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1

EXAMINATION OF THE PROCONVULSANT ACTIONS OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES USING PTZ AND KINDLING SEIZURE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Properties of two pyrethroids was assessed using acute i.p. pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) administration and electrical kindling of the amygdale. he Type I pyrethroid, cismethrin (15 mg/kg, po), produced a 17% reduction in the threshold dosage of PTZ required to induce a seizure, while...

2

Anticonvulsant Activity of Teucrium polium Against Seizure Induced by PTZ and MES in Mice  

PubMed Central

Teucrium polium (Labiatae) is a plant that widely grows in Iran. Some of species of Teucrium are used for a considerable range of actions in traditional medicine and T. polium has frequently been used as anticonvulsant. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of T. polium ethanolic aqueous extracts and related fractions on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock stimulation (MES). Moreover, presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins and flavonoid contents were evaluated. It was found that aqueous extract (ED50 = 22.4 mg/kg body weight) and related n-butanol fraction (ED50 = 12.6 mg/kg body weight) have antiseizure effects comparing to control groups. There was no difference between preventing of PTZ-induced death and MES-induced hindlimb tonic extension (HLTE) in ethanolic extract comparing to control groups. Our results showed that the amount of flavonoid quantity present in aqueous extract is higher than that of ethanolic extract. These data also showed that the quantity of the flavonoid in n-butanol fraction of aqueous extract is more than other fractions. In conclusion, it was realized that flavonoid rich extracts are more potent than other fractions in showing antiseizure effects. PMID:24381604

Khoshnood-Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Oveisi, Narjes

2010-01-01

3

Anticonvulsant Activity of Teucrium polium Against Seizure Induced by PTZ and MES in Mice.  

PubMed

Teucrium polium (Labiatae) is a plant that widely grows in Iran. Some of species of Teucrium are used for a considerable range of actions in traditional medicine and T. polium has frequently been used as anticonvulsant. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of T. polium ethanolic aqueous extracts and related fractions on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock stimulation (MES). Moreover, presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins and flavonoid contents were evaluated. It was found that aqueous extract (ED50 = 22.4 mg/kg body weight) and related n-butanol fraction (ED50 = 12.6 mg/kg body weight) have antiseizure effects comparing to control groups. There was no difference between preventing of PTZ-induced death and MES-induced hindlimb tonic extension (HLTE) in ethanolic extract comparing to control groups. Our results showed that the amount of flavonoid quantity present in aqueous extract is higher than that of ethanolic extract. These data also showed that the quantity of the flavonoid in n-butanol fraction of aqueous extract is more than other fractions. In conclusion, it was realized that flavonoid rich extracts are more potent than other fractions in showing antiseizure effects. PMID:24381604

Khoshnood-Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Oveisi, Narjes

2010-01-01

4

L-Theanine intake increases threshold for limbic seizures but decreases threshold for generalized seizures.  

PubMed

L-Theanine, an ethylamide derivate of glutamate found in abundance in green tea, has been shown to exert beneficial actions in animal models for several neurological disorders. We here investigated for the first time the effect of L-theanine intake on seizure susceptibility using acute pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) mouse models for studying, respectively, limbic seizures or primarily generalized seizures. Moreover, we studied the effect of l-theanine intake on extracellular hippocampal and cortical glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels, using in vivo microdialysis. Feeding mice with a 4% L-theanine solution significantly decreased their susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures whereas susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was increased. The latter effect was linked to decreased extracellular GABA concentrations in frontal cortex. PMID:23324588

Schallier, Anneleen; Vermoesen, Katia; Loyens, Ellen; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Michotte, Yvette; Smolders, Ilse; Massie, Ann

2013-03-01

5

The antiepileptic effect of sodium valproate during different phases of the estrous cycle in PTZ-induced seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Catamenial epilepsy is a form of epilepsy which is related to the menstrual cycle. Cyclic variation in the levels of ovarian hormones plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. Sodium valproate (VPA) is one of the oldest antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which inhibits hepatic metabolizing enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiepileptic effects of VPA during different phases of the estrous cycle in rats. 72 adult female Wistar rats in three groups (control, 75 and 100 mg/kg VPA), each with four subgroups (proestrous, estrous, metestrous and diestrous) were used (n?=?6). Initially, puberty was assessed using vaginal smears and rats with two regular cycles were selected. VPA with doses 75 and 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) in the treatment groups followed by i.p. injection of 80 mg/kg pentylentetrazol (PTZ) in the treatment and control groups. After induction of seizure by PTZ, initiation time of myoclonic seizures (ITMS), initiation time of tonic-clonic seizures (ITTS), seizures duration (SD) and mortality rate (MR) were recorded for 30 min. Data were presented as mean±SD, one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc test were used for analysis of data (P??0.05). PMID:22076911

Kaboutari, Jahangir; Zendehdel, Morteza; Habibian, Saeed; Azimi, Mahmood; Shaker, Mohammad; Karimi, Behnaz

2012-06-01

6

Characterization of PTZ-Induced Seizure Susceptibility in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model That Overexpresses CSTB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome (DS) is a complex genetic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphism and variable additional physiological traits. Current research progress has begun to decipher the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, leading to new therapeutic perspectives. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) has recently been found to have positive effects on learning and memory capacities of a DS mouse model and is foreseen to

Véronique Brault; Benoît Martin; Nathalie Costet; Jean-Charles Bizot; Yann Hérault

2011-01-01

7

ABHD6 blockade exerts antiepileptic activity in PTZ-induced seizures and in spontaneous seizures in R6/2 mice.  

PubMed

The serine hydrolase ?/?-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) hydrolyzes the most abundant endocannabinoid (eCB) in the brain, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and controls its availability at cannabinoid receptors. We show that ABHD6 inhibition decreases pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced generalized tonic-clonic and myoclonic seizure incidence and severity. This effect is retained in Cnr1(-/-) or Cnr2(-/-) mice, but blocked by addition of a subconvulsive dose of picrotoxin, suggesting the involvement of GABAA receptors. ABHD6 inhibition also blocked spontaneous seizures in R6/2 mice, a genetic model of juvenile Huntington's disease known to exhibit dysregulated eCB signaling. ABHD6 blockade retained its antiepileptic activity over chronic dosing and was not associated with psychomotor or cognitive effects. While the etiology of seizures in R6/2 mice remains unsolved, involvement of the hippocampus is suggested by interictal epileptic discharges, increased expression of vGLUT1 but not vGAT, and reduced Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. We conclude that ABHD6 inhibition may represent a novel antiepileptic strategy. PMID:25033180

Naydenov, Alipi V; Horne, Eric A; Cheah, Christine S; Swinney, Katie; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Cao, Jessica K; Marrs, William R; Blankman, Jacqueline L; Tu, Sarah; Cherry, Allison E; Fung, Susan; Wen, Andy; Li, Weiwei; Saporito, Michael S; Selley, Dana E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Oakley, John C; Stella, Nephi

2014-07-16

8

The interaction of melatonin and agmatine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice.  

PubMed

Melatonin, the major hormone produced by the pineal gland, has a number of functions in mammals, for example, its function as an anticonvulsant. Agmatine, a biogenic amine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, also has anticonvulsant effects. This study investigated the effect of the interaction of melatonin and agmatine on seizure susceptibility in the mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. Further, the researchers investigated the involvement of melatonin receptors in this interaction using luzindole, a ML(1/2) receptor antagonist and prazosin, a ML(3) receptor antagonist. Melatonin, at 40 and 80 mg/kg, and agmatine, at 10 and 20mg/kg, exerted anticonvulsant effects. Luzindole, at 1.25 and 2.5mg/kg, or prazosin, at 0.5mg/kg, did not change the seizure threshold as compared with that of vehicle-treated mice. The anticonvulsant effect of melatonin (40 and 80 mg/kg) was prevented by luzindole (2.5mg/kg) (P<0.001) but not prazosin (0.5mg/kg), indicating the possible involvement of ML(1/2) receptors in the anticonvulsant effect of melatonin. Agmatine (5mg/kg) significantly increased the anticonvulsant effect of both the noneffective dose (20mg/kg) (P<0.05) and the effective dose (80 mg/kg) (P<0.001) of melatonin. Luzindole (2.5mg/kg), but not prazosin (0.5mg/kg), decreased the anticonvulsant effect of agmatine (20mg/kg) (P<0.05). Luzindole (2.5mg/kg), but not prazosin (0.5mg/kg), also decreased the seizure threshold when agmatine (5mg/kg) was administered before melatonin (20mg/kg); the decrease was significant compared with that of the group that received only agmatine and melatonin (P<0.001). In conclusion, melatonin and agmatine exhibit an additive effect in decreasing pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice, probably through ML(1/2) receptors. PMID:21840768

Moezi, Leila; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Hojati, Abolfazl; Dehpour, Ahmad R

2011-10-01

9

The effects of sarmesin, an Angiotensin II analogue on seizure susceptibility, memory retention and nociception.  

PubMed

The present research studies the effects of sarmesin [Sar(1)Tyr(OMe)(4)] Angiotensin II (ANG II), an analogue of ANG II, on the seizure susceptibility, memory activity and nociception. It was found that this octapeptide, administered i.c.v., dose-dependently decreased the seizure intensity (pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) generalized seizure model and PTZ kindling) and augmented PTZ seizure threshold in mice. Sarmesin impaired the memory upon re-testing of rats 24 h later in the passive avoidance test. It decreased the pain threshold in a paw pressure nociceptive assay in rats. ANG II exerted pronociceptive effect as well. Taken together, these results reveal sarmesin as a behaviorally active peptide in the studied experimental animal models. PMID:12609768

Tchekalarova, J; Pechlivanova, D; Kambourova, T; Matsoukas, J; Georgiev, V

2003-03-28

10

BMAL1 controls the diurnal rhythm and set point for electrical seizure threshold in mice  

PubMed Central

The epilepsies are a heterogeneous group of neurological diseases defined by the occurrence of unprovoked seizures which, in many cases, are correlated with diurnal rhythms. In order to gain insight into the biological mechanisms controlling this phenomenon, we characterized time-of-day effects on electrical seizure threshold in mice. Male C57BL/6J wild-type mice were maintained on a 14/10 h light/dark cycle, from birth until 6 weeks of age for seizure testing. Seizure thresholds were measured using a step-wise paradigm involving a single daily electrical stimulus. Results showed that the current required to elicit both generalized and maximal seizures was significantly higher in mice tested during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle compared to mice tested during the light phase. This rhythm was absent in BMAL1 knockout (KO) mice. BMAL1 KO also exhibited significantly reduced seizure thresholds at all times tested, compared to C57BL/6J mice. Results document a significant influence of time-of-day on electrical seizure threshold in mice and suggest that this effect is under the control of genes that are known to regulate circadian behaviors. Furthermore, low seizure thresholds in BMAL1 KO mice suggest that BMAL1 itself is directly involved in controlling neuronal excitability. PMID:25018707

Gerstner, Jason R.; Smith, George G.; Lenz, Olivia; Perron, Isaac J.; Buono, Russell J.; Ferraro, Thomas N.

2014-01-01

11

Traumatic Brain Injury During Development Reduces Minimal Clonic Seizure Thresholds At Maturity  

PubMed Central

Post-traumatic seizures affect 12 – 35% of children after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are associated with worse cognitive and functional outcome, even after adjustment for severity of injury. Unfortunately, experimental models of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy are lacking, and pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We have applied a standard model of TBI in immature rats to determine the effect of TBI on electroconvulsive seizure thresholds later in life. Male rats underwent controlled cortical impact to left parietal cortex on post-natal day (PND) 16-18. Hindbrain, forebrain, and limbic seizure thresholds were assessed, respectively, by tonic hindlimb extension (THE), minimal clonic, and partial psychomotor seizure responses during adolescence (PND 34 - 40) and at maturity (PND 60 - 63). Post-traumatic seizure thresholds were compared to those obtained in age- and litter-matched sham craniotomy and naďve controls. TBI during immaturity had no clear effect on THE seizure thresholds. In contrast, TBI lowered minimal clonic seizure thresholds at maturity (p < 0.05 vs. sham or naďve rats), but not during adolescence. Consequently, minimal clonic seizure thresholds increased with age for sham and naďve rats but remained similar for TBI rats during adolescence and at maturity. TBI also tended to lower partial psychomotor seizure thresholds, which were determined only during adolescence (p < 0.1 vs. naive). Controlled cortical impact causes both focal cortical injury at the site of impact and ipsilateral hippocampal neuronal death. Since minimal clonic seizures are mediated by the forebrain, partial psychomotor seizures by the limbic system, and THE seizures by the brainstem, the observed pattern of changes in post-traumatic seizure thresholds is not surprising. The apparent age-dependent effects of TBI, however, are unexpected and likely due to a combination of attenuated maturational increases and progressive epileptogenesis. Additional study is needed to delineate the relative contributions of these processes. Given the sustained reduction in post-traumatic minimal clonic seizure thresholds, controlled cortical impact may hold promise as an experimental model of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy. PMID:18490145

Statler, Kimberly D.; Swank, Seth; Abildskov, Tracy; Bigler, Erin D.; White, H. Steve

2008-01-01

12

Traumatic brain injury during development reduces minimal clonic seizure thresholds at maturity.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic seizures affect 12-35% of children after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are associated with worse cognitive and functional outcome, even after adjustment for severity of injury. Unfortunately, experimental models of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy are lacking, and pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We have applied a standard model of TBI in immature rats to determine the effect of TBI on electroconvulsive seizure thresholds later in life. Male rats underwent controlled cortical impact to left parietal cortex on post-natal day (PND) 16-18. Hindbrain, forebrain, and limbic seizure thresholds were assessed, respectively, by tonic hindlimb extension (THE), minimal clonic, and partial psychomotor seizure responses during adolescence (PND 34-40) and at maturity (PND 60-63). Post-traumatic seizure thresholds were compared to those obtained in age- and litter-matched sham craniotomy and naďve controls. TBI during immaturity had no clear effect on THE seizure thresholds. In contrast, TBI lowered minimal clonic seizure thresholds at maturity (p<0.05 vs. sham or naďve rats), but not during adolescence. Consequently, minimal clonic seizure thresholds increased with age for sham and naďve rats but remained similar for TBI rats during adolescence and at maturity. TBI also tended to lower partial psychomotor seizure thresholds, which were determined only during adolescence (p<0.1 vs. naďve). Controlled cortical impact causes both focal cortical injury at the site of impact and ipsilateral hippocampal neuronal death. Since minimal clonic seizures are mediated by the forebrain, partial psychomotor seizures by the limbic system, and THE seizures by the brainstem, the observed pattern of changes in post-traumatic seizure thresholds is not surprising. The apparent age-dependent effects of TBI, however, are unexpected and likely due to a combination of attenuated maturational increases and progressive epileptogenesis. Additional study is needed to delineate the relative contributions of these processes. Given the sustained reduction in post-traumatic minimal clonic seizure thresholds, controlled cortical impact may hold promise as an experimental model of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy. PMID:18490145

Statler, Kimberly D; Swank, Seth; Abildskov, Tracy; Bigler, Erin D; White, H Steve

2008-08-01

13

Determining minimally important change thresholds for the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ).  

PubMed

The Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) was developed to evaluate changes in seizure severity and bothersomeness. Determination of a threshold value reflecting meaningful patient benefit on the SSQ would improve clinical interpretation of scale results. The objective of this analysis was to define a minimally important change (MIC) threshold for the SSQ, using data from patients with treatment-resistant partial-onset seizures from two clinical trials (N=776). Minimally important change thresholds were calculated using standard anchor-based methods, with the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) score as the anchor with the categories of 'much improved,' 'minimally improved,' 'much worsened,' and 'minimally worsened' combined. The calculated MIC thresholds (range: 0.34 to 0.50) suggest that a 0.48-point change in the SSQ total score reflects a clinically meaningful change in seizure severity from the patients' perspective. PMID:24139086

Cramer, Joyce A; de la Loge, Christine; Brabant, Yves; Borghs, Simon

2014-02-01

14

Increase of the seizure threshold in C57BL/6 mice after citicoline administration.  

PubMed

We studied the dose-dependent effect of preventive intraperitoneal injection of citicoline (cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) on acute generalized epileptiform activity in C57Bl/6 mice. The duration of citicoline action was also evaluated. Administration of citicoline in doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg 1 h before treatment with the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole produced an anticonvulsant effect. This effect was manifested in an increase of the threshold of clonic seizures and tonic phase of seizures with lethal outcome. Moreover, the latency of seizure development was elevated under these conditions. The anticonvulsant effect of citicoline persisted for 6 h after its injection. PMID:25573358

Karpova, M N; Zin'kovskii, K A; Kuznetsova, L V; Klishina, N V

2015-01-01

15

Tanshinone IIA Exhibits Anticonvulsant Activity in Zebrafish and Mouse Seizure Models  

PubMed Central

Danshen or Chinese red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza, Bunge) is used by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners to treat neurological, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disorders and is included in some TCM formulations to control epileptic seizures. In this study, acetonic crude extracts of danshen inhibited pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure activity in zebrafish larvae. Subsequent zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four major tanshinones, which suppressed PTZ-induced activity to varying degrees. One of the active tanshinones, tanshinone IIA, also reduced c-fos expression in the brains of PTZ-exposed zebrafish larvae. In rodent seizure models, tanshinone IIA showed anticonvulsive activity in the mouse 6-Hz psychomotor seizure test in a biphasic manner and modified seizure thresholds in a complex manner for the mouse i.v. PTZ seizure assay. Interestingly, tanshinone IIA is used as a prescription drug in China to address cerebral ischemia in patients. Here, we provide the first in vivo evidence demonstrating that tanshinone IIA has anticonvulsant properties as well. PMID:23937066

2013-01-01

16

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... often with a loss of or change in consciousness. Seizures can be frightening, but most last only ... unusual sensations, uncontrollable muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. Some seizures may be due to another medical ...

17

Anti-kindling Effect of Bezafibrate, a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Alpha Agonist, in Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure Model  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Studies in the animals suggested that Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) may be involved in seizure control and selective agonists of PPAR ? or PPAR ? raise seizure thresholds. The present study was contemplated with the aim of evaluating the anti kindling effects and the mechanism of bezafibrate, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR-?) agonist in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model of seizures in rats. Methods: In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of bezafibrate (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the PTZ injection. The PTZ injection was given on alternate day till the animal became fully kindled or till 10 weeks. The parameters measured were the latency to develop kindling and incidence of kindling, histopathological study of hippocampus, hippocampal lipid peroxidation studies, serum neuron specific enolase, and hippocampal DNA fragmentation study. Results: In this study, bezafibrate significantly reduced the incidence of kindling in PTZ treated rats and exhibited a marked prolongation in the latencies to seizures. In the present study bezafibrate decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance i.e. Malondialdehyde levels, increased the reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in the brain. This added to its additional neuroprotective effects. Bezafibrate also reduced the neuronal damage and apoptosis in hippocampal area of the brain. Therefore bezafibrate exerted anticonvulsant properties in PTZ induced kindling model in rats. Conclusions: These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the mechanism of bezafibrate as an anti kindling agent and could offer a useful support to the basic antiepileptic therapy in preventing the development of PTZ induced seizures, suggesting its potential for therapeutic applications in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25625088

Saha, Lekha; Bhandari, Swati; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Amitava

2014-01-01

18

Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression.  

PubMed

To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV), have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o.) on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1) by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00) and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25) and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ?3.25) and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25), PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development. PMID:24282673

Amada, Naoki; Yamasaki, Yuki; Williams, Claire M; Whalley, Benjamin J

2013-01-01

19

Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression  

PubMed Central

To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV), have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o.) on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1) by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00) and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25) and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ?3.25) and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25), PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development. PMID:24282673

Yamasaki, Yuki; Williams, Claire M.; Whalley, Benjamin J.

2013-01-01

20

Magnesium Sulfate Treatment Reverses Seizure Susceptibility and Decreases Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Severe Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Eclampsia, defined as unexplained seizure in a woman with preeclampsia, is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy with unclear etiology. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the leading eclamptic seizure prophylactic, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized severe preeclampsia is a state of increased seizure susceptibility due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuroinflammation that lowers seizure threshold. Further, MgSO4 decreases seizure susceptibility by protecting the BBB and preventing neuroinflammation. To model severe preeclampsia, placental ischemia (reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure; RUPP) was combined with a high cholesterol diet (HC) to cause maternal endothelial dysfunction. RUPP+HC rats developed symptoms associated with severe preeclampsia, including hypertension, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and fetal and placental growth restriction. Seizure threshold was determined by quantifying the amount of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; mg/kg) required to elicit seizure in RUPP+HC±MgSO4 and compared to normal pregnant controls (n?=?6/group; gestational day 20). RUPP+HC rats were more sensitive to PTZ with seizure threshold being ?65% lower vs. control (12.4±1.7 vs. 36.7±3.9 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05) that was reversed by MgSO4 (45.7±8.7 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05 vs. RUPP+HC). BBB permeability to sodium fluorescein, measured in-vivo (n?=?5–7/group), was increased in RUPP+HC vs. control rats, with more tracer passing into the brain (15.9±1.0 vs. 12.2±0.3 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05) and was unaffected by MgSO4 (15.6±1.0 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05 vs. controls). In addition, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of neuroinflammation, indicated by 35±2% of microglia being active compared to 9±2% in normal pregnancy (p<0.01; n?=?3–8/group). MgSO4 treatment reversed neuroinflammation, reducing microglial activation to 6±2% (p<0.01 vs. RUPP+HC). Overall, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of augmented seizure susceptibility potentially due to increased BBB permeability and neuroinflammation. MgSO4 treatment reversed this, increasing seizure threshold and decreasing neuroinflammation, without affecting BBB permeability. Thus, reducing neuroinflammation may be one mechanism by which MgSO4 prevents eclampsia during severe preeclampsia. PMID:25409522

Johnson, Abbie Chapman; Tremble, Sarah M.; Chan, Siu-Lung; Moseley, Janae; LaMarca, Babbette; Nagle, Keith J.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

2014-01-01

21

Effects of chlordane on conditioned avoidance response, brain seizure threshold and open-field performance of prenatally-treated mice  

PubMed Central

1. Three groups of six pregnant albino mice at the third stage of gestation were given chlordane 1 or 2·5 mg/kg body weight or olive oil 10 ml/kg. They were dosed orally for seven consecutive days. 2. Ten young mice, regardless of sex, were randomly selected from the progeny of each group of treated mothers and tested for conditioned avoidance response, electroshock seizure threshold, and open-field performance. 3. Offspring of chlordane-treated mice made fewer conditioned avoidance responses than the controls on each day of training. 4. Electroshock seizure threshold was raised. 5. In the open-field test, progeny of mothers receiving the larger dose were more active than controls. A dose × days interaction indicated a complex response of the chlordane-treated mice to experience in the open-field. 6. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:4793333

Al-Hachim, G. M.; Al-Baker, A.

1973-01-01

22

Ameliorating effect of quercetin on acute pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study to elicit effects of pure quercetin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and picrotoxin induced seizures. Materials and methods: Each animal group was divided into six groups and composed of six rats. Rats were assigned to the following experiments and groups (G): (G1) PTZ 45 mg/kg + DMSO; (G2) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg quercetin; (G3) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg quercetin; (G4) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 20 mg/kg quercetin; (G5) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 40 mg/kg quercetin; (G6) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + DMSO; (G7) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg quercetin; (G8) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + 20 mg/kg quercetin. In all groups quercetin were injected 30 min before PTZ and picrotoxin applications. Results: Compared to PTZ, quercetin significantly prolonged onset of the seizure in 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and reduced the seizure stage in 10 mg/kg quercetin injected group (P < 0.01). Compared to PTZ, quercetin also declined the generalized seizure duration at 10 mg/kg (P < 0.01) and 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05) doses. At the doses of 5 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg quercetin there were no significant changes in seizure parameters. Development of picrotoxin induced seizures is slower than in PTZ. Quercetin was found to be unable to prevent seizure in picrotoxin induced seizures. Surprisingly, quercetin also significantly reduced the onset of seizures at the dose of 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Conclusion: quercetin (at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p) prevented seizures in PTZ (45 mg/kg i.p) induced seizures. Especially, 10 mg/kg PTZ prolonged onset of seizures, reduced the seizure duration and seizure severity score in comparison with control group. At a higher (40 mg/kg) dose quercetin failed to prevent PTZ induced seizures. In addition 20 mg/kg quercetin significantly reduced the onset of seizures that suggest a preconvulsive effect. 20 mg/kg quercetin reduced the onset of picrotoxin induced seizures. In picrotoxin model, it may be claimed that quercetin at higher doses accelerate the epileptic activity owing to its antagonistic effect on GABAA. Further investigations are needed to explore the mechanisms of the antiepileptic and preconvulsant effects of quercetin. PMID:25356099

Sefil, Fatih; Kahraman, Ibrahim; Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tutuk, Okan; Aydin, Mehmet; Ozkan, Umit; Pinar, Neslihan

2014-01-01

23

Erythropoietin pretreatment suppresses seizures and prevents the increase in inflammatory mediators during pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized seizures.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) suppresses epileptic seizures, but the mechanism is unclear. The search for novel targets in the therapy of epilepsy has focused recently on brain inflammation since brain inflammation and the associated blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage appears to be an integral part of epilepsy pathophysiology. We examined the effects of EPO on proinflammatory mediators in brain and serum in PTZ-induced generalized seizure model. The inflammation markers (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-10), BBB and neuron damage markers (S100B, Neuron specific enolase; NSE, respectively) in serum and brain of Sprague-Dawley male rats were examined with the ELISA method. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms were investigated immunohistochemically in hippocampus. EPO treatment 4 h and 24 h before PTZ administration had diverse effects. EPO treatment 4 h before PTZ administration elongated the seizure latency, decreased the inflammation and damage markers in serum and brain significantly, whereas EPO treatment 24 h before PTZ administration lowered inflammation and damage markers to control levels and decreased the seizure stage. PTZ-induced seizures increased inducible NOS (iNOS) activity and decreased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity in hippocampus. Both EPO pretreatments reversed these effects. These findings, i.e., decreased iNOS activity and increased eNOS activity by EPO suggest the first time that the favorable effect of EPO pretreatment on inflammatory mediators triggered by PTZ-induced seizures. This can provide further insight into epilepsy treatment and new prophylactic strategies against epilepsy risk. PMID:24397543

Bahçekap?l?, Nesrin; Akgün-Dar, Kadriye; Albeniz, I??l; Kapucu, Ay?egül; Kandil, Asl?; Ya??z, Orhan; Üzüm, Gülay

2014-10-01

24

The association between seizure predisposition and inflammation in a rat model of fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

The association between inflammation and the induction of seizures is well-known. It has been reported that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a pro-inflammatory state, and systemic inflammation may trigger central nervous system inflammation. This study aims to identify the impact of inflammation in a rat model of fatty liver on the propensity and severity of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 were administered a 35 % fructose solution over 8 weeks to induce the development of fatty liver while Groups 3 and 4 were fed normally as controls. Groups 1 and 3 were given 70 mg/kg PTZ, determining Racine Convulsion Scores (RCS) and onset times of the first myoclonic jerks (FMJ). Groups 2 and 4 were administered 35 mg/kg of PTZ, then EEG recordings were obtained to evaluate spike percentages. TNF-? levels in brain and liver tissues were also measured. While RCS's of fatty liver rats were higher than the control group (p > 0.05) as well as spike percentages (p < 0.05), FMJ onset time was significantly shorter. TNF-? levels in liver and brain tissues of the rats with NAFLD were significantly higher than the control rats. We found that rats with NAFLD demonstrated decreased seizure thresholds, possibly due to increased cytokine levels systemically and within the central nervous system. As such, epilepsy patients taking medications that may predispose the development of NAFLD must be carefully managed to prevent the possibility of increased seizure episodes. PMID:24715054

Aksoy, Dürdane; Solmaz, Volkan; Ta?k?ran, Dilek; Erba?, Oytun

2014-09-01

25

Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.  

PubMed

The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

2013-01-01

26

Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration  

PubMed Central

The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

27

In vivo imaging of seizure activity in a novel developmental seizure model.  

PubMed

The immature brain is exceptionally susceptible to seizures. However, it remains unclear whether seizures occurring during development affect critical processes underlying neural circuit formation, leading to long-term functional consequences. Here we characterize a novel in vivo model system of developmental seizures based on the transparent albino Xenopus laevis tadpole, which allows direct examination of seizure activity, and seizure-induced effects on neuronal development within the intact unanesthetized brain. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), kainic acid, bicuculline, picrotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, and pilocarpine were tested for their ability to induce behavioral seizures in freely swimming tadpoles when bath applied. All six chemoconvulsants consistently induced similar patterns of abnormal behavior in a dose-dependent manner, characterized by convulsive clonus-like motor patterns with periods of behavioral arrest. Extracellular field recordings demonstrated rhythmic synchronous epileptiform electrographic responses induced by convulsants irrespective of mechanism of action, that could be terminated by the anti-epileptic drug valproate. PTZ-induced seizures were further characterized using in vivo two-photon fluorescence imaging of neuronal calcium dynamics, in unanesthetized immobilized tadpoles. Imaging of calcium dynamics during PTZ-induced seizures revealed waves of neural activity propagating through large populations of neurons within the brain. Analysis of single-cell responses demonstrated distinct synchronized high-amplitude calcium spikes not observed under baseline conditions. Similar to other developmental seizure models, prolonged seizures failed to induce marked neuronal death within the brain, detected by cellular propidium iodide incorporation in vivo or TUNEL labeling. This novel developmental seizure model system has distinct advantages for controlled seizure induction, and direct visualization of both seizure activity and seizure-induced effects on individual developing neurons within the intact unanesthetized brain. Such a system is necessary to address important questions relating to the long-term impact of common perinatal seizures on developing neural circuits. PMID:18402939

Hewapathirane, D Sesath; Dunfield, Derek; Yen, Wesley; Chen, Simon; Haas, Kurt

2008-06-01

28

2-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic acid (glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibitor) increases threshold for electroconvulsions and enhances the antiseizure action of valproate against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of 2-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA), a potent and selective inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II), an enzyme releasing glutamate and N-acetyl-aspartate from synaptical terminals, on the electroconvulsive threshold in mice. Moreover, the influence of 2-PMPA on the anticonvulsant activities of four conventional antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) was evaluated in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in mice. Results indicated that 2-PMPA (at a dose range of 50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) raised the electroconvulsive threshold in mice dose-dependently. Linear regression analysis of dose-response relationship between the doses of 2-PMPA and their corresponding threshold values allowed the calculation of threshold increasing dose by 20% (TID20), which was 109.2 mg/kg. Moreover, 2-PMPA administered i.p. at a constant dose of 150 mg/kg (the dose increasing the threshold for electroconvulsions) enhanced significantly the anticonvulsant action of valproate, by reducing its median effective dose (ED50) from 281.4 to 230.1 mg/kg (P<0.05). In contrast, 2-PMPA at the lower dose of 100 mg/kg (i.p.) had no impact on the antiseizure activity of valproate in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test. Likewise, 2-PMPA at 100 and 150 mg/kg did not affect the antiseizure action of carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Additionally, none of the combinations investigated between 2-PMPA (150 mg/kg, i.p.) and carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate (at their ED50 values) produced motor coordination impairment in the chimney test. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of interaction between 2-PMPA and valproate revealed that 2-PMPA at 150 mg/kg selectively increased total brain concentrations of valproate, remaining simultaneously without any effect on free plasma concentrations of valproate, indicating a pharmacokinetic nature of observed interaction in the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Based on our preclinical data, it may be concluded that 2-PMPA possesses a seizure modulating property by increasing the electroconvulsive threshold. The reduction of glutamate neurotransmission in the brain, as a consequence of inhibition of GCP II activity by 2-PMPA, was however insufficient to enhance the anticonvulsant activity of conventional antiepileptic drugs, except for valproate, whose antiseizure action against maximal electroconvulsions was potentiated by 2-PMPA. Unfortunately, the favourable interaction between 2-PMPA and valproate was associated with a pharmacokinetic increase in total brain valproate concentrations. PMID:16403497

Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Mohamed, Mohamed; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

2006-02-15

29

Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice.  

PubMed

The electromagnetic fields (EMF) have various behavioral and biological effects on human body. There are growing concerns about the consequences of exposure to EMF. However, some studies have shown beneficial effects of these waves on human. In this paper, we study the effect of acute, sub acute and long-term exposure to 50 Hz, 0.1 mT magnetic fields (MF) on the seizure induction threshold in mice. 64 mice are used and divided into four groups. Eight mice in any group were selected to be exposed to MF for specific duration and the others were used as a control group. The duration of the applied exposures was as follows: (1) 1 day (acute), (2) 3 days (sub acute), (3) 2 weeks (sub acute), (4) 1 month (long term). The mice were exposed 2 h for a day. After exposure, the pentylentetrazol (PTZ) is injected to the mice to induce seizure and the needed dose for the seizure induction threshold is measured. In the acute exposure, the threshold to induce seizure in the exposed and sham-exposed groups was 44.25 and 46.5 mg, respectively, while the difference was not significant (p value = 0.5). In the sub acute exposure (3 days), the mean amount of drug to induce seizure was 47.38 mg in the exposed and 43.88 mg in the sham-exposed groups, however, the difference was not significant (p value = 0.3). The results were 52.38 and 46.75 mg after 2 weeks of exposure which were not significantly different either (p value = 0.2). After 1 month of exposure to MF, the threshold for the induction of seizure was significantly increased (p value < 0.05). The mean dosage to induce seizure in the exposed and control group was 54.3 and 45.75 mg, respectively. However, considering the p value, the difference in the seizure induction threshold between the exposed and sham-exposed groups after acute and sub acute exposure was not significant, analyzing the effects of acute, sub acute and long-term exposures totally indicates that increasing the exposure time increases the seizure induction threshold. PMID:23055108

Fadakar, Kaveh; Saba, Valiallah; Farzampour, Shahrokh

2013-06-01

30

The protective effects of endothelin-A receptor antagonist BQ-123 in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.  

PubMed

Endothelin-1 has been shown to increase neuronal activity and glutaminergic synaptic transmission by endothelin-A receptors (ETAR) in the nucleus tractus solitarius neurons that play an important role in epileptic seizures. Therefore, BQ-123 as an ETAR antagonist might attenuate neuronal excitability and glutaminergic synaptic transmission. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of acute BQ-123 treatment against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced tonic-clonic seizures. Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control, PTZ, and PTZ + BQ-123 groups. BQ-123 (3 mg/kg, intravenously) was administered for 15 min before injecting with PTZ (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). We determined a delay resulting from BQ-123 in "duration of the seizure onset." "Number of rats with major seizure" also decreased according to scoring with video camera in PTZ + BQ-123 group. In BQ-123-treated group, there were eight rats without a major seizure, but only one rat had a delayed major seizure. The brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly decreased in the PTZ and PTZ + BQ-123 groups. According to the results of the control group, there was a significant increase in the protein carbonyl levels of the PTZ group and a significant increase in the nitric oxide levels of the PTZ + BQ-123 group. Histological examination showed an increase in the number of neuronal hyperchromatic nucleus especially in hippocampal gyrus dentatus region of BQ-123-treated group. We concluded that BQ-123 impeded the formation and spread of seizure to a great degree. The beneficial effects of BQ-123 were comparatively supported with biochemical parameters and histological examinations. PMID:24449761

Erdogan, H; Ekici, F; Katar, M; Kesici, H; Aslan, H

2014-10-01

31

ACT-Vision: active collaborative tracking for multiple PTZ cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a novel scalable approach for the management of a large number of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras deployed outdoors for persistent tracking of humans and vehicles, without resorting to the large fields of view of associated static cameras. Our system, Active Collaborative Tracking - Vision (ACT-Vision), is essentially a real-time operating system that can control hundreds of PTZ cameras to ensure uninterrupted tracking of target objects while maintaining image quality and coverage of all targets using a minimal number of sensors. The system ensures the visibility of targets between PTZ cameras by using criteria such as distance from sensor and occlusion.

Broaddus, Christopher; Germano, Thomas; Vandervalk, Nicholas; Divakaran, Ajay; Wu, Shunguang; Sawhney, Harpreet

2009-04-01

32

Neuropharmacological effects of carvacryl acetate on ?-aminolevulinic dehydratase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities and amino acids levels in mice hippocampus after seizures.  

PubMed

Epileptic syndromes are highly prevalent neurological conditions and can often be disabling. In order to find an alternative for treatment, this study evaluated anticonvulsant effects of carvacryl acetate (CA), a derivative of monoterpene carvacrol, after seizures induced by pilocarpine (P400), picrotoxin (PIC) or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). We also analyzed the CA effects on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALA-D) activities in hippocampus mice after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ. In addition, glutamate, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine and aspartate levels in mice hippocampus treated with CA after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ were also measured. CA produced anticonvulsant effects against seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ, and its effects were reversed by flumazenil, suggesting that action mechanism can be mediated by GABAergic system. CA increased GABA levels, but did not alter glutamate and aspartate concentrations in mice hippocampus after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ when compared with seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ (p<0.05), respectively, as well as decreased glutamine content in mice hippocampus after seizures induced by PIC when compared with seizures induced by PIC (p<0.05). In addition, CA also increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activities after seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ when compared with seizures induced by P400, PIC or PTZ (p<0.05), respectively. This study demonstrated that CA could be a future therapeutic option for treatment of epilepsy, with a multifactorial brain action mechanism. PMID:25490531

Pires, Lúcio Fernandes; Costa, Luciana Muratori; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; Silva, Oskar Almeida; Cerqueira, Gilberto Santos; de Sousa, Damiăo Pergentino; Pires, Rosana Martins Carneiro; Satyal, Prabodh; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

2015-01-25

33

EXAMINATION OF THE PROCONVULSANT ACTION OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES USING PENTYLENETETRAZOL AND AMYGDALA KINDLING SEIZURE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The seizure-inducing properties of two pyrethroids were assessed by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure models (repeated ip, suprathreshold ip, and iv), and electrical kindling of the amygdala. he efficacy of po versus ip routes of deltamethrin administration was compared using iv-PT...

34

Hypoxia/ischemia a key player in early post stroke seizures: Modulation by opioidergic and nitrergic systems.  

PubMed

Stroke is a leading cause of death, disability, and socioeconomic loss worldwide. All attempts at pharmacological reduction of the complications of stroke (e.g. post-stroke seizure, and brain?s vulnerability to hypoxic/ischemic injury) have failed. Endogenous opioids and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction has been documented in brain hypoxia/ischemia (H/I), which can exert pro-convulsive effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the possible involvement of opioidergic and nitrergic pathways in the pathogenesis of post-stroke seizure. H/I was induced by right common carotid ligation and sham-operated mice served as controls. We demonstrated that right common carotid ligation decreases the threshold for clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), a GABA antagonist. Furthermore, pro-convulsive effect of H/I following right common carotid ligation was blocked by naltrexone (NTX) (3mg/kg), NG-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (10mg/kg), and aminoguanidine (AG) (100mg/kg) administration (P<0.001). Interestingly, co-administration of non-effective doses of NTX and l-NAME (1 and 0.5mg/kg, respectively) reverses epileptogenesis of H/I (P<0.001). In the same way, co-administration of non-effective doses of NTX and AG (1 and 5mg/kg, respectively), reverses epileptogenesis of H/I (P<0.001). Indeed, the histological studies performed on mice exposed to H/I confirmed our previous data. These findings suggest hyper-susceptibility to PTZ induced seizure following H/I is mediated by interaction of opioidergic, and iNOS/NO pathways. Therefore, our results identify new pharmacological targets and provide the rationale for a novel strategy to promote recovery after stroke and possibly other brain injuries. PMID:25449041

Gooshe, Maziar; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Aleyasin, Ali Reza; Chabouk, Leila; Tofigh, Sina; Hassanzadeh, Gholam Reza; Payandemehr, Borna; Partoazar, Alireza; Azizi, Yaser; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2015-01-01

35

Strain and age affect electroconvulsive seizure testing in rats.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive seizure thresholds were compared between adolescent and mature Sprague--Dawley, Wistar, and Fischer rats. All strains had similar hindbrain or forebrain seizure thresholds as adolescents. As adults, hindbrain or forebrain seizure thresholds were highest for Sprague--Dawley and lowest for Fischer rats. Conversely, limbic seizure thresholds during adolescence were highest for Fischer rats. Additional study is needed to better delineate strain and maturational effects on electroconvulsive seizure testing. PMID:18083004

Statler, Kimberly D; Swank, Seth; White, H Steve

2008-02-01

36

Strain and Age Affect Electroconvulsive Seizure Testing in Rats  

PubMed Central

Summary Electroconvulsive seizure thresholds were compared between adolescent and mature Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Fischer rats. All strains had similar hindbrain or forebrain seizure thresholds as adolescents. As adults, hindbrain or forebrain seizure thresholds were highest for Sprague-Dawley and lowest for Fischer rats. Conversely, limbic seizure thresholds during adolescence were highest for Fischer rats. Additional study is needed to better delineate strain and maturational effects on electroconvulsive seizure testing. PMID:18083004

Statler, Kimberly D.; Swank, Seth; Steve White, H.

2008-01-01

37

Antioxidant effect of Achillea wilhelmsii extract on pentylenetetrazole (seizure model)-induced oxidative brain damage in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

An important role for oxidative stress both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures has been suggested. Since Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) has been considered to have the antioxidant effects as well as central nervous system depressant properties, the anti-seizure effects of the plant extract in addition to its effects on brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures model. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: (1) Control, (2) PTZ, (3-5) A. wilhelmsii extract groups (AWE). The animals in groups 2-5 were treated with saline or AWE (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) before single injection of PTZ (90 mg/kg). Latency to first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. MCS latencies in extract treated groups were not different from PTZ group. The animals treated by 200 mg/kg of AWE had a significant higher GTCS latency in comparison with PTZ group (P < 0.001). The MDA levels in PTZ group were significantly higher and the total thiol concentrations were lower than control animals. Pretreatment with all 3 doses of the extract resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) and a significant elevation in total thiol concentration, as compared with PTZ group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii possesses an antioxidant effect in the brain in PTZ induced seizure model. PMID:24968581

Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazamand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Mahmoudabady, Maryam

2013-01-01

38

Effects of Luteolin on Liver, Kidney and Brain in Pentylentetrazol-Induced Seizures: Involvement of Metalloproteinases and NOS Activities  

PubMed Central

Objective: Flavonoids are an important group of recognized antioxidants in plants. Luteolin (LUT) is a natural flavonoid in the plant kingdom. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of the LUT in the liver, kidney and brain of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure and the relationship between nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9). Materials and Methods: LUT (10 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally during two weeks prior to seizure induction. A single dose PTZ 80 mg/kg i.p. was administered and seizures were observed and evaluated with regard to latency, frequency and stage for one hour. Results: Seizure frequen cy after PTZ administration was significantly decreased in LUT pretreated rats (p<0.05). An increase of immunhistochemical reactions of iNOS and MMP2, but a decrease of eNOS activity, were observed in rat hippocampus and peripheral tissues during the PTZ induced seizures. LUT pretreatment reversed the iNOS and MMP2 activity to the control levels and significantly increased the eNOS activity (p<0.001). Conclusion: LUT seems to have an effective role in reducing the seizure frequency and a protective role on peripheral organ injury in animal models of seizure. The protective effect of LUT in seizures and the seizure induced peripheral tissue damage warrant further investigations. PMID:25206993

Birman, Hüsniye; Dar, Kadriye Akgün; Kapucu, Ay?egül; Acar, Samet; Üzüm, Gülay

2012-01-01

39

Oxytocin inhibits pentylentetrazol-induced seizures in the rat.  

PubMed

We aimed to reveal the anti-convulsant effects of oxytocin (OT) in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Using stereotaxy, we implanted electroencephologram (EEG) electrodes in the left nucleus of the posterior thalamus. After 2 days, the first and second groups were used as the control and PTZ (35 mg/kg) groups, respectively. We administered 40, 80 and 160 nmol/kg OT+35 mg/kg PTZ to the rats, constituting the third, fourth, and fifth groups, respectively, for 5 days. At the end of 5 days, we recorded EEGs via bipolar EEG electrodes. After 12h, all groups except the first received 70 mg/kg PTZ and we determined the dose-response ratio. Racine's Convulsion Scale was used to evaluate seizures. The spike-wave complex percentage in the EEG was determined as 0% for the first group, 38.6%±7.2 for the second group, 36.4%±5.6 for the third group, 4.3%±1.8 for the fifth group and 4.1%±1.1 for the fifth group. The fourth and fifth groups had significantly decreased spike-wave complex percentages compared to the second group (p<0.0001). OT may prevent PTZ-induced epilepsy on an EEG. OT may also be considered for use in the treatment of epilepsy in the future. PMID:23246528

Erbas, Oytun; Y?lmaz, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Huseyin Anil; Bora, Saylav; Evren, Vedat; Peker, Gonul

2013-02-01

40

Transcranial focal stimulation via concentric ring electrodes reduced power of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in rat electroencephalogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. In this study we applied noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation (TFS) via concentric ring electrodes on the scalp of rats after inducing seizures with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) to assess the effect of TFS on the electrographic activity. Grand

Oleksandr Makeyev; Xiang Liu; Kanthaiah Koka; Steven M. Kay; Walter G. Besio

2011-01-01

41

PERSON RE-IDENTIFICATION WITH A PTZ CAMERA: AN INTRODUCTORY STUDY Pietro Salvagnini  

E-print Network

PERSON RE-IDENTIFICATION WITH A PTZ CAMERA: AN INTRODUCTORY STUDY Pietro Salvagnini , Loris Bazzani for a new kind of person re-identification, by exploiting a sin- gle Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) camera. PTZ devices description of an individual. This intuition has been translated into a statistical direct re- identification

Cristani, Marco

42

Impaired neurogenesis, learning and memory and low seizure threshold associated with loss of neural precursor cell survivin  

PubMed Central

Background Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family in that it exhibits antiapoptotic properties and also promotes the cell cycle and mediates mitosis as a chromosome passenger protein. Survivin is highly expressed in neural precursor cells in the brain, yet its function there has not been elucidated. Results To examine the role of neural precursor cell survivin, we first showed that survivin is normally expressed in periventricular neurogenic regions in the embryo, becoming restricted postnatally to proliferating and migrating NPCs in the key neurogenic sites, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ). We then used a conditional gene inactivation strategy to delete the survivin gene prenatally in those neurogenic regions. Lack of embryonic NPC survivin results in viable, fertile mice (SurvivinCamcre) with reduced numbers of SVZ NPCs, absent rostral migratory stream, and olfactory bulb hypoplasia. The phenotype can be partially rescued, as intracerebroventricular gene delivery of survivin during embryonic development increases olfactory bulb neurogenesis, detected postnatally. SurvivinCamcre brains have fewer cortical inhibitory interneurons, contributing to enhanced sensitivity to seizures, and profound deficits in memory and learning. Conclusions The findings highlight the critical role that survivin plays during neural development, deficiencies of which dramatically impact on postnatal neural function. PMID:20051123

2010-01-01

43

The influence of gender on the aggravation of absence seizures by carbamazepine in the low-dose pentylenetetrazol rat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether carbamazepine (CBZ) aggravates absence seizures in the low-dose pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) rat model in both male and female animals, and investigate for gender differences.Methods: Inbred Sprague–Dawley rats were implanted with EEG electrodes. Seven days later PTZ (20mg\\/kg, i.p.) was administered following pre-treatment with vehicle or CBZ (20mg\\/kg, i.p.) and the occurrence of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) on the

KAREN J MCLEAN; TERENCE J O’BRIEN; MARK J COOK; FRANK J. E VAJDA

2004-01-01

44

Ultra-low dose cannabinoid antagonist AM251 enhances cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoid compounds are anticonvulsant since they have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to Gi/o proteins. Surprisingly, both the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist naltrexone and as opioid and cannabinoid systems interact, it has been shown that ultra-low dose naltrexone also enhances cannabinoid-induced antinociception. However, regarding the seizure modulating properties of both classes of receptors this study investigated whether ultra-low dose cannabinoid antagonist AM251 influences cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects. The clonic seizure threshold (CST) was tested in separate groups of male NMRI mice following injection of vehicle, the cannabinoid selective agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and ultra-low doses of the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist AM251 and a combination of ACEA and AM251 doses in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Systemic administration of ultra-low doses of AM251 (10 fg/kg-100 ng/kg) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of ACEA at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. Moreover, inhibition of cannabinoid induced excitatory signaling by AM251 (100 pg/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of ACEA (100 ng/kg-100 microg/kg), suggesting that a presumed inhibitory component of cannabinoid receptor signaling can exert strong seizure-protective effects even at very low levels of cannabinoid receptor activation. A similar potentiation by AM251 (100 pg/kg and 1 ng/kg) of anticonvulsant effects of non-effective dose of ACEA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) was also observed in the generalized tonic-clonic model of seizure. The present data suggest that ultra-low doses of cannabinoid receptor antagonists may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility, especially in conjunction with very low doses of cannabinoids. PMID:17870135

Gholizadeh, Shervin; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Bahremand, Arash; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2007-11-01

45

Recent advances in neonatal seizures.  

PubMed

Neonatal seizures are the most important indicators of underlying brain injury. Seizures in a neonate are different from seizures in older children in many aspects including clinical presentation and etiology. The neonatal brain is immature and tends to have a decreased seizure threshold. Neonatal seizures are classified, based on their presentation as, clinical seizures, electroclinical seizures and electroencephalographic seizures; based on the pathophysiology as epileptic and nonepileptic seizures; and also on the basis of the etiology. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the leading cause of neonatal seizures, followed by intracranial hemorrhage, metabolic causes such as hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia, intracranial infections and strokes. Neonatal epilepsy syndromes are rare. Electroencephalography (EEG) is the gold standard for diagnosis. Amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) is also used for continuous monitoring. The approach to management consists of initial stabilization of the neonate followed by treatment of potentially correctable injurious processes such as hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia and electrolyte disturbances, etiology specific therapies and antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. Phenobarbital remains the first line AED therapy. Pharmacokinetic data on newer drugs is limited. Prognosis depends on the etiology, seizure type, neurological examination at discharge and EEG. Long term neurodevelopmental follow up is essential for babies with neonatal seizures. PMID:25124329

Kanhere, Sujata

2014-09-01

46

Post-Traumatic Seizures Exacerbate Histopathological Damage after Fluid-Percussion Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an induced period of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) on the histopathological damage caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were given a moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (1.9–2.1 atm) or sham surgery. At 2 weeks after surgery, seizures were induced by administration of a GABAA receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 30?mg/kg). Seizures were then assessed over a 1-h period using the Racine clinical rating scale. To evaluate whether TBI-induced pathology was exacerbated by the seizures, contusion volume and cortical and hippocampal CA3 neuronal cell loss were measured 3 days after seizures. Nearly all TBI rats showed clinical signs of PTE following the decrease in inhibitory activity. In contrast, clinically evident seizures were not observed in TBI rats given saline or sham-operated rats given PTZ. Contusions in TBI-PTZ-treated rats were significantly increased compared to the TBI-saline-treated group (p?PTZ rats showed less NeuN-immunoreactive cells within the ipsilateral parietal cerebral cortex (p?PTZ rats compared with TBI-saline or sham-operated rats. These results demonstrate that an induced period of post-traumatic seizures significantly exacerbates the structural damage caused by TBI. These findings emphasize the need to control seizures after TBI to limit even further damage to the injured brain. PMID:20836615

Bao, Ying-hui; Bramlett, Helen M.; Atkins, Coleen M.; Truettner, Jessie S.; Lotocki, George; Alonso, Ofelia F.

2011-01-01

47

Administration of lithium and magnesium chloride inhibited tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although morphine has an anticonvulsant effect in several animal models of seizures, its potential clinical application in epilepsy may be hindered by its adverse effects like opioid tolerance. The present study evaluated the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male Swiss mice. We also examined whether

Abbas Ghasemi; Mohammad Saberi; Mehdi Ghasemi; Hamed Shafaroodi; Leila Moezi; Arash Bahremand; Laleh Montaser-Kouhsari; Pouya Ziai; Ahmad Reza Dehpour

2010-01-01

48

Febrile Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... impact that febrile seizures might have on intelligence, behavior, school achievement, and the development of epilepsy. For example, scientists conducting studies in animals are assessing the effects of febrile seizures, and ...

49

[Pseudoepileptic seizures].  

PubMed

The paper is devoted to the differential diagnosis of epilepsy. The author reviews one of the most common diagnostic errors--a situation when pseudoepileptic seizures are considered as epileptic ones. The causes of development of pseudoepileptic seizures, their classification and clinical presentations are presented. The clinical differences between epileptic and non-epileptic seizures are highlighted. The tactics of management of patients with pseudoepileptic seizures in neurologic in-patient clinics is suggested. PMID:19425295

Belousova, E D

2008-01-01

50

Naloxane enhanced inhibitory effect of verapamil on seizure induced by pentylenetetrazol in male rats  

PubMed Central

The role of opioid receptor and voltage dependent calcium channels on the kindling induced by the convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) were investigated in the rats. Experiment involved 24 rats which were divided into four groups. Kindling was established with PTZ in subconvulsive dose (37.5 mg/kg i.p.) every 48 h and effects were observed within 20 min using five-point scoring system. All animals were kindled to three consecutive-stage five seizures and their stability was tested. Saline, verapamil (calcium channel blocker), naloxone (opioid antagonist) or both of them were then administrated 20 min before PTZ application. Convulsant parameters were significantly (P<0.05) reduced by verapamil. Naloxone had no significant effect on the seizure expression of fully kindled animals, whereas simultaneous application of naloxone and verapamil had profound inhibitory effect on all seizure parameters. The results of the present study suggest that naloxane increased the inhibitory effect of verapamil on the seizure induced by PTZ kindling

Palizvan, M.R.; Ghaznavi-Rad, E.

2014-01-01

51

Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure-like behavior and neural hyperactivity in the medicinal leech.  

PubMed

This study examined the capacity of a known pro-epileptic drug, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to elicit seizure-like activity in the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. During in vivo experiments, PTZ elicited increased motor activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest concentration (10 mM) eliciting episodes of highly uncoordinated exploratory and swimming behavior. Co-application of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin, failed to reduce the absolute amount of PTZ-induced motor behavior, but was able to prevent expression of abnormal exploratory and swimming behaviors. During in vitro experiments in which extracellular recordings of connective nerve activity were made, bath application of 1 ?M PTZ in Mg(2+)-free saline elicited a significant increase in spontaneous activity. This PTZ-induced increase in activity was completely inhibited by phenytoin. Interestingly, PTZ-induced hyperactivity was also blocked by co-application of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. These findings suggest that the leech can be a useful system in which to study potential anti-epileptic treatments. PMID:25572075

Hahn, Elizabeth; Burrell, Brian

2015-03-01

52

Cerebellar seizures.  

PubMed

Epilepsy, especially with refractory seizures, is thought to arise only from cortical lesions or substrate. The authors report on 2 patients with refractory epilepsy and cerebellar lesions. Depth electrodes were placed within the cerebellar lesions in both patients, and intracranial electroencephalographic recordings showed seizure origin from the cerebellar lesions. One patient eventually attained seizure control with antiepileptic drugs. The other case involved a child with generalized myoclonic epilepsy associated with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebellum. This patient obtained seizure control following gross-total resection of the tumor. PMID:23808728

Boop, Sarah; Wheless, James; Van Poppel, Katherine; McGregor, Amy; Boop, Frederick A

2013-09-01

53

Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

2012-06-01

54

Lamotrigine Decreased Hippocampal Damage and Improved Vascular Risk Markers in a Rat Model of Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure  

PubMed Central

Various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) especially enzyme-inducing AEDs might be associated with increased vascular risk, through impairment of the endogenous antioxidative ability which may trigger oxygen-dependent tissue injury. Lamotrigine (LTG) a non-enzyme-inducing AED has scarce information regarding its effects on oxidative stress. The present study aimed to study the possible modulation of vascular risk factors of epileptogenesis by LTG, in a rat model of kindling seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Four groups of male Wister rats were used; vehicle control group, PTZ group (alternate day PTZ, 30 mg/kg, i.p), LTG/PTZ group (LTG 20 mg/kg/day p.o and alternate day PTZ) and LTG group. The study period was 5 weeks. Lipoproteins and total homocysteine (tHcy), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. Aortic endothelial function study and histopathological examination of the rats' brains, aortas and coronaries were conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), tHcy, MDA, GSH levels were significantly higher in epileptic rats than normal controls rats. A decrease in HDL-cholesterol with high atherosclerotic index was also demonstrated. The administration of LTG improved the PTZ-kindled seizures. It produced a significant decrease in TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol, MDA, aortic GSH and increase in HDL-cholesterol with no significant effect on serum GSH and tHcy levels. LTG improved endothelium-dependent relaxation, decreased hippocampal neurodegenerative changes and atherosclerotic changes of aortas and coronaries. LTG decreased seizures severity, hippocampal damage and improved vascular risk markers in this rat model of kindling seizures. PMID:24976768

Haggag, Basma S; Raafat, Mona H; Abdel Kawy, Hala S

2014-01-01

55

The role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on seizure  

PubMed Central

Objective : Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures. Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidate the possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation. Results: Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p<0.05-p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model. PMID:25068139

Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazmand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Faizpour, Azadeh; Ghasemabady, Marzieh

2014-01-01

56

The ameliorative effects of sesamol against seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in the experimental model of epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): A growing interest has recently been attracted towards the identification of plant-based medications including those with protective effects against cognitive impairment. Sesamol has shown promising antioxidant and neuroprotective effects, therefore, we aimed to evaluate its therapeutic potential in epilepsy which is commonly associated with oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats received pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (30 mg/kg, IP) once every other day until the development of kindling, i.e., the occurrence of stage 5 of seizures for three consecutive trials. After the completion of kindling procedure, behavioural tests including elevated plus maze and passive avoidance were performed in order to assess learning and memory. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimation of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The effects of pretreatment with sesamol (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, IP) against PTZ-induced seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress were investigated. Results: 32.45 ± 1.86 days after treatment with PTZ, kindling was developed that was associated with myoclonic jerks and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Moreover, PTZ kindling induced a remarkable cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. Sesamol (30 mg/kg) significantly delayed the development of kindling and prevented seizure-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. Conclusion: Sesamol exerts ameliorative effects in the experimental model of epilepsy. This phytochemical may be considered as a beneficial adjuvant for antiepileptic drugs. PMID:24711892

Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Arbabi, Elham; Rostami, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

57

Febrile seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... seizures. Pediatrics . 2008;121:1281-1286. Mick NW. Pediatric fever. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

58

Profile of SB-204269, a mechanistically novel anticonvulsant drug, in rat models of focal and generalized epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

1. Earlier optimization of structure-activity relationships in a novel series of 4-(benzoylamino)-benzopyrans, led to the discovery of SB-204269 (trans-(+)-6-acetyl-4S-(4-fluorobenzoylamino)-3,4-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-benzo[b]pyran-3R-ol, hemihydrate), a potent orally-active anticonvulsant in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test. 2. Studies have now been undertaken to determine the effects of SB-204269 in a range of seizure models and tests of neurological deficits in rats. In addition, the compound has been evaluated in a series of in vitro mechanistic assays. 3. SB-204269 proved to be an orally-effective anticonvulsant agent, at doses (0.1-30 mg Kg-1) devoid of overt behavioural depressant properties, in models of both electrically (MEST and maximal electroshock (MEST)) and chemically (i.v. pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) infusion)-evoked tonic extension seizures. However, the compound did not inhibit PTZ-induced myoclonic seizures at doses up to 30 mg kg-1, p.o. 4. SB-204269 also selectively reduced focal electrographic seizure activity in an in vitro elevated K+ rat hippocampal slice model at concentrations (0.1-10 microM) that had no effect on normal synaptic activity and neuronal excitability. 5. In all of these seizure models, SB-204269 was equivalent or better than the clinically established antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine and lamotrigine, in terms of anticonvulsant potency and efficacy. 6. Unlike SB-204269, the corresponding trans 3S,4R enantiomer, SB-204268, did not produce marked anticonvulsant effects, an observation in accord with previous findings for other related pairs of trans enantiomers in the benzopyran series. 7. In the rat accelerating rotarod test, a sensitive paradigm for the detection of neurological deficits such as sedation and motor incoordination, SB-204269 was inactive even at doses as high as 200 mg kg-1, p.o. This was reflected in the excellent therapeutic index (minimum significantly effective dose in the rotarod test/ED50 in the MES test) for SB-204269 of > 31, as compared to equivalent values of only 7 and 13 for carbamazepine and lamotrigine, respectively. 8. At concentrations (> or = 10 microM) well above those required to produce anticonvulsant activity in vivo (i.e. 0.1 microM in brain), SB-204269 did not interact with many of the well known mechanistic targets for established antiepileptic drugs (e.g. Na+ channels or GABAergic neurotransmission). Subsequent studies have shown that the anticonvulsant properties of SB-204269 are likely to be mediated by a novel stereospecific binding site present in the CNS. 9. The overall efficacy profile in rodent seizure models, together with a minimal liability for inducing neurological impairment and an apparently unique mechanism of action, highlight the therapeutic potential of SB-204269 for the treatment of refractory partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. PMID:9283703

Upton, N; Blackburn, T P; Campbell, C A; Cooper, D; Evans, M L; Herdon, H J; King, P D; Ray, A M; Stean, T O; Chan, W N; Evans, J M; Thompson, M

1997-08-01

59

Modulation of benzodiazepine by lysine and pipecolic acid on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures  

SciTech Connect

L-lysine and its metabolite pipecolic acid (PA) have been studied for their effects on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. L-Lysine of L-Pa i.p. significantly increased clonic and tonic latencies in a dose-dependent manner against 90 mg/kg PTZ-induced seizures. L-Lysine but not L-Pa enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of diazepam (DZ). L-Pa i.c.v. showed a slight decrease in clonic latency; it did not enhance the antiseizure activity of DZ; it caused seizures at 0.6 mmol/kg. D-PA i.c.v. displayed an opposite effect compared to its L-isomer. The anticonvulsant effect of L-lysine in terms of increase in seizure latency and survival was even more amplified when tested with a submaximal PTZ concentration. L-Lysine showed an enhancement of specific /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam(FZ) binding to mouse brain membranes both in vitro an din vivo. The possibility of L-lysine acting as a modulator for the GABA/benzodiazepine receptors was demonstrated. Since L-PA showed enhancement of /sup 3/H-FZ binding only in vitro but not in vivo, the anticonvulsant effect of L-PA may not be linked to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor.

Chang, Y.F.; Hargest, V.; Chen, J.S.

1988-01-01

60

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT) antagonists decrease pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures. In line with this view, selected pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid derivatives have been reported to facilitate seizures. Kainate-induced seizures are accompanied by leukotriene formation, and are reduced by inhibitors of LOX/COX pathway. Moreover, LTD4 receptor blockade and LTD4 synthesis inhibition suppress pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling and pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures. Although there is convincing evidence supporting that blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction facilitates seizures, no study has investigated whether the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast is associated with its ability to maintain BBB integrity. In this study we investigated whether montelukast and other CysLT receptor antagonists decrease PTZ-induced seizures, as well as whether these antagonists preserve BBB during PTZ-induced seizures. Adult male albino Swiss mice were stereotaxically implanted with a cannula into the right lateral ventricle, and two electrodes were placed over the parietal cortex along with a ground lead positioned over the nasal sinus for electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The effects of montelukast (0.03 or 0.3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), pranlukast (1 or 3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), Bay u-9773 (0.3, 3 or 30 nmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), in the presence or absence of the agonist LTD4 (0.2, 2, 6 or 20 pmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), on PTZ (1.8 ?mol/2 ?L)-induced seizures and BBB permeability disruption were determined. The animals were injected with the antagonists, agonist or vehicle 30 min before PTZ, and monitored for additional 30 min for the appearance of seizures by electrographic and behavioral methods. BBB permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein method and by confocal microscopy for CD45 and IgG immunoreactivity. Bay-u9973 (3 and 30 nmol), montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) and pranlukast (1 and 3 ?mol), increased the latency to generalized seizures and decreased the mean amplitude of EEG recordings during seizures. LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) reverted the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast (0.3 ?mol). Montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) prevented PTZ-induced BBB disruption, an effect that was reversed by LTD4 at the dose of 6 pmol, but not at the doses 0.2 and 2 pmol. Moreover, the doses of LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) that reverted the effect of montelukast on seizures did not alter montelukast-induced protection of BBB, dissociating BBB protection and anticonvulsant activity. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that 1. PTZ increased the number of CD45+ and double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cerebral cortex, indicating BBB leakage with leukocyte infiltration; 2. while LTD4 (6 pmol) potentiated, montelukast decreased the effect of PTZ on leukocyte migration and BBB, assessed by double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cannulated hemisphere. Our data do not allow us ruling out that mechanisms unrelated and related to BBB protection may co-exist, resulting in decreased seizure susceptibility by montelukast. Notwithstanding, they suggest that CysLT1 receptors may be a suitable target for anticonvulsant development. PMID:25090924

Lenz, Q F; Arroyo, D S; Temp, F R; Poersch, A B; Masson, C J; Jesse, A C; Marafiga, J R; Reschke, C R; Iribarren, P; Mello, C F

2014-09-26

61

Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures affect the levels of prolyl oligopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase and glial proteins in rat brain regions, and attenuation by MK-801 pretreatment.  

PubMed

The regulatory mechanisms of neuropeptide-metabolizing enzymes often play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuronal damage. A systemic administration of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an antagonist of GABA(A) receptor ion channel binding site, causes generalized epilepsy in an animal model. In the present study, we examined the involvement of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), thimet oligopeptidase/neurolysin (EP 24.15/16) and glial proteins in PTZ-treated rat brain regions, and the suppressive effect of MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, pretreatment for their proteins. The activity of POP significantly decreased in the hippocampus at 30min and 3h, and in the frontal cortex at 3h after PTZ treatment, and pretreatment with MK-801 recovered the activity in the cortex at 3h. The activity of EP 24.15/16 significantly decreased in the hippocampus at 3h and 1 day, and in the cortex at 3h after the PTZ administration, whereas pretreatment with MK-801 recovered the change of the activity. The Western blot analysis of EP 24.15 showed significant decrease of the protein level in the hippocampus 3h after the PTZ treatment, whereas pretreatment with MK-801 recovered. The expression of GFAP and CD11b immunohistochemically increased in the hippocampus of the PTZ-treated rat as compared with controls. Pretreatment with MK-801 also recovered the GFAP and CD11b expression. These data suggest that PTZ-induced seizures of the rats cause indirect activation of glutamate NMDA receptors, then decrease POP and EP 24.15/16 enzyme activities and EP 24.15 immunoreactivity in the neuronal cells of the hippocampal formation. We speculate that changes of those peptidases in the brain may be related to the levels of the neuropeptides regulating PTZ-induced seizures. PMID:15985312

Ahmed, M Mahiuddin; Arif, Mohammad; Chikuma, Toshiyuki; Kato, Takeshi

2005-09-01

62

Acute creatine administration improves mitochondrial membrane potential and protects against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence indicates that creatine (Cr) exerts beneficial effects on a variety of pathologies where energy metabolism and oxidative stress play an etiological role. However, the benefits of Cr treatment for epileptics are still shrouded in controversy. In the present study, we found that acute Cr treatment (300 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented the increase in electroencephalographic wave amplitude typically elicited by PTZ (30, 45 or 60 mg/kg, i.p.). Cr treatment also increased the latency periods of first myoclonic jerks, lengthened the latency periods of the generalized tonic-clonic seizures and reduced the time spent in the generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg). Administration of PTZ (all doses) decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate levels in the cerebral cortex, but Cr treatment prevented these effects. Cr administration also prevented increases in xanthine oxidase activity, adenosine monophosphate levels, adenosine levels, inosine levels and uric acid levels that normally occur after PTZ treatment (60 mg/kg, i.p.). We also showed that Cr treatment increased the total Cr (Cr + PCr) content, creatine kinase activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential (??) in the cerebral cortex. In addition, Cr prevented PTZ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by decreasing ??, increasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels and increasing protein carbonylation. These experimental findings reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in models of epileptic seizures and suggest that buffering brain energy levels through Cr treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of this neurological disease. PMID:23064877

Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Della-Pace, Iuri Domingues; Stamm, Daniel Neis; da Rosa Gerbatin, Rogério; Prigol, Marina; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

2013-03-01

63

Controlling Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

Henderson, Nancy

2008-01-01

64

Hierarchical Ensemble of Background Models for PTZ-Based Video Surveillance.  

PubMed

In this paper, we study a novel hierarchical background model for intelligent video surveillance with the pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera, and give rise to an integrated system consisting of three key components: background modeling, observed frame registration, and object tracking. First, we build the hierarchical background model by separating the full range of continuous focal lengths of a PTZ camera into several discrete levels and then partitioning the wide scene at each level into many partial fixed scenes. In this way, the wide scenes captured by a PTZ camera through rotation and zoom are represented by a hierarchical collection of partial fixed scenes. A new robust feature is presented for background modeling of each partial scene. Second, we locate the partial scenes corresponding to the observed frame in the hierarchical background model. Frame registration is then achieved by feature descriptor matching via fast approximate nearest neighbor search. Afterwards, foreground objects can be detected using background subtraction. Last, we configure the hierarchical background model into a framework to facilitate existing object tracking algorithms under the PTZ camera. Foreground extraction is used to assist tracking an object of interest. The tracking outputs are fed back to the PTZ controller for adjusting the camera properly so as to maintain the tracked object in the image plane. We apply our system on several challenging scenarios and achieve promising results. PMID:24860044

Liu, Ning; Wu, Hefeng; Lin, Liang

2015-01-01

65

Febrile seizures  

PubMed Central

Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

2014-01-01

66

Treadmill Exercise Protects Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures and Oxidative Stress after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35?mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na+/K+-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility. PMID:23530735

Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogério da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia

2013-01-01

67

A system to automatically track humans and vehicles with a PTZ camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports about the development of a software module that allows autonomous object detection, recognition and tracking in outdoor urban environment. The purpose of the project was to endow a commercial PTZ camera with object tracking and recognition capability to automate some surveillance tasks. The module can discriminate between various moving objects and identify the presence of pedestrians or

M. Lalonde; S. Foucher; L. Gagnon; E. Pronovost; M. Derenne; A. Janelle

2007-01-01

68

Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

Shafer, Patricia Osborne

2007-01-01

69

Collaborative real-time scheduling of multiple PTZ cameras for multiple object tracking in video surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a multi-PTZ-camera control mechanism to acquire close-up imagery of human objects in a surveillance system. The control algorithm is based on the output of multi-camera, multi-target tracking. Three main concerns of the algorithm are (1) the imagery of human object's face for biometric purposes, (2) the optimal video quality of the human objects, and (3) minimum hand-off time. Here, we define an objective function based on the expected capture conditions such as the camera-subject distance, pan tile angles of capture, face visibility and others. Such objective function serves to effectively balance the number of captures per subject and quality of captures. In the experiments, we demonstrate the performance of the system which operates in real-time under real world conditions on three PTZ cameras.

Liu, Yu-Che; Huang, Chung-Lin

2013-03-01

70

Dietary supplementation with acetyl-l-carnitine in seizure treatment of pentylenetetrazole kindled mice.  

PubMed

In spite of the availability of new antiepileptic drugs a considerable number of epilepsy patients still have pharmacoresistant seizures, and thus there is a need for novel approaches. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), which delivers acetyl units to mitochondria for acetyl-CoA production, has been shown to improve brain energy homeostasis and protects against various neurotoxic insults. To our knowledge, this is the first study of ALCAR's effect on metabolism in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindled mice. ALCAR or the commonly used antiepileptic drug valproate, was added to the drinking water of mice for 25days, and animals were injected with PTZ or saline three times a week during the last 21 days. In order to investigate ALCAR's effects on glucose metabolism, mice were injected with [1-(13)C]glucose 15 min prior to microwave fixation. Brain extracts from cortex and the hippocampal formation (HF) were studied using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and HPLC. PTZ kindling caused glucose hypometabolism, evidenced by a reduction in both glycolysis and TCA cycle turnover in both brain regions investigated. Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons were affected in cortex and HF, but the amount of glutamate was only reduced in HF. Slight astrocytic involvement could be detected in the cortex. Interestingly, the dopamine content was increased in the HF. ALCAR attenuated the PTZ induced reduction in [3-(13)C]alanine and the increase in dopamine in the HF. However, TCA cycle metabolism was not different from that seen in PTZ kindled animals. In conclusion, even though ALCAR did not delay the kindling process, it did show some promising ameliorative effects, worthy of further investigation. PMID:22709675

Smeland, Olav B; Meisingset, Tore W; Sonnewald, Ursula

2012-09-01

71

Video game induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

1994-01-01

72

Novel Vitamin K analogs suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world's population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, 2-benzamido-1 4-naphthoquinone (NQN1), significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of valproic acid, 2-n-propylpentanoic acid (VPA). We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogs. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6Hz) and corneal-kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogs for the prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production. PMID:24291671

Rahn, J J; Bestman, J E; Josey, B J; Inks, E S; Stackley, K D; Rogers, C E; Chou, C J; Chan, S S L

2014-02-14

73

How do seizures stop?  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Although often overshadowed by factors influencing seizure initiation, seizure termination is a critical step in the return to the interictal state. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to seizure termination could potentially identify novel targets for anticonvulsant drug development and may also highlight the pathophysiological processes contributing to seizure initiation. In this article, we review known physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and discuss additional mechanisms that are likely to be relevant even though specific data are not yet available. This review is organized according to successively increasing “size scales”—from membranes to synapses to networks to circuits. We first discuss mechanisms of seizure termination acting at the shortest distances and affecting the excitable membranes of neurons in the seizure onset zone. Next we consider the contributions of ensembles of neurons and glia interacting at intermediate distances within the region of the seizure onset zone. Lastly, we consider the contribution of brain nuclei, such as the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR), that are capable of modulating seizures and exert their influence over the seizure onset zone (and neighboring areas) from a relatively great—in neuroanatomical terms—distance. It is our hope that the attention to the mechanisms contributing to seizure termination will stimulate novel avenues of epilepsy research and will contribute to improved patient care. PMID:18503563

Lado, Fred A.; Moshé, Solomon L.

2009-01-01

74

On the nature of seizure dynamics.  

PubMed

Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between 'normal' and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical parameters contributing to the five state variables in our model system. We show that these parameters apply to specific experimental conditions and propose that there exists a wide array of possible biophysical mechanisms for seizure genesis, while preserving central invariant properties. Epileptor and the seizure taxonomy will guide future modeling and translational research by identifying universal rules governing the initiation and termination of seizures and predicting the conditions necessary for those transitions. PMID:24919973

Jirsa, Viktor K; Stacey, William C; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ivanov, Anton I; Bernard, Christophe

2014-08-01

75

Diagnosis of Seizure Disorders  

PubMed Central

The author addresses the diagnosis of seizure disorders by discussing clinical features of the different types of seizures, including generalized tonic-clonic, absence, myoclonic, partial complex seizures, and non-epileptic or “pseudoseizures.” She also discusses the use of appropriate laboratory tests, electroencephalography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomographic scanning. The rationale of and approach to treatment of these conditions with some of the common anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and primidone) is provided. PMID:21234044

Purves, Sherrill J.

1990-01-01

76

Genes, Seizures & Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chance that someone will develop any disease is influenced by heredity and environment. Epilepsy is not an exception. Everybody inherits a unique degree of susceptibility to seizures. About 3 percent of the United States population is prone to seizures and will get epilepsy at some point of their lives (1). Two thirds of the people with…

Goldman, Alica M.

2006-01-01

77

AN INTEGRATED AUDIO-VIDEO TRACKING SYSTEM WITH A PTZ VIDEO CAMERA AND A 3-D MICROPHONE ARRAY  

E-print Network

AN INTEGRATED AUDIO-VIDEO TRACKING SYSTEM WITH A PTZ VIDEO CAMERA AND A 3-D MICROPHONE ARRAY Kuo of an audio source or a video object is critical in many audio-video applications such as video surveillance an audio source in a 3-D space, which improves the accuracy of localization in different environments

Chang, Pao-Chi

78

Seizures in Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Transient symptoms in Alzheimer disease (AD) are frequent and include seizures, syncope, and episodes of inattention or confusion. The incidence of seizures in AD and predictors of which patients with AD might be more predisposed to them is based primarily on retrospective studies and is not well established. Objective To determine the incidence and predictors of new-onset unprovoked seizures. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Three academic centers. Patients Four hundred fifty-three patients with probable AD observed prospectively from mild disease stages since 1992. Main Outcome Measure Informant interviews every 6 months included questions about whether the patient had a seizure (convulsion, fainting, or “funny” spell) and whether diagnosis or treatment for epilepsy or seizure was made. Two epileptologists independently retrospectively reviewed all available medical records for 52 patients with positive responses to either of these questions, and using a specific checklist form, events were diagnosed as to whether they were unprovoked seizures (intrarater concordance, ?=0.67). Diagnosis of unprovoked seizures constituted the event in survival analyses. Potential predictors included sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational achievement, duration of illness, baseline cognition and function, depression, medical comorbidities, and time-dependent use of cholinesterase inhibitors and neuroleptic agents, apolipoprotein E genotype, and previous electroencephalographic findings. Results Over the course of 3518 visit-assessments (per patient: mean, 7.8; maximum, 27), 7 patients (1.5%) developed seizures. Younger age was associated with higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.41; P=.003 for each additional year of age) of seizure incidence. No other predictor was significant. The overall incidence of seizures was low (418 per 100 000 person-years of observation) although significantly higher than expected for idiopathic unprovoked seizures in similar age ranges of the general population (hazard ratio, 8.06; 95% confidence interval, 3.23–16.61). Conclusions Unprovoked seizures are uncommon in AD, but they do occur more frequently than in the general population. Younger age is a risk factor for seizures in AD. PMID:19667221

Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Honig, Lawrence S.; Choi, Hyunmi; Cantero, Julio; Brandt, Jason; Blacker, Deborah; Albert, Marilyn; Amatniek, Joan C.; Marder, Karen; Bell, Karen; Hauser, W. Allen; Stern, Yaakov

2009-01-01

79

Seizure prediction and recall.  

PubMed

Using separate generalized mixed-effects models, we assessed seizure recall and prediction, as well as contributing diagnostic variables, in 83 adult patients with epilepsy undergoing video/EEG monitoring. The model revealed that when participants predicted a seizure, probability equaled 0.320 (95% CI: 0.149-0.558), a significant (P<0.05) increase over negative predictions (0.151, 95% CI: 0.71-0.228]). With no seizure, the rate of remembering was approximately 0.130 (95% CI: 0.73-0.219), increasing significantly to 0.628 (95% CI: 0.439 to 0.784) when a seizure occurred (P<0.001). Of the variables analyzed, only inpatient seizure rate influenced predictability (P<0.001) or recollection (P<0.001). These models reveal that patients were highly aware of their seizures, and in many cases, were able to make accurate predictions, for which seizure rate may be an important factor. PMID:20457544

DuBois, J M; Boylan, L S; Shiyko, M; Barr, W B; Devinsky, O

2010-05-01

80

Neonatal Seizures and Status Epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Neonatal seizures are common, often require electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring for diagnosis and management, may be associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcome, and can often be treated with existing anticonvulsants. A neonatal electrographic seizure is defined as a sudden, repetitive, evolving and stereotyped event of abnormal electrographic pattern with amplitude of at least two microvolts and a minimum duration of ten seconds. The diagnosis of neonatal seizures relies heavily on the neurophysiologist’s interpretation of EEG. Consideration of specific criteria for the definition of a neonatal seizure, including seizure duration, location, morphology, evolution, semiology, and overall seizure burden, have utility for both the clinician and researcher. We review the importance of EEG in the diagnosis and management of neonatal seizures, the electrographic characteristics of neonatal seizures, the impact of neonatal seizures on outcome, and tools to aid in the identification of neonatal seizures. PMID:23027101

Abend, Nicholas S.; Wusthoff, Courtney J.

2012-01-01

81

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome aminoacylase 1 deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ...

82

Improving Early Seizure Detection  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, the search for a method able to reliably predict seizures hours in advance has been largely replaced by a more realistic goal of very early detection of seizure onset which would allow therapeutic or warning devices to be triggered prior to the onset of disabling clinical symptoms. We explore in this article the steps along the pathway from data acquisition to closed loop applications that can and should be considered to design the most efficient early seizure detection. Microelectrodes, high-frequency oscillations, high sampling rate, high-density arrays, and modern analysis techniques are all elements of the recording and detection process that in combination with modeling studies can provide new insights into the dynamics of seizure onsets. Each of these step needs to be considered if one wants to implement improved detection devices that will favorably impact the quality of life of patients. PMID:22078518

Jouny, Christophe C.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Bergey, Gregory K.

2011-01-01

83

Temporal lobe epilepsy after experimental prolonged febrile seizures: prospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Experimental prolonged febrile seizures (FS) lead to structural and molecular changes that promote hippocampal hyperexcitability and reduce seizure threshold to further convulsants. However, whether these seizures provoke later-onset epilepsy, as has been suspected in humans, has remained unclear. Previously, intermittent EEGs with behavioural observations for motor seizures failed to demonstrate spontaneous seizures in adult rats subjected to experimental prolonged FS during infancy. Because limbic seizures may be behaviourally subtle, here we determined the presence of spontaneous limbic seizures using chronic video monitoring with concurrent hippocampal and cortical EEGs, in adult rats (starting around 3 months of age) that had sustained experimental FS on postnatal day 10. These subjects were compared with groups that had undergone hyperthermia but in whom seizures had been prevented (hyperthermic controls), as well as with normothermic controls. Only events that fulfilled both EEG and behavioural criteria, i.e. electro-clinical events, were considered spontaneous seizures. EEGs (over 400 recorded hours) were normal in all normothermic and hyperthermic control rats, and none of these animals developed spontaneous seizures. In contrast, prolonged early-life FS evoked spontaneous electro-clinical seizures in 6 out of 17 experimental rats (35.2%). These seizures consisted of sudden freezing (altered consciousness) and typical limbic automatisms that were coupled with polyspike/sharp-wave trains with increasing amplitude and slowing frequency on EEG. In addition, interictal epileptiform discharges were recorded in 15 (88.2%) of the experimental FS group and in none of the controls. The large majority of hippocampally-recorded seizures were heralded by diminished amplitude of cortical EEG, that commenced half a minute prior to the hippocampal ictus and persisted after seizure termination. This suggests a substantial perturbation of normal cortical neuronal activity by these limbic spontaneous seizures. In summary, prolonged experimental FS lead to later-onset limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy in a significant proportion of rats, and to interictal epileptifom EEG abnormalities in most others, and thus represent a model that may be useful to study the relationship between FS and human temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:16446281

Dubé, Céline; Richichi, Cristina; Bender, Roland A.; Chung, Grace; Litt, Brian; Baram, Tallie Z.

2011-01-01

84

Segregation of Seizure Traits in C57 Black Mouse Substrains Using the Repeated-Flurothyl Model  

PubMed Central

Identifying the genetic basis of epilepsy in humans is difficult due to its complexity, thereby underlying the need for preclinical models with specific aspects of seizure susceptibility that are tractable to genetic analyses. In the repeated-flurothyl model, mice are given 8 flurothyl-induced seizures, once per day (the induction phase), followed by a 28-day rest period (incubation phase) and final flurothyl challenge. This paradigm allows for the tracking of multiple phenotypes including: initial generalized seizure threshold, decreases in generalized seizure threshold with repeated flurothyl exposures, and changes in the complexity of seizures over time. Given the responses we previously reported in C57BL/6J mice, we analyzed substrains of the C57BL lineage to determine if any of these phenotypes segregated in these substrains. We found that the generalized seizure thresholds of C57BL/10SNJ and C57BL/10J mice were similar to C57BL/6J mice, whereas C57BL/6NJ and C57BLKS/J mice showed lower generalized seizure thresholds. In addition, C57BL/6J mice had the largest decreases in generalized seizure thresholds over the induction phase, while the other substrains were less pronounced. Notably, we observed only clonic seizures during the induction phase in all substrains, but when rechallenged with flurothyl after a 28-day incubation phase, ?80% of C57BL/6J and 25% of C57BL/10SNJ and C57BL/10J mice expressed more complex seizures with tonic manifestations with none of the C57BL/6NJ and C57BLKS/J mice having complex seizures with tonic manifestations. These data indicate that while closely related, the C57BL lineage has significant diversity in aspects of epilepsy that are genetically controlled. Such differences further highlight the importance of genetic background in assessing the effects of targeted deletions of genes in preclinical epilepsy models. PMID:24594686

Kadiyala, Sridhar B.; Papandrea, Dominick; Herron, Bruce J.; Ferland, Russell J.

2014-01-01

85

Phenytoin's effect on the spread of seizure activity in the amygdala kindling model.  

PubMed

Phenytoin is a major antiepileptic drug for treatment of limbic seizures. The effect of phenytoin on the generation and spread of seizure activity was studied in a rat model of this type of seizures. Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were implanted with a stimulation and recording electrode in the basolateral amygdala. Naive Sprague-Dawley rats showed an increase in current intensity necessary for eliciting afterdischarges (afterdischarge threshold) of about 200% after administration of phenytoin (75 mg/kg i.p.), while seizure severity at threshold was increased compared to controls. Afterdischarge and seizure durations were significantly prolonged under phenytoin. This result suggests that phenytoin can exert a potent anticonvulsant effect on the generation of focal seizure activity, but it does not suppress or may even increase ongoing afterdischarge activity once it occurs. Following amygdala kindling in Wistar rats, administration of phenytoin again resulted in an increase in the afterdischarge threshold. However, all rats still showed generalized seizures, and epileptic afterdischarges could be recorded in various limbic brain regions at threshold current. This result suggests that phenytoin can increase the threshold for generation of epileptic discharges in kindled rats, but is not able to prevent the development of generalized seizure activity and the spread of afterdischarges within the limbic system when focal activity is initiated. We conclude that phenytoin is able to suppress focal seizure activity in the amygdala kindling model of the rat. However, it does not prevent the spread of seizure activity originating in the limbic system. Therefore, a decrease in focal seizure susceptibility seems to be the primary target for phenytoin's anticonvulsant action. PMID:9303571

Ebert, U; Cramer, S; Löscher, W

1997-09-01

86

DDT Exposure of Zebrafish Embryos Enhances Seizure Susceptibility: Relationship to Fetal p,p?-DDE Burden and Domoic Acid Exposure of California Sea Lions  

PubMed Central

Background California sea lions have a large body burden of organochlorine pesticides, and over the last decade they have also been subject to domoic acid poisoning. Domoic acid poisoning, previously recognized in adult animals, is now viewed as a major cause of prenatal mortality. The appearance of a chronic juvenile domoic acid disease in the sea lions, characterized by behavioral abnormalities and epilepsy, is consistent with early life poisoning and may be potentiated by organochlorine burden. Objective We investigated the interactive effect of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) on neurodevelopment using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model for seizure behavior to examine the susceptibility to domoic acid–induced seizures after completion of neurodevelopment. Methods Embryos were exposed (6–30 hr postfertilization) to either o,p?-DDT or p,p?-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) during neurodevelopment via a 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide solution. These larval (7 days postfertilization) fish were then exposed to either the seizure-inducing drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or domoic acid; resulting seizure behavior was monitored and analyzed for changes using cameras and behavioral tracking software. Results Embryonic exposure to DDTs enhanced PTZ seizures and caused distinct and increased seizure behaviors to domoic acid, most notably a type of head-shaking behavior. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that embryonic exposure to DDTs leads to asymptomatic animals at completion of neurodevelopment with greater sensitivity to domoic acid–induced seizures. The body burden levels of p,p?-DDE are close to the range recently found in fetal California sea lions and suggest a potential interactive effect of p,p?-DDE embryonic poisoning and domoic acid toxicity. PMID:19165389

Tiedeken, Jessica A.; Ramsdell, John S.

2009-01-01

87

IS A GRANDMAL SEIZURE NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT FOR THE EFFICACY OF ELECTRO CONVULSIVE THERAPY?  

PubMed Central

This paper highlights the recent research findings which suggest that the old teaching that a grandma! seizure is both necessary and sufficient for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is not correct. It is necessary; but not sufficient. The stimulus intensity should be adjusted so that it is far above the seizure threshold in order to get maximum efficacy of ECT. PMID:21407909

Verghese, Abraham

2000-01-01

88

Neonatal caffeine exposure alters seizure susceptibility in rats in an age-related manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early developmental exposure to caffeine in rats results in decreased susceptibility to certain chemically-induced seizures in the adult. To determine whether this effect first appears in adulthood or is present during preceding developmental stages, we exposed neonatal rats to caffeine and determined seizure thresholds in animals 28, 42 and 70–90 days of age. Rats were unhandled or received either vehicle

Ronnie Guillet

1995-01-01

89

Calibration of a dual-PTZ-camera system for stereo vision based on parallel particle swarm optimization method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the calibration of a stereo vision system based on two PTZ (Pan-Tilt-Zoom) cameras. As the accuracy of the system depends not only on intrinsic parameters, but also on the geometric relationships between rotation axes of the cameras, the major concern is the development of an effective and systematic way to obtain these relationships. We derived a complete geometric model of the dual-PTZ-camera system and proposed a calibration procedure for the intrinsic and external parameters of the model. The calibration method is based on Zhang's approach using an augmented checkerboard composed of eight small checkerboards, and is formulated as an optimization problem to be solved by an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Two Sony EVI-D70 PTZ cameras were used for the experiments. The root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of corner distances in the horizontal and vertical direction are 0.192 mm and 0.115 mm, respectively. The RMSE of overlapped points between the small checkerboards is 1.3958 mm.

Chang, Yau-Zen; Wang, Huai-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Hsu, Ming-Hsi

2014-02-01

90

Generalized tonic-clonic seizure  

MedlinePLUS

... with generalized tonic-clonic seizures have vision, taste, smell, or sensory changes, hallucinations, or dizziness before the ... lasts for 1 hour or longer Loss of memory (amnesia) about the seizure episode Headache Weakness of ...

91

[Pseudoepileptic seizures in children].  

PubMed

Pseudoepileptic seizures (pseudoseizures) are defined as episodic disturbances of behaviour with elements of epileptic seizures, but with atypical features and not accompanied by abnormal EEG discharges. They are frequently seen in patients with epilepsy, but also as the only disturbance of function. In children, the possible pathogenetic mechanisms are less understood than in adults. We present a series of cases, showing that an important factor in development of pseudoseizures lies in disturbances of communication between children and parents within the family. However, there are large interindividual variations in the most probable underlying mechanisms. Some recommendations as regards treatment are given. PMID:2024302

Uldall, P V; Berg, L S; Alving, J

1991-03-25

92

Methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla ameliorates seizure severity, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice.  

PubMed

Decoctions of Ficus plathyphylla are used in Nigeria's folk medicine to manage epilepsy for many years and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of Northern Nigeria. In this study, we examined the ameliorative effects of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark on seizure severity, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. The (35)S-GTP?S, glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid receptors binding properties of the extract were also evaluated. Male CD-1 mice were kindled with an initial subeffective dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 37.5mg/kg, i.p.) for a total of 13 convulsant injections and the treatment groups concurrently received FP (100 and 200mg/kg). Control animals received the same number of saline injections. Twenty-four h after kindling completion the animals' learning performance was tested in a two-way shuttle-box. The animals were challenged with another subeffective dose of PTZ (32.5mg/kg, i.p.) on day 7 after kindling completion. Animals were sacrificed a day after the challenged experiment and the brains were processed for histological investigation. FP ameliorates seizure severity, cognitive deficits and neuronal cell loss in PTZ kindled mice. Components of the extract showed affinity for GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors. Glutamate release was diminished and the (35)S-GTP?S binding assay revealed no intrinsic activity at glutamatergic receptors. Our results revealed that FP contains psychoactive secondary metabolites with anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting the isolation and development of the biologically active components of this medicinal plant as antiepileptic agents. PMID:25636876

Chindo, Ben A; Schröder, Helmut; Becker, Axel

2015-01-15

93

Outcome following neonatal seizures.  

PubMed

Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological disorders in the newborn period and an important determinant of outcome. Overall, for babies born at full term, mortality following seizures has improved in the last decade, typical current mortality rates being 10% (range: 7-16%), down from 33% in reports from the 1990s. By contrast, the prevalence of adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae remains relatively stable, typically 46% (range: 27-55%). The strongest predictors of outcome are the underlying cause, together with the background electroencephalographic activity. In preterm babies, for whom the outlook tends to be worse as background mortality and disability are high, seizures are frequently associated with serious underlying brain injury and therefore subsequent impairments. When attempting to define the prognosis for a baby with neonatal seizures, we propose a pathway involving history, examination, and careful consideration of all available results (ideally including brain magnetic resonance imaging) and the response to treatment before synthesizing the best estimate of risk to be conveyed to the family. PMID:23466296

Uria-Avellanal, Cristina; Marlow, Neil; Rennie, Janet M

2013-08-01

94

The Alaris auditory evoked potential monitor as an indicator of seizure inducibility and duration during electroconvulsive therapy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Precise control of anesthetic depth during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is crucial because most intravenous anesthetics have anticonvulsant effects. In this study, we investigated the association between anesthetic depth measured by the Alaris auditory evoked potential index (AAI) and seizure inducibility and seizure duration during ECT. Methods Sixty-four ECTs were evaluated in 12 consecutive patients. General anesthesia was performed with a thiopental-based method. The relationship between the pre-ictal AAI, seizure activity and seizure duration was analyzed, and a possible threshold pre-ictal AAI to induce a seizure duration of at least 25 seconds was calculated. Results Forty-one of the 64 ECT stimuli successfully induced seizure activity that lasted longer than 25 seconds. Pre-ictal AAI was significantly correlated to seizure duration (r?=?0.54, p?threshold pre-ictal AAi value was calculated to be 26 (area under curve: 0.76, sensitivity: 70.3% and specificity: 73.9%, p?seizure activity ( p?seizure duration (55?±?35 v.s. 21?±?27 seconds, p?seizure activities and a longer seizure duration. This is the first report to investigate Alaris AEP monitoring during ECT. PMID:24914401

2014-01-01

95

A low computation cost method for seizure prediction.  

PubMed

The dynamic changes of electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in the period prior to epileptic seizures play a major role in the seizure prediction. This paper proposes a low computation seizure prediction algorithm that combines a fractal dimension with a machine learning algorithm. The presented seizure prediction algorithm extracts the Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD) of EEG signals as features to classify the patient's preictal or interictal state with Bayesian linear discriminant analysis (BLDA) as a classifier. The outputs of BLDA are smoothed by a Kalman filter for reducing possible sporadic and isolated false alarms and then the final prediction results are produced using a thresholding procedure. The algorithm was evaluated on the intracranial EEG recordings of 21 patients in the Freiburg EEG database. For seizure occurrence period of 30 min and 50 min, our algorithm obtained an average sensitivity of 86.95% and 89.33%, an average false prediction rate of 0.20/h, and an average prediction time of 24.47 min and 39.39 min, respectively. The results confirm that the changes of HFD can serve as a precursor of ictal activities and be used for distinguishing between interictal and preictal epochs. Both HFD and BLDA classifier have a low computational complexity. All of these make the proposed algorithm suitable for real-time seizure prediction. PMID:25062892

Zhang, Yanli; Zhou, Weidong; Yuan, Qi; Wu, Qi

2014-10-01

96

Seizures Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on seizures in students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and offers guidelines for classroom management. First, a classification system for seizures is presented with specific types of seizures explained. Post-traumatic seizures are specifically addressed as is the importance of seizure prevention when possible.…

Williams, Dennis

97

Inflammatory pathways of seizure disorders  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy refers to a cluster of neurological disease characterized by seizures. While many forms of epilepsy have a well-defined immune etiology, in other forms of epilepsy an altered immune response is only suspected. In general, the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to seizures is supported by experimental results. Additionally, antiepileptic maneuvers may act as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory therapies can treat seizures. Triggers of seizure include a bidirectional communication between the nervous system and organs of immunity. Thus, a crucial cellular interface protecting from immunological seizures is the blood-brain barrier. Here, we summarize recent advances in the understanding and treatment of epileptic seizures which derive from a non-neurocentric viewpoint and suggest key avenues for future research. PMID:24355813

Marchi, Nicola; Granata, Tiziana; Janigro, Damir

2014-01-01

98

Modeling Glial Contributions to Seizures and Epileptogenesis: Cation-Chloride Cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl? cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi) of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24–48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl? cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed. PMID:24971529

Rusan, Zeid M.; Kingsford, Olivia A.; Tanouye, Mark A.

2014-01-01

99

Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

2007-01-01

100

Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on…

Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

2007-01-01

101

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC

Al-Hindi, Hindi; Subach, Brian R.

2007-10-15

102

Feverish prospects for seizure genetics.  

PubMed

Febrile seizures can arise in response to fevers induced by viral infection or as an adverse reaction to live-virus vaccines such as measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. A new study has now identified common genetic variants influencing susceptibility to febrile seizures, including two loci specifically associated with MMR-related events. PMID:25418745

Sisodiya, Sanjay

2014-12-01

103

A Hypothesis Regarding the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Dietary Soy-Induced Effects on Seizure Propensity  

PubMed Central

Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold. PMID:25232349

Westmark, Cara Jean

2014-01-01

104

A Wavelet-Statistical Features Approach for Nonconvulsive Seizure Detection.  

PubMed

The detection of nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) is a challenge because of the lack of physical symptoms, which may delay the diagnosis of the disease. Many researchers have reported automatic detection of seizures. However, few investigators have concentrated on detection of NCSz. This article proposes a method for reliable detection of NCSz. The electroencephalography (EEG) signal is usually contaminated by various nonstationary noises. Signal denoising is an important preprocessing step in the analysis of such signals. In this study, a new wavelet-based denoising approach using cubical thresholding has been proposed to reduce noise from the EEG signal prior to analysis. Three statistical features were extracted from wavelet frequency bands, encompassing the frequency range of 0 to 8, 8 to 16, 16 to 32, and 0 to 32 Hz. Extracted features were used to train linear classifier to discriminate between normal and seizure EEGs. The performance of the method was tested on a database of nine patients with 24 seizures in 80 hours of EEG recording. All the seizures were successfully detected, and false positive rate was found to be 0.7 per hour. PMID:24934269

Sharma, Priyanka; Khan, Yusuf Uzzaman; Farooq, Omar; Tripathi, Manjari; Adeli, Hojjat

2014-06-16

105

Seizure Treatment in Transplant Patients  

PubMed Central

Opinion statement Solid organ transplantation is frequently complicated by a spectrum of seizure types, including single partial-onset or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, acute repetitive seizures or status epilepticus, and sometimes the evolution of symptomatic epilepsy. There is currently no specific evidence involving the transplant patient population to guide the selection, administration, or duration of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, so familiarity with clinical AED pharmacology and application of sound judgment are necessary for successful patient outcomes. An initial detailed search for symptomatic seizure etiologies, including metabolic, infectious, cerebrovascular, and calcineurin inhibitor treatment-related neuro-toxic complications such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), is imperative, as underlying central nervous system disorders may impose additional serious risks to cerebral or general health if not promptly detected and appropriately treated. The mainstay for post-transplant seizure management is AED therapy directed toward the suspected seizure type. Unfavorable drug interactions could place the transplanted organ at risk, so choosing an AED with limited interaction potential is also crucial. When the transplanted organ is dysfunctional or vulnerable to rejection, AEDs without substantial hepatic metabolism are favored in post-liver transplant patients, whereas after renal transplantation, AEDs with predominantly renal elimination may require dosage adjustment to prevent adverse effects. Levetiracetam, gabapentin, pregabalin, and lacosamide are drugs of choice for treatment of partial-onset seizures in post-transplant patients given their efficacy spectrum, generally excellent tolerability, and lack of drug interaction potential. Levetiracetam is the drug of choice for primary generalized seizures in post-transplant patients. When intravenous drugs are necessary for acute seizure management, benzodiazepines and fosphenytoin are the traditional and best evidence-based options, although intravenous levetiracetam, valproate, and lacosamide are emerging options. Availability of several newer AEDs has greatly expanded the therapeutic armamentarium for safe and efficacious treatment of post-transplant seizures, but future prospective clinical trials and pharmacokinetic studies within this specific patient population are needed. PMID:22660960

Shepard, Paul W.

2013-01-01

106

Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

2014-01-01

107

Bupropion seizure proportion among new-onset generalized seizures and drug related seizures presenting to an emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is a relatively new and popular medication with seizures as its major side effect. This drug can produce seizures with an overdose. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative importance of this medication as the etiology of new-onset seizures relative to other drugs and new-onset seizures in general. The study design was a retrospective case series.

Gene R Pesola; Jagannadha Avasarala

2002-01-01

108

Akinetopsia as epileptic seizure?  

PubMed Central

Akinetopsia is a rare syndrome in which a patient specifically loses the ability to perceive visual motion following bilateral cortical lesions outside the striate cortex. We describe a patient who showed akinetopsia recurrently as epileptic seizures. The patient was a 61-year-old man. At age 46, a cerebral arteriovenous malformation in the right parietal lobe was discovered. At age 58, he began to have a recurrent visual symptom by which smooth movements of objects suddenly appeared, resembling freeze frames in a motion picture. This symptom was paroxysmal and recurrent. Both EEG and magnetoencephalography showed repetitive right temporal spikes. We diagnosed his visual symptom as akinetopsia, which was aroused by hyperexcitability of the right temporal and parietal cortices, including area MT/V5. We administered carbamazepine 200 mg/day, which suppressed his akinetopsic symptom completely.

Sakurai, Kotaro; Kurita, Tsugiko; Takeda, Youji; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Kusumi, Ichiro

2013-01-01

109

Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis  

PubMed Central

Febrile seizures are frequent during early childhood, and prolonged (complex) febrile seizures are associated with an increased susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy. The pathophysiological consequences of febrile seizures have been extensively studied in rat pups exposed to hyperthermia. The mechanisms that trigger these seizures are unknown, however. A rise in brain pH is known to enhance neuronal excitability. Here we show that hyperthermia causes respiratory alkalosis in the immature brain, with a threshold of 0.2–0.3 pH units for seizure induction. Suppressing alkalosis with 5% ambient CO2 abolished seizures within 20 s. CO2 also prevented two long-term effects of hyperthermic seizures in the hippocampus: the upregulation of the Ih current and the upregulation of CB1 receptor expression. The effects of hyperthermia were closely mimicked by intraperitoneal injection of bicarbonate. Our work indicates a mechanism for triggering hyperthermic seizures and suggests new strategies in the research and therapy of fever-related epileptic syndromes. PMID:16819552

Schuchmann, Sebastian; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rivera, Claudio; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Salmen, Benedikt; Mackie, Ken; Sipilä, Sampsa T; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai

2006-01-01

110

Prolonged deficits after focal inhibitory seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Seizures are most commonly associated with positive phenomena such as tonic, clonic or myoclonic movements, automatisms,\\u000a paresthesias and hallucinations. Negative phenomena, however, are not an uncommon manifestation of seizure activity. Examples\\u000a of negative seizure phenomena include speech arrest, aphasia, amaurosis, amnesia, numbness, deafness, neglect and atonic seizures.\\u000a Less commonly described in the literature are focal inhibitory motor seizures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods

Miguel Bussičre; David Pelz; Robert H Reid; G. Bryan Young

2005-01-01

111

Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures.  

PubMed

Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association. PMID:25624930

Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, P?nar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

2014-01-01

112

Complex partial seizures in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Many disorders can mimic complex partial seizure (CPS), and clinicians must be careful to make an accurate diagnosis. Complex\\u000a partial seizures must be distinguished from generalized-onset seizures (such as absence seizures), which require a different\\u000a treatment regimen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Treatment of CPS should begin with monotherapy with a standard antiepileptic drug (AED), such as phenytoin or carbamazepine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – 

Michael D. Privitera; Jerzy P. Szaflarski

1999-01-01

113

Understanding the TXA seizure connection  

E-print Network

Transexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that has been used successfully to prevent blood loss during major surgery. However, as its usage has increased, there have been growing reports of postsurgical seizure events ...

Schwinn, Debra A.

114

Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures  

PubMed Central

Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association.

Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, P?nar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

2014-01-01

115

Differential diagnosis in pseudoepileptic seizures.  

PubMed

With increasing use of intensive video-EEG monitoring, publications concerning pseudoepileptic seizures have burgeoned, but without clarification concerning differing psychopathologic mechanisms and without distinction of different syndromic varieties. The frequent concurrence of pseudoepileptic and epileptic seizures has not been sufficiently recognized, and an undue reliance on clinical experience on the one hand and individual tests such as EEG on the other has proven equally misleading in this group of cases. PMID:8453940

Ozkara, C; Dreifuss, F E

1993-01-01

116

Epileptic Seizures in AD Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epileptic seizures have long been recognised as a complication of the clinical syndrome of Alzheimer’s disease, particularly\\u000a in advanced disease, but have hitherto been viewed essentially as epiphenomena of the neurodegenerative process. Progress\\u000a with animal models of Alzheimer’s disease has suggested that this view may be incorrect, and that seizures may be a reflection\\u000a of pathophysiological processes similar to or

A. J. Larner

2010-01-01

117

Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy: A Novel form of ECT Illustrates the Roles of Current Directionality, Polarity, and Electrode Configuration in Seizure Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a mainstay in the treatment of severe, medication-resistant depression. The antidepressant efficacy and cognitive side effects of ECT are influenced by the position of the electrodes on the head and by the degree to which the electrical stimulus exceeds the threshold for seizure induction. However, surprisingly little is known about the effects of other key electrical

Timothy Spellman; Angel V Peterchev; Sarah H Lisanby

2009-01-01

118

Neurophysiological aspects of neonatal seizures.  

PubMed

Recently, amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) has been increasingly used and proved useful in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for the management of neonatal seizures. It does not replace, but is supplementary to standard EEG. This article reviews some of findings obtained with standard EEGs, and tries to interpret them with recent findings in the field of basic science. Seizures mainly occur in active-REM sleep in neonates. This is in sharp contrast to those in older children and adults, in whom epileptic seizures occur mainly in NREM sleep. This may be explained by neurotransmitter effects on sleep mechanisms of the neonatal brain that are different from those of older individuals. When all clinical seizures have no electrical correlates, they are non-epileptic, but when the correlation between clinical seizures and frequent electrical discharges are inconsistent, they should rather be considered epileptic, reflecting progression of status epilepticus causing electro-clinical dissociation. Electro-clinical dissociation is not a characteristic of neonatal seizures per se, but a feature of prolonged status epilepticus in adults as well as children. It occurs when prolonged status epilepticus itself causes a progressively severe encephalopathy, or when status occurs in the presence of a severe underlying encephalopathy. In neonates without pre-existing brain damage, frequent seizures per se may cause mild depression characterized by the loss of high voltage slow patterns, an important constituent of slow wave sleep reflecting cortico-cortical connectivity. Mild depression only in the acute stage is not associated with neurological sequelae, but previously damaged brain may be more vulnerable than normal brain. PMID:24581554

Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

2014-05-01

119

Generalized versus partial reflex seizures: a review.  

PubMed

In this review we assess our currently available knowledge about reflex seizures with special emphasis on the difference between "generalized" reflex seizures induced by visual stimuli, thinking, praxis and language tasks, and "focal" seizures induced by startle, eating, music, hot water, somatosensory stimuli and orgasm. We discuss in particular evidence from animal, clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies supporting the concept that "generalized" reflex seizures, usually occurring in the setting of IGE, should be considered as focal seizures with quick secondary generalization. We also review recent advances in genetic and therapeutic approach of reflex seizures. PMID:24766826

Italiano, Domenico; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Spina, Edoardo; Mondello, Stefania; Labate, Angelo; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

2014-08-01

120

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2010-04-01

121

The auriculo-vagal afferent pathway and its role in seizure suppression in rats  

PubMed Central

Background The afferent projections from the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) to the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) have been proposed as the anatomical basis for the increased parasympathetic tone seen in auriculo-vagal reflexes. As the afferent center of the vagus nerve, the NTS has been considered to play roles in the anticonvulsant effect of cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Here we proposed an “auriculo-vagal afferent pathway” (AVAP), by which transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) suppresses pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures by activating the NTS neurons in rats. Results The afferent projections from the ABVN to the NTS were firstly observed in rats. ta-VNS increased the first grand mal latency of the epileptic seizure and decreased the seizure scores in awake rats. Furthermore, when the firing rates of the NTS neurons decreased, epileptiform activity manifested as electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization increased with 0.37±0.12 s delay in anaesthetized rats. The change of instantaneous frequency, mean frequency of the NTS neurons was negative correlated with the amplitude of the epileptic activity in EEG traces. ta-VNS significantly suppressed epileptiform activity in EEG traces via increasing the firing rates of the neurons of the NTS. In comparison with tan-VNS, the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS were significantly longer (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the anticonvulsant durations of VNS and ta-VNS (P>0.05). The anticonvulsant effect of ta-VNS was weakened by reversible cold block of the NTS. Conclusions There existed an anatomical relationship between the ABVN and the NTS, which strongly supports the concept that ta-VNS has the potential for suppressing epileptiform activity via the AVAP in rats. ta-VNS will provide alternative treatments for neurological disorders, which can avoid the disadvantage of VNS. PMID:23927528

2013-01-01

122

[Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].  

PubMed

Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24726042

Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

2014-01-01

123

A Smell That Causes Seizure  

PubMed Central

In mammals, odorants are detected by a large family of receptors that are each expressed in just a small subset of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Here we describe a strain of transgenic mice engineered to express an octanal receptor in almost all OSNs. Remarkably, octanal triggered a striking and involuntary phenotype in these animals, with passive exposure regularly inducing seizures. Octanal exposure invariably resulted in widespread activation of OSNs but interestingly seizures only occurred in 30–40% of trials. We hypothesized that this reflects the need for the olfactory system to filter strong but slowly-changing backgrounds from salient signals. Therefore we used an olfactometer to control octanal delivery and demonstrated suppression of responses whenever this odorant is delivered slowly. By contrast, rapid exposure of the mice to octanal induced seizure in every trial. Our results expose new details of olfactory processing and provide a robust and non-invasive platform for studying epilepsy. PMID:22848650

Nguyen, Minh Q.; Ryba, Nicholas J. P.

2012-01-01

124

Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC  

MedlinePLUS

... or just after seizures. Don’t use artificial respiration unless breathing is absent after muscle jerks subside ... or just after seizures. Don’t use artificial respiration unless breathing is absent after muscle jerks subside ...

125

The seizure prediction characteristic: a general framework to assess and compare seizure prediction methods  

E-print Network

The seizure prediction characteristic: a general framework to assess and compare seizure prediction, numerous methods have been suggested that claim to predict from the EEG the onset of epileptic seizures of a seizure prediction method and an intervention system, would improve patient quality of life. The question

Timmer, Jens

126

An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

127

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2010-04-01

128

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2011-04-01

129

The Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Effects of Walnuts on the Neurons of Rat Brain Cortex  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy is a chief communal health problem. Antiepileptic drugs only provide symptomatic treatment. Walnut Kernels (WK) have high concentrations of phenolic compounds, which have beneficial effects on human health because of their antioxidant and anti-atherogenic properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of WK supplementation for the prevention of experimental epilepsy in male rats. Methods Wistar adult male rats were divided into three groups: a control group (PTZ injection, fed with ordinary food), experimental group (PTZ injection, fed with WK) and a sham group (no PTZ injection, only for histological studies). Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was administered after the prescribed time. Results WKs displayed anti-epileptogenic properties, and WK supplementation was associated with increased seizure threshold and reduced mortality in the experimental group versus controls. Conclusion Use of WK may be helpful in prevention of PTZ-induced seizure and its further neurodegeneration in male rats. PMID:23407239

Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Kalantaripour, Taj Pari; Nejad, Fatemeh Arab; Namazian, Elaheh; Eslami, Azam

2012-01-01

130

Development of later life spontaneous seizures in a rodent model of hypoxia induced neonatal seizures  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose To study the development of epilepsy following hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures in Long Evans rats and to establish the presence of spontaneous seizures in this model of early life seizures. Methods Long-Evans rat pups were subjected to hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures at postnatal day 10 (P10). Epidural cortical electroencephalography (EEG) and hippocampal depth electrodes were used to detect the presence of seizures in later adulthood (>P60). In addition, subdermal wire electrode recordings were used to monitor age at onset and progression of seizures in the juvenile period, at intervals between P10–P60. Timm staining was performed to evaluate mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampi of P100 adult rats that had experienced neonatal seizures. Key Findings In recordings made from adult rats (P60–P180), the prevalence of epilepsy in cortical and hippocampal EEG recordings was 94.4% following early life hypoxic seizures. These spontaneous seizures were identified by characteristic spike and wave activity on EEG accompanied by behavioral arrest and facial automatisms (electroclinical seizures). Phenobarbital injection transiently abolished spontaneous seizures. EEG in the juvenile period (P10–60) showed that spontaneous seizures first occurred approximately 2 weeks after the initial episode of hypoxic seizures. Following this period, spontaneous seizure frequency and duration progressively increased with time. Furthermore, significantly increased sprouting of mossy fibers was observed in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus in adult animals following hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures. Notably, Fluoro-Jade B staining confirmed that hypoxic seizures at P10 did not induce acute neuronal death. Significance The rodent model of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures leads to the development of epilepsy in later life, accompanied by increased mossy fiber sprouting. In addition, this model appears to exhibit a seizure-free latent period, following which there is a progressive increase in the frequency of electroclinical seizures. PMID:21366558

Rakhade, Sanjay N; Klein, Peter; Huynh, Thanthao; Hilario-Gomez, Cristina; Kosaras, Bela; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jensen, Frances E.

2011-01-01

131

Electrographic seizures in pediatric ICU patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We aimed to determine the incidence of electrographic seizures in children in the pediatric intensive care unit who underwent EEG monitoring, risk factors for electrographic seizures, and whether electrographic seizures were associated with increased odds of mortality. Methods: Eleven sites in North America retrospectively reviewed a total of 550 consecutive children in pediatric intensive care units who underwent EEG monitoring. We collected data on demographics, diagnoses, clinical seizures, mental status at EEG onset, EEG background, interictal epileptiform discharges, electrographic seizures, intensive care unit length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Electrographic seizures occurred in 162 of 550 subjects (30%), of which 61 subjects (38%) had electrographic status epilepticus. Electrographic seizures were exclusively subclinical in 59 of 162 subjects (36%). A multivariable logistic regression model showed that independent risk factors for electrographic seizures included younger age, clinical seizures prior to EEG monitoring, an abnormal initial EEG background, interictal epileptiform discharges, and a diagnosis of epilepsy. Subjects with electrographic status epilepticus had greater odds of in-hospital death, even after adjusting for EEG background and neurologic diagnosis category. Conclusions: Electrographic seizures are common among children in the pediatric intensive care unit, particularly those with specific risk factors. Electrographic status epilepticus occurs in more than one-third of children with electrographic seizures and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. PMID:23794680

Arndt, Daniel H.; Carpenter, Jessica L.; Chapman, Kevin E.; Cornett, Karen M.; Gallentine, William B.; Giza, Christopher C.; Goldstein, Joshua L.; Hahn, Cecil D.; Lerner, Jason T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Matsumoto, Joyce H.; McBain, Kristin; Nash, Kendall B.; Payne, Eric; Sánchez, Sarah M.; Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Shults, Justine; Williams, Korwyn; Yang, Amy; Dlugos, Dennis J.

2013-01-01

132

Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures  

SciTech Connect

We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, St. Mary`s Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

133

Anticonvulsant effects of dipotassium clorazepate on hippocampal kindled seizures in rats.  

PubMed

We examined the anticonvulsant properties of dipotassium clorazepate (DC) against hippocampal kindled seizures in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to kindling 1 week after the implantation of electrodes. After five stage 5 seizures were induced, the generalized convulsion triggering threshold (GST) was determined. Dipotassium clorazepate was administered intraperitoneally in rats that showed two stable stage 5 seizures induced at the GST current intensity. Dipotassium clorazepate at doses of 1 mg/kg or more produced an anticonvulsant effect, but did not readily suppress limbic seizures. Dipotassium clorazepate did not completely suppress after-discharges (AD) even at the highest dose, which was 5 mg/kg. Moreover, raised stimulus intensity failed to affect its efficacy as an anticonvulsant. The results of the present study suggest that DC has a modest anticonvulsant potency. It is reasonable to assume that its anticonvulsant efficacy is primarily due to attenuation of AD propagation rather than the raising of the seizure triggering threshold at the kindling focus. PMID:9766699

Amano, K; Takamatu, J; Kaneyama, H; Miyazaki, C; Deshimaru, M; Sumiyoshi, S; Ogata, A; Miyakawa, T

1998-08-01

134

Glutamatergic neuron-targeted loss of LGI1 epilepsy gene results in seizures.  

PubMed

Leucin-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted protein linked to human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune aetiology. Mutations in the LGI1 gene are responsible for autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features, whereas LGI1 autoantibodies are involved in limbic encephalitis, an acquired epileptic disorder associated with cognitive impairment. We and others previously reported that Lgi1-deficient mice have early-onset spontaneous seizures leading to premature death at 2-3 weeks of age. Yet, where and when Lgi1 deficiency causes epilepsy remains unknown. To address these questions, we generated Lgi1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice using a set of universal Cre-driver mouse lines. Selective deletion of Lgi1 was achieved in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons during embryonic (Emx1-Lgi1cKO) or late postnatal (CaMKII?-Lgi1cKO) developmental stages, or in gamma amino butyric acidergic (GABAergic) parvalbumin interneurons (PV-Lgi1cKO). Emx1-Lgi1cKO mice displayed early-onset and lethal seizures, whereas CaMKII?-Lgi1cKO mice presented late-onset occasional seizures associated with variable reduced lifespan. In contrast, neither spontaneous seizures nor increased seizure susceptibility to convulsant were observed when Lgi1 was deleted in parvalbumin interneurons. Together, these data showed that LGI1 depletion restricted to pyramidal cells is sufficient to generate seizures, whereas seizure thresholds were unchanged after depletion in gamma amino butyric acidergic parvalbumin interneurons. We suggest that LGI1 secreted from excitatory neurons, but not parvalbumin inhibitory neurons, makes a major contribution to the pathogenesis of LGI1-related epilepsies. Our data further indicate that LGI1 is required from embryogenesis to adulthood to achieve proper circuit functioning. PMID:25234641

Boillot, Morgane; Huneau, Clément; Marsan, Elise; Lehongre, Katia; Navarro, Vincent; Ishida, Saeko; Dufresnois, Béatrice; Ozkaynak, Ekim; Garrigue, Jérôme; Miles, Richard; Martin, Benoit; Leguern, Eric; Anderson, Matthew P; Baulac, Stéphanie

2014-11-01

135

[Psychogenic pseudo-epileptic seizures: diagnostic difficulties].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of the diagnosis of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures from the clinician's point of view and to stress some difficulties which neurologist, psychiatrist and general practitioner can be faced. In epilepsy centers from 10 to 20% of patients with diagnosis of drug resistant epilepsy had psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. Diagnosis of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures can be established on clinical symptomatology, several EEG recordings, long term EEG videotape recording and some neurological tests evaluating post-seizure reflexive responsiveness. In differential diagnosis examination of simple defensive reactions, provocation of seizure or its arrest using suggestion with placebo may be very helpful. Author stress the consequences from false diagnosis. Prolonged pseudoepileptic seizures very often are treated as status epilepticus including general anesthesia. PMID:15058268

Jedrzejczak, Joanna

2003-12-01

136

?-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Electrographic Seizures  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. Citation: Cheung J, Lucey BP, Duntley SP, Darken RS. ?-hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):811-812. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Darken, Rachel S.

2014-01-01

137

Cognitive Dysfunction after Experimental Febrile Seizures  

PubMed Central

While the majority of children with febrile seizures have an excellent prognosis, a small percentage are latter discovered to have cognitive impairment. Whether the febrile seizures produce the cognitive deficits or the febrile seizures are a marker or the result of underlying brain pathology is not clear from the clinical literature. We evaluated hippocampal and prefrontal cortex function in adult rats with a prior history of experimental febrile seizures as rat pups. All of the rat pups had MRI brain scans following the seizures. Rats subjected to experimental febrile seizures were found to have moderate deficits in working and reference memory and strategy shifting in the Morris water maze test. A possible basis for these hippocampal deficits involved abnormal firing rate and poor stability of hippocampal CA1 place cells, neurons involved in encoding and retrieval of spatial information. Additional derangements of interneuron firing in the CA1 hippocampal circuit suggested a complex network dysfunction in the rats. MRI T2 values in the hippocampus were significantly elevated in 50% of seizure-experiencing rats. Learning and memory functions of these T2-positive rats were significantly worse than those of T2-negative cohorts and of controls. We conclude that cognitive dysfunction involving the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex networks occur following experimental febrile seizures and that the MRI provides a potential biomarker for hippocampal deficits in a model of prolonged human febrile seizures. PMID:19000675

Dube, Celine M; Zhou, Jun-Li; Hamamura, Mark; Zhao, Qian; Ring, Alex; Abrahams, Jennifer; McIntyre, Katherine; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Shatskih, Tatiana; Baram, Tallie Z.; Holmes, Gregory L.

2009-01-01

138

Cellular and network mechanisms of electrographic seizures.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures constitute a complex multiscale phenomenon that is characterized by synchronized hyperexcitation of neurons in neuronal networks. Recent progress in understanding pathological seizure dynamics provides crucial insights into underlying mechanisms and possible new avenues for the development of novel treatment modalities. Here we review some recent work that combines in vivo experiments and computational modeling to unravel the pathophysiology of seizures of cortical origin. We particularly focus on how activity-dependent changes in extracellular potassium concentration affects the intrinsic dynamics of neurons involved in cortical seizures characterized by spike/wave complexes and fast runs. PMID:19190736

Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor; Fröhlich, Flavio; Sejnowski, Terrence J

2008-01-01

139

Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Intellectual disability occurs as an isolated X-linked trait and as a component of recognizable X-linked syndromes in the company of somatic, metabolic, neuromuscular, or behavioral abnormalities. Seizures accompany intellectual disability in almost half of these X-linked disorders. The spectrum of seizures found in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes is broad, varying in time of onset, type of seizure, and response to anticonvulsant therapy. The majority of the genes associated with XLID and seizures have now been identified. PMID:22377486

Stevenson, Roger E.; Holden, Kenton R.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E.

2012-01-01

140

Treating seizures in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease?  

PubMed Central

Seizures are known to occur in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). In the setting of a rapidly progressive condition with no effective therapy, determining appropriate treatment for seizures can be difficult if clinical morbidity is not obvious yet the electroencephalogram (EEG) demonstrates a worrisome pattern such as status epilepticus. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old man with CJD and electrographic seizures, discuss how this case challenges conventional definitions of seizures, and discuss a rational approach toward treatment. Coincidentally, our case is the first report of CJD in a patient with Stickler syndrome.

Ng, Marcus C.; Westover, M. Brandon; Cole, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

141

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2010-04-01

142

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2011-10-01

143

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2010-10-01

144

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2010-04-01

145

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2011-04-01

146

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2010-04-01

147

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2010-01-01

148

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2011-10-01

149

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2011-04-01

150

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2010-10-01

151

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2011-04-01

152

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2011-01-01

153

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84...

2012-04-01

154

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under the Controlled Substances Act (84...

2011-04-01

155

[Differential diagnosis of cerebral seizures].  

PubMed

Several non-epileptic disorders may cause episodic and paroxysmal symptoms that resemble epilepsy and they must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Some of these disorders are discussed in the present review: vasovagal, vasomotor and cardiac syncopes, breath holding spells. Among the sleep disorders, parasomnias, nightmares and the benign neonatal sleep myoclonus are mentioned. Migraine with aura, alternating hemiplegia and benign vertigo of childhood are probably related disorders. Benign myoclonus of early infancy, paroxysmal choreoathetoses and pseudoepileptic or hysterical seizures are further non-epileptic attack disorders to be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:1501611

Vassella, F

1992-07-01

156

Substance P Causes Seizures in Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a helminth infection of the brain, is a major cause of seizures. The mediators responsible for seizures in NCC are unknown, and their management remains controversial. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide produced by neurons, endothelial cells and immunocytes. The current studies examined the hypothesis that SP mediates seizures in NCC. We demonstrated by immunostaining that 5 of 5 brain biopsies from NCC patients contained substance P (SP)-positive (+) cells adjacent to but not distant from degenerating worms; no SP+ cells were detected in uninfected brains. In a rodent model of NCC, seizures were induced after intrahippocampal injection of SP alone or after injection of extracts of cysticercosis granuloma obtained from infected wild type (WT), but not from infected SP precursor-deficient mice. Seizure activity correlated with SP levels within WT granuloma extracts and was prevented by intrahippocampal pre-injection of SP receptor antagonist. Furthermore, extracts of granulomas from WT mice caused seizures when injected into the hippocampus of WT mice, but not when injected into SP receptor (NK1R) deficient mice. These findings indicate that SP causes seizures in NCC, and, suggests that seizures in NCC in humans may be prevented and/or treated with SP-receptor antagonists. PMID:22346746

Robinson, Prema; Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Serpa, Jose A.; Goodman, Jerry Clay; Eckols, Kristian T.; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David J.

2012-01-01

157

Search and Seizure in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under…

Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

2007-01-01

158

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2011-10-01

159

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2010-10-01

160

Privacy and Property, Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan for grades 4-6 which illustrates the concepts of privacy, property, and search and seizure. Calls upon students to recognize that individual property and society's need for security may conflict. Uses seven cases to help students learn and identify legal search and seizure procedures. (GEA)

Greenawald, Dale; Clarke, Phyllis

1988-01-01

161

A Discriminative Approach to EEG Seizure Detection  

PubMed Central

Seizures are abnormal sudden discharges in the brain with signatures represented in electroencephalograms (EEG). The efficacy of the application of speech processing techniques to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure states in EEGs is reported. The approach accounts for the challenges of unbalanced datasets (seizure and non-seizure), while also showing a system capable of real-time seizure detection. The Minimum Classification Error (MCE) algorithm, which is a discriminative learning algorithm with wide-use in speech processing, is applied and compared with conventional classification techniques that have already been applied to the discrimination between seizure and non-seizure states in the literature. The system is evaluated on 22 pediatric patients multi-channel EEG recordings. Experimental results show that the application of speech processing techniques and MCE compare favorably with conventional classification techniques in terms of classification performance, while requiring less computational overhead. The results strongly suggests the possibility of deploying the designed system at the bedside. PMID:22195192

Johnson, Ashley N.; Sow, Daby; Biem, Alain

2011-01-01

162

Searches and Seizures in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "New Jersey v. T.L.O." the U.S. Supreme Court held that the prohibitions of the Fourth Amendment regarding unreasonable searches and seizures apply to student searches and seizures conducted by public school officials. However, the Court said the legality of a search should depend upon "reasonableness, under the circumstances" rather than…

Lincoln, Eugene A.

163

Surface charge impact in low-magnesium model of seizure in rat hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Putative mechanisms of induction and maintenance of seizure-like activity (SLA) in the low Mg2+ model of seizures are: facilitation of NMDA receptors and decreased surface charge screening near voltage-gated channels. We have estimated the role of such screening in the early stages of SLA development at both physiological and room temperatures. External Ca2+ and Mg2+ promote a depolarization shift of the sodium channel voltage sensitivity; when examined in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, the effect of Ca2+ was 1.4 times stronger than of Mg2+. Removing Mg2+ from the extracellular solution containing 2 mM Ca2+ induced recurrent SLA in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer in 67% of slices. Reduction of [Ca2+]o to 1 mM resulted in 100% appearance of recurrent SLA or continuous SLA. Both delay before seizure activity and the inter-SLA time were significantly reduced. Characteristics of seizures evoked in low Mg2+/1 mM Ca2+/3.5 K+ were similar to those obtained in low Mg2+/2 Ca2+/5mM K+, suggesting that reduction of [Ca2+]o to 1 mM is identical to the increase in [K+]o to 5 mM in terms of changes in cellular excitability and seizure threshold. An increase of [Ca2+]o to 3 mM completely abolished SLA generation even in the presence of 5 mM [K+]o. A large variation in the ability of [Ca2+]o to stop epileptic discharges in initial stage of SLA was found. Our results indicate that surface charge of the neuronal membrane plays a crucial role in the initiation of low Mg2+-induced seizures. Furthermore, our study suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+, through screening of surface charge, have important anti-seizure and antiepileptic properties. PMID:22031777

Ivanchick, Gleb; Khmyz, Volodymyr; Isaeva, Elena; Savrasova, Alina; Krishtal, Oleg; Holmes, Gregory L.; Maximyuk, Oleksandr

2012-01-01

164

Early Detection of Human Focal Seizures Based on Cortical Multiunit Activity  

PubMed Central

Approximately 50 million people in the world suffer from epileptic seizures. Reliable early seizure detection could bring significantly beneficial therapeutic alternatives. In recent decades, most approaches have relied on scalp EEG and intracranial EEG signals, but practical early detection for closed-loop seizure control remains challenging. In this study, we present preliminary analyses of an early detection approach based on intracortical neuronal multiunit activity (MUA) recorded from a 96-microelectrode array (MEA). The approach consists of (1) MUA detection from broadband field potentials recorded at 30 kHz by the MEA; (2) MUA feature extraction; (3) cost-sensitive support vector machine classification of ictal and interictal samples; and (4) Kalman-filtering postprocessing. MUA was here defined as the number of threshold crossing (spike counts) applied to the 300 Hz – 6 kHz bandpass filtered local field potentials in 0.1 sec time windows. MUA features explored in this study included the mean, variance, and Fano-factor, computed across the MEA channels. In addition, we used the leading eigenvalues of MUA spatial and temporal correlation matrices computed in 1-sec moving time windows. We assessed the seizure detection approach on out-of-sample data from one-participant recordings with six seizure events and 4.73-hour interictal data. The proposed MUA-based detection approach yielded a 100% sensitivity (6/6) and no false positives, and a latency of 4.17 ± 2.27 sec (mean ± SD) with respect to ECoG-identified seizure onsets. These preliminary results indicate intracortical MUA may be a useful signal for early detection of human epileptic seizures. PMID:25571313

Park, Yun S.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cash, Sydney S.; Truccolo, Wilson

2014-01-01

165

Early detection of human focal seizures based on cortical multiunit activity.  

PubMed

Approximately 50 million people in the world suffer from epileptic seizures. Reliable early seizure detection could bring significantly beneficial therapeutic alternatives. In recent decades, most approaches have relied on scalp EEG and intracranial EEG signals, but practical early detection for closed-loop seizure control remains challenging. In this study, we present preliminary analyses of an early detection approach based on intracortical neuronal multiunit activity (MUA) recorded from a 96-microelectrode array (MEA). The approach consists of (1) MUA detection from broadband field potentials recorded at 30 kHz by the MEA; (2) MUA feature extraction; (3) cost-sensitive support vector machine classification of ictal and interictal samples; and (4) Kalman-filtering postprocessing. MUA was here defined as the number of threshold crossing (spike counts) applied to the 300 Hz-6 kHz bandpass filtered local field potentials in 0.1 sec time windows. MUA features explored in this study included the mean, variance, and Fano-factor, computed across the MEA channels. In addition, we used the leading eigenvalues of MUA spatial and temporal correlation matrices computed in 1-sec moving time windows. We assessed the seizure detection approach on out-of-sample data from one-participant recordings with six seizure events and 4.73-hour interictal data. The proposed MUA-based detection approach yielded a 100% sensitivity (6/6) and no false positives, and a latency of 4.17 ± 2.27 sec (mean ± SD) with respect to ECoG-identified seizure onsets. These preliminary results indicate intracortical MUA may be a useful signal for early detection of human epileptic seizures. PMID:25571313

Park, Yun S; Hochberg, Leigh R; Eskandar, Emad N; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

2014-08-01

166

EPILAB: a software package for studies on the prediction of epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

A Matlab®-based software package, EPILAB, was developed for supporting researchers in performing studies on the prediction of epileptic seizures. It provides an intuitive and convenient graphical user interface. Fundamental concepts that are crucial for epileptic seizure prediction studies were implemented. This includes, for example, the development and statistical validation of prediction methodologies in long-term continuous recordings. Seizure prediction is usually based on electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) signals. EPILAB is able to process both EEG and ECG data stored in different formats. More than 35 time and frequency domain measures (features) can be extracted based on univariate and multivariate data analysis. These features can be post-processed and used for prediction purposes. The predictions may be conducted based on optimized thresholds or by applying classifications methods such as artificial neural networks, cellular neuronal networks, and support vector machines. EPILAB proved to be an efficient tool for seizure prediction, and aims to be a way to communicate, evaluate, and compare results and data among the seizure prediction community. PMID:21763347

Teixeira, C A; Direito, B; Feldwisch-Drentrup, H; Valderrama, M; Costa, R P; Alvarado-Rojas, C; Nikolopoulos, S; Le Van Quyen, M; Timmer, J; Schelter, B; Dourado, A

2011-09-15

167

Why dapsone stops seizures and may stop neutrophils' delivery of VEGF to glioblastoma.  

PubMed

Lopez-Gomez et al. recently published remarkable but mechanistically unexplained empirical evidence that the old antibiotic dapsone has antiepileptic activity. We addressed the question "Why should a sulfone antibiotic reduce seizures?". We report here our conclusions based on data from past studies that seizures are associated with elevated interleukin-8 (IL-8) and that dapsone inhibits IL-8 release and function in several different clinical and experimental contexts. Diverse CNS insults cause an increase in CNS IL-8. Thus, the pro-inflammatory environment generated by increase IL-8 leads to a lower seizure threshold. Together this evidence indicates dapsone exerts anti-seizure activity by diminishing IL-8 signalling. Since IL-8 is clearly upregulated in glioblastoma and contributes to the florid angiogenesis of that disease, and since interference with IL-8 function has been shown to inhibit glioblastoma invasion and growth in several experimental models, and dapsone has been repeatedly been shown to clinically inhibit IL-8 function when used to treat human neutrophilic dermatoses, we believe that dapsone thereby reduces seizures by countering IL-8 function and may similarly retard glioblastoma growth by such anti-IL-8 function. PMID:22551309

Kast, R E; Lefranc, F; Karpel-Massler, G; Halatsch, M-E

2012-12-01

168

Toward new paradigms of seizure detection  

PubMed Central

Great effort has been made toward defining and characterizing the pre-ictal state. Many studies have pursued the idea that there are recognizable electrographic (EEG-based) features that occur before overt clinical seizure activity. However, development of reliable EEG-based seizure detection and prediction algorithms has been difficult. In this review, we discuss the concepts of seizure detection vs. prediction and the pre-ictal “clinical milieu” and “EEG milieu”. We proceed to discuss novel concepts of seizure detection based on the pre-ictal “physiological milieu”; in particular, we indicate some early evidence for the hypothesis that pre-ictal cell swelling/extracellular space constriction can be detected with novel optical methods. Development and validation of optical seizure detection technology could provide an entirely new translational approach for the many patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:23246145

Binder, Devin K.; Haut, Sheryl R.

2012-01-01

169

?-Hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures.  

PubMed

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P; Duntley, Stephen P; Darken, Rachel S

2014-07-15

170

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... brain defects) Brain tumor (rare) Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children) Head injury Heart disease Heat illness ( heat intolerance ) High fever Phenylketonuria (PKU), which ...

171

Neuronal Ensemble Synchrony during Human Focal Seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures are classically characterized as the expression of hypersynchronous neural activity, yet the true degree of synchrony in neuronal spiking (action potentials) during human seizures remains a fundamental question. We quantified the temporal precision of spike synchrony in ensembles of neocortical neurons during seizures in people with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Two seizure types were analyzed: those characterized by sustained gamma (?40–60 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations or by spike-wave complexes (SWCs; ?3 Hz). Fine (<10 ms) temporal synchrony was rarely present during gamma-band seizures, where neuronal spiking remained highly irregular and asynchronous. In SWC seizures, phase locking of neuronal spiking to the SWC spike phase induced synchrony at a coarse 50–100 ms level. In addition, transient fine synchrony occurred primarily during the initial ?20 ms period of the SWC spike phase and varied across subjects and seizures. Sporadic coherence events between neuronal population spike counts and LFPs were observed during SWC seizures in high (?80 Hz) gamma-band and during high-frequency oscillations (?130 Hz). Maximum entropy models of the joint neuronal spiking probability, constrained only on single neurons' nonstationary coarse spiking rates and local network activation, explained most of the fine synchrony in both seizure types. Our findings indicate that fine neuronal ensemble synchrony occurs mostly during SWC, not gamma-band, seizures, and primarily during the initial phase of SWC spikes. Furthermore, these fine synchrony events result mostly from transient increases in overall neuronal network spiking rates, rather than changes in precise spiking correlations between specific pairs of neurons. PMID:25057195

Ahmed, Omar J.; Harrison, Matthew T.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Madsen, Joseph R.; Blum, Andrew S.; Potter, N. Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Cash, Sydney S.

2014-01-01

172

Prevention of epileptic seizures by taurine.  

PubMed

Parenteral injection of kainic acid (KA), a glutamate receptor agonist, causes severe and stereotyped behavioral convulsions in mice and is used as a rodent model for human temporal lobe epilepsy. The goal of this study is to examine the potential anti-convulsive effects of the neuro-active amino acid taurine, in the mouse model of KA-induced limbic seizures. We found that taurine (43 mg/Kg, s.c.) had a significant antiepileptic effect when injected 10 min prior to KA. Acute injection of taurine increased the onset latency and reduced the occurrence of tonic seizures. Taurine also reduced the duration of tonic-clonic convulsions and mortality rate following KA-induced seizures. Furthermore, taurine significantly reduced neuronal cell death in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the most susceptible region to KA in the limbic system. On the other hand, supplementation of taurine in drinking water (0.05%) for 4 continuous weeks failed to decrease the number or latency of partial or tonic-clonic seizures. To the contrary, we found that taurine-fed mice showed increased susceptibility to KA-induced seizures, as demonstrated by a decreased latency for clonic seizures, an increased incidence and duration of tonic-clonic seizures, increased neuronal death in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and a higher post-seizure mortality of the animals. We suggest that the reduced susceptibility to KA-induced seizures in taurine-injected mice is due to an increase in GABA receptor function in the brain which increases the inhibitory drive within the limbic system. This is supported by our in vitro data obtained in primary neuronal cultures showing that taurine acts as a low affinity agonist for GABA(A) receptors, protects neurons against kainate excitotoxic insults and modulates calcium homeostasis. Therefore, taurine is potentially capable of treating seizure-associated brain damage. PMID:12908638

El Idrissi, Abdeslem; Messing, Jeffrey; Scalia, Jason; Trenkner, Ekkhart

2003-01-01

173

Setting the scene: definition of prolonged seizures, acute repetitive seizures, and status epilepticus. Do we know why seizures stop?  

PubMed

Status epilepticus is recognised as an acute emergency requiring urgent intervention. The optimal timing of such an intervention during a prolonged seizure, and the reasons for such, have provided much discussion. For operational purposes, a definition of a prolonged seizure of ?5 minutes requiring intervention appears justified. However, a definition of status epilepticus of ?30 minutes should stand, with the proportion of seizures proceeding to this clinical state remaining small. The reasons for this may be inherent to an individual, but an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the predisposition may lead to improved management pathways in the future. PMID:25322959

Cross, J Helen

2014-10-01

174

Genetic features of oligodendrogliomas and presence of seizures. The relationship of seizures and genetics in LGOs.  

PubMed

Low grade oligodendrogliomas (LGO) are diffusely infiltrating World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas, 20 - 30% of which show contrast enhancement. Seizures are a common presenting feature. It has been suggested that 1p19q co-deletion is associated with occurrence of seizures in adults, however, to date, the relationship of tumor genetics and seizure activity has not been extensively investigated. We sought to assess the influence of 1p19q co-deletion, IDH1-R132H positivity, and radiological variables on seizure activity in LGO patients. Specifically, we examined whether these characteristics were associated with seizure at initial presentation, or if they could predict outcome in terms of seizure free survival. In 62 LGOs, neither tumor location nor tumor enhancement were associated with seizures. 1p19q co-deletion status did not predict seizures when controlled for mutant IDH1-R132H expression, tumor location, or enhancement status (odds ratio (OR) 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 - 4.3). This study, although of limited statistical power, did not demonstrate an association between 1p19q status and seizure occurrence in LGO's. Replication in a larger cohort would further support our hypothesis that 1p19q status alone cannot be used as a reliable predictor of seizure occurrence in LGO's. PMID:24986208

Mulligan, Linda; Ryan, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Margaret; Looby, Seamus; Heffernan, Josephine; O'Sullivan, Joanne; Clarke, Mary; Buckley, Patrick; O'Brien, David; Farrell, Michael; Brett, Francesca Mary

2014-01-01

175

Neonatal seizures: Predictors of adverse outcome  

PubMed Central

Context: Early detection of predictors of adverse outcome will be helpful for neonatologists to plan management, follow up and rehabilitation in advance so that neurological disability can be minimised. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the adverse outcome of neonatal seizures. Settings and Design: This is a prospective study conducted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital. One hundred and eight newborns consecutively admitted with seizures were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Data was collected regarding perinatal history and seizure and evaluated for etiology. We conducted a retrospective analysis to identify the factors associated with adverse outcome after neonatal seizures. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test with degree of freedom = 1 was used to find the variables significantly associated with adverse outcome (P < 0.05). Results: Gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5 min, seizure onset <24 hrs, status epilepticus, radiological findings and EEG findings were significantly associated with outcome. Conclusion: Mortality and severe neurological impairment after neonatal seizure is associated with prematurity, LBW, low Apgar score at 5 min, etiologies like meningitis, sepsis, severe HIE, brain malformations, grade 3 or 4 IVH or intracranial haemorrhage, seizure onset <24 hours, presence of status epilepticus, severely abnormal radiological and EEG findings. PMID:25250059

Anand, Veena; Nair, P. M. C.

2014-01-01

176

The syndrome of partial seizures in infancy.  

PubMed

Partial seizures, the most frequent type of epilepsy at all ages, remain a distinct yet relatively understudied disorder in early life. Their true incidence has not been defined, despite an extremely unfavorable long-term prognosis. They differ from partial seizures presenting later in life in several important aspects and are prone to misdiagnosis because of the difficulties inherent in recognizing subtle seizure manifestations and in assessing level of consciousness in very young patients. Most seizures are symptomatic of assorted prenatally acquired hemispheric insults; perinatal damage and tumors are less common. Video-electroencephalographic studies indicate that the majority of ictal events consist of behavioral arrest, stereotyped automatisms, and motor phenomena. Oroalimentary and gross motor automatisms are frequent, whereas highly organized gestural and behavioral sequences are extremely rare. Lateralized or asymmetric tonic, clonic, and occasional myoclonic motor manifestations characterize the majority of episodes. Pure behavioral arrest is much less common. These seizure patterns imply immaturity of systems responsible for inhibiting access to motor pathways and for organizing motor expression. Ictal and interictal epileptiform discharges are often focal or lateralized but lack age-specific features. Although as a rule partial seizures persist, some individuals display generalized or mixed seizure disorders in later life. PMID:1552154

Duchowny, M

1992-01-01

177

Pediatric Stroke Presenting as a Seizure  

PubMed Central

Background. Childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is rare and may be difficult to diagnose. Management of acute stroke in any age group is time sensitive, so awareness of the manifestations and appropriate diagnostic procedures for pediatric AIS is vital to establishing care. We present a pediatric case of arterial ischemic stroke that presented to the emergency department (ED) after two seizures. Case Report. A five-year-old female with an existing seizure disorder presented to a pediatric ED after having two seizures. Postictal upon arrival, she underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of her head. Family reported that she had complained of a severe headache and vomited; her seizures were described as different from those she had experienced in the past. Loss of grey white matter differentiation on the CT warranted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a right-sided stroke. After a complicated course in the hospital, the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation hospital. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? It is important that emergency physicians recognize that a seizure may be the initial symptom of a pediatric stroke regardless of an established seizure history. Pediatric seizures are relatively common; however consideration of the diagnosis of pediatric stroke may prevent unnecessary delays in treatment. PMID:25587467

Ahmadzadeh, Katie L.; Bhardwaj, Vartika; Johnson, Steven A.; Kane, Kathleen E.

2014-01-01

178

Dynamic Mechanisms of Neocortical Focal Seizure Onset  

PubMed Central

Recent experimental and clinical studies have provided diverse insight into the mechanisms of human focal seizure initiation and propagation. Often these findings exist at different scales of observation, and are not reconciled into a common understanding. Here we develop a new, multiscale mathematical model of cortical electric activity with realistic mesoscopic connectivity. Relating the model dynamics to experimental and clinical findings leads us to propose three classes of dynamical mechanisms for the onset of focal seizures in a unified framework. These three classes are: (i) globally induced focal seizures; (ii) globally supported focal seizures; (iii) locally induced focal seizures. Using model simulations we illustrate these onset mechanisms and show how the three classes can be distinguished. Specifically, we find that although all focal seizures typically appear to arise from localised tissue, the mechanisms of onset could be due to either localised processes or processes on a larger spatial scale. We conclude that although focal seizures might have different patient-specific aetiologies and electrographic signatures, our model suggests that dynamically they can still be classified in a clinically useful way. Additionally, this novel classification according to the dynamical mechanisms is able to resolve some of the previously conflicting experimental and clinical findings. PMID:25122455

Wang, Yujiang; Goodfellow, Marc; Taylor, Peter Neal; Baier, Gerold

2014-01-01

179

Postsynaptic 5-HT1B receptors modulate electroshock-induced generalised seizures in rats.  

PubMed

1. Although an important regulatory role for serotonin (5-HT) in seizure activation and propagation is well established, relatively little is known of the function of specific 5-HT receptor subtypes on seizure modulation. 2. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5-HT(1A, 1B and 1D) receptors in modulating generalised seizures in the rat maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test. 3. The mixed 5-HT receptor agonists SKF 99101 (5-20 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and RU 24969 (1-5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), 0.5 h pretest, both produced marked dose-related increases in seizure threshold. These agents share high affinity for 5-HT(1A, 1B and 1D) receptors. 4. Antiseizure effects induced by submaximal doses of these agonists were maintained following p-chlorophenylalanine (150 mg kg(-1) i.p. x 3 days)-induced 5-HT depletion. 5. The anticonvulsant action of both SKF 99101 (15 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and RU 24969 (2.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was dose-dependently abolished by the selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB-224289 (0.1-3 mg kg(-1) p.o., 3 h pretest) but was unaffected by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (0.01-0.3 mg kg(-1) s.c., 1 h pretest). This indicates that 5-HT1B receptors are primarily involved in mediating the anticonvulsant properties of these agents. 6. In addition, the ability of the 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR 127935 (0.3-3 mg kg(-1) s.c., 60 min pretest) to dose-dependently inhibit SKF 99101-induced elevation of seizure threshold also suggests possible downstream involvement of 5-HT1D receptors in the action of this agonist, although confirmation awaits the identification of a selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist. 7. Overall, these data demonstrate that stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT1B receptors inhibits electroshock-induced seizure spread in rats. PMID:15678098

Stean, Tania O; Atkins, Alan R; Heidbreder, Christian A; Quinn, Leann P; Trail, Brenda K; Upton, Neil

2005-03-01

180

Acute Seizures Predict Epilepsy After Childhood Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine incidence rates and predictors of epilepsy after childhood stroke and compare these to published estimates of 3–5% cumulative epilepsy incidence by five years post-stroke in adults. Methods In a retrospective population-based study of children with stroke (29 days?19 years) in an integrated health care system (1993–2007), post-stroke seizures were identified through electronic searches and confirmed by chart review. Stroke and seizure characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Survival analysis was used to determine rates and predictors of remote seizures and active epilepsy (anti-convulsant treatment for remote seizure within prior 6 months) at last follow-up. Results From a population of 2.5 million children, we identified 305 stroke cases. Over a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range 1.8–6.8), 49 children had a first unprovoked remote seizure. The average annual incidence rate of first remote seizure was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3, 5.8) with a cumulative risk of 16% (CI 12%, 21%) at 5 years and 33% (CI 23%, 46%) at 10 years post-stroke. The cumulative risk of active epilepsy was 13% (CI 9%, 18%) at five years and 30% (CI 20%, 44%) at 10 years. Acute seizures at the time of stroke predicted development of active epilepsy (hazard ratio [HR] 4.2, CI 2.2, 8.1). At last follow-up, one-third of the children with active epilepsy had a recent breakthrough seizure despite anti-convulsant usage. Interpretation Unlike adults, children are uniquely vulnerable to epilepsy after stroke. Children with acute seizures at the time of stroke are at particularly high risk. PMID:23613472

Fox, Christine K.; Glass, Hannah C.; Sidney, Stephen; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Fullerton, Heather J.

2013-01-01

181

Morphological Characteristics of Brain Tumors Causing Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify size and localization differences between tumors presenting with seizures vs nonseizure neurological symptoms. Design Retrospective imaging survey. We performed magnetic resonance imaging–based morphometric analysis and nonparametric mapping in patients with brain tumors. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Patients or Other Participants One hundred twenty-four patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glial tumors. Main Outcome Measures Volumetric and mapping methods were used to evaluate differences in size and location of the tumors in patients who presented with seizures as compared with patients who presented with other symptoms. Results In high-grade gliomas, tumors presenting with seizures were smaller than tumors presenting with other neurological symptoms, whereas in low-grade gliomas, tumors presenting with seizures were larger. Tumor location maps revealed that in high-grade gliomas, deep-seated tumors in the pericallosal regions were more likely to present with nonseizure neurological symptoms. In low-grade gliomas, tumors of the temporal lobe as well as the insular region were more likely to present with seizures. Conclusions The influence of size and location of the tumors on their propensity to cause seizures varies with the grade of the tumor. In high-grade gliomas, rapidly growing tumors, particularly those situated in deeper structures, present with non–seizure-related symptoms. In low-grade gliomas, lesions in the temporal lobe or the insula grow large without other symptoms and eventually cause seizures. Quantitative image analysis allows for the mapping of regions in each group that are more or less susceptible to seizures. PMID:20212231

Lee, Jong Woo; Wen, Patrick Y.; Hurwitz, Shelley; Black, Peter; Kesari, Santosh; Drappatz, Jan; Golby, Alexandra J.; Wells, William M.; Warfield, Simon K.; Kikinis, Ron; Bromfield, Edward B.

2010-01-01

182

Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

2014-01-01

183

Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control  

SciTech Connect

The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

2009-07-02

184

Inter-modality comparisons of seizure focus lateralization in complex partial seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior temporal lobectomy offers a high chance of seizure-free outcome in patients suffering from drug-refractory complex partial seizure (CPS) originating from the temporal lobe. Other than EEG, several functional and morphologic imaging methods are used to define the spatial seizure origin. The present study was undertaken to compare the merits of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetic resonance imaging

Philipp T. Meyer; Anabel Cortés-Blanco; Michael Pourdehnad; Igor Levy-Reis; Lisa Desiderio; Sunyoung Jang; Abass Alavi

2001-01-01

185

Leaving tissue associated with infrequent intracranial EEG seizure onsets is compatible with post-operative seizure freedom  

PubMed Central

Identify seizure onset electrodes that need to be resected for seizure freedom in children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography recording for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. All children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography subdural grid electrode placement at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from 2002-2008 were asked to enroll. We utilized intraoperative pictures to determine the location of the electrodes and define the resection cavity. A total of 15 patients had surgical fields that allowed for complete identification of the electrodes over the area of resection. Eight of 15 patients were seizure free after a follow up of 1.7 to 8 yr. Only one seizure-free patient had complete resection of all seizure onset associated tissue. Seizure free patients had resection of 64.1% of the seizure onset electrode associated tissue, compared to 35.2% in the not seizure free patients (p=0.05). Resection of tissue associated with infrequent seizure onsets did not appear to be important for seizure freedom. Resecting ? 90% of the electrodes from the predominant seizure contacts predicted post-operative seizure freedom (p=0.007). The best predictor of seizure freedom was resecting ? 90% of tissue involved in majority of a patient’s seizures. Resection of tissue under infrequent seizure onset electrodes was not necessary for seizure freedom. PMID:24563805

Huang, Cyrus; Marsh, Eric D.; Ziskind, Daniela M.; Celix, Juanita M.; Peltzer, Bradley; Brown, Merritt W.; Storm, Phillip B.; Litt, Brian; Porter, Brenda E.

2013-01-01

186

Seizure Susceptibility and Epileptogenesis in a Rat Model of Epilepsy and Depression Co-Morbidity  

PubMed Central

Although a strong co-morbidity exists clinically between epilepsy and depression, the cause of this co-morbidity remains unknown, and a valid animal model is crucial for the identification of underlying mechanisms and the development of a screening tool for novel therapies. Although some rodent models of epilepsy have been reported to display behaviors relevant to affective disorders, the seizure susceptibility of animals prone to depression-like behavior has not been characterized. Toward this end, we assessed several forms of seizure sensitivity and epileptogenesis in rats selectively bred for vulnerability (Swim Lo-Active; SwLo) or resilience (Swim High-Active; SwHi) to depression-like phenotypes. The SwLo rats exhibit decreased motor activity in a swim test and other depression-like phenotypes, whereas the SwHi rats display increased motor activity in a swim test. SwLo rats exhibited a decreased latency to limbic motor seizures following acute pilocarpine administration in the absence of differences in pilocarpine pharmacokinetics, and also had a decreased threshold to tonic seizures induced by electroshock. Approximately half of the SwLo rats, but none of the SwHi rats, had spontaneous limbic motor seizures 5 weeks following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. While the number of stimulations required to achieve full amygdala and hippocampal electrical kindling were similar in the two rat lines, SwLo rats had a lower final hippocampal kindling threshold and more wet dog shakes during both amygdala and hippocampal kindling. Combined, these results indicate that SwLo rats are a model of epilepsy and depression co-morbidity that can be used for investigating underlying neurobiological and genetic mechanisms and screening novel therapeutics. PMID:22871911

Epps, S Alisha; Tabb, Kroshona D; Lin, Sharon J; Kahn, Alexa B; Javors, Martin A; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Weiss, Jay M; Weinshenker, David

2012-01-01

187

Brain Energy Metabolism During Experimental Neonatal Seizures  

E-print Network

produces neuronal death in the immature brain. Neuroscienceinduced neuronal death in the immature brain. In: Sutula T,death [1, 9, 10, 35, 43], and seizures take far longer to generate adverse effects in the developing brain

Wasterlain, Claude G.; Thompson, Kerry W.; Suchomelova, Lucie; Niquet, Jerome

2010-01-01

188

Analysis of Epileptic Seizures with Complex Network  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a disease of abnormal neural activities involving large area of brain networks. Until now the nature of functional brain network associated with epilepsy is still unclear. Recent researches indicate that the small world or scale-free attributes and the occurrence of highly clustered connection patterns could represent a general organizational principle in the human brain functional network. In this paper, we seek to find whether the small world or scale-free property of brain network is correlated with epilepsy seizure formation. A mass neural model was adopted to generate multiple channel EEG recordings based on regular, small world, random, and scale-free network models. Whether the connection patterns of cortical networks are directly associated with the epileptic seizures was investigated. The results showed that small world and scale-free cortical networks are highly correlated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures. In particular, the property of small world network is more significant during the epileptic seizures. PMID:25147576

Ni, Yan; Wang, Yinghua; Yu, Tao; Li, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

189

If I Had - My First Seizure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... relate to problems that can occur in the brain. Have you been having headaches recently? Fevers? Did ... A history of encephalitis? Anything that can affect brain function, might be related to having a seizure. ...

190

Patient-specific seizure onset detection  

E-print Network

Approximately one percent of the world's population exhibits symptoms of epilepsy, a serious disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes those affected to experiencing recurrent seizures. The risk of injury ...

Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

2003-01-01

191

Childhood insulinoma masquerading as seizure disorder.  

PubMed

A 9 year old girl presented with seizures, weight gain and early morning behavioural changes. She had been commenced on anticonvulsants and was subsequently diagnosed with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. This case demonstrates the importance of blood glucose monitoring in children presenting with new-onset seizures and/or with early morning or fasting behavioural changes, the challenges in localizing the lesion, as well as the difficulties in achieving normoglycaemia prior to, and immediately following, surgery. PMID:24698060

Kao, Kung-Ting; Simm, Peter J; Brown, Justin

2014-04-01

192

Alcohol-Related Seizures in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol abuse is a common cause of seizures resulting in admission to the intensive care unit. The cause of the alcohol-related\\u000a seizures (ARS) is usually abstinence in a chronic alcoholic, although some patients may still have detectable levels of alcohol\\u000a in their blood. ARS generally occur between 7 and 48 h after abstinence. Approximately half of patients presenting with ARS

Zachary Webb

193

Electrolyte Disturbances and Critical Care Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electrolyte disturbances in the ICU are extremely common. The electrolyte disorder most commonly associated with seizure is\\u000a hyponatremia, although extremely low Mg2+, phosphate, and both very low and high Ca2+ values can cause seizures. Critical care physicians must be vigilant to suspect and identify electrolyte disturbances in\\u000a their patients, because a growing amount of information suggests that they are a

Jenice Robinson; Jose I. Suarez

194

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Sleep, and Seizures.  

PubMed

Working hypothesis: benign febrile seizures seen in 7% of infants before 6 months play a role in the terminal pathway in a subset of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Supporting evidence: (1) lack of 5-hydroxitryptamine, one consistent finding in sudden infant death syndrome that Kinney et al coined a developmental serotonopathy, is consistent with risk for seizures. (2) Non-rapid eye movement sleep increasing during the age of highest risk for sudden infant death syndrome facilitates some seizures (seizure gate). (3) Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is associated with severe hypoxemia and hypercapnia during postictal generalized electroencephalographic (EEG) suppression. In toddlers, sudden unexplained deaths are associated with hippocampal abnormalities and some seizures. (4) The sudden nature of both deaths warrants an exploration of similarities in the terminal pathway. Moreover, sudden infant death syndrome, febrile seizures, sudden unexplained death in childhood, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy share some of the following risk factors: prone sleeping, infections, hyperthermia, preterm birth, male gender, maternal smoking, and mutations in genes that regulate sodium channels. State-of-the-art molecular studies can be exploited to test this hypothesis. PMID:25300988

Hoppenbrouwers, Toke

2014-10-01

195

Ontogenetic studies of seizure patterns and seizure activities induced by cortical focus.  

PubMed

Ontogenetic studies of epileptogenic process were carried out in albino rats ranging in age from birth to 45 days. Experimental epilepsy was produced by two different procedures and the results were compared with each other. Tungstic acid gel was applied to the motor area of the left side of the cortex, and the following results were obtained. The latency of the seizure appearance was long during 10 days after birth, became progressively short thereafter and reached the minimum in about 20 days of age, and gradually returned to the adult level again by 45 days of age. No abvvious seizure was exhibited until five days of age. Seizure patterns developed from tonic or twitch-like jerky convulsion (10 days old) to rhythmic or clonic type of seizure (13 days old), and the seizure patterns similar to those in the adult rat were observed in about 20 days of age. Cortical seizure activity was initially observed in about 10-day-old rats; single high amplitude slow wave appeared and small spikes became superimposed on it in the course of maturation. Atypical spike and wave complexes were observed after 20 days of age. Electrical stimulation was applied to the left cortical motor area by constant current stimulator, and the following seizure patterns were observed: No obvious seizure could be elicited in newborn rat, whereas from three days of age, tonic seizure of the whole body, and from seven days old twitch-like convulsion of extremities were observed. In ages from 10 to 20 days, seizure induced by electrical stimulation was mainly tonic in pattern; extension of forelimbs and flexion of hindlimbs in most cases were observed before 13 days old, but both fore-and hindlimbs were extended therafter. Tonic-clonic seizure patterns were exhibited after 20 days of age. From these results, it was considered that tonic convulsions and high voltage slow cortical seizure activites were produced from the activites of the local cortical neuronal connections, and rhythmic and/or clonic seizure patterns and spike and wave seizure activities were elicited from the more complex, i.e. cortico-subcortical neuronal circuits. Possible contributing factors for the determination of seizure susceptibility in immautre rats were also discussed. PMID:992511

Yamauchi, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Mohri, Y; Kataoka, N

1976-01-01

196

Analyzing reliability of seizure diagnosis based on semiology.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the accuracy of seizure diagnosis by semiological analysis and to assess the factors that affect diagnostic reliability. A total of 150 video clips of seizures from 50 patients (each with three seizures of the same type) were observed by eight epileptologists, 12 neurologists, and 20 physicians (internists). The videos included 37 series of epileptic seizures, eight series of physiologic nonepileptic events (PNEEs), and five series of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). After observing each video, the doctors chose the diagnosis of epileptic seizures or nonepileptic events for the patient; if the latter was chosen, they further chose the diagnosis of PNESs or PNEEs. The overall diagnostic accuracy rate for epileptic seizures and nonepileptic events increased from 0.614 to 0.660 after observations of all three seizures (p<0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of epileptic seizures were 0.770 and 0.808, respectively, for the epileptologists. These values were significantly higher than those for the neurologists (0.660 and 0.699) and physicians (0.588 and 0.658). A wide range of diagnostic accuracy was found across the various seizures types. An accuracy rate of 0.895 for generalized tonic-clonic seizures was the highest, followed by 0.800 for dialeptic seizures and then 0.760 for automotor seizures. The accuracy rates for myoclonic seizures (0.530), hypermotor seizures (0.481), gelastic/dacrystic seizures (0.438), and PNESs (0.430) were poor. The reliability of semiological diagnosis of seizures is greatly affected by the seizure type as well as the doctor's experience. Although the overall reliability is limited, it can be improved by observing more seizures. PMID:25461215

Jin, Bo; Wu, Han; Xu, Jiahui; Yan, Jianwei; Ding, Yao; Wang, Z Irene; Guo, Yi; Wang, Zhongjin; Shen, Chunhong; Chen, Zhong; Ding, Meiping; Wang, Shuang

2014-12-01

197

Monitor for status epilepticus seizures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

1994-01-01

198

Pseudoepileptic seizures: methods and video analysis to aid diagnosis.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to obtain a detailed description of the clinical features of pseudoepileptic (PE) seizures, to try to reproduce these events in the laboratory during a single recording, and to establish a framework useful to the clinician for evaluating patients whose behavior suggests physiological seizures, but about which doubt remains. We analyzed 37 episodes of PE seizures recorded in 30 patients during a single three-hour video/EEG recording. The PE seizures occurred spontaneously or were induced by sequential activation procedures. The historical information together with behavioral observations show that the PE seizures mimicked primary generalized seizures in 15 episodes, elementary partial seizures with secondary generalization in 21 episodes, and complex partial seizures in a single episode. Our data underscore the usefulness of the video/EEG recording method and suggest activation techniques which, combined with detailed historical information, aid in establishing the diagnosis of PE seizures. PMID:6817695

Luther, J S; McNamara, J O; Carwile, S; Miller, P; Hope, V

1982-11-01

199

Seizures and Teens: Surgery for Seizures--What's It All About?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 1 out of 2 children and teens with seizures may need to take medications throughout their lives. At least 25% will develop a condition called refractory epilepsy--meaning that their seizures do not respond to medical therapy. For these children and teens, non-drug therapies such as brain surgery are available that may offer a chance to…

Duchowny, Michael S.; Dean, Patricia

2006-01-01

200

A synthetic bioisoster of trimethadione and phenytoin elicits anticonvulsant effect, protects the brain oxidative damage produced by seizures and exerts antidepressant action in mice.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is recognized as one of the most common and serious neurological disorder affecting 1-2% of the world?s population. The present study demonstrates that systemic administration of 3-butyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,2,3-oxathiazolidine-4-one-2,2-dioxide (DIOXIDE), a synthetic compound bioisoster of trimethadione and phenytoin (classical anticonvulsants), elicits a dose dependent anticonvulsant response in mice submitted to the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure test (scPTZ). Among various factors supposed to play role in epilepsy, oxidative stress and reactive species have strongly emerged. The protection exerted by DIOXIDE over the extent of brain oxidative damage produced by PTZ was determined, by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione and the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Psychiatric disorders represent frequent comorbidities in persons with epilepsy. In this report, the potential anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of DIOXIDE were evaluated in several widely used models for assessing anxiolytic and antidepressant activities in rodents. Although DIOXIDE did not evidence anxiolytic activity at the doses tested, it revealed a significant antidepressant-like effect. Preliminary studies of its mechanism of action, by means of its capacity to act via the GABAA receptor (using the [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding assay in vitro and the picrotoxin test in vivo) and the Na(+) channel (using the alkaloid veratrine, a voltage-Na(+) channel agonist) demonstrated that the anticonvulsant effect is not likely related to the GABAergic pathway and the antidepressant-like effect could be due to its Na(+) channel blocking properties. The results for DIOXIDE suggested it as a new anticonvulsant-antioxidant and antidepressant compound that deserves further development. PMID:24846538

Pastore, Valentina; Wasowski, Cristina; Higgs, Josefina; Mangialavori, Irene C; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E; Marder, Mariel

2014-08-01

201

Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. PMID:25174001

Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

2014-08-01

202

Anatomic correlates of interhippocampal seizure propagation time.  

PubMed

The relation between interhippocampal seizure propagation time (IHSPT) and anatomic alterations in the human epileptic hippocampus may provide insight into the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Using depth electrode recordings, we measured the time required for spontaneous seizures with onset in one hippocampus to become manifest in the contralateral hippocampus in 50 patients who underwent resection of the temporal lobe of seizure origin. Cell densities in individual hippocampal subfields were determined and correlated with mean IHSPT for each patient. Mean IHSPT was significantly and inversely correlated with cell counts in CA4 only (r = -0.38, p less than 0.01, Pearson's product correlation; r = -0.52, p less than 0.001, Spearman's rank order correlation). In 5 patients with bilateral independent hippocampal seizure onset who had temporal lobectomy and a diagnosis of mesial temporal sclerosis, mean IHSPT was consistently longer from the sclerotic temporal lobe than to it. These observations suggest that anatomic changes associated with chronic epilepsy alter propagation patterns. Because CA4 is believed to modulate the output of dentate granule cells and also has commissural connections to the contralateral homotopic area, the association of decreased CA4 cells with prolongation of IHSPT suggests that the observed anatomic alterations may actively (through increased inhibition) or passively (through decreased recruitment) interfere with various routes of seizure propagation. PMID:1396429

Spencer, S S; Marks, D; Katz, A; Kim, J; Spencer, D D

1992-01-01

203

Seizure susceptibility of the pregnant mouse.  

PubMed

The effect of pregnancy on chemically-induced seizures in mice was studied. Latencies to myoclonic and clonic seizures induced by inhalation of flurothyl were significantly reduced at days 12 through 18 of gestation. Parturition resulted in a return of seizure susceptibility to control levels. The possibility that this effect might be mediated by decreased neurotransmitter levels subsequent to the decreased vitamin B6 levels which are known to occur during pregnancy was suggested. A pregnancy-associated liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (pi-AlDH) utilized pyridoxal as a substrate, and the peak of pi-AlDH activity was shown to coincide with the peak of seizure susceptibility. The activity of aldehyde oxidase, the major enzyme normally responsible for the metabolism of pyridoxal, was reduced in pregnant animals. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthesizing enzymes, pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase, were marginally increased in activity during pregnancy. It was suggested that the increased activity of pi-AlDH was indirectly responsible for the increased seizure susceptibility due to increased metabolism of pyridoxal. PMID:7122672

Smolen, A; Smolen, T N; Collins, A C

1982-07-01

204

78 FR 3079 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers who have a history of epilepsy/ seizures, off anti-seizure...Pennsylvania. He has a history of epilepsy. His last seizure was in 1982...Pennsylvania. He has a diagnosis of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy. His last seizure was in...

2013-01-15

205

[Panic attacks simulated by occipital lobe seizures].  

PubMed

Eleven-year-old Stephanie was admitted to a child and adolescent psychiatry day hospital with symptoms of an anxiety and panic disorder, and compulsive and self-harmful behavior. The patient described detailed threatening scenic sequences that caused her to feel panicky. They symptoms could be classified as epilepsy with visually dominated seizures of the occipital lobe. In addition to pharmacological treatment with oxcabazepine, extensive multimodal interventions as part of the child and adolescent psychiatric day hospital treatment program helped all family members to understand and handle the seizures. Eight weeks after initiation of treatment, Stephanie was seizure-free. Complex partial epilepsy can be mistaken for primary child-psychiatric disorder. PMID:19415605

Stolle, Martin; Sieben, Claudia; Püst, Burkhard

2009-05-01

206

Seizure Reduction with Fluoxetine in Dravet Syndrome  

PubMed Central

An adult woman with Dravet syndrome (documented SCN1A mutation) experienced a marked reduction in seizures when treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. The seizure reduction may be partly to reductions associated with aging in Dravet patients, but it appears to be due at least in part to the fluoxetine. A prior preliminary study reported that fenfluramine reduces seizures in patients with Dravet syndrome. Fenfluramine may produce this effect by increasing serotonin brain levels, and SSRIs have been found to possess antiepileptic properties in animal models of epilepsy. Given the known cardiac risks of fenfluramine, consideration of randomized clinical trials with SSRIs should be considered in Dravet syndrome and other epilepsies. PMID:24955329

Meador, Kimford J.

2014-01-01

207

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2011-04-01

208

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2012-04-01

209

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2014-04-01

210

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2013-04-01

211

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101 Section 12.101 Customs...SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. (a) Importations contrary to...

2010-04-01

212

Continuous assessment of epileptic seizures with wrist-worn biosensors  

E-print Network

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized predominantly by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The apprehension about injury, or even death, resulting from a seizure often overshadows the ...

Poh, Ming-Zher

2011-01-01

213

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2011-04-01

214

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2010-04-01

215

Research Report Modeling seizure-related behavioral and endocrine  

E-print Network

Research Report Modeling seizure-related behavioral and endocrine phenotypes in adult zebrafish lower cortisol levels. Paralleling behavioral and endocrine phenotypes observed in clinical and rodent neurological disorder char- acterized by recurrent seizures, pathological brain hyperactivity and imbalances

Kalueff, Allan V.

216

Pseudoepileptic seizures in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Eighteen patients ranging in age from 4 to 20 years who were seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1970 through 1976 for suspected epilepsy were studied. Seventeen of these patients had previously been treated with anticonvulsant medication, and the majority had been subjected to multiple diagnostic procedures. After careful analysis of their histories, clinical examinations, and appropriate laboratory studies, their seizures appeared to be nonepileptic in nature. Various psychogenic and other nonorganic causes were identified. These cases are presented to alert the physician to the not infrequent occurrence of pseudoepileptic seizures in children and adolescents who do not have epilepsy. PMID:762998

Finlayson, R E; Lucas, A R

1979-02-01

217

Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

2004-03-01

218

Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in clinical expression, as evidenced, for example, by studies of ictal fear-related behavior (decorrelation of activity between structures inducing "release" phenomena) and of déjŕ vu (increased synchronization). Studies of functional coupling within networks underlying complex ictal behavior indicate that the clinical semiology of a given seizure depends upon neither the anatomical origin of ictal discharge nor the target areas of its propagation alone but on the dynamic interaction between these. Careful mapping of the ictal network in its full spread offers essential information as to the localization of seizure onset, by deducing that a given network configuration could only be generated by a given area or group of areas. PMID:24424286

Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

2014-09-01

219

The use of methylamphetamine chemical profiling in an intelligence-led perspective and the observation of inhomogeneity within seizures.  

PubMed

This study focuses on methylamphetamine (MA) seizures made by the Australian Federal Police (AFP) to investigate the use of chemical profiling in an intelligence perspective. Correlation coefficients were used to obtain a similarity degree between a population of linked samples and a population of unlinked samples. Although it was demonstrated that a general framework can be followed for the use of any forensic case data in an intelligence-led perspective, threshold values have to be re-evaluated for each type of illicit drug investigated. Unlike the results obtained in a previous study on 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) seizures, chemical profiles of MA samples coming from the same seizure showed relative inhomogeneity, limiting their ability to link seizures. Different hypotheses were investigated to obtain a better understanding of this inhomogeneity although no trend was observed. These findings raise an interesting discussion in regards to the homogeneity and representativeness of illicit drug seizures (for intelligence purposes). Further, it also provides some grounds to discuss the initial hypotheses and assumptions that most forensic science studies are based on. PMID:25460106

Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Ribaux, Olivier; Kirkbride, K Paul; Roux, Claude

2015-01-01

220

Remote effects of focal hippocampal seizures on the rat neocortex  

PubMed Central

Seizures have both local and remote effects on nervous system function. While propagated seizures are known to disrupt cerebral activity, little work has been done on remote network effects of seizures that do not propagate. Human focal temporal lobe seizures demonstrate remote changes including slow waves on electroencephalography (EEG) and decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the neocortex. Ictal neocortical slow waves have been interpreted as seizure propagation, however we hypothesize that they reflect a depressed cortical state resembling sleep or coma. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed multi-modal studies of partial and secondarily-generalized limbic seizures in rats. Video/EEG monitoring of spontaneous seizures revealed slow waves in the frontal cortex during behaviorally mild partial seizures, contrasted with fast poly-spike activity during convulsive generalized seizures. Seizures induced by hippocampal stimulation produced a similar pattern, and were used to perform functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) weighted for blood oxygenation (BOLD) and blood volume (CBV), demonstrating increased signals in hippocampus, thalamus and septum, but decreases in orbitofrontal, cingulate, and retrosplenial cortex during partial seizures; and increases in all these regions during propagated seizures. Combining these results with neuronal recordings and CBF measurements, we related neocortical slow waves to reduced neuronal activity and cerebral metabolism during partial seizures, but found increased neuronal activity and metabolism during propagated seizures. These findings suggest that ictal neocortical slow waves represent an altered cortical state of depressed function, not propagated seizure activity. This remote effect of partial seizures may cause impaired cerebral functions, including loss of consciousness. PMID:18768701

Englot, Dario J.; Mishra, Asht M.; Mansuripur, Peter K.; Herman, Peter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

2008-01-01

221

Seizures in Fulminant Hepatic Failure, Multiorgan Failure, and Endocrine Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fulminant hepatic failure and other causes of multiorgan dysfunction can be associated with seizures. These seizures can be\\u000a convulsive or nonconvulsive, and may significantly affect the pathobiology of the patient’s critical condition. The use of\\u000a continuous electroencephalography has become very ­important in the identification and treatment of seizures in critically\\u000a ill patients with hepatic or other metabolic disorders. Seizures arise

Andrew Beaumont; Paul M. Vespa

222

Psychogenic seizures mimicking juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two patients with psychogenic seizures of rare semiology. Both patients (a 23-year-old man and a 26-year-old woman) attended the emergency department because status epilepticus with myoclonic seizures had been diagnosed. Seizures were documented with video-electroencephalography. Semiology of seizures were brief myoclonia of both arms resulting in a short elevation of both arms without impairment of consciousness. Ictal EEG

J. Bauer; C. E. Elger

2001-01-01

223

Mechanisms of Seizure Propagation in 2-Dimensional Centre-Surround Recurrent Networks  

PubMed Central

Understanding how seizures spread throughout the brain is an important problem in the treatment of epilepsy, especially for implantable devices that aim to avert focal seizures before they spread to, and overwhelm, the rest of the brain. This paper presents an analysis of the speed of propagation in a computational model of seizure-like activity in a 2-dimensional recurrent network of integrate-and-fire neurons containing both excitatory and inhibitory populations and having a difference of Gaussians connectivity structure, an approximation to that observed in cerebral cortex. In the same computational model network, alternative mechanisms are explored in order to simulate the range of seizure-like activity propagation speeds (0.1–100 mm/s) observed in two animal-slice-based models of epilepsy: (1) low extracellular , which creates excess excitation and (2) introduction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonists, which reduce inhibition. Moreover, two alternative connection topologies are considered: excitation broader than inhibition, and inhibition broader than excitation. It was found that the empirically observed range of propagation velocities can be obtained for both connection topologies. For the case of the GABA antagonist model simulation, consistent with other studies, it was found that there is an effective threshold in the degree of inhibition below which waves begin to propagate. For the case of the low extracellular model simulation, it was found that activity-dependent reductions in inhibition provide a potential explanation for the emergence of slowly propagating waves. This was simulated as a depression of inhibitory synapses, but it may also be achieved by other mechanisms. This work provides a localised network understanding of the propagation of seizures in 2-dimensional centre-surround networks that can be tested empirically. PMID:23967201

Hall, David; Kuhlmann, Levin

2013-01-01

224

Nonconvulsive seizures are common in critically ill children  

PubMed Central

Background: Retrospective studies have reported the occurrence of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill children. We aimed to prospectively determine the incidence and risk factors of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill children using predetermined EEG monitoring indications and EEG interpretation terminology. Methods: Critically ill children (non-neonates) with acute encephalopathy underwent continuous EEG monitoring if they met institutional clinical practice criteria. Study enrollment and data collection were prospective. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to identify risk factors for seizure occurrence. Results: One hundred children were evaluated. Electrographic seizures occurred in 46 and electrographic status epilepticus occurred in 19. Seizures were exclusively nonconvulsive in 32. The only clinical risk factor for seizure occurrence was younger age (p = 0.03). Of patients with seizures, only 52% had seizures detected in the first hour of monitoring, while 87% were detected within 24 hours. Conclusions: Seizures were common in critically ill children with acute encephalopathy. Most were nonconvulsive. Clinical features had little predictive value for seizure occurrence. Further study is needed to confirm these data in independent high-risk populations, to clarify which children are at highest risk for seizures so limited monitoring resources can be allocated optimally, and to determine whether seizure detection and management improves outcome. PMID:21307352

Gutierrez-Colina, A.M.; Topjian, A.A.; Zhao, H.; Guo, R.; Donnelly, M.; Clancy, R.R.; Dlugos, D.J.

2011-01-01

225

Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures  

PubMed Central

Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. Fifty-five percent of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients' reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time. PMID:24592228

Greyson, Bruce; Fountain, Nathan B.; Derr, Lori L.; Broshek, Donna K.

2014-01-01

226

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2011-04-01

227

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2010-04-01

228

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2010-07-01

229

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2010-04-01

230

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2010-01-01

231

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2011-01-01

232

Symptoms of Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seizures are more common in individuals with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. As a result, differences in functioning for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures have been evaluated. Research on differences in psychopathology for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures

Fitzgerald, Mary E.; Matson, Johnny L.; Barker, Alyse

2011-01-01

233

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2011-07-01

234

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2010-01-01

235

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2011-01-01

236

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2011-04-01

237

Dental injury during seizures associated with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Patients can sustain injuries during seizures and the pattern and type of injury (eg, tongue biting) can be a useful silent witness in the diagnosis of seizures. In addition, the seizure type potentially influences the type of injury.Methods:Patients with dental injury were identified from the Gloucestershire Epilepsy Database (n = 1673). These patients’ notes were reviewed and the following data

R H Thomas; S Higgins; G N Fuller

2009-01-01

238

Acute and chronic effects of agomelatine on intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure in mice and the probable role of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist as well as a 5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. It was approved by the European Medicines Agency as an antidepressant drug in year 2009. On the other hand, the involvement of melatonin and serotonin receptors in the modulation of seizure threshold has been demonstrated previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agomelatine on penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold in male mice. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of acute (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. and chronic (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg, p.o., once a day, for 7 days) agomelatine administration on mouse model of intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure. For evaluation of nitrergic system involvement in the anticonvulsant effect of agomelatine, co-administration of multiple nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors [L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, (5 mg/kg, p.o.), aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or 7-nitroindazol, a selective nNOS inhibitor, (60 mg/kg, p.o.)] and agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) were examined. In acute study, agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure threshold compared to control group (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively). In chronic study, agomelatine had no effect on clonic seizure threshold compared with control mice. Co-administration of L-NAME, aminoguanidine or 7-nitroindazol with agomelatine (50 and 75 mg/kg) prevented a agomelatine-induced anti-convulsant effect. Our results suggest that agomelatine has anticonvulsant activity in intravenous penthylenetetrazol-induced seizure in acute therapy and this effect can be at least in part due to iNOS or nNOS induction. PMID:24803306

Dastgheib, Mona; Moezi, Leila

2014-08-01

239

David et al.: Seizure onset zone imaging Imaging the seizure onset zone with stereo-electroencephalography  

E-print Network

with stereo-electroencephalography Olivier David a,b,c,* , Thomas Blauwblomme d , Anne-Sophie Job e , Stéphan zone imaging 2 ABSTRACT Stereo-electroencephalography is used to localise the seizure onset

Boyer, Edmond

240

Threshold quantum cryptography  

SciTech Connect

We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.

Tokunaga, Yuuki [NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847 (Japan); Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Okamoto, Tatsuaki [NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847 (Japan); Imoto, Nobuyuki [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2005-01-01

241

Neonatal seizures: soothing a burning topic.  

PubMed

Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia and present the case of a 6-day-old male infant who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis. PMID:24084610

Thornton, Matthew D; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L

2013-10-01

242

Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope through Research  

MedlinePLUS

... may even improve seizure control in some people. Sports are often such a positive factor in life that it is best for the person to participate, although the person with epilepsy ... to avoid potential sports-related problems such as dehydration, overexertion, and hypoglycemia, ...

243

Neonatal Seizures: Soothing a Burning Topic  

PubMed Central

Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia, and present the case of a 6 day old male who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis. PMID:24084610

Thornton, Matthew D.; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L.

2013-01-01

244

Seizure Management for School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

Frueh, Eileen

2008-01-01

245

Oxygen and seizure dynamics: I. Experiments.  

PubMed

We utilized a novel ratiometric nanoquantum dot fluorescence resonance energy transfer (NQD-FRET) optical sensor to quantitatively measure oxygen dynamics from single cell microdomains during hypoxic episodes as well as during 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced spontaneous seizure-like events in rat hippocampal slices. Coupling oxygen sensing with electrical recordings, we found the greatest reduction in the O2 concentration ([O2]) in the densely packed cell body stratum (st.) pyramidale layer of the CA1 and differential layer-specific O2 dynamics between the st. pyramidale and st. oriens layers. These hypoxic decrements occurred up to several seconds before seizure onset could be electrically measured extracellularly. Without 4-AP, we quantified a narrow range of [O2], similar to the endogenous hypoxia found before epileptiform activity, which permits a quiescent network to enter into a seizure-like state. We demonstrated layer-specific patterns of O2 utilization accompanying layer-specific neuronal interplay in seizure. None of the oxygen overshoot artifacts seen with polarographic measurement techniques were observed. We therefore conclude that endogenously generated hypoxia may be more than just a consequence of increased cellular excitability but an influential and critical factor for orchestrating network dynamics associated with epileptiform activity. PMID:24598521

Ingram, Justin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Cressman, John R; Hazra, Anupam; Wei, Yina; Koo, Yong-Eun; Žiburkus, Jok?bas; Kopelman, Raoul; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J

2014-07-15

246

Distribution of partial seizures during the sleep-wake cycle Differences by seizure onset site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article abstract—Objective: To evaluate the effects of sleep on partial seizures arising from various brain regions. Methods: The authors prospectively studied 133 patients with localization-related epilepsy undergoing video-EEG moni- toring over a 2-year period. Seizure type, site of onset, sleep\\/wake state at onset, duration, and epilepsy syndrome diagnosis were recorded. Periorbital, chin EMG, and scalp\\/sphenoidal electrodes were used. A subset

S. T. Herman; T. S. Walczak; C. W. Bazil

247

Reduction of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in awake rats by seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation.  

PubMed

Stimulation of the vagus nerve has become an effective method for desynchronizing the highly coherent neural activity typically associated with epileptic seizures. This technique has been used in several animal models of seizures as well as in humans suffering from epilepsy. However, application of this technique has been limited to unilateral stimulation of the vagus nerve, typically delivered according to a fixed duty cycle, independently of whether ongoing seizure activity is present. Here, we report that stimulation of another cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, can also cause cortical and thalamic desynchronization, resulting in a reduction of seizure activity in awake rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that providing this stimulation only when seizure activity begins results in more effective and safer seizure reduction per second of stimulation than with previous methods. Seizure activity induced by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole was recorded from microwire electrodes in the thalamus and cortex of awake rats while the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve was stimulated via a chronically implanted nerve cuff electrode. Continuous unilateral stimulation of the trigeminal nerve reduced electrographic seizure activity by up to 78%, and bilateral trigeminal stimulation was even more effective. Using a device that automatically detects seizure activity in real time on the basis of multichannel field potential signals, we demonstrated that seizure-triggered stimulation was more effective than the stimulation protocol involving a fixed duty cycle, in terms of the percent seizure reduction per second of stimulation. In contrast to vagus nerve stimulation studies, no substantial cardiovascular side effects were observed by unilateral or bilateral stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. These findings suggest that trigeminal nerve stimulation is safe in awake rats and should be evaluated as a therapy for human seizures. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation is technically feasible and could be further developed, in conjunction with real-time seizure-predicting paradigms, to prevent seizures and reduce exposure to nerve stimulation. PMID:11050139

Fanselow, E E; Reid, A P; Nicolelis, M A

2000-11-01

248

Generalized-onset seizures with secondary focal evolution.  

PubMed

The international seizure classification recognizes that partial-onset seizures can become secondarily generalized, but generalized-onset seizures are expected to remain generalized. We report six patients who had recorded seizures with generalized onset, but subsequent evolution into a focal discharge. The clinical seizure onset was generalized absence or myoclonic, and the most common subsequent clinical pattern was prolonged behavioral arrest with mild automatisms, and then postictal confusion. The ictal discharge started with generalized spike-and-wave activity and then acquired a focal predominance. Interictal epileptiform activity was generalized. There were no focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. Four patients were misdiagnosed with complex partial seizures. All patients were initially refractory, but three became seizure-free and three improved after treatment with antiepileptic medications appropriate for absence or myoclonic seizures. Generalized-onset seizures that acquire focal features are easily misdiagnosed as complex partial. These seizures have a more favorable response to medications effective against generalized absence and myoclonic seizures. PMID:19260942

Williamson, Randy; Hanif, Samrina; Mathews, Gregory C; Lagrange, Andre H; Abou-Khalil, Bassel

2009-07-01

249

The maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model in the preclinical assessment of potential new antiepileptic drugs.  

PubMed

The choice of appropriate animal models for the initial in vivo testing of potential anticonvulsant compounds is one of the most important steps in the successful search for new antiepileptic drugs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the most important aspects to take into account when performing the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in the routine laboratory screening of new antiepileptics: the conventional and threshold MES test experimental procedures, the factors affecting experimental data (laboratory conditions, administration vehicles and drug formulations, time after drug administration, and stimulus duration and site of stimulation) and the assessment of anticonvulsant activity are discussed. PMID:19455265

Castel-Branco, M M; Alves, G L; Figueiredo, I V; Falcăo, A C; Caramona, M M

2009-03-01

250

Seizure responses and induction of Fos by the NMDA agonist (tetrazol-5-yl)glycine in a genetic model of NMDA receptor hypofunction.  

PubMed

Effects of the direct NMDA agonist (tetrazol-5-yl)glycine (TZG) were examined in a genetic mouse model of reduced NMDA receptor function. In this model, expression of the NR1 subunit is reduced but not eliminated and the mice are therefore designated as NR1 hypomorphic. Previous work suggested that the reduced NR1 subunit expression produced a functional subsensitivity as judged by a blunted Fos induction response to a sub-seizure dose of TZG. In the present study seizure threshold doses of TZG were tested in the wild type and mutant mice. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the seizure sensitivity between the wild type mice and mice presumed to express very low levels of the NR1 subunit. An extensive neuroanatomical analysis of Fos induction was conducted after the threshold seizure doses of TZG. The results demonstrate that some brain regions of the NR1 -/- mice exhibit much lower Fos induction in comparison to the NR1 +/+ mice. These regions include hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortical regions. However, in other regions, similar induction of Fos was observed in both genotypes in response to the NMDA agonist. Regions showing similar Fos induction in the NR1 +/+ and NR1 -/- mice include the lateral septum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and medial hypothalamic regions. The results suggest that the NMDA receptor hypofunction in the NR1 -/- mice is not global but regionally specific and that subcortical structures are responsible for the seizure-inducing effects of TZG. PMID:18550035

Duncan, Gary E; Inada, Ken; Farrington, Joseph S; Koller, Beverly H

2008-07-24

251

The inflammatory molecules IL-1? and HMGB1 can rapidly enhance focal seizure generation in a brain slice model of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by a hyperexcitable brain tissue and unpredictable seizures, i.e., aberrant firing discharges in large neuronal populations. It is well established that proinflammatory cytokines, in addition to their canonical involvement in the immune response, have a crucial role in the mechanism of seizure generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) in the generation of seizure-like discharges using two models of focal epilepsy in a rat entorhinal cortex slice preparation. Seizure like-discharges were evoked by either slice perfusion with low Mg2+ and picrotoxin or with a double NMDA local stimulation in the presence of the proconvulsant 4-amino-pyridine. The effects of IL-1? or HMGB1 were evaluated by monitoring seizure discharge generation through laser scanning microscope imaging of Ca2+ signals from neurons and astrocytes. In the picrotoxin model, we revealed that both cytokines increased the mean frequency of spontaneous ictal-like discharges, whereas only IL-1? reduced the latency and prolonged the duration of the first ictal-like event. In the second model, a single NMDA pulse, per se ineffective, became successful when it was performed after IL-? or HMGB1 local applications. These findings demonstrate that both IL-1? and HMGB1 can rapidly lower focal ictal event threshold and strengthen the possibility that targeting these inflammatory pathways may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent seizures. PMID:24936172

Chiavegato, Angela; Zurolo, Emanuele; Losi, Gabriele; Aronica, Eleonora; Carmignoto, Giorgio

2014-01-01

252

Effective implementation of time-frequency matched filter with adapted pre and postprocessing for data-dependent detection of newborn seizures.  

PubMed

Neonatal EEG seizures often manifest as nonstationary and multicomponent signals, necessitating analysis in the time-frequency (TF) domain. This paper presents a novel neonatal seizure detector based on effective implementation of the TF matched filter. In the detection process, the TF signatures of EEG seizure are extracted to construct the TF templates used by the matched filter. Matching pursuit (MP) decomposition and narrowband filtering are proposed for the reduction of artifacts prior to seizure detection. Geometrical correlation is used to consolidate the multichannel detections and to reduce the number of false detections due to remnant artifacts. A data-dependent threshold is defined for the classification of EEG. Using 30 newborn EEG records with seizures, the classification process yielded an overall detection accuracy of 92.4% with good detection rate (GDR) of 84.8% and false detection rate of 0.36FD/h. Better detection performance (accuracy >95%) was recorded for relatively long EEG records with short seizure events. PMID:23972955

Khlif, M S; Colditz, P B; Boashash, B

2013-12-01

253

Implications of hormonal and neuroendocrine changes associated with seizures and antiepileptic drugs: a clinical perspective.  

PubMed

Epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) affect hormones and neuroendocrine systems, which may result in a change in the seizure threshold (catamenial epilepsy) or in comorbidities including sexual dysfunction, reproductive dysfunction, and abnormalities in bone health. Catamenial epilepsy occurs commonly in women with epilepsy. The most commonly reported and studied mechanism proposed to explain why some women have a catamenial seizure exacerbation relates to cyclic changes in reproductive steroid hormones. Women and men with epilepsy have a higher than expected prevalence of sexual dysfunction. The epilepsy syndrome and localization influence the presentation of sexual dysfunction. Reproductive dysfunction occurs in both men and women with epilepsy. As with sexual dysfunction both the epilepsy syndrome and specific AEDs influence the presentation of reproductive dysfunction. Persons with epilepsy have an increased risk of fracture secondary to decreased bone mineral density (BMD), altered bone quality, and a propensity to fall because of either seizures or side effects of medication. Some AEDs are associated with abnormalities in BMD and bone and mineral metabolism. PMID:20618422

Pack, Alison M

2010-07-01

254

Aberrant sodium channel activity in the complex seizure disorder of Celf4 mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Mice deficient for CELF4, a neuronal RNA-binding protein, have a complex seizure disorder that includes both convulsive and non-convulsive seizures, and is dependent upon Celf4 gene dosage and mouse strain background. It was previously shown that Celf4 is expressed predominantly in excitatory neurons, and that deficiency results in abnormal excitatory synaptic neurotransmission. To examine the physiological and molecular basis of this, we studied Celf4-deficient neurons in brain slices. Assessment of intrinsic properties of layer V cortical pyramidal neurons showed that neurons from mutant heterozygotes and homozygotes have a lower action potential (AP) initiation threshold and a larger AP gain when compared with wild-type neurons. Celf4 mutant neurons also demonstrate an increase in persistent sodium current (INaP) and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation. As part of a related study, we find that CELF4 directly binds Scn8a mRNA, encoding sodium channel Nav1.6, the primary instigator of AP at the axon initial segment (AIS) and the main carrier of INaP. In the present study we find that CELF4 deficiency results in a dramatic elevation in the expression of Nav1.6 protein at the AIS in both null and heterozygous neurons. Together these results suggest that activation of Nav1.6 plays a crucial role in seizure generation in this complex model of neurological disease. PMID:23090952

Sun, Wenzhi; Wagnon, Jacy L; Mahaffey, Connie L; Briese, Michael; Ule, Jernej; Frankel, Wayne N

2013-01-01

255

[Psychological profile of patients with psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures].  

PubMed

Depending on the accepted definition of the nature of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures various values of their prevalence are reported in the literature from 5% to over 33% of cases referred to epilepsy treatment centres. According to our knowledge, in Poland these seizures occur in several thousand young individuals (mean age 25 years). The psychological determinants of these psychogenic seizures remain not clear. The purpose of the reported study was a psychological analysis of personality profiles of patients with psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures and epileptic seizures using the results of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test for the assessment of conversion as a possible mechanism of the occurrence of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. Using long-term video-EEG monitoring the studied subjects were divided into two groups: group I of 30 subjects (25 women and 5 men) with exclusively psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures, and group II of 27 subjects (23 women and 4 men) with exclusively epileptic seizures. Both groups were subjected to MMPI test. The averaged profiles of these groups differed in the level of hypochondria (Hs--p < or = 0.001) and hysteria (Hy--p < or = 0.005) statistically significantly, and were much higher in patients with psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures than the depression parameter (D) statistically significantly (p < or = 0.001). Patients with epilepsy had the highest values of depression parameter (D), while Hs and Hy were statistically significantly lower (p 0.01). The analysis in subscales additionally confirmed the role of conversion in pseudoepileptic seizures. PMID:11317492

Owczarek, K

2000-01-01

256

EEG-based neonatal seizure detection with Support Vector Machines  

PubMed Central

Objective The study presents a multi-channel patient-independent neonatal seizure detection system based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Methods A machine learning algorithm (SVM) is used as a classifier to discriminate between seizure and non-seizure EEG epochs. Two post-processing steps are proposed to increase both the temporal precision and the robustness of the system. The resulting system is validated on a large clinical dataset of 267 h of EEG data from 17 full-term newborns with seizures. Results The performance of the system using event-based metrics is reported. The system showed the best up-to-date performance of a neonatal seizure detection system. The system was able to achieve an average good detection rate of ?89% with one false seizure detection per hour, ?96% with two false detections per hour, or ?100% with four false detections per hour. An analysis of errors revealed sources of misclassification in terms of both missed seizures and false detections. Conclusions The results obtained with the proposed SVM-based seizure detection system allow for its practical application in neonatal intensive care units. Significance The proposed SVM-based seizure detection system can greatly assist clinical staff, in a neonatal intensive care unit, to interpret the EEG. The system allows control of the final decision by choosing different confidence levels which makes it flexible for clinical needs. The obtained results may provide a reference for future seizure detection systems. PMID:20713314

Temko, A.; Thomas, E.; Marnane, W.; Lightbody, G.; Boylan, G.

2011-01-01

257

Treatment of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and the treatment principles and methods of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders. A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical data, treatment methods and results in 13 patients with recurrent epileptic seizures attending the neurosurgery department. Of the 13 patients, 10 had a history of epilepsy, 9 had organic frontal lobe brain lesions and 11 exhibited frontal lobe epilepsy. The causes of the epileptic seizure aggravation included drug withdrawal, dose reduction and dressing change (5 cases). The epileptic seizure types included partial and secondary full seizures and the seizure frequency ranged from 1 seizure/3 min to 1 seizure/several h. Following combined therapy with multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), including oral administration and injection, the epilepsy was controlled. The addition of orally administered levetiracetam improved the treatment efficiency. In cases of recurrent epileptic seizures in patients with neurological disorders, the combined administration of AEDs should be conducted with doses higher than the conventional initial dose to control the epileptic seizures as rapidly as possible. PMID:23251281

YUAN, GUAN-QIAN; GAO, DAN-DAN; LIN, JUN; HAN, SONG; LV, BO-CHUANG

2013-01-01

258

Non-epileptic paroxysmal events mimicking seizures.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of epilepsy rests on a detailed history and examination. The main focus of such a history is to exclude the possibility of non-epileptic paroxysmal events. An incorrect diagnosis of epilepsy can potentially lead to physical, psychological and financial harm to the child and the family. A wide range of non-epileptic paroxysmal events can occur in children. The differentiation of a seizure mimic from a seizure relies solely on a proper history and review of video recordings. Investigations rarely help in the diagnosis of these events. An early and timely diagnosis and proper parental counseling helps avoiding unnecessary investigations, treatment and allays parental anxiety. The article reviews the common non-epileptic paroxysmal events in children, emphasizing clinically relevant points. PMID:25062544

Sankhyan, Naveen

2014-09-01

259

Seizure control after subtotal lesional resection.  

PubMed

Reports on seizure outcomes following surgery for lesional epilepsy consistently cite extent of resection as a significant predictor of outcome. Unfortunately, gross-total resection is not technically feasible in all cases of medically refractory tumor-associated epilepsy. Here, the authors present the case of a 4-year-old girl whose epilepsy was medically controlled after 1-stage electrocorticography-guided subtotal resection (STR) of a large diffuse protoplasmic astrocytoma. They also review the modern literature on epilepsy associated with brain tumors. Outcomes are compared with those following surgical treatment of focal cortical dysplasia and vascular lesions. Gross-total lesional resection shows significant superiority across pathologies and anatomical regions. Despite a considerable number of STRs yielding seizure freedom, other favorable treatment factors have not been defined. Although gross-total lesional resection, if possible, is clearly superior, tailored surgery may still offer patients a significant opportunity for a good outcome. Treatment factors yielding successful seizure control following STR remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:23724833

Gump, William C; Skjei, Karen L; Karkare, Shefali N

2013-06-01

260

Pedigree analysis in families with febrile seizures  

SciTech Connect

Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures, occurring in an estimated 2-5% of North American children. We carried out a systematic pedigree study of febrile seizure probands. Forty of 52 probands (77%) in a referral population selected for increased severity had more than one case per family: one family had 10 cases, one family had 7, 3 families had 6, 2 had 5, 3 had 4, 13 had 3, and 17 had 2 cases. Mode of inheritance in the multicase families best fit the hypothesis of autosomal dominance with reduced penetrance. Polygenic inheritance could not be excluded for some of the smaller families. There was no support for X-linked or mitochondrial inheritance. Penetrance was calculated to be 0.64. Because the cases were selected for increased severity, this represents a useful estimate of the upper limit of penetrance and is in agreement with twin studies. Simulated lod scores showed adequate power for a linkage study in the absence of heterogeneity. Individual families had simulated average lod scores as high as 2.1. However, with potential heterogeneity, assuming only 70% of families share the same disease locus, average lod scores were marginal, and a high density map of marker loci and additional families would be required to document linkage. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, W.G.; Kugler, S.L.; Stenroos, E.S.; Meulener, M.C. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)] [and others] [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); and others

1996-02-02

261

Control of motor seizures by brotizolam with maintenance of stable refractory periods for self-stimulation.  

PubMed

In recent years, we have been pursuing our mapping investigations of the substrate for brain-stimulation reward in regions of the anterior hypothalamic and lateral preoptic areas. However, one problem is that stimulation of these sites often generates overt seizures so that their suppression via a pharmacological means would be very useful. The sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine, brotizolam, is reportedly a long-lasting anticonvulsant. Hence, its effects on motor seizures elicited from stimulation of the lateral preoptic area were evaluated in the first experiment. Both tested doses (5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) of the drug were shown to significantly decrease the number, and marginally, the severity of stimulation-induced seizures; furthermore, this effect was relatively long lasting, up to about 3 h. The higher dose of brotizolam did not alter the single-pulse thresholds for self-stimulation, a requirement for evaluations of poststimulation excitability, the purpose of the second experiment. Here, our interest was in documenting whether the membrane properties of the stimulated neurons, as assessed by refractory periods, were altered by brotizolam. No differences in the time course of recovery were observed; refractoriness began between 0.4 and 0.8 ms, and reached 50% recovery by 2.0 ms, which is consistent with the pattern of poststimulation excitability typically measured at these sites. Thus, in addition to its long-lasting suppression of motor seizures in rats, brotizolam does not alter the time course of recovery from refractoriness of the neurons that mediate brain-stimulation reward in the lateral preoptic area. PMID:10477055

Bielajew, C; Bushnik, T; Konkle, A T; Parkin, E

1999-08-01

262

Ngram-Derived Pattern Recognition for the Detection and Prediction of Epileptic Seizures  

PubMed Central

This work presents a new method that combines symbol dynamics methodologies with an Ngram algorithm for the detection and prediction of epileptic seizures. The presented approach specifically applies Ngram-based pattern recognition, after data pre-processing, with similarity metrics, including the Hamming distance and Needlman-Wunsch algorithm, for identifying unique patterns within epochs of time. Pattern counts within each epoch are used as measures to determine seizure detection and prediction markers. Using 623 hours of intracranial electrocorticogram recordings from 21 patients containing a total of 87 seizures, the sensitivity and false prediction/detection rates of this method are quantified. Results are quantified using individual seizures within each case for training of thresholds and prediction time windows. The statistical significance of the predictive power is further investigated. We show that the method presented herein, has significant predictive power in up to 100% of temporal lobe cases, with sensitivities of up to 70–100% and low false predictions (dependant on training procedure). The cases of highest false predictions are found in the frontal origin with 0.31–0.61 false predictions per hour and with significance in 18 out of 21 cases. On average, a prediction sensitivity of 93.81% and false prediction rate of approximately 0.06 false predictions per hour are achieved in the best case scenario. This compares to previous work utilising the same data set that has shown sensitivities of up to 40–50% for a false prediction rate of less than 0.15/hour. PMID:24886714

Eftekhar, Amir; Juffali, Walid; El-Imad, Jamil; Constandinou, Timothy G.; Toumazou, Christofer

2014-01-01

263

Sensitivity testing of the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ).  

PubMed

The sensitivity of the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) was evaluated using pooled data from open-label extensions of two clinical trials in patients with partial-onset seizures. The SSQ includes questions relating to frequency and helpfulness of warning signs as well as frequency, severity, and bothersomeness of ictal and postictal effects. Differences between mean change from baseline for each SSQ item for responders and nonresponders were described and compared between patients solely with complex partial seizures (CPSs: responders, n=166; nonresponders, n=127) and those solely with secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPSs: responders, n=26; nonresponders, n=24) at baseline. Seizure Severity Questionnaire total score and individual SSQ items related to ictal movement, consciousness, bothersomeness of postictal effects, and frequency of postictal emotional effects showed differentiation between seizure type responders. These data provide further validation of the SSQ by demonstrating its sensitivity in describing treatment effects. PMID:24275520

Borghs, Simon; de la Loge, Christine; Brabant, Yves; Cramer, Joyce

2014-02-01

264

Embryonic Exposure to Domoic Acid Increases the Susceptibility of Zebrafish Larvae to the Chemical Convulsant Pentylenetetrazole  

PubMed Central

Background Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia that targets the limbic system to induce tonic–clonic seizures and memory impairment. In utero DA exposure of mice leads to a reduction in seizure threshold to subsequent DA exposures in mid-postnatal life, and similar studies have shown neurotoxic effects in rats that were delayed until adolescence. Objective We used in ovo microinjection of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to characterize the effect of embryonic exposure of DA on seizure-inducing agents later in life as an alternative species model to screen environmental contaminants that might induce a fetal-originating adult disease. Methods Embryos were microinjected within hours of fertilization to DA concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 1.26 ng/mg egg weight. Seven days later, the larval animals were characterized for sensitivity to the chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), an agent that is well-defined in laboratory rodents and, more recently, in zebrafish. Results In ovo DA exposure, most significantly at 0.4 ng/mg, reduces the latency time until first PTZ seizure in larval fish and increases the severity of seizures as determined by seizure stage and movement parameters. The interaction between in ovo DA exposure and PTZ caused seizure behaviors to individually asymptomatic doses of PTZ (1.0 and 1.25 mM) and DA (0.13 and 0.22 ng/mg). Conclusion These studies demonstrate that in ovo exposure to DA reduces the threshold to chemically induced seizures in larval fish and increases the severity of seizure behavior in a manner that is consistent with in utero studies of laboratory rodents. PMID:18007982

Tiedeken, Jessica A.; Ramsdell, John S.

2007-01-01

265

Administration of lithium and magnesium chloride inhibited tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice.  

PubMed

Although morphine has an anticonvulsant effect in several animal models of seizures, its potential clinical application in epilepsy may be hindered by its adverse effects like opioid tolerance. The present study evaluated the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male Swiss mice. We also examined whether administration of either lithium chloride (LiCl) or magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) was able to prevent the probable tolerance. Our data demonstrated that the anticonvulsant effect of a potent dose of morphine (1mg/kg) was abolished in chronic morphine-treated mice (mice administered the same dose of morphine intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days). Four days of pretreatment with low and noneffective doses of MgCl(2) (2 and 5mg/kg) and LiCl (5mg/kg) inhibited the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine (1mg/kg, ip). Moreover, a single acute injection of the aforementioned agents at the same doses reversed the expression of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of morphine (1mg/kg, ip). Chronic 17-day treatment with LiCl (600 mg/L in drinking water) also inhibited the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of 1mg/kg morphine. These results demonstrate that the anticonvulsant effect of morphine is subject to tolerance after repeated administration. Both development and expression of tolerance are inhibited by either LiCl or MgCl(2). As both LiCl and MgCl(2) can modulate the function of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, we discuss how NMDA receptor functioning might be involved in the effects of LiCl and MgCl(2) on the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of morphine. PMID:20920846

Ghasemi, Abbas; Saberi, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Moezi, Leila; Bahremand, Arash; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Ziai, Pouya; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-12-01

266

Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming.

Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN); Clapp, Ned E. (Knoxville, TN); Daw, C. Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Lawkins, William F. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

267

Serum prolactin and cortisol levels in evaluation of pseudoepileptic seizures.  

PubMed

In 6 patients with epilepsy, a twofold increase in serum prolactin levels followed true epileptic seizures, but no significant change followed pseudoepileptic attacks in 6 other patients. Serum prolactin concentration is a useful biochemical marker to distinguish between epileptic and pseudoepileptic seizures. Serum cortisol levels also increased after epileptic seizures, but diurnal and individual variations render the cortisol level a less reliable indicator of such attacks. PMID:4037754

Pritchard, P B; Wannamaker, B B; Sagel, J; Daniel, C M

1985-07-01

268

Early seizure detection in rats based on vagus nerve activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous, scheduled vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. On-demand VNS, started\\u000a prior to or at the onset of a seizure may improve the effect of the treatment, however, this requires seizures to be predicted\\u000a or detected early. This study investigates the possibility of early seizure detection based on the cervical vagus electroneurogram\\u000a (VENG). Fourteen

Kristian R. Harreby; Cristian Sevcencu; Johannes J. Struijk

2011-01-01

269

Overview of seizure-inducing potential of doripenem.  

PubMed

The seizure-inducing potential of carbapenems has been debated since the introduction of imipenem/cilastatin over 20 years ago. Doripenem is a new carbapenem, recently approved in the US for the treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) or complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), and additionally in the EU for nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. Here, the seizure-inducing potential of doripenem is evaluated, using data from in vitro and in vivo animal studies, doripenem clinical trials and doripenem postmarketing reports of seizures. Animal studies indicate that doripenem has low binding affinity for GABA receptors and does not induce seizures at doses greater than seizure-inducing doses of imipenem or meropenem. In clinical studies of cUTI or cIAI, no seizures were reported in the 1332 patients treated with doripenem (500-mg infusion every 8 hours). In two studies, patients with nosocomial pneumonia were treated with doripenem 500 mg (1- or 4-hour infusion every 8 hours), and the incidence of seizures was lower for doripenem (1.2% [6/485]) than imipenem (3.8% [10/263]) or piperacillin/tazobactam (2.7% [6/221]). For patients with seizure-predisposing conditions, seizures occurred during treatment for 3/193 (1.5%) in doripenem, 1/66 (1.5%) in piperacillin/tazobactam and 6/116 (5.2%) in the imipenem group. The review of data from both clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance supports the low seizure-inducing potential of doripenem. The seizure potential of doripenem should be evaluated further in patients at increased risk for seizure. PMID:19670912

Zhanel, George G; Ketter, Nzeera; Rubinstein, Ethan; Friedland, Ian; Redman, Rebecca

2009-01-01

270

Forecasting Seizures in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz), low-gamma (30–70 Hz), and high-gamma (70–180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring. PMID:24416133

Stead, S. Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H.; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W. Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

271

Epileptic seizure prediction by non-linear methods  

DOEpatents

This research discloses methods and apparatus for automatically predicting epileptic seizures monitor and analyze brain wave (EEG or MEG) signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave data from the patient; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis tools; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; comparison of the trend to known seizure predictors; and providing notification that a seizure is forthcoming. 76 figs.

Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Day, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F.

1999-01-12

272

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring admission to\\u000a an intensive care unit. This chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particulars of seizures induced by illicit drugs\\u000a of abuse, environmental toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

273

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins do require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring ICU care. This\\u000a chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particularities of seizures induced by illicit drugs of abuse, environmental\\u000a toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

274

Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures  

DOEpatents

A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Kulikov, Stanislav (Sarov, RU); Osorio, Ivan (Leawood, KS); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

2012-04-24

275

[Insular psammomatous meningioma presenting intractable complex partial seizures].  

PubMed

We describe a 30-year-old female with intractable symptomatic epilepsy caused by an insular calcified mass, which was histologically proved as psammomatous meningioma. Seizures were described as consciousness impairment, motionless stare and automatism. After total removal of the tumor with a neuronavigation system and motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring, seizures completely disappeared without neurological deficit. We emphasize that insular meningioma presents complex partial seizures which mimic medial temporal lobe epilepsy and seizures are controlled by total resection of the tumor. PMID:22915702

Imoto, Hirochika; Fujii, Masami; Maruta, Yuichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ideguchi, Makoto; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Nomura, Sadahiro; Suzuki, Michiyasu

2012-09-01

276

Progressive NKCC1-dependent neuronal chloride accumulation during neonatal seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures induce excitatory shifts in the reversal potential for GABAA receptor-mediated responses, which may contribute to the intractability of electroencephalographic seizures and preclude the efficacy of widely-used GABAergic anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital. We now report that in intact hippocampi prepared from neonatal rats and transgenic mice expressing Clomeleon, recurrent seizures progressively increase the intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) assayed by Clomeleon imaging and invert the net effect of GABAA receptor activation from inhibition to excitation assayed by the frequency of action potentials and intracellular Ca2+ transients. These changes correlate with increasing frequency of seizure-like events and reduction in phenobarbital efficacy. The Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1) co-transporter blocker bumetanide inhibited seizure-induced neuronal Cl? accumulation and the consequent facilitation of recurrent seizures. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which seizure activity leads to [Cl?]i accumulation, thereby increasing the probability of subsequent seizures. This provides a potential mechanism for the early crescendo phase of neonatal seizures. PMID:20810895

Dzhala, Volodymyr I.; Kuchibhotla, Kishore V.; Glykys, Joseph C.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Swiercz, Waldemar B.; Feng, Guoping; Kuner, Thomas; Augustine, George J.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Staley, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

277

Modulation of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures by Cannabinoid Receptor 1  

PubMed Central

Administration of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine is commonly used to induce seizures in rodents for the study of epilepsy. Activation of muscarinic receptors has been previously shown to increase the production of endocannabinoids in the brain. Endocannabinoids act at the cannabinoid CB1 receptors to reduce neurotransmitter release and the severity of seizures in several models of epilepsy. In this study, we determined the effect of CB1 receptor activity on the induction in mice of seizures by pilocarpine. We found that decreased activation of the CB1 receptor, either through genetic deletion of the receptor or treatment with a CB1 antagonist, increased pilocarpine seizure severity without modifying seizure-induced cell proliferation and cell death. These results indicate that endocannabinoids act at the CB1 receptor to modulate the severity of pilocarpine-induced seizures. Administration of a CB1 agonist produced characteristic CB1-dependent behavioral responses, but did not affect pilocarpine seizure severity. A possible explanation for the lack of effect of CB1 agonist administration on pilocarpine seizures, despite the effects of CB1 antagonist administration and CB1 gene deletion, is that muscarinic receptor-stimulated endocannabinoid production is acting maximally at CB1 receptors to modulate sensitivity to pilocarpine seizures. PMID:24752144

Kow, Rebecca L.; Jiang, Kelly; Naydenov, Alipi V.; Le, Joshua H.; Stella, Nephi; Nathanson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

278

Does Naloxone Prevent Seizure in Tramadol Intoxicated Patients?  

PubMed Central

Background: Tramadol poisoning has increased in recent years. Seizure is one of the side-effects of tramadol toxicity. There is a controversy about possible preventive effect of naloxone in tramadol poisoning induced seizure. Therefore, this study was performed to compare seizure incidence in tramadol poisoning patients who received and did not receive naloxone, as an opioid antagonist. Methods: This study involved prospective data collection followed by retrospective analysis on 104 tramadol poisoning patients who were admitted in a referral poisoning center. The incidences of seizure were compared between patients received naloxone and those did not. Outcome was considered as survived without or with complications and death. Logistic Regression analysis was used to determine the effects of different variables on seizure incidence. Results: 70 (67.3%) of the patients were men. The mean age of the patients was 26.3 ± 9 years old. 18.3% of the patients received naloxone in their treatment period. Seizure incidence was significantly higher among tramadol poisoning patients who did not receive naloxone compare with those received naloxone (14.1% vs. 5.1%). Among different variable studied, age had a significant effect on predicting of seizure (odds ratio = 2.09; 95% of confidence interval: 1.82-2.26; P value, 0.004). Conclusions: Although the seizure incidence was lower in patients with tramadol poisoning who received naloxone, the logistic regression did not support the preventive effect of naloxone on seizure in tramadol poisoning cases. PMID:24829714

Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Ozcan, Dilek; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Hedaiaty, Mahrang

2014-01-01

279

From bench to drug: Human seizure modeling using Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Studies of human seizure disorders have revealed that susceptibility to seizures is greatly influenced by genetic factors. In addition to causing epilepsy, genetic factors can suppress seizures and epileptogenesis. Examination of seizure-suppressor genes is challenging in humans. However, such genes are readily identified and analyzed in a Drosophila animal model of epilepsy. In this article, the epilepsy phenotype of Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutants is reviewed. A novel class of genes called seizure-suppressors is described. Mutations defining suppressors revert the “epilepsy” phenotype of neurological mutants. We conclude this review with particular discussion of a seizure-suppressor gene encoding DNA topoisomerase I (top1). Mutations of top1 are especially effective at reverting the seizure-sensitive phenotype of Drosophila epilepsy mutants. In addition, an unexpected class of anti-epileptic drugs has been identified. These are DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors such as camptothecin and its derivatives; several candidates are comparable or perhaps better than traditional anti-epileptic drugs such as valproate at reducing seizures in Drosophila drug-feeding experiments. PMID:18063465

Song, Juan; Tanouye, Mark A.

2008-01-01

280

Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

1989-01-01

281

Electric field strength and focality in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a finite element simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced the maximum electric field of 2.1-2.5 V cm-1 and 1.1-2.2 V cm-1 in the brain, corresponding to 6.2-7.2 times and 1.2-2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much larger with ECT (up to 100%) than with MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double-cone coil was the most focal, and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800-900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects.

Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

2011-02-01

282

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2010-01-01

283

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2011-01-01

284

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2010-01-01

285

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2010-01-01

286

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2011-04-01

287

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2011-04-01

288

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2011-04-01

289

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2010-01-01

290

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2010-01-01

291

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2011-01-01

292

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2011-01-01

293

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2011-01-01

294

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2010-04-01

295

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2011-01-01

296

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2011-01-01

297

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2010-01-01

298

Bayesian Threshold Estimation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time…

Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

2009-01-01

299

Ecological thresholds: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of ecological discontinuities and thresholds has been recognised by ecological economics as a key feature to take into account in the study of environment–economy interactions. This paper reviews some theoretical developments and empirical studies dealing with ecological phenomena involving non-linear dynamics. The literature about this issue reveals that there is abundant evidence of discontinuities and threshold effects as

Roldan Muradian

2001-01-01

300

Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)…

Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

2008-01-01

301

Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Seizure disorders in young animals pose different considerations as to cause and therapeutic decisions compared with adult animals. Infectious diseases of the nervous system are more likely in puppies and kittens compared with adults. The diagnosis of canine distemper is often based on clinical signs. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs in dogs between 1 and 5 years of age; however, inflammatory brain diseases such as necrotizing encephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis also commonly occur in young to middle-aged small-breed dogs. The choice of which anticonvulsant to administer for maintenance therapy is tailored to each individual patient. PMID:24580991

Lavely, James A

2014-03-01

302

Pathology Case Study: New Onset Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old nurse is experiencing headaches and seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Hamilton, Ronald; Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio)

2009-09-24

303

Pathology Case Study: Seizures and Progressive Dementia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old female has seizures and progressive dementia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Friese, Michael

304

Mouse models of human KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 mutations for benign familial neonatal convulsions show seizures and neuronal plasticity without synaptic reorganization  

PubMed Central

The childhood epilepsy syndrome of benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) exhibits the remarkable feature of clinical remission within a few weeks of onset and a favourable prognosis, sparing cognitive abilities despite persistent expression of the mutant KCNQ2 or KCNQ3 potassium channels throughout adulthood. To better understand such dynamic neuroprotective plasticity within the developing brain, we introduced missense mutations that underlie human BFNC into the orthologous murine Kcnq2 (Kv7.2) and Kcnq3 (Kv7.3) genes. Mutant mice were examined for altered thresholds to induced seizures, spontaneous seizure characteristics, hippocampal histology, and M-current properties of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Adult Kcnq2A306T/+ and Kcnq3G311V/+ heterozygous knock-in mice exhibited reduced thresholds to electrically induced seizures compared to wild-type littermate mice. Both Kcnq2A306T/A306T and Kcnq3G311V/G311V homozygous mutant mice exhibited early onset spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures concurrent with a significant reduction in amplitude and increased deactivation kinetics of the neuronal M-current. Mice had recurrent seizures into adulthood that triggered molecular plasticity including ectopic neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in granule cells, but without hippocampal mossy fibre sprouting or neuronal loss. These novel knockin mice recapitulate proconvulsant features of the human disorder yet show that inherited M-current defects spare granule cells from reactive changes in adult hippocampal networks. The absence of seizure-induced pathology found in these epileptic mouse models parallels the benign neurodevelopmental cognitive profile exhibited by the majority of BFNC patients. PMID:18483067

Singh, Nanda A; Otto, James F; Jill Dahle, E; Pappas, Chris; Leslie, Jonathan D; Vilaythong, Alex; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Steve White, H; Wilcox, Karen S; Leppert, Mark F

2008-01-01

305

Enhanced sensitivity of laforin- and malin-deficient mice to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole  

PubMed Central

Lafora disease is a rare form of inherited progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A gene encoding laforin, or in the EPM2B gene, which encodes malin. It is characterized by the presence of polyglucosan inclusion bodies (Lafora bodies) in brain and other tissues. Genetically engineered mice lacking expression of either the laforin (Epm2a?/?) or malin (Epm2b?/?) genes display a number of neurological and behavioral abnormalities that resemble those found in patients suffering from Lafora disease; of these, both Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice have shown altered motor activity, impaired motor coordination, episodic memory deficits, and different degrees of spontaneous epileptic activity. In this study, we analyze the sensitivity of Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an antagonist of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, commonly used to induce epileptic tonic-clonic seizures in laboratory animals. PTZ-induced epileptic activity, including myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, was analyzed in 2 age groups of mice comprising representative samples of young adult and aged mice, after administration of PTZ at sub-convulsive and convulsive doses. Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice showed a lower convulsive threshold after PTZ injections at sub-convulsive doses. A lower convulsive threshold and shorter latencies to develop epileptic seizures were observed after PTZ injections at convulsive doses. Different patterns of generalized seizures and of discharges were observed in Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice. Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice present an increased sensitivity to the convulsant agent PTZ that may reflect different degrees of increased GABAA receptor-mediated hyperexcitability. PMID:25309313

García-Cabrero, Ana M.; Sánchez-Elexpuru, Gentzane; Serratosa, José M.; Sánchez, Marina P.

2014-01-01

306

Enhanced sensitivity of laforin- and malin-deficient mice to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole.  

PubMed

Lafora disease is a rare form of inherited progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A gene encoding laforin, or in the EPM2B gene, which encodes malin. It is characterized by the presence of polyglucosan inclusion bodies (Lafora bodies) in brain and other tissues. Genetically engineered mice lacking expression of either the laforin (Epm2a(-/-) ) or malin (Epm2b(-/-) ) genes display a number of neurological and behavioral abnormalities that resemble those found in patients suffering from Lafora disease; of these, both Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice have shown altered motor activity, impaired motor coordination, episodic memory deficits, and different degrees of spontaneous epileptic activity. In this study, we analyze the sensitivity of Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an antagonist of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, commonly used to induce epileptic tonic-clonic seizures in laboratory animals. PTZ-induced epileptic activity, including myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, was analyzed in 2 age groups of mice comprising representative samples of young adult and aged mice, after administration of PTZ at sub-convulsive and convulsive doses. Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice showed a lower convulsive threshold after PTZ injections at sub-convulsive doses. A lower convulsive threshold and shorter latencies to develop epileptic seizures were observed after PTZ injections at convulsive doses. Different patterns of generalized seizures and of discharges were observed in Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice. Epm2a(-/-) and Epm2b(-/-) mice present an increased sensitivity to the convulsant agent PTZ that may reflect different degrees of increased GABAA receptor-mediated hyperexcitability. PMID:25309313

García-Cabrero, Ana M; Sánchez-Elexpuru, Gentzane; Serratosa, José M; Sánchez, Marina P

2014-01-01

307

[Etiologic and diagnostic factors of psychogenic pseudo-epileptic seizures].  

PubMed

The term psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures (or psychogenic non-epileptic seizures-NES) generally refers to episodes of psychological origin that resemble epilepsy but without underlying epilepsy. The diagnosis of pseudo-epileptic seizures is confirmed in 5-33% of patients that are considered to suffer from refractory epilepsies. Making a correct diagnosis in patients presenting with attack disorders is sometimes very difficult. However, the best way to establish differential diagnosis of epileptic and pseudoepileptic seizures is to apply long-term video EEG monitoring. Triggering a seizure by means of placebo administration or suggestion to start or stop seizure can be also a helpful method in differential diagnosis. Over the last decade epileptologist have been paying increasing attention to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales in describing or distinguishing real epileptic seizures vs. non-epileptic attacks. The results of the study may have practical implications for neurological and epilepsy centres, and for improving clinical knowledge and allow to establish aetiological classification of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. PMID:11317496

Owczarek, K

2000-01-01

308

Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet  

PubMed Central

Summary Purpose Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Methods Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ~ 12 days, starting at 3–4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. Results The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz–induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. Discussion In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. PMID:20477852

Hartman, Adam L.; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J. Marie

2010-01-01

309

Consciousness and epilepsy: why are complex-partial seizures complex?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do complex-partial seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cause a loss of consciousness? Abnormal function of the medial temporal lobe is expected to cause memory loss, but it is unclear why profoundly impaired consciousness is so common in temporal lobe seizures. Recent exciting advances in behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging techniques spanning both human patients and animal models may allow

Dario J. Englot; Hal Blumenfeld

2009-01-01

310

[Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency: an unusual cause of neonatal seizure].  

PubMed

Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of purine synthesis, which provokes epilepsy, psychomotor delay and/or autistic features. We report on two siblings with ADSL deficiency, who developed seizures on the first day of life. ADSL deficiency should be part of the screening to be performed in case of neonatal seizures. PMID:18201882

Clamadieu, C; Cottin, X; Rousselle, C; Claris, O

2008-02-01

311

Congenital hypoparathyroidism presenting as recurrent seizures in an adult  

PubMed Central

Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism may manifest as serious neurologic symptoms such as seizures, movement disorders, or raised intracranial pressure. Several patients were observed to have these dangerous neurologic complications even without subtle signs of hypocalcemia like tetany, chvostek's sign or carpopedal spasms. We present a case of recurrent hypocalcemic seizures due to congenital hypoparathyroidism. PMID:22690060

Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth; Singh, Dinesh; Deshpande, Rohit; Mahajan, S. N.

2012-01-01

312

Pseudo-epileptic seizures: hypnosis as a diagnostic tool.  

PubMed

In this pilot study hypnosis was used in an attempt to provide evidence of a psychogenic component of pseudo-epileptic seizures. The criterion for psychogenesis was the reversal of the amnesia, which is often present in epileptic- and pseudo-epileptic seizures. The technique has been validated by a semi-blind referral of cases for analysis after the clinician had been able to make a firm diagnosis based on electro-encephalic corroboration of the nature of the seizure. In eight out of nine patients (of the original 13 patients, three patients dropped out and one patient was not evaluable), the experimental diagnosis corresponded with the clinical diagnosis. As pseudo-epileptic seizures can be characterized by their dissociative nature, a reasonable hypothesis is that patients with pseudo-epileptic seizures are more responsive to hypnosis than patients with epileptic seizures. Measurements of hypnotizability among seven patients with epileptic seizures and six patients with pseudo-epileptic seizures supported this supposition. PMID:7670763

Kuyk, J; Jacobs, L D; Aldenkamp, A P; Meinardi, H; Spinhoven, P; van Dyck, R

1995-06-01

313

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2010-04-01

314

Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

2012-01-01

315

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2011-04-01

316

Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

Holmes, Gregory L.

2004-01-01

317

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2011-07-01

318

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2010-07-01

319

Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior.  

PubMed

In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hydrocortisone (2×10mg/kg), betamethasone (2×0.4mg/kg) or vehicle. On postnatal day (P)15, seizures were induced by flurothyl or kainic acid (3.5 or 5.0mg/kg). Horizontal bar holding was determined prior to seizures and again on P17. Performance in the elevated plus maze was assessed on P20-22. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone decreased postnatal susceptibility to flurothyl-induced clonic seizures but not to kainic acid-induced seizures. Prenatal hydrocortisone decreased postnatal weight but did not affect seizure susceptibility. Hydrocortisone alone did not affect performance in behavioral tests except for improving horizontal bar holding on P17. A combination of prenatal hydrocortisone and postnatal seizures resulted in increased anxiety. Prenatal exposure to mineralocorticoid receptor blocker canrenoic acid did not attenuate, but surprisingly amplified the effects of hydrocortisone on body weight and significantly worsened horizontal bar performance. Thus, prenatal exposure to excess corticosteroids alters postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. Specific effects may depend on corticosteroid species. PMID:21429712

Velíšek, Libor

2011-06-01

320

Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

321

Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

2009-01-01

322

Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

2010-01-01

323

Ontogenic profile of seizures evoked by the beta-carboline DMCM (methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-?-carboline-3-carboxylate) in rats.  

PubMed

The beta-carboline, methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-?-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), is a potent chemoconvulsant. While it has been utilized in adult rodents, it has not been previously examined for effects across postnatal development. DMCM is a negative allosteric modulator of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors, receptor subtypes that are particularly enriched in limbic brain regions. This raises the possibility that DMCM may be particularly effective at evoking forebrain seizures, which is a challenge in neonatal animals due to the relative immaturity of the forebrain seizure network. The ability to selectebrain seizures is desirable when screening for drugs to use in temporal lobe epilepsy, which is characterized by seizures within the forebrain (limbic) network. To determine the profile of DMCM action across development, we examined the dose-dependent ability of DMCM to induce seizures in rats at P7, P10, P13, P14, P21 and in adulthood. We found that the highest sensitivity to DMCM occurred in P10, P13, and P14 rats. The lowest sensitivity occurred in P21 rats. Neonatal (P7) and adult (P60+) rats displayed moderate sensitivity. With moderate (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) doses of DMCM, we were able to reliably evoke limbic motor seizures without tonic-clonic components in animals as young as P7. These data support the utility of DMCM in assessing seizure threshold during development and raise the possibility for future exploration of DMCM as an agent to screen anticonvulsant drugs during the postnatal period. PMID:24967532

Kulick, Catherine; Gutherz, Samuel; Kondratyev, Alexei; Forcelli, Patrick A

2014-10-01

324

Generalised electrographic seizures presenting as perioral myoclonia.  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man, during a neurological consultation, reported "chin twitching" over a period of a week, which was diagnosed as intermittent perioral myoclonia. With only one tonic-clonic seizure seven years before, he had mentioned several episodes of chin twitching over the years. In the clinic, there were intermittent chin movements without apparent confusion, as he was able to provide a complete history and was fully oriented with intact memory. His video-EEG showed paroxysms of polyspike and slow-wave activity, with the longest burst-free interval being 20 seconds. Discharges were maximal over the fronto-central regions, correlating with the chin myoclonus. He was able to tap his hand continuously, and remained alert. The case represents an atypical presentation of idiopathic generalised epilepsy without manifestation of absence or limb myoclonus. Although juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and other idiopathic epilepsies are rarely associated with perioral myoclonia, this sign was the principal clinical feature for this patient. Oral treatment with levetiracetam resolved his seizures. PMID:24566349

Dearborn, Jennifer L; Kaplan, Peter W

2014-03-01

325

Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

2013-09-01

326

Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a “pre-seizure” state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

2014-01-01

327

Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination  

PubMed Central

Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

2014-01-01

328

Dcx reexpression reduces subcortical band heterotopia and seizure threshold in an animal model of neuronal  

E-print Network

, and surgical resection of malformed cortex can often effectively treat such drug-resistant epilepsy6,7. Many are observed in rats with cortical migration anomalies caused by prenatal exposure to teratogens

Cossart, Rosa

329

Neuroimaging Abnormalities and Seizure Recurrence in a Prospective Cohort Study of Zambians with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and First Seizure  

PubMed Central

In HIV-positive individuals with first seizure, we describe neuroimaging findings, detail clinical and demographic risk factors for imaging abnormalities, and evaluate the relationship between imaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence to determine if imaging abnormalities predict recurrent seizures. Among 43 participants (mean 37.4 years, 56% were male), 16 (37%) were on antiretroviral drugs, 32 (79%) had advanced HIV disease, and (28) 66% had multiple seizures and/or status epilepticus at enrollment. Among those with cerebrospinal fluid studies, 14/31 (44%) had opportunistic infections (OIs). During follow-up, 9 (21%) died and 15 (35%) experienced recurrent seizures. Edema was associated with OIs (odds ratio: 8.79; confidence interval: 1.03-236) and subcortical atrophy with poorer scores on the International HIV Dementia Scale) (5.2 vs. 9.3; P=0.002). Imaging abnormalities were not associated with seizure recurrence or death (P>0.05). Seizure recurrence occurred in at least a third and over 20% died during follow-up. Imaging was not predictive of recurrent seizure or death, but imaging abnormalities may offer additional diagnostic insights in terms of OI risk and cognitive impairment. PMID:25568738

Potchen, Michael J.; Siddiqi, Omar K.; Elafros, Melissa A.; Koralnik, Igor J.; Theodore, William H.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Kalungwana, Lisa; Bositis, Christopher M.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

2014-01-01

330

Neuroimaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence in a prospective cohort study of zambians with human immunodeficiency virus and first seizure.  

PubMed

In HIV-positive individuals with first seizure, we describe neuroimaging findings, detail clinical and demographic risk factors for imaging abnormalities, and evaluate the relationship between imaging abnormalities and seizure recurrence to determine if imaging abnormalities predict recurrent seizures. Among 43 participants (mean 37.4 years, 56% were male), 16 (37%) were on antiretroviral drugs, 32 (79%) had advanced HIV disease, and (28) 66% had multiple seizures and/or status epilepticus at enrollment. Among those with cerebrospinal fluid studies, 14/31 (44%) had opportunistic infections (OIs). During follow-up, 9 (21%) died and 15 (35%) experienced recurrent seizures. Edema was associated with OIs (odds ratio: 8.79; confidence interval: 1.03-236) and subcortical atrophy with poorer scores on the International HIV Dementia Scale) (5.2 vs. 9.3; P=0.002). Imaging abnormalities were not associated with seizure recurrence or death (P>0.05). Seizure recurrence occurred in at least a third and over 20% died during follow-up. Imaging was not predictive of recurrent seizure or death, but imaging abnormalities may offer additional diagnostic insights in terms of OI risk and cognitive impairment. PMID:25568738

Potchen, Michael J; Siddiqi, Omar K; Elafros, Melissa A; Koralnik, Igor J; Theodore, William H; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Kalungwana, Lisa; Bositis, Christopher M; Birbeck, Gretchen L

2014-10-23

331

Why Are Seizures Rare in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep? Review of the Frequency of Seizures in Different Sleep Stages  

PubMed Central

Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia. Multiple independent studies confirm that, in REM sleep, there is a strikingly low proportion of seizures (~1% or less). We review a total of 42 distinct conventional and intracranial studies in the literature which comprised a net of 1458 patients. Indexed to duration, we found that REM sleep was the most protective stage of sleep against focal seizures, generalized seizures, focal interictal discharges, and two particular epilepsy syndromes. REM sleep had an additional protective effect compared to wakefulness with an average 7.83 times fewer focal seizures, 3.25 times fewer generalized seizures, and 1.11 times fewer focal interictal discharges. In further studies REM sleep has also demonstrated utility in localizing epileptogenic foci with potential translation into postsurgical seizure freedom. Based on emerging connectivity data in sleep, we hypothesize that the influence of REM sleep on seizures is due to a desynchronized EEG pattern which reflects important connectivity differences unique to this sleep stage. PMID:23853720

2013-01-01

332

Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…

Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

2010-01-01

333

Optimizing dynamical similarity index extraction window for seizure detection.  

PubMed

This paper addresses an optimization problem in choosing optimum window length for feature extraction in automatic seizure detection. The processing window length plays an important role in reducing the false positive and false negative rates and decreasing required processing time for seizure detection. This study presents an approach for selecting the optimum window length toward the extraction of dynamical similarity index (DSI) feature. Then, the optimal window value in DSI extraction was used to detect seizure onset automatically. The algorithm was applied to electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from European Epilepsy Database. Although the main purpose of this study was not the seizure detection and mainly focuses on proposing an approach for finding an optimum window length for feature extraction towards the early seizure detection, the results showed that the proposed method achieves 83.99% of sensitivity in seizure detection. The low false positive rate per hour (FPR/h) was also significant due to continuous EEG analysis. The method showed fast computation speed which promises a potential for the real time applications. The proposed method for the window optimization in feature extraction of DSI can be implemented for other features to further improve the performance of seizure detection. PMID:25570429

Azinfar, Leila; Rabbi, Ahmed; Ravanfar, Mohammdreza; Noghanian, Sima; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

2014-08-01

334

A novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

Han, Min; Ge, Sunan; Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

2014-01-01

335

A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction  

PubMed Central

Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

2014-01-01

336

Enhanced QT shortening and persistent tachycardia after generalized seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) are a major risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We investigated whether ictal/postictal cardiac features were dependent on seizure type within individual patients. Methods: ECG data from patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) undergoing presurgical investigation who had both complex partial seizures and secondarily GTCS during video-EEG telemetry were retrospectively reviewed. Peri-ictal heart rate (HR), corrected QT interval (QTc), HR variability, and cardiac rhythm were assessed. Results: Twenty-five patients were included in this study. Secondarily GTCS led to higher ictal HR, persistent postictal tachycardia, and decreased postictal HR variability. Moreover, abnormal shortening of QTc occurred in 17 patients mainly during the early postictal phase and significantly more often in secondarily GTCS. Abnormal QTc prolongation occurred in 3 patients with no significant association with GTCS. Benign cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 14 patients and were independent of seizure type. Conclusions: Our data suggest a substantial disturbance of autonomic function following secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The observed alterations could potentially facilitate sudden cardiac death and might contribute to the association of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy with GTCS. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; CPS = complex partial seizure; GTCS = generalized tonic-clonic seizures; HR = heart rate; HRV = HR variability; QTc = corrected QT interval; SUDEP = sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; TLE = temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20124208

Surges, Rainer; Scott, Catherine A.; Walker, Matthew C.

2010-01-01

337

Upregulation of opioid receptor binding following spontaneous epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Animal and limited human data suggest an important anticonvulsant role for opioid peptides and their receptors. We aimed to provide direct human in vivo evidence for changes in opioid receptor availability following spontaneous seizures. We scanned nine patients within hours of spontaneous temporal lobe seizures and compared their postictal binding of the non-subtype selective opioid receptor PET radioligand [11C]diprenorphine (DPN), quantified as a volume-of-distribution (VD), with interictal binding and with binding changes in 14 healthy controls, controlling for a range of behavioural variables associated with opioid action. A regionally specific increase of opioid receptor availability was evident in the temporal pole and fusiform gyrus ipsilateral to the seizure focus following seizures (Z 5.01, P < 0.001, 16 432 mm3). Within this region, there was a negative correlation between VD and log10 time since last seizure (r = -0.53, P < 0.03), compatible with an early increase and gradual return to baseline. [11C]DPN VD did not undergo systematic changes between time points in controls. This study provides direct human in vivo evidence for changes in opioid receptor availability over a time course of hours following spontaneous seizures, emphasizing an important role of the opioid system in seizure control. PMID:17301080

Hammers, Alexander; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Hinz, Rainer; Kitchen, Ian; Brooks, David J; Duncan, John S; Koepp, Matthias J

2007-04-01

338

Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG  

PubMed Central

Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

2010-01-01

339

Newborn seizure detection based on heart rate variability.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigate the use of heart rate variability (HRV) for automatic newborn seizure detection. The proposed method consists of a sequence of processing steps, namely, obtaining HRV from the ECG, extracting a discriminating HRV feature set, selecting an optimal subset from the full feature set, and, finally, classifying the HRV into seizure/nonseizure using a supervised statistical classifier. Due to the fact that HRV signals are nonstationary, a set of time-frequency features from the newborn HRV is proposed and extracted. In order to achieve efficient HRV-based automatic newborn seizure detection, a two-phase wrapper-based feature selection technique is used to select the feature subset with minimum redundancy and maximum class discriminability. Tested on ECG recordings obtained from eight newborns with identified EEG seizure, the proposed HRV-based neonatal seizure detection algorithm achieved 85.7% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity. These results suggest that the HRV is sensitive to changes in the cardioregulatory system induced by the seizure, and therefore, can be used as a basis for an automatic seizure detection. PMID:19628449

Malarvili, M B; Mesbah, Mostefa

2009-11-01

340

Focal corticothalamic sources during generalized absence seizures: a MEG study.  

PubMed

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine cortical and subcortical contributions to the formation of spike and wave discharges in twelve newly diagnosed, drug naďve children during forty-four generalized absence seizures. Previous studies have implicated various cortical areas and thalamic nuclei in the generation of absence seizures, but the relative timing of their activity remains unclear. Beamformer analysis using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) was used to confirm the presence of independent thalamic activity, and standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Topography (sLORETA) was used to compute statistical maps indicating source locations during absence seizures. Sources detected in the 50ms prior to the start of the seizure were more likely to be localized to the frontal cortex or thalamus. At the time of the first spike on EEG, focal source localization was seen in the lateral frontal cortex with decreased thalamic localization. Following the spike, localization became more widespread throughout the cortex. Comparison of the earliest spike and wave discharge (SWD) (Ictal Onset) and a SWD occurring 3s into the seizure (mid-Ictal) revealed significant differences during the slow wave portion of the SWDs. This study of MEG recordings in childhood absence seizures provides additional evidence that there are focal brain areas responsible for these seizures which appear bilaterally symmetric and generalized with a conventional 10-20 placement scalp EEG. PMID:23764296

Tenney, Jeffrey R; Fujiwara, Hisako; Horn, Paul S; Jacobson, Sarah E; Glauser, Tracy A; Rose, Douglas F

2013-09-01

341

Efficacy of ear-point stimulation on experimentally induced seizure.  

PubMed

This study was to observe the effects of ear-point stimulation on electrocorticogram of sensorimotor cortex and behaviors of rats with penicillin-induced seizure. The model of epilepsy was by injecting penicillin into the hippocampus. One hour later, the lower 1/2 auricular lobules containing ear-points Pizhixia, Shenmen_Zeng and Nao, etc. as humans, or great auricular nerve of seizure rats, were treated twice with electrical stimulation (parameters of stimulation were as follows: electrical current intensity 0.14 approximately 0.2 mA, frequency about 80Hz, 30 min on and 30 min off). The outcome showed that rats appeared epileptic-like electrocorticogram and convulsion behaviors 5 min after injected penicillin. When they were subsequently given the ear-point or great auricular nerve electrical stimulation separately, these epileptic-like electrocorticogram and seizure behaviors were definitely improved. These anti-seizure effects could be enhanced with hour extension of electrical stimulation. If the great auricular nerve of seizure rat was severed before electrical stimulating ear-points, the effects of anti-seizure disappeared. Otherwise, the seizure rats given sham ear-point electrical stimulation (the experimental conditions were same as that of ear-point stimulation other than electric current being no applied) did not show any improvement for epileptic-like electrocorticogram and seizure behaviors. Based on the results above, it was suggested that ear-point electrical stimulation could cause certainly efficacy of anti-seizure, which may be relative with the great auricular nerve. PMID:16231631

Shu, Jia; Liu, Rong-Yu; Huang, Xian-Fen

2005-01-01

342

A Computational Study of Stimulus Driven Epileptic Seizure Abatement  

PubMed Central

Active brain stimulation to abate epileptic seizures has shown mixed success. In spike-wave (SW) seizures, where the seizure and background state were proposed to coexist, single-pulse stimulations have been suggested to be able to terminate the seizure prematurely. However, several factors can impact success in such a bistable setting. The factors contributing to this have not been fully investigated on a theoretical and mechanistic basis. Our aim is to elucidate mechanisms that influence the success of single-pulse stimulation in noise-induced SW seizures. In this work, we study a neural population model of SW seizures that allows the reconstruction of the basin of attraction of the background activity as a four dimensional geometric object. For the deterministic (noise-free) case, we show how the success of response to stimuli depends on the amplitude and phase of the SW cycle, in addition to the direction of the stimulus in state space. In the case of spontaneous noise-induced seizures, the basin becomes probabilistic introducing some degree of uncertainty to the stimulation outcome while maintaining qualitative features of the noise-free case. Additionally, due to the different time scales involved in SW generation, there is substantial variation between SW cycles, implying that there may not be a fixed set of optimal stimulation parameters for SW seizures. In contrast, the model suggests an adaptive approach to find optimal stimulation parameters patient-specifically, based on real-time estimation of the position in state space. We discuss how the modelling work can be exploited to rationally design a successful stimulation protocol for the abatement of SW seizures using real-time SW detection. PMID:25531883

Goodfellow, Marc; Dauwels, Justin; Moeller, Friederike; Stephani, Ulrich; Baier, Gerold

2014-01-01

343

Seizure Localization using Three-Dimensional Surface Projections of Intracranial EEG Power  

PubMed Central

Intracranial EEG (icEEG) provides a critical road map for epilepsy surgery but has become increasingly difficult to interpret as technology has allowed the number of icEEG channels to grow. Borrowing methods from neuroimaging, we aimed to simplify data analysis and increase consistency between reviewers by using 3D Surface Projections of Intracranial EEG poweR (3D-SPIER). We analyzed 139 seizures from 48 intractable epilepsy patients (28 temporal and 20 extratemporal) who had icEEG recordings, epilepsy surgery, and at least one year of post-surgical follow-up. We coregistered and plotted icEEG ? frequency band signal power over time onto MRI-based surface renderings for each patient, to create color 3D-SPIER movies. Two independent reviewers interpreted the icEEG data using visual analysis vs. 3D-SPIER, blinded to any clinical information. Overall agreement rates between 3D-SPIER and icEEG visual analysis or surgery were about 90% for side of seizure onset, 80% for lobe, and just under 80% for sublobar localization. These agreement rates were improved when flexible thresholds or frequency ranges were allowed for 3D SPIER, especially for sublobar localization. Interestingly, agreement was better for patients with good surgical outcome than for patients with poor outcome. Localization using 3D-SPIER was measurably faster and considered qualitatively easier to interpret than visual analysis. These findings suggest that 3D-SPIER could be an improved diagnostic method for presurgical seizure localization in patients with intractable epilepsy and may also be useful for mapping normal brain function. PMID:23850575

Lee, Hyang Woon; Youngblood, Mark W.; Farooque, Pue; Han, Xiao; Jhun, Stephen; Chen, William; Goncharova, Irina; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D.; Zaveri, Hitten; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Blumenfeld, Hal

2013-01-01

344

Seizure Risk in Patients with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Atomoxetine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comorbidity of seizures, epilepsy, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the examination of whether atomoxetine use for ADHD is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizures and seizure-related symptoms were reviewed from two independent Eli Lilly and Company databases: the atomoxetine clinical trials database…

Wernicke, Joachim F.; Holdridge, Karen Chilcott; Jin, Ling; Edison, Timothy; Zhang, Shuyu; Bangs, Mark E.; Allen, Albert J.; Ball, Susan; Dunn, David

2007-01-01

345

Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.  

PubMed

Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

2013-11-01

346

Traumatic rupture of sternocleidomastoid muscle following an epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old man, a known epileptic, presented to an accident and emergency department following a tonic-clonic seizure, suffering a second seizure in the department. Subsequently, he reported neck pain, swelling and stiffness. An otorhinolaryngology neck examination revealed a tender left side with two palpable masses and a reduced range of movement. Ultrasound confirmed a ruptured middle third of the left sternocleidomastoid muscle, which was successfully treated non-surgically with analgaesia and intensive physiotherapy. Uncommonly, sternocleidomastoid muscle rupture has been reported following high-velocity trauma, but to the best of our knowledge this is the first case described in the literature following an epileptic seizure. PMID:25410030

Wooles, Nicola Rachel; Bell, Philip Robert; Korda, Marian

2014-01-01

347

Diagnosis and management of catamenial seizures: a review  

PubMed Central

Catamenial epilepsy is defined as a pattern of seizures that changes in severity during particular phases of the menstrual cycle, wherein estrogens are proconvulsant, increasing the neuronal excitability; and progesterone is anticonvulsant, enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition. Thus, changes in serum estradiol/progesterone ratio throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence. To date, there are no specific drug treatments for catamenial epilepsy however, non-hormonal and hormonal therapies have been proposed. The aim of this review is to report preclinical and clinical evidences about the relationship between female reproductive steroids and epileptic seizures, and to describe treatment approaches for catamenial epilepsy. PMID:23071424

Verrotti, Alberto; D’Egidio, Claudia; Agostinelli, Sergio; Verrotti, Carla; Pavone, Piero

2012-01-01

348

Diagnosis and management of catamenial seizures: a review.  

PubMed

Catamenial epilepsy is defined as a pattern of seizures that changes in severity during particular phases of the menstrual cycle, wherein estrogens are proconvulsant, increasing the neuronal excitability; and progesterone is anticonvulsant, enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition. Thus, changes in serum estradiol/progesterone ratio throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence. To date, there are no specific drug treatments for catamenial epilepsy however, non-hormonal and hormonal therapies have been proposed. The aim of this review is to report preclinical and clinical evidences about the relationship between female reproductive steroids and epileptic seizures, and to describe treatment approaches for catamenial epilepsy. PMID:23071424

Verrotti, Alberto; D'Egidio, Claudia; Agostinelli, Sergio; Verrotti, Carla; Pavone, Piero

2012-01-01

349

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Disrupted ontogeny of forebrain inhibitory interneurons leads to neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Adult mice lacking the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (Plaur) have decreased numbers of neocortical GABAergic interneurons and spontaneous seizures, attributed to a reduction of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). We report that by increasing endogenous HGF/SF concentration in the postnatal Plaur null mouse brain maintains the interneuron populations in the adult, reverses the seizure behavior and stabilizes the spontaneous electroencephalogram activity. The perinatal intervention provides a pathway to reverse potential birth defects and ameliorate seizures in the adult. PMID:19853606

Bae, Mihyun H.; Bissonette, Gregory B.; Mars, Wendy M.; Michalopoulos, George K.; Achim, Cristian L.; Depireux, Didier A.; Powell, Elizabeth M.

2009-01-01

350

Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

2010-01-01

351

External Validation of a Prognostic Model for Seizure Recurrence Following a First Unprovoked Seizure and Implications for Driving  

PubMed Central

Objective In the United Kingdom and other European Union countries guidelines for driving following a first unprovoked seizure require the risk of another seizure in the next year to be less than 20%. Using data from one clinical trial, we previously developed a prognostic model to inform driving guidelines. The objective of this work is to externally validate our published model and demonstrate its generalisability. Methods A cohort of 620 people with a first unprovoked seizure was used to develop the original model which included variables for aetiology, first degree relative with epilepsy, seizures only while asleep, electroencephalogram, computed tomography or magnetic resonance scan result, and treatment policy. The validation cohorts consisted of 274 (United Kingdom), 305 (Italy), and 847 (Australia) people. The model was evaluated using discrimination and calibration methods. A covariate, missing from the Italian dataset, was handled via five imputation methods. Following external validation, the model was fitted to a pooled population comprising all validation datasets and the development dataset. The model was stratified by dataset. Results The model generalised relatively well. All methods of imputation performed fairly similarly. At six months, the risk of a seizure recurrence following a first ever seizure, based on the pooled datasets, is 15% (95% CI: (12% to 18%)) for patients who are treated immediately and 18% (95% CI: (15 to 21%)) otherwise. Individuals can be reliably stratified into risk groups according to the clinical factors included in the model. Significance Our prognostic model, used to inform driving regulations, has been validated and consequently has been proven as a valuable tool for predicting risk of seizure recurrence following a first seizure in people with various combinations of risk factors. Additionally, there is evidence to support one worldwide overall prognostic model for risk of second seizure following a first. PMID:24919184

Bonnett, Laura Jayne; Marson, Anthony G.; Johnson, Anthony; Kim, Lois; Sander, Josemir W.; Lawn, Nicholas; Beghi, Ettore; Leone, Maurizio; Smith, Catrin Tudur

2014-01-01

352

A rare presentation of seizures in a not-so-rare disease: Henoch-Schönlein purpura presenting with repeated seizures.  

PubMed

Henoch-Schönlein purpura represents the most common form of systemic vasculitis in children. Although a very common cause of vasculitis, seizures are a very rare complication of this disorder. We report a 5-year-old boy who presents with no other clinical symptoms of the disorder other than a seizure. By presenting this case, we hope to expand the differential diagnosis of repeated seizures to include diseases in which the pathogenesis of diseases with small vessel vasculitis such as Henoch-Schönlein purpura is considered. PMID:24892684

Camacho, Christina; Leva, Ernest G

2014-06-01

353

Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures. Methods Forty-eight children who experienced their first unprovoked seizure with epileptiform discharges were included in the study. They were randomly placed into treatment (n?=?24) and control (n?=?24) groups. Children in the treatment group listened to Mozart K.448 daily before bedtime for at least six months. Two patients in the treatment group were excluded from analysis due to discontinuation intervention. Finally, forty-six patients were analyzed. Most of these patients (89.1%) were idiopathic in etiology. Seizure recurrence rates and reduction of epileptiform discharges were compared. Results The average follow-up durations in the treatment and control groups were 18.6?±?6.6 and 20.1?±?5.1 months, respectively. The seizure recurrence rate was estimated to be significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group over 24 months (37.2% vs. 76.8%, p?=?0.0109). Significant decreases in epileptiform discharges were also observed after 1, 2, and 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448 when compared with EEGs before listening to music. There were no significant differences in gender, mentality, seizure type, and etiology between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Conclusions Although the case number was limited and control music was not performed in this study, the study revealed that listening to Mozart K.448 reduced the seizure recurrence rate and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures, especially of idiopathic etiology. We believe that Mozart K.448 could be a promising alternative treatment in patients with first unprovoked seizures and abnormal EEGs. Further large-scaled study should be conducted to confirm the effect. Trial registration NCT01892605, date: June-19-2013 PMID:24410973

2014-01-01

354

Seizure responses and induction of Fos by the NMDA Agonist (tetrazol-5-yl)glycine in a genetic model of NMDA receptor hypofunction  

PubMed Central

Effects of the direct NMDA agonist (tetrazol-5-yl)glycine (TZG) were examined in a genetic mouse model of reduced NMDA receptor function. In this model, expression of the NR1 subunit is reduced but not eliminated and the mice are therefore designated as NR1 hypomorphic. Previous work suggested that the reduced NR1 subunit expression produced a functional subsensitivity as judged by a blunted Fos induction response to a sub-seizure dose of TZG. In the present study seizure threshold doses of TZG were tested in the wild type and mutant mice. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the seizure sensitivity between the wild type mice and mice presumed to express very low levels of the NR1 subunit. An extensive neuroanatomical analysis of Fos induction was conducted after the threshold seizure doses of TZG. The results demonstrate that some brain regions of the NR1 -/- mice exhibit much lower Fos induction in comparison to the NR1 +/+ mice. These regions include hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortical regions. However, in other regions, similar induction of Fos was observed in both genotypes in response to the NMDA agonist. Regions showing similar Fos induction in the NR1 +/+ and NR1 -/- mice include the lateral septum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and medial hypothalamic regions. The results suggest that the NMDA receptor hypofunction in the NR1 -/- mice is not global but regionally specific and that subcortical structures are responsible for the seizure-inducing effects of TZG. Section 3 Neurophysiology, Neuropharmacology and other forms of Intercellular Communication PMID:18550035

Duncan, Gary E.; Inada, Ken; Farrington, Joseph S.; Koller, Beverly H.

2008-01-01

355

Postoperative pseudoepileptic seizures in a known epileptic: complications in recovery.  

PubMed

A 47-yr-old woman underwent general anaesthesia for a squint correction. She had previously suffered a cerebral venous thrombosis, presenting as grand mal seizures during recovery from general anaesthesia for minor surgery. Subsequently, she was affected by Jacksonian limb seizures and petit mal epilepsy and had required long-term rehabilitation, and anticonvulsant and anticoagulant therapy. On arrival in recovery on this occasion, with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in place, she started to convulse. The seizures were initially treated with midazolam i.v., but they recurred. Whilst observing the seizure pattern and excluding the differential diagnoses, evidence emerged that psychological factors had played a large part in her clinical picture. Her differential diagnosis had recently been amended to include 'pseudoseizures'. A firm, supportive approach caused the 'convulsions' to cease within a few hours. PMID:14504168

Ng, L; Chambers, N

2003-10-01

356

Prognosis and Outcome Predictors in Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that one in five patients referred to specialist epilepsy clinics for refractory seizures have psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Despite the high prevalence, little is known about the prognosis of patients with PNES. In this paper we set out to systematically assess published original studies on the prognosis and outcome predictors of patients with PNES. Our literature search across the databases Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE generated 18 original studies meeting the search criteria. Prognosis was found to be poor in adults, but good in children. Predictors of poor outcome included the presence of coexisting epilepsy or psychiatric comorbidities, violent seizure phenomenology, dependent lifestyle, and poor relationships. Overall, too much reliance is placed on seizure remission as an outcome measurement for patients with PNES, and the impact of many of the outcome predictors requires evaluation using larger studies with longer followup. PMID:22937230

Durrant, Joseph; Rickards, Hugh; Cavanna, Andrea E.

2011-01-01

357

Treatment of refractory complex partial seizures: role of vigabatrin  

PubMed Central

Vigabatrin (VGB) is an antiepileptic drug that was designed to inhibit GABA-transaminase, and increase levels of ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. VGB has demonstrated efficacy as an adjunctive antiepileptic drug for refractory complex partial seizures (CPS) and for infantile spasms (IS). This review focuses on its use for complex partial seizures. Although VGB is well tolerated, there have been significant safety concerns about intramyelinic edema and visual field defects. VGB is associated with a risk of developing bilateral concentric visual field defects. Therefore, the use of VGB for complex partial seizures should be limited to those patients with seizures refractory to other treatments. Patients must have baseline and follow-up monitoring of visual fields, early assessment of its efficacy, and ongoing evaluation of the benefits and risks of VGB therapy. PMID:19851518

Waterhouse, Elizabeth J; Mims, Kimberly N; Gowda, Soundarya N

2009-01-01

358

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in the older adult.  

PubMed

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, as a functional neurological symptom disorder. This disorder is often misdiagnosed as epilepsy, with the consequence that older adults may have been treated for years for epilepsy before they learn their seizures are non-epileptic. Video electroencephalography monitoring, which is the standardized approach for ruling out epilepsy, is often performed in a specialized epilepsy monitoring unit where the patient lies in bed 24 hours per day waiting for a seizure to be recorded. The immobility, loss of independence, and anxiety that occurs during the monitoring process can be difficult for older adults. It is important for all nurses to be aware of PNES and to be sensitive to the unique needs of older adults who are experiencing these seizures. PMID:24815758

Yates, Erica

2014-05-01

359

Gelastic seizures and fever originating from a parietal cortical dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Gelastic seizures (GS) is an uncommon seizure type characterized by sudden inappropriate attacks of uncontrolled and unmotivated laugh and its diagnostic criteria were elaborated by Gascon. These criteria included stereotypical recurrence of laugh, which is unjustified by the context, associated signs compatible with seizure, and ictal or interictal abnormalities. GS can be cryptogenic or symptomatic of a variety of cerebral lesions, the most common being hypothalamic hamartoma. However, GS associated with other types of cerebral lesions are exceedingly rare. The physiopathologic mechanisms of this type of seizure are still undefined. Two reports have described a non-lesional GS arising from a parietal focus. In this paper, we report the first case of lesional GS associated to the parietal area of the brain in a child and this case has associated fever that is likely an ictal symptom. PMID:23772252

Chaouki, Sana; Boujraf, Saďd; Atmani, Samir; Elarqam, Larbi; Messouak, Wafae

2013-01-01

360

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

2010-04-01

361

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain...regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain a...

2011-04-01

362

Procedural Guidelines for Colleges and Universities in Search and Seizure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the legal boundaries of search and seizure in colleges and universities. The meanings of "Probable Cause" and "Reasonableness" are examined along with the concept of student rights. (EK)

Schafer, Joyce R.

1974-01-01

363

Evidence of an inhibitory restraint of seizure activity in humans  

PubMed Central

The location and trajectory of seizure activity is of great importance, yet our ability to map such activity remains primitive. Recently, the development of multi-electrode arrays for use in humans has provided new levels of temporal and spatial resolution for recording seizures. Here, we show that there is a sharp delineation between areas showing intense, hypersynchronous firing indicative of recruitment to the seizure, and adjacent territories where there is only low-level, unstructured firing. Thus, there is a core territory of recruited neurons and a surrounding 'ictal penumbra'. The defining feature of the 'ictal penumbra' is the contrast between the large amplitude EEG signals and the low-level firing there. Our human recordings bear striking similarities with animal studies of an inhibitory restraint, indicating that they can be readily understood in terms of this mechanism. These findings have important implications for how we localize seizure activity and map its spread. PMID:22968706

Schevon, Catherine A.; Weiss, Shennan A.; McKhann, Guy; Goodman, Robert R.; Yuste, Rafael; Emerson, Ronald G.; Trevelyan, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

364

Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Poor Attention Is More Than Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... Usually these children are otherwise normal. An EEG ( “brain wave”) test shows a specific pattern that helps confirm ... absence seizure in children with this diagnosis. A brain wave test (EEG) showing the typical pattern for CAE ( ...

365

Reversible brain hyperthermia during audiogenic seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Reversible brain hyperthermia during audiogenic seizures in rats. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1979, 30 (2): 273--277. Nine rats having inborn audiogenic susceptibility had chronically implanted Cu-constantan thermocouple and epidural EEG electrodes sewed into the skull. In freely moving animals audiogenic seizures were provoked by the use of common electric bell (approx. 100 dB). The EEG trace and brain temperature (with the accuracy of 0.05 degrees C) were recorded simultaneously during 1--8 hours. Temperature increases found during 23 audiogenic seizures were similar to those noted during intensive locomotor activity of animals without seizures. In thermoneutral environment (23 +/- 2 degrees C and humidity 65% +/- 10%) brain temperature never exceeded 41 degrees C. PMID:463571

Narebski, J; Waczy?ska, W; Tymicz, J; Tegowska, E

1979-01-01

366

The approach to patients with "non-epileptic seizures"  

PubMed Central

Up to one fifth of patients who present to specialist clinics with seizures do not have epilepsy. The majority of such patients suffer from psychologically mediated episodes; dissociative seizures, often referred to as "non-epileptic seizures". This paper describes the diagnostic evaluation of seizure disorders, including clinical assessment and the role of special investigations. The organic and psychiatric imitators of epilepsy are outlined and findings on psychiatric assessment are reviewed. This group of patients often proves difficult to engage in appropriate treatment and an approach to explaining the diagnosis is described. As yet there are no controlled trials of treatment in this disorder but preliminary evidence suggests cognitive behavioural therapy is both a rational and promising way forward. PMID:16085740

Mellers, J

2005-01-01

367

Clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with nonepileptic seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive profile of clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and to assess the short-term outcome of these patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects were consecutive cases of children with a diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures (N=17, mean age = 10.7 years, S.D. = 1.26) and two groups of control groups matched on age and sex: true seizure group and healthy controls. All the children were recruited from the out-patient services of the Department of Pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. Detailed history taking and clinical examination was done in the case of every child. A standard 18 channel EEG was done in all the children and a video EEG was done in 12 cases of children with nonepileptic seizures. The Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) and Life Events Scale for Indian Children (LESIC) were used to measure the children's emotional and behavioral functioning at home, and the number of life events and the stress associated with these events in the preceding year and the year before that. Short-term outcome was examined three to six months after the diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures was made. Results: Unresponsiveness without marked motor manifestations was the most common “ictal” characteristic of the nonepileptic seizures. Pelvic thrusting, upper and lower limb movements, head movements, and vocalization were observed in less than one-third of the patients. Increased psychosocial stress and significantly higher number of life events in the preceding year were found to characterize children with nonepileptic seizures, as compared to the two control groups. The nonepileptic seizures and true seizures groups had a higher proportion of children with psychopathology scores in the clinically significant maladjustment range, as compared to those in the healthy control group. A majority of the patients (82.4%) either recovered completely or had more than 50% reduction in the frequency of their symptoms, after three to six months of initiation of therapy. Conclusions: Psychosocial stress is common among children with nonepileptic seizures. Confirmatory diagnosis by video EEG, along with prompt psychosocial intervention, often results in a favorable outcome for most children with nonepileptic seizures. PMID:19893662

Chinta, Sri Sankar; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Singhi, Pratibha; Prabhakar, Sudesh

2008-01-01

368

Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.  

PubMed

Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. PMID:25145652

Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

2015-01-01

369

NKCC1 transporter facilitates seizures in the developing brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

During development, activation of Cl?-permeable GABAA receptors (GABAA-R) excites neurons as a result of elevated intracellular Cl? levels and a depolarized Cl? equilibrium potential (ECl). GABA becomes inhibitory as net outward neuronal transport of Cl? develops in a caudal-rostral progression. In line with this caudal-rostral developmental pattern, GABAergic anticonvulsant compounds inhibit motor manifestations of neonatal seizures but not cortical seizure

Volodymyr I Dzhala; Delia M Talos; Dan A Sdrulla; Audrey C Brumback; Gregory C Mathews; Timothy A Benke; Eric Delpire; Frances E Jensen; Kevin J Staley

2005-01-01

370

Iron deficiency as a risk factor for first febrile seizure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted this study to determine the role of iron deficiency as a risk factor for first febrile seizure in children. Fifty\\u000a children between 6 months to 6 years with first febrile seizure (Cases) and 50 children with febrile illness but without convulsions\\u000a (Controls) were enrolled from the pediatric ward of a tertiary care hospital. Iron deficiency was determined by

Rajwanti K. Vaswani; Praveen G. Dharaskar; Swati Kulkarni; K. Ghosh

2010-01-01

371

Detection of epileptic seizure using wireless sensor networks.  

PubMed

The monitoring of epileptic seizures is mainly done by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Although this method is accurate, it is not comfortable for the patient as the EEG-electrodes have to be attached to the scalp which hampers the patient's movement. This makes long-term home monitoring not feasible. In this paper, the aim is to propose a seizure detection system based on accelerometry for the detection of epileptic seizure. The used sensors are wireless, which can improve quality of life for the patients. In this system, three 2D accelerometer sensors are positioned on the right arm, left arm, and left thigh of an epileptic patient. Datasets from three patients suffering from severe epilepsy are used in this paper for the development of an automatic detection algorithm. This monitoring system is based on Wireless Sensor Networks and can determine the location of the patient when a seizure is detected and then send an alarm to hospital staff or the patient's relatives. Our wireless sensor nodes are MICAz Motes developed by Crossbow Technology. The proposed system can be used for patients living in a clinical environment or at their home, where they do only their daily routines. The analysis of the recorded data is done by an Artificial Neural Network and K Nearest-Neighbor to recognize seizure movements from normal movements. The results show that K Nearest Neighbor performs better than Artificial Neural Network for detecting these seizures. The results also show that if at least 50% of the signal consists of seizure samples, we can detect the seizure accurately. In addition, there is no need for training the algorithm for each new patient. PMID:24098859

Borujeny, Golshan Taheri; Yazdi, Mehran; Keshavarz-Haddad, Alireza; Borujeny, Arash Rafie

2013-04-01

372

Detection of Epileptic Seizure Using Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

The monitoring of epileptic seizures is mainly done by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Although this method is accurate, it is not comfortable for the patient as the EEG-electrodes have to be attached to the scalp which hampers the patient's movement. This makes long-term home monitoring not feasible. In this paper, the aim is to propose a seizure detection system based on accelerometry for the detection of epileptic seizure. The used sensors are wireless, which can improve quality of life for the patients. In this system, three 2D accelerometer sensors are positioned on the right arm, left arm, and left thigh of an epileptic patient. Datasets from three patients suffering from severe epilepsy are used in this paper for the development of an automatic detection algorithm. This monitoring system is based on Wireless Sensor Networks and can determine the location of the patient when a seizure is detected and then send an alarm to hospital staff or the patient's relatives. Our wireless sensor nodes are MICAz Motes developed by Crossbow Technology. The proposed system can be used for patients living in a clinical environment or at their home, where they do only their daily routines. The analysis of the recorded data is done by an Artificial Neural Network and K Nearest-Neighbor to recognize seizure movements from normal movements. The results show that K Nearest Neighbor performs better than Artificial Neural Network for detecting these seizures. The results also show that if at least 50% of the signal consists of seizure samples, we can detect the seizure accurately. In addition, there is no need for training the algorithm for each new patient. PMID:24098859

Borujeny, Golshan Taheri; Yazdi, Mehran; Keshavarz-Haddad, Alireza; Borujeny, Arash Rafie

2013-01-01

373

Alcohol-Related Seizures in the Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Alcohol abuse is a common cause of seizures resulting in admission to the intensive care unit. The cause of the alcohol-related\\u000a seizures (ARS) is usually abstinence in a chronic alcoholic, although some patients may still have detectable levels of alcohol\\u000a in their blood. ARS generally occur between 7 and 48 h after abstinence. Approximately half the patients presenting with ARS

Zachary Webb; Panayiotis Varelas

374

Long-term seizure and behavioral outcomes after corpus callosotomy.  

PubMed

Outcomes of corpus callosotomy (CC) have been mainly focused on seizures. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of CC on adaptive behaviors and caregivers' satisfaction in addition to seizures and to identify clinical predictors of postsurgical outcomes. Medical records of 26 patients (mean age at study time: 40years, mean follow-up: 14years) with childhood-onset epilepsy who underwent anterior or 2-stage complete CC were reviewed. A structured questionnaire was submitted to caregivers asking about relative changes in different seizure types, behavioral functions, and satisfaction with the postoperative outcomes. Formal neuropsychological assessment was carried out in a subgroup of patients. Selected clinical variables including age at surgery, extent of callosal section, length of follow-up, epilepsy syndrome, and presurgical cognitive level were submitted to multiple regression analysis. At the last follow-up visit, a reduction greater than 50% was observed mainly for drop attacks (65% of patients), followed by generalized tonic-clonic seizures (53%), and complex partial seizures (50%). No presurgical variables were significantly associated with seizure outcome. After surgery, more than half of patients showed attention enhancement, which was related to drop seizure improvement. Early age at surgery was associated with better behavioral regulation; complete CC slightly worsened language abilities. Satisfaction with surgery outcomes was expressed by 73% of caregivers and was dependent on drop seizure reduction and improvements in activities of daily living. A long-term positive psychosocial outcome is likely after CC also in severely disabled patients, especially if surgery is performed early. PMID:25269691

Passamonti, Claudia; Zamponi, Nelia; Foschi, Nicoletta; Trignani, Roberto; Luzi, Michele; Cesaroni, Elisabetta; Provinciali, Leandro; Scerrati, Massimo

2014-12-01

375

Subsensitivity to mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptor agonist FGIN-1-27-induced antiseizure effect in diazepam-withdrawn mice.  

PubMed

We investigated the role of the mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptor (MDR) in diazepam-withdrawal seizure. In chronically vehicle-treated mice, the potent and selective MDR agonist FGIN-1-27 (N,N-di-n-hexyl 2-(4-fluorophenyl)indole-3-acetamide: 30 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) markedly increased the threshold for pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure. The antiseizure effect of FGIN-1-27 was blocked by pretreatment with the selective MDR antagonist PK11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxa mide). In chronically diazepam-treated mice, the seizure threshold of PTZ was decreased during diazepam withdrawal, indicating withdrawal hyperexcitability. Interestingly, FGIN-1-27 (30 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) failed to increase the seizure threshold of PTZ in diazepam-withdrawn mice, in contrast to its effect in chronically vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that the sensitivity of MDR-mediated pathways in the brain may be decreased during diazepam withdrawal. PMID:9570345

Tsuda, M; Suzuki, T; Misawa, M

1998-01-01

376

Antisense Reduction of Tau in Adult Mice Protects against Seizures  

PubMed Central

Tau, a microtubule-associated protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in regard to both neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal network hyperexcitability. The genetic ablation of tau substantially reduces hyperexcitability in AD mouse lines, induced seizure models, and genetic in vivo models of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that tau is an important regulator of network excitability. However, developmental compensation in the genetic tau knock-out line may account for the protective effect against seizures. To test the efficacy of a tau reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in adult animals, we identified antisense oligonucleotides that selectively decrease endogenous tau expression throughout the entire mouse CNS—brain and spinal cord tissue, interstitial fluid, and CSF—while having no effect on baseline motor or cognitive behavior. In two chemically induced seizure models, mice with reduced tau protein had less severe seizures than control mice. Total tau protein levels and seizure severity were highly correlated, such that those mice with the most severe seizures also had the highest levels of tau. Our results demonstrate that endogenous tau is integral for regulating neuronal hyperexcitability in adult animals and suggest that an antisense oligonucleotide reduction of tau could benefit those with epilepsy and perhaps other disorders associated with tau-mediated neuronal hyperexcitability. PMID:23904623

DeVos, Sarah L.; Goncharoff, Dustin K.; Chen, Guo; Kebodeaux, Carey S.; Yamada, Kaoru; Stewart, Floy R.; Schuler, Dorothy R.; Maloney, Susan E.; Wozniak, David F.; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C. Frank; Cirrito, John R.; Holtzman, David M.

2013-01-01

377

Development of hippocampal sclerosis after a complex febrile seizure.  

PubMed

The role of prolonged febrile seizures in the genesis of hippocampal sclerosis is controversial; statistical analysis and data from epilepsy surgery suggest a causal relationship. A three-year-old boy had an initial febrile seizure with a transient postictal flaccid hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormality of the hippocampal areas of both sides. At the age of four a prolonged febrile seizure occurred. An MRI was done immediately and gave abnormal results in the right hippocampal area where T2-weighted and dark fluid sequences showed increased signal intensity; in diffusion-weighted sequences this region appeared hyperintense, which is in agreement with acute neuronal damage. Six weeks later the right hippocampal region still gave hyperintense signals in MRI (T2-weighted), while the diffusion coefficient was unremarkable. A final MRI scan was done 16 months following the second febrile seizure where the right hippocampal region still gave hyperintense signals and was reduced in size as is typical for hippocampal sclerosis. This case illustrates the development of a hippocampal lesion following a prolonged focal febrile seizure without any preexisting hippocampal lesion or positive family history. This suggests that prolonged febrile seizures alone can be a causative factor of hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:18633642

Merkenschlager, Andreas; Todt, Horst; Pfluger, Thomas; Bernhard, Matthias K

2009-04-01

378

MR Imaging Findings in Children with First Recognized Seizure  

PubMed Central

This study characterized structural abnormalities associated with onset of seizures in children using MRI and a standardized classification system in a large prospective cohort. A total of 281 children aged 6 to 14 years completed an MRI within six months of their first recognized seizure. Most MRI examinations were performed with a standardized, dedicated seizure protocol, and all were scored using a standard scoring system. At least one MRI abnormality was identified in 87 of the 281 (31%) of children with first recognized seizure. Two or more abnormalities were identified in 34 (12%). The most common abnormalities were ventricular enlargement (51%), leukomalacia/gliosis (23%), gray matter lesions such as heterotopias and cortical dysplasia (12%), volume loss (12%), various other white matter lesions (9%), and encephalomalacia (6%). Abnormalities defined as significant, or potentially related to seizures, occurred in 40 (14%). Temporal lobe and hippocampal abnormalities were detected at a higher frequency than in previous studies (13/87). Use of MRI and a standardized reliable and valid scoring system demonstrated a higher rate of abnormal findings than previous investigations, including findings that might have been considered incidental in the past. Practice parameters may need to be revised to expand the definition of significant abnormalities and to support wider use of MRI in children with newly diagnosed seizures. PMID:19027586

Kalnin, Andrew J.; Fastenau, Philip S.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Musick, Beverly S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Mathews, Vincent P.; Egelhoff, John C.; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

2008-01-01

379

Decursin attenuates kainic acid-induced seizures in mice.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with recurrent unprovoked seizures as the main symptom. Of the coumarin derivatives in Angelica gigas, decursin, a major coumarin component, was reported to exhibit significant protective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity when added to primary cultures of rat cortical cells. This study served to investigate the effects of decursin on a kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus model. Thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injections of decursin (20?mg/kg) in male 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice, the animals were treated with KA (30?mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and then examined for behavioral seizure score, electroencephalogram, seizure-related expressed protein levels, neuronal cell loss, neurodegeneration, and astrogliosis. KA injections significantly enhanced neurodegenerative conditions but treatment with decursin 30?min before KA injection reduced the detrimental effects of KA in mice. The decursin-treated KA-injected group showed significantly decreased behavioral seizure activity and remarkably attenuated intense and high-frequency seizure discharges in the parietal cortex for 2?h compared with the group treated only with KA. Furthermore, in-vivo results indicated that decursin strongly inhibits selective neuronal death, astrogliosis, and oxidative stress induced by KA administration. Therefore decursin is able to attenuate KA-induced seizures and could have potential as an antiepileptic drug. PMID:25171200

Lee, Jong-Keun; Jeong, Ji Woon; Jang, Taeik; Lee, Go-Woon; Han, Hogyu; Kang, Jae-Seon; Kim, Ik-Hwan

2014-11-12

380

Tranexamic acid concentrations associated with human seizures inhibit glycine receptors  

PubMed Central

Antifibrinolytic drugs are widely used to reduce blood loss during surgery. One serious adverse effect of these drugs is convulsive seizures; however, the mechanisms underlying such seizures remain poorly understood. The antifibrinolytic drugs tranexamic acid (TXA) and ?-aminocaproic acid (EACA) are structurally similar to the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine. Since reduced function of glycine receptors causes seizures, we hypothesized that TXA and EACA inhibit the activity of glycine receptors. Here we demonstrate that TXA and EACA are competitive antagonists of glycine receptors in mice. We also showed that the general anesthetic isoflurane, and to a lesser extent propofol, reverses TXA inhibition of glycine receptor–mediated current, suggesting that these drugs could potentially be used to treat TXA-induced seizures. Finally, we measured the concentration of TXA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. Surprisingly, peak TXA concentration in the CSF occurred after termination of drug infusion and in one patient coincided with the onset of seizures. Collectively, these results show that concentrations of TXA equivalent to those measured in the CSF of patients inhibited glycine receptors. Furthermore, isoflurane or propofol may prevent or reverse TXA-induced seizures. PMID:23187124

Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Romaschin, Alexander D.; Peterson, Mark; Mazer, C. David; Orser, Beverley A.

2012-01-01

381

Influences of hyperthermia-induced seizures on learning, memory and phosphorylative state of CaMKII? in rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Febrile seizure (FS) remains the most common childhood neurological emergency. Although many studies have been done, controversy exists as to whether these seizures are associated with a significant risk for cognitive impairment. The aim of our study is to check whether there is a spatial learning and memory deficit in the experimental FS rats using a heated-air FS paradigm and to determine the possible molecular mechanism of cognitive impairment. On days 10 to 12 postpartum, the male rat pups were subjected to one, three, or nine episodes of brief hyperthermia-induced seizures (HS). At adolescence and adulthood, the rats subjected to three, or nine episodes of HS had significant deficits in spatial learning and memory tested by Morris water maze. At adulthood, no apparent hippocampal neuronal loss was found in any HS group, but the seizure threshold to flurothyl was decreased significantly in the rats subjected to nine episodes of HS. In the rats subjected to three, or nine episodes of HS, the Western immunoblotting showed that there was a significant translocation of Ca(2+)-calmodulin stimulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) from the postsynaptic density to the cytosol. In the postsynaptic density the phosphorylation of CaMKII? Thr(286) was reduced significantly, but the phosphorylation of CaMKII? Thr(305) was increased significantly. Our study showed early-life brief but recurrent HS caused long-term cognitive impairment and CaMKII? was involved in carrying forward the signal resulting from HS. The change of the phosphorylative level in Thr(286) and Thr(305) sites of CaMKII? may underlie the molecular mechanism for the HS related cognitive impairment. PMID:24560900

Xiong, Yufang; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Lian

2014-04-01

382

Recognition memory is impaired in children after prolonged febrile seizures  

PubMed Central

Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal injury may be evident in human children after prolonged febrile seizures. The current study addressed this question by investigating memory abilities in 26 children soon after a prolonged febrile seizure (median: 37.5 days) and compared their results to those of 37 normally developing children. Fifteen patients were reassessed at a mean of 12.5 months after their first assessment to determine the transiency of any observed effects. We used the visual paired comparison task to test memory abilities in our group, as this task does not depend on verbal abilities and also because successful performance on the task has been proven to depend on the presence of functional hippocampi. Our findings show that patients perform as well as controls in the absence of a delay between the learning phase and the memory test, suggesting that both groups are able to form representations of the presented stimulus. However, after a 5-min delay, patients’ recognition memory is not different from chance, and comparison of patients and controls points to an accelerated forgetting rate in the prolonged febrile seizure group. The patients’ performance was not related to the time elapsed from the acute event or the duration of the prolonged febrile seizure, suggesting that the observed effect is not a by-product of the seizure itself or a delayed effect of medication administered to terminate the seizure. By contrast, performance was related to hippocampal size; participants with the smallest mean hippocampal volumes revealed the biggest drop in performance from the immediate to the delayed paradigm. At follow-up, children were still showing deficiencies in recognizing a face after a 5-min delay. Similarly, this suggests that the observed memory impairments are not a transient effect of the prolonged febrile seizures. This is the first report of such impairments in humans, and it is clinically significant given the links between mesial temporal sclerosis and prolonged febrile seizures. The persistence of these impairments a year onwards signals the potential benefits of intervention in these children who run the risk of developing episodic memory deficits in later childhood. PMID:22945967

Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; de Haan, Michelle

2012-01-01

383

Muscarinic M1 receptor and cannabinoid CB1 receptor do not modulate paraoxon-induced seizures  

PubMed Central

One of the major signs of severe organophosphate poisoning is seizures. Previous studies have shown that both muscarinic agonist- and organophosphate-induced seizures require activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system. Seizures induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine require the M1 receptor and are modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. In this study, we determined whether M1 and CB1 receptors also regulated seizures induced by the organophosphate paraoxon. We found no differences in seizures induced by paraoxon in wild-type (WT) and M1 knockout (KO) mice, indicating that in contrast to pilocarpine seizures, M1 receptors are not required for paraoxon seizures. Furthermore, we found that pilocarpine administration resulted in seizure-independent activation of ERK in the hippocampus in a M1 receptor-dependent manner, while paraoxon did not induce seizure-independent activation of ERK in the mouse hippocampus. This shows that pilocarpine and paraoxon activated M1 receptors in the hippocampus to different extents. There were no differences in seizures induced by paraoxon in WT and CB1 KO mice, and neither CB1 agonist nor antagonist administration had significant effects on paraoxon seizures, indicating that, in contrast to pilocarpine seizures, paraoxon seizures are not modulated by CB1 receptors. These results demonstrate that there are fundamental molecular differences in the regulation of seizures induced by pilocarpine and paraoxon.

Kow, Rebecca L; Cheng, Eugene M; Jiang, Kelly; Le, Joshua H; Stella, Nephi; Nathanson, Neil M

2015-01-01

384

Network problem threshold  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Network transmission errors such as collisions, CRC errors, misalignment, etc. are statistical in nature. Although errors can vary randomly, a high level of errors does indicate specific network problems, e.g. equipment failure. In this project, we have studied the random nature of collisions theoretically as well as by gathering statistics, and established a numerical threshold above which a network problem is indicated with high probability.

Gejji, Raghvendra, R.

1992-01-01

385

Making Diagnostic Thresholds Less Arbitrary  

E-print Network

The application of diagnostic thresholds plays an important role in the classification of mental disorders. Despite their importance, many diagnostic thresholds are set arbitrarily, without much empirical support. This paper seeks to introduce...

Unger, Alexis Ariana

2012-07-16

386

Early follow-up data from seizure diaries can be used to predict subsequent seizures in same cohort by borrowing strength across participants  

PubMed Central

Accurate prediction of seizures in persons with epilepsy offers opportunities for both precautionary measures and preemptive treatment. Previously identified predictors of seizures include patient-reported seizure anticipation, as well as stress, anxiety, and decreased sleep. In this study, we developed three models using 30 days of nightly seizure diary data in a cohort of 71 individuals with a history of uncontrolled seizures to predict subsequent seizures in the same cohort over a 30-day follow-up period. The best model combined the individual’s seizure history with that of the remainder of the cohort, resulting in 72% sensitivity for 80% specificity, and 0.83 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The possibility of clinically relevant prediction should be examined through electronic data capture and more specific and more frequent sampling, and with patient training to improve prediction. PMID:19138755

Hall, Charles B.; Lipton, Richard B.; Tennen, Howard; Haut, Sheryl R.

2014-01-01

387

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical care (SMC) as treatments for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods: Our randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared CBT with SMC in an outpatient neuropsychiatric setting. Sixty-six PNES patients were randomized to either CBT (plus SMC) or SMC alone, scheduled to occur over 4 months. PNES diagnosis was established by video-EEG telemetry for most patients. Exclusion criteria included comorbid history of epilepsy, <2 PNES/month, and IQ <70. The primary outcome was seizure frequency at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included 3 months of seizure freedom at 6-month follow-up, measures of psychosocial functioning, health service use, and employment. Results: In an intention-to-treat analysis, seizure reduction following CBT was superior at treatment end (group × time interaction p < 0.0001; large to medium effect sizes). At follow-up, the CBT group tended to be more likely to have experienced 3 months of seizure freedom (odds ratio 3.125, p = 0.086). Both groups improved in some health service use measures and on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Mood and employment status showed no change. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than standard medical care alone in reducing seizure frequency in PNES patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT in addition to SMC, as compared to SMC alone, significantly reduces seizure frequency in patients with PNES (change in median monthly seizure frequency: baseline to 6 months follow-up, CBT group, 12 to 1.5; SMC alone group, 8 to 5). GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy; CI = confidence interval; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IQR = interquartile range; ITT = intention-to-treat; OR = odds ratio; PNES = psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SMC = standard medical care; WASAS = Work and Social Adjustment Scale. PMID:20548043

Goldstein, L.H.; Chalder, T.; Chigwedere, C.; Khondoker, M.R.; Moriarty, J.; Toone, B.K.; Mellers, J.D.C.

2010-01-01

388

21 CFR 1.383 - What expedited procedures apply when FDA initiates a seizure action against a detained perishable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedures apply when FDA initiates a seizure action against a detained perishable...procedures apply when FDA initiates a seizure action against a detained perishable food? If FDA initiates a seizure action under section 304(a)...

2011-04-01

389

Epileptogenesis provoked by prolonged experimental febrile seizures: mechanisms and biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Whether long febrile seizures (FS) can cause epilepsy in the absence of genetic or acquired predisposing factors is unclear. Having established causality between long FS and limbic epilepsy in an animal model, we studied here if the duration of the inciting FS influenced the probability of developing subsequent epilepsy and the severity of the spontaneous seizures. We evaluated if interictal epileptifom activity and/or elevation of hippocampal T2 signal on MRI provided predictive biomarkers for epileptogenesis, and if the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1? (IL-1?), an intrinsic element of FS generation, contributed also to subsequent epileptogenesis. We found that febrile status epilepticus, lasting an average of 64 minutes, increased the severity and duration of subsequent spontaneous seizures compared with FS averaging 24 minutes. Interictal activity in rats sustaining febrile status epilepticus was also significantly longer and more robust, and correlated with the presence of hippocampal T2 changes in individual rats. Neither T2 changes nor interictal activity predicted epileptogenesis. Hippocampal levels of IL-1? were significantly higher for over 24 hours after prolonged FS. Chronically, IL-1? levels were elevated only in rats developing spontaneous limbic seizures after febrile status epilepticus, consistent with a role for this inflammatory mediator in epileptogenesis. Establishing seizure duration as an important determinant in epileptogenesis, and defining the predictive roles of interictal activity, MRI, and inflammatory processes are of paramount importance to the clinical understanding of the outcome of FS, the most common neurological insult in infants and children. PMID:20519523

Dubé, Celiné M.; Ravizza, Teresa; Hamamura, Mark; Zha, Qinqin; Keebaugh, Andrew; Fok, Kimberly; Andres, Adrienne M.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Obenaus, Andre; Vezzani, Annamaria; Baram, Tallie Z.

2010-01-01

390

Chemical–genetic attenuation of focal neocortical seizures  

PubMed Central

Focal epilepsy is commonly pharmacoresistant, and resective surgery is often contraindicated by proximity to eloquent cortex. Many patients have no effective treatment options. Gene therapy allows cell-type specific inhibition of neuronal excitability, but on-demand seizure suppression has only been achieved with optogenetics, which requires invasive light delivery. Here we test a combined chemical–genetic approach to achieve localized suppression of neuronal excitability in a seizure focus, using viral expression of the modified muscarinic receptor hM4Di. hM4Di has no effect in the absence of its selective, normally inactive and orally bioavailable agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Systemic administration of CNO suppresses focal seizures evoked by two different chemoconvulsants, pilocarpine and picrotoxin. CNO also has a robust anti-seizure effect in a chronic model of focal neocortical epilepsy. Chemical–genetic seizure attenuation holds promise as a novel approach to treat intractable focal epilepsy while minimizing disruption of normal circuit function in untransduced brain regions or in the absence of the specific ligand. PMID:24866701

Kätzel, Dennis; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Schorge, Stephanie; Walker, Matthew C.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

2014-01-01

391

Cross Sectional Imaging of Post Partum Headache and Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate spectrum of causes & their characteristic findings in peripartum head ache and seizures on computed tomography & magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with complaints of peripartum headache and seizures underwent cross sectional imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging during period of June 2011 to May 2012. Age group of subjects in this study was 18 to 38 y. Out of 40 patients 15 had history of eclampsia and remaining 25 patients were normotensive. Subjects with complaints of headache and seizures after six weeks of delivery were excluded from the study. Intravenous contrast was administered in cases with diagnostic dilemma. All results were reported and informed to the referring physicians on priority bases. Results: Nine patients with peripartum headache and seizures revealed no brain parenchymal or cerebral vascular abnormalities on imaging. Eleven patients with a history of eclampsia showed features of eclamptic encephalopathy. Out 40 patients, 17 patients revealed cortical venous thrombosis with 14 patients showing parenchymal changes. One patient each showed features of meningoencephalitis, ischemic watershed territory infarct & region of gliosis. All results were analysed & tabulated. Conclusion: Eclamptic encephalopathy and cortical venous thrombosis are the major causes for post partum headache and seizures. Rational use of CT & MRI in the early course of the disease helps in characterizing the lesion and providing the appropriate treatment. PMID:25654004

Mundaganur, Praveen; Sonwalkar, Pradeep; N S, Vishal; G S, Narendra; P, Sanjay

2014-01-01

392

Physiological changes during prolonged seizures and epileptic brain damage.  

PubMed

The role of physiological changes occurring during prolonged seizures in the causation of epileptic brain damage has been investigated experimentally in baboons and rats. Prolonged drug-induced myoclonic seizure activity is associated with initial arterial hypertension and subsequent hypotension, increased venous pressure, early hyperglycaemia and subsequent hypoglycaemia, variable arterial hypoxia and lactacidosis, and hyperpyrexia. Cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen and glucose is increased 2--3 fold throughout prolonged seizures provided the physiological status of the animal is well maintained. Ischaemic neuronal change is found after seizures lasting 1.5--7 hours, involving the small neurones of the third cortical lamina, Purkinje and basket cells in the cerebellum, and pyramidal neurons in the endfolium and Sommer sector of the hippocampus. Muscular paralysis and artificial ventilation minimise late physiological changes such as arterial hypotension and hyperpyrexia, and protect against cerebellar damage, but only slightly against neocortical and hippocampal damage. When arterial hypotension, hypoxia or hypoglycaemia lead to a reduction in the intensity of seizure discharge in paralysed, ventilated rats, there is also a reduction in hippocampal and neocortical damage. Factors intimately related to the intensity and duration of the neuronal discharge are responsible for neocortical and hippocampal lesions. PMID:581396

Meldrum, B

1978-08-01

393

Current and emerging treatments for absence seizures in young patients.  

PubMed

In this report, we review the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of the different absence seizure types as recently recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy: typical absences, atypical absences, myoclonic absences, and eyelid myoclonia with absences. Overall, valproate and ethosuximide remain the principal anti-absence drugs. Typical absence seizures exhibit a specific electroclinical semiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacological response profile. A large-scale comparative study has recently confirmed the key role of ethosuximide in the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy, more than 50 years after its introduction. No new antiepileptic drug has proven major efficacy against typical absences. Of the medications under development, brivaracetam might be an efficacious anti-absence drug. Some experimental drugs also show efficacy in animal models of typical absence seizures. The treatment of other absence seizure types is not supported with a high level of evidence. Rufinamide appears to be the most promising new antiepileptic drug for atypical absences and possibly for myoclonic absences. The efficacy of vagal nerve stimulation should be further evaluated for atypical absences. Levetiracetam appears to display a particular efficacy in eyelid myoclonia with absences. Finally, it is important to remember that the majority of antiepileptic drugs, whether they be old or new, may aggravate typical and atypical absence seizures. PMID:23885176

Vrielynck, Pascal

2013-01-01

394

Psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures: clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG) video-tape recordings.  

PubMed

This paper presents a clinical and electrophysiological analysis of type and duration of seizures recorded by means of long-term video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring, a method which enables accurate diagnosis of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures occurring with or without epileptic seizures. Analysis is based on 1083 patients, hospitalized at our department between 1990 and 1997, with a preliminary diagnosis of epilepsy. Psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures were diagnosed in 85 patients (7.8%). In 48 patients, pseudoepileptic seizures alone were diagnosed (group 1), whereas 37 patients had a mixed condition in which pseudoepileptic seizures were accompanied by epileptic seizures (group 2). For comparison of duration of pseudo- and epileptic seizures a control group (group 3), consisting of 55 patients randomly selected from the population of patients suffering from epileptic seizures alone, was parceled out. Long-term video EEG monitoring was performed in 70 patients. In 55 (79%) of these patients 230 seizures (221 pseudoepileptic and nine epileptic) were recorded. In 30 patients (32%), the diagnosis was based on clinical observation of the seizures and on the number of EEG recordings, including activating procedures such as sleep deprivation, photostimulation, hyperventilation and anti-epileptic drug withdrawal. We found that the duration of epileptic seizures was significantly shorter than the duration of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. Our study has exposed the difficulties involved in the diagnosis of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures and the negligible value of neuroimaging techniques and interictal EEG recordings in the differential diagnosis of epileptic versus nonepileptic seizures. In this study, psychogenic seizures were significantly more frequent in women than in men; patient history analysis did not confirm the hypothesis that sexual abuse may cause psychogenic seizures. PMID:10362902

Jedrzejczak, J; Owczarek, K; Majkowski, J

1999-07-01

395

Grossman's Missing Health Threshold?  

PubMed Central

We present a generalized solution to Grossman's model of health capital (1972), relaxing the widely used assumption that individuals can adjust their health stock instantaneously to an “optimal” level without adjustment costs. The Grossman model then predicts the existence of a health threshold above which individuals do not demand medical care. Our generalized solution addresses a significant criticism: the model's prediction that health and medical care are positively related is consistently rejected by the data. We suggest structural- and reduced-form equations to test our generalized solution and contrast the predictions of the model with the empirical literature. PMID:21775003

Galama, Titus; Kapteyn, Arie

2011-01-01

396

Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

Kovacs, S Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

2014-01-01

397

Epileptogenesis after prolonged febrile seizures: mechanisms, biomarkers and therapeutic opportunities  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and recent prospective analyses of long febrile seizures (FS) and febrile status epilepticus (FSE) support the idea that in some children, such seizures can provoke temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Because of the high prevalence of these seizures, if epilepsy was to arise as their direct consequence, this would constitute a significant clinical problem. Here we discuss these issues, and describe the use of animal models of prolonged FS and of FSE to address the following questions: Are long FS epileptogenic? What governs this epileptogenesis? What are the mechanisms? Are there any predictive biomarkers of the epileptogenic process, and can these be utilized, together with information about the mechanisms of epileptogenesis, for eventual prevention of the TLE that results from long FS and FSE. PMID:21356275

McClelland, Shawn; Dubé, Céline M.; Yang, Jaqueline; Baram, Tallie Z.

2011-01-01

398

Automated differentiation between epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures.  

PubMed

Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed with the algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures. Ann Neurol 2015;77:348-351. PMID:25545895

Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai; Jennum, Poul; Fabricius, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina; Andersen, Noémi; Hjalgrim, Helle; Wolf, Peter

2015-02-01

399

Blast TBI Models, Neuropathology, and Implications for Seizure Risk  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies. PMID:24782820

Kovacs, S. Krisztian; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.

2014-01-01

400

Down syndrome and dementia: seizures and cognitive decline.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the association of seizures and cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's-type dementia. A retrospective data analysis was carried out following a controlled study of antioxidant supplementation for dementia in DS. Observations were made at baseline and every 6 months for 2 years. Seizure history was obtained from study records. The primary outcome measures comprised the performance-based Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) and Brief Praxis Test (BPT). Secondary outcome measures comprised the informant-based Dementia Questionnaire for Mentally Retarded Persons and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Because a large proportion of patients with seizures had such severe cognitive decline as to become untestable on the performance measures, time to "first inability to test" was measured. Adjustments were made for the potentially confounding co-variates of age, gender, APOE4 status, baseline cognitive impairment, years since dementia onset at baseline, and treatment assignment. The estimated odds ratio for the time to "first inability to test" on SIB comparing those with seizures to those without is 11.02 (95% CI: 1.59, 76.27), a ratio that is significantly different from 1 (p = 0.015). Similarly, we estimated an odds ratio of 9.02 (95% CI: 1.90, 42.85) on BPT, a ratio also significantly different than 1 (p = 0.006). Results from a secondary analysis of the informant measures showed significant decline related to seizures. We conclude that there is a strong association of seizures with cognitive decline in demented individuals with DS. Prospective studies exploring this relationship in DS are indicated. PMID:22214782

Lott, Ira T; Doran, Eric; Nguyen, Vinh Q; Tournay, Anne; Movsesyan, Nina; Gillen, Daniel L

2012-01-01

401

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition...MERCHANDISE Merchandise Subject to Economic Sanctions § 12.150 Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other...

2010-04-01

402

28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director,...

2012-07-01

403

28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director,...

2011-07-01

404

28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director,...

2010-07-01

405

Application of machine learning to epileptic seizure onset detection and treatment  

E-print Network

Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes individuals to experiencing recurrent seizures. It affects 3 million Americans and 50 million people world-wide. A seizure is a transient ...

Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

2009-01-01

406

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2014-07-01

407

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2012-07-01

408

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2013-07-01

409

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2010-07-01

410

31 CFR 406.1 - Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secret Service officers authorized to make seizures of gold. 406.1 Section 406.1 Money and Finance...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF GOLD FOR VIOLATIONS OF GOLD RESERVE ACT OF 1934 AND GOLD REGULATIONS §...

2011-07-01

411

Automatic detection of epileptic seizure onset and termination using intracranial EEG  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the problem of real-time epileptic seizure detection from intracranial EEG (IEEG). One difficulty in creating an approach that can be used for many patients is the heterogeneity of seizure IEEG patterns ...

Kharbouch, Alaa Amin

2012-01-01

412

Management of seizures in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.  

PubMed

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is an epilepsy syndrome that begins in childhood (between 1 and 8 years of age), worsens during latency and persists frequently into adulthood, is refractory to antiepileptic medications, and results in cognitive decline and behavioral problems in affected individuals. Seizure types consist primarily of axial tonic, atonic, and atypical absence; nocturnal tonic seizures are the most common seizure pattern in this population, but often are not one of the initial seizure patterns. Some patients also have myoclonic seizures; this seizure pattern is less frequent than the three preceding types. Although there are some cases that are cryptogenic, most are symptomatic, arising during prenatal and perinatal periods from intrauterine infections, and vascular insults to the brain. Examples of causes of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome include migrational abnormalities of the brain, late effects of CNS infections, certain genetic disorders such as tuberous sclerosis, and inherited metabolic disorders. The difficulty early in the course of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is distinguishing this diagnosis from severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (Dravet syndrome) or from myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), as the seizure patterns in these three syndromes may overlap at the onset. EEG is a helpful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, usually demonstrating high voltage, bifrontal 1.5-2.5?Hz spike and wave complexes interictally, and attenuation with paroxysmal fast activity (10-13?Hz) during the ictal phase. Treatment options for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome have been less than optimal. In recent years, several drugs have been tested and approved for the treatment of this syndrome; these include felbamate, lamotrigine, topiramate, and rufinamide. The long-term outcome does not appear to be any better with the newer antiepileptic drugs than when using earlier prescribed antiepileptic drugs or polytherapy. Treatment options other than antiepileptic drugs include a ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation, and corpus callosotomy. Long-term outcome of these patients relative to seizure control and cognition is poor. Most develop moderate intellectual disability within a few years of onset of the syndrome. Many develop behavioral problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and aggression. PMID:21351810

Crumrine, Patricia K

2011-04-01

413

Impedance measurements for the early warning detection of epileptic seizures  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Figure 35. Impedance Data from Rat 16 Figure 36. Impedance Data from Rat 17 Figure 37. Impedance Data from Rat 18 Figure 38. Impedance Data from Rat 19. 85 86 87 89 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Epilepsy can be defined as a neuro...-physiological disorder of the cerebral hemispheres characterized by fits or seizures which recur primarily due to electro-chemical disturbances. It is estimated that 0. 5-2% of the worlds population may be affected by epilepsy [I]. Epileptics may experience seizures...

Glass, Michael Scott

1989-01-01

414

Risk of Later Seizure After Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Although acute seizures are common among neonates with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), the incidence of subsequent seizures is unknown. The goals of this study were to determine the incidence of seizures following hospital discharge after perinatal acute AIS, and to assess lesion characteristics associated with later seizure occurrence. METHODS: Neonates with confirmed acute AIS on MRI were identified through a prospective stroke registry. Clinic visits and telephone follow-up identified occurrence of seizures after hospital discharge. MRI scans were graded for size and characteristics of infarct, and associations with seizures after stroke were analyzed. RESULTS: At a mean (SD) follow-up of 31.3 (16.1) months, 11 of 46 (23.9%) patients with perinatal AIS had at least 1 seizure. Five patients had a single episode of seizure, and 6 developed epilepsy. The Kaplan-Meier probability of remaining seizure-free at 3 years was 73%. Stroke size on MRI was significantly associated with development of later seizures, with an incidence rate of later seizures 6.2 times higher among those with larger stroke size. CONCLUSIONS: Seizures occurred in <25% of patients during initial follow-up after perinatal AIS. Of those with seizures, nearly half had a single episode of seizure and not early epilepsy. Larger stroke size was associated with higher risk of seizure. These data suggest that prolonged treatment with anticonvulsant agents may not be indicated for seizure prophylaxis after perinatal AIS. These findings may help guide clinicians in counseling families and could form the basis for much-needed future research in this area. PMID:21576305

Wusthoff, Courtney J.; Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Vossough, Arastoo; Ichord, Rebecca; Zelonis, Sarah; Halperin, Aviva; Gordon, Danielle; Vargas, Gray; Licht, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

415

[Simultaneous bilateral humeral head disclocation and acetabular fracture. A rare manifestation after hypoglycemia-induced seizures].  

PubMed

Seizures can cause severe musculoskeletal injuries and posterior shoulder dislocation is a typical result of a seizure. Bilateral posterior shoulder dislocation is rare and acetabular fractures caused by a seizure are also a rarity. We present the case of a 48-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral posterior shoulder fracture dislocations and bilateral acetabular fractures as a result of hypoglycemia-induced seizures. PMID:23949135

Langenhan, R; Hohendorff, B; Trobisch, P; Probst, A

2014-08-01

416

Pediatric posttraumatic seizures: epidemiology, putative mechanisms of epileptogenesis and promising investigational progress.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy are common in children experiencing traumatic brain injury and portend worse functional outcome. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of pediatric posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy remains poorly understood, and no efficacious preventive therapy for post-traumatic epilepsy has been identified. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric posttraumatic seizures, discusses prominent putative mechanisms of posttraumatic epileptogenesis and highlights recent promising progress in experimental investigations of posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy. PMID:16943659

Statler, Kimberly D

2006-01-01

417

3-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one or N-acetylcysteine prevents hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and rectifies subsequent convulsive susceptibility in a rat model of kainic acid-induced seizure ceased by pentobarbital.  

PubMed

There is accumulating evidence that reactive oxygen species are involved in the development of seizures under pathological conditions, and antioxidant treatments are a novel therapeutic approach for epilepsy. The kainic acid (KA) model of induced seizures has been widely used to study temporal lobe epilepsy. However, research on the use of free radical scavengers following KA-induced status epilepticus (SE) is limited. We examined whether antioxidants already used in humans could reduce hippocampal neuronal cell loss, mossy fiber sprouting and the acquisition of hyperexcitability when administered as a single dose after SE. The antioxidant 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone) (30mg/kg) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (30mg/kg) was administered after KA-induced SE ceased by pentobarbital. We evaluated neuronal cell viability 1 week after SE, determined the threshold for seizures induced by inhalation of flurothyl ether 12 weeks after SE, and examined the extent of mossy fiber sprouting 12 weeks after SE. We found that edaravone or NAC prevented neuronal cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting, and increased the threshold for seizures induced by flurothyl ether, even when administered after KA-induced SE. These results demonstrate that a single dose of edaravone or NAC can protect against neuronal cell loss and epileptogenesis when administered after SE ceased by pentobarbital. PMID:24854122

Nomura, Shohei; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Ryohei; Fukui, Miho; Tamai, Hiroshi

2014-11-24

418

Agmatine enhances the anticonvulsant effect of lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: Involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.  

PubMed

After nearly 60years, lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders. In addition to its antimanic and antidepressant effects, lithium also has anticonvulsant properties. Similar to lithium, agmatine plays a protective role in the central nervous system against seizures and has been reported to enhance the effect of different antiepileptic agents. Moreover, both agmatine and lithium have modulatory effects on the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. This study was designed to investigate: (1) whether agmatine and lithium exert a synergistic effect against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and (2) whether or not this synergistic effect is mediated through inhibition of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In our study, acute administration of a single potent dose of lithium chloride (30mg/kg ip) increased seizure threshold, whereas pretreatment with a low and independently noneffective dose of agmatine (3mg/kg) potentiated a subeffective dose of lithium (10mg/kg). N(G)-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 1 and 5mg/kg and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, preferential neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) at 15 and 30mg/kg augmented the anticonvulsant effect of the noneffective combination of lithium (10mg/kg ip) and agmatine (1mg/kg), whereas several doses (20 and 40mg/kg) of aminoguanidine (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) failed to alter the seizure threshold of the same combination. Furthermore, pretreatment with independently noneffective doses (30 and 60mg/kg) of L-arginine (substrate for nitric oxide synthase) inhibited the potentiating effect of agmatine (3mg/kg) on lithium (10mg/kg). Our findings demonstrate that agmatine and lithium chloride have synergistic anticonvulsant properties that may be mediated through the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the role of constitutive nitric oxide synthase versus inducible nitric oxide synthase is prominent in this phenomenon. PMID:20493779

Bahremand, Arash; Ziai, Pouya; Khodadad, Tina Kabiri; Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Hedayat, Tina; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-07-01

419

Optimising threshold levels for information transmission in binary threshold networks: Independent multiplicative noise on each threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of optimising the threshold levels in multilevel threshold system subject to multiplicative Gaussian and uniform noise is considered. Similar to previous results for additive noise, we find a bifurcation phenomenon in the optimal threshold values, as the noise intensity changes. This occurs when the number of threshold units is greater than one. We also study the optimal thresholds for combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian noise, and find that all threshold levels need to be identical to optimise the system when the additive noise intensity is a constant. However, this identical value is not equal to the signal mean, unlike the case of additive noise. When the multiplicative noise intensity is instead held constant, the optimal threshold levels are not all identical for small additive noise intensity but are all equal to zero for large additive noise intensity. The model and our results are potentially relevant for sensor network design and understanding neurobiological sensory neurons such as in the peripheral auditory system.

Zhou, Bingchang; McDonnell, Mark D.

2015-02-01

420

Anxiety as a differential factor in epileptic versus psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures.  

PubMed

Anxiety may be a hypothetical factor responsible for psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. The purpose of this study was to analyse anxiety indexes manifested in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of a neurological examination and long-term video-monitoring. Group One (N=70; 58 F, 12 M) had only psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. Group Two (N=40; 31 F, 9 M) had both epileptic seizures and psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures. Group Three (N=42; 30 F, 12 M) had only epileptic seizures and served as the control group. Patients with psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures, alone or in combination with epileptic seizures scored significantly higher than the epileptic group on the following anxiety measures: Anxiety Sign (Gough) - AxS - (P<0.001), Expressive-repressive Index (Sandford, Webster and Freedman) - ERI (P<0.001), and the Neurotic score (Ruesch and Bowman) - NS (P<0.001). Difference between all three groups were found for the Triad Elevation Index (Lovell)-TI (P<0.001) and the Frustration Tolerance Index (Beall and Panton) - FT (P<0.005). These findings suggest that the existence of psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures or the predisposition to such seizures is reflected in the anxiety dimensions of the personality profile. Psychological evaluation of anxiety may help us to gain a better understanding of, and discrimination between, patients with psychogenic pseudoepileptic seizures, mixed seizures and epileptic seizures. PMID:12536055

Owczarek, Krzysztof

2003-01-01

421

19 CFR 162.93 - Failure to issue notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Failure to issue notice of seizure. 162.93 Section 162.93 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.93 Failure to issue notice of seizure. If Customs does not send notice...

2011-04-01

422

22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal...VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal...involved in such attempt is subject to seizure, forfeiture and disposition as...

2010-04-01

423

31 CFR 401.1 - Secret Service agents authorized to make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secret Service agents authorized to make seizures. 401.1 Section 401.1 Money...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF VESSELS, VEHICLES...Secret Service agents authorized to make seizures. All officers of the U.S....

2011-07-01

424

19 CFR 162.93 - Failure to issue notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Failure to issue notice of seizure. 162.93 Section 162.93 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.93 Failure to issue notice of seizure. If Customs does not send notice...

2010-04-01

425

22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal...VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal...involved in such attempt is subject to seizure, forfeiture and disposition as...

2011-04-01

426

31 CFR 401.1 - Secret Service agents authorized to make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secret Service agents authorized to make seizures. 401.1 Section 401.1 Money...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF VESSELS, VEHICLES...Secret Service agents authorized to make seizures. All officers of the U.S....

2010-07-01

427

Descriptive Analysis of Epileptic Seizures and Problem Behavior in Adults with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied possible relations between seizures and problem behavior in 3 adults with developmental disabilities. Each person was observed for between 56 and 92 days to record occurrences of seizures and problem behavior. Results of our descriptive analysis indicated an association between seizures and problem behavior for each participant. For…

Roberts, Celeste; Yoder, Paul J.; Kennedy, Craig H.

2006-01-01

428

Pediatric Posttraumatic Seizures: Epidemiology, Putative Mechanisms of Epileptogenesis and Promising Investigational Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy are common in children experiencing traumatic brain injury and portend worse functional outcome. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of pediatric posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy remains poorly understood, and no efficacious preventive therapy for post- traumatic epilepsy has been identified. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric posttraumatic seizures, discusses prominent putative mechanisms of posttraumatic epileptogenesis and highlights recent

Kimberly D. Statler

2006-01-01

429

Feasibility Study of a Caregiver Seizure Alert System in Canine Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Summary A device capable of detecting seizures and alerting caregivers would be a major advance for epilepsy management, and could be used to guide early intervention and prevent seizure-related injuries. The objective of this work was to evaluate a seizure advisory system (SAS) that alerts caregivers of seizures in canines with naturally occurring epilepsy. Four dogs with epilepsy were implanted with a SAS that wirelessly transmits continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG) to an external device embedded with a seizure detection algorithm and the capability to alert caregivers. In this study a veterinarian was alerted by automated text message if prolonged or repetitive seizures occurred, and a rescue therapy protocol was implemented. The performance of the SAS caregiver alert was evaluated over the course of 8 weeks. Following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs, the dogs experienced spontaneous unprovoked partial seizures that secondarily generalized. Three prolonged or repetitive seizure episodes occurred in 2 of the dogs. On each occasion, the SAS caregiver alert successfully alerted an on call veterinarian who confirmed the seizure activity via remote video-monitoring. A rescue medication was then administered and the seizures were aborted. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a SAS caregiver alert for prolonged or repetitive seizures, and enabling rescue medications to be delivered in a timely manner. The SAS may improve the management of human epilepsy by alerting caregivers of seizures, enabling early interventions, and potentially improving outcomes and quality of life of patients and caregivers. PMID:23962794

Coles, Lisa D; Patterson, Edward E; Sheffield, Warren D; Mavoori, Jaideep; Higgins, Jason; Bland, Mike; Leyde, Kent; Cloyd, James C; Litt, Brian; Vite, Charles; Worrell, Gregory

2013-01-01

430

Synergistic GABA-Enhancing Therapy against Seizures in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Seizures remain uncontrolled in 30% of patients with epilepsy, even with concurrent use of multiple drugs, and uncontrolled seizures result in increased morbidity and mortality. An extreme example is Dravet syndrome (DS), an infantile-onset severe epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Studies in Scn1a heterozygous knockout mice demonstrate reduced excitability of GABAergic interneurons, suggesting that enhancement of GABA signaling may improve seizure control and comorbidities. We studied the efficacy of two GABA-enhancing drugs, clonazepam and tiagabine, alone and in combination, against thermally evoked myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Clonazepam, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors, protected against myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Tiagabine, a presynaptic GABA reuptake inhibitor, was protective against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but only minimally protective against myoclonic seizures and enhanced myoclonic seizure susceptibility at high doses. Combined therapy with clonazepam and tiagabine was synergistic against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but was additive against myoclonic seizures. Toxicity determined by rotorod testing was additive for combination therapy. The synergistic actions of clonazepam and tiagabine gave enhanced seizure protection and reduced toxicity, suggesting that combination therapy may be well tolerated and effective for seizures in DS. PMID:23424217

Oakley, John C.; Cho, Alvin R.; Cheah, Christine S.; Scheuer, Todd

2013-01-01

431

Estradiol facilitates the release of neuropeptide Y to suppress hippocampus-dependent seizures.  

PubMed

About one-third of women with epilepsy have a catamenial seizure pattern, in which seizures fluctuate with the menstrual cycle. Catamenial seizures occur more frequently when the ratio of circulating estradiol to progesterone is high, suggesting that estradiol is proconvulsant. We used adult female rats to test how estradiol-induced suppression of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus affects behavioral seizures induced by kainic acid. As expected, estradiol decreased the latency to initiate seizures, indicating increased seizure susceptibility. At the same time, however, estradiol also shortened the duration of late-stage seizures, indicating decreased seizure severity. Additional analyses showed that the decrease in seizure severity was attributable to greater release of the anticonvulsant neuropeptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY). First, blocking hippocampal NPY during seizures eliminated the estradiol-induced decrease in seizure duration. Second, light and electron microscopic studies indicated that estradiol increases the potentially releasable pool of NPY in inhibitory presynaptic boutons and facilitates the release of NPY from inhibitory boutons during seizures. Finally, the presence of estrogen receptor-alpha on large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) in the hippocampus suggests that estradiol could facilitate neuropeptide release by acting directly on LDCVs themselves. Understanding how estradiol regulates NPY-containing LDCVs could point to molecular targets for novel anticonvulsant therapies. PMID:19193892

Ledoux, Veronica A; Smejkalova, Tereza; May, Renee M; Cooke, Bradley M; Woolley, Catherine S

2009-02-01

432

Estradiol facilitates the release of NPY to suppress hippocampus-dependent seizures  

PubMed Central

About one-third of women with epilepsy have a catamenial seizure pattern, in which seizures fluctuate with the menstrual cycle. Catamenial seizures occur more frequently when the ratio of circulating estradiol to progesterone is high, suggesting that estradiol is proconvulsant. We used adult female rats to test how estradiol-induced suppression of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus affects behavioral seizures induced by kainic acid. As expected, estradiol decreased the latency to initiate seizures, indicating increased seizure susceptibility. At the same time, however, estradiol also shortened the duration of late-stage seizures, indicating decreased seizure severity. Further analyses showed that the decrease in seizure severity was due to greater release of the anticonvulsant neuropeptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY). First, blocking hippocampal