPI) model. It is unclear if mice, like rats, will experience increased seizure susceptibility following FPI. The availability of a mouse model of increased seizure susceptibility after FPI would provide a basis for the use of genetically modified mice to study mechanism(s) of the development of post-traumatic epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that, mice subjected to a FPI develop increased seizure susceptibility to a subconvulsive dose of the chemoconvulsant, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Three groups of mice were used: FPI, sham, and naïve controls. On day 30 after FPI, mice from the three groups were injected with PTZ. The results showed that FPI mice exhibited an increased severity, frequency, and duration of seizures in response to PTZ injection compared with the sham and naïve control groups. Histopathological assessment was used to characterize the injury at 1, 3, 7, and 30?days after FPI. The results show that mice subjected to the FPI had a pronounced lesion and glial response that was centered at the FPI focus and peaked at 3?days. By 30?days, only minimal evidence of a lesion is observed, although there is evidence of a chronic glial response. These data are the first to demonstrate an early increase in seizure susceptibility following FPI in mice. Therefore, future studies can incorporate transgenic mice into this model to further elucidate mechanisms of TBI-induced increases in seizure susceptibility. PMID:23519723

  2. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Simple febrile seizures are generalised in onset, last <15 minutes, and do not occur more than once in 24 hours. Complex febrile seizures are longer lasting, have focal symptoms, and can recur within 24 hours. This review only deals with simple febrile seizures. About 2% to 5% of children in the USA and Western Europe, and 6% to 9% of infants and children in Japan will have experienced at least one febrile seizure by the age of 5 years. Simple febrile seizures may slightly increase the risk of developing epilepsy, but have no known adverse effects on behaviour, scholastic performance, or neurocognition. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments given during episodes of fever in children with one or more previous simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of long-term (daily, for >1 month) anticonvulsant treatment in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of treatments on reducing the risk of subsequent epilepsy in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 18 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anticonvulsants (intermittent or continuous) and antipyretic treatments (physical antipyretic measures, paracetamol, ibuprofen). PMID:21406130

  3. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Simple febrile seizures are generalised in onset, last less than 15 minutes, and do not occur more than once in 24 hours. Complex seizures are longer lasting, have focal symptoms, and can recur within 24 hours. This review only deals with simple febrile seizures. About 2-5% of children in the USA and Western Europe, and 6-9% of infants and children in Japan, will have experienced at least one febrile seizure by the age of 5 years. Simple febrile seizures may slightly increase the risk of developing epilepsy, but have no known adverse effects on behaviour, scholastic performance, or neurocognition. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments given during episodes of fever in children with one or more previous simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of long-term (daily, for more than 1 month) anticonvulsant treatment in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of treatments on reducing the risk of subsequent epilepsy in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anticonvulsants (intermittent or continuous), and antipyretic treatments (physical antipyretic measures, paracetamol, ibuprofen). PMID:19450310

  4. Modulation of benzodiazepine by lysine and pipecolic acid on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.F.; Hargest, V.; Chen, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    L-lysine and its metabolite pipecolic acid (PA) have been studied for their effects on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. L-Lysine of L-Pa i.p. significantly increased clonic and tonic latencies in a dose-dependent manner against 90 mg/kg PTZ-induced seizures. L-Lysine but not L-Pa enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of diazepam (DZ). L-Pa i.c.v. showed a slight decrease in clonic latency; it did not enhance the antiseizure activity of DZ; it caused seizures at 0.6 mmol/kg. D-PA i.c.v. displayed an opposite effect compared to its L-isomer. The anticonvulsant effect of L-lysine in terms of increase in seizure latency and survival was even more amplified when tested with a submaximal PTZ concentration. L-Lysine showed an enhancement of specific /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam(FZ) binding to mouse brain membranes both in vitro an din vivo. The possibility of L-lysine acting as a modulator for the GABA/benzodiazepine receptors was demonstrated. Since L-PA showed enhancement of /sup 3/H-FZ binding only in vitro but not in vivo, the anticonvulsant effect of L-PA may not be linked to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor.

  5. A Real-Time Face Tracking System Based On A Single PTZ Camera 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seoktae

    2014-12-12

    due to the movement of the PTZ camera and the network delay which varies the video frame rate which alters the performance from a software perspective. The main contributions include the low cost and flexibility regarding installation. Preliminaries...

  6. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 67. ...

  7. Spherical Gaussian mixture model and object tracking system for PTZ camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwangbo, Seok; Lee, Chan-Su

    2015-05-01

    Recently, pan-tilt-zoom(PTZ) camera is widely used in extensive-area surveillance applications. A number of background modeling methods have been proposed within existing object detection and tracking systems. However, conventional background modeling methods for PTZ camera have difficulties in covering extensive field of view(FOV). This paper presents a novel object tracking system based on a spherical background model for PTZ camera. The proposed system has two components: The first one is the spherical Gaussian mixture model(S-GMM) that learns background for all the view angles in the PTZ camera. Also, Gaussian parameters in each pixel in the S-GMM are learned and updated. The second one is object tracking system with foreground detection using the S-GMM in real-time. The proposed system is suitable to cover wide FOV compared to a conventional background modeling system for PTZ camera, and is able to exactly track moving objects. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed S-GMM for object tracking system using PTZ camera. Also, we expect to build a more advanced surveillance applications via the proposed system.

  8. Controlling Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

  9. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

  10. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Pregnancy • What is a seizure? • What is epilepsy? • Can seizures be controlled? • If I have a ... in mood, emotions, consciousness, or movement. What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is one kind of seizure disorder. It ...

  11. How do you approach seizures in the high altitude traveler?

    PubMed

    Maa, Edward H

    2011-01-01

    Counseling patients who suffer first-time or break- through seizures can be difficult, particularly when controllable external factors may be contributing to the lowering of their seizure threshold. High altitude as a potential trigger for seizures is a common question in our epilepsy clinics in Colorado, and this article reviews the existing anecdotal literature, presents our local experience with high altitude seizures (HAS), offers possible mechanisms to explain how high altitude may trigger seizures, and suggests an initial work-up and prophylactic strategies for future high altitude exposures. PMID:21452959

  12. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  13. Synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid on anticonvulsant activity of valproic acid and lamotrigine in animal seizure models.

    PubMed

    Gavzan, Hakimeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Sardari, Soroush; Babapour, Vahab

    2015-10-01

    Add-on therapy is a common strategy to improve efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Anticonvulsant potential and appropriate safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) makes it a promising candidate for combination therapy. We evaluated influence of DHA on anticonvulsant activity of AEDs phenytoin, valproate, and lamotrigine in maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), and kindling models of epilepsy. The dose-response to DHA was obtained 15 min after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection in PTZ model of clonic seizures in mice, MES model of tonic seizures in mice, and kindling model of complex partial seizures in rats. The dose-response curve of valproate (30 min after i.p. injection to mice) in PTZ, phenytoin (60 min after i.p. injection to mice) in MES, and lamotrigine (60 min after i.p. injection to rats) in kindling models were obtained. Dose-response curves of the AEDs were then achieved in the presence of ED25 of DHA. DHA had no anticonvulsant effect in the MES model. However, it showed a dose-dependent protective effect against PTZ (ED50 = 0.13 ?M) and kindled seizures (ED50 = 1.08 mM). DHA at ED25 caused a 3.6-fold increase in potency of valproate as its ED50 value from 117.5 (98.3-135.3) decreased to 32.5 (21.6-44.1) mg/kg. Moreover, a 4.9-fold increase in potency of lamotrigine occurred, as its ED50 value from 13.10 (11.50-14.9) decreased to 2.65 (0.8-5.6) mg/kg. CompuSyn analysis indicated synergistic anticonvulsant interaction between DHA and both valproate and lamotrigine. Co-administration strategy of the safe and inexpensive anticonvulsant compound DHA with AEDs should be favorably regarded in clinical studies of epilepsy treatment. PMID:26018398

  14. Unilateral Hypothalamus Inactivation Prevents PTZ Kindling Development through Hippocampal Orexin Receptor 1 Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Nasibe; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; LashkarBoluki, Taghi; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy is a neural disorder in which abnormal plastic changes during short and long term periods lead to increased excitability of brain tissue. Kindling is an animal model of epileptogenesis which results in changes of synaptic plasticity due to repetitive electrical or chemical sub-convulsive stimulations of the brain. Lateral hypothalamus, as the main niche of orexin neurons with extensive projections, is involved in sleep and wakefulness and so it affects the excitability of the brain. Therefore, we investigated whether lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) inactivation or orexin-A receptor blocking could change convulsive behavior of acute and kindled PTZ treated animals and if glutamate has a role in this regard. Methods Kindling was induced by 40 mg/kg PTZ, every 48 hours up to 13 injections to each rat. Three consecutive stages 4 or 5 of convulsive behavior were used to ensure kindling. Lidocaine was injected stereotaxically to inactivate LHA, unilaterally. SB334867 used for orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) blocking administered in CSF. Results We demonstrated that LHA inactivation prevented PTZ kindling and hence, excitability evolution. Hippocampal glutamate content was decreased due to LHA inactivation, OX1R antagonist infusion, lidocaine injection and kindled groups. In accordance, OX1R antagonist (SB334867) and lidocaine injection decreased PTZ single dose induced convulsive behavior. While orexin-A i.c.v. infusion increased hippocampal glutamate content, it did not change PTZ induced convulsive intensity. Discussion It is concluded that LHA inactivation prevented kindling development probably through orexin receptor antagonism. CSF orexin probably acts as an inhibitory step on convulsive intensity through another unknown process. PMID:25436086

  15. Interaction of prenatal stress and morphine alters prolactin and seizure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30 min. In the morphine/saline group, pregnant rats received morphine (10, 12 and 15 mg/kg, IP, on GD17, GD18 and GD19, respectively) or saline (1 ml, IP). In the morphine/saline-stressed group, the rats received morphine or saline and then exposed to stress. On postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 and P15), blood samples were obtained and PBL was determined. At P15 and P25, the rest of the pups was injected with PTZ to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were observed individually. Latency of first convulsion decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increased in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15 (P=0.04). Number of tonic-clonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to control-saline group at P15 (P=0.02). PBL increased in stressed-saline, control-morphine and stress-morphine groups compared to control-saline rats. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure of rats to forced-swim stress and morphine changed their susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure and PBL during infancy and prepubertal period. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on epileptic behaviors. PMID:26056076

  16. Validation of the zebrafish pentylenetetrazol seizure model: locomotor versus electrographic responses to antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Afrikanova, Tatiana; Serruys, Ann-Sophie K; Buenafe, Olivia E M; Clinckers, Ralph; Smolders, Ilse; de Witte, Peter A M; Crawford, Alexander D; Esguerra, Camila V

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish have recently emerged as an attractive in vivo model for epilepsy. Seven-day-old zebrafish larvae exposed to the GABA(A) antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) exhibit increased locomotor activity, seizure-like behavior, and epileptiform electrographic activity. A previous study showed that 12 out of 13 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) suppressed PTZ-mediated increases in larval movement, indicating the potential utility of zebrafish as a high-throughput in vivo model for AED discovery. However, a question remained as to whether an AED-induced decrease in locomotion is truly indicative of anticonvulsant activity, as some drugs may impair larval movement through other mechanisms such as general toxicity or sedation. We therefore carried out a study in PTZ-treated zebrafish larvae, to directly compare the ability of AEDs to inhibit seizure-like behavioral manifestations with their capacity to suppress epileptiform electrographic activity. We re-tested the 13 AEDs of which 12 were previously reported to inhibit convulsions in the larval movement tracking assay, administering concentrations that did not, on their own, impair locomotion. In parallel, we carried out open-field recordings on larval brains after treatment with each AED. For the majority of AEDs we obtained the same response in both the behavioral and electrographic assays. Overall our data correlate well with those reported in the literature for acute rodent PTZ tests, indicating that the larval zebrafish brain is more discriminatory than previously thought in its response to AEDs with different modes of action. Our results underscore the validity of using the zebrafish larval locomotor assay as a rapid first-pass screening tool in assessing the anticonvulsant and/or proconvulsant activity of compounds, but also highlight the importance of performing adequate validation when using in vivo models. PMID:23342097

  17. Huperzine A prophylaxis against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats is associated with increased cortical inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gersner, R; Ekstein, D; Dhamne, S C; Schachter, S C; Rotenberg, A

    2015-11-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally occurring compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata. While HupA is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, its full pharmacologic profile is incompletely described. Since previous works suggested a capacity for HupA to prophylax against seizures, we tested the HupA antiepileptic potential in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat epilepsy model and explored its mechanism of action by spectral EEG analysis and by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS), a measure of GABA-mediated intracortical inhibition. We tested whether HupA suppresses seizures in the rat PTZ acute seizure model, and quantified latency to first myoclonus and to generalized tonic-clonic seizure, and spike frequency on EEG. Additionally, we measured power in the EEG gamma frequency band which is associated with GABAergic cortical interneuron activation. Then, as a step toward further examining the HupA antiepileptic mechanism of action, we tested long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) using ppTMS coupled with electromyography to assess whether HupA augments GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential. We also tested whether the HupA effect on paired-pulse inhibition was central or peripheral by comparison of outcomes following administration of HupA or the peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine. We also tested whether the HupA effect was dependent on central muscarinic or GABAA receptors by co-administration of HupA and atropine or PTZ, respectively. In tests of antiepileptic potential, HupA suppressed seizures and epileptic spikes on EEG. Spectral EEG analysis also revealed enhanced gamma frequency band power with HupA treatment. By ppTMS we found that HupA increases intracortical inhibition and blocks PTZ-induced cortical excitation. Atropine co-administration with HupA did not alter HupA-induced intracortical inhibition suggesting independent of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mechanism in this model. Last, pyridostigmine did not affect the ppTMS-measured cortical inhibition suggesting that HupA-induced effect is centrally-mediated. Our data support antiepileptic HupA applications, and suggest that such activity may be via enhancement of GABAergic intracortical inhibition. PMID:26432930

  18. Seizure First Aid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical I.D. bracelet or necklace that says “epilepsy” or “seizure disorder.” Some individuals wear a medical ... of knowing whether or not the person has epilepsy. The person having a seizure does not have ...

  19. Novel Vitamin K analogs suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rahn, J J; Bestman, J E; Josey, B J; Inks, E S; Stackley, K D; Rogers, C E; Chou, C J; Chan, S S L

    2014-02-14

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world's population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, 2-benzamido-1 4-naphthoquinone (NQN1), significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of valproic acid, 2-n-propylpentanoic acid (VPA). We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogs. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6Hz) and corneal-kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogs for the prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production. PMID:24291671

  20. Plic-1, a new target in repressing epileptic seizure by regulation of GABAAR function in patients and a rat model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujiao; Li, Zengyou; Gu, Juan; Zhang, Yanke; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-12-01

    Dysfunction of ?-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors (GABAARs) is a prominent factor affecting intractable epilepsy. Plic-1, an ubiquitin-like protein enriched in the inhibitory synapses connecting GABAARs and the ubiquitin protease system (UPS), plays a key role in the modification of GABAAR functions. However, the relationship between Plic-1 and epileptogenesis is not known. In the present study, we aimed to investigate Plic-1 levels in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, as well as the role of Plic-1 in regulating onset and progression of epilepsy in animal models. We found that Plic-1 expression was significantly decreased in patients with epilepsy as well as pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced rat epileptic models. Intrahippocampal injection of the PeP? peptide, which disrupts Plic-1 binding to GABAARs, significantly shortened the latency of seizure onset, and increased the seizure severity and duration in these two epileptic models. Overexpressed Plic-1 through lentivirus transfection into a PTZ model resulted in a reduction in both seizure severity and generalized tonic-clonic seizure duration. Whole-cell clamp recordings revealed that the PeP? peptide decreased miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) whereas overexpressed Plic-1 increased mIPSCs in the pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. These effects can be blocked by picrotoxin, a GABAAR inhibitor. Our results indicate that Plic-1 plays an important role in managing epileptic seizures by enhancing seizure inhibition through regulation of GABAARs at synaptic sites. PMID:26415648

  1. How do seizures stop?

    PubMed Central

    Lado, Fred A.; Moshé, Solomon L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Although often overshadowed by factors influencing seizure initiation, seizure termination is a critical step in the return to the interictal state. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to seizure termination could potentially identify novel targets for anticonvulsant drug development and may also highlight the pathophysiological processes contributing to seizure initiation. In this article, we review known physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and discuss additional mechanisms that are likely to be relevant even though specific data are not yet available. This review is organized according to successively increasing “size scales”—from membranes to synapses to networks to circuits. We first discuss mechanisms of seizure termination acting at the shortest distances and affecting the excitable membranes of neurons in the seizure onset zone. Next we consider the contributions of ensembles of neurons and glia interacting at intermediate distances within the region of the seizure onset zone. Lastly, we consider the contribution of brain nuclei, such as the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR), that are capable of modulating seizures and exert their influence over the seizure onset zone (and neighboring areas) from a relatively great—in neuroanatomical terms—distance. It is our hope that the attention to the mechanisms contributing to seizure termination will stimulate novel avenues of epilepsy research and will contribute to improved patient care. PMID:18503563

  2. Intramolar electron transfer in the reductive chromophore-quencher complex ((bpy)Re(CO)/sub 3/(py-PTZ))/sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Westmoreland, T.D.; Danielson, E.; Schanze, K.S.; Anthon, D.; Neveux, P.E. Jr.; Meyer, T.J.

    1987-04-08

    Three metal complexes containing the reductive quencher ligand py-PTZ, ((bpy)Re(CO)/sub 3/(py-PTZ))/sup +/ and ((bpy)/sub 2/Ru/sup II/L(py-PTZ))/sup n+/ (where L = Cl/sup -/ (n = 1), PTZ = phenothiazine and acetonitrile ( n = 2)), were prepared and their redox and spectral properties investigated. The chromophore-quencher complex have essentially the same photophysical properties as their corresponding pyridine analogues at 77K in a 4:1 (v/v)) ethanol/methanol glass, but their properties are profoundly different in fluid solution. For the Re complex in fluid solution excitation of the Re..-->.. ..pi..*(bpy) metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) chromophore at 355 nm is followed by rapid (<10 ns) appearance of transient absorption (TA) features at 350 and 500 nm consistent with formation of the charge-separated state ((bpy/sup.-/)Re(CO)/sub 3/(py-PTZ/sup.+))/sup +*/. Picosecond TA experiments monitored at 500 nm show that the PTZ/sup .+/ site grows in within approx.200 ps in polar organic solvents following laser excitation at 355 nm. The transient behavior observed leads to the conclusion that initial excitation of the MLCT chromophore is followed by rapid intramolecular electron-transfer quenching with k/sub q/(RT) = 4.8 x 10/sup 9/ s /sup -1/ in acetonitrile to give the charge-separated excited state ((bpy/sup .-)Re(CO)/sub 3/(py-PTZ/sup.+))/sup +/, which, in turn, decays to the ground state with k/sub 2/ = 4.0 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/. 36 references, 11 figures, 2 tables.

  3. On the nature of seizure dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, William C.; Quilichini, Pascale P.; Ivanov, Anton I.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between ‘normal’ and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical parameters contributing to the five state variables in our model system. We show that these parameters apply to specific experimental conditions and propose that there exists a wide array of possible biophysical mechanisms for seizure genesis, while preserving central invariant properties. Epileptor and the seizure taxonomy will guide future modeling and translational research by identifying universal rules governing the initiation and termination of seizures and predicting the conditions necessary for those transitions. PMID:24919973

  4. On the nature of seizure dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jirsa, Viktor K; Stacey, William C; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ivanov, Anton I; Bernard, Christophe

    2014-08-01

    Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between 'normal' and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical parameters contributing to the five state variables in our model system. We show that these parameters apply to specific experimental conditions and propose that there exists a wide array of possible biophysical mechanisms for seizure genesis, while preserving central invariant properties. Epileptor and the seizure taxonomy will guide future modeling and translational research by identifying universal rules governing the initiation and termination of seizures and predicting the conditions necessary for those transitions. PMID:24919973

  5. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports. PMID:22236820

  6. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... grand mal seizure. The terms seizure , convulsion, or epilepsy are most often associated with generalized tonic-clonic ... occur as part of a repeated, chronic illness (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).

  7. Functional, metabolic, and synaptic changes after seizures as potential targets for antiepileptic therapy.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about how the brain limits seizure duration and terminates seizures. Depending on severity and duration, a single seizure is followed by various functional, metabolic, and synaptic changes that may form targets for novel therapeutic strategies. It is long known that most seizures are followed by a period of postictal refractoriness during which the threshold for induction of additional seizures is increased. The endogenous anticonvulsant mechanisms involved in this phenomenon may be relevant for both spontaneous seizure arrest and increase of seizure threshold after seizure arrest. Postictal refractoriness has been extensively studied in various seizure and epilepsy models, including electrically and chemically induced seizures, kindling, and genetic animal models of epilepsy. During kindling development, two antagonistic processes occur simultaneously, one responsible for kindling-like events and the other for terminating ictus and postictal refractoriness. Frequently occurring seizures may lead to an accumulation of postictal refractoriness that may last weeks. The mechanisms involved in seizure termination and postictal refractoriness include changes in ionic microenvironment, in pH, and in various endogenous neuromodulators such as adenosine and neuropeptides. In animal models, the anticonvulsant efficacy of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is increased during postictal refractoriness, which is a logical consequence of the interaction between endogenous anticonvulsant processes and the mechanism of AEDs. As discussed in this review, enhanced understanding of these endogenous processes may lead to novel targets for AED development. PMID:20705520

  8. Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alica M.

    2006-01-01

    The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…

  9. Evaluation of links in heroin seizures.

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, L; Barbati, G; Taroni, F; Guéniat, O; Esseiva, P; Anglada, F; Margot, P

    2003-01-28

    The evaluation of a link between two heroin seizures using a descriptive method is presented. It is based on the measure of the angles between two chromatograms assimilated to vectors, and interpreted using a continuous approach based on the likelihood ratio of Bayes' theorem. A complete evaluation model thus avoids the drawbacks of decision thresholds used until now to establish a link. Validation is obtained through tests and simulation methods. PMID:12590057

  10. Modulation of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and oxidative stress parameters by sodium valproate in the absence and presence of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Uma Devi, P; Pillai, K Kolappa; Vohora, Divya

    2006-06-01

    In view of a role of oxidative stress in epilepsy and the evidence for the involvement of peroxidative injury in sodium valproate (SVP)-induced adverse effects on liver and kidneys, we investigated whether the combination of SVP with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, may help us to achieve maximal efficacy in terms of seizure control, with minimal toxicity on liver and kidneys. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of drugs. Biochemical estimations included the determination of oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in brain tissue and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and kidney tissues. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations in the serum were also determined to assess liver function. In our study, NAC exhibited a nondose-dependent anticonvulsant effect. The concurrent administration of NAC with SVP significantly prolonged the latency to jerks, myoclonus and clonic generalized seizures. No significant oxidative stress was evident in brain tissue following PTZ-induced seizures, though an elevation of serum transaminase enzymes was seen. SVP at the dose studied did not produce any significant oxidative stress on the liver and kidneys, while treatment with NAC elevated liver and kidney GSH levels. The concurrent administration of NAC with SVP had beneficial effects on liver and kidney cells. PMID:16671959

  11. Acute and Chronic Effects of N-acetylcysteine on Pentylenetetrazole-induced Seizure and Neuromuscular Coordination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zaeri, Sasan; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been indicated against experimental seizures, but with relatively inconclusive results. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether NAC exerts a dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect and to determine NAC safe therapeutic dose range and its muscle-relaxant activity in both acute and chronic uses. Methods Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of N-acetylcysteine acutely (50-300 mg/kg) or chronically for 8 days (25-300 mg/kg), mice were injected with PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.) and latency times to the onset of myoclonic and clonic seizures and protection against death were recorded. Changes in body weight and mortality rate were considered as parameters for drug safety. The muscle-relaxant activity of NAC was assessed by rotarod test. Results Acute and chronic treatment with NAC delayed latency times to myoclonic and clonic seizures in a dose-dependent manner, but with no significant prevention against PTZ-induced death. Chronic administration of 300 mg/kg NAC was fully lethal while lower doses (100 and 150 mg/kg) resulted in a significant weight loss and decreased stay time on rotarod. Acute treatment with NAC had no significant effect on stay time on rotarod at all studied doses. Conclusion NAC exerts a dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect in acute and chronic uses, with no muscle relaxant activity. NAC has higher efficacy in preventing seizure in chronic than acute treatment, but its chronic use at higher doses of 75 mg/kg may be associated with side effects and/or toxicity. These findings suggest that low doses of NAC may have a potential use as a prophylactic treatment for absence seizure in human. PMID:25821291

  12. IS A GRANDMAL SEIZURE NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT FOR THE EFFICACY OF ELECTRO CONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Abraham

    2000-01-01

    This paper highlights the recent research findings which suggest that the old teaching that a grandma! seizure is both necessary and sufficient for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not correct. It is necessary; but not sufficient. The stimulus intensity should be adjusted so that it is far above the seizure threshold in order to get maximum efficacy of ECT. PMID:21407909

  13. Resected Brain Tissue, Seizure Onset Zone and Quantitative EEG Measures: Towards Prediction of Post-Surgical Seizure Control

    PubMed Central

    Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Hauf, Martinus; Pollo, Claudio; Müller, Markus; Weisstanner, Christian; Wiest, Roland; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy surgery is a potentially curative treatment option for pharmacoresistent patients. If non-invasive methods alone do not allow to delineate the epileptogenic brain areas the surgical candidates undergo long-term monitoring with intracranial EEG. Visual EEG analysis is then used to identify the seizure onset zone for targeted resection as a standard procedure. Methods Despite of its great potential to assess the epileptogenicty of brain tissue, quantitative EEG analysis has not yet found its way into routine clinical practice. To demonstrate that quantitative EEG may yield clinically highly relevant information we retrospectively investigated how post-operative seizure control is associated with four selected EEG measures evaluated in the resected brain tissue and the seizure onset zone. Importantly, the exact spatial location of the intracranial electrodes was determined by coregistration of pre-operative MRI and post-implantation CT and coregistration with post-resection MRI was used to delineate the extent of tissue resection. Using data-driven thresholding, quantitative EEG results were separated into normally contributing and salient channels. Results In patients with favorable post-surgical seizure control a significantly larger fraction of salient channels in three of the four quantitative EEG measures was resected than in patients with unfavorable outcome in terms of seizure control (median over the whole peri-ictal recordings). The same statistics revealed no association with post-operative seizure control when EEG channels contributing to the seizure onset zone were studied. Conclusions We conclude that quantitative EEG measures provide clinically relevant and objective markers of target tissue, which may be used to optimize epilepsy surgery. The finding that differentiation between favorable and unfavorable outcome was better for the fraction of salient values in the resected brain tissue than in the seizure onset zone is consistent with growing evidence that spatially extended networks might be more relevant for seizure generation, evolution and termination than a single highly localized brain region (i.e. a “focus”) where seizures start. PMID:26513359

  14. Brain redox imaging in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Miho C; Yamato, Mayumi; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2015-11-01

    Much evidence supports the idea that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, and therapeutic interventions with antioxidants are expected as adjunct antiepileptic therapy. The aims of this study were to non-invasively obtain spatially resolved redox data from control and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindled mouse brains by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and to visualize the brain regions that are sensitive to oxidative damage. After infusion of the redox-sensitive imaging probe 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (MCP), a series of EPR images of PTZ-induced mouse heads were measured. Based on the pharmacokinetics of the reduction reaction of MCP in the mouse heads, the pixel-based rate constant of its reduction reaction was calculated as an index of redox status in vivo and mapped as a redox map. The obtained redox map showed heterogeneity in the redox status in PTZ-induced mouse brains compared with control. The co-registered image of the redox map and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both control and PTZ-induced mice showed a clear change in the redox status around the hippocampus after PTZ. To examine the role of antioxidants on the brain redox status, the levels of antioxidants were measured in brain tissues of control and PTZ-induced mice. Significantly lower concentrations of glutathione in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice were detected compared with control. From the results of both EPR imaging and the biochemical assay, the hippocampus was found to be susceptible to oxidative damage in the PTZ-induced animal model of epilepsy. PMID:26453762

  15. Calibration of a dual-PTZ-camera system for stereo vision based on parallel particle swarm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Wang, Huai-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Hsu, Ming-Hsi

    2014-02-01

    This work investigates the calibration of a stereo vision system based on two PTZ (Pan-Tilt-Zoom) cameras. As the accuracy of the system depends not only on intrinsic parameters, but also on the geometric relationships between rotation axes of the cameras, the major concern is the development of an effective and systematic way to obtain these relationships. We derived a complete geometric model of the dual-PTZ-camera system and proposed a calibration procedure for the intrinsic and external parameters of the model. The calibration method is based on Zhang's approach using an augmented checkerboard composed of eight small checkerboards, and is formulated as an optimization problem to be solved by an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Two Sony EVI-D70 PTZ cameras were used for the experiments. The root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of corner distances in the horizontal and vertical direction are 0.192 mm and 0.115 mm, respectively. The RMSE of overlapped points between the small checkerboards is 1.3958 mm.

  16. A positioning system for forest diseases and pests based on GIS and PTZ camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Wang, L. L.; Zhao, F. F.; Wang, C. B.

    2014-03-01

    Forest diseases and pests cause enormous economic losses and ecological damage every year in China. To prevent and control forest diseases and pests, the key is to get accurate information timely. In order to improve monitoring coverage rate and economize on manpower, a cooperative investigation model for forest diseases and pests is put forward. It is composed of video positioning system and manual labor reconnaissance with mobile GIS embedded in PDA. Video system is used to scan the disaster area, and is particularly effective on where trees are withered. Forest diseases prevention and control workers can check disaster area with PDA system. To support this investigation model, we developed a positioning algorithm and a positioning system. The positioning algorithm is based on DEM and PTZ camera. Moreover, the algorithm accuracy is validated. The software consists of 3D GIS subsystem, 2D GIS subsystem, video control subsystem and disaster positioning subsystem. 3D GIS subsystem makes positioning visual, and practically easy to operate. 2D GIS subsystem can output disaster thematic map. Video control subsystem can change Pan/Tilt/Zoom of a digital camera remotely, to focus on the suspected area. Disaster positioning subsystem implements the positioning algorithm. It is proved that the positioning system can observe forest diseases and pests in practical application for forest departments.

  17. Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devinsky, Orrin

    2006-01-01

    In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic…

  18. Tuberculoma-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Salway, R. James; Sangani, Shruti; Parekh, Samira; Bhatt, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Seizures in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients can be caused by a wide variety of opportunistic infections, and, especially in developing countries, tuberculosis (TB) should be high on the differential. In India, TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV and it can have several different central nervous system manifestations, including intracranial tuberculomas. In this case, an HIV patient presenting with new-onset seizure and fever was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis and multiple intracranial tuberculomas. The patient received standard TB medications, steroids, and anticonvulsants in the emergency department and was admitted for further care. PMID:26587082

  19. Iopamidol Myelography-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Rajpal, Chitra; Nannapeneni, Srikanth; Venkatesh, Sundar

    2005-01-01

    Iopamidol, a water-soluble contrast agent, has been rarely associated with seizures. We describe a case of generalized tonic-clonic seizure after cervical myelography with iopamidol in a previously healthy young man. In patients presenting with seizures, a history of recent myelography should be considered as an etiology. Iopamidol myelography may be associated with a risk of seizures. Clinicians need to be aware of this complication and inform their patients about such risk. PMID:16369390

  20. Epileptic seizures: Quakes of the brain?

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures ("focal" in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the system's dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems. PMID:20866849

  1. Reflex seizures in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roche Martínez, Ana; Alonso Colmenero, M Itziar; Gomes Pereira, Andreia; Sanmartí Vilaplana, Francesc X; Armstrong Morón, Judith; Pineda Marfa, Mercé

    2011-12-01

    Reflex seizures are a rare phenomenon among epileptic patients, in which an epileptic discharge is triggered by various kinds of stimuli (visual, auditory, tactile or gustatory). Epilepsy is common in Rett syndrome patients (up to 70%), but to the authors' knowledge, no pressure or eating-triggered seizures have yet been reported in Rett children. We describe three epileptic Rett patients with reflex seizures, triggered by food intake or proprioception. One patient with congenital Rett Sd. developed infantile epileptic spasms at around seven months and two patients with classic Rett Sd. presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures at around five years. Reflex seizures appeared when the patients were teenagers. The congenital-Rett patient presented eating-triggered seizures at the beginning of almost every meal, demonstrated by EEG recording. Both classic Rett patients showed self-provoked pressure -triggered attacks, influenced by stress or excitement. Non-triggered seizures were controlled with carbamazepine or valproate, but reflex seizures did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Risperidone partially improved self-provoked seizures. When reflex seizures are suspected, reproducing the trigger during EEG recording is fundamental; however, self-provoked seizures depend largely on the patient's will. Optimal therapy (though not always possible) consists of avoiding the trigger. Stress modifiers such as risperidone may help control self-provoked seizures. PMID:22258043

  2. Terminology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Bongiovanni, Luigi Giuseppe; Tinazzi, Michele; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-03-01

    Several different terms have been used to describe "psychogenic nonepileptic seizures" (PNES) in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the most common English terms used to describe PNES on Google and in PubMed using multiple search terms (https://www.google.com and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). The information prevalence of the five terms most frequently used to refer to PNES in PubMed were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by pseudo(-)seizure(s), non(-)epileptic seizure(s), psychogenic seizure(s), and non(-)epileptic event(s). The five most frequently adopted terms to describe PNES in Google were: psychogenic non(-)epileptic seizure(s), followed by non(-)epileptic event(s), psychogenic attack(s), non(-)epileptic attack(s), and psychogenic non(-)epileptic attack(s). The broad spectrum of synonyms used to refer to PNES in the medical literature reflects a lack of internationally accepted, uniform terminology for PNES. In addition to "seizure(s)," lay people use the word "attack(s)" to describe PNES. Although considered obsolete, some terms, e.g., pseudoseizure(s), are still used in the recent medical literature. Adopting a uniform terminology to describe PNES could facilitate communication between epileptologists, physicians without specific expertise in epilepsy, and patients. PMID:25631657

  3. Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Animal models for seizures and epilepsy have played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of basic mechanisms underlying ictogenesis and epileptogenesis and have been instrumental in the discovery and preclinical development of novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, there is growing concern that the efficacy of drug treatment of epilepsy has not substantially improved with the introduction of new AEDs, which, at least in part, may be due to the fact that the same simple screening models, i.e., the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and s.c. pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure tests, have been used as gatekeepers in AED discovery for >6 decades. It has been argued that these old models may identify only drugs that share characteristics with existing drugs, and are unlikely to have an effect on refractory epilepsies. Indeed, accumulating evidence with several novel AEDs, including levetiracetan, has shown that the MES and PTZ models do not identify all potential AEDs but instead may fail to discover compounds that have great potential efficacy but work through mechanisms not tested by these models. Awareness of the limitations of acute seizure models comes at a critical crossroad. Clearly, preclinical strategies of AED discovery and development need a conceptual shift that is moving away from using models that identify therapies for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy to those that may be useful for identifying therapies that are more effective in the refractory population and that may ultimately lead to an effective cure in susceptible individuals by interfering with the processes underlying epilepsy. To realize this goal, the molecular mechanisms of the next generation of therapies must necessarily evolve to include targets that contribute to epileptogenesis and pharmacoresistance in relevant epilepsy models. PMID:21292505

  4. Effects of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures on acute hippocampal injury and later-life seizure susceptibility and anxiety-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Dunleavy, Mark; Waddington, John L; Boylan, Geraldine B; Henshall, David C

    2015-11-01

    Seizures are common during the neonatal period, often due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and may contribute to acute brain injury and the subsequent development of cognitive deficits and childhood epilepsy. Here we explored short- and long-term consequences of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures in 7day old C57BL/6J mice. Seizure activity, molecular markers of hypoxia and histological injury were investigated acutely after hypoxia and response to chemoconvulsants and animal behaviour was explored at adulthood. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pups to 5% oxygen for 15min (global hypoxia). Electrographically defined seizures with behavioral correlates occurred in 95% of these animals and seizures persisted for many minutes after restitution of normoxia. There was minimal morbidity or mortality. Pre- or post-hypoxia injection of phenobarbital (50mg/kg) had limited efficacy at suppressing seizures. The hippocampus from neonatal hypoxia-seizure mice displayed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the immediate early gene c-fos, minimal histological evidence of cell injury and activation of caspase-3 in scattered neurons. Behavioral analysis of mice five weeks after hypoxia-induced seizures detected novel anxiety-related and other behaviors, while performance in a spatial memory test was similar to controls. Seizure threshold tests with kainic acid at six weeks revealed that mice previously subject to neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures developed earlier, more frequent and longer-duration seizures. This study defines a set of electro-clinical, molecular, pharmacological and behavioral consequences of hypoxia-induced seizures that indicate short- and long-term deleterious outcomes and may be a useful model to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of neonatal seizures in humans. PMID:26341542

  5. Neto2-null mice have impaired GABAergic inhibition and are susceptible to seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Dargaei, Zahra; Ivakine, Evgueni A.; Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Ng, David; Chevrier, Jonah; Ormond, Jake; Nothwang, Hans Gerd; McInnes, Roderick R.; Woodin, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Neto2 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the neuron-specific K+-Cl? cotransporter (KCC2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Efficient KCC2 transport is essential for setting the neuronal Cl? gradient, which is required for fast GABAergic inhibition. Neto2 is required to maintain the normal abundance of KCC2 in neurons, and increases KCC2 function by binding to the active oligomeric form of this cotransporter. In the present study, we characterized GABAergic inhibition and KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride homeostasis in pyramidal neurons from adult hippocampal slices. Using gramicidin perforated patch clamp recordings we found that the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA) was significantly depolarized. We also observed that surface levels of KCC2 and phosphorylation of KCC2 serine 940 (Ser940) were reduced in Neto2?/? neurons compared to wild-type controls. To examine GABAergic inhibition we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and found that Neto2?/? neurons had significant reductions in both their amplitude and frequency. Based on the critical role of Neto2 in regulating GABAergic inhibition we rationalized that Neto2-null mice would be prone to seizure activity. We found that Neto2-null mice demonstrated a decrease in the latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and an increase in seizure severity. PMID:26441539

  6. Ion dynamics during seizures

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Joseph V.; Burman, Richard J.; Katz, Arieh A.; Akerman, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in membrane voltage brought about by ion fluxes through voltage and transmitter-gated channels represent the basis of neural activity. As such, electrochemical gradients across the membrane determine the direction and driving force for the flow of ions and are therefore crucial in setting the properties of synaptic transmission and signal propagation. Ion concentration gradients are established by a variety of mechanisms, including specialized transporter proteins. However, transmembrane gradients can be affected by ionic fluxes through channels during periods of elevated neural activity, which in turn are predicted to influence the properties of on-going synaptic transmission. Such activity-induced changes to ion concentration gradients are a feature of both physiological and pathological neural processes. An epileptic seizure is an example of severely perturbed neural activity, which is accompanied by pronounced changes in intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations. Appreciating the factors that contribute to these ion dynamics is critical if we are to understand how a seizure event evolves and is sustained and terminated by neural tissue. Indeed, this issue is of significant clinical importance as status epilepticus—a type of seizure that does not stop of its own accord—is a life-threatening medical emergency. In this review we explore how the transmembrane concentration gradient of the six major ions (K+, Na+, Cl?, Ca2+, H+and HCO3?) is altered during an epileptic seizure. We will first examine each ion individually, before describing how multiple interacting mechanisms between ions might contribute to concentration changes and whether these act to prolong or terminate epileptic activity. In doing so, we will consider how the availability of experimental techniques has both advanced and restricted our ability to study these phenomena. PMID:26539081

  7. Seizures in oligodendroglial tumors.

    PubMed

    Kerkhof, Melissa; Benit, Christa; Duran-Pena, Alberto; Vecht, Charles J

    2015-10-01

    Epilepsy develops in more than 70-90% of oligodendroglial tumors and represents a favorable indicator for long-term survival if present as the first clinical sign. Presence of IDH1 mutation is frequently associated with seizures in oligodendrogliomas, next to alterations of glutamate and GABA metabolism in the origin of glioma-associated epilepsy. Treatment by surgery or radiotherapy results in seizure freedom in about two-thirds of patients, and chemotherapy to a seizure reduction in about 50%. Symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy with levetiracetam and valproic acid as monotherapy are both evidence-based drugs for the partial epilepsies, and their effective use in brain tumors is supported by a large amount of additional data. Pharmacoresistance against anticonvulsants is more prevalent among oligodendrogliomas, occurring in about 40% despite polytherapy with two anticonvulsants or more. Toxic signs of anticonvulsants in brain tumors involve cognition, bone marrow and skin. Previous neurosurgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy add to the risks of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26478444

  8. Inflammatory pathways of seizure disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Nicola; Granata, Tiziana; Janigro, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy refers to a cluster of neurological disease characterized by seizures. While many forms of epilepsy have a well-defined immune etiology, in other forms of epilepsy an altered immune response is only suspected. In general, the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to seizures is supported by experimental results. Additionally, antiepileptic maneuvers may act as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory therapies can treat seizures. Triggers of seizure include a bidirectional communication between the nervous system and organs of immunity. Thus, a crucial cellular interface protecting from immunological seizures is the blood-brain barrier. Here, we summarize recent advances in the understanding and treatment of epileptic seizures which derive from a non-neurocentric viewpoint and suggest key avenues for future research. PMID:24355813

  9. Seizure Prediction and its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Iasemidis, Leon D.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, hypersynchronous electrical activity, that may remain localized and/or spread and severely disrupt the brain’s normal multi-task and multi-processing function. Epileptic seizures are the hallmarks of such activity and had been considered unpredictable. It is only recently that research on the dynamics of seizure generation by analysis of the brain’s electrographic activity (EEG) has shed ample light on the predictability of seizures, and illuminated the way to automatic, prospective, long-term prediction of seizures. The ability to issue warnings in real time of impending seizures (e.g., tens of minutes prior to seizure occurrence in the case of focal epilepsy), may lead to novel diagnostic tools and treatments for epilepsy. Applications may range from a simple warning to the patient, in order to avert seizure-associated injuries, to intervention by automatic timely administration of an appropriate stimulus, for example of a chemical nature like an anti-epileptic drug (AED), electromagnetic nature like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial direct current (TDC) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and/or of another nature (e.g., ultrasonic, cryogenic, biofeedback operant conditioning). It is thus expected that seizure prediction could readily become an integral part of the treatment of epilepsy through neuromodulation, especially in the new generation of closed-loop seizure control systems. PMID:21939848

  10. Analyzing autonomic activity in neonatal seizures

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Priya, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that seizures in the newborn occur more often than previously appreciated. The effect of neonatal seizures remain unclear, however. Do seizures in the newborn cause brain injury, are they a consequence ...

  11. Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

  12. Hypocalcemia-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Bradley J.; Shi, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is essential for both neurotransmitter release and muscle contraction. Given these important physiological processes, it seems reasonable to assume that hypocalcemia may lead to reduced neuromuscular excitability. Counterintuitively, however, clinical observation has frequently documented hypocalcemia’s role in induction of seizures and general excitability processes such as tetany, Chvostek’s sign, and bronchospasm. The mechanism of this calcium paradox remains elusive, and very few pathophysiological studies have addressed this conundrum. Nevertheless, several studies primarily addressing other biophysical issues have provided some clues. In this review, we analyze the data of these studies and propose an integrative model to explain this hypocalcemic paradox. PMID:25810356

  13. Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Santwana; Malhotra, Mahima

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone-induced withdrawal seizure, which is a very rare and uncommon event, occurred after discontinuation of steroid therapy that was taken to increase weight by the patient. The pathogenesis is not well understood. In this submission, we have highlighted the fact that withdrawal of steroid has a propensity to cause seizure as a rare withdrawal phenomenon. PMID:25969660

  14. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 ?g/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  15. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 ?g/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  16. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, J

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot. PMID:26662874

  17. Elevated expression of pleiotrophin in pilocarpine-induced seizures of immature rats and in pentylenetetrazole-induced hippocampal astrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Liang, Feng; Wang, Bing; Le, Yuan; Wang, Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated cytokine that has emerged as an important neuromodulator with multiple neuronal functions. In the present study, we detected and compared the dynamic expression of PTN in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex of immature rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Moreover, we also confirmed the results by examining PTN expression in hippocampal astrocytes cultured in the presence of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Immunohistochemistry showed faint immunostaining of PTN in the control hippocampus and adjacent cortex. Notably, PTN immunoreactivity began to increase in relatively small cells in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 2h and 3 weeks after seizures, and the labeling intensity reached the maximum level in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 8 weeks after seizures. Furthermore, we also found that PTZ treatment significantly reduced astrocytic viability in a dose-dependent manner and time-dependently increased expression levels of PTN in hippocampal astrocytes. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased expression of PTN in the brain tissues may be involved in epileptogenesis. PMID:24157126

  18. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. )

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  19. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M C; Chung, E Y; Van Woert, M H

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [3H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [3H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [3H]AMPA binding data. PMID:2125520

  20. A Hypothesis Regarding the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Dietary Soy-Induced Effects on Seizure Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara Jean

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold. PMID:25232349

  1. First seizure: EEG and neuroimaging following an epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An early EEG (within 48 h) and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hr_MRI) are the methods of choice for an accurate diagnosis after a first seizure presentation. Together with a careful history and examination, they will allow definition of the epilepsy syndrome in two-thirds of patients and help assess the individual risk for seizure recurrence, which is determined by the specific syndrome and is highest with focal epileptiform activity on EEG. Despite the heterogeneity of first seizure studies, EEG and etiology are consistently found to be the best predictors for seizure recurrence and prognosis. The additional yield of sleep-deprived EEG and sleep EEG is uncertain; yet MRI is essential for detecting brain tumors and other structural bases for new epilepsy. The rate occurrence of remote symptomatic seizures increases significantly with age and the most common etiology in the elderly with a first seizure is stroke; however, its exact relevance to epileptogenicity is yet to be defined. There is a striking lack of systematic studies using early EEG and hr_MRI in order to better characterize epileptogenic areas and elucidate the mechanisms of seizure provocation. PMID:18184150

  2. Seizures in Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBrien, Dianne M.; Bonthius, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the most frequent causes of seizure disorders in young children and the classification of different seizure types. It discusses current therapies, including alternatives to medication. Emergency response to seizures is covered a well as non-epileptic episodes that may resemble seizures. Epilepsy's potential impact on the…

  3. The cortical innate immune response increases local neuronal excitability leading to seizures

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Krista M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Northcutt, Alexis; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2009-01-01

    Brain glial cells, five times more prevalent than neurons, have recently received attention for their potential involvement in epileptic seizures. Microglia and astrocytes, associated with inflammatory innate immune responses, are responsible for surveillance of brain damage that frequently results in seizures. Thus, an intriguing suggestion has been put forward that seizures may be facilitated and perhaps triggered by brain immune responses. Indeed, recent evidence strongly implicates innate immune responses in lowering seizure threshold in experimental models of epilepsy, yet, there is no proof that they can play an independent role in initiating seizures in vivo. Here, we show that cortical innate immune responses alone produce profound increases of brain excitability resulting in focal seizures. We found that cortical application of lipopolysaccharide, binding to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), triples evoked field potential amplitudes and produces focal epileptiform discharges. These effects are prevented by pre-application of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate how the innate immune response may participate in acute seizures, increasing neuronal excitability through interleukin-1 release in response to TLR4 detection of the danger signals associated with infections of the central nervous system and with brain injury. These results suggest an important role of innate immunity in epileptogenesis and focus on glial inhibition, through pharmacological blockade of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory mediators released by activated glia, in the study and treatment of seizure disorders in humans. PMID:19567702

  4. Psychological correlates of psychogenic seizures.

    PubMed

    Binder, L M; Salinsky, M C; Smith, S P

    1994-08-01

    Psychological correlates of psychogenic seizures were studied. The MMPI, Portland Digit Recognition Test (PDRT; a forced choice measure of motivation), disability status, Face-Hand Test, and Finger Agnosia were compared in 53 patients with medically intractable seizure disorders who underwent intensive EEG monitoring. Using conventional neurologic criteria, 64% had diagnoses of epileptic seizures (ES) and 36% had psychogenic seizures (PS). PS patients were significantly higher in number of somatoform MMPI profiles and likelihood of applying for financial benefits, and significantly lower on the PDRT. PS patients made more Finger Agnosia errors. Differences on the Face-Hand Test were of borderline significance. The results support the existence of multiple psychometric correlates of PS. PMID:7962356

  5. Understanding the TXA seizure connection

    E-print Network

    Schwinn, Debra A.

    Transexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that has been used successfully to prevent blood loss during major surgery. However, as its usage has increased, there have been growing reports of postsurgical seizure events ...

  6. GABAB receptors as a common target for hypothermia and spike and wave seizures: intersecting mechanisms of thermoregulation and absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ostoji?, Z S; Ili?, T V; Veskovi?, S M; Andjus, P R

    2013-05-15

    In the current study the link among the ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced absence-like seizures and concomitant decreases in the core temperature, as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during rewarming from deep hypothermia produced by a drug-free protocol were investigated. During the rewarming period after deep cooling, most Wistar rats suffered from bilaterally synchronous spike and waves with no or mild behavioral correlates. Spike and wave seizures were temperature-dependent and were initially registered when body temperature (Tb) reached 25-27°C, but mostly during the mild hypothermia of 0.3-1.3°C (Tb of 36.3-37.3°C). In chemical absence models, spike and wave discharges were also closely accompanied by mild systemic hypothermia, as both PTZ- and GHB-induced temperature decreases ranged from about 1-1.4°C respectively, together with EEG markers of absence activity. Thus, throughout the different experimental designs, the occurrence of spike and wave discharges was always related to a mild (0.3-1.4°C) decrease of Tb. Benzodiazepine diazepam as the GABAA-positive allosteric modulator and CGP 62349 as the selective antagonist of GABAB receptors were used to determine if their well-known anticonvulsant properties also affect hypothermia elicited by these drugs. Finally, during the course of spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, another selective GABAB-blocking agent, CGP 35348, was used to elucidate if GABAB inhibitory system could be critically implicated in the generation of hypothermia-dependent spike and waves. Diazepam prevented both the PTZ-induced hypothermia and electrographic absence seizures, but these two beneficial effects did not occur in the GHB model. Even though diazepam delayed GHB-induced maximal temperature decrease, the GHB effects remained highly significant. The GABAB antagonist CGP 62349 completely prevented hypothermia as well as absence seizures in both chemical models. Likewise, spike and wave discharges, registered during the spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, were completely prevented by CGP 35348. These findings show that systemic hypothermia should definitely be regarded as a marker of GABAB receptor activation. Moreover, the results of this study clearly show that initial mild temperature decrease should be considered as strong absence-provoking factor. Hypothermia-induced nonconvulsive seizures also highlight the importance of continuous EEG monitoring in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Since every change in peripheral or systemic temperature ultimately must be perceived by preoptic region of the anterior hypothalamus as the primary thermoregulatory and sleep-inducing center, the preoptic thermosensitive neurons in general and warm-sensitive neurons in particular, simply have to be regarded as the most probable candidate for connected thermoregulatory and absence generating mechanisms. Therefore, additional studies are needed to confirm their potential role in the generation and propagation of absence seizures. PMID:23415784

  7. Assimilating Seizure Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Ghanim; Schiff, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state—the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics. PMID:20463875

  8. Seizure detection method based on fractal dimension and gradient boosting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Zhou, Weidong; Yuan, Shasha; Yuan, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Automatic seizure detection technology is necessary and crucial for the long-term electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring of patients with epilepsy. This article presents a patient-specific method for the detection of epileptic seizures. The fractal dimensions of preprocessed multichannel EEG were firstly estimated using a k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Then, the feature vector constructed for each epoch was fed into a trained gradient boosting classifier. After a series of postprocessing, including smoothing, threshold processing, collar operation, and union of seizure detections in a short time interval, a binary decision was made to determine whether the epoch belonged to seizure status or not. Both the epoch-based and event-based assessments were used for the performance evaluation of this method on the EEG data of 21 patients from the Freiburg dataset. An average epoch-based sensitivity of 91.01% and a specificity of 95.77% were achieved. For the event-based assessment, this method obtained an average sensitivity of 94.05%, with a false detection rate of 0.27/h. PMID:25549952

  9. Strychnine seizure potentiation by azaspirodecanedione anxiolytics in rats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M C; Chung, E; Van Woert, M H

    1988-10-18

    Buspirone, gepirone and ipsaperone administered intraperitoneally (40 mg/kg) to naive rats were found to be proconvulsive for strychnine-induced seizures. The dose of strychnine required to induce seizures in 50% of test animals (CD50) was 2.18 mg/kg in naive rats, while CD50s for rats treated with the azaspirodecanediones ipsaperone, gepirone and buspirone were 1.65, 0.97 and 0.70 mg/kg respectively. Azaspirodecanediones have high affinity for the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, however, the specific 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyl-amino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) had no effect on strychnine seizure in naive rats (CD50 = 2.0 mg/kg). The strychnine specific proconvulsive effects of inferior olive lesions and buspirone were additive, resulting in a CD50 of 0.1 mg/kg. This observation indicates that the buspirone-induced decrease in strychnine seizure threshold does not require intact inferior olive-climbing fiber pathways. Cerebellar sites for possible azaspirodecanedione action are discussed. PMID:2906877

  10. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Menière's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Menière's classical observation. PMID:2529669

  11. Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Possible Outcomes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whether they could increase the risk of developing epilepsy later. Febrile seizures are defined as seizures that ... brains of patients who underwent surgery for severe epilepsy. 3 The children with FSE were com- pared ...

  12. Early Posttraumatic Seizures in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Daniel H; Goodkin, Howard P; Giza, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Early posttraumatic seizure is a paramount clinical issue in pediatric traumatic brain injury patients as it is a common occurrence, yet an understudied entity at present. Recent literature recognizes several posttraumatic seizure subtypes based on time of presentation and the underlying pathophysiology: impact, immediate, delayed early, and late/posttraumatic epilepsy. Appropriate classification of pediatric posttraumatic seizure subtypes can be helpful for appropriate management and prognosis. This review will focus on early posttraumatic seizures, and the subtypes of early posttraumatic seizure. Incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, seizure semiology, status epilepticus, management, risk of recurrence, and prognosis were reviewed. The integration of continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring into pediatric traumatic brain injury management may hold the key to better characterizing and understanding pediatric early posttraumatic seizures. Topics for future research pertaining to pediatric early posttraumatic seizure are identified. PMID:25564481

  13. Utility of different seizure induction protocols in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gourav; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K

    2014-08-01

    Psychogenic non epileptic seizure (PNES) can be induced by several induction tests but their relative usefulness has not been evaluated. In this study, we report the sensitivity and specificity of various induction tests in the diagnosis of PNES and assess their discomfort level. The induction tests were: (a) compression of temple region (CTR), (b) verbal suggestion (VS), (c) tuning fork application (TFA), (d) moist swab application (MSA), (e) torch light stimulation (TLS) and (f) saline injection (SI). Up to 3 trials were done for each test except for normal saline injection which was given once. For comparison of these tests, patients with epileptic seizures were included as controls. The time to precipitate PNES was recorded and patients' discomfort levels were noted on a 0-10 scale. Video EEG was recorded in the PNES patients. 140 patients with PNES and 50 controls with epileptic seizures were included. The diagnostic yield of CTR was 65.7%, TFA 61.4%, MSA 60.7%, SI 55.6%, VS 54.3% and TLS 40.7%. These tests did not induce seizures in the controls. All these tests had 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in the diagnosis of PNES. The maximum discomfort was reported with SI and minimum with MSA. The similarity of efficacy and discomfort with CTR and TFA appear to be the most optimal induction techniques when compared with VS, AMS, TLS, and SI. PMID:24802296

  14. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  15. Neonatal Seizures: Advances in Mechanisms and Management

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Seizures occur in approximately 1–5 per 1,000 live births, and are among the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal neurocritical care service. There are several, age-specific factors that are particular to the developing brain, which influence excitability and seizure generation, response to medications, and impact of seizures on brain structure and function. Neonatal seizures are often associated with serious underlying brain injury such as hypoxia-ischemia, stroke or hemorrhage. Conventional, prolonged, continuous video-electroencephalogram (cEEG) is the gold standard for detecting seizures, whereas amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) is a convenient and useful bedside tool. Evaluation of neonatal seizures involves a thorough search for the etiology of the seizures, and includes detailed clinical history, routine chemistries, neuroimaging (and preferably magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), and specialized testing such as screening for inborn errors of metabolism if no structural cause is identified and seizures persist after correction of transient metabolic deficits. Expert opinion supports rapid medical treatment to abolish electrographic seizures, however the relative risk versus benefit for aggressive medical treatment of neonatal seizures is not known. While there is increasing evidence to support a harmful effect of seizures on the developing brain, there is also evidence that commonly used medications are potentially neurotoxic in animal models. Newer agents appear less harmful, but data are lacking regarding optimal dosing and efficacy. PMID:24524454

  16. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.; Eisenstadt, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

  17. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  18. Neonatal Seizures: Impact on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok Kyu; Kadam, Shilpa D.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal period is the most vulnerable time for the occurrence of seizures, and neonatal seizures often pose a clinical challenge both for their acute management and frequency of associated long-term co-morbidities. Etiologies of neonatal seizures are known to play a primary role in the anti-epileptic drug responsiveness and the long-term sequelae. Recent studies have suggested that burden of acute recurrent seizures in neonates may also impact chronic outcomes independent of the etiology. However, not many studies, either clinical or pre-clinical, have addressed the long-term outcomes of neonatal seizures in an etiology-specific manner. In this review, we briefly review the available clinical and pre-clinical research for long-term outcomes following neonatal seizures. As the most frequent cause of acquired neonatal seizures, we focus on the studies evaluating long-term effects of HIE-seizures with the goal to evaluate (1) what parameters evaluated during acute stages of neonatal seizures can reliably be used to predict long-term outcomes? and (2) what available clinical and pre-clinical data are available help determine importance of etiology vs. seizure burdens in long-term sequelae. PMID:26636052

  19. Proneurotrophins, Seizures, and Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Wilma J.

    2010-01-01

    Neurons respond to numerous factors in their environment that influence their survival and function during development and in the mature brain. Among these factors, the neurotrophins have been shown to support neuronal survival and function, acting primarily through the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases. However, recent studies have established that the uncleaved neurotrophin precursors, the proneurotrophins, can be secreted and induce apoptosis via the p75 neurotrophin receptor, suggesting that the balance of secreted mature and proneurotrophins has a critical impact on neuronal survival or death. Epileptic seizures elicit increases in both proneurotrophin secretion and p75NTR expression, shifting the balance of these factors toward signaling cell death. This review will discuss the evidence that this ligand-receptor system plays an important role in neuronal loss following seizures. PMID:20360602

  20. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2014-07-18

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. PMID:25038202

  1. Glutamatergic neuron-targeted loss of LGI1 epilepsy gene results in seizures

    PubMed Central

    Boillot, Morgane; Huneau, Clément; Marsan, Elise; Lehongre, Katia; Navarro, Vincent; Ishida, Saeko; Dufresnois, Béatrice; Ozkaynak, Ekim; Garrigue, Jérôme; Miles, Richard; Martin, Benoit; Leguern, Eric; Anderson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Leucin-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted protein linked to human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune aetiology. Mutations in the LGI1 gene are responsible for autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features, whereas LGI1 autoantibodies are involved in limbic encephalitis, an acquired epileptic disorder associated with cognitive impairment. We and others previously reported that Lgi1-deficient mice have early-onset spontaneous seizures leading to premature death at 2–3 weeks of age. Yet, where and when Lgi1 deficiency causes epilepsy remains unknown. To address these questions, we generated Lgi1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice using a set of universal Cre-driver mouse lines. Selective deletion of Lgi1 was achieved in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons during embryonic (Emx1-Lgi1cKO) or late postnatal (CaMKII?-Lgi1cKO) developmental stages, or in gamma amino butyric acidergic (GABAergic) parvalbumin interneurons (PV-Lgi1cKO). Emx1-Lgi1cKO mice displayed early-onset and lethal seizures, whereas CaMKII?-Lgi1cKO mice presented late-onset occasional seizures associated with variable reduced lifespan. In contrast, neither spontaneous seizures nor increased seizure susceptibility to convulsant were observed when Lgi1 was deleted in parvalbumin interneurons. Together, these data showed that LGI1 depletion restricted to pyramidal cells is sufficient to generate seizures, whereas seizure thresholds were unchanged after depletion in gamma amino butyric acidergic parvalbumin interneurons. We suggest that LGI1 secreted from excitatory neurons, but not parvalbumin inhibitory neurons, makes a major contribution to the pathogenesis of LGI1-related epilepsies. Our data further indicate that LGI1 is required from embryogenesis to adulthood to achieve proper circuit functioning. PMID:25234641

  2. Emergency Management of Seizures in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to…

  3. Neurologic outcome after electroencephalographically proven neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Legido, A; Clancy, R R; Berman, P H

    1991-09-01

    Infants in whom neonatal seizures were confirmed by randomly recorded ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) tracings were retrospectively examined to determine their global neurologic outcome and the specific frequency of epilepsy, development delay, and cerebral palsy. Perinatal and postnatal clinical and EEG variables were also examined for their relevance to the neurologic outcome. Forty infants with EEG documented seizures of diverse etiologies were studied. The 27 survivors were followed up at a mean of 31 months. The outcome was unfavorable in 70%. The rate of epilepsy was 56%, of developmental delay 67%, and of cerebral palsy 63%. The etiology of seizures was an important factor influencing the outcome. Other clinical factors that showed a significant relationship with global or specific aspects of the neurologic outcome included the age at the onset of seizures, birth weight, and neurologic examination results. The EEG parameters that significantly predicted the neurologic outcome were interictal EEG background, increased seizure frequency, and decreased seizure duration. PMID:1881741

  4. ?-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. ?-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

  5. Threshold Digraphs

    PubMed Central

    Cloteaux, Brian; LaMar, M. Drew; Moseman, Elizabeth; Shook, James

    2014-01-01

    A digraph whose degree sequence has a unique vertex labeled realization is called threshold. In this paper we present several characterizations of threshold digraphs and their degree sequences, and show these characterizations to be equivalent. Using this result, we obtain a new, short proof of the Fulkerson-Chen theorem on degree sequences of general digraphs.

  6. Breakthrough seizures after starting vilazodone for depression.

    PubMed

    McKean, James; Watts, Hannah; Mokszycki, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Vilazodone is a new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and serotonin 5-HT1a partial agonist that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration to treat major depression. SSRI-induced seizures are rare and are more likely to be associated with larger doses and severe symptoms such as those present in serotonin syndrome. Several case reports have implicated SSRIs, buspirone, or the combination of these agents as the cause of seizures, but these reports were confounded with either coingestions or doses that exceeded FDA recommendations. We describe a 22-year-old woman with a history of seizure disorder who had been seizure free for the previous 8 years and experienced two breakthrough seizures shortly after starting vilazodone. Her dose of vilazodone had recently been titrated to 40 mg/day when she experienced the first seizure. She was instructed to taper vilazodone over the next several days, then discontinue the drug, and then follow up with her neurologist. Based on the patient's history, physical examination, and recent dose increase, it was plausible that vilazodone was the cause of the seizures. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a possible relationship (score of 4) between her development of seizures and vilazodone therapy. The pharmacodynamics of this particular class of SSRI has both proconvulsive and anticonvulsive mechanisms. This is of particular concern in patients with a history of seizure disorder who are starting antidepressive therapy. In persons with epilepsy who are taking vilazodone and experience breakthrough seizures, practitioners should consider this drug as a potential cause of these seizures. Thus, until future research and experience with vilazodone can provide a definitive answer, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing this medication to treat depression in patients with a history of seizure disorder. PMID:25809181

  7. Possible causes of seizure after spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Seizure after laminectomy for spinal procedure is very rare and has not been reported after lipomyelomeningocele surgery beforehand. Here, two cases of seizure following laminectomy for lipomyelomeningocele are reported. The exact etiology of the event is unknown but anesthetic material, pneumocephalus, intracranial hypotension subsequent to cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal procedures, spinal-induced seizure and the potential toxic effect of fat molecules could be considered. PMID:21042506

  8. SEIZURE PREDICTION: THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    PubMed Central

    Zaveri, Hitten P.; Frei, Mark G.; Arthurs, Susan; Osorio, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The recently convened Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) brought together a diverse international group of investigators, from academia and industry, including epileptologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, computer scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who are conducting interdisciplinary research on the prediction and control of seizures. IWSP4 allowed the presentation and discussion of results, an exchange of ideas, an assessment of the status of seizure prediction, control and related fields and the fostering of collaborative projects. PMID:20674508

  9. Neonatal seizures-part 2: Aetiology of acute symptomatic seizures, treatments and the neonatal epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hart, Anthony R; Pilling, Elizabeth L; Alix, James J P

    2015-10-01

    Most neonatal epileptic seizures are provoked by an underlying condition or problem-'acute symptomatic seizures'. However, a few neonatal epilepsy syndromes exist, and these are defined by the constellation of seizure types, EEG findings and family history seen. Making an accurate diagnosis of an epilepsy syndrome can help direct investigations, treatment options and provide prognostic information. This article discusses the investigative approach and treatments for neonatal epileptic seizures, including the neonatal epilepsy syndromes. PMID:25824891

  10. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84...

  11. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84...

  12. Nonepileptic seizures treatment workshop summary.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, W Curt; Alper, Kenneth; Babcock, Debra; Barry, John J; Benbadis, Selim; Caplan, Rochelle; Gates, John; Jacobs, Margaret; Kanner, Andres; Martin, Roy; Rundhaugen, Lynn; Stewart, Randy; Vert, Christina

    2006-05-01

    In May 2005, an international, interdisciplinary group of researchers gathered in Bethesda, MD, USA, for a workshop to discuss the development of treatments for patients with nonepileptic seizures (NES). Specific subgroup topics that were covered included: pediatric NES; presenting the diagnosis of NES, outcome measures for NES trials; classification of NES subtypes; and pharmacological treatment approaches and psychotherapies. The intent was to develop specific research strategies that can be expanded to involve a large segment of the epilepsy and psychiatric treatment communities. Various projects have resulted from the workshop, including the initial development of a prospective randomized clinical trial for NES. PMID:16540377

  13. Predictors of seizures during pregnancy in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sanjeev V; Syam, Unnikrishnan; Devi, J Sucharitha

    2012-05-01

    We aimed to characterize the seizure pattern during pregnancy in a large cohort of women with epilepsy (WWE) and identify possible predictors of seizure relapse during pregnancy. We recorded the antiepileptic drug (AED) use and seizure frequency for WWE during the prepregnancy month and pregnancy. The seizure profile was correlated with the clinical details and seizure type as abstracted from the clinical records maintained in the registry. Of the 1,297 pregnancies in WWE with complete seizure data, 47.8% were seizure-free during pregnancy. Seizure relapse was highest during the three peripartum days. Women with partial seizures-had higher risk of relapse (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.0) than those with generalized seizures. They had two peaks of seizure relapse (second to third month and sixth month). Those with generalized seizures had one peak at first trimester. Those who were on polytherapy had increased risk of seizures (OR 2.98, 95% CI 2.3-3.9) when compared to those on monotherapy. Those who had seizures in the prepregnancy month had higher risk (OR 15, 95% CI 9-25.1) of seizures during pregnancy when compared to those who were seizure-free during that period. On multiple logistic regression, prepregnancy seizure was the most important predictor of seizures during pregnancy. PMID:22429269

  14. A Rare Case of Pyridoxine-dependent Seizures in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Murty, V.S.S. Yerramilli; Kishore, M.S.S.; Patel, Manisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent seizures is a rare cause of recurrent seizures in neonatal period and resistant to most of the antiepileptic medications, but respond to administration of pyridoxine. We report a male infant who had neonatal seizures which were initially responsive to anticonvulsants and later became unresponsive and presented at 45 days of life with seizures. These seizures were not responding to any anticonvulsant but responded to pyridoxine. After discharge parents inadvertently stopped pyridoxine and the infant presented with seizures once again. These seizures were promptly controlled with readministration of pyridoxine confirming the diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependant seizures. PMID:24027745

  15. VLSI Multivariate Phase Synchronization Epileptic Seizure Detector

    E-print Network

    Genov, Roman

    VLSI Multivariate Phase Synchronization Epileptic Seizure Detector Karim Abdelhalim, Vadim-- A low-power VLSI seizure detector is presented. It combines a 256-channel analog neural recording chip with in vitro epilepsy models, a low-cost technique to implement on-chip gold microelectrodes was utilized

  16. Search and Seizure in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

    2007-01-01

    The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under…

  17. A Discriminative Approach to EEG Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ashley N.; Sow, Daby; Biem, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are abnormal sudden discharges in the brain with signatures represented in electroencephalograms (EEG). The efficacy of the application of speech processing techniques to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure states in EEGs is reported. The approach accounts for the challenges of unbalanced datasets (seizure and non-seizure), while also showing a system capable of real-time seizure detection. The Minimum Classification Error (MCE) algorithm, which is a discriminative learning algorithm with wide-use in speech processing, is applied and compared with conventional classification techniques that have already been applied to the discrimination between seizure and non-seizure states in the literature. The system is evaluated on 22 pediatric patients multi-channel EEG recordings. Experimental results show that the application of speech processing techniques and MCE compare favorably with conventional classification techniques in terms of classification performance, while requiring less computational overhead. The results strongly suggests the possibility of deploying the designed system at the bedside. PMID:22195192

  18. CONSERVATION Genetic assignment of large seizures

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    CONSERVATION Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa's major poaching recovery of elephant populations. We genetically assign origin to 28 large ivory seizures (0.5 metric tons crime, and African elephant ivory is a major part of that trade (1). An esti- mated 40,000 African

  19. Oxygen and seizure dynamics: II. Computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yina; Ullah, Ghanim; Ingram, Justin; Schiff, Steven J

    2014-07-15

    Electrophysiological recordings show intense neuronal firing during epileptic seizures leading to enhanced energy consumption. However, the relationship between oxygen metabolism and seizure patterns has not been well studied. Recent studies have developed fast and quantitative techniques to measure oxygen microdomain concentration during seizure events. In this article, we develop a biophysical model that accounts for these experimental observations. The model is an extension of the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and includes the neuronal microenvironment dynamics of sodium, potassium, and oxygen concentrations. Our model accounts for metabolic energy consumption during and following seizure events. We can further account for the experimental observation that hypoxia can induce seizures, with seizures occurring only within a narrow range of tissue oxygen pressure. We also reproduce the interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons seen in experiments, accounting for the different oxygen levels observed during seizures in excitatory vs. inhibitory cell layers. Our findings offer a more comprehensive understanding of the complex interrelationship among seizures, ion dynamics, and energy metabolism. PMID:24671540

  20. Role of oxidative stress in epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Chung, Yoon Hee; Kim, Won-Ki; Ko, Kwang-Ho; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Yoneda, Yukio; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from excessive free-radical release is likely implicated in the initiation and progression of epilepsy. Therefore, antioxidant therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress have received considerable attention in epilepsy treatment. However, much evidence suggests that oxidative stress does not always have the same pattern in all seizures models. Thus, this review provides an overview aimed at achieving a better understanding of this issue. We summarize work regarding seizure models (i.e., genetically epilepsy-prone rats, kainic acid, pilocarpine, pentylenetetrazol, and trimethyltin), oxidative stress as an etiologic factor in epileptic seizures (i.e., impairment of antioxidant systems, mitochondrial dysfunction, involvement of redox-active metals, arachidonic acid pathway activation, and aging), and antioxidant strategies for seizure treatment. Combined, this review highlights pharmacological mechanisms associated with oxidative stress in epileptic seizures and the potential for neuroprotection in epilepsy that targets oxidative stress and is supported by effective antioxidant treatment. PMID:21672578

  1. Helicopter mishap attributed to single seizure.

    PubMed

    Simon, Esan; Watts, Darron; Bohnker, Bruce K

    2008-03-01

    A case report is presented of a 36-year-old U.S. Coast Guard aviator who had a single seizure while operating a helicopter on the ground. His seizure activity produced a loss of consciousness during which he pushed the cyclic to the left anterior quadrant that resulted in a ground mishap. No risk factors were identified in an extensive neurological workup. The current guidance for handling seizures in military aviation personnel is reviewed, along with considerations for treatment. Although the military aviation selection process carefully screens applicants for seizure history and potential, occasional seizures in the aviation population remain possible. Such events may result in military aircraft mishaps despite careful risk factor surveillance, as demonstrated by this case. PMID:18419038

  2. Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... color on the lips, tongue, or face remains unconscious for more than a few minutes after a ...

  3. Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over and over might indicate the ongoing condition epilepsy . Some kids under 5 years old have febrile ... times. Fortunately, fainting is rarely a sign of epilepsy. Most kids recover very quickly (seconds to minutes) ...

  4. Quickest detection of drug-resistant seizures: An optimal control approach

    PubMed Central

    Santaniello, Sabato; Burns, Samuel P.; Golby, Alexandra J.; Singer, Jedediah M.; Anderson, William S.; Sarma, Sridevi V.

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy affects 50 million people worldwide, and seizures in 30% of the cases remain drug resistant. This has increased interest in responsive neurostimulation, which is most effective when administered during seizure onset. We propose a novel framework for seizure onset detection that involves (i) constructing statistics from multichannel intracranial EEG (iEEG) to distinguish nonictal versus ictal states; (ii) modeling the dynamics of these statistics in each state and the state transitions; you can remove this word if there is no room. (iii) developing an optimal control-based “quickest detection” (QD) strategy to estimate the transition times from nonictal to ictal states from sequential iEEG measurements. The QD strategy minimizes a cost function of detection delay and false positive probability. The solution is a threshold that non-monotonically decreases over time and avoids responding to rare events that normally trigger false positives. We applied QD to four drug resistant epileptic patients (168 hour continuous recordings, 26–44 electrodes, 33 seizures) and achieved 100% sensitivity with low false positive rates (0.16 false positive/hour). This article is part of a Supplemental Special Issue entitled The Future of Automated Seizure Detection and Prediction. PMID:22078519

  5. Temporal epilepsy seizures monitoring and prediction using cross-correlation and chaos theory

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Hamida, Naim; Talbi, Larbi; Lakhssassi, Ahmed; Aouini, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Temporal seizures due to hippocampal origins are very common among epileptic patients. Presented is a novel seizure prediction approach employing correlation and chaos theories. The early identification of seizure signature allows for various preventive measures to be undertaken. Electro-encephalography signals are spectrally broken down into the following sub-bands: delta; theta; alpha; beta; and gamma. The proposed approach consists of observing a high correlation level between any pair of electrodes for the lower frequencies and a decrease in the Lyapunov index (chaos or entropy) for the higher frequencies. Power spectral density and statistical analysis tools were used to determine threshold levels for the lower frequencies. After studying all five sub-bands, the analysis has revealed that the seizure signature can be extracted from the delta band and the high frequencies. High frequencies are defined as both the gamma band and the ripples occurring within the 60–120 Hz sub-band. To validate the proposed approach, six patients from both sexes and various age groups with temporal epilepsies originating from the hippocampal area were studied using the Freiburg database. An average seizure prediction of 30 min, an anticipation accuracy of 72%, and a false-positive rate of 0% were accomplished throughout 200 h of recording time.

  6. Oxaliplatin-Induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Truong, Phu V.; Kallail, K. James

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI). After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES. PMID:26491586

  7. Advances in Management of Neonatal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Vesoulis, Zachary A.; Mathur, Amit M.

    2015-01-01

    Seizures are more common in the neonatal period than any other time in the human lifespan. A high index of suspicion for seizures should be maintained for infants who present with encephalopathy soon after birth, have had a stroke, central nervous system (CNS) infection or intracranial hemorrhage or have a genetic or metabolic condition associated with CNS malformations. Complicating the matter, most neonatal seizures lack a clinical correlate with only subtle autonomic changes and often no clinical indication at all. Over the last three decades, several tools have been developed to enhance the detection and treatment of neonatal seizures. The use of electroencephalography (EEG) and the later development of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), allows for Neurologists and non-Neurologists alike, to significantly increase the sensitivity of seizure detection. When applied to the appropriate clinical setting, time to diagnosis and start of therapy is greatly reduced. Phenobarbital maintains the status of first-line therapy in worldwide use. However, newer anti-epileptic agents such as, levetiracetam, bumetanide, and topiramate are increasingly being applied to the neonatal population, offering the potential for seizure treatment with a significantly better side-effect profile. Seizures in premature infants continue to confound clinicians and researchers alike. Though the apparent seizure burden is significant and there is an association between seizures and adverse outcomes, the two are not cleanly correlated. Compounding the issue, GABA-ergic anti-epileptic drugs are not only less effective in this age group due to reversed neuronal ion gradients but may also cause harm. Selecting an appropriate treatment group remains a challenge. PMID:24796413

  8. Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

  9. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  10. Seizures in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... UpToDate, Inc. References Top Kwan P, Brodie MJ. Effectiveness of first antiepileptic drug. Epilepsia 2001; 42:1255. ... evidence-based analysis of antiepileptic drug efficacy and effectiveness as initial monotherapy for epileptic seizures and syndromes. ...

  11. Seizures - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Seizures - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  12. Patient-specific seizure onset detection

    E-print Network

    Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Approximately one percent of the world's population exhibits symptoms of epilepsy, a serious disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes those affected to experiencing recurrent seizures. The risk of injury ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Benign familial neonatal seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 15 percent of people with BFNS, recurrent seizures (epilepsy) will come back later in life after the ... with BFNS have gone away. The age that epilepsy begins is variable. How common is BFNS? Benign ...

  14. Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

  15. Infantile Spasms: Little Seizures, BIG Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shields, W Donald

    2006-01-01

    Infantile spasms is one of the “catastrophic childhood epilepsies” because of the difficulty in controlling seizures and the association with mental retardation. However, early recognition, a careful diagnostic evaluation, and proper treatment may allow some children to attain seizure control and to achieve a normal, or at least much improved, level of development. Thus, there is the opportunity to have an important impact in the lives of these unfortunate children and their families. PMID:16761063

  16. Monitor for status epilepticus seizures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

  17. Seizure disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, John G.; Urowitz, Murray B.; Su, Li; Gordon, Caroline; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Romero-Diaz, Juanita; Wallace, Daniel J; Clarke, Ann E.; Ginzler, E.M.; Merrill, Joan T.; Isenberg, David A.; Rahman, Anisur; Petri, M.; Fortin, Paul R.; Gladman, D. D.; Bruce, Ian N.; Steinsson, Kristjan; Dooley, M.A.; Khamashta, Munther A.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Fessler, Barri J.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Manzi, Susan; Zoma, Asad A.; Sturfelt, Gunnar K.; Nived, Ola; Aranow, Cynthia; Mackay, Meggan; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; van Vollenhoven, R.F.; Kalunian, Kenneth C.; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Lim, Sam; Kamen, Diane L.; Peschken, Christine A.; Inanc, Murat; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Farewell, Vernon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, attribution, outcome and predictors of seizures in SLE Methods The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) performed a prospective inception cohort study. Demographic variables, global SLE disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), cumulative organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI)) and neuropsychiatric events were recorded at enrollment and annually. Lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, anti-?2 glycoprotein-I, anti-ribosomal P and anti-NR2 glutamate receptor antibodies were measured at enrollment. Physician outcomes of seizures were recorded. Patient outcomes were derived from the SF-36 mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores. Statistical analyses included Cox and linear regressions. Results The cohort was 89.4% female with a mean follow up of 3.5±2.9 years. 75/1631 (4.6%) had ?1 seizure, the majority around the time of SLE diagnosis. Multivariate analysis indicated a higher risk of seizures with African race/ethnicity (HR(CI):1.97 (1.07–3.63); p=0.03) and lower education status (1.97 (1.21–3.19); p<0.01). Higher damage scores (without NP variables) were associated with an increased risk of subsequent seizures (SDI=1:3.93 (1.46–10.55)); SDI=2 or 3:1.57 (0.32–7.65); SDI?4:7.86 (0.89–69.06); p=0.03). There was an association with disease activity but not with autoantibodies. Seizures attributed to SLE frequently resolved (59/78(76%)) in the absence of anti-seizure drugs. There was no significant impact on the MCS or PCS scores. Anti-malarial drugs in absence of immunosuppressive agents were associated with reduced seizure risk (0.07(0.01–0.66); p=0.03). Conclusion Seizures occurred close to SLE diagnosis, in patients with African race/ethnicity, lower educational status and cumulative organ damage. Most seizures resolved without a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Anti-malarial drugs were associated with a protective effect. PMID:22492779

  18. Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

  19. Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

    2006-01-01

    Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical…

  20. A New Model to Study Sleep Deprivation-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Brendan P.; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Design: Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB9ed4), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (seits1) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB9ed4 flies was also assessed. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB9ed4/+ and seits1 mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB9ed4/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB9ed4/+ became adults. Conclusions: These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. Citation: Lucey BP, Leahy A, Rosas R, Shaw PJ. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure. SLEEP 2015;38(5):777–785. PMID:25515102

  1. Effect of neonatal isolation on outcome following neonatal seizures in rats--the role of corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Chi; Holmes, Gregory L; Lee, Ko-Hung; Yang, San-Nan; Wang, Chien-An; Wu, Chia-Lu; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Lee, Chiang-Hsuan; Huang, Li-Tung

    2006-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that early maternal care permanently modifies the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is a critical factor in determining the capacity of the brain to compensate for later encountered insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of corticosterone (CORT) in the detrimental effects of neonatal isolation (NI) on seizures. Rats were assigned randomly to the following five groups: (1) control (CONT) rats; (2) NI rats that underwent daily separation from their dams from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P9; (3) status epilepticus (SE) rats, induced by lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pilo) model at P10; (4) NI plus SE (NIS) rats and (5) NISM rats, a subset of NIS rats receiving metyrapone (100 mg/kg), a CORT synthesis inhibitor, immediately after SE induction. At P10, plasma CORT levels were compared at baseline in CONT and NI rats and in response to Li-Pilo-induced SE among SE, NIS and NISM rats. We evaluated the spatial memory in the Morris water maze at P50 approximately 55, the expression of hippocampal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation at serine-133 (pCREBSer-133) at P55, hippocampal neuronal damage at P80 and seizure threshold at P100. The isolated rats exhibited higher CORT release in response to SE than non-isolated rats, and the NIS rats had greater cognitive deficits and decreased seizure threshold compared to the CONT, NI and SE groups. By contrast, the NISM group, compared to the NIS group, showed a normal CORT response to SE and better spatial memory but no difference in seizure threshold. Compared to the CONT group, the hippocampal pCREBSer-133 level was significantly reduced in all experimental groups (NI, SE, NIS, NISM) with no differences between groups. All rats were free of spontaneous seizures later in life and had no discernible neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Results in this model demonstrate repetitive NI enhances response of plasma CORT to SE, and exacerbates the neurological consequences of neonatal SE. Amelioration of neurological sequelae following reduction of the SE-induced excessive rise in plasma CORT implicates CORT in the pathogenesis of NI increasing the vulnerability to seizures. PMID:16316743

  2. Preclinical assessment of proconvulsant drug activity and its relevance for predicting adverse events in humans.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang

    2009-05-21

    Safety pharmacology studies, which are performed before first studies with investigational drugs in humans, often include experiments on proconvulsant drug activity, because such drugs are thought to promote seizures by decreasing seizure threshold. A commonly used model for the assessment of proconvulsant activity of investigational or marketed drugs is the timed intravenous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) infusion seizure test, in which the latency to myoclonic or clonic seizures is determined by PTZ infusion in mice or rats. This test provides an extremely sensitive parametric method for assessing seizure threshold and allows detecting both anticonvulsant and proconvulsant drug effects. The aim of this review is to critically review the concept of "proconvulsant" drug activity and discuss data obtained by the PTZ and other seizure threshold tests as well as the various factors that may affect seizure threshold determinations. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical data on proconvulsant drug activity are compared. It is concluded that a battery of different tests is needed to provide the most reliable conclusions about the proconvulsant profile, if any, of drugs. Furthermore, misconceptions regarding proconvulsant drug effects, which can result in the undertreatment of brain diseases, are discussed. PMID:19292981

  3. Positron emission tomography in generalized seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.

    1985-05-01

    The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.

  4. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  5. Low intensity vagal nerve stimulation lowers human thermal pain thresholds.

    PubMed

    Ness, T J; Fillingim, R B; Randich, A; Backensto, E M; Faught, E

    2000-05-01

    The effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on thermal pain sensation was studied in eight subjects who had vagal nerve stimulators surgically implanted for purposes of seizure control. Prior to their involvement in the study, all subjects had the intensity of their VNS (30 Hz, 0.5 ms, 1.0-2.75 mA) adjusted upwards until achieving their desired clinical effect of reduced seizures. Thermal pain thresholds were determined using a Medoc TSA-2001 with a thermode applied to the skin of the forearm. During VNS at settings 100% of those used clinically to control their seizures, subjects showed a statistically significant decrease in their thermal pain threshold of 1.1+/-0.4 degrees C. Acute effects of graded VNS on thermal pain thresholds were determined in seven of the subjects after cessation of chronic VNS. Two thermal threshold measurements were obtained while the subject received sham stimulation (0 mA intensity), during tactile control stimulation and during 30 s of VNS at intensities approximately 33, 66 and 100% of the settings utilized to control their seizures. Tactile control stimulation was provided by electrical stimulation of the skin of the ankle with the intensity adjusted by the patient to match the intensity of any sensations felt in the neck during VNS. Subjects were not aware of the settings employed. Their stimulator was adjusted with each trial and an ascending/descending ordering of intensity was utilized with an inter-trial interval of 2 min. Thermal pain thresholds were significantly decreased in relation to tactile control stimulation at all intensities of VNS tested with the greatest effect occurring at the 66% level. Subjects were also monitored non-invasively and hemodynamic responses to VNS were determined. No significant alterations in hemodynamic variables were observed. The findings of this human study are consistent with experiments in non-human animals which demonstrate a pro-nociceptive effect of low intensity VNS. PMID:10779664

  6. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219

  7. [Panic attacks simulated by occipital lobe seizures].

    PubMed

    Stolle, Martin; Sieben, Claudia; Püst, Burkhard

    2009-05-01

    Eleven-year-old Stephanie was admitted to a child and adolescent psychiatry day hospital with symptoms of an anxiety and panic disorder, and compulsive and self-harmful behavior. The patient described detailed threatening scenic sequences that caused her to feel panicky. They symptoms could be classified as epilepsy with visually dominated seizures of the occipital lobe. In addition to pharmacological treatment with oxcabazepine, extensive multimodal interventions as part of the child and adolescent psychiatric day hospital treatment program helped all family members to understand and handle the seizures. Eight weeks after initiation of treatment, Stephanie was seizure-free. Complex partial epilepsy can be mistaken for primary child-psychiatric disorder. PMID:19415605

  8. Continuous assessment of epileptic seizures with wrist-worn biosensors

    E-print Network

    Poh, Ming-Zher

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized predominantly by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The apprehension about injury, or even death, resulting from a seizure often overshadows the ...

  9. Ictal asystole mimicking seizure deterioration in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, Baburhan; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2015-09-01

    We report on a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy, secondary to a left lateral temporal cavernoma, in whom the change in seizure semiology suggested recurrence of secondary generalized seizures. Anticonvulsive medication previously controlled secondary generalized seizures over a period of years but focal seizures continued at a lower rate. Continuous video-EEG monitoring revealed ictal asystole associated with myoclonic syncope and falls during focal seizures arising from the left temporal lobe. After implantation of a cardiac pacemaker, no more falls occurred during the focal seizures. In conclusion, recurrence of seizure-associated falls is typically attributed to recurrence of secondary generalized seizures, however, ictal asystole should be considered in selected epilepsy patients as a differential diagnosis of falls. [Published with video sequence]. PMID:26235365

  10. [Epileptic seizure-induced vertebral body fractures].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, A; Forster, T; Külling, F A

    2015-12-01

    In the literature epilepsy is described as the most common cause of generalized seizures. Vertebral body fractures are a rare complication of epileptic convulsions, occurring with an incidence of 3?%. We present the case of a 37-year-old healthy patient, who sustained contiguous fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine during the first manifestation of epilepsy with primary localized and then secondary generalized epileptic seizures. A complication-free outcome was achieved with a combination of conservative and operative therapies. PMID:26160128

  11. Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

  12. Modification of seizure disorders: the interruption of behavioral chains.

    PubMed Central

    Zlutnick, S; Mayville, W J; Moffat, S

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of interruption and differential reinforcement on seizures in children. Seizures were conceptualized as the terminal link in a behavioral chain, resulting in a strategy aimed at identifying and modifying behaviors that reliably preceded the seizure climax. Seizure frequency was reduced in four of five subjects, whereas the frequency of preseizure behavior was reduced in only three subjects. Parents and school personnel were successfully used as change agents. PMID:1141076

  13. Remote effects of focal hippocampal seizures on the rat neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Mishra, Asht M.; Mansuripur, Peter K.; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2008-01-01

    Seizures have both local and remote effects on nervous system function. While propagated seizures are known to disrupt cerebral activity, little work has been done on remote network effects of seizures that do not propagate. Human focal temporal lobe seizures demonstrate remote changes including slow waves on electroencephalography (EEG) and decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the neocortex. Ictal neocortical slow waves have been interpreted as seizure propagation, however we hypothesize that they reflect a depressed cortical state resembling sleep or coma. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed multi-modal studies of partial and secondarily-generalized limbic seizures in rats. Video/EEG monitoring of spontaneous seizures revealed slow waves in the frontal cortex during behaviorally mild partial seizures, contrasted with fast poly-spike activity during convulsive generalized seizures. Seizures induced by hippocampal stimulation produced a similar pattern, and were used to perform functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) weighted for blood oxygenation (BOLD) and blood volume (CBV), demonstrating increased signals in hippocampus, thalamus and septum, but decreases in orbitofrontal, cingulate, and retrosplenial cortex during partial seizures; and increases in all these regions during propagated seizures. Combining these results with neuronal recordings and CBF measurements, we related neocortical slow waves to reduced neuronal activity and cerebral metabolism during partial seizures, but found increased neuronal activity and metabolism during propagated seizures. These findings suggest that ictal neocortical slow waves represent an altered cortical state of depressed function, not propagated seizure activity. This remote effect of partial seizures may cause impaired cerebral functions, including loss of consciousness. PMID:18768701

  14. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section 0.86...Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate...the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

  15. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section 0.86...Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate...the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

  16. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section 0.86...Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate...the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

  17. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section 0.86...Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate...the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

  18. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section 0.86...Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate...the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

  19. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  20. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 74630, December 1, 2011. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of...

  1. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  2. Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy. PMID:25352802

  3. 19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure....

  4. 19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure....

  5. Mechanisms of seizure propagation in 2-dimensional centre-surround recurrent networks.

    PubMed

    Hall, David; Kuhlmann, Levin

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how seizures spread throughout the brain is an important problem in the treatment of epilepsy, especially for implantable devices that aim to avert focal seizures before they spread to, and overwhelm, the rest of the brain. This paper presents an analysis of the speed of propagation in a computational model of seizure-like activity in a 2-dimensional recurrent network of integrate-and-fire neurons containing both excitatory and inhibitory populations and having a difference of Gaussians connectivity structure, an approximation to that observed in cerebral cortex. In the same computational model network, alternative mechanisms are explored in order to simulate the range of seizure-like activity propagation speeds (0.1-100 mm/s) observed in two animal-slice-based models of epilepsy: (1) low extracellular [Formula: see text], which creates excess excitation and (2) introduction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonists, which reduce inhibition. Moreover, two alternative connection topologies are considered: excitation broader than inhibition, and inhibition broader than excitation. It was found that the empirically observed range of propagation velocities can be obtained for both connection topologies. For the case of the GABA antagonist model simulation, consistent with other studies, it was found that there is an effective threshold in the degree of inhibition below which waves begin to propagate. For the case of the low extracellular [Formula: see text] model simulation, it was found that activity-dependent reductions in inhibition provide a potential explanation for the emergence of slowly propagating waves. This was simulated as a depression of inhibitory synapses, but it may also be achieved by other mechanisms. This work provides a localised network understanding of the propagation of seizures in 2-dimensional centre-surround networks that can be tested empirically. PMID:23967201

  6. Effect of sleep-wake reversal and sleep deprivation on the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, J. D.; Hof, D. G.; Mengel, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Albino Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in a previously O2 flushed, CO2 free chamber. The exposure began with attainment of 60 psi (gauge) and the end point was the first generalized oxygen toxicity seizure. Animals were exposed to reversal diurnal conditions since weanlings until their sleep-wake cycles had completely reversed, and then divided into four groups of 20 based on the time of day exposed. The time of exposure to oxygen at high pressure prior to seizure was now significantly longer in the group exposed from 1900 to 2000 hr and a reversal of the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility was noted. Animals maintained on normal diurnal conditions were deprived of sleep on the day of exposure for the 12 hours prior to exposure at 1900 hr, while controls were allowed to sleep. There was no significant differences in the time prior to seizure between the deprived animals and the controls with an n = 40. Thus the inherent threshold in susceptibility to high-pressure oxygen seizures seems not to be a function of sleep itself, but of some biochemical/physiologic event which manifests a circadian rhythm.

  7. Effect of quercetin and rutin in some acute seizure models in mice.

    PubMed

    Nieoczym, Dorota; Soca?a, Katarzyna; Raszewski, Grzegorz; Wla?, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    Quercetin is one of the most widely occurring flavonoid which is also often present in plants as glycosidic form - rutin. These compounds are ingredients of plant diet and are also present in numerous pharmaceutical preparations and diet supplements which are taken by patients suffering from epilepsy and treating with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Influence of these compounds on central nervous system-related effects was proved both in experimental and clinical studies. Their influence on anxiety, depression, memory processes and convulsant activity was reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin and rutin in some models of seizures, i.e., in the model of psychomotor seizures induced by 6Hz stimulation, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold and intravenous pentylenetetrazole tests in mice. We also examined a possible mechanism of anticonvulsant activity of quercetin and its influence on action of two AEDs, i.e., valproic acid and levetiracetam, in the 6Hz seizure test. Our results revealed only a weak anticonvulsant potential of the studied flavonoids because they showed anticonvulsant action at doses from 10 to 200mg/kg only in the 6Hz test and did not change seizure thresholds in the remaining tests. Moreover, anticonvulsant action of the studied flavonoids was short-term, noted only at pretreatment time ranging between 30 and 60min. The highest anticonvulsant activity of quercetin was correlated with its high plasma and brain concentration, which was revealed in a pharmacokinetic study. We did not note changes in the anticonvulsant action of the used AEDs combined with quercetin in the model of psychomotor seizures in mice. Neither quercetin and rutin nor combinations of quercetin with the studied AEDs produced any significant impairments of motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test), muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test) and long-term memory (evaluated in the passive avoidance test) in mice. The results of the present study suggest that quercetin and rutin have only weak and short-term anticonvulsant potential. These flavonoids seem to be safe for patients with epilepsy because they neither changed activity of the studied AEDs nor produced any adverse effects. PMID:24857758

  8. Automatic Seizure Detection in Rats Using Laplacian EEG and Verification with Human Seizure Signals

    PubMed Central

    Feltane, Amal; Boudreaux-Bartels, G. Faye; Besio, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Automated detection of seizures is still a challenging problem. This study presents an approach to detect seizure segments in Laplacian electroencephalography (tEEG) recorded from rats using the tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) configuration. Three features, namely, median absolute deviation, approximate entropy, and maximum singular value were calculated and used as inputs into two different classifiers: support vector machines and adaptive boosting. The relative performance of the extracted features on TCRE tEEG was examined. Results are obtained with an overall accuracy between 84.81 and 96.51%. In addition to using TCRE tEEG data, the seizure detection algorithm was also applied to the recorded EEG signals from Andrzejak et al. database to show the efficiency of the proposed method for seizure detection. PMID:23073989

  9. Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS Summer School

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS;Epilepsy · A group of CNS disorders · Associated with sudden transient seizure episodes - Abnormal motor, sensory, autonomic, and psychic activity · EEG usually normal · Different types of epilepsy - Secondary

  10. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  11. Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrom, Diane

    2007-01-01

    As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…

  12. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: 'cardiac arrhythmias' and 'epilepsy'. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:26038597

  13. Acute and chronic effects of agomelatine on intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure in mice and the probable role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Dastgheib, Mona; Moezi, Leila

    2014-08-01

    Agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist as well as a 5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. It was approved by the European Medicines Agency as an antidepressant drug in year 2009. On the other hand, the involvement of melatonin and serotonin receptors in the modulation of seizure threshold has been demonstrated previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agomelatine on penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold in male mice. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of acute (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. and chronic (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg, p.o., once a day, for 7 days) agomelatine administration on mouse model of intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure. For evaluation of nitrergic system involvement in the anticonvulsant effect of agomelatine, co-administration of multiple nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors [L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, (5 mg/kg, p.o.), aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or 7-nitroindazol, a selective nNOS inhibitor, (60 mg/kg, p.o.)] and agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) were examined. In acute study, agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure threshold compared to control group (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively). In chronic study, agomelatine had no effect on clonic seizure threshold compared with control mice. Co-administration of L-NAME, aminoguanidine or 7-nitroindazol with agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) prevented a agomelatine-induced anti-convulsant effect. Our results suggest that agomelatine has anticonvulsant activity in intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure in acute therapy and this effect can be at least in part due to iNOS or nNOS induction. PMID:24803306

  14. Functional implications of seizure-induced neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E

    2004-01-01

    The neurobiological doctrine governing the concept of neurogenesis has undergone a revolution in the past few years. What was once considered dubious is now well accepted: new neurons are born in the adult brain. Science fiction is quickly becoming a reality as scientists discover ways to convert skin, bone, or blood cells into neurons. In the epilepsy arena, widespread interest has developed because of the evidence that neurogenesis increases after seizures, trauma, and other insults or injuries that alter seizure susceptibility. This review discusses some of the initial studies in this field, and their often surprising functional implications. The emphasis will be on the granule cells of hippocampus, because they are perhaps more relevant to epilepsy than other areas in which neurogenesis occurs throughout life, the olfactory bulb and subventricular zone. In particular, the following questions will be addressed: 1. Do granule cells that are born in the adult brain become functional, and what are the limits of their function? Do they behave homogeneously? Results from our own laboratory have focused on cells that become established outside the normal boundaries of the granule cell layer, forming a group of "ectopic" granule cells in the hilar region. 2. Is increased neurogenesis beneficial, or might it actually exacerbate seizures? Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that new granule cells may not necessarily act to ameliorate seizures, and might even contribute to them. Furthermore, cognitive deficits following seizures might in part be due to new circuits that develop between new cells and the host brain. 3. How do the new cells interact with the host brain? Several changes occur in the dentate gyrus after seizures, and increased neurogenesis is only one of many. What is the interdependence of this multitude of changes, if any? 4. Is neurogenesis increased after seizures in man? Research suggests that the data from human epileptics are actually inconsistent with the studies in animal models of epilepsy, because there is little evidence of increased neurogenesis in epileptic tissue resected from intractable epileptics. Yet neurogenesis has been shown to occur in humans throughout adult life. What might be the reasons for these seemingly disparate results? PMID:15250595

  15. Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppert, M. M. J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F. H.; Viergever, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scenario predicts exponential distributions of the duration of the seizures and of the inter-ictal intervals. These predictions were validated in rat models of absence epilepsy, as well as in a few human cases. Nonetheless, deviations from the predictions with respect to seizure duration distributions remained unexplained. The objective of the present work is to implement a simple but realistic computational model of a neuronal network including synaptic plasticity and ionic current dynamics and to explore the dynamics of the model with special emphasis on the distributions of seizure and inter-ictal period durations. We use as a basis our lumped model of cortical neuronal circuits. Here we introduce 'activity dependent' parameters, namely post-synaptic voltage-dependent plasticity, as well as a voltage-dependent hyperpolarization-activated current driven by slow and fast activation conductances. We examine the distributions of the durations of the seizure-like model activity and the normal activity, described respectively by the limit cycle and the steady state in the dynamics. We use a parametric ?-distribution fit as a quantifier. Our results show that autonomous, activity-dependent membrane processes can account for experimentally obtained statistical distributions of seizure durations, which were not explainable using the previous model. The activity-dependent membrane processes that display the strongest effect in accounting for these distributions are the hyperpolarization-dependent cationic (Ih) current and the GABAa plastic dynamics. Plastic synapses (NMDA-type) in the interneuron population show only a minor effect. The inter-ictal statistics retain their consistency with the experimental data and the previous model.

  16. Inheritance of Febrile Seizures in Sudden Unexplained Death in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Ingrid A.; Poduri, Annapurna; Crandall, Laura; Haas, Elisabeth; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Kinney, Hannah C.; Krous, Henry F.

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in toddlers has been associated with febrile seizures, family history of febrile seizures, and hippocampal anomalies. We investigated the mode of inheritance for febrile seizures in these families. A three-generation pedigree was obtained from families enrolled in the San Diego Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Research Project, involving toddlers with sudden unexplained death, febrile seizures, and family history of febrile seizures. In our six cases, death was unwitnessed and related to sleep. The interval from last witnessed febrile seizure to death ranged from 3 weeks to 6 months. Hippocampal abnormalities were identified in one of three cases with available autopsy sections. Autosomal dominant inheritance of febrile seizures was observed in three families. A fourth demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In two families, the maternal and paternal sides manifested febrile seizures. In this series, the major pattern of inheritance in toddlers with sudden unexplained death and febrile seizures was autosomal dominant. Future studies should develop markers (including genetic) to identify which patients with febrile seizures are at risk for sudden unexplained death in childhood, and to provide guidance for families and physicians. PMID:22490769

  17. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  18. Identification of a neurovascular signaling pathway regulating seizures in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Linda; Stevenson, Tamara K; Su, Enming J; Ragsdale, Margaret; Moore, Shannon; Craciun, Stefan; Schielke, Gerald P; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Lawrence, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability can contribute to the development of seizures. The protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been shown to promote BBB permeability and susceptibility to seizures. In this study, we examined the pathway regulated by tPA in seizures. Methods An experimental model of kainate-induced seizures was used in genetically modified mice, including mice deficient in tPA (tPA?/?), its inhibitor neuroserpin (Nsp?/?), or both (Nsp:tPA?/?), and in mice conditionally deficient in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?). Results Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, Nsp?/? mice have significantly reduced latency to seizure onset and generalization; whereas tPA?/? mice have the opposite phenotype, as do Nsp:tPA?/? mice. Furthermore, interventions that maintain BBB integrity delay seizure propagation, whereas osmotic disruption of the BBB in seizure-resistant tPA?/? mice dramatically reduces the time to seizure onset and accelerates seizure progression. The phenotypic differences in seizure progression between WT, tPA?/?, and Nsp?/? mice are also observed in electroencephalogram recordings in vivo, but absent in ex vivo electrophysiological recordings where regulation of the BBB is no longer necessary to maintain the extracellular environment. Finally, we demonstrate that these effects on seizure progression are mediated through signaling by PDGFR? on perivascular astrocytes. Interpretation Together, these data identify a specific molecular pathway involving tPA-mediated PDGFR? signaling in perivascular astrocytes that regulates seizure progression through control of the BBB. Inhibition of PDGFR? signaling and maintenance of BBB integrity might therefore offer a novel clinical approach for managing seizures. PMID:26273685

  19. Electroencephalography of Seizure-Like Movements During General Anesthesia with Propofol: Seizures or Nonepileptic Events?

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Flood, Pamela; Cornes, Susannah

    2015-12-01

    Seizure-like behavior is an uncommon yet worrisome phenomenon during anesthesia with propofol. The current case report describes a 23-year-old man admitted for elective surgery who experienced several seizure-like episodes after induction with propofol and during a desflurane-based general anesthetic that were so severe it was not possible to complete the procedure. A second surgery was rescheduled 2 days later with simultaneous scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recording and general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl. During the second operation, he again experienced numerous episodes of generalized shaking movements. Simultaneous intraoperative EEG recording showed a background of diffuse beta and alpha frequencies interspersed with periods of pseudoperiodic delta activity; electrographic seizures were not apparent. With this information, muscle relaxants were given and the procedure was performed without difficulty. This is the first report of apparent seizure-like activity during anesthesia with propofol of an otherwise relatively healthy adult, in which concurrent EEG recording demonstrates the nonepileptic nature. The current case demonstrates that, at least in some instances, these concerning movements are not seizure related. Concurrent EEG monitoring may be helpful to evaluate the nature of the episodes in select cases. PMID:26588032

  20. Effects of antiepileptics on lateral geniculate nucleus-kindled seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Akinori; Takechi, Kenshi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the characteristics of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) kindling in rats, especially the efficacies of antiepileptics, in comparison with those of amygdala (AMG) kindling. Daily electrical stimulation of the LGN led to the development of a generalized convulsion (kangaroo posture and falling back) in all subjects, similar to AMG kindling. The kindling response of the LGN differed from that of the AMG in a number of respects, that is, a high after-discharge (AD) threshold, a large number of stimulations for completion of kindling, and a different pattern of electroencephalogram (EEG) development. On the other hand, the oral administration of sodium valproate, carbamazepine, clobazam, or zonisamide caused dose-dependent inhibitions of both seizure stage and AD duration of LGN-kindled seizures, whereas ethosuximide had no significant effects. In addition, seizure stage was more potently inhibited than AD duration by these antiepileptics, particularly with clobazam. In conclusion, LGN kindling possesses characteristics that are different from AMG kindling. In addition, it was demonstrated that LGN kindling is a useful model, similar to other types of limbic system kindling, for the evaluation of antiepileptics. PMID:19346673

  1. Seizure classification key to epilepsy management.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Louise; Derry, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of epilepsy carries significant implications for physical, psychosocial and financial wellbeing as well as a small but significant increased risk of mortality. The diagnosis is often incorrect, potentially in up to 20% of cases, so should be revisited if seizures are not responding to treatment. Evidence indicates that misdiagnosis is significantly more common among nonspecialists. SIGN recommends that the diagnosis of epilepsy should be made by an epilepsy specialist, ideally in the setting of a dedicated first seizure or epilepsy clinic. An incorrect diagnosis of epilepsy can be harmful. There is an exhaustive list of epilepsy mimics that can result in misdiagnosis and expose patients to unnecessary treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Diagnosis relies primarily on the history. Investigations can support the diagnosis but cannot make it in isolation, and negative investigation findings are common in epilepsy. Brain imaging will be undertaken in most patients with epilepsy, but is not routinely required in those with a definite diagnosis of genetic generalised epilepsy. The EEG has limitations and can sometimes cloud rather than clarify the diagnostic picture. Distinguishing between a genetic generalised epilepsy and a focal epilepsy is vital as this influences investigation, treatment and prognosis. Generally medication should not be started following a single seizure except in specific circumstances or in cases where the risk of recurrence is high. PMID:26591652

  2. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Warning Device

    SciTech Connect

    Elarton, J.K.; Koepsel, K.L.

    1999-06-21

    Flint Hills Scientific, L.L.C. (FHS) has invented what is believed to be the first real-time epileptic seizure detection and short-term prediction method in the world. They have demonstrated an IBM PC prototype with a multi-channel EEG monitoring configuration. This CRADA effort applied AlliedSignal FM and T hardware design, manufacturing miniaturization, and high quality manufacturing expertise in converting the prototype into a small, portable, self-contained, multi-channel EEG epileptic seizure detection and warning device. The purpose of this project was to design and build a proof-of-concept miniaturized prototype of the FHS-developed PC-based prototype. The resultant DSP prototype, measuring 4'' x 6'' x 2'', seizure detection performance compared favorably with the FHS PC prototype, thus validating the DSP design goals. The very successful completion of this project provided valuable engineering information for FHS for future prototype commercialization as well as providing AS/FM and T engineers DSP design experience.

  3. Adding Insult to Injury: Nonconvulsive Seizures in Abusive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Mary V; Greiner, Hansel M; Caré, Marguerite M; Owens, Deanna; Shapiro, Robert; Holland, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in patients with abusive head trauma who underwent electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and to describe predictive factors for this population. Children with a diagnosis of abusive head trauma were studied retrospectively to determine the rate of EEG monitoring, the rate of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and the associated neuroimaging findings. Over 11 years, 73 of 199 (36.8%) children with abusive head trauma had electroencephalography monitoring performed. Of these, 20 (27.4%) had nonconvulsive seizures and 3 (4.1%) had nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and cortical T2 / fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal abnormalities were both significantly associated with the presence of nonconvulsive seizures / nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Nonconvulsive seizures are relatively common in abusive head trauma and may go unrecognized. Specific neuroimaging characteristics increase the likelihood of nonconvulsive seizures on EEG. PMID:25900138

  4. Drosophila sodium channel mutations: Contributions to seizure-susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Jason R; Saras, Arunesh; Tanouye, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews Drosophila voltage-gated Na(+) channel mutations encoded by the para (paralytic) gene and their contributions to seizure disorders in the fly. Numerous mutations cause seizure-sensitivity, for example, para(bss1), with phenotypes that resemble human intractable epilepsy in some aspects. Seizure phenotypes are also seen with human GEFS+ spectrum mutations that have been knocked into the Drosophila para gene, para(GEFS+) and para(DS) alleles. Other para mutations, para(ST76) and para(JS) act as seizure-suppressor mutations reverting seizure phenotypes in other mutants. Seizure-like phenotypes are observed from mutations and other conditions that cause a persistent Na(+) current through either changes in mRNA splicing or protein structure. PMID:26093037

  5. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  6. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  7. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  8. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  9. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  10. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Day, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming. 76 figs.

  11. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Kulikov, Stanislav (Sarov, RU); Osorio, Ivan (Leawood, KS); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  12. Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Chaitali; Sarkar, Shatanik; Dasgupta, Malay Kumar; Das, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1½-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise) in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any. PMID:25878755

  13. Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN); Clapp, Ned E. (Knoxville, TN); Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Lawkins, William F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming.

  14. Stereo-Encephalography Versus Subdural Electrodes for Seizure Localization.

    PubMed

    Podkorytova, Irina; Hoes, Kathryn; Lega, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    In today's practice, epileptologists and neurosurgeons have several options for seizure localization with intracranial electrodes during phase II evaluations. Traditionally, centers in North America have used subdural electrode grids (SDE or SDG) for intracranial seizure localization. However, improvements in technology led to the popularization of stereo-encephalography (SEEG) using depth electrodes. Epilepsy surgery centers highest in volume now offer both SDE and SEEG for seizure localization. This article provides a general guide for considering SEEG versus SDE for intracranial seizure localization based on our experience with both. Several paradigmatic cases are used illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches. PMID:26615112

  15. Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

  16. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

  17. Synchronous inhibitory potentials precede seizure-like events in acute models of focal limbic seizures.

    PubMed

    Uva, Laura; Breschi, Gian Luca; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Taverna, Stefano; de Curtis, Marco

    2015-02-18

    Interictal spikes in models of focal seizures and epilepsies are sustained by the synchronous activation of glutamatergic and GABAergic networks. The nature of population spikes associated with seizure initiation (pre-ictal spikes; PSs) is still undetermined. We analyzed the networks involved in the generation of both interictal and PSs in acute models of limbic cortex ictogenesis induced by pharmacological manipulations. Simultaneous extracellular and intracellular recordings from both principal cells and interneurons were performed in the medial entorhinal cortex of the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain during focal interictal and ictal discharges induced in the limbic network by intracortical and brief arterial infusions of either bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or 4-aminopyridine (4AP). Local application of BMI in the entorhinal cortex did not induce seizure-like events (SLEs), but did generate periodic interictal spikes sensitive to the glutamatergic non-NMDA receptor antagonist DNQX. Unlike local applications, arterial perfusion of either BMI or 4AP induced focal limbic SLEs. PSs just ahead of SLE were associated with hyperpolarizing potentials coupled with a complete blockade of firing in principal cells and burst discharges in putative interneurons. Interictal population spikes recorded from principal neurons between two SLEs correlated with a depolarizing potential. We demonstrate in two models of acute limbic SLE that PS events are different from interictal spikes and are sustained by synchronous activation of inhibitory networks. Our findings support a prominent role of synchronous network inhibition in the initiation of a focal seizure. PMID:25698742

  18. Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)…

  19. Block term decomposition for modelling epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunyadi, Borbála; Camps, Daan; Sorber, Laurent; Paesschen, Wim Van; Vos, Maarten De; Huffel, Sabine Van; Lathauwer, Lieven De

    2014-12-01

    Recordings of neural activity, such as EEG, are an inherent mixture of different ongoing brain processes as well as artefacts and are typically characterised by low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, EEG datasets are often inherently multidimensional, comprising information in time, along different channels, subjects, trials, etc. Additional information may be conveyed by expanding the signal into even more dimensions, e.g. incorporating spectral features applying wavelet transform. The underlying sources might show differences in each of these modes. Therefore, tensor-based blind source separation techniques which can extract the sources of interest from such multiway arrays, simultaneously exploiting the signal characteristics in all dimensions, have gained increasing interest. Canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) has been successfully used to extract epileptic seizure activity from wavelet-transformed EEG data (Bioinformatics 23(13):i10-i18, 2007; NeuroImage 37:844-854, 2007), where each source is described by a rank-1 tensor, i.e. by the combination of one particular temporal, spectral and spatial signature. However, in certain scenarios, where the seizure pattern is nonstationary, such a trilinear signal model is insufficient. Here, we present the application of a recently introduced technique, called block term decomposition (BTD) to separate EEG tensors into rank- ( L r , L r ,1) terms, allowing to model more variability in the data than what would be possible with CPD. In a simulation study, we investigate the robustness of BTD against noise and different choices of model parameters. Furthermore, we show various real EEG recordings where BTD outperforms CPD in capturing complex seizure characteristics.

  20. Threshold quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.

  1. Perampanel for tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Gregory L.; Wechsler, Robert T.; Wang, Xue-Feng; DiVentura, Bree; Brandt, Christian; Trinka, Eugen; O'Brien, Terence J.; Laurenza, Antonio; Patten, Anna; Bibbiani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of adjunctive perampanel in patients with drug-resistant, primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01393743; funded by Eisai Inc.), patients 12 years or older with PGTC seizures and IGE were randomized to placebo or perampanel during a 4-week titration period (perampanel uptitrated from 2 to 8 mg/d, or highest tolerated dose) and 13-week maintenance period. The primary endpoint was percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (titration plus maintenance vs baseline). The key secondary endpoint (primary endpoint for European Union registration) was 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (patients achieving ?50% reduction in PGTC seizure frequency; maintenance vs baseline). Treatment-emergent adverse events were monitored. Results: Of 164 randomized patients, 162 comprised the full analysis set (placebo, 81; perampanel, 81). Compared with placebo, perampanel conferred a greater median percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (?38.4% vs ?76.5%; p < 0.0001) and greater 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (39.5% vs 64.2%; p = 0.0019). During maintenance, 12.3% of placebo-treated patients and 30.9% of perampanel-treated patients achieved PGTC seizure freedom. For the safety analysis (placebo, 82; perampanel, 81), the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events with perampanel were dizziness (32.1%) and fatigue (14.8%). Conclusions: Adjunctive perampanel was well tolerated and improved control of drug-resistant PGTC seizures in patients with IGE. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that adjunctive perampanel reduces PGTC seizure frequency, compared with placebo, in patients with drug-resistant PGTC seizures in IGE. PMID:26296511

  2. Electric field strength and focality in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a finite element simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced the maximum electric field of 2.1-2.5 V cm-1 and 1.1-2.2 V cm-1 in the brain, corresponding to 6.2-7.2 times and 1.2-2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much larger with ECT (up to 100%) than with MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double-cone coil was the most focal, and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800-900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects.

  3. Emotions and personality in complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Perini, G I

    1986-01-01

    Using the emotion profile index (EPI) and the Bear and Fedio personality inventory (PI), we investigated the influence of hemispheric localization of epileptic foci on emotions and personality in 24 patients with complex partial seizure. On the EPI, left patients showed a paranoid and depressed personality and gave a negative image of themselves, whereas right patients rated themselves in a positive way. On the PI, left and right patients showed an epileptic behavioral syndrome. Left patients were more depressed, guilt-ridden and aggressive than right patients. PMID:3823358

  4. Electrically Induced Limbic Seizures: Preliminary Findings in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Kowski, Alexander B; Holtkamp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In epilepsy, novel pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment approaches are commonly assessed in model systems of acute motor and often generalized seizures. We developed a rodent model with short-term electrical stimulation of the perforant path resulting in stereotyped limbic seizures. Limbic structures play a major role in human intractable epilepsy. In 10 rats, single electrical 5-second and 20-Hz stimuli to the perforant path reliably produced limbic seizures characterized by resting behavior and subtle motor signs. Electrophysiological recordings from the dentate gyrus demonstrated a seizure pattern with 4-Hz to 5-Hz discharges. Multiple inductions of seizures within 72 hours did not alter behavioral and electrophysiological seizure characteristics. Electrophysiological excitatory and inhibitory parameters assessed by evoked single and paired pulses did not change with increasing number of seizures. We present preliminary findings on a new model of electrically induced limbic seizures of mesiotemporal origin. This model may represent a reliable screening tool for new treatment approaches such as deep brain stimulation. PMID:25861223

  5. Levetiracetam in the Treatment of Epileptic Seizures After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Long; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Nai-Ching; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract After liver transplantation, patients may develop seizures or epilepsy due to a variety of etiologies. The ideal antiepileptic drugs for these patients are those with fewer drug interactions and less hepatic toxicity. In this study, we present patients using levetiracetam to control seizures after liver transplantation. We retrospectively enrolled patients who received levetiracetam for seizure control after liver transplantation. We analyzed the etiology of liver failure that required liver transplantation, etiology of the seizures, outcomes of seizure control, and the condition of the patient after follow-up at the outpatient department. Hematological and biochemical data before and after the use of levetiracetam were also collected. Fifteen patients who received intravenous or oral levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure control after liver transplantation were enrolled into this study. All of the patients remained seizure-free during levetiracetam treatment. Two patients died during the follow-up, and the other 13 patients were alive at the end of the study period and all were seizure-free without neurological sequelae that interfered with their daily activities. No patients experienced liver failure or rejection of the donor liver due to ineffective immunosuppressant medications. The dosage of immunosuppressants did not change before and after levetiracetam treatment, and there were no changes in hematological and biochemical data before and after treatment. Levetiracetam may be a suitable antiepileptic drug for patients who undergo liver transplantation due to fewer drug interactions and a favorable safety profile. PMID:26402799

  6. 77 FR 56093 - Consolidation of Seizure and Forfeiture Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...Consistent with Executive Order 13563, by this rule the Department of Justice (the Department) revises, consolidates, and updates its regulations regarding the seizure, forfeiture, and remission of assets. The rule recognizes that as of 2002 the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) is now part of the Department, and consolidates the regulations governing the seizure and......

  7. 50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE...

  8. 50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section 12.5 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES...

  9. Providing Services for Adolescents Who Live with Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millspaugh, Delight; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the work of a team of medical professionals and social workers who help New York City adolescents cope with the social and emotional aspects of major epileptic seizures. In addition to medical attempts to control seizures, support is achieved through contact with schools, parents, and vocational counselors. (HS)

  10. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  11. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  12. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  13. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  14. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  15. Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

  16. Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

  17. Chronic focal seizure disorder as a manifestation of intracranial iophendylate.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, R M; Roos, K L; Scott, J A

    1988-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman developed focal seizures 10-15 years following iophendylate myelography. Focal epileptogenic abnormalities on electroencephalogram corresponded to the localization of residual iophendylate in the right sylvian fissure. Intracranial iophendylate may have produced chronic meningeal reaction leading to cortical irritation and a chronic seizure disorder. PMID:3131136

  18. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  19. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  20. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  1. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  2. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  3. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  4. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  5. Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days…

  6. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  7. Increasing Epilepsy Awareness in Schools: A Seizure Smart Schools Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Heather A.; Hiltz, Cynthia M.; Kopplin, Vicki L.; Lindeke, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of epilepsy diagnoses and seizure events among students was identified at a large Midwestern school district. In partnership with the Epilepsy Foundation of Minnesota (EFMN), a quality improvement project was conducted to provide education and resources to staff caring for school children with seizures. School nurses (N = 26)…

  8. Management of reflex anoxic seizures in children.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anand; Appleton, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Reflex anoxic seizures (RAS) are important in the differential diagnosis of non-epileptic paroxysmal events in infants and preschool-aged children. They are classically provoked by a sudden distressing stimulus, which causes loss of consciousness followed by stiffening and brief clonic movements affecting some or all limbs, often misinterpreted as an epileptic seizure. The underlying pathophysiology is a vagal-induced brief cardiac asystole with resultant transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Parents and carers who witness the event are understandably anxious, and the mainstay of management are ensuring the appropriate timely diagnosis of RAS and excluding cardiac arrhythmia. A detailed history from a witness is all that is needed to diagnose this condition and investigations like EEG or neuroimaging should be avoided. Education and reassurance remain the mainstay in the management. Some children benefit from medical treatment with atropine or fluoxetine; however, there is a lack of evidence for pharmacological treatment. Cardiac pacing is the only definitive treatment, and is reserved for frequent, severe cases in joint consultation with the cardiologist. PMID:23814085

  9. Photosensitivity, visually sensitive seizures and epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Trenité, Dorothée G A Kasteleijn-Nolst

    2006-08-01

    Although many observations in patients with this intriguing type of epilepsy have been described and detailed studies have been performed, only a few meet the current criteria of class 1 or 2 evidence-based studies. In general, the selection bias is due to studying a referral population instead of the general population, and to different age and sex distributions of the subjects under study. Comparing the various studies is often difficult, because of differences in the populations studied (single seizures, epilepsy centre population, etc.), but also because of different methods (photic stimulator, flash frequencies, eye conditions, etc.) and the terminology used. Finally, and most crucial, in many studies there is often no information on how the data were actually obtained (EEG or clinical data or both?). The popular term "photosensitive" is used widely and applied to patients with a history of visually induced seizures, with and without a photoparoxysmal response (PPR), and to those with only a PPR. An overview of the "hard" data is given with future needs for a better understanding of this type of epilepsy and for improving the endophenotype for genetic research. It is important to standardise the studies as much as possible and describe in detail the methodology of the study, taking at least the above variables into account. PMID:16814522

  10. Seizure activity and unresponsiveness after hydroxycut ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kockler, D R; McCarthy, M W; Lawson, C L

    2001-05-01

    A 22-year-old man was hospitalized after unexplained seizure-like activity and unresponsiveness. A urine toxicology screen was negative for salicylates, acetaminophen, alcohol, and drugs of abuse. Medical history was insignificant with the exception of recent (within 2 wks) ingestion of Hydroxycut is a dietary supplement purported to be energy enhancing, muscle building, and fat burning. The agent contains ephedra alkaloids and caffeine, which are both central nervous system stimulants; the etiology of seizure was attributed to their consumption. Due to a significant number of reported adverse events, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed regulations for dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids and requested an independent review of case reports linked to these products. Because herbal products are not subject to the same rigorous FDA regulations required for prescription and over-the-counter products, consumers unknowingly risk adverse effects when taking these products. Questioning patients about consumption of herbal products should be part of routine medical visits. PMID:11349754

  11. The piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal cortex in seizure generation

    PubMed Central

    Vismer, Marta S.; Forcelli, Patrick A.; Skopin, Mark D.; Gale, Karen; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of mammalian limbic and neocortical brain regions provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC), perirhinal (PRC), and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are discussed. In addition, the neurotransmitters, intrinsic and extrinsic connections, and the interaction of these regions are described. Furthermore, we provide evidence based on clinical research and animal models that suggest that these cortical regions may act as key seizure-trigger zones and, even, epileptogenesis. PMID:26074779

  12. Seizure in Pregnancy Following Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Farzi, Farnoush; Abdollahzadeh, Mehrsima; Faraji, Roya; Chavoushi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seizure involves less than 1% of pregnancies; however it is associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare, but potentially life-threatening cause of seizure during pregnancy, presenting primarily as seizure in 12% - 31.9% of cases. Pregnancy and puerperium are known as the risk factors of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Case Presentation: Here is presented a case of seizure after delivery by cesarean section in an otherwise healthy woman. The final diagnosis was cerebral venous sinus thrombosis probably due to hypercoagulable state in pregnancy. Conclusions: If seizure occurs during the peripartum period, along with providing complete cardiovascular and respiratory support, advanced diagnostic measures are needed and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be considered as a possible diagnosis. PMID:26161329

  13. Unilateral opercular lesion and eating-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Manyam, Siresha Chaluvadi; Kung, Doris H; Rhodes, Lisa B; Newmark, Michael E; Friedman, David E

    2010-12-01

    Eating-induced seizures are an uncommon presentation of reflex epilepsy, a condition characterized by seizures provoked by specific stimuli. Most reports have identified aetiology associated with malformations of cortical developmental, hypoxic brain injury, previous meningoencephalitis or static encephalopathy. We present a patient with eating-induced reflex seizures, which began several years after treatment for an opercular primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET), and who subsequently underwent in-depth clinical and video-EEG analysis for her seizures. This patient noted rapid improvement with decreased frequency of seizure activity after treatment with valproic acid. We discuss the aetiology of reflex epilepsy, the anatomical basis of eating-induced epilepsy, and review the current literature. PMID:21112825

  14. Sleep Related Hypermotor Seizures with a Right Parietal Onset.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Steve A; Figorilli, Michela; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Proserpio, Paola; Nobili, Lino

    2015-08-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a syndrome characterized by the occurrence of sleep related seizures of variable complexity and duration. Hypermotor seizures (HMS) represent a classic manifestation of this syndrome, associated with a perturbation of the ventromesial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus regions. Nevertheless, in recent years, reports have showed that the seizure onset zone (SOZ) need not be of frontal origin to generate HMS. Here we report an unusual case of a patient presenting with a seven-year history of drug-resistant sleep related HMS arising from the mesial parietal region. The presence of an infrequent feeling of levitation before the HMS was key to suspecting a subtle focal cortical dysplasia in the right precuneus region. A stereo-EEG investigation confirmed the extra-frontal seizure onset of the HMS and highlighted the interrelationship between unstable sleep and seizure precipitation. PMID:25902821

  15. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  16. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a ``pre-seizure'' state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  17. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  18. Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination

    PubMed Central

    Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

  19. From seizures to epilepsy and its substrates: neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Burneo, Jorge G; Sander, Josemir W

    2013-05-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the main risk factor for late-onset seizures in many Taenia solium endemic countries and is also increasingly recognized in high income countries, where it was once thought to have been eliminated. The course and outcome of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are poorly understood. Substrates underlying NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy are unknown. Another unknown is if there is an association between NCC and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and if it leads to intractable epilepsy. We review evidence regarding the structural basis of seizures and epilepsy in NCC and its association with HS. There are only a limited number of prospective studies of NCC-associated seizures and epilepsy. From these, it can be inferred that the risk of seizure recurrence is high following a first seizure, even though seizures are well-controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The single most important risk factor for ongoing or recurrent seizures is the persistence of either degenerating or residual calcified cysticercus cysts in the brain parenchyma on follow-up imaging studies. Medically intractable epilepsy requiring surgical treatment appears to be rare in people with NCC. In few cases that have been operated, gliosis around the cysticerci is the principal pathologic finding. Reports of the association between NCC and HS might be categorized into those in which the calcified cysticercus is located within the hippocampus and those in which the calcified cysticercus is located remote from the hippocampus. The former are convincing cases of medically intractable epilepsy with good seizure control following hippocampal resection. In the remaining, it is unclear whether a dual pathology relationship exists between HS and the calcified cysticercus. Carefully planned, follow-up studies incorporating high-resolution and quantitative imaging are desirable in order to clarify the outcome, the structural basis of NCC-associated epilepsy, and also its association with HS. PMID:23621876

  20. Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…

  1. Why Are Seizures Rare in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep? Review of the Frequency of Seizures in Different Sleep Stages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia. Multiple independent studies confirm that, in REM sleep, there is a strikingly low proportion of seizures (~1% or less). We review a total of 42 distinct conventional and intracranial studies in the literature which comprised a net of 1458 patients. Indexed to duration, we found that REM sleep was the most protective stage of sleep against focal seizures, generalized seizures, focal interictal discharges, and two particular epilepsy syndromes. REM sleep had an additional protective effect compared to wakefulness with an average 7.83 times fewer focal seizures, 3.25 times fewer generalized seizures, and 1.11 times fewer focal interictal discharges. In further studies REM sleep has also demonstrated utility in localizing epileptogenic foci with potential translation into postsurgical seizure freedom. Based on emerging connectivity data in sleep, we hypothesize that the influence of REM sleep on seizures is due to a desynchronized EEG pattern which reflects important connectivity differences unique to this sleep stage. PMID:23853720

  2. Microscale spatiotemporal dynamics during neocortical propagation of human focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Fabien B; Eskandar, Emad N; Cosgrove, G Rees; Madsen, Joseph R; Blum, Andrew S; Potter, N Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

    2015-11-15

    Some of the most clinically consequential aspects of focal epilepsy, e.g. loss of consciousness, arise from the generalization or propagation of seizures through local and large-scale neocortical networks. Yet, the dynamics of such neocortical propagation remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the microdynamics of focal seizure propagation in neocortical patches (4×4mm) recorded via high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) implanted in people with pharmacologically resistant epilepsy. Our main findings are threefold: (1) a newly developed stage segmentation method, applied to local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity (MUA), revealed a succession of discrete seizure stages, each lasting several seconds. These different stages showed characteristic evolutions in overall activity and spatial patterns, which were relatively consistent across seizures within each of the 5 patients studied. Interestingly, segmented seizure stages based on LFPs or MUA showed a dissociation of their spatiotemporal dynamics, likely reflecting different contributions of non-local synaptic inputs and local network activity. (2) As previously reported, some of the seizures showed a peak in MUA that happened several seconds after local seizure onset and slowly propagated across the MEA. However, other seizures had a more complex structure characterized by, for example, several MUA peaks, more consistent with the succession of discrete stages than the slow propagation of a simple wavefront of increased MUA. In both cases, nevertheless, seizures characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWDs, ~2-3Hz) eventually evolved into patterns of phase-locked MUA and LFPs. (3) Individual SWDs or gamma oscillation cycles (25-60Hz), characteristic of two different types of recorded seizures, tended to propagate with varying degrees of directionality, directions of propagation and speeds, depending on the identified seizure stage. However, no clear relationship was observed between the MUA peak onset time (in seizures where such peak onset occurred) and changes in MUA or LFP propagation patterns. Overall, our findings indicate that the recruitment of neocortical territories into ictal activity undergoes complex spatiotemporal dynamics evolving in slow discrete states, which are consistent across seizures within each patient. Furthermore, ictal states at finer spatiotemporal scales (individual SWDs or gamma oscillations) are organized by slower time scale network dynamics evolving through these discrete stages. PMID:26279211

  3. Fifteen-minute consultation: when is a seizure not a seizure? Part 2, the older child.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Mohamed Oe; Prasad, Manish

    2015-12-01

    Paroxysmal non-epileptic events (PNEs) refer to episodic changes in behaviour, sensation or consciousness that lead to unusual movements, which may resemble epileptic seizures, but are not, due to excessive neuronal firing in the cerebral cortex. A significant proportion of patients seen in epilepsy clinics do not actually have epilepsy. Therefore, it is paramount for clinicians to be able to recognise these transient non-epileptic events in order to avoid unnecessary antiepileptic treatments and to provide appropriate management as required. These PNEs can be observed within the context of a neurological disorder such as migraine or with no direct neurological basis such as simple tics. In this review, we have described common PNEs presenting in school-age children and adolescents alongside the clinical approach to differentiate them from epileptic seizures. PNEs occurring in infancy and younger children have been covered in our first review of this series. PMID:26135356

  4. A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

  5. Optimal control based seizure abatement using patient derived connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N.; Thomas, Jijju; Sinha, Nishant; Dauwels, Justin; Kaiser, Marcus; Thesen, Thomas; Ruths, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which patients have recurrent seizures. Seizures occur in conjunction with abnormal electrical brain activity which can be recorded by the electroencephalogram (EEG). Often, this abnormal brain activity consists of high amplitude regular spike-wave oscillations as opposed to low amplitude irregular oscillations in the non-seizure state. Active brain stimulation has been proposed as a method to terminate seizures prematurely, however, a general and widely-applicable approach to optimal stimulation protocols is still lacking. In this study we use a computational model of epileptic spike-wave dynamics to evaluate the effectiveness of a pseudospectral method to simulated seizure abatement. We incorporate brain connectivity derived from magnetic resonance imaging of a subject with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We find that the pseudospectral method can successfully generate time-varying stimuli that abate simulated seizures, even when including heterogeneous patient specific brain connectivity. The strength of the stimulus required varies in different brain areas. Our results suggest that seizure abatement, modeled as an optimal control problem and solved with the pseudospectral method, offers an attractive approach to treatment for in vivo stimulation techniques. Further, if optimal brain stimulation protocols are to be experimentally successful, then the heterogeneity of cortical connectivity should be accounted for in the development of those protocols and thus more spatially localized solutions may be preferable. PMID:26089775

  6. Stability of Synchronization Clusters and Seizurability in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Palmigiano, Agostina; Pastor, Jesús; García de Sola, Rafael; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Identification of critical areas in presurgical evaluations of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy is the most important step prior to resection. According to the “epileptic focus model”, localization of seizure onset zones is the main task to be accomplished. Nevertheless, a significant minority of epileptic patients continue to experience seizures after surgery (even when the focus is correctly located), an observation that is difficult to explain under this approach. However, if attention is shifted from a specific cortical location toward the network properties themselves, then the epileptic network model does allow us to explain unsuccessful surgical outcomes. Methods The intraoperative electrocorticography records of 20 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were analyzed in search of interictal synchronization clusters. Synchronization was analyzed, and the stability of highly synchronized areas was quantified. Surrogate data were constructed and used to statistically validate the results. Our results show the existence of highly localized and stable synchronization areas in both the lateral and the mesial areas of the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the clinical seizures. Synchronization areas seem to play a central role in the capacity of the epileptic network to generate clinical seizures. Resection of stable synchronization areas is associated with elimination of seizures; nonresection of synchronization clusters is associated with the persistence of seizures after surgery. Discussion We suggest that synchronization clusters and their stability play a central role in the epileptic network, favoring seizure onset and propagation. We further speculate that the stability distribution of these synchronization areas would differentiate normal from pathologic cases. PMID:22844524

  7. Mortality in late post-traumatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Englander, Jeffrey; Bushnik, Tamara; Wright, Jerry M; Jamison, Laura; Duong, Thao T

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mortality rates in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were classified as having experienced late post-traumatic seizures (LPTS) in the first 2 years post-TBI compared to those who were seizure-free (non-LPTS). Participants were a pooled sample (n = 508) from two studies which enrolled individuals with TBI who were injured between March 31, 1992 and December 20, 1999. The first sample was made up of individuals enrolled in a study of risk factors for LPTS development; the second sample was composed of individuals enrolled in the TBI National Database from a single rehabilitation center. Seventy-one (14%) participants had LPTS, of which 27% had died at 8-15 years post-injury, as compared to 10% of non-LPTS participants. Individuals with LPTS died at a younger age (54.1 versus 67.7 years; p = 0.01), but there were no statistically significant differences in either time from date of injury to death or highest GCS score in the first 24 h. Causes of death were variable and not specifically related to epilepsy. Of those with LPTS, risk factors for death include advanced age at time of injury and presence of subdural hematoma. The higher mortality rate and death at younger age with variable causes in TBI individuals with LPTS warrant close medical evaluation and monitoring of these individuals, particularly accessibility and compliance with ongoing general medical care, and education of primary care colleagues of the unique needs of this at-risk population. PMID:19508123

  8. Seizures Related to Vitamin B6 Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Yeonkyung; Shin, Hyeeun; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kwon, Ohyun; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism. PMID:26157671

  9. Clinical decision making in seizures and status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Teran, Felipe; Harper-Kirksey, Katrina; Jagoda, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Seizures and status epilepticus are frequent neurologic emergencies in the emergency department, accounting for 1% of all emergency department visits. The management of this time-sensitive and potentially life-threatening condition is challenging for both prehospital providers and emergency clinicians. The approach to seizing patients begins with differentiating seizure activity from mimics and follows with identifying potential secondary etiologies, such as alcohol-related seizures. The approach to the patient in status epilepticus and the patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus constitutes a special clinical challenge. This review summarizes the best available evidence and recommendations regarding diagnosis and resuscitation of the seizing patient in the emergency setting. PMID:25902572

  10. Abusive suffocation presenting as new-onset seizure.

    PubMed

    Oral, Resmiye; Koc, Feyza; Smith, Jacob; Sato, Yutaka

    2011-11-01

    Child abuse can often be very difficult to identify. This is especially true in cases of abuse by suffocation. Suffocation often leaves no external physical marks and presents with vague, nonspecific symptoms. Infants who have been suffocated usually present unexplained apnea, cyanosis, or seizure. Moreover, new-onset seizures can be mistaken for an organic seizure disorder. This case report reviews a case of abuse by suffocation, which presented as new-onset status epilepticus. This case illustrates that suffocation can be difficult to diagnose despite the recognition of red flags that should prompt an investigation for abuse. PMID:22068072

  11. Blockade of T-type calcium channels prevents tonic-clonic seizures in a maximal electroshock seizure model.

    PubMed

    Sakkaki, Sophie; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Lerat, Benoit; Françon, Dominique; Forichon, Luc; Chemin, Jean; Valjent, Emmanuel; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Lory, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    T-type (Cav3) calcium channels play important roles in neuronal excitability, both in normal and pathological activities of the brain. In particular, they contribute to hyper-excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Here we have characterized the anticonvulsant properties of TTA-A2, a selective T-type channel blocker, in mouse. Using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) as a model of tonic-clonic generalized seizures, we report that mice treated with TTA-A2 (0.3 mg/kg and higher doses) were significantly protected against tonic seizures. Although no major change in Local Field Potential (LFP) pattern was observed during the MES seizure, analysis of the late post-ictal period revealed a significant increase in the delta frequency power in animals treated with TTA-A2. Similar results were obtained for Cav3.1-/- mice, which were less prone to develop tonic seizures in the MES test, but not for Cav3.2-/- mice. Analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and c-Fos expression revealed a rapid and elevated neuronal activation in the hippocampus following MES clonic seizures, which was unchanged in TTA-A2 treated animals. Overall, our data indicate that TTA-A2 is a potent anticonvulsant and that the Cav3.1 isoform plays a prominent role in mediating TTA-A2 tonic seizure protection. PMID:26456350

  12. REDUCED SEIZURE THRESHOLD AND ALTERED NETWORK OSCILLATORY PROPERTIES IN A MOUSE MODEL OF RETT SYNDROME

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    no detectable differences in synaptic or biophysical properties between methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)-containing and MeCP2-deficient neurons. These data support the proposal that loss of MeCP2 alters network. INTRODUCTION Rett syndrome (RTT), traditionally considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly affects girls

  13. A study of the dynamics of seizure propagation across micro domains in the vicinity of the seizure onset zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Ishita; Kudela, Pawel; Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Anderson, William S.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The use of micro-electrode arrays to measure electrical activity from the surface of the brain is increasingly being investigated as a means to improve seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization. In this work, we used a multivariate autoregressive model to determine the evolution of seizure dynamics in the 70-110 Hz high frequency band across micro-domains sampled by such micro-electrode arrays. We showed that a directed transfer function (DTF) can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with known propagation pattern. Approach. We used seven complex partial seizures recorded from four patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for surgical evaluation to reconstruct the seizure propagation pattern over sliding windows using a DTF measure. Main results. We showed that a DTF can be used to estimate the flow of seizure activity in a set of simulated micro-electrode data with a known propagation pattern. In general, depending on the location of the micro-electrode grid with respect to the clinical SOZ and the time from seizure onset, ictal propagation changed in directional characteristics over a 2-10 s time scale, with gross directionality limited to spatial dimensions of approximately 9 m{{m}2}. It was also seen that the strongest seizure patterns in the high frequency band and their sources over such micro-domains are more stable over time and across seizures bordering the clinically determined SOZ than inside. Significance. This type of propagation analysis might in future provide an additional tool to epileptologists for characterizing epileptogenic tissue. This will potentially help narrowing down resection zones without compromising essential brain functions as well as provide important information about targeting anti-epileptic stimulation devices.

  14. External Validation of a Prognostic Model for Seizure Recurrence Following a First Unprovoked Seizure and Implications for Driving

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, Laura Jayne; Marson, Anthony G.; Johnson, Anthony; Kim, Lois; Sander, Josemir W.; Lawn, Nicholas; Beghi, Ettore; Leone, Maurizio; Smith, Catrin Tudur

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the United Kingdom and other European Union countries guidelines for driving following a first unprovoked seizure require the risk of another seizure in the next year to be less than 20%. Using data from one clinical trial, we previously developed a prognostic model to inform driving guidelines. The objective of this work is to externally validate our published model and demonstrate its generalisability. Methods A cohort of 620 people with a first unprovoked seizure was used to develop the original model which included variables for aetiology, first degree relative with epilepsy, seizures only while asleep, electroencephalogram, computed tomography or magnetic resonance scan result, and treatment policy. The validation cohorts consisted of 274 (United Kingdom), 305 (Italy), and 847 (Australia) people. The model was evaluated using discrimination and calibration methods. A covariate, missing from the Italian dataset, was handled via five imputation methods. Following external validation, the model was fitted to a pooled population comprising all validation datasets and the development dataset. The model was stratified by dataset. Results The model generalised relatively well. All methods of imputation performed fairly similarly. At six months, the risk of a seizure recurrence following a first ever seizure, based on the pooled datasets, is 15% (95% CI: (12% to 18%)) for patients who are treated immediately and 18% (95% CI: (15 to 21%)) otherwise. Individuals can be reliably stratified into risk groups according to the clinical factors included in the model. Significance Our prognostic model, used to inform driving regulations, has been validated and consequently has been proven as a valuable tool for predicting risk of seizure recurrence following a first seizure in people with various combinations of risk factors. Additionally, there is evidence to support one worldwide overall prognostic model for risk of second seizure following a first. PMID:24919184

  15. Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures. Methods Forty-eight children who experienced their first unprovoked seizure with epileptiform discharges were included in the study. They were randomly placed into treatment (n?=?24) and control (n?=?24) groups. Children in the treatment group listened to Mozart K.448 daily before bedtime for at least six months. Two patients in the treatment group were excluded from analysis due to discontinuation intervention. Finally, forty-six patients were analyzed. Most of these patients (89.1%) were idiopathic in etiology. Seizure recurrence rates and reduction of epileptiform discharges were compared. Results The average follow-up durations in the treatment and control groups were 18.6?±?6.6 and 20.1?±?5.1 months, respectively. The seizure recurrence rate was estimated to be significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group over 24 months (37.2% vs. 76.8%, p?=?0.0109). Significant decreases in epileptiform discharges were also observed after 1, 2, and 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448 when compared with EEGs before listening to music. There were no significant differences in gender, mentality, seizure type, and etiology between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Conclusions Although the case number was limited and control music was not performed in this study, the study revealed that listening to Mozart K.448 reduced the seizure recurrence rate and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures, especially of idiopathic etiology. We believe that Mozart K.448 could be a promising alternative treatment in patients with first unprovoked seizures and abnormal EEGs. Further large-scaled study should be conducted to confirm the effect. Trial registration NCT01892605, date: June-19-2013 PMID:24410973

  16. The design and hardware implementation of a low-power real-time seizure detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K.; Ward, Matthew P.; Worth, Robert M.; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

    2009-10-01

    Epilepsy affects more than 1% of the world's population. Responsive neurostimulation is emerging as an alternative therapy for the 30% of the epileptic patient population that does not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Efficient seizure detection algorithms will enable closed-loop epilepsy prostheses by stimulating the epileptogenic focus within an early onset window. Critically, this is expected to reduce neuronal desensitization over time and lead to longer-term device efficacy. This work presents a novel event-based seizure detection algorithm along with a low-power digital circuit implementation. Hippocampal depth-electrode recordings from six kainate-treated rats are used to validate the algorithm and hardware performance in this preliminary study. The design process illustrates crucial trade-offs in translating mathematical models into hardware implementations and validates statistical optimizations made with empirical data analyses on results obtained using a real-time functioning hardware prototype. Using quantitatively predicted thresholds from the depth-electrode recordings, the auto-updating algorithm performs with an average sensitivity and selectivity of 95.3 ± 0.02% and 88.9 ± 0.01% (mean ± SE? = 0.05), respectively, on untrained data with a detection delay of 8.5 s [5.97, 11.04] from electrographic onset. The hardware implementation is shown feasible using CMOS circuits consuming under 350 nW of power from a 250 mV supply voltage from simulations on the MIT 180 nm SOI process.

  17. Moonstruck? The effect of the lunar cycle on seizures.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; Fisher, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Recent reports on the effects of the lunar cycle on seizure occurrence have yielded mixed results. If the moon phase is influential, we hypothesized that this would be due to the moon's contribution to nocturnal illumination, rather than its waxing or waning state, and that significant correlations would not be apparent if local cloud cover were controlled for. We found a significant negative correlation between the mean number of seizures and the fraction of the moon illuminated by the sun (rho=-0.09, P<0.05) in 1571 seizures recorded in a dedicated epilepsy inpatient unit over 341 days. This correlation disappeared when we controlled for the local clarity of the night sky, suggesting that it is the brightness of the night and the contribution the moon phase makes to nocturnal luminance, rather than the moon phase per se, that may influence the occurrence of epileptic seizures. PMID:18602495

  18. Effect of Contraceptive Estradiol on Hippocampus Kindling Seizure Activity 

    E-print Network

    Younus, Iyan

    2014-09-15

    by several million women worldwide. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential adverse effect of EE on epileptogenesis and seizure activity using the hippocampus kindling model in female mice. Animals were stimulated daily without...

  19. Focal inhibitory seizures: a cause of recurrent transient weakness.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fahmida A; Connor, Steve; Ferner, Rosalie; Leschziner, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Focal seizures are usually manifest with stereotyped positive phenomena. However, seizures may also give negative phenomena, such as paralysis, speech arrest, neglect, atonia and numbness. We report a 39-year-old man with neurofibromatosis 2 who had recurrent stereotyped episodes of weakness affecting his right leg and right arm. His MR scan of brain showed numerous meningiomas, the largest of which was near the vertex, adjacent to the left side of the falx. Interictal electroencephalogram, MR cerebral angiogram and Doppler carotid artery ultrasound scan were normal. He was diagnosed with epilepsy and started on levetiracetam, with no subsequent attacks. We postulate his negative motor seizures related to a meningioma overlying the supplementary negative motor area in the mesial superior frontal gyrus, and discuss diagnostic criteria for inhibitory seizures. PMID:26245512

  20. Respiratory motor nerve activities during experimental seizures in cats.

    PubMed

    Terndrup, T E; Knuth, S L; Gdovin, M J; Darnall, R; Bartlett, D

    1996-03-01

    We evaluated respiratory motor nerve activities during experimental seizures induced with subcortical penicillin. The activities of the phrenic (PH), nasolabial (NL), and hypoglossal (HG) nerves and the recurrent laryngeal motor branches to the thyroarytenoid (TA) and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles were analyzed in 13 anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and ventilated cats. During ictal and interictal phases of seizures, nerve activities became irregular and peak integrated nerve activities increased, particularly in the case of the PH nerve. The ictal phase of seizures was associated with increased tonic activity and decreased phasic respiratory discharges, particularly in the cases of the HG, NL, and PCA nerves. During some prolonged ictal discharges, entrainment of nerve activities by cortical spiking was associated with irregular uncoordinated activation, particularly in the TA nerve. These studies help explain respiratory impairment during seizures by providing evidence of impaired coordination between activation of muscles that regulate upper airway patency and activation of the diaphragm. PMID:8964758

  1. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Alpay; Kutlu, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Sigirci, Ahmet; Orkan, Ismet; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2004-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent seizures are an extremely rare genetic disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of permanent brain damage. Elevated levels of glutamate and decreased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the frontal and parietal cortices are among the characteristic features of this disorder. These metabolic abnormalities eventually lead to seizures and neuronal loss. In this case report, we present magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings of a 9-year-old girl with pyridoxine-dependent seizures with mental retardation. The N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine ratio was found to be decreased in the frontal and parieto-occipital cortices, which could indicate neuronal loss. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy could be a useful tool in the neuroimaging evaluation for assessment of parenchymal changes despite a normal-appearing brain magnetic resonance image in patients with pyridoxine-dependent seizures. PMID:15032392

  2. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Santos, Daniela F.; Santos, Ana I.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO). In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA) induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons. PMID:26587180

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of infancy (MMPSI) is a severe form of epilepsy that begins very early in life. Recurrent seizures ... Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Epilepsy Educational resources - Information pages (6 links) Patient support - ...

  4. Ontology and Knowledge Management System on Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures

    E-print Network

    Almeida, Pedro; Sales, Francisco; Nogueira, Ana; Dourado, António

    2010-01-01

    A Knowledge Management System developed for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information about Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures is presented. We present an Ontology on Epilepsy and a Web-based prototype that together create the KMS.

  5. UNCONTROLLED SEIZURES AND BONE HEALTH AMONG ADULT EPILEPSY PATIENTS

    E-print Network

    Yamada, Mikiko

    2013-12-31

    PURPOSE: Uncontrolled seizures negatively impact the quality of life of epilepsy patients, and bone health represents one of the more serious adverse outcomes of epilepsy and its treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine...

  6. Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Poor Attention Is More Than Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Childhood absence epilepsy Poor attention is more than seizures Liu Lin ... Masur and colleagues 1 from the Childhood Absence Epilepsy Study Group tried to answer a few important ...

  7. Investigation of cardiac dysfunction and hypoxaemia during epileptic seizures 

    E-print Network

    Brotherstone, Ruth Elizabeth

    2012-06-30

    Epileptic seizures are often un-witnessed and can result in hypoxic brain damage or can be fatal due to injuries, status epilepticus or sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The first aim of this thesis was ...

  8. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

  9. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

  10. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

  11. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

  12. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

  13. Detection of Epileptic Seizure Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Borujeny, Golshan Taheri; Yazdi, Mehran; Keshavarz-Haddad, Alireza; Borujeny, Arash Rafie

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of epileptic seizures is mainly done by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Although this method is accurate, it is not comfortable for the patient as the EEG-electrodes have to be attached to the scalp which hampers the patient's movement. This makes long-term home monitoring not feasible. In this paper, the aim is to propose a seizure detection system based on accelerometry for the detection of epileptic seizure. The used sensors are wireless, which can improve quality of life for the patients. In this system, three 2D accelerometer sensors are positioned on the right arm, left arm, and left thigh of an epileptic patient. Datasets from three patients suffering from severe epilepsy are used in this paper for the development of an automatic detection algorithm. This monitoring system is based on Wireless Sensor Networks and can determine the location of the patient when a seizure is detected and then send an alarm to hospital staff or the patient's relatives. Our wireless sensor nodes are MICAz Motes developed by Crossbow Technology. The proposed system can be used for patients living in a clinical environment or at their home, where they do only their daily routines. The analysis of the recorded data is done by an Artificial Neural Network and K Nearest-Neighbor to recognize seizure movements from normal movements. The results show that K Nearest Neighbor performs better than Artificial Neural Network for detecting these seizures. The results also show that if at least 50% of the signal consists of seizure samples, we can detect the seizure accurately. In addition, there is no need for training the algorithm for each new patient. PMID:24098859

  14. Pausing at the Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Patrick K.

    2015-01-01

    Since about 2003, the notion of threshold concepts--the central ideas in any field that change how learners think about other ideas--have become difficult to escape at library conferences and in general information literacy discourse. Their visibility will likely only increase because threshold concepts figure prominently in the Framework for…

  15. Bayesian Threshold Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time…

  16. Reflex seizures, traits, and epilepsies: from physiology to pathology.

    PubMed

    Koepp, Matthias J; Caciagli, Lorenzo; Pressler, Ronit M; Lehnertz, Klaus; Beniczky, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are generally unpredictable and arise spontaneously. Patients often report non-specific triggers such as stress or sleep deprivation, but only rarely do seizures occur as a reflex event, in which they are objectively and consistently modulated, precipitated, or inhibited by external sensory stimuli or specific cognitive processes. The seizures triggered by such stimuli and processes in susceptible individuals can have different latencies. Once seizure-suppressing mechanisms fail and a critical mass (the so-called tipping point) of cortical activation is reached, reflex seizures stereotypically manifest with common motor features independent of the physiological network involved. The complexity of stimuli increases from simple sensory to complex cognitive-emotional with increasing age of onset. The topography of physiological networks involved follows the posterior-to-anterior trajectory of brain development, reflecting age-related changes in brain excitability. Reflex seizures and traits probably represent the extremes of a continuum, and understanding of their underlying mechanisms might help to elucidate the transition of normal physiological function to paroxysmal epileptic activity. PMID:26627365

  17. Decursin attenuates kainic acid-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Keun; Jeong, Ji Woon; Jang, Taeik; Lee, Go-Woon; Han, Hogyu; Kang, Jae-Seon; Kim, Ik-Hwan

    2014-11-12

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with recurrent unprovoked seizures as the main symptom. Of the coumarin derivatives in Angelica gigas, decursin, a major coumarin component, was reported to exhibit significant protective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity when added to primary cultures of rat cortical cells. This study served to investigate the effects of decursin on a kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus model. Thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injections of decursin (20?mg/kg) in male 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice, the animals were treated with KA (30?mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and then examined for behavioral seizure score, electroencephalogram, seizure-related expressed protein levels, neuronal cell loss, neurodegeneration, and astrogliosis. KA injections significantly enhanced neurodegenerative conditions but treatment with decursin 30?min before KA injection reduced the detrimental effects of KA in mice. The decursin-treated KA-injected group showed significantly decreased behavioral seizure activity and remarkably attenuated intense and high-frequency seizure discharges in the parietal cortex for 2?h compared with the group treated only with KA. Furthermore, in-vivo results indicated that decursin strongly inhibits selective neuronal death, astrogliosis, and oxidative stress induced by KA administration. Therefore decursin is able to attenuate KA-induced seizures and could have potential as an antiepileptic drug. PMID:25171200

  18. Seizure Prediction: Science Fiction or Soon to Become Reality?

    PubMed

    Freestone, Dean R; Karoly, Philippa J; Peterson, Andre D H; Kuhlmann, Levin; Lai, Alan; Goodarzy, Farhad; Cook, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    This review highlights recent developments in the field of epileptic seizure prediction. We argue that seizure prediction is possible; however, most previous attempts have used data with an insufficient amount of information to solve the problem. The review discusses four methods for gaining more information above standard clinical electrophysiological recordings. We first discuss developments in obtaining long-term data that enables better characterisation of signal features and trends. Then, we discuss the usage of electrical stimulation to probe neural circuits to obtain robust information regarding excitability. Following this, we present a review of developments in high-resolution micro-electrode technologies that enable neuroimaging across spatial scales. Finally, we present recent results from data-driven model-based analyses, which enable imaging of seizure generating mechanisms from clinical electrophysiological measurements. It is foreseeable that the field of seizure prediction will shift focus to a more probabilistic forecasting approach leading to improvements in the quality of life for the millions of people who suffer uncontrolled seizures. However, a missing piece of the puzzle is devices to acquire long-term high-quality data. When this void is filled, seizure prediction will become a reality. PMID:26404726

  19. A Physiology-Based Seizure Detection System for Multichannel EEG

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chia-Ping; Liu, Shih-Ting; Zhou, Wei-Zhi; Lin, Feng-Seng; Lam, Andy Yan-Yu; Sung, Hsiao-Ya; Chen, Wei; Lin, Jeng-Wei; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Pan, Ming-Kai; Kao, Jui-Hung; Wu, Jin-Ming; Lai, Feipei

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable. Methodology This study proposes a physiology-based detection system for epileptic seizures that uses multichannel EEG signals. The proposed technique was tested on two EEG data sets acquired from 18 patients. Both unipolar and bipolar EEG signals were analyzed. We employed sample entropy (SampEn), statistical values, and concepts used in clinical neurophysiology (e.g., phase reversals and potential fields of a bipolar EEG) to extract the features. We further tested the performance of a genetic algorithm cascaded with a support vector machine and post-classification spike matching. Principal Findings We obtained 86.69% spike detection and 99.77% seizure detection for Data Set I. The detection system was further validated using the model trained by Data Set I on Data Set II. The system again showed high performance, with 91.18% detection of spikes and 99.22% seizure detection. Conclusion We report a de novo EEG classification system for seizure and spike detection on multichannel EEG that includes physiology-based knowledge to enhance the performance of this type of system. PMID:23799053

  20. Antisense Reduction of Tau in Adult Mice Protects against Seizures

    PubMed Central

    DeVos, Sarah L.; Goncharoff, Dustin K.; Chen, Guo; Kebodeaux, Carey S.; Yamada, Kaoru; Stewart, Floy R.; Schuler, Dorothy R.; Maloney, Susan E.; Wozniak, David F.; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C. Frank; Cirrito, John R.; Holtzman, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Tau, a microtubule-associated protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in regard to both neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal network hyperexcitability. The genetic ablation of tau substantially reduces hyperexcitability in AD mouse lines, induced seizure models, and genetic in vivo models of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that tau is an important regulator of network excitability. However, developmental compensation in the genetic tau knock-out line may account for the protective effect against seizures. To test the efficacy of a tau reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in adult animals, we identified antisense oligonucleotides that selectively decrease endogenous tau expression throughout the entire mouse CNS—brain and spinal cord tissue, interstitial fluid, and CSF—while having no effect on baseline motor or cognitive behavior. In two chemically induced seizure models, mice with reduced tau protein had less severe seizures than control mice. Total tau protein levels and seizure severity were highly correlated, such that those mice with the most severe seizures also had the highest levels of tau. Our results demonstrate that endogenous tau is integral for regulating neuronal hyperexcitability in adult animals and suggest that an antisense oligonucleotide reduction of tau could benefit those with epilepsy and perhaps other disorders associated with tau-mediated neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:23904623

  1. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0?mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30?mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  2. MRI compatible optrodes for simultaneous LFP and optogenetic fMRI investigation of seizure-like afterdischarges.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Ben A; Choy, ManKin; Chuapoco, Miguel R; Madsen, Michael; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2015-12-01

    In preclinical studies, implanted electrodes can cause severe degradation of MRI images and hence are seldom used for chronic studies employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, we developed carbon fiber optrodes (optical fiber and electrode hybrid devices), which can be utilised in chronic longitudinal studies aiming to take advantage of emerging optogenetic technologies, and compared them with the more widely used tungsten optrodes. We find that optrodes constructed using small diameter (~130 ?m) carbon fiber electrodes cause significantly reduced artifact on functional MRI images compared to those made with 50 ?m diameter tungsten wire and at the same time the carbon electrodes have lower impedance, which leads to higher quality LFP recordings. In order to validate this approach, we use these devices to study optogenetically-induced seizure-like afterdischarges in rats sedated with dexmedetomidine and compare these to sub (seizure) threshold stimulations in the same animals. The results indicate that seizure-like afterdischarges involve several extrahippocampal brain regions that are not recruited by subthreshold optogenetic stimulation of the hippocampus at 20 Hz. Subthreshold stimulation led to activation of the entire ipsilateral hippocampus and septum, whereas afterdischarges additionally produced activations in the contralateral hippocampal formation, neocortex, cerebellum, nucleus accumbens, and thalamus. Although we demonstrate just one application, given the ease of fabrication, we anticipate that carbon fiber optrodes could be utilised in a variety of studies that could benefit from longitudinal optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26208873

  3. RDX Binds to the GABAA Receptor–Convulsant Site and Blocks GABAA Receptor–Mediated Currents in the Amygdala: A Mechanism for RDX-Induced Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Larry R.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Qashu, Felicia; Finne, Huckelberry; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr; Bannon, Desmond I.; Braga, Maria F. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high-energy, trinitrated cyclic compound that has been used worldwide since World War II as an explosive in both military and civilian applications. RDX can be released in the environment by way of waste streams generated during the manufacture, use, and disposal of RDX-containing munitions and can leach into groundwater from unexploded munitions found on training ranges. For > 60 years, it has been known that exposure to high doses of RDX causes generalized seizures, but the mechanism has remained unknown. Objective We investigated the mechanism by which RDX induces seizures. Methods and results By screening the affinity of RDX for a number of neurotransmitter receptors, we found that RDX binds exclusively to the picrotoxin convulsant site of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) ionophore. Whole-cell in vitro recordings in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) showed that RDX reduces the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous GABAA receptor–mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents and the amplitude of GABA-evoked postsynaptic currents. In extracellular field recordings from the BLA, RDX induced prolonged, seizure-like neuronal discharges. Conclusions These results suggest that binding to the GABAA receptor convulsant site is the primary mechanism of seizure induction by RDX and that reduction of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is involved in the generation of RDX-induced seizures. Knowledge of the molecular site and the mechanism of RDX action with respect to seizure induction can guide therapeutic strategies, allow more accurate development of safe thresholds for exposures, and help prevent the development of new explosives or other munitions that could pose similar health risks. PMID:21362589

  4. Seizure Outcomes and Predictors of Recurrent Post-Stroke Seizure: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Rie; Fukuma, Kazuki; Miyagi, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Kazutaka; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Seizure is a common complication after stroke (termed “post-stroke seizure,” PSS). Although many studies have assessed outcomes and risk factors of PSS, no reliable predictors are currently available to determine PSS recurrence. We compared baseline clinical characteristics and post-stroke treatment regimens between recurrent and non-recurrent PSS patients to identify factors predictive of recurrence. Methods Consecutive PSS patients admitted to our stroke center between January 2011 and July 2013 were monitored until February 2014 (median 357 days; IQR, 160–552) and retrospectively evaluated for baseline clinical characteristics and PSS recurrence. Cumulative recurrence rates at 90, 180, and 360 days post-stroke were estimated by Kaplan—Meier analysis. Independent predictors of recurrent PSS were identified by Cox proportional-hazards analysis. Results A total of 104 patients (71 men; mean age, 72.1 ± 11.2 years) were analyzed. PSS recurred in 31 patients (30%) during the follow-up. Factors significantly associated with PSS recurrence by log-rank analysis included previous PSS, valproic acid (VPA) monotherapy, polytherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), frontal cortical lesion, and higher modified Rankin Scale score at discharge (all p < 0.05). Independent predictors of recurrent PSS were age <74 years (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.02–5.90), VPA monotherapy (HR 3.86, 95% CI 1.30–12.62), and convulsions on admission (HR 3.87, 95% CI 1.35–12.76). Conclusions Approximately one-third of PSS patients experienced seizure recurrence within one year. The predictors of recurrent PSS were younger age, presence of convulsions and VPA monotherapy. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously in countries where monotherapy with second-generation AEDs has been approved because this study was conducted while second-generation AEDs had not been officially approved for monotherapy in Japan. PMID:26309124

  5. Studies of stimulus parameters for seizure disruption using neural network simulations

    PubMed Central

    Kudela, Pawel; Cho, Ryan J.; Bergey, Gregory K.; Franaszczuk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    A large scale neural network simulation with realistic cortical architecture has been undertaken to investigate the effects of external electrical stimulation on the propagation and evolution of ongoing seizure activity. This is an effort to explore the parameter space of stimulation variables to uncover promising avenues of research for this therapeutic modality. The model consists of an approximately 800 ?m × 800 ?m region of simulated cortex, and includes seven neuron classes organized by cortical layer, inhibitory or excitatory properties, and electrophysiological characteristics. The cell dynamics are governed by a modified version of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations in single compartment format. Axonal connections are patterned after histological data and published models of local cortical wiring. Stimulation induced action potentials take place at the axon initial segments, according to threshold requirements on the applied electric field distribution. Stimulation induced action potentials in horizontal axonal branches are also separately simulated. The calculations are performed on a 16 node distributed 32-bit processor system. Clear differences in seizure evolution are presented for stimulated versus the undisturbed rhythmic activity. Data is provided for frequency dependent stimulation effects demonstrating a plateau effect of stimulation efficacy as the applied frequency is increased from 60 Hz to 200 Hz. Timing of the stimulation with respect to the underlying rhythmic activity demonstrates a phase dependent sensitivity. Electrode height and position effects are also presented. Using a dipole stimulation electrode arrangement, clear orientation effects of the dipole with respect to the model connectivity is also demonstrated. A sensitivity analysis of these results as a function of the stimulation threshold is also provided. PMID:17619199

  6. Long-term safety of perampanel and seizure outcomes in refractory partial-onset seizures and secondarily generalized seizures: Results from phase III extension study 307

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Gregory L; Perucca, Emilio; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; Kwan, Patrick; Shih, Jerry J; Clément, Jean-François; Wang, Xuefeng; Bagul, Makarand; Gee, Michelle; Zhu, Jin; Squillacote, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate safety, tolerability, seizure frequency, and regional variations in treatment responses with the AMPA antagonist, perampanel, in a large extension study during up to 3 years of treatment. Methods Patients ?12 years old with partial-onset seizures despite treatment with 1–3 antiepileptic drugs at baseline completed a perampanel phase III trial and entered extension study 307 (NCT00735397). Patients were titrated to 12 mg/day (or their individual maximum tolerated dose) during the blinded conversion period, followed by open-label maintenance. Exposure, safety (adverse events [AEs], vital signs, weight, electrocardiography [ECG], laboratory values) and seizure outcomes were analyzed; key measures were assessed by geographic regions. Results Among 1,216 patients, median exposure was 1.5 years (range 1 week to 3.3 years), with >300 patients treated for >2 years. Treatment retention was 58.5% at cutoff. AEs reported in ?10% of patients were dizziness, somnolence, headache, fatigue, irritability, and weight increase. Only dizziness and irritability caused discontinuation in >1% of patients (3.9% and 1.3%, respectively). The only serious AEs reported in >1% of patients were epilepsy-related (convulsion, 3.0%; status epilepticus, 1.1%). No clinically relevant changes in vital signs, ECG or laboratory parameters were seen. After titration/conversion, responder rate and median percentage change from baseline in seizure frequency were stable: 46% for both measures at 9 months (in 980 patients with ?9 months' exposure) and 58% and 60%, respectively, at 2 years (in the 337 patients with 2 years' exposure). Median percentage reduction in frequency of secondarily generalized (SG) seizures ranged from 77% at 9 months (N = 422) to 90% at 2 years (N = 141). Among the 694 patients with maintenance data ?1 year, 5.3% were seizure-free for the entire year. Significance No new safety signals emerged during up to 3 years of perampanel exposure in 39 countries. Seizure responses remained stable, with marked reductions, particularly in SG seizures. PMID:24867391

  7. Effect of electroconvulsive seizures on pattern separation.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Maria; Grahm, Matilda; Ekstrand, Joakim; Movahed-Rad, Pouya; Johansson, Mikael; Tingström, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Strategies employing different techniques to inhibit or stimulate neurogenesis have implicated a role for adult-born neurons in the therapeutic effect of antidepressant drugs, as well as a role in memory formation. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of electroconvulsive therapy, robustly stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis, but it is not known how this relates to either therapeutic efficacy or unwanted cognitive side effects. We hypothesized that the ECS-derived increase in adult-born neurons would manifest in improved pattern separation ability, a memory function that is believed to be both hippocampus-dependent and coupled to neurogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we stimulated neurogenesis in adult rats by treating them with a series of ECS and compared their performances in a trial-unique delayed nonmatching-to-location task (TUNL) to a control group. TUNL performance was analyzed over a 12-week period, during which newly formed neurons differentiate and become functionally integrated in the hippocampal neurocircuitry. Task difficulty was manipulated by modifying the delay between sample and choice, and by varying the spatial similarity between target and distracter location. Although animals learned the task and improved the number of correct responses over time, ECS did not influence spatial pattern separation ability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25850383

  8. Influences of hyperthermia-induced seizures on learning, memory and phosphorylative state of CaMKII? in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yufang; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Lian

    2014-04-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) remains the most common childhood neurological emergency. Although many studies have been done, controversy exists as to whether these seizures are associated with a significant risk for cognitive impairment. The aim of our study is to check whether there is a spatial learning and memory deficit in the experimental FS rats using a heated-air FS paradigm and to determine the possible molecular mechanism of cognitive impairment. On days 10 to 12 postpartum, the male rat pups were subjected to one, three, or nine episodes of brief hyperthermia-induced seizures (HS). At adolescence and adulthood, the rats subjected to three, or nine episodes of HS had significant deficits in spatial learning and memory tested by Morris water maze. At adulthood, no apparent hippocampal neuronal loss was found in any HS group, but the seizure threshold to flurothyl was decreased significantly in the rats subjected to nine episodes of HS. In the rats subjected to three, or nine episodes of HS, the Western immunoblotting showed that there was a significant translocation of Ca(2+)-calmodulin stimulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) from the postsynaptic density to the cytosol. In the postsynaptic density the phosphorylation of CaMKII? Thr(286) was reduced significantly, but the phosphorylation of CaMKII? Thr(305) was increased significantly. Our study showed early-life brief but recurrent HS caused long-term cognitive impairment and CaMKII? was involved in carrying forward the signal resulting from HS. The change of the phosphorylative level in Thr(286) and Thr(305) sites of CaMKII? may underlie the molecular mechanism for the HS related cognitive impairment. PMID:24560900

  9. Modeling early-onset post-ischemic seizures in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiping; Wang, Justin; Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in the aged population, with post-stroke seizures being a poor prognostic factor. The pathological processes underlying post-stroke seizures are not well understood and studies of these seizures in aging/aged animals remain scarce. Therefore, our primary objective was to model post-stroke seizures in aging mice (C57 black strain, 16-20 months-old), with a focus on early-onset, convulsive seizures that occur within 24-hours of brain ischemia. We utilized a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and examined seizure activity and brain injury using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic monitoring and histological assessments. Aging mice exhibited vigorous convulsive seizures within hours of the middle cerebral artery occlusion. These seizures manifested with jumping, rapid running, barrel-rolling and/or falling all in the absence of hippocampal-cortical electrographic discharges. Seizure development was closely associated with severe brain injury and acute mortality. Anticonvulsive treatments after seizure occurrence offered temporary seizure control but failed to improve animal survival. A separate cohort of adult mice (6-8 months-old) exhibited analogous early-onset convulsive seizures following the middle cerebral artery occlusion but had better survival outcomes following anticonvulsive treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that early-onset convulsive seizures are a result of severe brain ischemia in aging animals. PMID:25943585

  10. Muscarinic M1 receptor and cannabinoid CB1 receptor do not modulate paraoxon-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kow, Rebecca L; Cheng, Eugene M; Jiang, Kelly; Le, Joshua H; Stella, Nephi; Nathanson, Neil M

    2015-01-01

    One of the major signs of severe organophosphate poisoning is seizures. Previous studies have shown that both muscarinic agonist- and organophosphate-induced seizures require activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system. Seizures induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine require the M1 receptor and are modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. In this study, we determined whether M1 and CB1 receptors also regulated seizures induced by the organophosphate paraoxon. We found no differences in seizures induced by paraoxon in wild-type (WT) and M1 knockout (KO) mice, indicating that in contrast to pilocarpine seizures, M1 receptors are not required for paraoxon seizures. Furthermore, we found that pilocarpine administration resulted in seizure-independent activation of ERK in the hippocampus in a M1 receptor-dependent manner, while paraoxon did not induce seizure-independent activation of ERK in the mouse hippocampus. This shows that pilocarpine and paraoxon activated M1 receptors in the hippocampus to different extents. There were no differences in seizures induced by paraoxon in WT and CB1 KO mice, and neither CB1 agonist nor antagonist administration had significant effects on paraoxon seizures, indicating that, in contrast to pilocarpine seizures, paraoxon seizures are not modulated by CB1 receptors. These results demonstrate that there are fundamental molecular differences in the regulation of seizures induced by pilocarpine and paraoxon. PMID:25692018

  11. Threshold voltage extraction circuit 

    E-print Network

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01

    A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

  12. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, L.H.; Chalder, T.; Chigwedere, C.; Khondoker, M.R.; Moriarty, J.; Toone, B.K.; Mellers, J.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical care (SMC) as treatments for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods: Our randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared CBT with SMC in an outpatient neuropsychiatric setting. Sixty-six PNES patients were randomized to either CBT (plus SMC) or SMC alone, scheduled to occur over 4 months. PNES diagnosis was established by video-EEG telemetry for most patients. Exclusion criteria included comorbid history of epilepsy, <2 PNES/month, and IQ <70. The primary outcome was seizure frequency at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included 3 months of seizure freedom at 6-month follow-up, measures of psychosocial functioning, health service use, and employment. Results: In an intention-to-treat analysis, seizure reduction following CBT was superior at treatment end (group × time interaction p < 0.0001; large to medium effect sizes). At follow-up, the CBT group tended to be more likely to have experienced 3 months of seizure freedom (odds ratio 3.125, p = 0.086). Both groups improved in some health service use measures and on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Mood and employment status showed no change. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than standard medical care alone in reducing seizure frequency in PNES patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT in addition to SMC, as compared to SMC alone, significantly reduces seizure frequency in patients with PNES (change in median monthly seizure frequency: baseline to 6 months follow-up, CBT group, 12 to 1.5; SMC alone group, 8 to 5). GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy; CI = confidence interval; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IQR = interquartile range; ITT = intention-to-treat; OR = odds ratio; PNES = psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SMC = standard medical care; WASAS = Work and Social Adjustment Scale. PMID:20548043

  13. Citation/Reference Carolina Varon, Jansen K., Lagae L., and Van Huffel S. (2015), Can ECG monitoring identify seizures?

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    seizures is improved after including respiratory information. Significance These findings could improve monitoring systems in epilepsy, and closed-loop techniques that aim to stop seizures. #12;Highlights: Cardiac and respiratory changes during epileptic seizures Cardiorespiratory interactions derived solely

  14. Risk factors for EEG seizures in neonates treated with hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Wusthoff, Courtney J.; Shellhaas, Renée A.; Tsuchida, Tammy N.; Bonifacio, Sonia Lomeli; Cordeiro, Malaika; Sullivan, Joseph; Abend, Nicholas S.; Chang, Taeun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk factors for electrographic seizures among neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods: Three-center observational cohort study of 90 term neonates treated with hypothermia, monitored with continuous video-EEG (cEEG) within the first day of life (median age at onset of recording 9.5 hours, interquartile range 6.3–14.5), and continued for >24 hours (total recording 93.3 hours, interquartile range 80.1–112.8 among survivors). A pediatric electroencephalographer at each site reviewed cEEGs for electrographic seizures and initial EEG background category. Results: A total of 43 (48%) had electrographic seizures, including 9 (10%) with electrographic status epilepticus. Abnormal initial EEG background classification (excessively discontinuous, depressed and undifferentiated, burst suppression, or extremely low voltage), but not clinical variables (including pH <6.8, base excess ??20, or 10-minute Apgar ?3), was strongly associated with seizures. Conclusions: Electrographic seizures are common among neonates with HIE undergoing hypothermia and are difficult to predict based on clinical features. These results justify the recommendation for cEEG monitoring in neonates treated with hypothermia. PMID:24610326

  15. Clinical implementation of a neonatal seizure detection algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Temko, Andriy; Marnane, William; Boylan, Geraldine; Lightbody, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Technologies for automated detection of neonatal seizures are gradually moving towards cot-side implementation. The aim of this paper is to present different ways to visualize the output of a neonatal seizure detection system and analyse their influence on performance in a clinical environment. Three different ways to visualize the detector output are considered: a binary output, a probabilistic trace, and a spatio-temporal colormap of seizure observability. As an alternative to visual aids, audified neonatal EEG is also considered. Additionally, a survey on the usefulness and accuracy of the presented methods has been performed among clinical personnel. The main advantages and disadvantages of the presented methods are discussed. The connection between information visualization and different methods to compute conventional metrics is established. The results of the visualization methods along with the system validation results indicate that the developed neonatal seizure detector with its current level of performance would unambiguously be of benefit to clinicians as a decision support system. The results of the survey suggest that a suitable way to visualize the output of neonatal seizure detection systems in a clinical environment is a combination of a binary output and a probabilistic trace. The main healthcare benefits of the tool are outlined. The decision support system with the chosen visualization interface is currently undergoing pre-market European multi-centre clinical investigation to support its regulatory approval and clinical adoption. PMID:25892834

  16. Brain regional glucose use during Soman-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    McDonough, J H; Hackley, B E; Cross, R; Samson, F; Nelson, S

    1983-01-01

    The (14C)-2-deoxyglucose procedure was used to determine the effects of the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Soman on regional metabolism in the brain. Groups of rats were given 112 micrograms/kg Soman, 84 micrograms/kg Soman, or saline i.m., and 15 min later the (14C)-2-deoxyglucose mapping procedure was initiated. All animals given 112 micrograms/kg Soman and 2 of 6 given 84 micrograms/kg Soman developed seizures that continued throughout the mapping procedure. Very high rates of glucose use occurred in most of the brain regions studied during seizures. The most striking increases occurred in substantia nigra, septum, outer layer of dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, hippocampal body, frontal cortex, caudate, ventral thalamus, parietal cortex, medial geniculate and interpeduncular nucleus. Only the inferior colliculus, superior olivary nucleus and lateral habenula were unaffected by the seizures. The mid layers of cerebral cortex rostral to superior colliculus showed marked reductions in glucose use which may represent inhibition of neuronal activity or functional failure from depleted energy reserves. The animals given 84 micrograms/kg i.m. that did not have seizures had regional glucose use patterns similar to the controls. The results indicate that the brain damage observed by others in Soman treated rats may be in part due to the excessive neuronal stimulation that occurs during the prolonged Soman-induced seizure. PMID:6685261

  17. Lacosamide: A Review in Focal Seizures in Patients with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-12-01

    Lacosamide (Vimpat(®)) is a functionalized amino acid available orally (as a solution or tablets) and as an intravenous infusion for use as monotherapy (only in the USA) or adjunctive therapy for the treatment of focal seizures in adult and adolescent (aged ?17 years in the USA) patients with epilepsy. As adjunctive therapy to other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), lacosamide provided effective seizure control and was generally well tolerated in adults and adolescents (aged ?16 years) in randomized clinical trials and in the real-world setting. In clinical trials, adjunctive lacosamide provided significantly greater reductions in 28-day seizure rates than adjunctive placebo, with these benefits maintained after up to 8 years of therapy in open-label extension studies. Moreover, patients were effectively switched from oral to short-term intravenous adjunctive therapy at the same dosage, which may be particularly beneficial in situations where oral therapy is not suitable. Conversion to lacosamide monotherapy was superior to a historical-control cohort in patients with focal seizures converting from previous AED therapy. In the absence of head-to-head comparisons with other AEDs, the exact position of lacosamide relative to other AEDs remains to be fully determined. In the meantime, oral and intravenous lacosamide provides a useful option as monotherapy (only in the USA) or adjunctive therapy for the treatment of focal seizures in adult and adolescent (aged ?17 years in the USA) patients with epilepsy. PMID:26607484

  18. Sydenham's chorea and seizures. Clinical and electroencephalographic studies.

    PubMed

    Ch'ien, L T; Economides, A N; Lemmi, H

    1978-06-01

    The hospital records of 28 children (mean age, 9.4 years) with typical Sydenham's chorea were reviewed. Nineteen of 28 patients had antistreptolysin O titers of greater than or equal to 200 Todd units. Other causes of chorea were excluded by appropriate laboratory and clinical follow-up studies. At the onset of the movement disorder, 17 of 28 patients had abnormal EEGs consisting of irregular posterior slowing in 15, sharp epileptic spikes in 5, and high-voltage sharp waves in 2. Two patients with spikes predominantly in the temporal lobe regions developed complex partial seizures. On follow-up evaluation, the EEGs returned to normal within one to four weeks. Seizures did not recur after therapy with anticonvulsants. Seizures have been reported only rarely in association with Sydenham's chorea. Our observation suggests that seizures may occur during chorea but may often be masked by frequent choreic movements and thus not recognized. The EEG changes and seizures were transient in our patients studied so far. PMID:655913

  19. EEG seizure detection and prediction algorithms: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaiby, Turkey N.; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Alshawi, Tariq; Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2014-12-01

    Epilepsy patients experience challenges in daily life due to precautions they have to take in order to cope with this condition. When a seizure occurs, it might cause injuries or endanger the life of the patients or others, especially when they are using heavy machinery, e.g., deriving cars. Studies of epilepsy often rely on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in order to analyze the behavior of the brain during seizures. Locating the seizure period in EEG recordings manually is difficult and time consuming; one often needs to skim through tens or even hundreds of hours of EEG recordings. Therefore, automatic detection of such an activity is of great importance. Another potential usage of EEG signal analysis is in the prediction of epileptic activities before they occur, as this will enable the patients (and caregivers) to take appropriate precautions. In this paper, we first present an overview of seizure detection and prediction problem and provide insights on the challenges in this area. Second, we cover some of the state-of-the-art seizure detection and prediction algorithms and provide comparison between these algorithms. Finally, we conclude with future research directions and open problems in this topic.

  20. The Contribution of Normal Pregnancy to Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Abbie Chapman; Nagle, Keith J.; Tremble, Sarah M.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Eclampsia, clinically defined as unexplained seizure in a woman with preeclampsia, is a life threatening complication unique to the pregnant state. However, a subpopulation of women with seemingly uncomplicated pregnancies experience de novo seizure without preeclamptic signs or symptoms, suggesting pregnancy alone may predispose the brain to seizure. Here, we hypothesized that normal pregnancy lowers seizure threshold and investigated mechanisms by which pregnancy may affect seizure susceptibility, including neuroinflammation and plasticity of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subunit expression. Seizure threshold was determined by quantifying the amount of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) required to elicit electrical seizure in Sprague Dawley rats that were either nonpregnant (Nonpreg, n = 7) or pregnant (Preg; d20, n = 6). Seizure-induced vasogenic edema was also measured. Further, activation of microglia, a measure of neuroinflammation (n = 6-8/group), and GABAAR ?- and ?2-subunit protein expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (n = 6/group) was determined. Seizure threshold was lower in Preg compared to Nonpreg rats (36.7±9.6 vs. 65.0±14.5 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.01) that was associated with greater vasogenic edema formation (78.55±0.11 vs. 78.04±0.19% water; p<0.05). The % of active microglia was similar between groups; however, pregnancy was associated with downregulation of cortical GABAAR-? and hippocampal GABAAR-?2 expression. Overall, pregnancy appears to be a state of increased seizure susceptibility that is not due to neuroinflammation, but rather is associated with reduced expression of GABAAR subunits and greater edema. Understanding neurophysiological changes occurring in normal pregnancy could allow for better prevention and management of de novo seizure, including pathologic states such as eclampsia. PMID:26218425

  1. Excitant amino acids and audiogenic seizures in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat. I. Afferent seizure initiation pathway.

    PubMed

    Faingold, C L; Millan, M H; Boersma, C A; Meldrum, B S

    1988-03-01

    The afferent pathway involved in initiation of audiogenic seizures in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat was investigated by bilateral microinfusion of the excitant amino acid antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate into the major brain stem and subcortical nuclei of the auditory system. This antagonist has been shown to possess anticonvulsant properties in other seizure models, and an excitant amino acid has been implicated as a putative neurotransmitter in several of these nuclei. Seizure severity was significantly reduced following infusion of this agent into the cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate body. Many of these animals exhibited a complete blockade of seizures. The smallest effective dose in the cochlear nucleus and the medial geniculate body was 5 nmol per side. The smallest effective dose in the olive was 1 nmol, and in the inferior colliculus 0.1 nmol per side was protective. The onset of anticonvulsant effectiveness was earliest in the inferior colliculus. These findings showed that the inferior colliculus was the most sensitive auditory center to the anticonvulsant action of 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate and that imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory transmission within this brain structure may be crucial in the initiation of audiogenic seizures in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat. PMID:3342850

  2. Issues related to development of new anti-seizure treatments

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Karen S.; Dixon-Salazar, Tracy; Sills, Graeme J.; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; White, H. Steve; Porter, Roger J.; Dichter, Marc A.; Moshé, Solomon L.; Noebels, Jeffery L.; Privitera, Michael D.; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This report represents a summary of the discussions led by the anti-seizure treatment working group of the ILAE/AES Working Groups joint meeting in London (London Meeting). We review here what is currently known about the pharmacological characteristics of current models of refractory seizures, both for adult and pediatric epilepsy. In addition, we address how the NINDS-funded Anticonvulsant Screening Program (ASP) is evolving to incorporate appropriate animal models in the search for molecules that might be sufficiently novel to warrant further pharmacological development. We also briefly address what we believe is necessary, going forward, to achieve the goal of stopping seizures in all patients, with a call to arms for funding agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and basic researchers. PMID:23909851

  3. Unification of Neuronal Spikes, Seizures, and Spreading Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yina; Ullah, Ghanim

    2014-01-01

    The pathological phenomena of seizures and spreading depression have long been considered separate physiological events in the brain. By incorporating conservation of particles and charge, and accounting for the energy required to restore ionic gradients, we extend the classic Hodgkin–Huxley formalism to uncover a unification of neuronal membrane dynamics. By examining the dynamics as a function of potassium and oxygen, we now account for a wide range of neuronal activities, from spikes to seizures, spreading depression (whether high potassium or hypoxia induced), mixed seizure and spreading depression states, and the terminal anoxic “wave of death.” Such a unified framework demonstrates that all of these dynamics lie along a continuum of the repertoire of the neuron membrane. Our results demonstrate that unified frameworks for neuronal dynamics are feasible, can be achieved using existing biological structures and universal physical conservation principles, and may be of substantial importance in enabling our understanding of brain activity and in the control of pathological states. PMID:25164668

  4. Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, S. Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

  5. Stimulus driver for epilepsy seizure suppression with adaptive loading impedance.

    PubMed

    Ker, Ming-Dou; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ling

    2011-12-01

    A stimulus driver circuit for a micro-stimulator used in an implantable device is presented in this paper. For epileptic seizure control, the target of the driver was to output 30 µA stimulus currents when the electrode impedance varied between 20 and 200 k?. The driver, which consisted of the output stage, control block and adaptor, was integrated in a single chip. The averaged power consumption of the stimulus driver was 0.24-0.56 mW at 800 Hz stimulation rate. Fabricated in a 0.35 µm 3.3 V/24 V CMOS process and applied to a closed-loop epileptic seizure monitoring and controlling system, the proposed design has been successfully verified in the experimental results of Long-Evans rats with epileptic seizures. PMID:22027449

  6. Potent anti-seizure effects of D-leucine.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Adam L; Santos, Polan; O'Riordan, Kenneth J; Stafstrom, Carl E; Marie Hardwick, J

    2015-10-01

    There are no effective treatments for millions of patients with intractable epilepsy. High-fat ketogenic diets may provide significant clinical benefit but are challenging to implement. Low carbohydrate levels appear to be essential for the ketogenic diet to work, but the active ingredients in dietary interventions remain elusive, and a role for ketogenesis has been challenged. A potential antiseizure role of dietary protein or of individual amino acids in the ketogenic diet is understudied. We investigated the two exclusively ketogenic amino acids, L-leucine and L-lysine, and found that only L-leucine potently protects mice when administered prior to the onset of seizures induced by kainic acid injection, but not by inducing ketosis. Unexpectedly, the D-enantiomer of leucine, which is found in trace amounts in the brain, worked as well or better than L-leucine against both kainic acid and 6Hz electroshock-induced seizures. However, unlike L-leucine, D-leucine potently terminated seizures even after the onset of seizure activity. Furthermore, D-leucine, but not L-leucine, reduced long-term potentiation but had no effect on basal synaptic transmission in vitro. In a screen of candidate neuronal receptors, D-leucine failed to compete for binding by cognate ligands, potentially suggesting a novel target. Even at low doses, D-leucine suppressed ongoing seizures at least as effectively as diazepam but without sedative effects. These studies raise the possibility that D-leucine may represent a new class of anti-seizure agents, and that D-leucine may have a previously unknown function in eukaryotes. PMID:26054437

  7. Electroacupuncture Reduces Cocaine-Induced Seizures and Mortality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the protective profile of electroacupuncture (EA) on cocaine-induced seizures and mortality in mice. Mice were treated with EA (2?Hz, 50?Hz, and 100?Hz), or they underwent needle insertion without anesthesia at the Dazhui (GV14) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints before cocaine administration. EA at 50 Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 significantly reduced the seizure severity induced by a single dose of cocaine (75?mg/kg; i.p.). Furthermore, needle insertion into GV14 and GV20 and EA at 2 Hz and 50 Hz at both acupoints significantly reduced the mortality rate induced by a single lethal dose of cocaine (125?mg/kg; i.p.). In the sham control group, EA at 50?Hz applied to bilateral Tianzong (SI11) acupoints had no protective effects against cocaine. In addition, EA at 50?Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 failed to reduce the incidence of seizures and mortality induced by the local anesthetic procaine. In an immunohistochemistry study, EA (50 Hz) pretreatment at GV14 and GV20 decreased cocaine (75?mg/kg; i.p.)-induced c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamus. While the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SB-277011-A (30?mg/kg; s.c), did not by itself affect cocaine-induced seizure severity, it prevented the effects of EA on cocaine-induced seizures. These results suggest that EA alleviates cocaine-induced seizures and mortality and that the dopamine D3 receptor is involved, at least in part, in the anticonvulsant effects of EA in mice. PMID:23690833

  8. 28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director,...

  9. Application of machine learning to epileptic seizure onset detection and treatment

    E-print Network

    Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes individuals to experiencing recurrent seizures. It affects 3 million Americans and 50 million people world-wide. A seizure is a transient ...

  10. Disruption of Endocytosis with the Dynamin Mutant shibirets1 Suppresses Seizures in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Jason R; Wong, Karen G; Siddiqui, Faria M; Tanouye, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    One challenge in modern medicine is to control epilepsies that do not respond to currently available medications. Since seizures consist of coordinated and high-frequency neural activity, our goal was to disrupt neurotransmission with a synaptic transmission mutant and evaluate its ability to suppress seizures. We found that the mutant shibire, encoding dynamin, suppresses seizure-like activity in multiple seizure-sensitive Drosophila genotypes, one of which resembles human intractable epilepsy in several aspects. Because of the requirement of dynamin in endocytosis, increased temperature in the shi(ts1) mutant causes impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling and is associated with suppression of the seizure-like activity. Additionally, we identified the giant fiber neuron as critical in the seizure circuit and sufficient to suppress seizures. Overall, our results implicate mutant dynamin as an effective seizure suppressor, suggesting that targeting or limiting the availability of synaptic vesicles could be an effective and general method of controlling epilepsy disorders. PMID:26341658

  11. 28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director,...

  12. 28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director,...

  13. Dynamic Network Drivers of Seizure Generation, Propagation and Termination in Human Neocortical Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Khambhati, Ankit N; Davis, Kathryn A; Oommen, Brian S; Chen, Stephanie H; Lucas, Timothy H; Litt, Brian; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-12-01

    The epileptic network is characterized by pathologic, seizure-generating 'foci' embedded in a web of structural and functional connections. Clinically, seizure foci are considered optimal targets for surgery. However, poor surgical outcome suggests a complex relationship between foci and the surrounding network that drives seizure dynamics. We developed a novel technique to objectively track seizure states from dynamic functional networks constructed from intracranial recordings. Each dynamical state captures unique patterns of network connections that indicate synchronized and desynchronized hubs of neural populations. Our approach suggests that seizures are generated when synchronous relationships near foci work in tandem with rapidly changing desynchronous relationships from the surrounding epileptic network. As seizures progress, topographical and geometrical changes in network connectivity strengthen and tighten synchronous connectivity near foci-a mechanism that may aid seizure termination. Collectively, our observations implicate distributed cortical structures in seizure generation, propagation and termination, and may have practical significance in determining which circuits to modulate with implantable devices. PMID:26680762

  14. Dynamic Network Drivers of Seizure Generation, Propagation and Termination in Human Neocortical Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Khambhati, Ankit N.; Davis, Kathryn A.; Oommen, Brian S.; Chen, Stephanie H.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Litt, Brian; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The epileptic network is characterized by pathologic, seizure-generating ‘foci’ embedded in a web of structural and functional connections. Clinically, seizure foci are considered optimal targets for surgery. However, poor surgical outcome suggests a complex relationship between foci and the surrounding network that drives seizure dynamics. We developed a novel technique to objectively track seizure states from dynamic functional networks constructed from intracranial recordings. Each dynamical state captures unique patterns of network connections that indicate synchronized and desynchronized hubs of neural populations. Our approach suggests that seizures are generated when synchronous relationships near foci work in tandem with rapidly changing desynchronous relationships from the surrounding epileptic network. As seizures progress, topographical and geometrical changes in network connectivity strengthen and tighten synchronous connectivity near foci—a mechanism that may aid seizure termination. Collectively, our observations implicate distributed cortical structures in seizure generation, propagation and termination, and may have practical significance in determining which circuits to modulate with implantable devices. PMID:26680762

  15. Blood magnesium levels in a mentally retarded/developmentally disabled seizure population.

    PubMed

    Vacanti, M P; Merveille, O C; Smart, J R; Sone, S O

    1991-12-01

    Blood magnesium levels from a mentally retarded/developmentally disabled population with difficult to control seizure disorders were presented. The role of low blood magnesium with regard to seizure activity and its causes was discussed. PMID:1775078

  16. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  17. Treatment of Acute Seizures: Is Intranasal Midazolam a Viable Option?

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Lesley K.; Eiland, Lea S.

    2013-01-01

    Seizures in the pediatric population commonly occur, and when proper rescue medication is not administered quickly, the risk of neurologic compromise emerges. For many years, rectal diazepam has been the standard of care, but recent interest in a more cost-effective, safe alternative has led to the investigation of intranasal midazolam for this indication. Although midazolam and diazepam are both members of the benzodiazepine class, the kinetic properties of these 2 anticonvulsants vary. This paper will review available data pertaining to the efficacy, safety, cost, and pharmacokinetics of intranasal midazolam versus rectal diazepam as treatment for acute seizures for children in the prehospital, home, and emergency department settings. PMID:23798902

  18. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures: the influence of immunotherapy on seizure control and prevention of cognitive impairment in a broadening phenotype.

    PubMed

    Irani, Sarosh R; Stagg, Charlotte J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rosenthal, Clive R; Schneider, Susanne A; Pettingill, Philippa; Pettingill, Rosemary; Waters, Patrick; Thomas, Adam; Voets, Natalie L; Cardoso, Manuel J; Cash, David M; Manning, Emily N; Lang, Bethan; Smith, Shelagh J M; Vincent, Angela; Johnson, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies, particularly those directed against leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1, are associated with a common form of limbic encephalitis that presents with cognitive impairment and seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures have recently been reported as immunotherapy-responsive, brief, frequent events that often predate the cognitive impairment associated with this limbic encephalitis. However, these observations were made from a retrospective study without serial cognitive assessments. Here, we undertook the first prospective study of faciobrachial dystonic seizures with serial assessments of seizure frequencies, cognition and antibodies in 10 cases identified over 20 months. We hypothesized that (i) faciobrachial dystonic seizures would show a differential response to anti-epileptic drugs and immunotherapy; and that (ii) effective treatment of faciobrachial dystonic seizures would accelerate recovery and prevent the development of cognitive impairment. The 10 cases expand both the known age at onset (28 to 92 years, median 68) and clinical features, with events of longer duration, simultaneously bilateral events, prominent automatisms, sensory aura, and post-ictal fear and speech arrest. Ictal epileptiform electroencephalographic changes were present in three cases. All 10 cases were positive for voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (346-4515 pM): nine showed specificity for leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1. Seven cases had normal clinical magnetic resonance imaging, and the cerebrospinal fluid examination was unremarkable in all seven tested. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures were controlled more effectively with immunotherapy than anti-epileptic drugs (P = 0.006). Strikingly, in the nine cases who remained anti-epileptic drug refractory for a median of 30 days (range 11-200), the addition of corticosteroids was associated with cessation of faciobrachial dystonic seizures within 1 week in three and within 2 months in six cases. Voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies persisted in the four cases with relapses of faciobrachial dystonic seizures during corticosteroid withdrawal. Time to recovery of baseline function was positively correlated with time to immunotherapy (r = 0.74; P = 0.03) but not time to anti-epileptic drug administration (r = 0.55; P = 0.10). Of 10 cases, the eight cases who received anti-epileptic drugs (n = 3) or no treatment (n = 5) all developed cognitive impairment. By contrast, the two who did not develop cognitive impairment received immunotherapy to treat their faciobrachial dystonic seizures (P = 0.02). In eight cases without clinical magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hippocampal signal change, cross-sectional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging post-recovery, after accounting for age and head size, revealed cases (n = 8) had smaller brain volumes than healthy controls (n = 13) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, faciobrachial dystonic seizures can be prospectively identified as a form of epilepsy with an expanding phenotype. Immunotherapy is associated with excellent control of the frequently anti-epileptic drug refractory seizures, hastens time to recovery, and may prevent the subsequent development of cognitive impairment observed in this study. PMID:24014519

  19. 19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Assets Control (OFAC) (31 CFR Chapter V). (b) Seizure. When an unlicensed importation of merchandise...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. 12.150 Section 12.150 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. (a) Generally. Merchandise from certain...

  20. Case Report Shared vulnerability between seizures and psychosis in cocaine addiction?

    E-print Network

    Hayar, Abdallah

    Case Report Shared vulnerability between seizures and psychosis in cocaine addiction? Benjamin Available online 15 September 2011 Keywords: Cocaine Seizures Psychosis N-methyl-D-aspartate Dopamine Kindling effect Cocaine-induced seizures (CIS) and cocaine-induced psychosis (CIP) may be complications

  1. The Effects of Seizures on the Connectivity and Circuitry of the Developing Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Recurring seizures in infants and children are often associated with cognitive deficits, but the reason for the learning difficulties is unclear. Recent studies in several animal models suggest that seizures themselves may contribute in important ways to these deficits. Other studies in animals have shown that recurring seizures result in…

  2. Synergistic GABA-Enhancing Therapy against Seizures in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, John C.; Cho, Alvin R.; Cheah, Christine S.; Scheuer, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Seizures remain uncontrolled in 30% of patients with epilepsy, even with concurrent use of multiple drugs, and uncontrolled seizures result in increased morbidity and mortality. An extreme example is Dravet syndrome (DS), an infantile-onset severe epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Studies in Scn1a heterozygous knockout mice demonstrate reduced excitability of GABAergic interneurons, suggesting that enhancement of GABA signaling may improve seizure control and comorbidities. We studied the efficacy of two GABA-enhancing drugs, clonazepam and tiagabine, alone and in combination, against thermally evoked myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Clonazepam, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors, protected against myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Tiagabine, a presynaptic GABA reuptake inhibitor, was protective against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but only minimally protective against myoclonic seizures and enhanced myoclonic seizure susceptibility at high doses. Combined therapy with clonazepam and tiagabine was synergistic against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but was additive against myoclonic seizures. Toxicity determined by rotorod testing was additive for combination therapy. The synergistic actions of clonazepam and tiagabine gave enhanced seizure protection and reduced toxicity, suggesting that combination therapy may be well tolerated and effective for seizures in DS. PMID:23424217

  3. Feasibility Study of a Caregiver Seizure Alert System in Canine Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Lisa D; Patterson, Edward E; Sheffield, Warren D; Mavoori, Jaideep; Higgins, Jason; Bland, Mike; Leyde, Kent; Cloyd, James C; Litt, Brian; Vite, Charles; Worrell, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Summary A device capable of detecting seizures and alerting caregivers would be a major advance for epilepsy management, and could be used to guide early intervention and prevent seizure-related injuries. The objective of this work was to evaluate a seizure advisory system (SAS) that alerts caregivers of seizures in canines with naturally occurring epilepsy. Four dogs with epilepsy were implanted with a SAS that wirelessly transmits continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG) to an external device embedded with a seizure detection algorithm and the capability to alert caregivers. In this study a veterinarian was alerted by automated text message if prolonged or repetitive seizures occurred, and a rescue therapy protocol was implemented. The performance of the SAS caregiver alert was evaluated over the course of 8 weeks. Following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs, the dogs experienced spontaneous unprovoked partial seizures that secondarily generalized. Three prolonged or repetitive seizure episodes occurred in 2 of the dogs. On each occasion, the SAS caregiver alert successfully alerted an on call veterinarian who confirmed the seizure activity via remote video-monitoring. A rescue medication was then administered and the seizures were aborted. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a SAS caregiver alert for prolonged or repetitive seizures, and enabling rescue medications to be delivered in a timely manner. The SAS may improve the management of human epilepsy by alerting caregivers of seizures, enabling early interventions, and potentially improving outcomes and quality of life of patients and caregivers. PMID:23962794

  4. Epilepsy Research 72 (2006) 8081 Comment on: "Performance of a seizure warning

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Epilepsy Research 72 (2006) 80­81 Discussion Comment on: "Performance of a seizure warning Epilepsy Center, University Hospital of Freiburg, Germany Accepted 26 June 2006 Available online 21 August device for epilepsy patients based on an in-time seizure warning. However, seizure pre- diction suffers

  5. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: An Old Issue Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deonna, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The possible deleterious role of febrile seizures on development is an old issue. It took a long time to realize that impaired development or occurrence of chronic epilepsy affected a very small minority of children with febrile seizures. These children either had pre-existing brain damage, specific genetic epileptic conditions, or seizure-induced…

  6. Altered voltage-gated calcium channels in rat inferior colliculus neurons contribute to alcohol withdrawal seizures.

    PubMed

    N'Gouemo, Prosper

    2015-08-01

    We have previously reported that enhanced susceptibility to alcohol withdrawal seizures (AWS) parallels the enhancement of the current density of high-threshold voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels in rat inferior colliculus (IC) neurons. However, whether this increased current density is a cause or consequence of AWS is unclear. Here, I report changes in the current density of CaV channels in IC neurons during the course of alcohol withdrawal and the potential anticonvulsant effect of intra-IC infusions of L- and P-type CaV channel antagonists. Whole-cell currents were activated by depolarizing pulses using barium as the charge carrier. Currents and seizure susceptibility were evaluated in control animals 3h after alcohol intoxication, as well as 3h (before AWS), 24h (when AWS susceptibility is maximal), and 48h (when AWS susceptibility is no longer present) after alcohol withdrawal. Nifedipine, nimodipine (L-type antagonists) or ?-agatoxin TK (P-type antagonist) were infused intra-IC to probe the role of CaV channels in the pathogenesis of AWS. CaV current density and conductance in IC neurons were significantly increased 3 and 24h after alcohol withdrawal compared with the control group or the group tested 3h following ethanol intoxication. Blockade of L-type CaV channels within the IC completely suppressed AWS, and inhibition of P-type channels reduced AWS severity. These findings suggest that the enhancement of CaV currents in IC neurons occurs prior to AWS onset and that alterations in L- and P-type CaV channels in these neurons may underlie the pathogenesis of AWS. PMID:25914156

  7. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  8. Amygdala Volume and Psychopathology in Childhood Complex Partial Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Melita; Siddarth, Prabha; Levitt, Jennifer; Gurbani, Suresh; Shields, W. Donald; Sankar, Raman; Toga, Arthur; Caplan, Rochelle

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study compared amygdala volume in children with cryptogenic epilepsy, who had complex partial seizures (CPS), with age and gender matched normal children. It also examined the relationship of amygdala volumes with seizure variables and the presence of psychopathology in the patients. Methods 28 children with cryptogenic epilepsy, all of whom had CPS, and gender matched normal children, aged 6–16 years had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 Tesla. Tissue was segmented and total brain volume and amygdala volumes obtained from manual tracings were computed. Results There were no significant differences in the amygdala volume of the CPS and normal groups. Within the CPS group, the children with an affective/anxiety disorder had significantly larger left amygdala volumes compared to those with no psychopathology as well as greater amygdala asymmetry. Exploring the association of seizure variables to amygdala volumes yielded no significant predictors. Conclusions In pediatric CPS left amygdala involvement might reflect effects of the neuropathology underlying comorbid affective or anxiety disorders on amygdala development rather than effects of on-going seizures. PMID:18359276

  9. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent in violation of 18 U... of this chapter for regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain...

  10. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent in violation of 18 U... of this chapter for regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain...

  11. Cardiac asystole associated with seizures of right hemispheric onset.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jennifer; Majmudar, Shirine; Chen, David K

    2014-01-01

    Ictal asystole is frequently underrecognized despite being a potentially lethal condition. We report two cases of ictal asystole with right hemispheric onset. These cases are unique since previous literature reports that seizures associated with bradyarrhythmias typically arise from left hemispheric foci. These cases further underscore the importance of clinical vigilance and the need of an enhanced diagnostic biomarker. PMID:25667889

  12. Cardiac asystole associated with seizures of right hemispheric onset

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jennifer; Majmudar, Shirine; Chen, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Ictal asystole is frequently underrecognized despite being a potentially lethal condition. We report two cases of ictal asystole with right hemispheric onset. These cases are unique since previous literature reports that seizures associated with bradyarrhythmias typically arise from left hemispheric foci. These cases further underscore the importance of clinical vigilance and the need of an enhanced diagnostic biomarker. PMID:25667889

  13. [Dissociative seizures: a manual for neurologists for communicating the diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, K; Baumann, K; Schulze-Bonhage, A

    2013-01-01

    The great physical resemblance between epileptic and dissociative seizures and a diagnosis of epilepsy that had been made years ago and usually had been treated unsuccessfully makes it difficult for both physician and patient to communicate the diagnosis of dissociative seizures. A direct referral to psychotherapy treatment is rarely accepted by patients. Intermediate steps, which are based on cooperation between neurologists and psychotherapists, are necessary. The approach that we use to communicate diagnosis and motivation for psychotherapeutic treatment includes eight steps: 1. Welcome and introduction; 2. Jointly watching a video of documented seizures; 3. The message that the seizures are not of epileptic origin, 4. Development of an alternative disease concept; 5. Motivation for a conversation with a representative from psychosomatics; 6. Responding to the fear of "going crazy"; 7. If necessary, briefly touching on the subject of sexual violence; 8. More recommendations and conclusion of the conversation. The manual was discussed and practiced with the attending neurologist in two sessions and is now being regularly used by two neurologists with concomitant supervision. PMID:22328103

  14. [FOCAL MOTOR SEIZURES AND STATUS EPILEPTICUS PROVOKED BY MIRTAZAPINE].

    PubMed

    Dömötör, Johanna; Clemens, Béla

    2015-07-30

    The seizure-provoking effect of the tetracyclic antidepressant mirtazapine is not a well-known adverse effect of the drug. The authors report on a 39-year-old non-epileptic patient who had been treated for depression with the usual daily dose of mirtazapine. Having increased the daily dose of the drug from 30 to 45 milligrams he experienced a few clonic seizures of the right lower limb. This symptom and insomnia erroneously intended the patient to further increase the daily dose of mirtazapine, which immediately resulted in the evolution of focal clonic status epilepticus in the same limb. After admission, this condition was recorded by video-EEG and abolished by intravenous administration of levetiracetam after the intravenous clonazepam had been ineffective. Discontinuation of mirtazapine and administration of carbamazepine resulted in completely seizure-free state that persisted even after carbamazepine treatment was terminated. The clinical and laboratory data indicate the seizure-provoking effect of mirtazapine in the reported case. PMID:26380424

  15. 76 FR 26660 - Consolidation of Seizure and Forfeiture Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ...The Department of Justice (the Department) proposes to revise, consolidate, and update its seizure and forfeiture regulations, to conform those regulations to the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act (CAFRA) of 2000 to reflect organizational changes that have occurred within the Department, and to make other...

  16. A Unifying Explanation of Primary Generalized Seizures Through Nonlinear

    E-print Network

    Breakspear, Michael

    A Unifying Explanation of Primary Generalized Seizures Through Nonlinear Brain Modeling. A. Robinson1,2 1 School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia, 2 Brain Dynamics the dynamical bifur- cations of a nonlinear model of the brain's mean field dynamics. The model treats

  17. Induction of Glycerol Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Expression During Seizure

    E-print Network

    Kuhl, Dietmar

    Induction of Glycerol Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Expression During Seizure and Analgesia Wolfgang display, we found that the gene for NAD -dependent glycerol phosphate dehy- drogenase (GPDH; EC 1 as it is mimicked by exogenously applied analgesic drugs. Key Words: Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase

  18. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and...pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural listed in § 12.105 is...the time provided in § 12.108, the sculpture or mural shall be seized and...

  19. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and...pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural listed in § 12.105 is...the time provided in § 12.108, the sculpture or mural shall be seized and...

  20. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and...pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural listed in § 12.105 is...the time provided in § 12.108, the sculpture or mural shall be seized and...

  1. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and...pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural listed in § 12.105 is...the time provided in § 12.108, the sculpture or mural shall be seized and...

  2. 19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and...pre-Columbian monumental or architectural sculpture or mural listed in § 12.105 is...the time provided in § 12.108, the sculpture or mural shall be seized and...

  3. Characterization of Dopamine Release in a Penicillin Model of Seizure

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Characterization of Dopamine Release in a Penicillin Model of Seizure Taylor C. Hood, James O References Adiguzel, Esat, Ilgaz Akdogan, S. Ender Duzcan, and A. Cevik Tufan. "Effect of Penicillin Induced Analysis of Penicillin-induced Epileptiform Activity in Anesthetized Rats." Epilepsy Research 82.1 (2008

  4. 19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and... (b) Whenever any stolen article of cultural property is imported into the U.S. in violation of 19 U.S.C. 2607, such cultural property shall be seized and...

  5. 19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and... (b) Whenever any stolen article of cultural property is imported into the U.S. in violation of 19 U.S.C. 2607, such cultural property shall be seized and...

  6. 19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and... (b) Whenever any stolen article of cultural property is imported into the U.S. in violation of 19 U.S.C. 2607, such cultural property shall be seized and...

  7. 19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and... (b) Whenever any stolen article of cultural property is imported into the U.S. in violation of 19 U.S.C. 2607, such cultural property shall be seized and...

  8. 19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and... (b) Whenever any stolen article of cultural property is imported into the U.S. in violation of 19 U.S.C. 2607, such cultural property shall be seized and...

  9. Long-range prediction of epileptic seizures with nonlinear dynamics.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Boeh, Henry; Lynn, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Patients with uncontrolled epilepsy have some significant problems with planning life routines, and thus one goal of the present study was to explore the viability of predicting seizures in time intervals of one week. The second goal was to utilize the principle of dynamic diseases and to assess the viability of a cusp catastrophe model for seizure onset that was proposed by Cerf (2006). A seizure history of 124 weeks from one adult male patient fit both the cusp and fold catastrophe models (R2 = .92 and .88 respectively) reasonably well using the pdf method and more accurately than counterpart linear models. Prediction of future states was possible, but somewhat compromised because of the nonstationary nature of the data and uncertainties regarding the control variables in the catastrophe models. Analyses of lag functions, however, revealed some surprising elements, suggesting that the precursory conditions for a seizure could be building up over a period of several weeks and that a self-correcting effect within the nervous system could have been occurring. PMID:21645436

  10. Serum Zinc Level in Children Presenting with Febrile Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Waqar Rabbani, Muhammad; Ali, Ibad; Zahid Latif, Hafiz; Basit, Abdul; Rabbani, Muhammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of low serum zinc level in children presenting with febrile seizures at The Children’s Hospital and the Institute of Child Health (CH/ICH) Multan. Methods: This is an observational cross sectional study conducted at the Department of Pediatric Medicine, The Children’s Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Multan from September 2010 to March 2011. Children (6 months to 6 years of age) presenting with febrile seizures who satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Cause of fever was determined after detailed history, physical examination and relevant investigations. Four milliliters centrifuged blood sample was preserved in acid washed test tube. Separated serum was used to measure serum zinc level by employing Randox kit on auto-analyzer in all cases. The outcome variable (serum zinc level) was recorded on a predesigned proforma. Results: Out of 100 enrolled children, there were 66 (66%) male with male to female ratio of 1:0.52. Mean age of the children was 23.97±14.45 months. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most frequent cause of fever apparent in 24 children (24%) followed by tonsillitis 17 (17%), pneumonia 16 (16%), urinary tract infection 16 (16%), otitis media 15 (15%), and bronchiolitis 12 (12%). Frequency of low serum zinc level was 26% in children with febrile seizures. Conclusion: Zinc deficiency could be a potential risk factor for febrile seizure in children. PMID:24353677

  11. Epileptic Seizure Detection by Means of Genetically Programmed Artificial Features

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    by recurrent seizures. It affects up to one percent of the population of the world or sixty million people, features are calculated using conventional techniques and methodologies that are time-consuming, trial-and-error on knowledge of a feature formula or algorithm that may have been obtained from intuition, tradition

  12. Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of cation-chloride cotransporters in neonatal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Puskarjov, Martin; Kahle, Kristopher T; Ruusuvuori, Eva; Kaila, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a common manifestation of acute neurologic insults in neonates and are often resistant to the standard antiepileptic drugs that are efficacious in children and adults. The paucity of evidence-based treatment guidelines, coupled with a rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis, has made the current treatment of neonatal seizures empiric and often ineffective, highlighting the need for novel therapies. Key developmental differences in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission between the immature and mature brain, and trauma-induced alterations in the function of the cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) NKCC1 and KCC2, probably contribute to the poor efficacy of standard antiepileptic drugs used in the treatment of neonatal seizures. Although CCCs are attractive drug targets, bumetanide and other existing CCC inhibitors are suboptimal because of pharmacokinetic constraints and lack of target specificity. Newer approaches including isoform-specific NKCC1 inhibitors with increased central nervous system penetration, and direct and indirect strategies to enhance KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride extrusion, might allow therapeutic modulation of the GABAergic system for neonatal seizure treatment. PMID:24802699

  13. Seizure Recognition on Epilepsy Feature Tensor , Canan Aykut Bingol

    E-print Network

    Bystroff, Chris

    Seizure Recognition on Epilepsy Feature Tensor Evrim Acar , Canan Aykut Bingol , Haluk Bingol are threefold. First, we rearrange multi-channel EEG signals as a third-order tensor called an Epilepsy Feature Tensor with modes: time epochs, features and electrodes. Second, we model the Epilepsy Feature Tensor

  14. Does the Thalamo-Cortical Synchrony Play a Role in Seizure Termination?

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Elisa; Bénar, Christian; Bonini, Francesca; Carron, Romain; Colombet, Bruno; Régis, Jean; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying seizure termination are still unclear despite their therapeutic importance. We studied thalamo-cortical connectivity and synchrony in human mesial temporal lobe seizures in order to analyze their role in seizure termination. Twenty-two seizures from 10 patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing pre-surgical evaluation were analyzed using intracerebral recordings [stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)]. We performed a measure of SEEG signal interdependencies (non-linear correlation), to estimate the functional connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions. Then, we derived synchronization indices, namely global, thalamic, mesio-temporal, and thalamo-mesio temporal index at the onset and the end of seizures. In addition, an estimation of thalamic “outputs and inputs” connectivity was proposed. Thalamus was consistently involved in the last phase of all analyzed seizures and thalamic synchronization index was significantly more elevated at the end of seizure than at the onset. The global synchronization index at the end of seizure negatively correlated with seizure duration (p?=?0.045) and in the same way the thalamic synchronization index showed an inverse tendency with seizure duration. Six seizures out of twenty-two displayed a particular thalamo-cortical spike-and-wave pattern at the end. They were associated to higher values of all synchronization indices and outputs from thalamus (p?=?0.0079). SWP seizures displayed a higher and sustained increase of cortical and thalamo-cortical synchronization with a stronger participation of thalamic outputs. We suggest that thalamo-cortical oscillations might contribute to seizure termination via modulation of cortical synchronization. In the subgroup of SWP seizures, thalamus may exert a control on temporal lobe structures by inducing a stable hypersynchronization that ultimately leads to seizure termination. PMID:26388834

  15. Why do seizures occur when they do? Situations perceived to be associated with increased or decreased seizure likelihood in people withepilepsy and intellectual disability

    E-print Network

    Illingworth, Josephine L.; Watson, Peter; Ring, Howard

    2014-09-16

    to have neurological deficits, with 84% of those with severe ID having precipitants reported [39]. These investigations present conflict- ingfindings on the effect of ID on precipitant prevalence, and further re- search comparing those with ID and those... . Self-perception of seizure precipitants and their relation to anxiety level, depression, and health locus of control in epilepsy. Seizure 2008;17:302–7. [9] Balamurugan E, Aggarwal M, Lamba A, Dang N, Tripathi M. Perceived trigger factors of seizures...

  16. Dissociated multimodal hubs and seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Douw, Linda; DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Liu, Hesheng; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain connectivity at rest is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in “hub” areas such as the posterior default mode network (DMN). Although both functional and anatomical connectivity are disturbed in TLE, the relationships between measures as well as to seizure frequency remain unclear. We aim to clarify these associations using connectivity measures specifically sensitive to hubs. Methods Connectivity between 1000 cortical surface parcels was determined in 49 TLE patients and 23 controls with diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two types of hub connectivity were investigated across multiple brain modules (the DMN, motor system, etcetera): (1) within-module connectivity (a measure of local importance that assesses a parcel's communication level within its own subnetwork) and (2) between-module connectivity (a measure that assesses connections across multiple modules). Results In TLE patients, there was lower overall functional integrity of the DMN as well as an increase in posterior hub connections with other modules. Anatomical between-module connectivity was globally decreased. Higher DMN disintegration (DD) coincided with higher anatomical between-module connectivity, whereas both were associated with increased seizure frequency. DD related to seizure frequency through mediating effects of anatomical connectivity, but seizure frequency also correlated with anatomical connectivity through DD, indicating a complex interaction between multimodal networks and symptoms. Interpretation We provide evidence for dissociated anatomical and functional hub connectivity in TLE. Moreover, shifts in functional hub connections from within to outside the DMN, an overall loss of integrative anatomical communication, and the interaction between the two increase seizure frequency. PMID:25909080

  17. Flupirtine effectively prevents development of acute neonatal seizures in an animal model of global hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Dayalan; Shmueli, Doron; White, Andrew M; Raol, Yogendra H

    2015-10-21

    Current first-line drugs for the treatment of neonatal seizures have limited efficacy and are associated with side effects. Uncontrolled seizures may exacerbate brain injury and contribute to later-life neurological disability. Therefore, it is critical to develop a treatment for neonatal seizures that is effective and safe. In early-life, when the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory system is not fully developed, potassium channels play an important role in controlling excitability. An earlier study demonstrated that flupirtine, a KCNQ potassium channel opener, is more efficacious than diazepam and phenobarbital for the treatment of chemoconvulsant-induced neonatal seizures. In newborns, seizures are most commonly associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Thus, in the present study, we examined the efficacy of flupirtine to treat neonatal seizures in an animal model of global hypoxia. Our results showed that flupirtine dose dependently blocks the occurrence of behavioral seizures in pups during hypoxia. Additionally, flupirtine inhibits the development of hypoxia-induced clinical seizures and associated epileptiform discharges, as well as purely electrographic (subclinical) seizures. These results suggest that flupirtine is an effective anti-seizure drug, and that further studies should be conducted to determine the time window within which it's administration can effectively treat neonatal seizures. PMID:26365409

  18. Oxygen desaturations triggered by partial seizures: implications for cardiopulmonary instability in epilepsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, A. S.; Ives, J. R.; Goldberger, A. L.; Al-Aweel, I. C.; Krishnamurthy, K. B.; Drislane, F. W.; Schomer, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: The occurrence of hypoxemia in adults with partial seizures has not been systematically explored. Our aim was to study in detail the temporal dynamics of this specific type of ictal-associated hypoxemia. METHODS: During long-term video/EEG monitoring (LTM), patients underwent monitoring of oxygen saturation using a digital Spo2 (pulse oximeter) transducer. Six patients (nine seizures) were identified with oxygen desaturations after the onset of partial seizure activity. RESULTS: Complex partial seizures originated from both left and right temporal lobes. Mean seizure duration (+/-SD) was 73 +/- 18 s. Mean Spo2 desaturation duration was 76 +/- 19 s. The onset of oxygen desaturation followed seizure onset with a mean delay of 43 +/- 16 s. Mean (+/-SD) Spo2 nadir was 83 +/- 5% (range, 77-91%), occurring an average of 35 +/- 12 s after the onset of the desaturation. One seizure was associated with prolonged and recurrent Spo2 desaturations. CONCLUSIONS: Partial seizures may be associated with prominent oxygen desaturations. The comparable duration of each seizure and its subsequent desaturation suggests a close mechanistic (possibly causal) relation. Spo2 monitoring provides an added means for seizure detection that may increase LTM yield. These observations also raise the possibility that ictal ventilatory dysfunction could play a role in certain cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in adults with partial seizures.

  19. Threshold properties of a microcavity laser with submicroampere threshold current

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Lear, K.L.; Chow, W.W.; Mar, A.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    We report the threshold characteristics of small oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers. Abrupt threshold transitions 105 times the spontaneous emission background are obtained at injection currents as low as 470 nanoampere.

  20. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yisha

    2014-05-01

    Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures caused by vitamin B6 deficiency in adults may result from dietary deficiency, liver disease, pregnancy and certain medications and can be easily treated by vitamin B6 with excellent outcome. Clinicians should consider vitamin B6 deficiency as a potential aetiology of seizures, even in patients who suffer from other underlying diseases which can cause seizures. PMID:25343127

  1. Seizures caused by pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency in adults: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yisha

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency is a recognised cause of intractable seizures in neonates. However, pyridoxine deficiency related seizures in adults were rarely reported. This article reports a case of a 79 year old lady who suffered from new-onset seizures and was successfully treated with vitamin B6. The patient had chronic renal disease and weight loss due to anepithymia following a pelvic fracture. This article also reviews literatures of seizures caused by pyridoxine deficiency in adults. Seizures caused by vitamin B6 deficiency in adults may result from dietary deficiency, liver disease, pregnancy and certain medications and can be easily treated by vitamin B6 with excellent outcome. Clinicians should consider vitamin B6 deficiency as a potential aetiology of seizures, even in patients who suffer from other underlying diseases which can cause seizures. PMID:25343127

  2. Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Spatiotemporal Relationship of EEG Signals Using Phase Correlation.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Mohammad Zavid; Paul, Manoranjan

    2016-01-01

    Automated seizure prediction has a potential in epilepsy monitoring, diagnosis, and rehabilitation. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely used for seizure detection and prediction. This paper proposes a new seizure prediction approach based on spatiotemporal relationship of EEG signals using phase correlation. This measures the relative change between current and reference vectors of EEG signals which can be used to identify preictal/ictal (before the actual seizure onset/ actual seizure period) and interictal (period between adjacent seizures) EEG signals to predict the seizure. The experiments show that the proposed method is less sensitive to artifacts and provides higher prediction accuracy (i.e., 91.95%) and lower number of false alarms compared to the state-of-the-art methods using intracranial EEG signals in different brain locations of 21 patients from a benchmark data set. PMID:26208360

  3. Activation of the caspase 8 pathway mediates seizure-induced cell death in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Meller, R; Clayton, C; Torrey, D J; Schindler, C K; Lan, J Q; Cameron, J A; Chu, X P; Xiong, Z G; Simon, R P; Henshall, D C

    2006-07-01

    In response to harmful stresses, cells induce programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis. Seizures can induce neural damage and activate biochemical pathways associated with PCD. Since seizures trigger intracellular calcium overload, it has been presumed that the intrinsic cell death pathway mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction would modulate cell death following seizures. However, previous work suggests that the extrinsic cell death pathway may initiate the damage program. Here we investigate intrinsic versus extrinsic cell death pathway activation using caspase cleavage as a marker for activation of these pathways in a rat in vitro model of seizures. Hippocampal cells, chronically treated with kynurenic acid, had kynurenic acid withdrawn to induce seizure-like activity for 40 min. Subjecting rat hippocampal cultures to seizures increased cell death and apoptosis-like DNA fragmentation using TUNEL staining. Seizure-induced cell death was blocked by both MK801 (10 microM) and CNQX (40 microM), which suggests multiple glutamate receptors regulate seizure-induced cell death. Cleavage of the initiator caspases, caspase 8 and 12 were increased 4h following seizure, and cleavage of the quintessential executioner caspase, caspase 3 was increased 4h following seizure. In contrast, caspase 9 cleavage only increased 24h following seizure. Using an affinity labeling approach to trap activated caspases in situ, we show that caspase 8 is the apical caspase activated following seizures. Finally, we show that the caspase 8 inhibitor Ac-IETD-CHO was more effective at blocking seizure-induced cell death than the caspase 9 inhibitor Ac-LEHD-CHO. Taken together, our data suggests the extrinsic cell death pathway-associated caspase 8 is activated following seizures in vitro. PMID:16542823

  4. Activation Of The Caspase 8 Pathway Mediates Seizure-Induced Cell Death In Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Meller, R; Clayton, C.; Torrey, DJ; Schindler, CK; Lan, JQ; Cameron, JA; Chu, XP.; Xiong, ZG; Simon, RP; Henshall, DC

    2006-01-01

    In response to harmful stresses, cells induce programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis. Seizures can induce neural damage and activate biochemical pathways associated with PCD. Since seizures trigger intracellular calcium overload, it has been presumed that the intrinsic cell death pathway mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction would modulate cell death following seizures. However, previous work suggests that the extrinsic cell death pathway may initiate the damage program. Here we investigate intrinsic vs. extrinsic cell death pathway activation using caspase cleavage as a marker for activation of these pathways in a rat in vitro model of seizures. Hippocampal cells, chronically treated with kynurenic acid, had kynurenic acid withdrawn to induce seizure-like activity for 40 minutes. Subjecting rat hippocampal cultures to seizures increased cell death and apoptosis-like DNA fragmentation using TUNEL staining. Seizure-induced cell death was blocked by both MK801 (10 ?M) and CNQX (40 ?M), which suggests multiple glutamate receptors regulate seizure-induced cell death. Cleavage of the initiator caspases, caspase 8 and 12 were increased 4 hours following seizure, and cleavage of the quintessential executioner caspase, caspase 3 was increased 4 hours following seizure. In contrast, caspase 9 cleavage only increased 24 hours following seizure. Using an affinity labeling approach to trap activated caspases in situ, we show that caspase 8 is the apical caspase activated following seizures. Finally, we show that the caspase 8 inhibitor Ac-IETD-CHO was more effective at blocking seizure-induced cell death than the caspase 9 inhibitor Ac-LEHD-CHO. Taken together, our data suggests the extrinsic cell death pathway-associated caspase 8 is activated following seizures in vitro. PMID:16542823

  5. Threshold Concepts in Research Education and Evidence of Threshold Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiley, Margaret; Wisker, Gina

    2009-01-01

    Most work on threshold concepts has hitherto related to discipline-specific undergraduate education, however, the idea of generic doctoral-level threshold concepts appeared to us to provide a strong and useful framework to support research learning and teaching at the graduate level. The early work regarding research-level threshold concepts is…

  6. Network problem threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

    1992-01-01

    Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

  7. Differential effects of petit mal anticonvulsants and convulsants on thalamic neurones: GABA current blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, D. A.; Huguenard, J. R.; Prince, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Currents evoked by applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to acutely dissociated thalamic neurones were analysed by voltage-clamp techniques, and the effects of the anticonvulsant succinimides ethosuximide (ES) and alpha-methyl-alpha-phenylsuccinimide (MPS) and the convulsants tetramethylsuccinimide (TMS), picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and bicuculline methiodide were assessed. 2. TMS (1 microM-10 microM) reduced responses to iontophoretically applied GABA, as did picrotoxin (0.1-100 microM), PTZ (1-100 mM) and bicuculline (1-100 microM). 3. ES, in high concentrations (1-10 mM), reduced GABA responses to a lesser extent, and also occluded the reductions in GABA-evoked currents produced by TMS, picrotoxin, and PTZ. ES did not occlude the effects of bicuculline on GABA responses. Therefore, we propose that ES acts as a partial agonist at the picrotoxin GABA-blocking receptor. 4. MPS had no effect on GABA responses (at a concentration of 1 mM), and, like ES, occluded the GABA-blocking actions of TMS, apparently acting as a full antagonist. 5. The anticonvulsant actions of ES and MPS against TMS and PTZ-induced seizures may thus involve two independent mechanisms: (1) the occlusion of TMS and PTZ GABA-blocking effects; and (2) the previously described specific effect of ES and MPS on low-threshold calcium current of thalamic neurones. The latter cellular mechanism may be more closely related to petit mal anticonvulsant activity. PMID:2119843

  8. Slow Spatial Recruitment of Neocortex during Secondarily Generalized Seizures and Its Relation to Surgical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Martinet, Louis-Emmanuel; Ahmed, Omar J.; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of brain activity is crucial for inferring the underlying synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms of brain dysfunction. Focal seizures with secondary generalization are traditionally considered to begin in a limited spatial region and spread to connected areas, which can include both pathological and normal brain tissue. The mechanisms underlying this spread are important to our understanding of seizures and to improve therapies for surgical intervention. Here we study the properties of seizure recruitment—how electrical brain activity transitions to large voltage fluctuations characteristic of spike-and-wave seizures. We do so using invasive subdural electrode arrays from a population of 16 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We find an average delay of ?30 s for a broad area of cortex (8 × 8 cm) to be recruited into the seizure, at an estimated speed of ?4 mm/s. The spatiotemporal characteristics of recruitment reveal two categories of patients: one in which seizure recruitment of neighboring cortical regions follows a spatially organized pattern consistent from seizure to seizure, and a second group without consistent spatial organization of activity during recruitment. The consistent, organized recruitment correlates with a more regular, compared with small-world, connectivity pattern in simulation and successful surgical treatment of epilepsy. We propose that an improved understanding of how the seizure recruits brain regions into large amplitude voltage fluctuations provides novel information to improve surgical treatment of epilepsy and highlights the slow spread of massive local activity across a vast extent of cortex during seizure. PMID:26109670

  9. Seizures and Epilepsy following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu-Sun; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although prophylactic antiepileptic drug (AED) use in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common practice, lack of uniform definitions and guidelines for seizures and AEDs rendered this prescription more habitual instead of evidence-based manner. We herein evaluated the incidence and predictive factors of seizure and complications about AED use. Methods From July 1999 to June 2007, data of a total of 547 patients with aneurysmal SAH who underwent operative treatments were reviewed. For these, the incidence and risk factors of seizures and epilepsy were assessed, in addition to complications of AEDs. Results Eighty-three patients (15.2%) had at least one seizure following SAH. Forty-three patients (7.9%) had onset seizures, 34 (6.2%) had perioperative seizures, and 17 (3.1%) had late epilepsy. Younger age (< 40 years), poor clinical grade, thick hemorrhage, acute hydrocephalus, and rebleeding were related to the occurrence of onset seizures. Cortical infarction and thick hemorrhage were independent risk factors for the occurrence of late epilepsy. Onset seizures were not predictive of late epilepsy. Moreover, adverse drug effects were identified in 128 patients (23.4%) with AEDs. Conclusion Perioperative seizures are not significant predictors for late epilepsy. Instead, initial amount of SAH and surgery-induced cortical damage should be seriously considered as risk factors for late epilepsy. Because AEDs can not prevent early postoperative seizures (< 1 week) and potentially cause unexpected side effects, long-term use should be readjusted in high-risk patients. PMID:19763209

  10. Quantitative and trajectory analysis of movement trajectories in supplementary motor area seizures of frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Yang, Xuhong; Liu, Yonghong; Zeng, Dong; Tang, Yufeng; Yan, Bo; Lin, Xu; Liu, Ling; Xu, Hongru; Zhou, Dong

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantitatively analyze the movement trajectories of four types of supplementary motor area (SMA) seizures (hyperkinetic, tonic posturing, fencing posture, tonic head turning), and to compare the movement trajectories of SMA seizures with those of temporal lobe seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Ten video/EEG recordings of each type of seizure were obtained. Imaging data collected by video/EEG monitoring were transformed into a digital matrix with image processing software and then transformed into a movement trajectory curve with MATLAB 6.5 software. From these movement trajectories, amplitude, frequency, proximal/distal limb amplitude ratios, and shoulder/abdominal amplitude ratios measurements were calculated. One-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in average amplitude, as well as proximal/distal limb amplitude ratios, in SMA seizures when compared with those of temporal lobe seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. This study proved the feasibility of quantitative analysis of SMA seizures and suggests it should be further evaluated for its capability to distinguish different seizure semiologies for the diagnosis of epilepsy. PMID:19100340

  11. Possessed by evil spirits: a history of seizures in infancy.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-07-01

    For 4 millennia, seizures in infancy were believed to be of supranatural origin and were dealt with by incantations, exorcising rituals, and protective amulets. Instead of pursuing scientific research into their causes, gods, devils, mothers, wet nurses, midwives, or obstetricians were blamed. Help from protective gods and patron saints was sought, and amulets against the "evil eye" were recommended by physicians, mostly in the form of necklaces. Infants were despised and hidden away from the community. Among the medical conditions associated with seizures, those most prominent were dentition, gastrointestinal irritation, and "bad" mother's milk. Medical treatment consisted of cutting or rubbing the gums with a hare's brain during dentition, and applying peony or theriac. Even during the 20th century, when laboratory methods, electroencephalography, brain imaging, and powerful pharmaceutical techniques were available, effective treatment evolved empirically rather than systematically. PMID:23670245

  12. Seizure onset detection based on one sEMG channel.

    PubMed

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Hoppe, Karsten; Wolf, Peter; Sams, Thomas; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method to detect seizure onsets of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures based on surface electromyography (sEMG) data. The proposed method is generic and based on a single channel making it ideal for a small detection or monitoring device. The sEMG signal is high-pass filtered with a Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency of 150 Hz. The number of zero-crossings with a hysteresis of ± 50 ?V is the only feature extracted. The number of counts in a window of 1 second and the number of windows to make a detection is tested with a leave-one-out method. On 6 patients the method performs with a sensitivity of 100%, a median latency of 7.6 seconds and a median false detection rate of 0.04/h. PMID:22256126

  13. Influence of MPEP (a selective mGluR5 antagonist) on the anticonvulsant action of novel antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice.

    PubMed

    Zolkowska, Dorota; Kondrat-Wrobel, Maria W; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP - a selective antagonist for the glutamate metabotropic receptor subtype mGluR5) on the protective action of some novel antiepileptic drugs (lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate) against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs were measured to determine whether MPEP altered pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs. Intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 and 2mg/kg of MPEP significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice, whereas MPEP at a dose of 1mg/kg considerably enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin and topiramate, but not that of lamotrigine or oxcarbazepine in the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Pharmacokinetic results revealed that MPEP (1mg/kg) did not alter total brain concentrations of pregabalin and topiramate, and the observed effect in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model was pharmacodynamic in nature. Collectively, our preclinical data suggest that MPEP may be a safe and beneficial adjunct to the therapeutic effects of antiepileptic drugs in human patients. PMID:26478256

  14. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A S; Prichard, J S; Freedman, M H

    1973-03-17

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. PMID:4691106

  15. Cerebellar stimulation for cerebral palsy spasticity, function, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Davis, R

    2000-01-01

    Chronic cerebellar stimulation (CCS) applied to the superio-medial cortex reduces generalized cerebral spasticity, athetoid movements, and seizures. Eighteen clinics have reported on 600 cerebral palsy (CP) patients who comprise 90% of those treated with CCS. CP patients have varying degrees of limited abilities interfered with by spasticity (primitive reflexes, increased muscle tone, co-contractions, and spasms) and by athetoid movements in two-thirds of the patients. With CCS, spasticity reduction occurred in 85% (marked 25%, moderate 34%, mild 27%) and resulted in improvements in patient drooling, speech, respiration, posture, motor performance, gait, joint range of motion, and mood states. Radiofrequency (RF)-linked stimulators were used initially with serious equipment and calibration problems; 68% of 422 patients improved. When totally implantable controlled-currrent stimulators were used, 86% of 178 patients improved. Our double-blind study of 20 CP patients using this implantable stimulator showed 12 (60%) improved in motor performance, joint range of motion, and profile of mood states when the stimulator was ON. When abilities are graded (1: poor to 9: best), the seven patients with the higher functioning grades (5-8) all improved (99% confidence level). Intractable seizures occurred in 27 (8%) of our CP patients. At a 17-year follow-up, 19 patients contacted were using or had used CCS with 10 (53%) seizure-free and 6 (32%) with reduced seizures. CCS should be given by a totally implanted controlled-current stimulator (1-4 microCoulombs/sq. cm. /phase, 150-200 Hz) applied intermittently to the superio-medial cerebellar cortex for safe, effective, and continuous results. PMID:11036180

  16. Reactive Astrogliosis Causes the Development of Spontaneous Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Susan C.; Boni, Jessica L.; Campbell, Susan L.; Danbolt, Niels C.; Riedemann, Therese; Sutor, Bernd; Sontheimer, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurologic diseases, yet approximately one-third of affected patients do not respond to anticonvulsive drugs that target neurons or neuronal circuits. Reactive astrocytes are commonly found in putative epileptic foci and have been hypothesized to be disease contributors because they lose essential homeostatic capabilities. However, since brain pathology induces astrocytes to become reactive, it is difficult to distinguish whether astrogliosis is a cause or a consequence of epileptogenesis. We now present a mouse model of genetically induced, widespread chronic astrogliosis after conditional deletion of ?1-integrin (Itg?1). In these mice, astrogliosis occurs in the absence of other pathologies and without BBB breach or significant inflammation. Electroencephalography with simultaneous video recording revealed that these mice develop spontaneous seizures during the first six postnatal weeks of life and brain slices show neuronal hyperexcitability. This was not observed in mice with neuronal-targeted ?1-integrin deletion, supporting the hypothesis that astrogliosis is sufficient to induce epileptic seizures. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from astrocytes further suggest that the heightened excitability was associated with impaired astrocytic glutamate uptake. Moreover, the relative expression of the cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC) NKCC1 (Slc12a2) and KCC2 (Slc12a5), which are responsible for establishing the neuronal Cl? gradient that governs GABAergic inhibition were altered and the NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide eliminated seizures in a subgroup of mice. These data suggest that a shift in the relative expression of neuronal NKCC1 and KCC2, similar to that observed in immature neurons during development, may contribute to astrogliosis-associated seizures. PMID:25716834

  17. Hyponatraemia and Moduretic-grand mal seizures: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, C; Webb, L; Daley, J; Spathis, G S

    1989-01-01

    Three cases are presented which emphasize the importance of hyponatraemia as a cause of grand mal seizures. The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride appears to increase the risk of hyponatraemia. We discuss the aetiology and treatment of hyponatraemia and review the necessity for such combination therapy. We recommend caution in prescribing diuretics and preparations such as Moduretic should be used only in those few patients shown to need potassium supplementation. PMID:2506346

  18. Seizures and reproductive function: insights from female rats with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Kim, Michelle; Hintz, Tana M.; MacLusky, Neil J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic seizures in women can have adverse effects on reproductive function, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), but it has been difficult to dissociate the effects of epilepsy per se from the role of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). To distinguish the effects of chronic seizures from AEDs, we used the laboratory rat, where an epileptic condition can be induced without concomitant AED treatment. METHODS Adult female rats were administered the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine to initiate status epilepticus (SE), which was decreased in severity by the anticonvulsant diazepam. These rats developed spontaneous seizures in the ensuing weeks, and are therefore termed “epileptic.” Controls were saline-treated rats, or animals that were injected with pilocarpine but did not develop SE. Ovarian cyclicity and weight gain were evaluated for 2-3 months. Serum hormone levels were assayed from trunk blood, collected at the time of death. Paraformaldehyde-fixed ovaries were evaluated quantitatively. RESULTS Rats that had pilocarpine-induced seizures had an increased incidence of acyclicity by the end of the study, even if SE did not occur. Ovarian cysts and weight gain were significantly greater in epileptic rats than controls, whether rats maintained cyclicity or not. Serum testosterone was elevated in epileptic rats, but estradiol, progesterone and prolactin were not. INTERPRETATIONS The results suggest that an epileptic condition in the rat leads to increased body weight, cystic ovaries and elevated testosterone levels. Although caution is required when comparing female rats to women, the data suggest that epilepsy per se may be sufficient to induce abnormalities in the control of the ovary. PMID:19107990

  19. Unstable Particles near Threshold

    E-print Network

    Dongjin Chway; Tae Hyun Jung; Hyung Do Kim

    2015-02-12

    We explore physics of unstable particles when mother particle mass is around the sum of its daughter particle masses. In this case, the conventional wave function renormalization factor is ill-defined. We propose a simple resolution of the threshold singularity problem which still allows the use of narrow width approximation by defining branching ratio in terms of spectral density. The resonance peak and shape is different for different decay channels and no single decay width can be assigned to the unstable particles. Non-exponential decay happens in all time scales.

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction and seizures: the neuronal energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Zsurka, Gábor; Kunz, Wolfram S

    2015-09-01

    Seizures are often the key manifestation of neurological diseases caused by pathogenic mutations in 169 of the genes that have so far been identified to affect mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are the main producers of ATP needed for normal electrical activities of neurons and synaptic transmission. Additionally, they have a central role in neurotransmitter synthesis, calcium homoeostasis, redox signalling, production and modulation of reactive oxygen species, and neuronal death. Hypotheses link mitochondrial failure to seizure generation through changes in calcium homoeostasis, oxidation of ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in neuronal plasma membrane potential, and reduced network inhibition due to interneuronal dysfunction. Seizures, irrespective of their origin, represent an excessive acute energy demand in the brain. Accordingly, secondary mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in various epileptic disorders, including disorders that are mainly of non-mitochondrial origin. An understanding of the reciprocal relation between mitochondrial dysfunction and epilepsy is crucial to select appropriate anticonvulsant treatment and has the potential to open up new therapeutic approaches in the subset of epileptic disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26293567

  1. Seizure-Induced Oxidative Stress in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An insult to the brain (such as the first seizure) causes excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). ROS and RNS produced during status epilepticus (SE) overwhelm the mitochondrial natural antioxidant defense mechanism. This leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and damage to the mitochondrial DNA. This in turn affects synthesis of various enzyme complexes that are involved in electron transport chain. Resultant effects that occur during epileptogenesis include lipid peroxidation, reactive gliosis, hippocampal neurodegeneration, reorganization of neural networks, and hypersynchronicity. These factors predispose the brain to spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), which ultimately establish into temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This review discusses some of these issues. Though antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are beneficial to control/suppress seizures, their long term usage has been shown to increase ROS/RNS in animal models and human patients. In established TLE, ROS/RNS are shown to be harmful as they can increase the susceptibility to SRS. Further, in this paper, we review briefly the data from animal models and human TLE patients on the adverse effects of antiepileptic medications and the plausible ameliorating effects of antioxidants as an adjunct therapy. PMID:25650148

  2. Resetting of brain dynamics: epileptic versus psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Balu; Faith, Aaron; Vlachos, Ioannis; Roth, Austin; Williams, Korwyn; Noe, Katie; Drazkowski, Joe; Tapsell, Lisa; Sirven, Joseph; Iasemidis, Leon

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the possibility of differential diagnosis of patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) through an advanced analysis of the dynamics of the patients' scalp EEGs. The underlying principle was the presence of resetting of brain's preictal spatiotemporal entrainment following onset of ES and the absence of resetting following PNES. Long-term (days) scalp EEGs recorded from five patients with ES and six patients with PNES were analyzed. It was found that: (1) Preictal entrainment of brain sites was reset at ES (P<0.05) in four of the five patients with ES, and not reset (P=0.28) in the fifth patient. (2) Resetting did not occur (p>0.1) in any of the six patients with PNES. These preliminary results in patients with ES are in agreement with our previous findings from intracranial EEG recordings on resetting of brain dynamics by ES and are expected to constitute the basis for the development of a reliable and supporting tool in the differential diagnosis between ES and PNES. Finally, we believe that these results shed light on the electrophysiology of PNES by showing that occurrence of PNES does not assist patients in overcoming a pathological entrainment of brain dynamics. This article is part of a Supplemental Special Issue entitled The Future of Automated Seizure Detection and Prediction. PMID:22078523

  3. Integrating electrodermal biofeedback into pharmacologic treatment of grand mal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Scrimali, Tullio; Tomasello, Damiana; Sciuto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) and electrodermal biofeedback, when integrated with pharmacologic treatments, indicate promising methods for the treatment of grand mal seizures. They can be used to monitor patient arousal and help patients learn new strategies to better cope with stress and anxiety. Our proposed method can possibly reduce the number of crises for patients who are dependent on pharmacologic therapy and can improve their quality of life. This article describes the scientific background of electrodermal monitoring and electrodermal biofeedback for patients affected by grand mal seizures. In this study, we have reported a clinical case study. The patient was treated for 2 years with electrodermal biofeedback to augment pharmacologic treatments. The trial has been designed in accordance with “n = 1 case study research”. Our results have shown that our methods could achieve a significant reduction in grand mal seizures and sympathetic arousal when applied. The patient under consideration was also relaxed and exhibited greater competency to cope with stress. Additionally, the patient’s sense of mastery and self-efficacy was enhanced. PMID:26029078

  4. Epidemiology of pyridoxine dependent seizures in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Been, J; Bok, L; Andriessen, P; Renier, W

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy is a rare cause of seizures in childhood. The diagnosis is made on clinical criteria, that in many cases are never met. Therefore, epidemiological data on pyridoxine dependency are scarce. Aims: To study the epidemiology of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy in the Netherlands, and to determine whether the diagnosis is based on the appropriate criteria. Methods: Nationwide all departments of paediatrics (n = 113) and of paediatric or neonatal neurology (n = 17) were asked to report cases of pyridoxine dependent seizures. Birth incidences were calculated using national data on live births from 1991 to 2003. Results: Response was received from 67% of paediatric departments, including all university hospitals and 94% of child neurology departments. Thirteen patients were reported. Four definite (31%), three probable (23%), and four possible cases (31%) were identified. Two cases (15%) did not meet criteria for either of these groups. The birth incidence was 1:396 000 for definite and probable cases and 1:252 000 when possible cases are included. Conclusions: Thus far, epidemiological data on pyridoxine dependent seizures were only available from the UK and Ireland. A higher incidence was found in the Netherlands, in accordance with earlier suggestions of a regional difference. The study shows that the diagnosis is often made without performance of a formal trial of withdrawal. The importance of confirming the diagnosis, concerning the consequences as for individual prognosis, the potential side effects of prolonged pyridoxine substitution, and the possibility of treating the mother in case of future pregnancies are emphasised. PMID:16159904

  5. Sulfur Dioxide and Emergency Department Visits for Stroke and Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Szyszkowicz, Mieczys?aw; Porada, Eugeniusz; Tremblay, Neil; Grafstein, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess an association between ambient sulfur dioxide and the number of emergency department (ED) visits for ischemic stroke and seizure. The study used data collected in a Vancouver (Canada) hospital in the years 1999–2003. Daily ED visits diagnosed as ministroke, stroke, or seizure were investigated using the case-crossover technique. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The models included temperature and relative humidity in the form of natural splines. The results were reported for an increase in interquartile range ((IQR), IQR = 1.9 ppb for SO2). Positive and statistically significant associations were obtained for SO2 and ischemic stroke for all patients (OR = 1.12; CI 1.02, 1.23; lag 3) and for female patients (OR = 1.17; CI 1.01, 1.33; lag 0). In the case of ED visits for seizure, for female patients the results were also statistically significant (OR = 1.15; CI 1.02, 1.28; lag 1 and OR = 1.18; CI 1.05, 1.32; lag 2). These findings suggest that cases of ischemic cerebrovascular accidents are associated with acute exposure to ambient sulfur dioxide. PMID:22577602

  6. The treatment of neonatal seizures: focus on Levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Loiacono, Giulia; Masci, Marco; Zaccara, Gaetano; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal crises are a common problem in the first month, where phenobarbital and phenytoin are still the most frequently used medication in treatment. Whereas, Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) with an innovative action. Our present review is updated on the current literature regarding the use of LEV in neonatal seizures treatment. The available data is analyzed to assess LEV pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability in neonatal crises treatment. Several clinical trials, prospective and retrospective, comparative and pharmacokinetic studies were evaluated in LEV pharmacokinetics, efficacy, dosage, route of administration and side effects. Many cases were reported on neonatal seizures control in using LEV in certain clinical conditions. In spite of the limitations in current studies available, which have evaluated LEV efficacy and safety in neonatal crises treatment, the authors still believe that LEV seems to be a promising and useful AED in the treatment for neonatal seizures, but likewise further studies are required to better define LEV efficacy and tolerability in term and preterm neonates. PMID:25385270

  7. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Pet, Milou A; Otte, Willem M; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joels, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-08-01

    The majority of patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes triggered or provoked. Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure-precipitant. The mechanisms underlying stress-sensitivity of seizures are currently unresolved. We hypothesized that stress-sensitivity of seizures relates to alteration of the stress response, which could affect neuronal excitability and hence trigger seizures. To study this, children with epilepsy between 6 and 17 years of age and healthy controls, with similar age, sex and intelligence, were exposed to a standardized acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test for Children), during which salivary cortisol and sympathetic parameters were measured. Beforehand, the relation between stress and seizures in children with epilepsy was assessed by (i) a retrospective questionnaire; and (ii) a prospective 6-week diary on stress and seizure occurrence. Sixty-four children with epilepsy and 40 control subjects were included in the study. Of all children with epilepsy, 49% reported that seizures were precipitated by acute stress. Diary analysis showed a positive association between acute stress and seizures in 62% of children who experienced at least one seizure during the diary period. The acute social stress test was completed by 56 children with epilepsy and 37 control subjects. Children with sensitivity of seizures for acute stress, either determined by the questionnaire or by the prospective diary, showed a blunted cortisol response to stress compared with patients without acute stress-precipitated seizures and healthy controls (questionnaire-based F = 2.74, P = 0.018; diary-based F = 4.40, P = 0.007). No baseline differences in cortisol were observed, nor differences in sympathetic stress response. The relation between acute stress-sensitivity of seizures and the cortisol response to stress remained significant in multivariable analysis (? = -0.30, P = 0.03). Other variables associated with the acute stress response were the number of anti-epileptic drugs (? = -0.27, P = 0.05) and sleep quality (? = 0.30, P = 0.03). In conclusion, we show that children with acute stress-sensitive seizures have a decreased cortisol response to stress. These results support our hypothesis that stress-sensitivity of seizures is associated with alterations of the stress response, thereby providing a first step in unravelling the mechanisms behind the seizure-precipitating effects of stress. Increased knowledge of the relation between stress and seizures in childhood epilepsy might benefit our understanding of the fundamental processes underlying epilepsy and ictogenesis in general, and provide valuable clues to direct the development of new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy. PMID:26049086

  8. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  9. Nav1.1 Modulation by a Novel Triazole Compound Attenuates Epileptic Seizures in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the discovery of a novel anticonvulsant drug with a molecular organization based on the unique scaffold of rufinamide, an anti-epileptic compound used in a clinical setting to treat severe epilepsy disorders such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Although accumulating evidence supports a working mechanism through voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels, we found that a clinically relevant rufinamide concentration inhibits human (h)Nav1.1 activation, a distinct working mechanism among anticonvulsants and a feature worth exploring for treating a growing number of debilitating disorders involving hNav1.1. Subsequent structure–activity relationship experiments with related N-benzyl triazole compounds on four brain hNav channel isoforms revealed a novel drug variant that (1) shifts hNav1.1 opening to more depolarized voltages without further alterations in the gating properties of hNav1.1, hNav1.2, hNav1.3, and hNav1.6; (2) increases the threshold to action potential initiation in hippocampal neurons; and (3) greatly reduces the frequency of seizures in three animal models. Altogether, our results provide novel molecular insights into the rational development of Nav channel-targeting molecules based on the unique rufinamide scaffold, an outcome that may be exploited to design drugs for treating disorders involving particular Nav channel isoforms while limiting adverse effects. PMID:24635129

  10. Intracellular Gold Nanoparticles Increase Neuronal Excitability and Aggravate Seizure Activity in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Sun; Lee, Sungmun; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Kim, Bongsoo; Jeon, Daejong

    2014-01-01

    Due to their inert property, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have drawn considerable attention; their biological application has recently expanded to include nanomedicine and neuroscience. However, the effect of AuNPs on the bioelectrical properties of a single neuron remains unknown. Here we present the effect of AuNPs on a single neuron under physiological and pathological conditions in vitro. AuNPs were intracellularly applied to hippocampal CA1 neurons from the mouse brain. The electrophysiological property of CA1 neurons treated with 5- or 40-nm AuNPs was assessed using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Intracellular application of AuNPs increased both the number of action potentials (APs) and input resistance. The threshold and duration of APs and the after hyperpolarization (AHP) were decreased by the intracellular AuNPs. In addition, intracellular AuNPs elicited paroxysmal depolarizing shift-like firing patterns during sustained repetitive firings (SRF) induced by prolonged depolarization (10 sec). Furthermore, low Mg2+-induced epileptiform activity was aggravated by the intracellular AuNPs. In this study, we demonstrated that intracellular AuNPs alter the intrinsic properties of neurons toward increasing their excitability, and may have deleterious effects on neurons under pathological conditions, such as seizure. These results provide some considerable direction on application of AuNPs into central nervous system (CNS). PMID:24625829

  11. Failure of antiepileptic drugs in controlling seizures in epilepsy: What do we do next?

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Mendez, Brahyan; Mayor, Luis C.; Velandia-Hurtado, Fernando; Calderon-Ospina, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Medically intractable epilepsy is a clinical condition of concern that arises when a patient with epilepsy suffers seizures, despite a trial of two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) suitable for the type of epilepsy that are prescribed at maximum tolerated doses, does not achieve control of seizures. This diagnosis could be related to cortical dysplasias. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with a previous normal neurological development and no family history of epilepsy who presented with focal-type seizures at age 4. She started treatment by taking different AEDs for seizure control. She continued having frequent seizures that sometimes progressed to generalized seizures and status epilepticus. After a focal cortical resection performed in the area where interictal spikes were detected, the pathology confirmed a type IIb cortical dysplasia as the cause of the epilepsy. This article discusses cortical dysplasias as a cause of pharmacoresistant epilepsy and its treatment. PMID:26101746

  12. Optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic brainstem neurons during focal limbic seizures: Effects on cortical physiology.

    PubMed

    Furman, Moran; Zhan, Qiong; McCafferty, Cian; Lerner, Benjamin A; Motelow, Joshua E; Meng, Jin; Ma, Chanthia; Buchanan, Gordon F; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Cardin, Jessica A; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-12-01

    Focal temporal lobe seizures often cause impaired cortical function and loss of consciousness. Recent work suggests that the mechanism for depressed cortical function during focal seizures may depend on decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal, which leads to a sleep-like state of cortical slow-wave activity. To test this hypothesis, we sought to directly activate subcortical cholinergic neurons during focal limbic seizures to determine the effects on cortical function. Here we used an optogenetic approach to selectively stimulate cholinergic brainstem neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus during focal limbic seizures induced in a lightly anesthetized rat model. We found an increase in cortical gamma activity and a decrease in delta activity in response to cholinergic stimulation. These findings support the mechanistic role of reduced subcortical cholinergic arousal in causing cortical dysfunction during seizures. Through further work, electrical or optogenetic stimulation of subcortical arousal networks may ultimately lead to new treatments aimed at preventing cortical dysfunction during seizures. PMID:26530287

  13. Human seizures self-terminate across spatial scales via a critical transition

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Mark A.; Truccolo, Wilson; Eden, Uri T.; Lepage, Kyle Q.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Lee, Jong W.; Maheshwari, Atul; Halgren, Eric; Chu, Catherine J.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    Why seizures spontaneously terminate remains an unanswered fundamental question of epileptology. Here we present evidence that seizures self-terminate via a discontinuous critical transition or bifurcation. We show that human brain electrical activity at various spatial scales exhibits common dynamical signatures of an impending critical transition—slowing, increased correlation, and flickering—in the approach to seizure termination. In contrast, prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) repeatedly approach, but do not cross, the critical transition. To support these results, we implement a computational model that demonstrates that alternative stable attractors, representing the ictal and postictal states, emulate the observed dynamics. These results suggest that self-terminating seizures end through a common dynamical mechanism. This description constrains the specific biophysical mechanisms underlying seizure termination, suggests a dynamical understanding of status epilepticus, and demonstrates an accessible system for studying critical transitions in nature. PMID:23213262

  14. [Case of frontal lobe epilepsy with gelastic seizures induced by emotion].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Sudo, Akira; Ito, Tomoshiro; Sano, Hitomi; Fukushima, Naoki

    2009-08-01

    Gelastic seizures without hypothalamic hamartoma is a rare forms of epilepsy. Here, we report the case of 4-year-old girl with gelastic seizures. There was no delay in mental or motor development of the patient. The patient exhibited a peculiar seizure pattern that suddenly clung to her mother stiffening her body and an outburst of laughter with no apparent cause. The frequency of the seizures increased over a period of 1 month. Although the brain MRI and interictal EEG showed no abnormality, ictal EEG showed a 14 Hz wave discharge and subsequent slow-wave activity and suppression in bilateral frontal areas. The seizures responded favorably to oral administration of carbamazepine. The induction of the seizures could be related to theophylline administration and emotional excitation. PMID:19697890

  15. Seizures induced by direct electrical cortical stimulation - Mechanisms and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Stjepana; Kahane, Philippe; Diehl, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrical cortical stimulation (CS) is widely used to map eloquent cortex. It can be applied extraoperatively in patients undergoing intracranial EEG recordings using chronically implanted electrodes (subdural, depth or a combination), or it can be used intraoperatively. Seizures can be induced by CS but there is controversy regarding the utility of CS induced seizures in defining the epileptogenic zone and hence practice varies considerably between centres. Some centres use seizures induced by direct CS routinely to aid in defining the epileptogenic zone. In contrast, others do not rely on such information and explicitly avoid stimulating seizures during cortical mapping. Intra- and extraoperative techniques have been used to stimulate seizures with varying results, which may in part reflect these methodological differences. We here aim to review current views, definitions and studies on seizures induced by direct electrical CS. In addition we discuss mechanisms and methodological considerations of this procedure. PMID:25613034

  16. Apparatus and method for epileptic seizure detection using non-linear techniques

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN); Clapp, Ned E. (Knoxville, TN); Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Lawkins, William F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for automatically detecting epileptic seizures by monitoring and analyzing brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; determining that one or more trends in the nonlinear measures indicate a seizure, and providing notification of seizure occurrence.

  17. Failure to kindle seizures after repeated intracerebral administration of arginine vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Cain, D P; Plant, J; Rouleau, S; Corcoran, M E

    1986-03-17

    In an attempt to kindle seizures with arginine-vasopressin (AVP), we injected AVP into the amygdala or hippocampus of rats. Although behavioral and electrographic alterations were sometimes observed, seizures failed to develop, even in rats that had previously been kindled with electrical stimulation. This and previous failures to kindle seizures by intraventricular injections of AVP call into question the possibility of AVP kindling. PMID:3951322

  18. Apparatus and method for epileptic seizure detection using non-linear techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

    1998-04-28

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for automatically detecting epileptic seizures by monitoring and analyzing brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; determining that one or more trends in the nonlinear measures indicate a seizure, and providing notification of seizure occurrence. 76 figs.

  19. Synchronization analysis of voltage-sensitive dye imaging during focal seizures in the rat neocortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Daisuke; Bahar, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    Seizures are often assumed to result from an excess of synchronized neural activity. However, various recent studies have suggested that this is not necessarily the case. We investigate synchronization during focal neocortical seizures induced by injection of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) in the rat neocortex in vivo. Neocortical activity is monitored by field potential recording and by the fluorescence of the voltage-sensitive dye RH-1691. After removal of artifacts, the voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) signal is analyzed using the nonlinear dynamics-based technique of stochastic phase synchronization in order to determine the degree of synchronization within the neocortex during the development and spread of each seizure event. Results show a large, statistically significant increase in synchronization during seizure activity. Synchrony is typically greater between closer pixel pairs during a seizure event; the entire seizure region is synchronized almost exactly in phase. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first application of synchronization analysis methods to mammalian VSD imaging in vivo. Our observations indicate a clear increase in synchronization in this model of focal neocortical seizures across a large area of the neocortex; a sharp increase in synchronization during seizure events was observed in all 37 seizures imaged. The results are consistent with a recent computational study which simulates the effect of 4AP in a neocortical neuron model.

  20. Assessing Systems of Care for US Children with Epilepsy/Seizure Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Mann, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background. The proportion of US children with special health care needs (CSHCN) with epilepsy/seizure disorder who receive care in high-quality health service systems was examined. Methodology. We analyzed data for 40,242 CSHCN from the 2009-2010 National Survey of CSHCN and compared CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorder to CSHCN without epilepsy/seizure disorder. Measures included attainment rates for 6 federal quality indicators with comparisons conducted using chi square and logistic regression methods. In addition, CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorder were compared to CSHCN without epilepsy/seizure disorder on the basis of 14 unmet health care needs. Results. Lower attainment rates for receiving comprehensive care in a medical home and easily accessible community-based services were found for CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorder versus CSHCN without epilepsy/seizure disorder (medical home: 32% versus 43%; accessible community-based services: 50% versus 66%, resp.) in unadjusted analyses. Lower adjusted odds for these indicators as well as greater unmet need for specialists, dentistry, prescriptions, therapies, and mental health care were also found for CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorder. Conclusions. Further efforts are needed to improve attainment of high-quality health care services for CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorders. PMID:24228175

  1. Ictal dystonia and secondary generalization in temporal lobe seizures: a video-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Ljubica; Vojvodic, Nikola; Ristic, Aleksandar J; Bascarevic, Vladimir; Sokic, Dragoslav; Kostic, Vladimir S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of unilateral ictal limb dystonia (ID) during complex partial seizures (CPS) reduces the possibility of contralateral propagation (CP) and secondary generalization (SG) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We assessed 216 seizures recorded in 33 patients with pharmacoresistant TLE. All patients underwent video-EEG telemetry prior to surgical treatment with good postoperative outcomes (Engel I). Ictal limb dystonia was observed in 16 of the 33 patients (48%) and 58 of the 216 seizures (26.8%). We found highly significant differences in the frequency of SG between seizures with ID and seizures without ID (2/58 vs. 41/158; 3.45% vs. 25.95%; p<0.001). Contralateral propagation was seen in 13 of the 57 analyzed seizures with ID compared to 85 of the 158 seizures without ID (22.8% vs. 53.8%; p<0.001). Among the CPS without SG, we found that the mean duration of seizures with ID was significantly longer than the duration of seizures without ID (81.66±40.10 vs. 68.88±25.01 s; p=0.011). Our findings that CP and SG occur less often in patients with ID, yet the duration of CPS without SG is longer in patients with ID, suggest that the basal ganglia might inhibit propagation to the contralateral hemisphere but not ictal activity within the unilateral epileptic network. PMID:23153714

  2. Heart rate changes in partial seizures: analysis of influencing factors among refractory patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We analyzed the frequency of heart rate (HR) changes related to seizures, and we sought to identify the influencing factors of these changes during partial seizures, to summarize the regularity of the HR changes and gain some insight into the mechanisms involved in the neuronal regulation of cardiovascular function. To date, detailed information on influencing factors of HR changes related to seizures by multiple linear regression analysis remains scarce. Methods Using video-electroencephalograph (EEG)-electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings, we retrospectively assessed the changes in the HR of 81 patients during a total of 181 seizures, including 27 simple partial seizures (SPS), 110 complex partial seizures (CPS) and 44 complex partial seizures secondarily generalized (CPS-G). The epileptogenic focus and the seizure type, age, gender, and sleep/wakefulness state of each patient were evaluated during and after the seizure onset. The HR changes were evaluated in the stage of epilepsy as time varies. Results Of the 181 seizures from 81 patients with ictal ECGs, 152 seizures (83.98%) from 74 patients were accompanied by ictal tachycardia (IT). And only 1 patient was accompanied by ictal bradycardia (IB). A patient has both IT and IB. We observed that HR difference was independently correlated with side, type and sleep/wakefulness state. In this analysis, the HR changes were related to the side, gender, seizure type, and sleep/wakefulness state. Right focus, male, sleep, and CPS-G showed more significant increases than that were observed in left, female, wakefulness, SPS and CPS. HR increases rapidly within 10 seconds before seizure onset and ictus, and typically slows to normal with seizure offset. Conclusion CPS-G, sleep and right focus led to higher ictal HR. The HR in the stage of epilepsy has regularly been observed to change to become time-varying. The risk factors of ictal HR need to be controlled along with sleep, CPS-G and right focus. Our study first explains that the HR in seizures has a regular evolution varying with time. Our study might help to further clarify the basic mechanisms of interactions between heart and brain, making seizure detection and closed-loop systems a possible therapeutic alternative in refractory patients. PMID:24950859

  3. Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute and Chronic Seizures in Children with Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Chou, Min-Liang; Hung, Po-Cheng; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Encephalitis presents with seizures in the acute phase and increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric patients with acute seizures due to encephalitis and epilepsy. Patients and Methods Cases of acute pediatric encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data, including onset at age, seizure type, seizure frequency, effects of antiepileptic drugs, and prognosis were analyzed. Results During the study period, 1038 patients (450 girls, 588 boys) were enrolled. Among them, 44.6% (463) had seizures in the acute phase, 33% had status epilepticus, and 26% (251) developed postencephalitic epilepsy. At one year of follow-up, 205 of the 251 patients with postencephalitic epilepsy were receiving antiepileptic drugs while 18% were seizure free even after discontinuing the antiepileptic drugs. Among those with postencephalitic epilepsy, 67% had favorable outcomes and were using <2 anti-epileptic drugs while 15% had intractable seizures and were using ? 2 antiepileptic drugs. After benzodiazepines, intravenous phenobarbital was preferred over phenytoin as treatment of postencephalitic seizures in the acute phase. For refractory status epilepticus, high-dose topiramate combined with intravenous high-dose phenobarbital or high-dose lidocaine had less side effects. Conclusions Children with encephalitis have a high rate of postencephalitic epilepsy. Phenobarbital and clonazepam are the most common drugs used, alone or in combination, for postencephalitic epilepsy. PMID:26444013

  4. Structure, physical and photophysical properties, and charge separation studies of Re(bpm)(CO){sub 3}L{sup n+} complexes (L = CH{sub 3}CN, py, MeQ{sup +}, py-PTZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, R.J.; Perkovic, M.W.; Rillema, D.P.; Woods, C.

    1995-10-25

    The synthesis, structure, and physical and/or photophysical properties of Re(bpm)(CO){sub 3}L{sup n+}, where bpm is 2,2{prime}- bipyrimidine and L = CH{sub 3}CN, py (pyridine), MeQ{sup +} (N-methyl-r,r{prime}-bipyridinium ion), and py-PTZ (10-(4-picolyl)- phenothiazine), are described. The structure of [Re(bpm)(CO){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}CN)]PF{sub 6}{center_dot}1/2 CH{sub 3}CN was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallized in the space group P1 with cell dimensions a = 10.089(11) {Angstrom}, b = 11.855(6) {Angstrom}, c = 18.990(6) {Angstrom}, {alpha} = 89.71(3){degrees}, {beta} = 77.66(6){degrees}, {gamma} = 65.83(6){degrees}, Z =4, and D{sub calcd} = 2.082 g/cm{sup 3}. Of the 5565 reflections (Mo K{alpha}, 3.5{degrees} {le} 2{theta} {le} 45{degrees}), 4721 reflections with F{sub o} {ge} 3.0{sigma}(F{sub o}) were used in full-matrix least-squares refinement. Final residuals were R(F)=0.0692 and R{sub w}(F)=0.1026. The asymmetric unit contained two independent cations. The Re-N(bpm) bond distances were 2.171(9) and 2.198(10) {Angstrom} for one cation and 2.161(12) and 2.187(12) {Angstrom} for the other; the two Re-N(CH{sub 3}CN) bond distances were 2.094(14) and 2.177(13) {Angstrom}, and the Re-C(CO) bond distances were 1.908(15), 1.938(17), and 1.912(12) {Angstrom} for the first cation and 1.897(15), 1.896(19), and 1.919(15) {Angstrom} for the second. The complexes exhibited three CO infrared-active bands in the 1900-2100 cm{sup {minus}1} region and underwent optical transitions in the 300-350 nm region assigned to d{pi}(Re) {r_arrow} {pi}*(bpm) transitions and in the 200-300 nm region assigned to intraligand {pi} {r_arrow} {pi}* transitions. The complexes underwent multiple reductions attributed to reduction of coordinated bpm and MeQ{sup +}.

  5. Learning foraging thresholds for lizards

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Hart, W.E.; Wilson, D.B.

    1996-01-12

    This work gives a proof of convergence for a randomized learning algorithm that describes how anoles (lizards found in the Carribean) learn a foraging threshold distance. This model assumes that an anole will pursue a prey if and only if it is within this threshold of the anole`s perch. This learning algorithm was proposed by the biologist Roughgarden and his colleagues. They experimentally confirmed that this algorithm quickly converges to the foraging threshold that is predicted by optimal foraging theory our analysis provides an analytic confirmation that the learning algorithm converses to this optimal foraging threshold with high probability.

  6. [What the patient's history tells us about their nonepileptic seizures].

    PubMed

    Reuber, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Gülich, E; Bartolomei, F; McGonigal, A

    2014-10-01

    The aetiology of "psychogenic" non-epileptic seizures (NES) remains poorly understood and the differentiation of NES from epilepsy can be a difficult. In the first part of this review article we focus on recent insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of NES. We summarise a number of studies demonstrating the importance of abnormalities of emotion regulation in patients with NES. Evidence for abnormal emotion regulation comes from both self-report and experimental studies of pre-conscious cognitive processes. These studies show that NES are not the only manifestation of abnormal mental processing in these patients and that excessive social threat avoidance and emotional dysregulation are also evident between seizures and may therefore contribute to disability beyond the seizures themselves. In the second part of this review, we describe the findings of a number of studies, which have examined differences between the communication behaviour of patients with NES and those with epilepsy. We argue, that, whilst these studies initially aimed to help clinicians with the differential diagnosis of NES and epilepsy, close sociolinguistic analysis of patient's talk can also provide clues about the aetiology of NES. We conclude that the interaction of patient with NES with the doctor can be interpreted as a manifestation of avoidance and a demonstration of helplessness perhaps intended to secure active support from the doctor. In the third part of this review, we suggest that a close reading of a transcript of the interaction between a patient with NES and her doctor (and perhaps attentive listening to how patients' talk about themselves and their disorder) can yield clues to the causes of NES in individual cases. PMID:25306078

  7. Incidence of seizures on continuous EEG monitoring following traumatic brain injury in children.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brent R; Handler, Michael H; Tong, Suhong; Chapman, Kevin E

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Seizures may cause diagnostic confusion and be a source of metabolic stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The incidence of electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed seizures and of subclinical seizures in the pediatric population with TBI is not well known. METHODS A routine protocol for continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring was initiated for all patients with moderate or severe TBI at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center. Over a 3.5-year period, all patients with TBI who underwent cEEG monitoring, both according to protocol and those with mild head injuries who underwent cEEG monitoring at the discretion of the treating team, were identified prospectively. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS Over the study period, 594 children were admitted with TBI, and 144 of these children underwent cEEG monitoring. One hundred two (71%) of these 144 children had moderate or severe TBI. Abusive head trauma (AHT) was the most common mechanism of injury (65 patients, 45%) in children with cEEG monitoring. Seizures were identified on cEEG in 43 patients (30%). Forty (93%) of these 43 patients had subclinical seizures, including 17 (40%) with only subclinical seizures and 23 (53%) with both clinical and subclinical seizures. Fifty-three percent of patients with seizures experienced status epilepticus. Age less than 2.4 years and AHT mechanism were strongly correlated with presence of seizures (odds ratios 8.7 and 6.0, respectively). Those patients with only subclinical seizures had the same risk factors as the other groups. The presence of seizures did not correlate with discharge disposition but was correlated with longer hospital stay and intensive care unit stay. CONCLUSIONS Continuous EEG monitoring identifies a significant number of subclinical seizures acutely after TBI. Children younger than 2.4 years of age and victims of AHT are particularly vulnerable to subclinical seizures, and seizures in general. Continuous EEG monitoring allows for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of posttraumatic seizures, and may mitigate secondary injury to the traumatized brain. PMID:25955809

  8. Cognitive outcomes in Children who present with a first unprovoked seizure

    PubMed Central

    Sogawa, Yoshimi; Masur, David; O’Dell, Christine; Moshe, Solomon L.; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the long-term cognitive and educational outcomes in children prospectively identified at the time of a first unprovoked seizure. Methods A cohort of children with a first unprovoked seizure was enrolled and followed for a mean of 15 years. Cognitive function and educational outcomes were determined 10 or more years after the first seizure via standardized neuropsychological tests, school records and structured interviews. Children with symptomatic etiology were excluded from the analysis. When available, siblings of study subjects were recruited as normal controls. Primary educational outcome was defined as enrollment into special education services or grade repetition. Results 28% (43/153) of children with a single seizure and 40% (42/105) of children with epilepsy received special education service or repeated a grade (p=0.05). There was a statistically significant trend in which the children with more seizures tended to require special education or repeat a grade more often (28% in single seizure group vs. 34% in 2–9 seizure group vs. 64% in ? 10 seizure group; p=0.004). Of 163 subjects who completed neuropsychological tests, children with single seizures tended to score higher than children with epilepsy on WRAT reading (p=0.08), TONI-II (p=0.02), and WISC/WAIS (p=0.07). There was no statistically significant difference between children with a single seizure and sibling controls. Conclusion The results suggest that children with a single seizure represent a group that is distinctly different from children with epilepsy and are more similar to sibling controls. In contrast, even children with very mild epilepsy have significantly worse educational outcomes. PMID:21121910

  9. Involvement of the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ in kainate seizures.

    PubMed

    Bregola, Gianni; Zucchini, Silvia; Rodi, Donata; Binaschi, Anna; D'Addario, Claudio; Landuzzi, Daniela; Reinscheid, Rainer; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia; Simonato, Michele

    2002-11-15

    The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) has been shown to modulate neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Previous studies indicate that the mRNA levels for the N/OFQ precursor (proN/OFQ) are increased after seizures. However, it is unclear whether N/OFQ plays a role in seizure expression. Therefore, (1) we analyzed proN/OFQ mRNA levels and NOP (the N/OFQ receptor) mRNA levels and receptor density in the kainate model of epilepsy, using Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and receptor binding assay, and (2) we examined susceptibility to kainate seizure in mice treated with 1-[(3R, 4R)-1-cyclooctylmethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-4-piperidyl]-3-ethyl-1, 3-dihydro-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397), a selective NOP receptor antagonist, and in proN/OFQ knock-out mice. After kainate administration, increased proN/OFQ gene expression was observed in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus and in the medial nucleus of the amygdala. In contrast, NOP mRNA levels and receptor density decreased in the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex. Mice treated with the NOP receptor antagonist J-113397 displayed reduced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures (i.e., significant reduction of behavioral seizure scores). N/OFQ knock-out mice were less susceptible to kainate seizures compared with their wild-type littermates, in that lethality was reduced, latency to generalized seizure onset was prolonged, and behavioral seizure scores decreased. Intracerebroventricular administration of N/OFQ prevented reduced susceptibility to kainate seizures in N/OFQ knock-out mice. These data indicate that acute limbic seizures are associated with increased N/OFQ release in selected areas, causing downregulation of NOP receptors and activation of N/OFQ biosynthesis, and support the notion that the N/OFQ-NOP system plays a facilitatory role in kainate seizure expression. PMID:12427860

  10. Strain differences affect the induction of status epilepticus and seizure-induced morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, B; McIntyre, D C; Fahnestock, M; Racine, R J

    2004-07-01

    Genetic deficits have been discovered in human epilepsy, which lead to alteration of the balance between excitation and inhibition, and ultimately result in seizures. Rodents show similar genetic determinants of seizure induction. To test whether seizure-prone phenotypes exhibit increased seizure-related morphological changes, we compared two standard rat strains (Long-Evans hooded and Wistar) and two specially bred strains following status epilepticus. The special strains, namely the kindling-prone (FAST) and kindling-resistant (SLOW) strains, were selectively bred based on their amygdala kindling rate. Although the Wistar and Long-Evans hooded strains experienced similar amounts of seizure activity, Wistar rats showed greater mossy fiber sprouting and hilar neuronal loss than Long-Evans hooded rats. The mossy fiber system was affected differently in FAST and SLOW rats. FAST animals showed more mossy fiber granules in the naïve state, but were more resistant to seizure-induced mossy fiber sprouting than SLOW rats. These properties of the FAST strain are consistent with those observed in juvenile animals, further supporting the hypothesis that the FAST strain shares circuit properties similar to those seen in immature animals. Furthermore, the extent of mossy fiber sprouting was not well correlated with sensitivity to status epilepticus, but was positively correlated with the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures in the FAST rats only, suggesting a possible role for axonal sprouting in the development of spontaneous seizures in these animals. We conclude that genetic factors clearly affect seizure development and related morphological changes in both standard laboratory strains and the selectively bred seizure-prone and seizure-resistant strains. PMID:15233750

  11. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

  12. Gaussian mixture models for classification of neonatal seizures using EEG

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, E. M.; Temko, A.; Lightbody, G.; Marnane, W. P.; Boylan, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    A real-time neonatal seizure detection system is proposed based on a Gaussian mixture model classifier. The system includes feature transformation techniques and classifier output postprocessing. The detector was evaluated on a database of 20 patients with 330 hours of recordings. A detailed analysis of the choice of parameters for the detector is provided. A mean good detection rate of 79% was obtained with only 0.5 false detections per hour. A thorough review of all misclassified events was performed, from which a number of patterns causing false detections were identified. PMID:20585148

  13. Patterns of human local cerebral glucose metabolism during epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1982-10-01

    Ictal patterns of local cerebral metabolic rate have been studied in epileptic patients by positron computed tomography with /sup 18/F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Partial seizures were associated with activation of anatomic structures unique to each patient studied. Ictal increases and decreases in local cerebral metabolism were observed. Scans performed during generalized convulsions induced by electroshock demonstrated a diffuse ictal increase and postictal decrease in cerebral metabolism. Petit mal absences were associated with a diffuse increase in cerebral metabolic rate. The ictal fluorodeoxyglucose patterns obtained from patients do not resemble autoradiographic patterns obtained from common experimental animal models of epilepsy.

  14. Probabilistic Threshold Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Gresshoff, M; Hrousis, C A

    2010-03-09

    The Probabilistic Shock Threshold Criterion (PSTC) Project at LLNL develops phenomenological criteria for estimating safety or performance margin on high explosive (HE) initiation in the shock initiation regime, creating tools for safety assessment and design of initiation systems and HE trains in general. Until recently, there has been little foundation for probabilistic assessment of HE initiation scenarios. This work attempts to use probabilistic information that is available from both historic and ongoing tests to develop a basis for such assessment. Current PSTC approaches start with the functional form of the James Initiation Criterion as a backbone, and generalize to include varying areas of initiation and provide a probabilistic response based on test data for 1.8 g/cc (Ultrafine) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder). Application of the PSTC methodology is presented investigating the safety and performance of a flying plate detonator and the margin of an Ultrafine TATB booster initiating LX-17.

  15. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  16. Threshold Hypothesis: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwowski, Maciej; Gralewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The threshold hypothesis (TH) assumes the existence of complex relations between creative abilities and intelligence: linear associations below 120 points of IQ and weaker or lack of associations above the threshold. However, diverse results have been obtained over the last six decades--some confirmed the hypothesis and some rejected it. In this…

  17. The Nature of Psychological Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Following G. T. Fechner (1966), thresholds have been conceptualized as the amount of intensity needed to transition between mental states, such as between a states of unconsciousness and consciousness. With the advent of the theory of signal detection, however, discrete-state theory and the corresponding notion of threshold have been discounted.…

  18. Role of Subdural Electrocorticography in Prediction of Long-Term Seizure Outcome in Epilepsy Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano, Eishi; Juhasz, Csaba; Shah, Aashit; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    Since prediction of long-term seizure outcome using preoperative diagnostic modalities remains suboptimal in epilepsy surgery, we evaluated whether interictal spike frequency measures obtained from extraoperative subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) recording could predict long-term seizure outcome. This study included 61 young patients (age…

  19. How well can epileptic seizures be predicted? An evaluation of a nonlinear method

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    motivated by the correlation dimension is a seemingly promising approach. In a pre- vious study this method was reported to identify `preic- tal dimension drops' up to 19 min before seizure onset, exceeding comprising the sleep±wake cycle showed that only one out of 88 seizures was preceded by a sig- ni

  20. Assessment of Seizures and Related Symptomatology in Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayville, Erik A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2004-01-01

    Seizures can be debilitating across a number of physical, social, occupational, and personal variables. Given the deficits in all of these areas frequently present in persons with mental retardation, effective assessment and subsequent treatment of seizures is a primary goal for individuals with both mental retardation and epilepsy. To thoroughly…

  1. Simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder fracture dislocation following a seizure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Luke F; Dewing, Christopher B; McDonald, Lucas S; Provencher, Matthew T

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous, bilateral, anterior dislocations of the glenohumeral joint are rare, most attributable to major trauma. Seizure disorders and electrocution are a common cause of glenohumeral and fracture dislocations although these are most commonly posterior injuries. We present an interesting case report of diagnosis and treatment of an active duty sailor with bilateral anterior shoulder fracture dislocations following a seizure. PMID:23707135

  2. Characterising seizures in anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis with dynamic causal modelling

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Gerald K.; Sengupta, Biswa; Douglas, Pamela; Englund, Marita; Wickstrom, Ronny; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We characterised the pathophysiology of seizure onset in terms of slow fluctuations in synaptic efficacy using EEG in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis. EEG recordings were obtained from two female patients with anti-NMDA-R encephalitis with recurrent partial seizures (ages 19 and 31). Focal electrographic seizure activity was localised using an empirical Bayes beamformer. The spectral density of reconstructed source activity was then characterised with dynamic causal modelling (DCM). Eight models were compared for each patient, to evaluate the relative contribution of changes in intrinsic (excitatory and inhibitory) connectivity and endogenous afferent input. Bayesian model comparison established a role for changes in both excitatory and inhibitory connectivity during seizure activity (in addition to changes in the exogenous input). Seizures in both patients were associated with a sequence of changes in inhibitory and excitatory connectivity; a transient increase in inhibitory connectivity followed by a transient increase in excitatory connectivity and a final peak of excitatory–inhibitory balance at seizure offset. These systematic fluctuations in excitatory and inhibitory gain may be characteristic of (anti NMDA-R encephalitis) seizures. We present these results as a case study and replication to motivate analyses of larger patient cohorts, to see whether our findings generalise and further characterise the mechanisms of seizure activity in anti-NMDA-R encephalitis. PMID:26032883

  3. Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Bjarke; Pasternak, Björn; Geller, Frank; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Wang, Tongfei; Huang, Fen; Eitson, Jennifer L; Hollegaard, Mads V; Svanström, Henrik; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hougaard, David M; Schoggins, John W; Jan, Lily Yeh; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders

    2014-12-01

    Febrile seizures represent a serious adverse event following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures, harboring the interferon-stimulated gene IFI44L (rs273259: P = 5.9 × 10(-12) versus controls, P = 1.2 × 10(-9) versus MMR-unrelated febrile seizures) and the measles virus receptor CD46 (rs1318653: P = 9.6 × 10(-11) versus controls, P = 1.6 × 10(-9) versus MMR-unrelated febrile seizures). Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general, implicating the sodium channel genes SCN1A (rs6432860: P = 2.2 × 10(-16)) and SCN2A (rs3769955: P = 3.1 × 10(-10)), a TMEM16 family gene (ANO3; rs114444506: P = 3.7 × 10(-20)) and a region associated with magnesium levels (12q21.33; rs11105468: P = 3.4 × 10(-11)). Finally, we show the functional relevance of ANO3 (TMEM16C) with electrophysiological experiments in wild-type and knockout rats. PMID:25344690

  4. Modeling and Detection of Epileptic Seizures using Multi-modal Data Construction and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Bystroff, Chris

    Evrim Acar, Computer Science Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY USA Canan Aykut this time-consuming and subjective task, we develop a patient-speci c seizure recognition model for multi patient-speci c seizures with g-means (geometric mean of sensitivity and speci city) ranging between 77

  5. Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of

    E-print Network

    Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B (received for review September 1, 2004) Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol with- drawal (EW). Here we show that tissue

  6. 78 FR 41985 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...Jennifer Lail comments that her husband Michael Lail had a seizure as a child when he ``collided with another kid on the the playground'' and has suffered no seizures since. She states that driving is his passion and that he has been driving a truck for...

  7. Multiscale Entropy of Electroencephalogram as a Potential Predictor for the Prognosis of Neonatal Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Feng; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Wang-Tso; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing animal studies supported the harmful effects of prolonged or frequent neonatal seizures in developing brain, including increased risk of later epilepsy. Various nonlinear analytic measures had been applied to investigate the change of brain complexity with age. This study focuses on clarifying the relationship between later epilepsy and the changes of electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity in neonatal seizures. Methods EEG signals from 19 channels of the whole brain from 32 neonates below 2 months old were acquired. The neonates were classified into 3 groups: 9 were normal controls, 9 were neonatal seizures without later epilepsy, and 14 were neonatal seizures with later epilepsy. Sample entropy (SamEn), multiscale entropy (MSE) and complexity index (CI) were analyzed. Results Although there was no significant change in SamEn, the CI values showed significantly decreased over Channels C3, C4, and Cz in patients with neonatal seizures and later epilepsy compared with control group. More multifocal epileptiform discharges in EEG, more abnormal neuroimaging findings, and higher incidence of future developmental delay were noted in the group with later epilepsy. Conclusions Decreased MSE and CI values in patients with neonatal seizures and later epilepsy may reflect the mixed effects of acute insults, underlying brain immaturity, and prolonged seizures-related injuries. The analysis of MSE and CI can therefore provide a quantifiable and accurate way to decrypt the mystery of neonatal seizures, and could be a promising predictor. PMID:26658680

  8. 9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329.8 Section 329.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

  9. 9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381.217 Section 381.217 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other provisions of law. The provisions of this subpart relating to detention, seizure, condemnation...

  10. 9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329.8 Section 329.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

  11. 9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381.217 Section 381.217 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other provisions of law. The provisions of this subpart relating to detention, seizure, condemnation...

  12. 9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329.8 Section 329.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

  13. 9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381.217 Section 381.217 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other provisions of law. The provisions of this subpart relating to detention, seizure, condemnation...

  14. 9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329.8 Section 329.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

  15. 9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381.217 Section 381.217 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other provisions of law. The provisions of this subpart relating to detention, seizure, condemnation...

  16. 9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329.8 Section 329.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

  17. 19 CFR 12.40 - Seizure; disposition of seized articles; reports to United States attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure; disposition of seized articles; reports to United States attorney. 12.40 Section 12.40 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Immoral Articles § 12.40 Seizure; disposition of...

  18. 9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381.217 Section 381.217 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other provisions of law. The provisions of this subpart relating to detention, seizure, condemnation...

  19. Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Feenstra, Bjarke; Pasternak, Björn; Geller, Frank; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Wang, Tongfei; Huang, Fen; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Svanström, Henrik; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hougaard, David M.; Schoggins, John W.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures represent a recognized serious adverse event following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination, and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures, harboring the interferon-stimulated gene IFI44L (rs273259; P = 5.9×10?12 vs. controls; P =1.2×10?9 vs. MMR-unrelated febrile seizures) and the measles virus receptor CD46 (rs1318653; P = 9.6×10?11 vs. controls; P = 1.6×10?9 vs. MMR-unrelated febrile seizures). Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general implicating the sodium channel genes SCN1A (rs6432860; P = 2.2×10?16) and SCN2A (rs3769955; P = 3.1×10?10), a TMEM16 family gene (TMEM16C; rs114444506; P = 3.7×10?20), and a region associated with magnesium levels (12q21.33; rs11105468; P = 3.4×10?11). Finally, functional relevance of TMEM16C was demonstrated with electrophysiological experiments in wild-type and knockout rats. PMID:25344690

  20. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Annemarie M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Moll, Henriette A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: General developmental outcome is known to be good in school-aged children who experienced febrile seizures. We examined cognitive and behavioural outcomes in preschool children with febrile seizures, including language and executive functioning outcomes. Method: This work was performed in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort…

  1. CONVULSANT PROPERTIES OF CYCLOTRIMETHYLENETRINITRAMINE (RDX): SPONTANEOUS, AUDIOGENIC, AND AMYGDALOID KINDLED SEIZURE ACTIVITY (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose-effect and time course relationships were determined for the effects of cyclotrimethylemetrinitramine (RDX) on seizure susceptibility. Male Long Evans rats treated with 0-60 mg/kg RDX, p.o., were monitored for spontaneous seizures during an 8 h interval between dosing and au...

  2. 19 CFR 162.93 - Failure to issue notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to issue notice of seizure. 162.93 Section 162.93 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act §...

  3. 19 CFR 162.93 - Failure to issue notice of seizure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to issue notice of seizure. 162.93 Section 162.93 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act §...

  4. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section...Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) As used in...meanings specified: (1) Commercial fishing industry vessel means a fishing...

  5. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section...Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) As used in...meanings specified: (1) Commercial fishing industry vessel means a fishing...

  6. Automatic muscle artifact removal as a preprocessing technique for seizure detection

    E-print Network

    Automatic muscle artifact removal as a preprocessing technique for seizure detection A. Vergult1, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Muscle artifacts often deteriorate the quality of scalp EEGs, including at the onset of epileptic seizures. Therefore, this paper investigates the influence of removing muscle

  7. Recurrence Risk after a First Remote Symptomatic Unprovoked Seizure in Childhood: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Lizana, J.; Aguirre-Rodriguez, J.; Aguilera-Lopez, P.; Cassinello-Garcia, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess recurrence risk after a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure in childhood. All consecutive patients younger than 14 years with a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure who were seen at our hospital between 1994 and 2006 were included in the study and prospectively followed. Only two patients received…

  8. Seizures and Teens: When Medicines Don't Work--Devices & Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    When medicines do not work, the search for seizure control should not stop. Special diets or medical devices may be recommended to help control seizures. While not a cure for epilepsy, they may be able to help, especially for those who are not candidates for surgery or when surgery does not work. This article provides an overview of the devices…

  9. Impaired Cognition in Rats with Cortical Dysplasia: Additional Impact of Early-Life Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Marcella M.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common and serious co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy is cognitive impairment. While early-life seizures are considered a major cause for cognitive impairment, it is not known whether it is the seizures, the underlying neurological substrate or a combination that has the largest impact on eventual learning and memory. Teasing…

  10. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 19 CFR 171.51. (b) When a commercial fishing industry vessel is subject to seizure for a... issued a summons to appear as prescribed in subpart F of 19 CFR part 171 in lieu of seizure, provided... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  11. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 19 CFR 171.51. (b) When a commercial fishing industry vessel is subject to seizure for a... issued a summons to appear as prescribed in subpart F of 19 CFR part 171 in lieu of seizure, provided... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  12. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 19 CFR 171.51. (b) When a commercial fishing industry vessel is subject to seizure for a... issued a summons to appear as prescribed in subpart F of 19 CFR part 171 in lieu of seizure, provided... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  13. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 19 CFR 171.51. (b) When a commercial fishing industry vessel is subject to seizure for a... issued a summons to appear as prescribed in subpart F of 19 CFR part 171 in lieu of seizure, provided... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  14. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 19 CFR 171.51. (b) When a commercial fishing industry vessel is subject to seizure for a... issued a summons to appear as prescribed in subpart F of 19 CFR part 171 in lieu of seizure, provided... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  15. Review of seizure outcomes after surgical resection of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Phillip A; Boettcher, Lillian B; Conner, Andrew K; Glenn, Chad A; Briggs, Robert G; Santucci, Joshua A; Bellew, Michael R; Battiste, James D; Sughrue, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are rare tumors that present with seizures in the majority of cases. We report the results of a review of seizure freedom rates following resection of these benign lesions. We searched the English literature using PubMed for articles presenting seizure freedom rates for DNETs as a unique entity. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and operative variables were assessed across selected studies. Twenty-nine articles were included in the analysis. The mean age at surgery across studies was a median of 18 years (interquartile range 11-25 years). The mean duration of epilepsy pre-operatively was a median 7 years (interquartile range 3-11 years). Median reported gross-total resection rate across studies was 79 % (interquartile range 62-92 %). Authors variously chose lesionectomy or extended lesionectomy operations within and across studies. The median seizure freedom rate was 86 % (interquartile range 77-93 %) with only one study reporting fewer than 60 % of patients seizure free. Seizure outcomes were either reported at 1 year of follow-up or at last follow-up, which occurred at a median of 4 years (interquartile range 3-7 years). The number of seizure-free patients who discontinued anti-epileptic drugs varied widely from zero to all patients. Greater extent of resection was associated with seizure freedom in four studies. PMID:26514362

  16. Early Seizure Frequency and Aetiology Predict Long-Term Medical Outcome in Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice, it is important to predict as soon as possible after diagnosis and starting treatment, which children are destined to develop medically intractable seizures and be at risk of increased mortality. In this study, we determined factors predictive of long-term seizure and mortality outcome in a population-based cohort of 102…

  17. Robust Deep Network with Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yueming; Zhu, Junming; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Effective seizure detection from long-term EEG is highly important for seizure diagnosis. Existing methods usually design the feature and classifier individually, while little work has been done for the simultaneous optimization of the two parts. This work proposes a deep network to jointly learn a feature and a classifier so that they could help each other to make the whole system optimal. To deal with the challenge of the impulsive noises and outliers caused by EMG artifacts in EEG signals, we formulate a robust stacked autoencoder (R-SAE) as a part of the network to learn an effective feature. In R-SAE, the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) is proposed to reduce the effect of noise/outliers. Unlike the mean square error (MSE), the output of the new kernel MCC increases more slowly than that of MSE when the input goes away from the center. Thus, the effect of those noises/outliers positioned far away from the center can be suppressed. The proposed method is evaluated on six patients of 33.6 hours of scalp EEG data. Our method achieves a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99%, which is promising for clinical applications. PMID:25105136

  18. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment as a seizure and excitotoxic model.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Silvia Josefina; Ureña-Guerrero, Mónica Elisa; Morales-Villagrán, Alberto

    2010-03-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) subcutaneously administrated to neonatal rats induces several neurochemical alterations in the brain, which have been associated with an excitotoxic process triggered by an over activation of glutamate receptors; however there are few systematic studies about initial changes in intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) Glu levels produced by MSG in the brain. Thus, to characterize these changes, rat pups were injected with a MSG solution at 1, 3, 5 and 7 postnatal days (PD), and i.c.v. Glu levels and hippocampal total content of related amino acids (Asp, Glu, Gln, Gly, Tau, Ala and GABA) were estimated before, immediately and after each injection. Behavioral and EEG responses were also monitored after MSG administrations. Significant rise in i.c.v. Glu levels were found, mainly in response to the first and second injection. Moreover, the total content of all amino acids evaluated also increased during the first hour after the first MSG administration but only Glu and GABA remained elevated after 24 h. These biochemical modifications were accompanied with behavioral alterations characterized by: screeching, tail stiffness, head nodding, emprosthotonic flexion episodes and generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, which were associated with electroencephalographic pattern alterations. Altered behavior found in animals treated with MSG suggests an initial seizure situation. Although four MSG administrations were used, the most relevant findings were observed after the first and second administrations at PD1 and PD3, suggesting that only two MSG injections could be sufficient to resemble a seizure and/or excitotoxic model. PMID:20043888

  19. Optical Suppression of Seizure-Like Activity with an LED

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Steven M.; Perry, Gavin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Schmidt, Brigitte F.

    2007-01-01

    The therapy of focal epilepsy remains unsatisfactory for as many as 25% of patients. We tested the hypothesis that an efficient, ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV LED), coupled with a newly developed “caged” ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), might be capable of terminating “ictal-like” events in cultured murine neurons. GABA was released from BC204, a recently described caged GABA, using a small, ultraviolet (UV) LED. Ictal-like events were provoked by removal of extracellular magnesium. In preliminary control experiments, the concentration of GABA released from our caged compound was dependent upon the strength and duration of the illumination, and readily achieved micromolar (?M) levels that are known to activate tonic, extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. Ultraviolet illumination had no effect when BC204 was not present in the perfusate and the currents produced by BC204 were eliminated by picrotoxin. Within a few seconds of UV illumination, BC204 rapidly terminated ictal-like events at low ?M concentration. Uncaging of BC204 also blocked the elevation of intracellular calcium induced by seizure like discharges in our cultures. While much more technical development is clearly required to extend our observations to a more intact preparation, these results suggest the intriguing possibility of constructing an implantable device to “optically suppress” focal human seizures under closed loop control. PMID:17448638

  20. Protective effect of carnosine on febrile seizures in immature mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yun-Jian; Wu, Deng-Chang; Feng, Bo; Hou, Wei-wei; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-Wei

    2015-02-19

    Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common type of convulsions in childhood and complex FSs represent an increased risk for development of temporal lobe epilepsy. The aim of this study was to analyze the anticonvulsant effects of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide composed of alanine and histidine, on hyperthermia induced seizure in immature mice. Injection of carnosine significantly increased the latency and decreased the duration of FSs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, histidine had similar effects on FSs as carnosine. The protective effect of carnosine or histidine was completely abolished by ?-fluoromethylhistidine (?-FMH), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, or in histidine decarboxylase deficient (HDC-KO) mice. Peripheral carnosine administration increased the level of carnosine, histidine and histamine in the cortex and hippocampus of mice pups, but decreased glutamate contents in the cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that carnosine can protect against FSs in mice pups through its conversion to histamine, suggesting that it may serve as an efficient anti-FSs drug in the future. PMID:25562630

  1. From cognitive networks to seizures: Stimulus evoked dynamics in a coupled cortical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaejin; Ermentrout, Bard; Bodner, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neuropathologies worldwide. Seizures arising in epilepsy or in seizure disorders are characterized generally by uncontrolled spread of excitation and electrical activity to a limited region or even over the entire cortex. While it is generally accepted that abnormal excessive firing and synchronization of neuron populations lead to seizures, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying human epileptic seizures, the mechanisms of transitions from normal to paroxysmal activity, or about how seizures spread. Further complication arises in that seizures do not occur with a single type of dynamics but as many different phenotypes and genotypes with a range of patterns, synchronous oscillations, and time courses. The concept of preventing, terminating, or modulating seizures and/or paroxysmal activity through stimulation of brain has also received considerable attention. The ability of such stimulation to prevent or modulate such pathological activity may depend on identifiable parameters. In this work, firing rate networks with inhibitory and excitatory populations were modeled. Network parameters were chosen to model normal working memory behaviors. Two different models of cognitive activity were developed. The first model consists of a single network corresponding to a local area of the brain. The second incorporates two networks connected through sparser recurrent excitatory connectivity with transmission delays ranging from approximately 3 ms within local populations to 15 ms between populations residing in different cortical areas. The effect of excitatory stimulation to activate working memory behavior through selective persistent activation of populations is examined in the models, and the conditions and transition mechanisms through which that selective activation breaks down producing spreading paroxysmal activity and seizure states are characterized. Specifically, we determine critical parameters and architectural changes that produce the different seizure dynamics in the networks. This provides possible mechanisms for seizure generation. Because seizures arise as attractors in a multi-state system, the system may possibly be returned to its baseline state through some particular stimulation. The ability of stimulation to terminate seizure dynamics in the local and distributed models is studied. We systematically examine when this may occur and the form of the stimulation necessary for the range of seizure dynamics. In both the local and distributed network models, termination is possible for all seizure types observed by stimulation possessing some particular configuration of spatial and temporal characteristics.

  2. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H.; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min). Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex) with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute mortality in aging mice following severe brain ischemia and that early anticonvulsive treatment may prevent seizure genesis and improve overall outcomes. PMID:26630670

  3. Long-term video EEG monitoring for diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Gedzelman, Evan R; LaRoche, Suzette M

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures have long been known by many names. A short list includes hysteroepilepsy, hysterical seizures, pseudoseizures, nonepileptic events, nonepileptic spells, nonepileptic seizures, and psychogenic nonepileptic attacks. These events are typically misdiagnosed for years and are frequently treated as electrographic seizures and epilepsy. These patients experience all the side effects of antiepileptic drugs and none of the benefits. Video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring is the gold standard diagnostic test that can make a clear distinction between psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and epilepsy. Video EEG allows us to correctly characterize the patient’s events and therefore properly diagnose and direct management. As a result, years of faulty management and wasted health care dollars can be avoided. PMID:25342907

  4. Vigabatrin and mental retardation in tuberous sclerosis: infantile spasms vs focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Eun Hye; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder resulting in epilepsy and mental retardation. Vigabatrin has shown efficacy in the treatment of infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but its effects on focal seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex have not been determined. We compared the efficacy of vigabatrin in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-induced focal seizures and infantile spasms and assessed the mental outcomes in both groups. We retrospectively evaluated 31 children with tuberous sclerosis complex and epilepsy, who were treated with vigabatrin in single tertiary center in Seoul, Korea. Vigabatrin treatment resulted in spasms cessation in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients with infantile spasms, whereas 6 of 13 (46.2%) patients with focal seizures became seizure-free. Initial response to vigabatrin had no effect on intellectual disability. Vigabatrin was highly effective in eliminating infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but was less effective in patients with focal seizures. PMID:22752486

  5. Vigabatrin and mental retardation in tuberous sclerosis: infantile spasms versus focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Eun Hye; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2013-03-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder resulting in epilepsy and mental retardation. Vigabatrin has shown efficacy in the treatment of infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but its effects on focal seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex have not been determined. We compared the efficacy of vigabatrin in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-induced focal seizures and infantile spasms and assessed the mental outcomes in both groups. We retrospectively evaluated 31 children with tuberous sclerosis complex and epilepsy, who were treated with vigabatrin in a single tertiary center in Seoul, Korea. Vigabatrin treatment resulted in spasms cessation in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients with infantile spasms, whereas 6 of 13 (46.2%) patients with focal seizures became seizure free. Initial response to vigabatrin had no effect on intellectual disability. Vigabatrin was highly effective in eliminating infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex but was less effective in patients with focal seizures. PMID:22752486

  6. Guidelines for epilepsy management in India classification of seizures and epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ramaratnam, Sridharan; Satishchandra, P

    2010-10-01

    This article is part of the Guidelines for Epilepsy management in India. This article reviews the classification systems used for epileptic seizures and epilepsy and present the recommendations based on current evidence. At present, epilepsy is classified according to seizure type and epilepsy syndrome using the universally accepted International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsy syndromes. A multi-axial classification system incorporating ictal phenomenology, seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, etiology and impairments is being developed by the ILAE task force. The need to consider age-related epilepsy syndromes is particularly important in children with epilepsy. The correct classification of seizure type and epilepsy syndrome helps the individual with epilepsy to receive appropriate investigations, treatment, and information about the likely prognosis. PMID:21264131

  7. Role of Intravenous Levetiracetam in Seizure Prophylaxis of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kirmani, Batool F.; Mungall, Diana; Ling, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause seizures and the development of epilepsy. The incidence of seizures varies from 21% in patients with severe brain injuries to 50% in patients with war-related penetrating TBI. In the acute and sub-acute periods following injury, seizures can lead to increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema, further complicating TBI management. Anticonvulsants can be used for seizure prophylaxis according to the current Parameters of Practice and Guidelines in a subset of severe TBI patients, and for a limited time window. Phenytoin is the most widely prescribed anticonvulsant in these patients. Intravenous levetiracetam, made available in 2006, is now being considered as a viable option in acute care settings if phenytoin is unavailable or not feasible due to side-effects. We discuss current data regarding the role of intravenous levetiracetam in seizure prophylaxis of severe TBI patients and the need for future studies. PMID:24198810

  8. Seizures in low-grade gliomas: natural history, pathogenesis, and outcome after treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rudà, Roberta; Bello, Lorenzo; Duffau, Hugues; Soffietti, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Seizures represent a common symptom in low-grade gliomas; when uncontrolled, they significantly contribute to patient morbidity and negatively impact quality of life. Tumor location and histology influence the risk for epilepsy. The pathogenesis of tumor-related epilepsy is multifactorial and may differ among tumor histologies (glioneuronal tumors vs diffuse grade II gliomas). Gross total resection is the strongest predictor of seizure freedom in addition to clinical factors, such as preoperative seizure duration, type, and control with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Epilepsy surgery may improve seizure control. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (procarbazine + CCNU+ vincristine, temozolomide) are effective in reducing the frequency of seizures in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Newer AEDs (levetiracetam, topiramate, lacosamide) seem to be better tolerated than the old AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine), but there is lack of evidence regarding their superiority in terms of efficacy. PMID:23095831

  9. Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, M; van Eijsden, P; Ferrier, C H; Kho, K H; van Rijen, P C; Leijten, F S S

    2009-06-01

    Generally, activation of the frontal eye field during seizures can cause versive (forced) gaze deviation, while non-versive head deviation is hypothesised to result from ictal neglect after inactivation of the ipsilateral temporo-parietal area. Almost all non-versive head deviations occurring during temporal lobe seizures are directed to the side of seizure onset, so in derogatory cases it is worth while explaining the paradoxical event. We present a patient with a paradoxical direction of gaze deviation during temporal lobe seizures with an unexpected explanation. Electrocortical stimulation of the temporo-parieto-occipital junction elicited an irrepressible urge to look towards an illusory shadow person besides the patient. Paradoxical non-versive gaze deviations in temporal lobe seizures may be due to illusory experiences masked by postictal amnesia. PMID:19448096

  10. Reversible blindness: simple partial seizures presenting as ictal and postictal hemianopsia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Motamedi, Gholam; Osborne, Benjamin; Mora, Carlos A

    2010-09-01

    A 34-year-old woman developed a sustained right homonymous hemianopia and episodic visual hallucinations 8 days after liver transplant surgery. Neuro-ophthalmologic examination and perimetry confirmed a right homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing. The patient's vital signs and laboratory values, including a comprehensive metabolic panel and drug levels, were unremarkable. Brain MRI with and without contrast was also unremarkable. A video electroencephalogram revealed frequent, recurrent, left occipitoparietotemporal simple partial seizures associated with episodes of eyelid fluttering, right gaze preference, visual hallucinations, and a dense right hemianopia that persisted interictally. After treatment of the seizures with levetiracetam, perimetry showed resolution of the right homonymous hemianopia. This case demonstrates many classic features of occipital and parietal seizures. It also suggests that, unlike previously reported cases of enduring visual field deficits after cessation of seizures, early diagnosis and management of visual seizures may prevent permanent visual field deficits. PMID:20531226

  11. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  12. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kristen E.; Puccio, Ava M.; Harshman, Kathy J.; Falcione, Bonnie; Benedict, Neal; Jankowitz, Brian T.; Stippler, Martina; Fischer, Michael; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K.; Fabio, Anthony; Darby, Joseph M.; Okonkwo, David O.

    2013-01-01

    Object Current standard of care for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is prophylactic treatment with phenytoin for 7 days to decrease the risk of early posttraumatic seizures. Phenytoin alters drug metabolism, induces fever, and requires therapeutic-level monitoring. Alternatively, levetiracetam (Keppra) does not require serum monitoring or have significant pharmacokinetic interactions. In the current study, the authors compare the EEG findings in patients receiving phenytoin with those receiving levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure prophylaxis following severe TBI. Methods Data were prospectively collected in 32 cases in which patients received levetiracetam for the first 7 days after severe TBI and compared with data from a historical cohort of 41 cases in which patients received phenytoin monotherapy. Patients underwent 1-hour electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring if they displayed persistent coma, decreased mental status, or clinical signs of seizures. The EEG results were grouped into normal and abnormal findings, with abnormal EEG findings further categorized as seizure activity or seizure tendency. Results Fifteen of 32 patients in the levetiracetam group warranted EEG monitoring. In 7 of these 15 cases the results were normal and in 8 abnormal; 1 patient had seizure activity, whereas 7 had seizure tendency. Twelve of 41 patients in the phenytoin group received EEG monitoring, with all results being normal. Patients treated with levetiracetam and phenytoin had equivalent incidence of seizure activity (p = 0.556). Patients receiving levetiracetam had a higher incidence of abnormal EEG findings (p = 0.003). Conclusions Levetiracetam is as effective as phenytoin in preventing early posttraumatic seizures but is associated with an increased seizure tendency on EEG analysis. PMID:18828701

  13. Unit Activity of Hippocampal Interneurons before Spontaneous Seizures in an Animal Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Izumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of seizure initiation are unclear. To evaluate the possible roles of inhibitory neurons, unit recordings were obtained in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum of epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Most interneurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and subiculum increased their firing rate before seizures, and did so with significant consistency from seizure to seizure. Identification of CA1 interneuron subtypes based on firing characteristics during theta and sharp waves suggested that a parvalbumin-positive basket cell and putative bistratified cells, but not oriens lacunosum moleculare cells, were activated preictally. Preictal changes occurred much earlier than those described by most previous in vitro studies. Preictal activation of interneurons began earliest (>4 min before seizure onset), increased most, was most prevalent in the subiculum, and was minimal in CA3. Preictal inactivation of interneurons was most common in CA1 (27% of interneurons) and included a putative ivy cell and parvalbumin-positive basket cell. Increased or decreased preictal activity correlated with whether interneurons fired faster or slower, respectively, during theta activity. Theta waves were more likely to occur before seizure onset, and increased preictal firing of subicular interneurons correlated with theta activity. Preictal changes by other hippocampal interneurons were largely independent of theta waves. Within seconds of seizure onset, many interneurons displayed a brief pause in firing and a later, longer drop that was associated with reduced action potential amplitude. These findings suggest that many interneurons inactivate during seizures, most increase their activity preictally, but some fail to do so at the critical time before seizure onset. PMID:25904809

  14. Epileptic seizures increase circulating endothelial cells in peripheral blood as early indicators of cerebral vascular damage

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Charles W.; Tcheranova, Dilyara; Basuroy, Shyamali; Zimmermann, Aliz

    2010-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are nonhematopoetic mononuclear cells in peripheral blood that are dislodged from injured vessels during cardiovascular disease, systemic vascular disease, and inflammation. Their occurrence during cerebrovascular insults has not been previously described. Epileptic seizures cause the long-term loss of cerebrovascular endothelial dilator function. We hypothesized that seizures cause endothelial sloughing from cerebral vessels and the appearance of brain-derived CECs (BCECs), possible early indicators of cerebral vascular damage. Epileptic seizures were induced by bicuculline in newborn pigs; venous blood was then sampled during a 4-h period. CECs were identified in the fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by the expression of endothelial antigens (CD146, CD31, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and by Ulex europeaus lectin binding. In control animals, few CECs were detected. Seizures caused a time-dependent increase in CECs 2–4 h after seizure onset. Seizure-induced CECs coexpress glucose transporter-1, a blood-brain barrier-specific glucose transporter, indicating that these cells originate in the brain vasculature and are thus BCECs. Seizure-induced BCECs cultured in EC media exhibited low proliferative potential and abnormal cell contacts. BCEC appearance during seizures was blocked by a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-A1) or cobalt protoporphyrin (heme oxygenase-1 inducer), which prevented apoptosis in cerebral arterioles and the loss of cerebral vascular endothelial function during the late postictal period. These findings suggest that seizure-induced BCECs are injured ECs dislodged from cerebral microvessels during seizures. The correlation between the appearance of BCECs in peripheral blood, apoptosis in cerebral vessels, and the loss of postictal cerebral vascular function suggests that BCECs are early indicators of late cerebral vascular damage. PMID:20363895

  15. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

  16. Absence seizures in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficient mice: a model of juvenile absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Cortez, M A; Wu, Y; Gibson, K M; Snead, O C

    2004-11-01

    The succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) null mouse represents a viable animal model for human SSADH deficiency and is characterized by markedly elevated levels of both gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain, blood, and urine. GHB is known to induce absence-like seizures and absence seizures have been reported to occur in children with SSADH deficiency. We tested the hypothesis that the phenotype of the SSADH(-/-) mouse shows absence-like seizures because of the inordinately high levels of GHB in the brain of this mutant animal. Sequential electrocorticographic (ECoG) and prolonged video ECoG recordings from chronically implanted electrodes were done on SSADH(-/-), SSADH(+/-), and SSADH(+/+) mice from postnatal day (P) 10 to (P) 21. Spontaneous, recurrent absence-like seizures appeared in the SSADH(-/-) during the second week of life and evolved into generalized convulsive seizures late in the third week of life that were associated with an explosive onset of status epilepticus which was lethal. The seizures in SSADH null mice were consistent with typical absence seizures in rodent with 7 Hz spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) recorded from thalamocortical circuitry, the onset/offset of which was time-locked with ictal behavior characterized by facial myoclonus, vibrissal twitching and frozen immobility. The absence seizures became progressively more severe from P14 to 18 at which time they evolved into myoclonic and generalized convulsive seizures that progressed into a lethal status epilepticus. The absence seizures in SSADH(-/-) were abolished by ethosuximide (ETX) and the GABA(B)R antagonist CGP 35348. The seizure phenotype in the SSADH(-/-) recapitulates that observed in human SSADH deficiency. Hence, SSADH(-/-) may be used to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underpin the pathogenesis of absence and generalized tonic-clonic seizures associated with SSADH deficiency. As well, the SSADH(-/-) may represent a unique animal model of the transition from absence to myoclonic and generalized convulsive seizures that is observed in up to 80% of patients with juvenile absence epilepsy. PMID:15582027

  17. Febrile Seizures and Mechanisms of Epileptogenesis: Insights from an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Roland A.; Dubé, Celine; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most prevalent type of human epilepsy, yet the causes for its development, and the processes involved, are not known. Most individuals with TLE do not have a family history, suggesting that this limbic epilepsy is a consequence of acquired rather than genetic causes. Among suspected etiologies, febrile seizures have frequently been cited. This is due to the fact that retrospective analyses of adults with TLE have demonstrated a high prevalence (20->60%) of a hisrory of prolonged febrile seizures during early childhood, suggesting an etiological role for these seizures in the development of TLE. Specifically, neuronal damage induced by febrile seizures has been suggested as a mechanism for the development of mesial temporal sclerosis, the pathological hallmark of TLE. However, the statisrical correlation between febrile seizures and TLE does not necessarily indicate a causal relationship. For example, preexisting (genetic or acquired) ‘causes’ that result independently in febrile seizures and in TLE would also result in tight statistical correlation. For obvious reasons, complex febrile seizures cannot be induced in the human, and studies of their mechanisms and of their consequences on brain molecules and circuits are severely limited. Therefore, an animal model was designed to study these seizures. The model reproduces the fundamental key elements of the human condition: the age specificity, the physiological temperatures seen in fevers of children, the length of the seizures and their lack of immediate morbidity. Neuroanatomical, molecular and functional methods have been used in this model to determine the consequences of prolonged febrile seizures on the survival and integrity of neurons, and on hyperexcitability in the hippocampal-limbic network. Experimental prolonged febrile seizures did not lead to death of any of the seizure-vulnerable populations in hippocampus, and the rate of neurogenesis was also unchanged. Neuronal function was altered sufficiently to promote synaptic reorganization of granule cells, and transient and long-term alterations in the expression of specific genes were observed. The contribution of these consequences of febrile seizures to the epileptogenic process is discussed. PMID:15250596

  18. Mechanisms by which a CACNA1H mutation in epilepsy patients increases seizure susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Eckle, Veit-Simon; Shcheglovitov, Aleksandr; Vitko, Iuliia; Dey, Deblina; Yap, Chan Choo; Winckler, Bettina; Perez-Reyes, Edward

    2014-01-01

    T-type calcium channels play essential roles in regulating neuronal excitability and network oscillations in the brain. Mutations in the gene encoding Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, CACNA1H, have been found in association with various forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. We and others have found that these mutations may influence neuronal excitability either by altering the biophysical properties of the channels or by increasing their surface expression. The goals of the present study were to investigate the excitability of neurons expressing Cav3.2 with the epilepsy mutation, C456S, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which it influences neuronal properties. We found that expression of the recombinant C456S channels substantially increased the excitability of cultured neurons by increasing the spontaneous firing rate and reducing the threshold for rebound burst firing. Additionally, we found that molecular determinants in the I–II loop (the region in which most childhood absence epilepsy-associated mutations are found) substantially increase the surface expression of T-channels but do not alter the relative distribution of channels into dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons. Finally, we discovered that expression of C456S channels promoted dendritic growth and arborization. These effects were reversed to normal by either the absence epilepsy drug ethosuximide or a novel T-channel blocker, TTA-P2. As Ca2+-regulated transcription factors also increase dendritic development, we tested a transactivator trap assay and found that the C456S variant can induce changes in gene transcription. Taken together, our findings suggest that gain-of-function mutations in Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels increase seizure susceptibility by directly altering neuronal electrical properties and indirectly by changing gene expression. PMID:24277868

  19. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    E-print Network

    Bonvini, Marco

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use ...

  20. Traditional and non-traditional treatments for autism spectrum disorder with seizures: an on-line survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of seizure, epilepsy and abnormal electroencephalograms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is little information regarding the relative effectiveness of treatments for seizures in the ASD population. In order to determine the effectiveness of traditional and non-traditional treatments for improving seizures and influencing other clinical factor relevant to ASD, we developed a comprehensive on-line seizure survey. Methods Announcements (by email and websites) by ASD support groups asked parents of children with ASD to complete the on-line surveys. Survey responders choose one of two surveys to complete: a survey about treatments for individuals with ASD and clinical or subclinical seizures or abnormal electroencephalograms, or a control survey for individuals with ASD without clinical or subclinical seizures or abnormal electroencephalograms. Survey responders rated the perceived effect of traditional antiepileptic drug (AED), non-AED seizure treatments and non-traditional ASD treatments on seizures and other clinical factors (sleep, communication, behavior, attention and mood), and listed up to three treatment side effects. Results Responses were obtained concerning 733 children with seizures and 290 controls. In general, AEDs were perceived to improve seizures but worsened other clinical factors for children with clinical seizure. Valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam and ethosuximide were perceived to improve seizures the most and worsen other clinical factors the least out of all AEDs in children with clinical seizures. Traditional non-AED seizure and non-traditional treatments, as a group, were perceived to improve other clinical factors and seizures but the perceived improvement in seizures was significantly less than that reported for AEDs. Certain traditional non-AED treatments, particularly the ketogenic diet, were perceived to improve both seizures and other clinical factors. For ASD individuals with reported subclinical seizures, other clinical factors were reported to be worsened by AEDs and improved by non-AED traditional seizure and non-traditional treatments. The rate of side effects was reportedly higher for AEDs compared to traditional non-AED treatments. Conclusion Although this survey-based method only provides information regarding parental perceptions of effectiveness, this information may be helpful for selecting seizure treatments in individuals with ASD. PMID:21592359