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1

EXAMINATION OF THE PROCONVULSANT ACTIONS OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES USING PTZ AND KINDLING SEIZURE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Properties of two pyrethroids was assessed using acute i.p. pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) administration and electrical kindling of the amygdale. he Type I pyrethroid, cismethrin (15 mg/kg, po), produced a 17% reduction in the threshold dosage of PTZ required to induce a seizure, while...

2

Characterization of PTZ-Induced Seizure Susceptibility in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model That Overexpresses CSTB  

PubMed Central

Down syndrome (DS) is a complex genetic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphism and variable additional physiological traits. Current research progress has begun to decipher the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, leading to new therapeutic perspectives. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) has recently been found to have positive effects on learning and memory capacities of a DS mouse model and is foreseen to treat DS patients. But PTZ is also known to be a convulsant drug at higher dose and DS persons are more prone to epileptic seizures than the general population. This raises concerns over what long-term effects of treatment might be in the DS population. The cause of increased propensity for epilepsy in the DS population and which Hsa21 gene(s) are implicated remain unknown. Among Hsa21 candidate genes in epilepsy, CSTB, coding for the cystein protease inhibitor cystatin B, is involved in progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia in both mice and human. Thus we aim to evaluate the effect of an increase in Cstb gene dosage on spontaneous epileptic activity and susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure. To this end we generated a new mouse model trisomic for Cstb by homologous recombination. We verified that increasing copy number of Cstb from Trisomy (Ts) to Tetrasomy (Tt) was driving overexpression of the gene in the brain, we checked transgenic animals for presence of locomotor activity and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities characteristic of myoclonic epilepsy and we tested if those animals were prone to PTZ-induced seizure. Overall, the results of the analysis shows that an increase in Cstb does not induce any spontaneous epileptic activity and neither increase or decrease the propensity of Ts and Tt mice to myoclonic seizures suggesting that Ctsb dosage should not interfere with PTZ-treatment. PMID:22140471

Brault, Veronique; Martin, Benoit; Costet, Nathalie; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Herault, Yann

2011-01-01

3

Characterization of PTZ-Induced Seizure Susceptibility in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model That Overexpresses CSTB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome (DS) is a complex genetic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphism and variable additional physiological traits. Current research progress has begun to decipher the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, leading to new therapeutic perspectives. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) has recently been found to have positive effects on learning and memory capacities of a DS mouse model and is foreseen to

Véronique Brault; Benoît Martin; Nathalie Costet; Jean-Charles Bizot; Yann Hérault

2011-01-01

4

A single episode of juvenile status epilepticus reduces the threshold to adult seizures in a stimulus-specific way.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that an episode of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus (SE) in immature rats induces a long-term increase in cholinergic excitation assessed in the adult brain in vitro. In this in vivo work, we tested the responsiveness of adult SE-conditioned rats to pilocarpine and PTZ, two convulsants with different mechanisms of action. Postnatal day (P) 20 Sprague-Dawley juvenile rats were conditioned by an episode of PTZ-induced SE (i.e. a stage 5 seizure of ?20min, SE-rats). These and their untreated littermates serving as controls (seizure-naïve, SN) were challenged between P60 and P70 with subconvulsive doses of pilocarpine or PTZ, until the manifestation of a stage 5 seizure; results were also analyzed according to gender. Pilocarpine (250mg/kg) provoked convulsive behavior in 67% of SE-rats vs 13% of SN-rats (p=0.001); of those, 38% of SE-rats vs 4% of SN-rats reached stage 5 (p=0.008); no gender differences were detected. PTZ provoked up to stage 4 seizures at 20 and 30mg/kg and stage 5 seizures at 50mg/kg in both groups without difference. Nevertheless, stage 5 seizures lasted significantly longer in SE-rats vs SN-rats (p=0.007) and some gender differences were detected. These results show that a juvenile PTZ-induced SE increases the long-term sensitivity to a muscarinic convulsant but not to a non-cholinergic agent, suggesting a stimulus-specific decrease of the adult seizure threshold. They thus raise the possibility that adult subjects with an immature SE history may be particularly sensitive threshold-wise to stimuli that activate cholinergic mechanisms. PMID:25178672

Kouis, Panayiotis; Mikroulis, Apostolos; Psarropoulou, Caterina

2014-11-01

5

Effect of Various Antiepileptic Drugs in Zebrafish PTZ-Seizure Model.  

PubMed

Recently zebrafish larvae have emerged as a high-throughput model for screening pharmacological activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of established anticonvulsants, such as valproic acid, carbamazepine, gabapentin, diazepam, lacosamide and pregabalin against pentylenetetrazole (6 mM) seizures in adult zebrafish. Different phases of seizures (increase swim activity, rapid whirlpool-like circling swim behaviour and brief clonus-like seizures leading to loss of posture) were elicited in zebrafish on exposure for 15 min to 6 mM pentylenetetrazole. The exposure of zebrafish to an increasing concentration of the anticonvulsants alongside 6 mM pentylenetetrazole showed concentration-dependent elevation of seizure latency against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures except for pregabalin, which failed to produce any anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish. Moreover the proconvulsant activity of caffeine was also evaluated using suboptimal concentration (4 mM) of pentylenetetrazole in adult zebrafish. Decrease in seizure latency of different phases of seizures was observed with increasing concentration of caffeine compared with its respective control group. In view of the above findings, the results of the present study suggested that adult zebrafish produce the expected anticonvulsive and proconvulsive effects and could potentially be used as a screen in future epilepsy research. PMID:24843189

Gupta, P; Khobragade, S B; Shingatgeri, V M

2014-03-01

6

Involvement of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in the anticonvulsant effects of lithium chloride on PTZ-induced seizure in mice.  

PubMed

Lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of affective disorders as a mood stabilizer. Lithium also shows some anticonvulsant properties. While the underlying mechanisms of action of lithium are not yet exactly understood, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of lithium is mediated via NO-cGMP pathway. Injection of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) increased significantly the seizure threshold (P<0.01). The anticonvulsant properties of the effective dose of lithium were prevented by pre-treatment with the per se non-effective doses of L-ARG [the substrate for nitric oxide synthase; NOS] (30 and 50 mg/kg) or sildenafil [a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor] (10 and 20 mg/kg). L-NAME [a non-specific NOS inhibitor] (5, 15 and 30 mg/kg), 7-NI [a specific neural NOS inhibitor] (30 and 60 mg/kg) or MB [a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor] (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a sub-effective dose of lithium (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Whereas several doses of aminoguanidine [an inducible NOS inhibitor] (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) failed to alter the anticonvulsant effect of lithium. Our findings demonstrated that nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway could be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of the lithium chloride. In addition, the role of constitutive NOS versus inducible NOS is prominent in this phenomenon. PMID:20304610

Bahremand, Arash; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Ziai, Pouya; Rahimian, Reza; Hedayat, Tina; Payandemehr, Borna; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2010-05-01

7

Effect of curcumin against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold in mice: possible involvement of adenosine A1 receptors.  

PubMed

Curcumin, obtained from Curcuma longa, has been in use for manifold human disorders. The present study explores the effect of curcumin against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice. The possible involvement of adenosine receptor(s) mechanism was also investigated. Minimal dose of PTZ (i.v., mg/kg) needed to induce different phases of convulsions were recorded as an index of seizure threshold. Curcumin (20-120?mg/kg, p.o.) produced an increase in seizure threshold for convulsions induced by PTZ i.v. infusion. The anticonvulsant effect of curcumin (80?mg/kg) was prevented by 8-phenyltheophylline (0.5?mg/kg, i.p., non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (5?mg/kg, i.p., adenosine A1 receptor antagonist) but not by 8-(3-cholorostryl)caffeine (4?mg/kg, i.p., adenosine A2A receptor antagonist). Further, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.005?mg/kg, i.p., non-selective A1 /A2 receptor agonist), or N(6) -cyclohexyladenosine (0.2?mg/kg, i.p., adenosine A1 receptor agonist), was able to potentiate the anticonvulsant action of curcumin. In contrast, 5'-(N-cyclopropyl) carboxamidoadenosine (0.1?mg/kg, i.p., adenosine A2A receptor agonist) failed to potentiate the effect of curcumin. This study demonstrated the anticonvulsant effect of curcumin against PTZ i.v. seizure threshold via a direct or indirect activation of adenosine A1 but not A2A receptors in mice. Thus, curcumin may prove to be an effective adjunct in treatment of convulsions. PMID:23893477

Akula, Kiran Kumar; Kulkarni, S K

2014-05-01

8

SUSTAINED FOCAL CORTICAL COMPRESSION REDUCES ELECTRICALLY-INDUCED SEIZURE THRESHOLD  

E-print Network

cortical compres- sion on electrically-induced localized seizure threshold in rats. Male Long Evans rats depression, ex- citation and inhibition. Focal cortical compression can be a significant problem following

9

SULFOLANE EFFECTS ON AUDIOGENIC, PENTYLENETETRAZOL AND AFTERDISCHARGE SEIZURE ACTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfolane dosages that alter seizure susceptibility were determined using audiogenic (AG), pentylenetrazol (PTZ) and hippocampal afterdischarge (AD) seizure models. The presence of AG seizures and potentiation of PTZ seizures were investigated in rats injected IP with 0, 200, 400...

10

Effects of apomorphine and piribedil on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous work examining the effects of dextroamphetamine on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced clonic seizure threshold, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of two other dopamine agonists, apomorphine (AP) and piribedil, on PTZ seizures. TD50 and LD50 values for CD-1 mice were determined initially for the two drugs. Subsequently, dose-and time-response analyses established that AP decreased

William H. Riffee; Richard E. Wilcox; Cheng-Pei Li Goldman; Robert V. Smith

1981-01-01

11

Szt2, a novel gene for seizure threshold in mice  

PubMed Central

In a chemical mutagenesis screen we identified Szt2 (seizure threshold 2) as a gene that confers low seizure threshold to mice and may also enhance epileptogenesis. The semidominant phenotype was mapped to Chromosome 4 and narrowed further to a critical interval of approximately 650 kb. A novel large (>10 kb) transcript in the critical interval was found to have four-fold increased steady-state expression at the RNA level in Szt2 homozygous mutant brain. The corresponding 72 exon gene encodes a 378 kD protein with no significant or suggestive sequence similarities to any other protein. The mutant allele of Szt2 contains a splice donor mutation after exon 32, predicting transcriptional read-through, translational frameshift and premature stop. A second Szt2 allele, containing a gene-trap mutation in exon 21, also conferred a low seizure threshold and increased RNA expression, but unlike the ENU allele, some gene-trap homozygotes died embryonically. Szt2 is transcribed in many tissues, with the highest expression in brain, and it is also expressed during embryonic development. Szt2 is highly conserved in evolution, with a clear, single orthologue found in all land vertebrates and in many invertebrates. Interestingly, in mammals the Szt2 gene resides in a highly conserved head-to-head configuration with Med8 (which encodes a Mediator complex subunit), separated by only 91 nt. While the biological function of Szt2 remains unknown, its high conservation, unique structure and effect on seizure threshold suggest that it serves an important role in the central nervous system. PMID:19624305

Frankel, Wayne N.; Yang, Yan; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Beyer, Barbara J.; O’Brien, Timothy P.

2009-01-01

12

BMAL1 controls the diurnal rhythm and set point for electrical seizure threshold in mice.  

PubMed

The epilepsies are a heterogeneous group of neurological diseases defined by the occurrence of unprovoked seizures which, in many cases, are correlated with diurnal rhythms. In order to gain insight into the biological mechanisms controlling this phenomenon, we characterized time-of-day effects on electrical seizure threshold in mice. Male C57BL/6J wild-type mice were maintained on a 14/10 h light/dark cycle, from birth until 6 weeks of age for seizure testing. Seizure thresholds were measured using a step-wise paradigm involving a single daily electrical stimulus. Results showed that the current required to elicit both generalized and maximal seizures was significantly higher in mice tested during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle compared to mice tested during the light phase. This rhythm was absent in BMAL1 knockout (KO) mice. BMAL1 KO also exhibited significantly reduced seizure thresholds at all times tested, compared to C57BL/6J mice. Results document a significant influence of time-of-day on electrical seizure threshold in mice and suggest that this effect is under the control of genes that are known to regulate circadian behaviors. Furthermore, low seizure thresholds in BMAL1 KO mice suggest that BMAL1 itself is directly involved in controlling neuronal excitability. PMID:25018707

Gerstner, Jason R; Smith, George G; Lenz, Olivia; Perron, Isaac J; Buono, Russell J; Ferraro, Thomas N

2014-01-01

13

Traumatic Brain Injury During Development Reduces Minimal Clonic Seizure Thresholds At Maturity  

PubMed Central

Post-traumatic seizures affect 12 – 35% of children after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are associated with worse cognitive and functional outcome, even after adjustment for severity of injury. Unfortunately, experimental models of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy are lacking, and pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We have applied a standard model of TBI in immature rats to determine the effect of TBI on electroconvulsive seizure thresholds later in life. Male rats underwent controlled cortical impact to left parietal cortex on post-natal day (PND) 16-18. Hindbrain, forebrain, and limbic seizure thresholds were assessed, respectively, by tonic hindlimb extension (THE), minimal clonic, and partial psychomotor seizure responses during adolescence (PND 34 - 40) and at maturity (PND 60 - 63). Post-traumatic seizure thresholds were compared to those obtained in age- and litter-matched sham craniotomy and naïve controls. TBI during immaturity had no clear effect on THE seizure thresholds. In contrast, TBI lowered minimal clonic seizure thresholds at maturity (p < 0.05 vs. sham or naïve rats), but not during adolescence. Consequently, minimal clonic seizure thresholds increased with age for sham and naïve rats but remained similar for TBI rats during adolescence and at maturity. TBI also tended to lower partial psychomotor seizure thresholds, which were determined only during adolescence (p < 0.1 vs. naive). Controlled cortical impact causes both focal cortical injury at the site of impact and ipsilateral hippocampal neuronal death. Since minimal clonic seizures are mediated by the forebrain, partial psychomotor seizures by the limbic system, and THE seizures by the brainstem, the observed pattern of changes in post-traumatic seizure thresholds is not surprising. The apparent age-dependent effects of TBI, however, are unexpected and likely due to a combination of attenuated maturational increases and progressive epileptogenesis. Additional study is needed to delineate the relative contributions of these processes. Given the sustained reduction in post-traumatic minimal clonic seizure thresholds, controlled cortical impact may hold promise as an experimental model of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy. PMID:18490145

Statler, Kimberly D.; Swank, Seth; Abildskov, Tracy; Bigler, Erin D.; White, H. Steve

2008-01-01

14

Determining minimally important change thresholds for the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ).  

PubMed

The Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) was developed to evaluate changes in seizure severity and bothersomeness. Determination of a threshold value reflecting meaningful patient benefit on the SSQ would improve clinical interpretation of scale results. The objective of this analysis was to define a minimally important change (MIC) threshold for the SSQ, using data from patients with treatment-resistant partial-onset seizures from two clinical trials (N=776). Minimally important change thresholds were calculated using standard anchor-based methods, with the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) score as the anchor with the categories of 'much improved,' 'minimally improved,' 'much worsened,' and 'minimally worsened' combined. The calculated MIC thresholds (range: 0.34 to 0.50) suggest that a 0.48-point change in the SSQ total score reflects a clinically meaningful change in seizure severity from the patients' perspective. PMID:24139086

Cramer, Joyce A; de la Loge, Christine; Brabant, Yves; Borghs, Simon

2014-02-01

15

Liposomal formulation of curcumin attenuates seizures in different experimental models of epilepsy in mice.  

PubMed

Contemporary research indicates promising anticonvulsant effect of curcumin. However, its poor oral bioavailability is a major hindrance toward its pharmacological action. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the acute effect of liposome-entrapped curcumin on increasing current electroshock seizures (ICES) test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, and status epilepticus in mice. Liposome-entrapped curcumin in doses 25 and 50 mg/kg demonstrated significant increase in seizure threshold current and latency to myoclonic and generalized seizures in ICES test and PTZ-induced seizures, respectively. Similarly, liposomal-entrapped curcumin also increased the latency to the onset and decreased the duration of seizures during status epilepticus in mice. To conclude, liposomal-entrapped curcumin possesses anticonvulsant activity against status epilepticus in mice. PMID:22044441

Agarwal, Nidhi Bharal; Jain, Seema; Nagpal, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Nitin Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

2013-04-01

16

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Seizures KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Emergencies > Seizures Print ... often with a loss or change in consciousness. Seizure Basics Most seizures are caused by abnormal electrical ...

17

vGLUT2 heterozygous mice show more susceptibility to clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol.  

PubMed

Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is well known to be implicated in epileptic seizures. Therefore, impairments in glutamate transport could have an involvement in the mechanism of epileptogenesis. The uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUTs). There are three known vGLUT isoforms, vGLUT1-3. In this study, we are particularly interested in the vGLUT2 isoform. We investigated the possible role of vGLUT2 in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure generation. Seizure threshold of PTZ was compared in vGLUT2 heterozygous knock out (HET) and wild type (WT) mice. In comparison with their WT littermates a lower dose of PTZ was needed in the vGLUT2 HET mice until the onset of the first myoclonic jerk. The threshold for PTZ-induced clonic seizure activity was also lower in the vGLUT2 HET mice. These results indicate, for the first time, that vGLUT2 is likely involved in the epileptogenesis of generalized seizures. PMID:19171171

Schallier, Anneleen; Massie, Ann; Loyens, Ellen; Moechars, Diederik; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Michotte, Yvette; Smolders, Ilse

2009-01-01

18

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... defects) Brain tumor (rare) Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Fever (particularly in young children) Head injury Heart ... age. There may be a family history of epilepsy or seizures. If seizures continue repeatedly after the ...

19

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

orig. 05 10 PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Seizures What is a seizure? A seizure is a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how ... care team ? Try to remain calm Other HPNA Teaching Sheets on are available at www.HPNA.org. ...

20

Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Getting Kids Ready for School Backpack Safety Ebola: What to Know Vaccines Your Child Needs Educators: Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us First Aid: Seizures KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > ...

21

Magnesium Sulfate Treatment Reverses Seizure Susceptibility and Decreases Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Severe Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Eclampsia, defined as unexplained seizure in a woman with preeclampsia, is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy with unclear etiology. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the leading eclamptic seizure prophylactic, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized severe preeclampsia is a state of increased seizure susceptibility due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuroinflammation that lowers seizure threshold. Further, MgSO4 decreases seizure susceptibility by protecting the BBB and preventing neuroinflammation. To model severe preeclampsia, placental ischemia (reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure; RUPP) was combined with a high cholesterol diet (HC) to cause maternal endothelial dysfunction. RUPP+HC rats developed symptoms associated with severe preeclampsia, including hypertension, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and fetal and placental growth restriction. Seizure threshold was determined by quantifying the amount of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; mg/kg) required to elicit seizure in RUPP+HC±MgSO4 and compared to normal pregnant controls (n?=?6/group; gestational day 20). RUPP+HC rats were more sensitive to PTZ with seizure threshold being ?65% lower vs. control (12.4±1.7 vs. 36.7±3.9 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05) that was reversed by MgSO4 (45.7±8.7 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05 vs. RUPP+HC). BBB permeability to sodium fluorescein, measured in-vivo (n?=?5–7/group), was increased in RUPP+HC vs. control rats, with more tracer passing into the brain (15.9±1.0 vs. 12.2±0.3 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05) and was unaffected by MgSO4 (15.6±1.0 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05 vs. controls). In addition, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of neuroinflammation, indicated by 35±2% of microglia being active compared to 9±2% in normal pregnancy (p<0.01; n?=?3–8/group). MgSO4 treatment reversed neuroinflammation, reducing microglial activation to 6±2% (p<0.01 vs. RUPP+HC). Overall, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of augmented seizure susceptibility potentially due to increased BBB permeability and neuroinflammation. MgSO4 treatment reversed this, increasing seizure threshold and decreasing neuroinflammation, without affecting BBB permeability. Thus, reducing neuroinflammation may be one mechanism by which MgSO4 prevents eclampsia during severe preeclampsia. PMID:25409522

Johnson, Abbie Chapman; Tremble, Sarah M.; Chan, Siu-Lung; Moseley, Janae; LaMarca, Babbette; Nagle, Keith J.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

2014-01-01

22

Time–course and dose–response relationships of imperatorin in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure threshold model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of imperatorin (a furanocoumarin isolated from fruits of Angelica archangelica) in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure threshold model. The threshold for electroconvulsions in mice was determined at several times: 15, 30, 60 and 120min after i.p. administration of imperatorin at increasing doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100mg\\/kg. The

Jarogniew J. Luszczki; Kazimierz Glowniak; Stanislaw J. Czuczwar

2007-01-01

23

Brief seizure activity alters Ca2 /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II  

E-print Network

Brief seizure activity alters Ca2þ /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II dephosphorylation The effect of a brief pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) convulsive seizure on rat cerebral cortical Ca2þ /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was investigated. By immunoblot, it was found that a single PTZ seizure

Abraham, Nader G.

24

Proconvulsant effects of estriol, the third estrogen, in the mouse PTZ-kindling model.  

PubMed

The effect of estriol, the third estrogen, was evaluated for its effect on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling model of epileptogenesis in mice followed by evaluation on kindling-induced changes in cognitive and motor functions. Kindling was induced by once every 2 days treatment with PTZ (25 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 weeks. The seizure severity during induction of kindling and percentage incidence of animals kindled at the end of 5 weeks was recorded. Motor function was assessed using a grip strength meter while spatial memory was assessed in a cross maze. Estriol (0.005 and 0.01 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the time for induction of kindling from 5 weeks to 3 and 2 weeks for male and female mice respectively and enhanced the percentage incidence of seizures. Clomiphene (0.9 mg/kg i.p.) delayed the development of kindling and produced anticonvulsant effects. It also partially reversed the proconvulsant effects of estriol. On grip strength test and spontaneous alternation behaviour, a significant decline was observed in kindled mice which was further reduced by pre-treatment with estriol. Both clomiphene and diazepam were unable to reverse the reduced GS of PTZ-kindled mice but enhanced the percentage alternation of such animals. The study shows that estriol has powerful proconvulsant effects. Its administration in hormone replacement therapy or other indications, thus, requires careful monitoring in patients susceptible to epileptic seizures. The anticonvulsant effects of clomiphene requires further investigations. PMID:24748480

Ahmad, Aakifa; Vohora, Divya

2014-10-01

25

An Excitatory Loop with Astrocytes Contributes to Drive Neurons to Seizure Threshold  

PubMed Central

Seizures in focal epilepsies are sustained by a highly synchronous neuronal discharge that arises at restricted brain sites and subsequently spreads to large portions of the brain. Despite intense experimental research in this field, the earlier cellular events that initiate and sustain a focal seizure are still not well defined. Their identification is central to understand the pathophysiology of focal epilepsies and to develop new pharmacological therapies for drug-resistant forms of epilepsy. The prominent involvement of astrocytes in ictogenesis was recently proposed. We test here whether a cooperation between astrocytes and neurons is a prerequisite to support ictal (seizure-like) and interictal epileptiform events. Simultaneous patch-clamp recording and Ca2+ imaging techniques were performed in a new in vitro model of focal seizures induced by local applications of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in rat entorhinal cortex slices. We found that a Ca2+ elevation in astrocytes correlates with both the initial development and the maintenance of a focal, seizure-like discharge. A delayed astrocyte activation during ictal discharges was also observed in other models (including the whole in vitro isolated guinea pig brain) in which the site of generation of seizure activity cannot be precisely monitored. In contrast, interictal discharges were not associated with Ca2+ changes in astrocytes. Selective inhibition or stimulation of astrocyte Ca2+ signalling blocked or enhanced, respectively, ictal discharges, but did not affect interictal discharge generation. Our data reveal that neurons engage astrocytes in a recurrent excitatory loop (possibly involving gliotransmission) that promotes seizure ignition and sustains the ictal discharge. This neuron–astrocyte interaction may represent a novel target to develop effective therapeutic strategies to control seizures. PMID:20405049

Chiavegato, Angela; Zonta, Micaela; Cammarota, Mario; Brondi, Marco; Vetri, Francesco; Uva, Laura; Pozzan, Tullio; de Curtis, Marco; Ratto, Gian Michele; Carmignoto, Giorgio

2010-01-01

26

Threshold-based Use of Brain Oxygen Monitor and Seizure Detection  

E-print Network

SAH) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale of less than 8. Eight of these patients had one measurements in 8 patients (5 aSAH, 3 TBI, mean age x + y years). Two of 7 patients had oxygen monitors contralateral to seizure focus (both TBI). In 17 of 180 (9.4%) of seizures (17/180) PbtO2 became less than 20

Plotkin, Joshua B.

27

Ameliorating effect of quercetin on acute pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study to elicit effects of pure quercetin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and picrotoxin induced seizures. Materials and methods: Each animal group was divided into six groups and composed of six rats. Rats were assigned to the following experiments and groups (G): (G1) PTZ 45 mg/kg + DMSO; (G2) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg quercetin; (G3) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg quercetin; (G4) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 20 mg/kg quercetin; (G5) PTZ 45 mg/kg + 40 mg/kg quercetin; (G6) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + DMSO; (G7) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg quercetin; (G8) Picrotoxin 5 mg/kg + 20 mg/kg quercetin. In all groups quercetin were injected 30 min before PTZ and picrotoxin applications. Results: Compared to PTZ, quercetin significantly prolonged onset of the seizure in 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and reduced the seizure stage in 10 mg/kg quercetin injected group (P < 0.01). Compared to PTZ, quercetin also declined the generalized seizure duration at 10 mg/kg (P < 0.01) and 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05) doses. At the doses of 5 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg quercetin there were no significant changes in seizure parameters. Development of picrotoxin induced seizures is slower than in PTZ. Quercetin was found to be unable to prevent seizure in picrotoxin induced seizures. Surprisingly, quercetin also significantly reduced the onset of seizures at the dose of 20 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Conclusion: quercetin (at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p) prevented seizures in PTZ (45 mg/kg i.p) induced seizures. Especially, 10 mg/kg PTZ prolonged onset of seizures, reduced the seizure duration and seizure severity score in comparison with control group. At a higher (40 mg/kg) dose quercetin failed to prevent PTZ induced seizures. In addition 20 mg/kg quercetin significantly reduced the onset of seizures that suggest a preconvulsive effect. 20 mg/kg quercetin reduced the onset of picrotoxin induced seizures. In picrotoxin model, it may be claimed that quercetin at higher doses accelerate the epileptic activity owing to its antagonistic effect on GABAA. Further investigations are needed to explore the mechanisms of the antiepileptic and preconvulsant effects of quercetin. PMID:25356099

Sefil, Fatih; Kahraman, Ibrahim; Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tutuk, Okan; Aydin, Mehmet; Ozkan, Umit; Pinar, Neslihan

2014-01-01

28

Cooperative Object Tracking with Multiple PTZ Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in visual surveillance systems is shifting from using few stationary, passive cameras to employing large heterogeneous sensor networks. One promising type of sensor in particular is the Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) camera, which can cover a potentially much larger area than pas- sive cameras, and can obtain much higher resolution im- agery through zoom capacity. In this paper, a system that

I. Everts; Nicu Sebe; G. A. Jones

2007-01-01

29

Stereo Localization Using Dual PTZ Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a cooperative stereo system based on two pant-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras that can localize a moving target in a complex environment. Given an approximate target position that can be estimated by a fixed camera with a wide field of view, two PTZ cameras with a large baseline are pointed toward the target in order to estimate precisely its position. The overall method is divided in three parts: offline construction of a look-up-table (LUT) of rectification matrices, use of the LUT in real time for computing the rectification transformations for arbitrary camera positions, and finally 3D target localization. A chain of homographic transformations are used for finding the matching between different pairs of wide baseline stereo images. The proposed stereo localization system has two advantages: improved localization on a partially occluded target and monitoring a large environment using only two PTZ cameras without missing significant information. Finally, through experimental results, we show that the proposed system is able to make required localization of targets with good accuracy.

Kumar, Sanjeev; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio

30

Duration of treatment and activation of ?1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats.  

PubMed

Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of ?1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at ?1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator ?CCt (5mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of ?CCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of ?1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at ?1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type. PMID:24695241

Kova?evi?, Jovana; Timi?, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V; Batini?, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Mili?, Marija; Joksimovi?, Sr?an; Cook, James M; Savi?, Miroslav M

2014-05-01

31

Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration  

PubMed Central

The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

32

Influence of sildenafil on the anticonvulsant action of selected antiepileptic drugs against pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, on threshold for clonic seizures in mice. In addition, the effects of sildenafil on the anticonvulsant activity of selected antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), i.e., clonazepam (CZP), valproate (VPA), phenobarbital (PB), ethosuximide (ETS) and tiagabine (TGB), were also evaluated. The subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test was used to determine the effects of sildenafil on convulsive susceptibility and the anticonvulsant activity of the studied AEDs in mice, while the acute side effects of sildenafil and its combinations with the studied AEDs were evaluated in the chimney test, step-through passive-avoidance task and grip-strength test in mice. Total brain concentrations of AEDs were also determined. Sildenafil (5–40 mg/kg) did not influence the threshold for PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice, but increased the anticonvulsant activity of ETS in this test without any significant changes in the total brain concentration. The activity of the remaining AEDs was not significantly changed by sildenafil. Neither sildenafil alone nor its combinations with the studied AEDs produced any changes in the motor coordination, long-term memory and muscular strength in mice. Co-administration of sildenafil with ETS in male epileptic patients with co-existing erectile dysfunctions might lead to the pharmacodynamic interactions that may be beneficial for the patients. Combinations of sildenafil with CZP, VPA, PB and TGB appear to be neutral in terms of their influence on seizures. PMID:22315091

Nieoczym, Dorota; Soca?a, Katarzyna; ?uszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanis?aw J; Wlaz, Piotr

2012-08-01

33

Abstract--As epilepsy remains a refractory condition in about 30% of patients with complex partial seizures, electrical  

E-print Network

seizures, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control ring electrodes (TCREs) on the scalp of rats after inducing seizures with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). We developed a close-loop system to detect seizures and automatically trigger the stimulation and evaluated its

Besio, Walter G.

34

Distinct temporal patterns of electrical stimulation influence neural recruitment during PTZ infusion: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Our working hypothesis is that constant inter-pulse interval (IPI) electrical stimulation (ES) would resonate with endogenous epileptogenic reverberating circuits, favoring seizure, while random inter-interval ES protocol would promote desynchronization of such neural networks, interfering with the abnormal recruitment of neural structures. Male Wistar rats were stereotaxically implanted with a monopolar ES carbon-fiber electrode (minimizing fMRI artifact) in the amygdala. A 7T fMRI scanner was used to evaluate brain activity during ES, fixed four pulses per second ratio, using either a periodic IPI (ES-P) or random IPI (non-periodic ES-NP) stimulation paradigm. Appropriate imaging protocols were used to compare baseline BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) MRI with scans during ES. A second series of experiments, both without stimuli and under the same ES paradigms, were evaluated during continuous infusion of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 4 mg/ml/min) through an i.v. catheter. Our results show that temporal lobe activation during ES-P or ES-NP did not present any statistical differences during ES. However, during PTZ infusion, PTZ-P facilitated recruitment of the temporal lobe ipsilateral to ES while PTZ-NP showed significantly less activation ipsilateral to ES and, in turn, less inter-hemispheric differences. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis of reverberating circuits being synchronized by ES-P and desynchronized by ES-NP. Time-coded low frequency stimulation may be an interesting alternative treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. PMID:21044644

Mesquita, Michel Bernanos Soares; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; Cota, Vinícius Rosa; Richardson, Mark P; Williams, Steven; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra

2011-03-01

35

ACT-Vision: active collaborative tracking for multiple PTZ cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a novel scalable approach for the management of a large number of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras deployed outdoors for persistent tracking of humans and vehicles, without resorting to the large fields of view of associated static cameras. Our system, Active Collaborative Tracking - Vision (ACT-Vision), is essentially a real-time operating system that can control hundreds of PTZ cameras to ensure uninterrupted tracking of target objects while maintaining image quality and coverage of all targets using a minimal number of sensors. The system ensures the visibility of targets between PTZ cameras by using criteria such as distance from sensor and occlusion.

Broaddus, Christopher; Germano, Thomas; Vandervalk, Nicholas; Divakaran, Ajay; Wu, Shunguang; Sawhney, Harpreet

2009-04-01

36

Closed-loop seizure control on epileptic rat models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper numerous alternative treatments in addition to pharmacological therapy are proposed for their use in epileptic patients. Epileptic animal models can play a crucial role in the performance evaluation of new therapeutic techniques. The objective of this research is to first develop various epileptic rat models; second, develop a portable wireless closed-loop seizure controller including on-line seizure detection and real-time electrical stimulation for seizure elimination; and third, apply the developed seizure controller to the animal models to perform on-line seizure elimination. The closed-loop seizure controller was applied to three Long-Evans rats with spontaneous spike-wave discharges (non-convulsive) and three Long-Evans rats with epileptiform activities induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection (convulsive) for evaluation. The seizure detection accuracy is greater than 92% (up to 99%), and averaged seizure detection latency is less than 0.6 s for both spontaneous non-convulsive and PTZ-induced convulsive seizures. The average false stimulation rate is 3.1%. Near 30% of PTZ-induced convulsive seizures need more than two times of 0.5 s electrical stimulation for suppression and 90% of the non-convulsive seizures can be suppressed by only one 0.5 s electrical stimulation.

Liang, Sheng-Fu; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Chang, Da-Wei; Young, Chung-Ping; Chiueh, Herming

2011-08-01

37

Cyclooxygenase-2/PGE2 pathway facilitates pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are rate-limiting enzymes in the metabolic pathways in which arachidonic acid is converted to prostaglandins. COX-2 is the isoform induced at injury/inflammation sites and expressed constitutively in a few tissues, such as the central nervous system, and plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases associated with increased excitatory activity. However, the role of COX-2 and its main product, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in the convulsive states is not fully established. In this study we showed that the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (at the dose of 2mg/kg, but not at the doses of 0.2 or 20mg/kg, p.o.), protects against the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). The role of PGE(2) in the convulsions induced by PTZ was further investigated by administering anti-PGE(2) antibodies (4 microg/2 microl, i.c.v.), and assessing electroencephalographic changes induced by PTZ (PTZ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.). Anti-PGE(2) antibodies attenuated PTZ-induced seizures in rats. In addition, combining PGE(2) (100 ng/2 microl, i.c.v.) with a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (20mg/kg, i.p.) caused seizures, further supporting a role for this prostaglandin in the convulsions induced by PTZ. Finally, we showed that the anticonvulsant action of celecoxib (2mg/kg, p.o.) was reversed by the intracerebroventricular administration of PGE(2) (10 ng/2 microl, i.c.v.). These data constitute strong converging pharmacological evidence supporting a facilitatory role for the COX-2/PGE(2) pathway in the seizures induced by PTZ. However, whether selective COX-2 inhibitors are safer anti-inflammatory drugs for epileptic patients than nonspecific inhibitors remains to be determined. PMID:18255268

Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Fiorenza, Natália Gindri; Castelli, Marcelo; Machado, Pablo; Bohrer, Denise; Veiga, Marlei; Ferreira, Juliano; Cavalheiro, Esper Abraão; Mello, Carlos Fernando

2008-03-01

38

Anticonvulsive effect of atorvastatin on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: the role of nitric oxide pathway.  

PubMed

Atorvastatin has shown to possess neuroprotective, antiexcitotoxic, and antiepileptic effects besides its cholesterol-lowering properties. Nitric oxide (NO) may be responsible for a group of these effects. In the present study, a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice was used to investigate the anticonvulsive effects of atorvastatin through NO-dependent pathways. Atorvastatin (5?mg/kg) significantly increased the seizure threshold (P?

Moazzami, Kasra; Emamzadeh-Fard, Sahra; Shabani, Mohammad

2013-08-01

39

Suppression of epileptogenesis-associated changes in response to seizures in FGF22-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

In the developing hippocampus, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 22 promotes the formation of excitatory presynaptic terminals. Remarkably, FGF22 knockout (KO) mice show resistance to generalized seizures in adults as assessed by chemical kindling, a model that is widely used to study epileptogenesis (Terauchi et al., 2010). Repeated injections of low dose pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induce generalized seizures (“kindled”) in wild type (WT) mice. With additional PTZ injections, FGF22KO mice do show moderate seizures, but they do not kindle. Thus, analyses of how FGF22 impacts seizure susceptibility will contribute to the better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epileptogenesis. To decipher the roles of FGF22 in the seizure phenotype, we examine four pathophysiological changes in the hippocampus associated with epileptogenesis: enhancement of dentate neurogenesis, hilar ectopic dentate granule cells (DGCs), increase in hilar cell death, and formation of mossy fiber sprouting (MFS). Dentate neurogenesis is enhanced, hilar ectopic DGCs appeared, and hilar cell death is increased in PTZ-kindled WT mice relative to PBS-injected WT mice. Even in WT mice with fewer PTZ injections, which showed only mild seizures (so were not kindled), neurogenesis, hilar ectopic DGCs, and hilar cell death are increased, suggesting that mild seizures are enough to induce these changes in WT mice. In contrast, PTZ-injected FGF22KO mice do not show these changes despite having moderate seizures: neurogenesis is rather suppressed, hilar ectopic DGCs do not appear, and hilar cell death is unchanged in PTZ-injected FGF22KO mice relative to PBS-injected FGF22KO mice. These results indicate that FGF22 plays important roles in controlling neurogenesis, ectopic migration of DGCs, and hilar cell death after seizures, which may contribute to the generalized seizure-resistant phenotype of FGF22KO mice and suggests a possibility that inhibition of FGF22 may alleviate epileptogenesis. PMID:23616746

Lee, Clara H.; Umemori, Hisashi

2013-01-01

40

Planning Ahead for PTZ Camera Assignment and Handoff  

E-print Network

to predefined observational goals. I. INTRODUCTION Automated human surveillance systems comprising fixed CCTV in the scene. This has led to surveillance systems that combine traditional passive CCTV cameras with active PTZ cameras in master/slave configurations. Tracking information collected by the fixed CCTV cameras

Toronto, University of

41

Residual entropy reveals effects of deep brain stimulation on neural activity in PTZ-induced epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a critical therapeutic regimen for drug-resistant epilepsy. Our proposed method of assessing the neuromodulatory effects of DBS on seizure threshold and post-ictal activity is based on the principle that seizure build-up is always preceded by constantly changing EEG and field potential bursting levels. We use a novel measure of residual subband wavelet entropy (RSWE) to

C. B. Patel; D. L. Sherman; J. S. Paul; N. Zhang; M. A. Mirski

2003-01-01

42

EXAMINATION OF THE PROCONVULSANT ACTION OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES USING PENTYLENETETRAZOL AND AMYGDALA KINDLING SEIZURE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The seizure-inducing properties of two pyrethroids were assessed by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure models (repeated ip, suprathreshold ip, and iv), and electrical kindling of the amygdala. he efficacy of po versus ip routes of deltamethrin administration was compared using iv-PT...

43

Antioxidant effect of Achillea wilhelmsii extract on pentylenetetrazole (seizure model)-induced oxidative brain damage in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

An important role for oxidative stress both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures has been suggested. Since Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) has been considered to have the antioxidant effects as well as central nervous system depressant properties, the anti-seizure effects of the plant extract in addition to its effects on brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures model. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: (1) Control, (2) PTZ, (3-5) A. wilhelmsii extract groups (AWE). The animals in groups 2-5 were treated with saline or AWE (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) before single injection of PTZ (90 mg/kg). Latency to first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. MCS latencies in extract treated groups were not different from PTZ group. The animals treated by 200 mg/kg of AWE had a significant higher GTCS latency in comparison with PTZ group (P < 0.001). The MDA levels in PTZ group were significantly higher and the total thiol concentrations were lower than control animals. Pretreatment with all 3 doses of the extract resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) and a significant elevation in total thiol concentration, as compared with PTZ group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii possesses an antioxidant effect in the brain in PTZ induced seizure model. PMID:24968581

Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazamand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Mahmoudabady, Maryam

2013-01-01

44

The Anticonvulsant Effects of SR 57227 on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizure in Mice  

PubMed Central

Recently, studies have shown that serotonin plays an important role in the control of seizure. However, the specific role of 5-HT receptor subtypes is not yet well described, in particular that of the 5-HT3 receptor. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. Firstly, seizure latency was significantly prolonged by a 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR 57227 in a dose-dependent manner. Seizure score and mortality were also decreased by SR 57227 in PTZ-treated mice. Furthermore, these anticonvulsant effects of SR 57227 were inhibited by a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. However, ondansetron alone had no effect on seizure latency, seizure score or mortality at different doses. Immunohistochemical studies have also shown that c-Fos expression was significantly increased in hippocampus (dentate gyrus, CA1, CA3 and CA4) of PTZ-treated mice. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was significantly inhibited by ondansetron in mice treated with PTZ and SR 57227. An ELISA study showed that SR 57227 attenuated the PTZ-induced inhibitory effects of GABA levels in hippocampus and cortex, and the attenuated effects of SR 57227 were antagonized by ondansetron in hippocampus but not cortex. Our findings suggest that activation of 5-HT3 receptor by SR 57227, which plays an important role on the control of seizure induced by PTZ, may be related to GABA activity in hippocampus. Therefore, 5-HT3 receptor subtype is a potential target for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24690630

Li, Bingjin; Wang, Liang; Sun, Zhihui; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Dongyuan; Zhao, Jing; Song, Yunong; Lv, Jiayin; Dong, Xue; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

2014-01-01

45

Impaired neurogenesis, learning and memory and low seizure threshold associated with loss of neural precursor cell survivin  

PubMed Central

Background Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family in that it exhibits antiapoptotic properties and also promotes the cell cycle and mediates mitosis as a chromosome passenger protein. Survivin is highly expressed in neural precursor cells in the brain, yet its function there has not been elucidated. Results To examine the role of neural precursor cell survivin, we first showed that survivin is normally expressed in periventricular neurogenic regions in the embryo, becoming restricted postnatally to proliferating and migrating NPCs in the key neurogenic sites, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ). We then used a conditional gene inactivation strategy to delete the survivin gene prenatally in those neurogenic regions. Lack of embryonic NPC survivin results in viable, fertile mice (SurvivinCamcre) with reduced numbers of SVZ NPCs, absent rostral migratory stream, and olfactory bulb hypoplasia. The phenotype can be partially rescued, as intracerebroventricular gene delivery of survivin during embryonic development increases olfactory bulb neurogenesis, detected postnatally. SurvivinCamcre brains have fewer cortical inhibitory interneurons, contributing to enhanced sensitivity to seizures, and profound deficits in memory and learning. Conclusions The findings highlight the critical role that survivin plays during neural development, deficiencies of which dramatically impact on postnatal neural function. PMID:20051123

2010-01-01

46

Ultra-low dose cannabinoid antagonist AM251 enhances cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects in the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoid compounds are anticonvulsant since they have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to Gi/o proteins. Surprisingly, both the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist naltrexone and as opioid and cannabinoid systems interact, it has been shown that ultra-low dose naltrexone also enhances cannabinoid-induced antinociception. However, regarding the seizure modulating properties of both classes of receptors this study investigated whether ultra-low dose cannabinoid antagonist AM251 influences cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects. The clonic seizure threshold (CST) was tested in separate groups of male NMRI mice following injection of vehicle, the cannabinoid selective agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and ultra-low doses of the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist AM251 and a combination of ACEA and AM251 doses in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Systemic administration of ultra-low doses of AM251 (10 fg/kg-100 ng/kg) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of ACEA at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. Moreover, inhibition of cannabinoid induced excitatory signaling by AM251 (100 pg/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of ACEA (100 ng/kg-100 microg/kg), suggesting that a presumed inhibitory component of cannabinoid receptor signaling can exert strong seizure-protective effects even at very low levels of cannabinoid receptor activation. A similar potentiation by AM251 (100 pg/kg and 1 ng/kg) of anticonvulsant effects of non-effective dose of ACEA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) was also observed in the generalized tonic-clonic model of seizure. The present data suggest that ultra-low doses of cannabinoid receptor antagonists may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility, especially in conjunction with very low doses of cannabinoids. PMID:17870135

Gholizadeh, Shervin; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Bahremand, Arash; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2007-11-01

47

Absence seizure  

MedlinePLUS

... in people under age 20, usually in children ages 6 to 12. They may occur with other types of seizures, such as generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal seizures), twitches or jerks (myoclonus), or sudden loss of muscle strength (atonic seizures).

48

Febrile Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... There is no evidence that short febrile seizures cause brain damage. Certain children who have febrile seizures face an increased risk of developing epilepsy. These children include those who have cerebral palsy, delayed development, or other neurological abnormalities, or who ...

49

The cannabinoid anticonvulsant effect on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure is potentiated by ultra-low dose naltrexone in mice.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid compounds are anticonvulsant since they have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to G(i/o) proteins. Surprisingly, both the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist naltrexone and as opioid and cannabinoid systems interact, it has been shown that ultra-low dose naltrexone also enhances cannabinoid-induced antinociception. Thus, concerning the seizure modulating properties of both classes of receptors this study investigated whether the ultra-low dose opioid antagonist naltrexone influences cannabinoid anticonvulsant effects. The clonic seizure threshold was tested in separate groups of male NMRI mice following injection of vehicle, the cannabinoid selective agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and ultra-low doses of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a combination of ACEA and naltrexone doses in a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Systemic injection of ultra-low doses of naltrexone (1pg/kg to 1ng/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of ACEA (1mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the very low dose of naltrexone (500pg/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of ACEA (10 and 100microg/kg). A similar potentiation by naltrexone (500pg/kg) of anticonvulsant effects of non-effective dose of ACEA (1mg/kg) was also observed in the generalized tonic-clonic model of seizure. The present data indicate that the interaction between opioid and cannabinoid systems extends to ultra-low dose levels and ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonist in conjunction with very low doses of cannabinoids may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility. PMID:18502613

Bahremand, Arash; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Nasrabady, Sara Ebrahimi; Gholizadeh, Shervin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

2008-09-01

50

Seizure Prediction  

PubMed Central

There is mounting evidence that seizures are preceded by characteristic changes in the EEG that are detectable minutes before seizure onset. Using novel signal analysis techniques, researchers are beginning to characterize the transition from the interictal to the ictal state in quantitative terms. This research has led to the development of automated seizure prediction algorithms. Active debate persists regarding the interpretation of research results, methods of signal analysis, as well as experimental and statistical methods for testing seizure prediction algorithms. Developments in this field have led to new theories on the mechanism of seizure development and resolution. The ability to predict seizures could lead the way to novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods for the treatment of patients with epilepsy. PMID:18488065

Sackellares, J Chris

2008-01-01

51

Lamotrigine decreased hippocampal damage and improved vascular risk markers in a rat model of pentylenetetrazole induced kindling seizure.  

PubMed

Various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) especially enzyme-inducing AEDs might be associated with increased vascular risk, through impairment of the endogenous antioxidative ability which may trigger oxygen-dependent tissue injury. Lamotrigine (LTG) a non-enzyme-inducing AED has scarce information regarding its effects on oxidative stress. The present study aimed to study the possible modulation of vascular risk factors of epileptogenesis by LTG, in a rat model of kindling seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Four groups of male Wister rats were used; vehicle control group, PTZ group (alternate day PTZ, 30 mg/kg, i.p), LTG/PTZ group (LTG 20 mg/kg/day p.o and alternate day PTZ) and LTG group. The study period was 5 weeks. Lipoproteins and total homocysteine (tHcy), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. Aortic endothelial function study and histopathological examination of the rats' brains, aortas and coronaries were conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), tHcy, MDA, GSH levels were significantly higher in epileptic rats than normal controls rats. A decrease in HDL-cholesterol with high atherosclerotic index was also demonstrated. The administration of LTG improved the PTZ-kindled seizures. It produced a significant decrease in TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol, MDA, aortic GSH and increase in HDL-cholesterol with no significant effect on serum GSH and tHcy levels. LTG improved endothelium-dependent relaxation, decreased hippocampal neurodegenerative changes and atherosclerotic changes of aortas and coronaries. LTG decreased seizures severity, hippocampal damage and improved vascular risk markers in this rat model of kindling seizures. PMID:24976768

Haggag, Basma S; Hasanin, Amany H; Raafat, Mona H; Abdel Kawy, Hala S

2014-06-01

52

Increased Seizure Susceptibility in Mice 30 Days after Fluid Percussion Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been reported to increase seizure susceptibility and also contribute to the development of epilepsy. However, the mechanistic basis of the development of increased seizure susceptibility and epilepsy is not clear. Though there is substantial work done using rats, data are lacking regarding the use of mice in the fluid percussion injury (FPI) model. It is unclear if mice, like rats, will experience increased seizure susceptibility following FPI. The availability of a mouse model of increased seizure susceptibility after FPI would provide a basis for the use of genetically modified mice to study mechanism(s) of the development of post-traumatic epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that, mice subjected to a FPI develop increased seizure susceptibility to a subconvulsive dose of the chemoconvulsant, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Three groups of mice were used: FPI, sham, and naïve controls. On day 30 after FPI, mice from the three groups were injected with PTZ. The results showed that FPI mice exhibited an increased severity, frequency, and duration of seizures in response to PTZ injection compared with the sham and naïve control groups. Histopathological assessment was used to characterize the injury at 1, 3, 7, and 30?days after FPI. The results show that mice subjected to the FPI had a pronounced lesion and glial response that was centered at the FPI focus and peaked at 3?days. By 30?days, only minimal evidence of a lesion is observed, although there is evidence of a chronic glial response. These data are the first to demonstrate an early increase in seizure susceptibility following FPI in mice. Therefore, future studies can incorporate transgenic mice into this model to further elucidate mechanisms of TBI-induced increases in seizure susceptibility. PMID:23519723

Mukherjee, Sanjib; Zeitouni, Suzanne; Cavarsan, Clarissa Fantin; Shapiro, Lee A.

2013-01-01

53

Modulation of benzodiazepine by lysine and pipecolic acid on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures  

SciTech Connect

L-lysine and its metabolite pipecolic acid (PA) have been studied for their effects on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. L-Lysine of L-Pa i.p. significantly increased clonic and tonic latencies in a dose-dependent manner against 90 mg/kg PTZ-induced seizures. L-Lysine but not L-Pa enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of diazepam (DZ). L-Pa i.c.v. showed a slight decrease in clonic latency; it did not enhance the antiseizure activity of DZ; it caused seizures at 0.6 mmol/kg. D-PA i.c.v. displayed an opposite effect compared to its L-isomer. The anticonvulsant effect of L-lysine in terms of increase in seizure latency and survival was even more amplified when tested with a submaximal PTZ concentration. L-Lysine showed an enhancement of specific /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam(FZ) binding to mouse brain membranes both in vitro an din vivo. The possibility of L-lysine acting as a modulator for the GABA/benzodiazepine receptors was demonstrated. Since L-PA showed enhancement of /sup 3/H-FZ binding only in vitro but not in vivo, the anticonvulsant effect of L-PA may not be linked to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor.

Chang, Y.F.; Hargest, V.; Chen, J.S.

1988-01-01

54

Febrile seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... does not mean that your child is not getting the proper care. Occasionally, a health care provider will prescribe diazepam to prevent or treat febrile seizures that occur more than once. However, no medication ...

55

The effects of the Brazilian ant Dinoponera quadriceps venom on chemically induced seizure models.  

PubMed

Arthropod venoms are potential sources of neuroactive substances, providing new tools for the design of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Dinoponera quadriceps venom (DqV) on seizure models in mice induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), pilocarpine, and strychnine. In the PTZ model, intraperitoneal treatment with DqV (0.5mg/kg) increased the time until the first seizure and the percentage of survival (155.4±27.7s/12.5%, p<0.05) compared to the control group (79.75±3.97s/0%), whereas endovenous treatment (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) decreased the time until the first seizure (0.1mg/kg: 77.83±5.3s versus 101.0±3.3s in the control group; 0.5mg/kg: 74.43±3.9s versus 101.0±3.3s for the control group, p<0.05). We did not observe significant changes in the pilocarpine- and strychnine-induced seizure models. In assays that measured oxidative parameters in the PTZ model, intraperitoneal treatment with DqV (0.5 and 2.0mg/kg) only decreased the levels of MDA and nitrite in the cortex. However, endovenous treatment with DqV (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) increased the levels of MDA in the cortex and hippocampus and at a dose of 0.5mg/kg in the striatum. Moreover, increased in nitrite content was observed in all three of the brain regions analyzed. Taken together, the D. quadriceps venom caused both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects in a PTZ-induced seizure model, and this effect was dependent on the route of administration used. PMID:23747963

Lopes, Kamila Soares; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; Lima, Camila Nayane de Carvalho; Linhares, Maria Isabel; Torres, Alba Fabíola Costa; Havt, Alexandre; Quinet, Yves Patric; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França; Martins, Alice Maria Costa

2013-09-01

56

Dopey's seizure.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. PMID:10452923

Dan, B; Christiaens, F

1999-06-01

57

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT) antagonists decrease pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and blood-brain barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of seizures. In line with this view, selected pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid derivatives have been reported to facilitate seizures. Kainate-induced seizures are accompanied by leukotriene formation, and are reduced by inhibitors of LOX/COX pathway. Moreover, LTD4 receptor blockade and LTD4 synthesis inhibition suppress pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling and pilocarpine-induced recurrent seizures. Although there is convincing evidence supporting that blood-brain-barrier (BBB) dysfunction facilitates seizures, no study has investigated whether the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast is associated with its ability to maintain BBB integrity. In this study we investigated whether montelukast and other CysLT receptor antagonists decrease PTZ-induced seizures, as well as whether these antagonists preserve BBB during PTZ-induced seizures. Adult male albino Swiss mice were stereotaxically implanted with a cannula into the right lateral ventricle, and two electrodes were placed over the parietal cortex along with a ground lead positioned over the nasal sinus for electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The effects of montelukast (0.03 or 0.3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), pranlukast (1 or 3 ?mol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), Bay u-9773 (0.3, 3 or 30 nmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), in the presence or absence of the agonist LTD4 (0.2, 2, 6 or 20 pmol/1 ?L, i.c.v.), on PTZ (1.8 ?mol/2 ?L)-induced seizures and BBB permeability disruption were determined. The animals were injected with the antagonists, agonist or vehicle 30 min before PTZ, and monitored for additional 30 min for the appearance of seizures by electrographic and behavioral methods. BBB permeability was assessed by sodium fluorescein method and by confocal microscopy for CD45 and IgG immunoreactivity. Bay-u9973 (3 and 30 nmol), montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) and pranlukast (1 and 3 ?mol), increased the latency to generalized seizures and decreased the mean amplitude of EEG recordings during seizures. LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) reverted the anticonvulsant effect of montelukast (0.3 ?mol). Montelukast (0.03 and 0.3 ?mol) prevented PTZ-induced BBB disruption, an effect that was reversed by LTD4 at the dose of 6 pmol, but not at the doses 0.2 and 2 pmol. Moreover, the doses of LTD4 (0.2 and 2 pmol) that reverted the effect of montelukast on seizures did not alter montelukast-induced protection of BBB, dissociating BBB protection and anticonvulsant activity. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that 1. PTZ increased the number of CD45+ and double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cerebral cortex, indicating BBB leakage with leukocyte infiltration; 2. while LTD4 (6 pmol) potentiated, montelukast decreased the effect of PTZ on leukocyte migration and BBB, assessed by double-immunofluorescence staining for CD45 and IgG cells in the cannulated hemisphere. Our data do not allow us ruling out that mechanisms unrelated and related to BBB protection may co-exist, resulting in decreased seizure susceptibility by montelukast. Notwithstanding, they suggest that CysLT1 receptors may be a suitable target for anticonvulsant development. PMID:25090924

Lenz, Q F; Arroyo, D S; Temp, F R; Poersch, A B; Masson, C J; Jesse, A C; Marafiga, J R; Reschke, C R; Iribarren, P; Mello, C F

2014-09-26

58

OmniBird: a miniature PTZ NIR sensor system for UCAV day\\/night autonomous operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a SBIR funding from NAVAIR, we have successfully developed an innovative, miniaturized, and lightweight PTZ UCAV imager called OmniBird for UCAV taxiing. The proposed OmniBird will be able to fit in a small space. The designed zoom capability allows it to acquire focused images for targets ranging from 10 to 250 feet. The innovative panning mechanism also allows the

Steven Yi; Hui Li

2007-01-01

59

Bone microenvironment modulated seizure treatments  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Novel etiology underlying certain types of seizures and migraines is presented, whereby changes in endocrine levels result in changes in osteoclast activity levels which in turn result in elevated extracellular Ca2+ levels which in turn result in systemic alterations in nerves muscles, including increased nerve membrane depolarization, enhanced calcium channel mediated neurotransmitter release, and increased muscle contractility via sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel mediated tropomyosin block removal, which in turn result in increased seizure risk in people with low seizure thresholds. Treatment methods are provided that modulate the bone microenvironment to provide an etiology based seizure treatment method that simultaneously reduces nerve sensitivity and muscle contractility. Preferred embodiments include use of SERMs such as raloxifene, testosterone, estrogen, calcimimetics such as cinacalcet, RANKL inhibitors such as denosumab, and bisphosphonate such as risedronate.

2012-06-12

60

Antioxidant activity elicited by low dose of caffeine attenuates pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

Although caffeine supplementation has a beneficial effect on people with neurological disorders, its implications for oxidative damage related to seizures are not well documented. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two weeks caffeine supplementation (6mg/kg; p.o.) on seizures and neurochemical alterations induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 60mg/kg i.p.). Statistical analyses showed that long-term rather than single dose caffeine administration decreased the duration of PTZ-induced seizures in adult male Wistar rats as recorded by cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral analysis. The quantification of EEG recordings also revealed that caffeine supplementation protected against a wave increase induced by PTZ. Neurochemical analyses revealed that caffeine supplementation increased glutathione (GSH) content per se and protected against the increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and oxidized diclorofluoresceine diacetate (DCFH-DA). Also, caffeine prevent the decrease in GSH content and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity induced by PTZ. Our data also showed that the infusion of L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO; 3.2?mol/site i.c.v), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, two days before injecting PTZ reversed the anticonvulsant effect caused by caffeine. BSO infusion also decreased GSH content and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. However, it increased DCFH-DA oxidation and TBARS per se and reversed the protective effect of caffeine. Results presented in this paper support the neuroprotective effects of low long-term caffeine exposure to epileptic damage and suggest that the increase in the cerebral GSH content caused by caffeine supplementation may provide a new therapeutic approach to the control of seizure. PMID:23485558

Souza, Mauren Assis; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Gerbatin, Rogério Rosa; Rodrigues, Fernanda Silva; Castro, Mauro; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

2013-05-01

61

Additive anticonvulsant effects of creatine supplementation and physical exercise against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although physical activity and creatine supplementation have been a documented beneficial effect on neurological disorders, its implications for epilepsy are still controversial. Thus, we decided to investigate the effects of 6 weeks swimming training, creatine supplementation (300mg\\/kg; p.o.) or its combination seizures and neurochemical alterations induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). We found that 6 weeks of physical training or creatine supplementation

Leonardo Magno Rambo; Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro; Mauro Schneider Oliveira; Ana Flávia Furian; Frederico Diniz Lima; Mauren Assis Souza; Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva; Leandro Thies Retamoso; Cristiane Lenz Dalla Corte; Gustavo Orione Puntel; Daiana Silva de Avila; Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares; Michele Rechia Fighera; Carlos Fernando Mello; Luiz Fernando Freire Royes

2009-01-01

62

Seizure-mediated neuronal activation induces DREAM gene expression in the mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various transcriptional activators are induced in neurons concomitantly with long-lasting neural activity, whereas only a few transcription factors are known to act as neural activity-inducible transcription repressors. In this study, mRNA of DREAM (DRE-antagonizing modulator), a Ca2+-modulated transcriptional repressor, was demonstrated to accumulate in the mouse brain after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Accumulation in the mouse hippocampus reached maximal level in

Toru Matsu-ura; Yoshiyuki Konishi; Tsutomu Aoki; Jose R Naranjo; Katsuhiko Mikoshiba; Taka-aki Tamura

2002-01-01

63

Automated seizure detection using EKG.  

PubMed

Changes in heart rate, most often increases, are associated with the onset of epileptic seizures and may be used in lieu of cortical activity for automated seizure detection. The feasibility of this aim was tested on 241 clinical seizures from 81 subjects admitted to several Epilepsy Centers for invasive monitoring for evaluation for epilepsy surgery. The performance of the EKG-based seizure detection algorithm was compared to that of a validated algorithm applied to electrocorticogram (ECoG). With the most sensitive detection settings [threshold T: 1.15; duration D: 0 s], 5/241 seizures (2%) were undetected (false negatives) and with the highest [T: 1.3; D: 5 s] settings, the number of false negative detections rose to 34 (14%). The rate of potential false positive (PFP) detections was 9.5/h with the lowest and 1.1/h with the highest T, D settings. Visual review of 336 ECoG segments associated with PFPs revealed that 120 (36%) were associated with seizures, 127 (38%) with bursts of epileptiform discharges and only 87 (26%) were true false positives. Electrocardiographic (EKG)-based seizure onset detection preceded clinical onset by 0.8 s with the lowest and followed it by 13.8 s with the highest T, D settings. Automated EKG-based seizure detection is feasible and has potential clinical utility given its ease of acquisition, processing, high signal/noise and ergonomic advantages viz-a-viz EEG (electroencephalogram) or ECoG. Its use as an "electronic" seizure diary will remedy in part, the inaccuracies of those generated by patients/care-givers in a cost-effective manner. PMID:24475899

Osorio, Ivan

2014-03-01

64

Controlling Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

Henderson, Nancy

2008-01-01

65

Robust Environmental Change Detection Using PTZ Camera via Spatial-Temporal Probabilistic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel procedure for detecting environmental changes by using a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera. Conventional approaches based on pixel space and stationary cameras need time-consuming image registration to yield pixel statistics. This work proposes an alternative approach to describe each scene with a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) via a spatial-temporal statistical method. Although details of the environment covered

Jwu-Sheng Hu; Tzung-Min Su

2007-01-01

66

Febrile seizures  

PubMed Central

Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

2014-01-01

67

Febrile seizures.  

PubMed

Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

Chung, Sajun

2014-09-01

68

Identification of compounds with anti-convulsant properties in a zebrafish model of epileptic seizures  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The availability of animal models of epileptic seizures provides opportunities to identify novel anticonvulsants for the treatment of people with epilepsy. We found that exposure of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rapidly induces the expression of synaptic-activity-regulated genes in the CNS, and elicited vigorous episodes of calcium (Ca2+) flux in muscle cells as well as intense locomotor activity. We then screened a library of ?2000 known bioactive small molecules and identified 46 compounds that suppressed PTZ-inducedtranscription of the synaptic-activity-regulated gene fos in 2-day-old (2 dpf) zebrafish embryos. Further analysis of a subset of these compounds, which included compounds with known and newly identified anticonvulsant properties, revealed that they exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of both locomotor activity and PTZ-induced fos transcription, confirming their anticonvulsant characteristics. We conclude that this in situ hybridisation assay for fos transcription in the zebrafish embryonic CNS is a robust, high-throughput in vivo indicator of the neural response to convulsant treatment and lends itself well to chemical screening applications. Moreover, our results demonstrate that suppression of PTZ-induced fos expression provides a sensitive means of identifying compounds with anticonvulsant activities. PMID:22730455

Baxendale, Sarah; Holdsworth, Celia J.; Meza Santoscoy, Paola L.; Harrison, Michael R. M.; Fox, James; Parkin, Caroline A.; Ingham, Philip W.; Cunliffe, Vincent T.

2012-01-01

69

Seizure-mediated neuronal activation induces DREAM gene expression in the mouse brain.  

PubMed

Various transcriptional activators are induced in neurons concomitantly with long-lasting neural activity, whereas only a few transcription factors are known to act as neural activity-inducible transcription repressors. In this study, mRNA of DREAM (DRE-antagonizing modulator), a Ca(2+)-modulated transcriptional repressor, was demonstrated to accumulate in the mouse brain after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Accumulation in the mouse hippocampus reached maximal level in the late phase (at 7-8 h) after PTZ injection. Kainic acid induced the same response. Interestingly, the late induction of DREAM expression required new protein synthesis and was blocked by MK801 suggesting that Ca(2+)-influx via NMDA receptors is necessary for the PTZ-mediated DREAM expression. In situ hybridization revealed that PTZ-induced DREAM mRNA accumulation was observed particularly in the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, and piriform cortex. The results of the present study demonstrate that DREAM is a neural activity-stimulated late gene and suggest its involvement in adaptation to long-lasting neuronal activity. PMID:12531529

Matsu-ura, Toru; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Naranjo, Jose R; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Tamura, Taka-aki

2002-12-30

70

Treadmill Exercise Protects Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures and Oxidative Stress after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy, and significant resources are required to develop a better understanding of the pathologic mechanism as targets for potential therapies. Thus, we decided to investigate whether physical exercise after fluid percussion injury (FPI) protects from oxidative and neurochemical alterations as well as from behavioral electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by subeffective convulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35?mg/kg). Behavioral and EEG recordings revealed that treadmill physical training increased latency to first clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, attenuated the duration of generalized seizures, and protected against the increase of PTZ-induced Racine scale 5 weeks after neuronal injury. EEG recordings also revealed that physical exercise prevented PTZ-induced amplitude increase in TBI animals. Neurochemical analysis showed that exercise training increased glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and glutathione levels per se. Exercise training was also effective against alterations in the redox status, herein characterized by lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), protein carbonyl increase, as well as the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities after FPI. On the other hand, histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin revealed that FPI induced moderate neuronal damage in cerebral cortex 4 weeks after injury and that physical exercise did not protect against neuronal injury. These data suggest that the ability of physical exercise to reduce FPI-induced seizures is not related to its protection against neuronal damage; however, the effective protection of selected targets, such as Na+/K+-ATPase elicited by physical exercise, may represent a new line of treatment for post-traumatic seizure susceptibility. PMID:23530735

Silva, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Hoffmann, Mauricio Scopel; Gerbatin, Rogerio da Rosa; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Mota, Bibiana Castagna; Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Soares, Felix Alexandre Antunes; Fighera, Michele Rechia

2013-01-01

71

First Aid for Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Epilepsy Share Compartir First Aid for Seizures First aid for seizures involves responding in ways ... him until full awareness has returned. Consider a seizure an emergency and call 911 if any of ...

72

Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

Shafer, Patricia Osborne

2007-01-01

73

OmniBird: a miniature PTZ NIR sensor system for UCAV day/night autonomous operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through a SBIR funding from NAVAIR, we have successfully developed an innovative, miniaturized, and lightweight PTZ UCAV imager called OmniBird for UCAV taxiing. The proposed OmniBird will be able to fit in a small space. The designed zoom capability allows it to acquire focused images for targets ranging from 10 to 250 feet. The innovative panning mechanism also allows the system to have a field of view of +/- 100 degrees within the provided limited spacing (6 cubic inches). The integrated optics, camera sensor, and mechanics solution will allow the OmniBird to stay optically aligned and shock-proof under harsh environments.

Yi, Steven; Li, Hui

2007-04-01

74

MPEP Reduces Seizure Severity in Fmr-1 KO mice over Expressing Human A?  

PubMed Central

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) regulates the translation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNA. Under resting conditions, mRNA is bound to and translationally repressed by the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Upon group 1 mGluR activation, FMRP dissociates from the mRNA and translation ensues. APP levels are elevated in the dendrites of primary neuronal cultures as well as in synaptoneurosomes (SN) prepared from embryonic and juvenile fmr-1 knockout (KO) mice, respectively. In order to study the effects of APP and its proteolytic product A? on Fragile X syndrome (FXS) phenotypes, we created a novel mouse model (FRAXAD) that over-expresses human APPSwe/A? in an fmr-1 KO background. Herein, we assess (1) human APPSwe and A? levels as a function of age in FRAXAD mice, and (2) seizure susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) after mGluR5 blockade. PTZ-induced seizure severity is decreased in FRAXAD mice pre-treated with the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP. These data suggest that A? contributes to seizure incidence and may be an appropriate therapeutic target to lessen seizure pathology in FXS, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS) patients. PMID:19918329

Westmark, Cara J.; Westmark, Pamela R.; Malter, James S.

2010-01-01

75

Anticonvulsant Effect of Guaifenesin against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizure in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: There have been some reports about the possible N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity of Guaifenesin. As drugs with a similar structure to Guaifenesin (i.e. Felbamate) and those with NMDA antagonist activity have been clinically used as anticonvulsants, the aim of this study was to determine whether Guaifenesin has an anticonvulsant effect in an animal model of seizure. Methods: Anticonvulsant effect of Guaifenesin was assessed via Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male albino mice received Guaifenesin (100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg; n=8-10) or 0.25% Tween (vehicle) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of PTZ (95 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg; n=8) was used as a reference drug. The latency time before the onset of myoclonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic convulsions, percentage of animals exhibiting convulsion, and percentage of mortality were recorded. In addition, the effect of Guaifenesin on neuromuscular coordination was assessed using the Rotarod. Results: Guaifenesin at all the studied doses significantly increased the latency to myoclonic and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Guaifenesin at the dose of 300 mg/kg increased the latency to tonic-clonic seizure. The ED50s of Guaifenesin for protection against PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death were 744.88 (360-1540), 256 (178-363), and 328 (262-411) mg/kg, respectively. Guaifenesin at all the investigated doses significantly reduced neuromuscular coordination, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Guaifenesin possesses muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties and may have a potential clinical use in absence seizure. PMID:23825891

Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Showraki, Alireza; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh

2013-01-01

76

Positive effect of calcitonin on the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole in rats.  

PubMed

There are many difficulties involved with the treatment of epilepsy, and these problems have driven the search for new agents to control epileptic seizures. Calcitonin is a peptide hormone that has been well studied and shown to have a positive effect on neuropathic and chronic pain. The mechanism by which calcitonin affects these pain syndromes is thought to be similar to the effect of antiepileptic drugs, such as pregabalin, gabapentin and carbamazepine. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of calcitonin on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in rats. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group was the control group, and the rats were given no medications. The second group was given saline+PTZ. The third group was given 50IU/kg calcitonin+PTZ, and the fourth group was given 100IU/kg calcitonin+PTZ. EEG traces, Racine's convulsion stages and the time of onset of the first myoclonic jerk were compared between the groups. Between the groups, there were significant differences in the Racine's convulsion stages, the onset of the 'first myoclonic jerk', and the rate of the spikes in the EEG traces. The differences were more pronounced in the 100IU/kg calcitonin-treated group (p<0.001). It has been stated that calcitonin relieves pain via regulating voltage-gated Ca(2+) and/or Na(+) channels. Calcitonin has a positive effect on convulsions in epileptic rats, possibly using the same mechanisms as is used in the treatment of neuropathic and chronic pain. PMID:24548550

Aksoy, Durdane; Solmaz, Volkan; Erbas, Oytun

2014-03-01

77

Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced Seizures and Brain GABA Levels in Albino Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) Indigofera tinctoria Linn. of Fabaceae family is claimed to be useful to control epileptic seizures in the Indian system of folkore medicine. This study was designed to evaluate tinctoria and to verify the claim. Materials and Methods Seizures were induced in male albino rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The test group animals were administered ethanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (EEIT) orally. The time of onset and duration of clonic convulsions were recorded. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) were induced in animals. The duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was recorded. GABA levels and GABA transaminase activity in brain were estimated. Results In PTZ model, EEIT significantly (P< 0.01, P< 0.001) delayed the onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of seizures in a dose dependent manner. A significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the duration of HLTE at higher doses of EEIT was observed in MES model. Increase in brain GABA levels was observed on treatment with EEIT at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, suggested that the plant may be acting by facilitating GABAergic transmission. A significant reduction (P< 0.05) in the activity of brain GABA transaminase was observed at higher doses. No neurotoxic signs were observed with rotarod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of tinctoria was found to be useful to control and treat the variety of seizures. PMID:23493444

Garbhapu, Asuntha; Yalavarthi, Prasannaraju; Koganti, Prasad

2011-01-01

78

JAMA Patient Page: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 seizure, you may be diagnosed as having epilepsy , meaning you are prone to seizures. Types of ... Treatment • Medication. If you are diagnosed as having epilepsy, you will likely be prescribed 1 or more ...

79

Exogenous antenatal glucocorticoid treatment reduces susceptibility for hippocampal kindled and maximal electroconvulsive seizures in infant rats.  

PubMed

Dexamethasone (DEX) and betamethasone (BETA) are synthetic glucocorticoids used clinically to reduce morbidity and mortality in infants at risk of premature birth. While their main role is to facilitate lung development, their effect on the developing nervous system and seizure susceptibility is unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that antenatal DEX or BETA treatment would alter seizure thresholds and spread of epileptiform activity in the brains of infant offspring. Pregnant dams received once daily injections with DEX, BETA, or vehicle on gestation days 15 to 18. Physical appearance, litter size, and weight of the pups were assessed postnatally. Seizure thresholds were determined on postnatal day 14 using electroconvulsive shock delivered through ear clips (i.e., generalized seizure) or kindling stimulation of the left hippocampus through indwelling electrodes (i.e., partial seizure). The rate of acquisition of kindled seizures was determined on postnatal days 14 and 15. Pups from dams treated with DEX and BETA were growth restricted. Antenatal BETA treatment increased seizure threshold for both models. Antenatal DEX treatment increased kindling threshold, but not electroconvulsive shock threshold. Kindling rate was unaffected by either antenatal treatment. In summary, repeated glucocorticoid treatments had adverse effects on weight, skin and litter size, raised seizure thresholds, and reduced seizure vulnerability. Although these effects are seemingly desirable with respect to seizure susceptibility, they suggest that the functional organization of the nervous system is altered with antenatal synthetic glucocorticoid treatment. PMID:16445912

Young, Nicole A; Teskey, G Campbell; Henry, Luke C; Edwards, Heather E

2006-04-01

80

Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the practice of search and seizure from a legal perspective. All issues concerning lawful or unlawful search and seizure, whether in a public school or otherwise, are predicated upon the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The terms "search,""seizure,""probable cause,""reasonable suspicion," and "exclusionary…

Murray, Kenneth T.

81

Video game induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

1994-01-01

82

Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Anethum Graveolens Seed on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Adult Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regarding chronic nature of epilepsy and its side effects and to access the effective treatment procedures, herbal medicine has received remarkable interest. The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -induced seizure in male mice. Methods Fifty-six albino male mice were divided randomly into seven groups including the negative control (saline), positive control (Phenobarbital) and treatment groups using different doses of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (50, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg). To provoke convulsion, PTZ was injected to all groups and initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures as well as surveillance after 24 h were measured. Results The results indicated that hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (AGS) delayed the initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with saline group. The latency was considerable for myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures at all above mentioned doses of AGS extract except for the lowest one. Moreover, the protective effect of AGS extract against mortality was statistically significant at all doses except for 50 mg/kg. Discussion As the hydro-alcoholic extract of AGS showed an appropriate response in experimental model of convulsion, it might be considered as an adjuvant therapy with other traditional antiepileptic medications. PMID:25337380

Rostampour, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Arghavan; Salehi, Peyman; Saadat, Farshid

2014-01-01

83

On the nature of seizure dynamics.  

PubMed

Seizures can occur spontaneously and in a recurrent manner, which defines epilepsy; or they can be induced in a normal brain under a variety of conditions in most neuronal networks and species from flies to humans. Such universality raises the possibility that invariant properties exist that characterize seizures under different physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analysed seizure dynamics mathematically and established a taxonomy of seizures based on first principles. For the predominant seizure class we developed a generic model called Epileptor. As an experimental model system, we used ictal-like discharges induced in vitro in mouse hippocampi. We show that only five state variables linked by integral-differential equations are sufficient to describe the onset, time course and offset of ictal-like discharges as well as their recurrence. Two state variables are responsible for generating rapid discharges (fast time scale), two for spike and wave events (intermediate time scale) and one for the control of time course, including the alternation between 'normal' and ictal periods (slow time scale). We propose that normal and ictal activities coexist: a separatrix acts as a barrier (or seizure threshold) between these states. Seizure onset is reached upon the collision of normal brain trajectories with the separatrix. We show theoretically and experimentally how a system can be pushed toward seizure under a wide variety of conditions. Within our experimental model, the onset and offset of ictal-like discharges are well-defined mathematical events: a saddle-node and homoclinic bifurcation, respectively. These bifurcations necessitate a baseline shift at onset and a logarithmic scaling of interspike intervals at offset. These predictions were not only confirmed in our in vitro experiments, but also for focal seizures recorded in different syndromes, brain regions and species (humans and zebrafish). Finally, we identified several possible biophysical parameters contributing to the five state variables in our model system. We show that these parameters apply to specific experimental conditions and propose that there exists a wide array of possible biophysical mechanisms for seizure genesis, while preserving central invariant properties. Epileptor and the seizure taxonomy will guide future modeling and translational research by identifying universal rules governing the initiation and termination of seizures and predicting the conditions necessary for those transitions. PMID:24919973

Jirsa, Viktor K; Stacey, William C; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ivanov, Anton I; Bernard, Christophe

2014-08-01

84

Athletes with seizure disorders.  

PubMed

Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports. PMID:22236820

Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

2012-01-01

85

Video game induced seizures.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but some had typical absence seizures and myoclonic jerks while playing video games. In this series, 30% with idiopathic generalised epilepsy had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Overall, 70% of patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy were photosensitive to intermittent photic stimulation and the mechanism of seizure provocation was probably similar to that of television induced seizures, although sensitivity to specific patterns was sometimes important. Two children had self induced video game seizures. Non-photic factors such as excitement, fatigue, sleep deprivation, cognitive processing, and diurnal variation in susceptibility seemed to be important seizure precipitants, particularly in non-photo-sensitive patients. Twenty nine per cent of patients had partial (mainly occipital) video game associated seizures. Occipital spikes were common in the EEG of these patients. Photosensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation may have been important in two patients but in the others, who all played arcade video games, other mechanisms need to be considered. Video game associated seizures are a feature of several epileptic syndromes and differ in precipitants and appropriate management. PMID:8057115

Ferrie, C D; De Marco, P; Grunewald, R A; Giannakodimos, S; Panayiotopoulos, C P

1994-01-01

86

Continuous energy variation during the seizure cycle: towards an on-line accumulated energy  

PubMed Central

Objective Increases in accumulated energy on intracranial EEG are associated with oncoming seizures in retrospective studies, supporting the idea that seizures are generated over time. Published seizure prediction methods require comparison to ‘baseline’ data, sleep staging, and selecting seizures that are not clustered closely in time. In this study, we attempt to remove these constraints by using a continuously adapting energy threshold, and to identify stereotyped energy variations through the seizure cycle (inter-, pre-, post- and ictal periods). Methods Accumulated energy was approximated by using moving averages of signal energy, computed for window lengths of 1 and 20 min, and an adaptive decision threshold. Predictions occurred when energy within the shorter running window exceeded the decision threshold. Results Predictions for time horizons of less than 3 h did not achieve statistical significance in the data sets analyzed that had an average inter-seizure interval ranging from 2.9 to 8.6 h. 51.6% of seizures across all patients exhibited stereotyped pre-ictal energy bursting and quiet periods. Conclusions Accumulating energy alone is not sufficient for predicting seizures using a 20 min running baseline for comparison. Stereotyped energy patterns through the seizure cycle may provide clues to mechanisms underlying seizure generation. Significance Energy-based seizure prediction will require fusion of multiple complimentary features and perhaps longer running averages to compensate for post-ictal and sleep-induced energy changes. PMID:15721065

Esteller, Rosana; Echauz, Javier; D'Alessandro, Maryann; Worrell, Greg; Cranstoun, Steve; Vachtsevanos, George; Litt, Brian

2010-01-01

87

Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists inhibit the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult brain after seizures induced by pentylenetrazol.  

PubMed

Seizures have been shown to promote the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult brain, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using systemic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells, we examined the effects of selective ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on granule cell precursor proliferation in adult rats after pentylenetrazol (PTZ)-induced generalized clonic seizures. We found that the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 significantly inhibited behavioral and EEG seizures and completely blocked seizure-induced increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus. Although the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist DNQX was not observed to affect seizures, it significantly suppressed the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus. Double immunohistochemical staining showed that both the mature granule cells and the majority of BrdU-labeled, mitotically active cells expressed the NMDA receptor subunit NR1 and the AMPA/KA receptor subunit GluR2. Because accumulated evidence showed that mild seizures are sufficient to promote precursor cell proliferation, the present findings that MK-801 inhibited seizures and completely blocked seizure-induced increase in precursor cell proliferation suggest that the direct blockade action of MK-801 on NMDA receptors on the granule cell precursors may play an important role in blocking seizure-induced precursor cell proliferation. The suppression of seizure-induced proliferation of granule cell precursors by DNQX may be achieved by the direct action of DNQX on AMPA/KA receptors on the granule cell precursors. Thus, our findings indicate that seizures may promote cell proliferation in the adult rat dentate gyrus through glutamatergic mechanisms acting on both NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors. PMID:15312797

Jiang, Wen; Wolfe, Ken; Xiao, Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Yuan-Gui; Zhang, Xia

2004-09-10

88

Epileptic Seizures: Quakes of the brain?  

E-print Network

The concept of universality proposes that dynamical systems with the same power law behaviors are equivalent at large scales. We test this hypothesis on the Earth's crust and the epileptic brain, and discover that power laws also govern the distributions of seizure energies and recurrence times. This robust correspondence is extended over seven statistics, including the direct and inverse Omori laws. We also verify in an animal seizure model the earthquake-driven hypothesis that power law statistics co-exist with characteristic scales, as coupling between constitutive elements increases towards the synchronization regime. These observations point to the universality of the dynamics of coupled threshold oscillators for systems even as diverse as Earth and brain and suggest a general strategy for forecasting seizures, one of neurosciences' grails.

Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

2007-01-01

89

Generalized tonic-clonic seizure  

MedlinePLUS

... grand mal seizure. The terms seizure , convulsion, or epilepsy are most often associated with generalized tonic-clonic ... occur as part of a repeated, chronic illness (epilepsy). Some seizures are due to psychological problems (psychogenic).

90

Anticonvulsant activity of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids of Curcuma longa in zebrafish and mouse seizure models.  

PubMed

Turmeric, obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, is used in South Asia as a traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy. To date, in vivo studies on the anticonvulsant activity of turmeric have focused on its principal curcuminoid, curcumin. However, poor absorption and rapid metabolism have limited the therapeutic application of curcumin in humans. To explore the therapeutic potential of turmeric for epilepsy further, we analyzed its anticonvulsant activity in a larval zebrafish seizure assay. Initial experiments revealed that the anticonvulsant activity of turmeric in zebrafish larvae cannot be explained solely by the effects of curcumin. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation of turmeric identified bisabolene sesquiterpenoids as additional anticonvulsants that inhibit PTZ-induced seizures in both zebrafish and mice. Here, we present the first report of the anticonvulsant properties of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids and provide evidence which warrants further investigation toward the mechanistic understanding of their neuromodulatory activity. PMID:22483646

Orellana-Paucar, Adriana Monserrath; Serruys, Ann-Sophie K; Afrikanova, Tatiana; Maes, Jan; De Borggraeve, Wim; Alen, Jo; León-Tamariz, Fabián; Wilches-Arizábala, Isabel María; Crawford, Alexander D; de Witte, Peter A M; Esguerra, Camila V

2012-05-01

91

Halogenated aromatic amino acid 3,5-dibromo- d -tyrosine produces beneficial effects in experimental stroke and seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the halogenated aromatic amino acid 3,5-dibromo-d-tyrosine (3,5-DBr-d-Tyr) were studied in rat models of stroke and epileptic seizures caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) through\\u000a respective intracerebral injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ).\\u000a 3,5-DBr-d-Tyr was administered as three bolus injections (30 or 90 mg\\/kg, i.p.) starting at 30, 90, and 180 min after ET-1

Wengang Cao; Alexander Glushakov; Hina P. Shah; Adam P. Mecca; Colin Sumners; Peng Shi; Christoph N. Seubert; Anatoly E. Martynyuk

2011-01-01

92

Correlation of seizures and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in experimentally induced inflammatory rat models.  

PubMed

The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various conditions including epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis is evolving. The aim of this study was to find out the correlation between various inflammatory models with seizures and antioxidant parameters. Fifty-four male rats were divided into three groups of colitis, adjuvant arthritis and cotton wool granuloma (CWG). Each group had three subgroups of control, model and treatment. Thalidomide was used as treatment in colitis and arthritis group, whereas etoricoxib was used in CWG group. In colitis and arthritis groups, thalidomide was administered for 3 and 17 days, respectively, whereas etoricoxib was administered for 7 days in CWG group. At the end of treatment protocols, a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (40 mg/kg i.p.) was injected intraperitoneally to note seizure onset and score. After confirming the presence of inflammation by morphological and histological studies, plasma and brain biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were estimated. The models of colitis, arthritis and CWG were effectively produced as evidenced by morphological scores (P < 0.001). Thalidomide reduced the morphological score (P < 0.002) and seizure grade (P < 0.001), whereas increased seizure onset (P < 0.001) in the arthritis group. There was an increase in malondialdehyde levels in the brain of thalidomide-treated groups (P < 0.002) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. There was neither improvement in seizure nor any significant changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels in etoricoxib-treated group. Thalidomide was effective in reducing the extent of arthritis as well as reducing the seizure scoring and increasing seizure onset in the adjuvant arthritis group. As it increased lipid peroxidation and reduced SOD and GPx, further evaluation is necessary with respect to oxidative stress. PMID:20584211

Rao, Ramya S; Medhi, Bikash; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Pandhi, Promila

2010-06-01

93

Seizures and Epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... you can be confused and disoriented. Sometimes a child may have a seizure during an illness with ... of a healthcare provider to make sure the child gets proper nutrition. This document is for informational ...

94

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 ... deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ataxia neuropathy spectrum benign familial ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification fucosidosis juvenile myoclonic ...

95

Methylxanthines, Seizures, and Excitotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Clinical evidence, in particular the wide use of theophylline as a bronchodilator, suggests that methylxanthines can cause\\u000a seizures in patients without known underlying epilepsy. Theophylline is also known to be an added risk factor for seizure\\u000a exacerbation in patients with epilepsy. The proconvulsant activity of methylxanthines can best be explained by their antagonizing\\u000a the brain’s own anticonvulsant adenosine. Recent evidence

Detlev Boison

96

A system to detect the onset of epileptic seizures in scalp EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveA new method for automatic seizure detection and onset warning is proposed. The system is based on determining the seizure probability of a section of EEG. Operation features a user-tuneable threshold to exploit the trade-off between sensitivity and detection delay and an acceptable false detection rate.

M. E. Saab; J. Gotman

2005-01-01

97

Decoupling of the molecular spin-state and the crystallographic phase in the spin-crossover complex [Fe(ptz) 6](BF 4) 2 studied by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectra of the spin-crossover complex [Fe(ptz) 6](BF 4) 2 (ptz = 1- n-propyl-tetrazole) have been recorded at visible and IR exciting wavelengths as a function of temperature down to 5 K. Distinct Raman markers were associated with the spin-state change and the crystallographic phase-transition of the compound. This allows us to demonstrate that the light-induced exited spin-state trapping (LIESST) and the reverse-LIESST effects as well as the thermal relaxation of the photo-induced phase occur without crystallographic phase change in contrast to the thermal spin-crossover.

Moussa, Nawel Ould; Molnár, Gábor; Ducros, Xavier; Zwick, Antoine; Tayagaki, Takeshi; Tanaka, Koichiro; Bousseksou, Azzedine

2005-02-01

98

Loss of Zebrafish lgi1b Leads to Hydrocephalus and Sensitization to Pentylenetetrazol Induced Seizure-Like Behavior  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the LGI1 gene predispose to a hereditary epilepsy syndrome and is the first gene associated with this disease which does not encode an ion channel protein. In zebrafish, there are two paralogs of the LGI1 gene, lgi1a and lgi1b. Knockdown of lgi1a results in a seizure-like hyperactivity phenotype with associated developmental abnormalities characterized by cellular loss in the eyes and brain. We have now generated knockdown morphants for the lgi1b gene which also show developmental abnormalities but do not show a seizure-like behavior. Instead, the most striking phenotype involves significant enlargement of the ventricles (hydrocephalus). As shown for the lgi1a morphants, however, lgi1b morphants are also sensitized to PTZ-induced hyperactivity. The different phenotypes between the two lgi1 morphants support a subfunctionalization model for the two paralogs. PMID:22053218

Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; Saxena, Meera; Kozlowski, David J.; Mumm, Jeff S.; Cowell, John K.

2011-01-01

99

Epileptic seizures: Quakes of the brain?  

PubMed

A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures ("focal" in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the system's dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems. PMID:20866849

Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

2010-08-01

100

Epileptic seizures: Quakes of the brain?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamical analogy supported by five scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes, the distribution of interevent intervals, the Omori and inverse Omori laws, and the conditional waiting time until the next event) is shown to exist between two classes of seizures (“focal” in humans and generalized in animals) and earthquakes. Increments in excitatory interneuronal coupling in animals expose the system’s dependence on this parameter and its dynamical transmutability: moderate increases lead to power-law behavior of seizure energy and interevent times, while marked ones to scale-free (power-law) coextensive with characteristic scales and events. The coextensivity of power law and characteristic size regimes is predicted by models of coupled heterogeneous threshold oscillators of relaxation and underscores the role of coupling strength in shaping the dynamics of these systems.

Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark G.; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

2010-08-01

101

Seizures and Teens: Sorting Out Seizures--Part Two  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In adolescents, diagnosing seizures can be challenging and can lead to many pitfalls. Because seizures are episodic and unpredictable events, they usually do not occur in the doctor's office. Thus, a diagnosis of epilepsy is usually based on information presented by the person with seizures and their family. Together with results of diagnostic…

Devinsky, Orrin

2006-01-01

102

Screening of the anticonvulsant activity of some plants from Fabaceae family in experimental seizure models in mice  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose of the study Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Albizzia julibrissin, Acacia juliflora, Acacia nubica and aerial parts of Astragalus obtusifolius was evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure tests. Methods The hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were obtained by percolation. Different doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50Hz, 1sec) were monitored up to 30 min after administration. Acute toxicity of the extracts was also assessed. The safe and effective extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and anticonvulsant activity of the fractions was determined. Finally, the constituents of the extract and the fractions were screened by thin layer chromatography. Results Among the extracts, only A. obtusifolius extract showed low toxicity and protective effect against clonic seizures with ED50 value of 3.97 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract led to increase in anticonvulsant activity and ED50 value of 2.86 g/kg was obtained for the aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthrones and saponins in the aqueous fraction. Major conclusion The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in A. obtusifolius suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find out the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agent. PMID:22615673

Sayyah, M.; Khodaparast, A.; Yazdi, A.; Sardari, S.

2011-01-01

103

Reflex seizures in Rett syndrome.  

PubMed

Reflex seizures are a rare phenomenon among epileptic patients, in which an epileptic discharge is triggered by various kinds of stimuli (visual, auditory, tactile or gustatory). Epilepsy is common in Rett syndrome patients (up to 70%), but to the authors' knowledge, no pressure or eating-triggered seizures have yet been reported in Rett children. We describe three epileptic Rett patients with reflex seizures, triggered by food intake or proprioception. One patient with congenital Rett Sd. developed infantile epileptic spasms at around seven months and two patients with classic Rett Sd. presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures at around five years. Reflex seizures appeared when the patients were teenagers. The congenital-Rett patient presented eating-triggered seizures at the beginning of almost every meal, demonstrated by EEG recording. Both classic Rett patients showed self-provoked pressure -triggered attacks, influenced by stress or excitement. Non-triggered seizures were controlled with carbamazepine or valproate, but reflex seizures did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Risperidone partially improved self-provoked seizures. When reflex seizures are suspected, reproducing the trigger during EEG recording is fundamental; however, self-provoked seizures depend largely on the patient's will. Optimal therapy (though not always possible) consists of avoiding the trigger. Stress modifiers such as risperidone may help control self-provoked seizures. PMID:22258043

Roche Martínez, Ana; Alonso Colmenero, M Itziar; Gomes Pereira, Andreia; Sanmartí Vilaplana, Francesc X; Armstrong Morón, Judith; Pineda Marfa, Mercé

2011-12-01

104

Teaching about Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a six-step model to help teachers develop curriculum related to the Fourth Amendment (search and seizure). The model focuses on determining values and attitudes, defining valid and unreasonable search and seizure, recognizing a valid warrant, and using film to teach about search and seizure. Journal available from the American Bar…

Kelly, Cynthia A.

1978-01-01

105

Adaptive Epileptic Seizure Prediction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Current epileptic seizure “prediction” algorithms are generally based on the knowledge of seizure occurring time and analyze the electroencephalogram,(EEG) recordings retro- spectively. It is then obvious that, although these analyses provide evidence of brain activity changes prior to epileptic seizures, they cannot be applied to develop implantable devices for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, we describe an adaptive

Leon D. Iasemidis; Deng-Shan Shiau; Wanpracha Chaovalitwongse; J. Chris Sackellares; Panos M. Pardalos; Jose C. Principe; Paul R. Carney; Awadhesh Prasad; Balaji Veeramani; Konstantinos Tsakalis

2003-01-01

106

The effect of antihistamines on seizures induced by increasing-current electroshocks: ketotifen, but not olopatadine, promotes the seizures in infant rats.  

PubMed

Clinical reports have shown that some antihistamines, such as ketotifen, occasionally produced seizures, especially in pre-school age children or young patients with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether olopatadine, one of the most efficacious antihistamines, promotes seizures induced by electroshocks in young rats. We investigated the seizures induced by electroshock using increasing-current delivery in 3- or 4-week-old rats, and found that the threshold-current of tonic extensor seizures was elevated with age in weeks in the vehicle-treatment groups. While caffeine decreased the threshold-current in every age group of rats, pentylenetetrazole, a ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor antagonist, significantly decreased them only in 4-week-old rats. On the other hand, ketotifen decreased them only in 3-weeks-old rats. In the 3-week-old rats, neither olopatadine nor fexofenadine had any effect on the threshold-currents of tonic extensor seizures. These results showed that histaminergic neuro-transmission in the brain plays a crucial role in inhibiting seizures in rats soon after weaning, but is no longer effective in rats as they approach sexual maturation. In addition, unlike ketotifen, olopatadine, as well as fexofenadine, do not promote the occurrence of seizures in infant rats. PMID:22687403

Yamada, Koji; Takizawa, Fumitake; Tamura, Tadafumi; Kanda, Tomoyuki

2012-01-01

107

The Alaris auditory evoked potential monitor as an indicator of seizure inducibility and duration during electroconvulsive therapy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Precise control of anesthetic depth during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is crucial because most intravenous anesthetics have anticonvulsant effects. In this study, we investigated the association between anesthetic depth measured by the Alaris auditory evoked potential index (AAI) and seizure inducibility and seizure duration during ECT. Methods Sixty-four ECTs were evaluated in 12 consecutive patients. General anesthesia was performed with a thiopental-based method. The relationship between the pre-ictal AAI, seizure activity and seizure duration was analyzed, and a possible threshold pre-ictal AAI to induce a seizure duration of at least 25 seconds was calculated. Results Forty-one of the 64 ECT stimuli successfully induced seizure activity that lasted longer than 25 seconds. Pre-ictal AAI was significantly correlated to seizure duration (r?=?0.54, p?threshold pre-ictal AAi value was calculated to be 26 (area under curve: 0.76, sensitivity: 70.3% and specificity: 73.9%, p?seizure activity ( p?seizure duration (55?±?35 v.s. 21?±?27 seconds, p?seizure activities and a longer seizure duration. This is the first report to investigate Alaris AEP monitoring during ECT. PMID:24914401

2014-01-01

108

Anticonvulsant Effects of N-Arachidonoyl-Serotonin, a Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Enzyme and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) Channel Blocker, on Experimental Seizures: The Roles of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors and TRPV1 Channels.  

PubMed

Selective blockade of anandamide hydrolysis, through the inhibition of the FAAH enzyme, has anticonvulsant effects, which are mediated by CB1 receptors. Anandamide, however, also activates TRPV1 channels, generally with an opposite outcome on neuronal modulation. Thus, we suggested that the dual FAAH and TRPV1 blockade with N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) would be efficacious in inhibiting pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. We also investigated the contribution of CB1 activation and TRPV1 blockade to the overt effect of AA-5-HT. In the first experiment, injection of AA-5-HT (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) delayed the onset and reduced the duration of PTZ (60 mg)-induced seizures in mice. These effects were reversed by pre-treatment with the CB1 antagonist, AM251 (1.0-3.0 mg/kg). Finally, we observed that administration of the selective TRPV1 antagonist, SB366791 (0.1-1 mg/kg), did not entirely mimic AA-5-HT effects. In conclusion, AA-5-HT alleviates seizures in mice, an effect inhibited by CB1 antagonism, but not completely mimicked by TRPV1 blockage, indicating that the overall effect of AA-5-HT seems to depend mainly on CB1 receptors. This may represent a new strategy for the development of drugs against seizures, epilepsies and related syndromes. PMID:24674273

Vilela, Luciano R; Medeiros, Daniel C; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos P; Moraes, Marcio F; Moreira, Fabricio A

2014-10-01

109

Recent advances in febrile seizures.  

PubMed

Febrile seizures are the most common seizures of childhood. A family history of febrile seizures is common, and the disorder is genetically heterogenous. While guidelines are available for management of simple febrile seizures, the management of complex febrile seizures is individualised. After a febrile seizure, it is important to rule out CNS infection and the decision to perform a lumbar puncture should be based on the clinical condition of the child. Neuroimaging and EEG are not required immediately in workup for simple or complex febrile seizures. Recurrence of febrile seizures may be managed at home by the parents with benzodiazepines. If the recurrences are multiple or prolonged and parents are unable to give home treatment, intermittent benzodiazepine prophylaxis may be given. Continuous antiepileptic prophylaxis may be given only to the children where intermittent prophylaxis has failed. Febrile seizures are also associated with increased risk of epilepsy, but this cannot be prevented by any form of treatment. There is also an increased risk of mesial temporal sclerosis, but whether this is an effect or cause of febrile seizures is as yet unclear. There is no increase in neurological handicaps or mortality following febrile seizures. PMID:25103013

Mittal, Rekha

2014-09-01

110

Serotonin neurones have anti-convulsant effects and reduce seizure-induced mortality.  

PubMed

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. Defects in central control of breathing are important contributors to the pathophysiology of SUDEP, and serotonin (5-HT) system dysfunction may be involved. Here we examined the effect of 5-HT neurone elimination or 5-HT reduction on seizure risk and seizure-induced mortality. Adult Lmx1b(f/f/p) mice, which lack >99% of 5-HT neurones in the CNS, and littermate controls (Lmx1b(f/f)) were subjected to acute seizure induction by maximal electroshock (MES) or pilocarpine, variably including electroencephalography, electrocardiography, plethysmography, mechanical ventilation or pharmacological therapy. Lmx1b(f/f/p) mice had a lower seizure threshold and increased seizure-induced mortality. Breathing ceased during most seizures without recovery, whereas cardiac activity persisted for up to 9 min before terminal arrest. The mortality rate of mice of both genotypes was reduced by mechanical ventilation during the seizure or 5-HT2A receptor agonist pretreatment. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduced mortality of Lmx1b(f/f) but not of Lmx1b(f/f/p) mice. In C57BL/6N mice, reduction of 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenylalanine increased MES-induced seizure severity but not mortality. We conclude that 5-HT neurones raise seizure threshold and decrease seizure-related mortality. Death ensued from respiratory failure, followed by terminal asystole. Given that SUDEP often occurs in association with generalised seizures, some mechanisms causing death in our model might be shared with those leading to SUDEP. This model may help determine the relationship between seizures, 5-HT system dysfunction, breathing and death, which may lead to novel ways to prevent SUDEP. PMID:25107926

Buchanan, Gordon F; Murray, Nicholas M; Hajek, Michael A; Richerson, George B

2014-10-01

111

Gliomas and seizures.  

PubMed

Glial neoplasms account for nearly 50% of all adult primary brain tumors. They originate from glial cells in the brain and/or spinal cord and include low-grade diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic-astrocytomas, and glioblastomas. Of all brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and is characterized by rapid glial cell growth, resistance to radio- and chemo- therapies, and relentless infiltration and spreading throughout the central nervous system (CNS). In glioblastomas, primary tumor growth and CNS invasion are associated with the activation of complex structural molecular and metabolic changes within the tumor tissue, which profoundly affect the surrounding neuronal networks and may in part explain induction of epilepsy. In fact, epileptic seizures are very common among patients with glial tumors, reaching nearly 50% in glioblastoma patients and almost 90% in low-grade astrocytomas. The overall hypothesis presented here discusses the possibility that the aberrant tumor cell metabolism may act directly on neuronal network, and this leads to seizure susceptibility. Further invasion and growth of the malignant glial cells exacerbate this initial pathologic state which promotes recurrent seizures (epileptogenesis). PMID:22959996

Prakash, O; Lukiw, W J; Peruzzi, F; Reiss, K; Musto, A E

2012-11-01

112

Anticonvulsant drug effects in the direct cortical ramp-stimulation model in rats: comparison with conventional seizure models.  

PubMed

A modified cortical ramp stimulation (CRS) model has been developed allowing repeated determinations of seizure threshold at short time intervals in individual rats without inducing postictal threshold increases. Anticonvulsant potency of the standard antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, valproate, diazepam and ethosuximide in the CRS model was compared with respective drug potencies in two more traditional seizure models with transcorneal stimulus application, i.e., the minimal electroshock seizure threshold (minEST) and the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (maxEST). In the CRS model, two different types of threshold were determined, the threshold for localized seizures (TLS) and the threshold for generalized seizures (TGS). When screw electrodes were implanted over the primary motor cortex, TLS was characterized by unilateral forelimb clonus, tonic abduction of contralateral forelimb, and head adversion. When ramp-shaped stimulation was continued above the TLS current, bilateral clonic forelimb seizures with loss of posture developed, which was defined as TGS. In contrast to TLS, TGS could not be repeatedly determined at short time intervals because of postictal threshold increase. TLS was dose-dependently increased by carbamazepine, phenobarbital, valproate and diazepam, although phenytoin showed a truncated dose-response, and ethosuximide was ineffective. In comparison to TLS, drug-induced increases in TGS were more marked. All drugs dose-dependently increased minEST and, except ethosuximide, maxEST. For comparison of drug potencies, doses increasing seizure thresholds by 20 or 50% were calculated from dose-response curves. Respective comparisons showed marked differences in drug potencies between models, indicating that the CRS method presents a model of another, more pharmacoresistant seizure type than seizure types induced in traditional models, such as transcorneal electroshock. Based on the location of electrodes in the frontal neocortex, the characteristic seizure pattern, and the low pharmacological sensitivity of the seizures to standard antiepileptics, the modified CRS model most likely represents a new model of localization-related seizures occurring in frontal lobe epilepsy and may thus be used in the search for novel drugs with higher efficacy against this difficult-to-treat type of epilepsy. PMID:9618416

Krupp, E; Löscher, W

1998-06-01

113

Modeling Glial Contributions to Seizures and Epileptogenesis: Cation-Chloride Cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl? cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi) of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24–48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl? cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed. PMID:24971529

Rusan, Zeid M.; Kingsford, Olivia A.; Tanouye, Mark A.

2014-01-01

114

Spin- and phase transition in the spin crossover complex [Fe(ptz) 6](BF 4) 2 studied by nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation and by DFT calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of [Fe(ptz) 6](BF 4) 2 (ptz = 1- n-propyl-tetrazole) have been measured for five phases differing in spin state and crystallographic structure. Different spectral patterns have been found for the low-spin and high-spin phases and are described in terms of normal coordinate analysis of the complex molecule. For both low-spin and high-spin phases the conversion from ordered to disordered phase results in splitting of the observed NIS bands. Packing becomes visible in the NIS spectra via coupling of the Fe-N stretching vibrations with those of the terminal n-propyl groups. The DFT-based normal coordinate analysis also reveals the character of Raman markers.

Böttger, Lars H.; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Matthias Grunert, C.; Gütlich, Philipp; Kusz, Joachim; Paulsen, Hauke; Ponkratz, Ulrich; Rusanov, Ventzislav; Trautwein, Alfred X.; Wolny, Juliusz A.

2006-09-01

115

Quasi-static nature of the light induced thermal hysteresis in [Fe(ptz) 6](BF 4) 2 spin-transition solid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quasi-static nature of a light induced thermal hysteresis was studied on the spin-transition compound [Fe(ptz)6](BF4)2, by means of optical spectroscopy and magnetic measurements in the temperature interval between 10 and 80 K. Various experimental procedures are discussed in relation to the competition between the two processes considered, namely the photoexitation and the high-spin?low-spin relaxation. A detailed discussion of the

Jelena Jeftica; Marie Matsarski; Andreas Hauser; Antoine Goujon; Epiphane Codjovi; Jorge Linarès; François Varret

2001-01-01

116

Pharmacodynamics of SMP601 (PTZ601) against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neutropenic Murine Thigh Infection Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMP-601 (also known as PTZ601, PZ-601, or SM-216601) is a novel parenteral carbapenem with potent activity against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The pharmacodynamics of SMP-601 against VREF and MRSA were investigated in neutropenic murine thigh infection models. The percentage of the dosing interval that the unbound SMP-601 concentration exceeded the MIC

Ken Eguchi; Katsunori Kanazawa; Yoshiro Eriguchi; Yutaka Ueda

2009-01-01

117

Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on…

Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

2007-01-01

118

Analyzing autonomic activity in neonatal seizures  

E-print Network

Recent studies suggest that seizures in the newborn occur more often than previously appreciated. The effect of neonatal seizures remain unclear, however. Do seizures in the newborn cause brain injury, are they a consequence ...

Ramaswamy, Priya, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

119

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 24-day-old baby is failing to thrive and experiencing seizures. Visitors are given the microscopic description, with images, the results of the postmortem examination, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pediatric pathology.

Dickman, Paul S.; Lyons, Valerie

2009-09-16

120

Pathology Case Study: Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 7-year-old girl is experiencing episodic seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology. [ASC

Al-Hindi, Hindi; Subach, Brian R.

2007-10-15

121

Automated epileptic seizure onset detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to abnormal or excessive neuronal activity in the brain. An estimated 50 million people around the world suffer from this condition, and it is classified as the second most serious neurological disease known to humanity, after stroke. With early and accurate detection of seizures, doctors can gain valuable

Arvind Dorai; Kumaraswamy Ponnambalam

2010-01-01

122

A case of atypical tardive seizure activity during an initial ECT titration series.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used in this country for more than 70 years, is still the most effective treatment in all of psychiatry, and is considered a very safe procedure to have under general anesthesia. Although most patients tolerate this procedure very well without complications, prolonged and/or tardive seizures or even status epilepticus can develop, which is a rare but serious complication of ECT. Tardive seizures are typically associated with electroencephalographic evidence of ictal activity and motor manifestations of the tonic-clonic activity. Whereas there are instances of nonconvulsive status epilepticus after ECT, this is the first report of a patient developing autonomic and motor manifestations of a tardive seizure without electroencephalographic evidence of seizure activity during the initial titration series to establish seizure threshold for a course of ECT. PMID:23845940

Thisayakorn, Paul; Karim, Yasser; Yamada, Thoru; McCormick, Laurie M

2014-03-01

123

A hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism underlying dietary soy-induced effects on seizure propensity.  

PubMed

Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer's disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold. PMID:25232349

Westmark, Cara Jean

2014-01-01

124

A Hypothesis Regarding the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Dietary Soy-Induced Effects on Seizure Propensity  

PubMed Central

Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer’s disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold.

Westmark, Cara Jean

2014-01-01

125

Alcohol withdrawal seizures.  

PubMed

The topic of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), including delirium tremens and especially seizures, is reviewed. From mice and rat studies, it is known that both N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are involved in AWS. During alcohol intoxication chronic adaptations of NMDA and GABA receptors occur, and during alcohol withdrawal a hyperexcitable state develops. In studies on humans, during intoxication the NMDA receptors are activated and mediate tonic inhibition. In withdrawal, a rebound activation of these receptors occurs. Both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, especially the alpha2 subunit of GABA-A receptors, are also likely involved. Homocysteine increases with active drinking, and in withdrawal, excitotoxicity likely is induced by a further increase in homocysteine, viewed as a risk factor for AWS and also as a screening tool. The dopamine transporter gene is also associated with AWS. Characteristics involves changes in the ECG, especially an increase in QT interval, and EEG changes, including abnormal quantified EEG, at times periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges, and especially seizures, usually occurring 6-48h after the cessation of drinking. Therapy has emphasized benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam and lorazepam, but more standard antiepileptic drugs, like carbamazepine and topiramate, are also effective and safe. PMID:19249388

Hughes, John R

2009-06-01

126

The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure  

SciTech Connect

Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01

127

Effect of ACEA--a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist on the protective action of different antiepileptic drugs in the mouse pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model.  

PubMed

Endogenous cannabinoid ligands and cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists have been shown to exert anticonvulsant effects in various experimental models of epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA-a highly selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) on the protective action of clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, and valproate against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures in mice. To ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution of ACEA to the observed interactions between tested drugs, free (non-protein bound) plasma and total brain concentrations of the antiepileptic drugs were estimated. Additionally, acute adverse-effect profiles of the combination of ACEA and different classical antiepileptic drugs (clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate) with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured. Results indicated that ACEA (10mg/kg, i.p.) co-administered with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF-a substance protecting ACEA against degradation by the fatty-acid hydrolase; 30mg/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of ethosuximide, phenobarbital and valproate in the mouse PTZ-induced clonic seizure model by reducing their median effective doses (ED(50) values) from 122.8mg/kg to 71.7mg/kg (P<0.01; for ethosuximide), from 13.77mg/kg to 5.26mg/kg (P<0.05; for phenobarbital), and from 142.7mg/kg to 87.3mg/kg (P<0.05; for valproate), respectively. In contrast, ACEA (10mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with PMSF (30mg/kg, i.p.) had no impact on the protective action of clonazepam against PTZ-induced seizures in mice. However, ACEA (10mg/kg)+PMSF (30mg/kg) considerably increased free plasma and total brain concentrations of ethosuximide and valproate in mice suggesting a pharmacokinetic nature of interaction between drugs. In contrast, free plasma and total brain concentrations of clonazepam and phenobarbital remained unchanged after ACEA+PMSF administration and thus, indicating pharmacodynamic interactions. Moreover, none of the examined combinations of ACEA (10mg/kg, i.p.)+PMSF (30mg/kg, i.p.) with clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, and valproate (at their ED(50) values from the PTZ-induced seizure test) affected motor coordination in the chimney test, long-term memory in the passive avoidance task, and muscular strength in the grip-strength test in mice, indicating no possible acute adverse effects in animals. In conclusion, pharmacodynamic enhancement of the anticonvulsant potency of phenobarbital by ACEA+PMSF is worthy of recommendation for further clinical settings. Pharmacokinetic interactions of ACEA+PMSF with ethosuximide and valproate seem to be responsible for a significant suppression of PTZ-induced seizures in mice. The combination of ACEA+PMSF with clonazepam seems to be neutral from a preclinical viewpoint. PMID:22789660

Andres-Mach, Marta; Zolkowska, Dorota; Barcicka-Klosowska, Beata; Haratym-Maj, Agnieszka; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

2012-12-01

128

Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

2014-01-01

129

Seizure-Inducing Drugs Used for the Critically Ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically ill patients are subjected to numerous medication effects during their stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Some\\u000a of them have epileptogenic potentials. The most common pathophysiologic mechanism is through blockade of the ?-aminobutyric\\u000a acid (GABA) receptor, and the most commonly used family of ICU drugs, reducing the seizure threshold, is the antibiotics.\\u000a The exact role of these medications

Rebecca E. Schuman; Panayiotis N. Varelas

130

Bupropion seizure proportion among new-onset generalized seizures and drug related seizures presenting to an emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is a relatively new and popular medication with seizures as its major side effect. This drug can produce seizures with an overdose. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative importance of this medication as the etiology of new-onset seizures relative to other drugs and new-onset seizures in general. The study design was a retrospective case series.

Gene R Pesola; Jagannadha Avasarala

2002-01-01

131

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) represents a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. They usually present abruptly with seizure or impaired consciousness as well as high-grade fever following antecedent infection. Seizures in AERRPS are almost exclusively of localized origin, whose semiology includes eye deviation, hemifacial twitching, hemiclonic convulsion, and autonomic manifestations. Partial seizures are brief, but

Hiroshi Sakuma

2009-01-01

132

Seizures in Infants and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the most frequent causes of seizure disorders in young children and the classification of different seizure types. It discusses current therapies, including alternatives to medication. Emergency response to seizures is covered a well as non-epileptic episodes that may resemble seizures. Epilepsy's potential impact on the…

McBrien, Dianne M.; Bonthius, Daniel J.

2000-01-01

133

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Seizures in Alzheimer Disease  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Seizures in Alzheimer Disease Who, When, and How Common? Nikolaos Scarmeas) are frequent and include seizures, syncope, and episodes of inattention or confusion. The incidence of seizures-onset unprovoked seizures. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Three academic centers. Patients: Four

134

Metformin protects against seizures, learning and memory impairments and oxidative damage induced by pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment, the most common and severe comorbidity of epilepsy, greatly diminishes the quality of life. However, current therapeutic interventions for epilepsy can also cause untoward cognitive effects. Thus, there is an urgent need for new kinds of agents targeting both seizures and cognition deficits. Oxidative stress is considered to play an important role in epileptogenesis and cognitive deficits, and antioxidants have a putative antiepileptic potential. Metformin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic oral drug, has antioxidant properties. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effects of metformin on seizures, cognitive impairment and brain oxidative stress markers observed in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling animals. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered with subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (37 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day for 14 injections. Metformin was injected intraperitoneally in dose of 200mg/kg along with alternate-day PTZ. We found that metformin suppressed the progression of kindling, ameliorated the cognitive impairment and decreased brain oxidative stress. Thus the present study concluded that metformin may be a potential agent for the treatment of epilepsy as well as a protective medicine against cognitive impairment induced by seizures. PMID:24802403

Zhao, Ran-Ran; Xu, Xiao-Chen; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Wei-Li; Zhang, Wen-Lin; Liu, Liang-Min; Wang, Wei-Ping

2014-06-13

135

Understanding the TXA seizure connection  

E-print Network

Transexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that has been used successfully to prevent blood loss during major surgery. However, as its usage has increased, there have been growing reports of postsurgical seizure events ...

Schwinn, Debra A.

136

GABAB receptors as a common target for hypothermia and spike and wave seizures: intersecting mechanisms of thermoregulation and absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

In the current study the link among the ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced absence-like seizures and concomitant decreases in the core temperature, as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during rewarming from deep hypothermia produced by a drug-free protocol were investigated. During the rewarming period after deep cooling, most Wistar rats suffered from bilaterally synchronous spike and waves with no or mild behavioral correlates. Spike and wave seizures were temperature-dependent and were initially registered when body temperature (Tb) reached 25-27°C, but mostly during the mild hypothermia of 0.3-1.3°C (Tb of 36.3-37.3°C). In chemical absence models, spike and wave discharges were also closely accompanied by mild systemic hypothermia, as both PTZ- and GHB-induced temperature decreases ranged from about 1-1.4°C respectively, together with EEG markers of absence activity. Thus, throughout the different experimental designs, the occurrence of spike and wave discharges was always related to a mild (0.3-1.4°C) decrease of Tb. Benzodiazepine diazepam as the GABAA-positive allosteric modulator and CGP 62349 as the selective antagonist of GABAB receptors were used to determine if their well-known anticonvulsant properties also affect hypothermia elicited by these drugs. Finally, during the course of spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, another selective GABAB-blocking agent, CGP 35348, was used to elucidate if GABAB inhibitory system could be critically implicated in the generation of hypothermia-dependent spike and waves. Diazepam prevented both the PTZ-induced hypothermia and electrographic absence seizures, but these two beneficial effects did not occur in the GHB model. Even though diazepam delayed GHB-induced maximal temperature decrease, the GHB effects remained highly significant. The GABAB antagonist CGP 62349 completely prevented hypothermia as well as absence seizures in both chemical models. Likewise, spike and wave discharges, registered during the spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, were completely prevented by CGP 35348. These findings show that systemic hypothermia should definitely be regarded as a marker of GABAB receptor activation. Moreover, the results of this study clearly show that initial mild temperature decrease should be considered as strong absence-provoking factor. Hypothermia-induced nonconvulsive seizures also highlight the importance of continuous EEG monitoring in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Since every change in peripheral or systemic temperature ultimately must be perceived by preoptic region of the anterior hypothalamus as the primary thermoregulatory and sleep-inducing center, the preoptic thermosensitive neurons in general and warm-sensitive neurons in particular, simply have to be regarded as the most probable candidate for connected thermoregulatory and absence generating mechanisms. Therefore, additional studies are needed to confirm their potential role in the generation and propagation of absence seizures. PMID:23415784

Ostoji?, Z S; Ili?, T V; Veskovi?, S M; Andjus, P R

2013-05-15

137

Epileptic Seizures in AD Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epileptic seizures have long been recognised as a complication of the clinical syndrome of Alzheimer’s disease, particularly\\u000a in advanced disease, but have hitherto been viewed essentially as epiphenomena of the neurodegenerative process. Progress\\u000a with animal models of Alzheimer’s disease has suggested that this view may be incorrect, and that seizures may be a reflection\\u000a of pathophysiological processes similar to or

A. J. Larner

2010-01-01

138

Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy (FEAST): A novel form of ECT illustrates the roles of current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration in seizure induction  

PubMed Central

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a mainstay in the treatment of severe, medication resistant depression. The antidepressant efficacy and cognitive side effects of ECT are influenced by the position of the electrodes on the head and by the degree to which the electrical stimulus exceeds the threshold for seizure induction. However, surprisingly little is known about the effects of other key electrical parameters such as current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration. Understanding these relationships may inform the optimization of therapeutic interventions to improve their risk/benefit ratio. To elucidate these relationships, we evaluated a novel form of ECT (focal electrically administered seizure therapy, FEAST) that combines unidirectional stimulation, control of polarity, and an asymmetrical electrode configuration, and contrasted it with conventional ECT in a nonhuman primate model. Rhesus monkeys had their seizure thresholds determined on separate days with ECT conditions that crossed the factors of current directionality (unidirectional or bidirectional), electrode configuration (standard bilateral or FEAST (small anterior and large posterior electrode)), and polarity (assignment of anode and cathode in unidirectional stimulation). Ictal expression and post-ictal suppression were quantified via scalp EEG. Findings were replicated and extended in a second experiment with the same subjects. Seizures were induced in each of 75 trials, including 42 FEAST procedures. Seizure thresholds were lower with unidirectional than with bidirectional stimulation (p<0.0001), and lower in FEAST than in bilateral ECS (p=0.0294). Ictal power was greatest in posterior-anode unidirectional FEAST, and post-ictal suppression was strongest in anterior-anode FEAST (p=0.0008 and p=0.0024, respectively). EEG power was higher in the stimulated hemisphere in posterior-anode FEAST (p=0.0246), consistent with the anode being the site of strongest activation. These findings suggest that current directionality, polarity, and electrode configuration influence the efficiency of seizure induction with ECT. Unidirectional stimulation and novel electrode configurations such as FEAST are two approaches to lowering seizure threshold. Furthermore, the impact of FEAST on ictal and post-ictal expression appeared to be polarity-dependent. Future studies may examine whether these differences in seizure threshold and expression have clinical significance for patients receiving ECT. PMID:19225453

Spellman, Timothy; Peterchev, Angel V.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

2009-01-01

139

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2012-04-01

140

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2013-04-01

141

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2011-04-01

142

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2010-04-01

143

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2014-04-01

144

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

... 2014-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2014-04-01

145

19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana § 162.63 Arrests and seizures. Arrests and seizures under...

2012-04-01

146

Pathological pattern formation and cortical propagation of epileptic seizures  

E-print Network

Pathological pattern formation and cortical propagation of epileptic seizures Mark A. Kramer1 a seizure. The model and observational results agree in two important respects during seizure: (i: mesoscopic cortical dynamics; dynamical systems theory; electrocorticogram; epilepsy; seizures; pattern

Kramer, Mark A.

147

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2010-04-01

148

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2013-04-01

149

19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12...MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. ...C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of Customs seizure...

2011-04-01

150

The serotonin axis: Shared mechanisms in seizures, depression and SUDEP  

PubMed Central

Summary There is a growing appreciation that patients with seizures are also affected by a number of co-morbid conditions, including an increase in prevalence of depression (Kanner, 2009), sleep apnea (Chihorek et al, 2007), and sudden death (Ryvlin et al, 2006; Tomson et al, 2008). The mechanisms responsible for these associations are unclear. Here we discuss the possibility that underlying pathology in the serotonin (5-HT) system of epilepsy patients lowers the threshold for seizures, while also increasing the risk of depression and sudden death. We propose that post-ictal dysfunction of 5-HT neurons causes depression of breathing and arousal in some epilepsy patients, and this can lead to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We further draw parallels between SUDEP and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which may share pathophysiological mechanisms, and which have both been linked to defects in the 5-HT system. PMID:21214537

Richerson, George B.; Buchanan, Gordon F.

2010-01-01

151

The seizure prediction characteristic: a general framework to assess and compare seizure prediction methods  

E-print Network

The seizure prediction characteristic: a general framework to assess and compare seizure prediction The unpredictability of seizures is a central problem for all patients suffering from uncontrolled epilepsy. Recently, numerous methods have been suggested that claim to predict from the EEG the onset of epileptic seizures

Timmer, Jens

152

David et al.: Seizure onset zone imaging Imaging the seizure onset zone with stereo-electroencephalography  

E-print Network

David et al.: Seizure onset zone imaging 1 Imaging the seizure onset zone 52 05 98 Running title: Seizure onset zone imaging Total number of words in the text: 5841 Revision in "Brain 2011;134(Pt 10):2898-911" DOI : 10.1093/brain/awr238 #12;David et al.: Seizure onset

Boyer, Edmond

153

Automatic Seizure Detection in Rats Using Laplacian EEG and Verification with Human Seizure Signals  

E-print Network

Automatic Seizure Detection in Rats Using Laplacian EEG and Verification with Human Seizure Signals. Bardakjian oversaw the review of this article. Abstract--Automated detection of seizures is still a challenging problem. This study presents an approach to detect seizure segments in Laplacian

Besio, Walter G.

154

DETECTION OF NOCTURNAL EPILEPTIC SEIZURES OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS USING ACCELEROMETERS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the detection of epileptic seizures with accelerometers attached to the four extremities of a patient's body. First an acquisition system was built which gathers the accelerometer data synchronously with electroencephalogram (EEG) and video data. The detection algorithm consists of two steps: the first is a data reduction step which identifies movement epochs based on crossing a threshold.

K. Cuppens; P. Colleman; B. Ceulemans; B. Vanrumste

155

Ultra-low dose naltrexone potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of low dose morphine on clonic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant potentiation of analgesic effects of opioids can be achieved through selective blockade of their stimulatory effects on intracellular signaling pathways by ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists. However, the generality and specificity of this interaction is not well understood. The bimodal modulation of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by opioids provide a model to assess the potential usefulness of this approach

H. Honar; K. Riazi; H. Homayoun; H. Sadeghipour; N. Rashidi; M. R. Ebrahimkhani; N. Mirazi; A. R. Dehpour

2004-01-01

156

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2012-04-01

157

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1  

E-print Network

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Page 1 of 20 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Distribution authorized to all. Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Submitted by Nicolas Roy University) 393 8351 Email nroy@usc.edu Date: April 27, 2010 Work performed at USC #12;Veterinary Seizure Detector

Levi, Anthony F. J.

158

Automatic Seizure Detection Incorporating Structural Information  

E-print Network

Automatic Seizure Detection Incorporating Structural Information Borbala Hunyadi1,2 , Maarten De.suykens,sabine.vanhuffel}@esat.kuleuven.be wim.vanpaesschen@uz.kuleuven.ac.be Abstract. Traditional seizure detection algorithms act on single of the seizure. Two differ- ent approaches aiming at including such structural information into the data

159

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2011-04-01

160

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2010-04-01

161

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2013-04-01

162

An Incredible Tool for Tracking Seizure Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eric Schumacher knows all too well the trials and tribulations of tracking seizures and daily activities in the ongoing attempt to gain seizure control. Diagnosed with epilepsy in his teens, he is now bringing a new and innovative tool to the market that could help countless people with epilepsy gain better control over their seizures and thus…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

163

19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs...Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and contrary...and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or detention. In all cases...

2014-04-01

164

Search and Seizure in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although problems of drug abuse, bomb threats, theft, and concealed weapons sometimes make search and seizure necessary, the student's rights must be protected through proper legal procedures. The article presents guidelines for conducting locker and personal searches and for educating students, teachers, and administrators on student rights. (DS)

Hickok, Angelia B.

1980-01-01

165

A novel approach for imaging brain-behaviour relationships in mice reveals unexpected metabolic patterns during seizures in the absence of tissue plasminogen activator  

PubMed Central

Medically-refractory seizures cause inflammation and neurodegeneration. Seizure initiation thresholds have been linked in mice to the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA); mice lacking tPA exhibit resistance to seizure induction, and the ensuing inflammation and neurodegeneration are similarly suppressed. Seizure foci in humans can be examined using PET employing 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) as a tracer to visualize metabolic dysfunction. However, there currently exist no such methods in mice to correlate measures of brain activation with behaviour. Using a novel method for small animal PET data analysis, we examine patterns of 18FDG uptake in wild type and tPA-/- mice and find that they correlate with the severity of drug-induced seizure initiation. Furthermore, we report unexpected activations that may underlie the tPA modulation of seizure susceptibility. The methods described here should be applicable to other mouse models of human neurological disease. PMID:17707126

Mirrione, Martine M.; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, Dave L.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Tsirka, Stella E.

2007-01-01

166

Inferring Seizure Frequency From Brief EEG Recordings  

PubMed Central

Routine EEGs remain a cornerstone test in caring for people with epilepsy. Although rare, a self-limited seizure (clinical or electrographic only) may be observed during such brief EEGs. The implications of observing a seizure in this situation, especially with respect to inferring the underlying seizure frequency, are unclear. The issue is complicated by the inaccuracy of patient-reported estimations of seizure frequency. The treating clinician is often left to wonder whether the single seizure indicates very frequent seizures, or if it is of lesser significance. We applied standard concepts of probabilistic inference to a simple model of seizure incidence to provide some guidance for clinicians facing this situation. Our analysis establishes upper and lower bounds on the seizure rate implied by observing a single seizure during routine EEG. Not surprisingly, with additional information regarding the expected seizure rate, these bounds can be further constrained. This framework should aid the clinician in applying a more principled approach toward decision making in the setting of a single seizure on a routine EEG. PMID:23545768

Westover, M. Brandon; Bianchi, Matt T.; Shafi, Mouhsin; Hoch, Daniel B.; Cole, Andrew J.; Chiappa, Keith; Cash, Sydney S.

2012-01-01

167

Compression-ratio-based seizure detection.  

PubMed

For wireless seizure monitoring devices seizure detection and data compression are two critical tasks that need to be carefully designed against a very tight power budget to maximize the battery life. These two tasks are usually considered separately and algorithms for each are developed separately. In this paper, we consider having a single low-power algorithm for implementing both seizure detection and data compression. Towards that end, we investigated compression ratio (CR) as a seizure marker and show that the seizure detection can be achieved as a by-product of compression with no additional cost, and thus overall system power can be reduced. We show that the proposed method, the CR-based seizure detection has promising performance with 88% seizure detection accuracy, and 5.5 false positives per hour (FPh) without any computation overhead. PMID:24109861

Sha, Chung-Lin; Kim, Taehoon; Artan, N Sertac; Chao, H Jonathan

2013-01-01

168

Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

2013-09-01

169

Mutations in the K+/Cl- cotransporter gene kazachoc (kcc) increase seizure susceptibility in Drosophila.  

PubMed

During a critical period in the developing mammalian brain, there is a major switch in the nature of GABAergic transmission from depolarizing and excitatory, the pattern of the neonatal brain, to hyperpolarizing and inhibitory, the pattern of the mature brain. This switch is believed to play a major role in determining neuronal connectivity via activity-dependent mechanisms. The GABAergic developmental switch may also be particularly vulnerable to dysfunction leading to seizure disorders. The developmental GABA switch is mediated primarily by KCC2, a neuronal K+/Cl- cotransporter that determines the intracellular concentration of Cl- and, hence, the reversal potential for GABA. Here, we report that kazachoc (kcc) mutations that reduce the level of the sole K+/Cl- cotransporter in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster render flies susceptible to epileptic-like seizures. Drosophila kcc protein is widely expressed in brain neuropil, and its level rises with developmental age. Young kcc mutant flies with low kcc levels display behavioral seizures and demonstrate a reduced threshold for seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock. The kcc mutation enhances a series of other Drosophila epilepsy mutations indicating functional interactions leading to seizure disorder. Both genetic and pharmacological experiments suggest that the increased seizure susceptibility of kcc flies occurs via excitatory GABAergic signaling. The kcc mutants provide an excellent model system in which to investigate how modulation of GABAergic signaling influences neuronal excitability and epileptogenesis. PMID:16943550

Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Lundy, Miriam Y; Ranga, Rakhee; Tanouye, Mark A

2006-08-30

170

Proneurotrophins, Seizures, and Neuronal Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Neurons respond to numerous factors in their environment that influence their survival and function during development and in the mature brain. Among these factors, the neurotrophins have been shown to support neuronal survival and function, acting primarily through the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases. However, recent studies have established that the uncleaved neurotrophin precursors, the proneurotrophins, can be secreted and induce apoptosis via the p75 neurotrophin receptor, suggesting that the balance of secreted mature and proneurotrophins has a critical impact on neuronal survival or death. Epileptic seizures elicit increases in both proneurotrophin secretion and p75NTR expression, shifting the balance of these factors toward signaling cell death. This review will discuss the evidence that this ligand-receptor system plays an important role in neuronal loss following seizures. PMID:20360602

Friedman, Wilma J.

2010-01-01

171

NMDA antagonists for refractory seizures.  

PubMed

Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) poses significant challenge, with a variety of novel therapeutics employed. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists in the control of RSE. We performed a systematic review of all the literature, with all articles pulled from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, HealthStar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to September 2013), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature. Two reviewers independently identified all manuscripts pertaining to the administration of NMDA receptor antagonists in humans for the purpose of controlling refractory seizures. Secondary outcome of adverse NMDA antagonist effects and patient outcome was assessed. Two reviewers independently extracted data including population characteristics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and GRADE methodology. Our search strategy produced a total of 759 citations. Twenty-three articles, 16 manuscripts, and seven meeting proceedings, were considered for the review with all utilizing ketamine for seizure control. Only three studies were prospective studies. Fifteen and nine studies pertained to adults and pediatrics, respectively. Across all studies, of the 110 adult patients described, ketamine was attributed to electroencephalogram seizure response in 56.5 %, with a 63.5 % response in the 52 pediatric patients described. Adverse events related to ketamine were rare. Outcomes were poorly documented in the majority of the studies. There currently exists Oxford level 4, GRADE C evidence to support the use of ketamine for refractory seizures in the adult and pediatric populations. Further prospective study of early ketamine administration is warranted. PMID:24519081

Zeiler, F A; Teitelbaum, J; Gillman, L M; West, M

2014-06-01

172

Role of GluK1 Kainate Receptors in Seizures, Epileptic Discharges, and Epileptogenesis  

PubMed Central

Kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit have an impact on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are relevant to seizures and epilepsy. Here we used 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), a potent and selective agonist of kainate receptors that include the GluK1 subunit, in conjunction with mice deficient in GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits to assess the role of GluK1 kainate receptors in provoking seizures and in kindling epileptogenesis. We found that systemic ATPA, acting specifically via GluK1 kainate receptors, causes locomotor arrest and forelimb extension (a unique behavioral characteristic of GluK1 activation) and induces myoclonic behavioral seizures and electrographic seizure discharges in the BLA and hippocampus. In contrast, the proconvulsant activity of systemic AMPA, kainate, and pentylenetetrazol is not mediated by GluK1 kainate receptors, and deletion of these receptors does not elevate the threshold for seizures in the 6 Hz model. ATPA also specifically activates epileptiform discharges in BLA slices in vitro via GluK1 kainate receptors. Olfactory bulb kindling developed similarly in wild-type, GluK1, and GluK2 knock-out mice, demonstrating that GluK1 kainate receptors are not required for epileptogenesis or seizure expression in this model. We conclude that selective activation of kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit can trigger seizures, but these receptors are not necessary for seizure generation in models commonly used to identify therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24760837

Fritsch, Brita; Reis, Janine; Gasior, Maciej; Kaminski, Rafal M.

2014-01-01

173

Glutamatergic neuron-targeted loss of LGI1 epilepsy gene results in seizures.  

PubMed

Leucin-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted protein linked to human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune aetiology. Mutations in the LGI1 gene are responsible for autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features, whereas LGI1 autoantibodies are involved in limbic encephalitis, an acquired epileptic disorder associated with cognitive impairment. We and others previously reported that Lgi1-deficient mice have early-onset spontaneous seizures leading to premature death at 2-3 weeks of age. Yet, where and when Lgi1 deficiency causes epilepsy remains unknown. To address these questions, we generated Lgi1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice using a set of universal Cre-driver mouse lines. Selective deletion of Lgi1 was achieved in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons during embryonic (Emx1-Lgi1cKO) or late postnatal (CaMKII?-Lgi1cKO) developmental stages, or in gamma amino butyric acidergic (GABAergic) parvalbumin interneurons (PV-Lgi1cKO). Emx1-Lgi1cKO mice displayed early-onset and lethal seizures, whereas CaMKII?-Lgi1cKO mice presented late-onset occasional seizures associated with variable reduced lifespan. In contrast, neither spontaneous seizures nor increased seizure susceptibility to convulsant were observed when Lgi1 was deleted in parvalbumin interneurons. Together, these data showed that LGI1 depletion restricted to pyramidal cells is sufficient to generate seizures, whereas seizure thresholds were unchanged after depletion in gamma amino butyric acidergic parvalbumin interneurons. We suggest that LGI1 secreted from excitatory neurons, but not parvalbumin inhibitory neurons, makes a major contribution to the pathogenesis of LGI1-related epilepsies. Our data further indicate that LGI1 is required from embryogenesis to adulthood to achieve proper circuit functioning. PMID:25234641

Boillot, Morgane; Huneau, Clément; Marsan, Elise; Lehongre, Katia; Navarro, Vincent; Ishida, Saeko; Dufresnois, Béatrice; Ozkaynak, Ekim; Garrigue, Jérôme; Miles, Richard; Martin, Benoit; Leguern, Eric; Anderson, Matthew P; Baulac, Stéphanie

2014-11-01

174

Control of Epileptic Seizures: Models of Chaotic Oscillator Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to understand basic functional mechanisms that can produce epileptic seizures, and strategies for seizure suppression and control, we discuss some key features of theoretical models of networks of coupled chaotic oscillators that produce seizure-like events and bear striking similarities to dynamics of epileptic seizures. We show that a plausible cause of seizures is a pathological feedback in

Kostas Tsakalis; Niranjan Chakravarthy; Leon Iasemidis

2005-01-01

175

Emergency Management of Seizures in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective seizure management in the school setting is a critical issue for students with seizures, as well as their parents, classmates, and school personnel. The unpredictable nature of seizures and the potential outcomes of experiencing a seizure in school are sources of anxiety for students with seizures. The ability to respond appropriately to…

O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn; Kiel, Sarah; McCullough, Kathleen

2007-01-01

176

Seizure frequency and characteristics in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizures have not historically been considered a major component of Down syndrome. We examined the prevalence of epileptic seizures in 350 children and adolescents with Down syndrome evaluated at a regional center between 1985 and 1997. Results showed that 28 patients (8%) had epileptic seizures: 13 (47%) partial seizures; 9 (32%) infantile spasms, and 6 (21%) generalized tonic–clonic seizures. In

Hadassa Goldberg-Stern; Richard H. Strawsburg; Bonnie Patterson; Fran Hickey; Mary Bare; Natan Gadoth; Ton J. Degrauw

2001-01-01

177

Localization of seizure onset area from intracranial non-seizure EEG by exploiting locally enhanced synchrony  

E-print Network

For as many as 30% of epilepsy patients, seizures are poorly controlled with medication alone. For some of these patients surgery may be an option: the brain region responsible for seizure onset may be removed surgically. ...

Cash, Sydney

178

SEIZURE PREDICTION: THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP  

PubMed Central

The recently convened Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) brought together a diverse international group of investigators, from academia and industry, including epileptologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, computer scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who are conducting interdisciplinary research on the prediction and control of seizures. IWSP4 allowed the presentation and discussion of results, an exchange of ideas, an assessment of the status of seizure prediction, control and related fields and the fostering of collaborative projects. PMID:20674508

Zaveri, Hitten P.; Frei, Mark G.; Arthurs, Susan; Osorio, Ivan

2010-01-01

179

[Epileptic seizures: effects on cardiac function].  

PubMed

Sudden loss of consciousness can be caused by syncope or epileptic seizure, which therefore requires a diagnostic work-up including cardiological and neurological examinations. Thus, in clinical practice cooperation of these two medical specialties is common and of high relevance. Seizures may lead to cardiac arrhythmia or ictal asystole, and "sudden unexpected death in epilepsy" (SUDEP) is an important field of epilepsy research. Cardiac channelopathies such as long QT syndrome may be associated with seizures, suggesting a possible link between cardiac and cerebral channelopathy. We here review in detail cardiac effects due to epileptic seizures as well as possible pathogenetic correlations between cardiac and epileptic diseases. PMID:21302206

Burghaus, L; Fink, G R; Erdmann, E; Müller-Ehmsen, J

2011-02-01

180

Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Intellectual disability occurs as an isolated X-linked trait and as a component of recognizable X-linked syndromes in the company of somatic, metabolic, neuromuscular, or behavioral abnormalities. Seizures accompany intellectual disability in almost half of these X-linked disorders. The spectrum of seizures found in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes is broad, varying in time of onset, type of seizure, and response to anticonvulsant therapy. The majority of the genes associated with XLID and seizures have now been identified. PMID:22377486

Stevenson, Roger E.; Holden, Kenton R.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E.

2012-01-01

181

Cognitive dysfunction after experimental febrile seizures.  

PubMed

While the majority of children with febrile seizures have an excellent prognosis, a small percentage are later discovered to have cognitive impairment. Whether the febrile seizures produce the cognitive deficits or the febrile seizures are a marker or the result of underlying brain pathology is not clear from the clinical literature. We evaluated hippocampal and prefrontal cortex function in adult rats with a prior history of experimental febrile seizures as rat pups. All of the rat pups had MRI brain scans following the seizures. Rats subjected to experimental febrile seizures were found to have moderate deficits in working and reference memory and strategy shifting in the Morris water maze test. A possible basis for these hippocampal deficits involved abnormal firing rate and poor stability of hippocampal CA1 place cells, neurons involved in encoding and retrieval of spatial information. Additional derangements of interneuron firing in the CA1 hippocampal circuit suggested a complex network dysfunction in the rats. MRI T2 values in the hippocampus were significantly elevated in 50% of seizure-experiencing rats. Learning and memory functions of these T2-positive rats were significantly worse than those of T2-negative cohorts and of controls. We conclude that cognitive dysfunction involving the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex networks occur following experimental febrile seizures and that the MRI provides a potential biomarker for hippocampal deficits in a model of prolonged human febrile seizures. PMID:19000675

Dubé, Céline M; Zhou, Jun-Li; Hamamura, Mark; Zhao, Qian; Ring, Alex; Abrahams, Jennifer; McIntyre, Katherine; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Shatskih, Tatiana; Baram, Tallie Z; Holmes, Gregory L

2009-01-01

182

Effect of trained Seizure Alert Dogs ® on frequency of tonic–clonic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that dogs can be trained to recognize specific changes preceding an epileptic seizure in humans. Such dogs can provide an overt signal that acts as a useful warning to the human. Early observations suggested that seizure frequency might also be reduced. We report a prospective study of 10 consecutive referrals to our Seizure Alert Dogs ®service

Margaret Huyton; Helen Coyle

2002-01-01

183

Closed-loop seizure prediction and prevention in rats with kainate-induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown that continuous or intermittent electrical stimulation of the brain can reduce or prevent the occurrence of epileptic seizures in humans and animal models. However, there have been relatively few studies that assess the effects of stimulation delivered just prior to seizure onset. Here we use a kainate-induced seizure model in the rat to test a closed-loop

Dane W. Grasse; Suganya Karunakaran; Karen A. Moxon

2011-01-01

184

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

... 2014-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2014-04-01

185

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2010-10-01

186

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2010-10-01

187

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2014-01-01

188

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2010-04-01

189

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2013-01-01

190

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2013-04-01

191

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2013-10-01

192

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2010-04-01

193

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2013-04-01

194

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2012-10-01

195

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2014-04-01

196

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

...2014-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2014-04-01

197

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2012-04-01

198

50 CFR 12.11 - Notification of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Notification of seizure. 12.11 Section 12.11 Wildlife...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.11 Notification of seizure. Except where the owner or...

2011-10-01

199

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2011-04-01

200

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2011-01-01

201

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2012-01-01

202

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2011-10-01

203

Epileptic Seizure Detection by Means of Genetically Programmed Artificial Features  

E-print Network

Epileptic Seizure Detection by Means of Genetically Programmed Artificial Features Hiram Firpi of epileptic seizure onset. The algorithm was evaluated in three patients and validation experiments were, pattern analysis General Terms: Algorithms, Design Keywords: Epilepsy, seizure detection, feature

Fernandez, Thomas

204

8 CFR 274.1 - Seizure and forfeiture authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure and forfeiture authority. 274.1 Section...HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE OF CONVEYANCES § 274.1 Seizure and forfeiture authority....

2010-01-01

205

26 CFR 403.25 - Personal property subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Personal property subject to seizure. 403.25 Section 403.25 Internal...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.25 Personal property subject to seizure. Personal property may be...

2011-04-01

206

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2013-04-01

207

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2010-04-01

208

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2013-10-01

209

50 CFR 12.5 - Seizure by other agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seizure by other agencies. 12.5 Section...AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES General Provisions § 12.5 Seizure by other agencies. Any...

2012-10-01

210

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2011-04-01

211

19 CFR 162.21 - Responsibility and authority for seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Responsibility and authority for seizures. 162.21 Section 162.21 Customs Duties...TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Seizures § 162.21 Responsibility and authority for...

2012-04-01

212

19 CFR 162.92 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Notice of seizure. 162.92 Section 162.92 Customs...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act § 162.92 Notice of seizure. (a) Generally. Customs...

2012-04-01

213

Chemical toxins that cause seizures.  

PubMed

Seizurogenic chemicals include a variety of toxic agents, including chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and natural toxins. Chemical weapons such as sarin and VX, and pesticides such as parathion and carbaryl cause hyperstimulation of cholinergic receptors and an increase in excitatory neurotransmission. Glutamatergic hyperstimulation can occur after exposure to excitatory amino acid toxins such as the marine toxin domoic acid. Other pesticides such as lindane and strychnine do not affect excitatory neurotransmission directly, but rather, they block the inhibitory regulation of neurotransmission by antagonism of inhibitory GABA and glycine synapses. In this paper, chemicals that cause seizures by a variety of molecular mechanisms and pathways are discussed. PMID:23085523

Jett, David A

2012-12-01

214

Dynamics of supercoiled and relaxed pTZ18U plasmids probed with a long-lifetime metal-ligand complex.  

PubMed

[Ru(bpy)2(dppz)](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dppz = dipyrido- [3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) (RuBD), a long-lifetime metalligand complex, displays favorable photophysical properties. These include long lifetime, polarized emission, but no significant fluorescence from the complex that is not bound to DNA. To show the usefulness of this luminophore (RuBD) for probing the bending and torsional dynamics of nucleic acids, its intensity and anisotropy decays when intercalated into supercoiled and relaxed pTZ18U plasmids were examined using frequency-domain fluorometry with a blue light-emitting diode (LED) as the modulated light source. The mean lifetimes for the supercoiled plasmids (< tau > = 148 ns) were somewhat shorter than those for the relaxed plasmids (< tau > = 160 ns). This suggests that the relaxed plasmids were shielded more efficiently from water. The anisotropy decay data also showed somewhat shorter slow rotational correlation times for supercoiled plasmids (288 ns) than for the relaxed plasmids (355 ns). The presence of two rotational correlation times suggests that RuBD reveals both the bending and torsional motions of the plasmids. These results indicate that RuBD can be useful for studying both the bending and torsional dynamics of nucleic acids. PMID:12296998

Kang, Jung Sook; Abugo, Omoefe O; Lakowicz, Joseph R

2002-07-31

215

Privacy and Property, Search and Seizure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan for grades 4-6 which illustrates the concepts of privacy, property, and search and seizure. Calls upon students to recognize that individual property and society's need for security may conflict. Uses seven cases to help students learn and identify legal search and seizure procedures. (GEA)

Greenawald, Dale; Clarke, Phyllis

1988-01-01

216

Search and Seizure in the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph attempts to provide clear understanding of the standards presented by the Supreme Court in "New Jersey v. T.L.O." relative to search and seizure in public schools, and suggests practical ways of applying search and seizure law to situations in the school setting. ("T.L.O." are the initials of the anonymous student.) After an…

Rossow, Lawrence F.

217

Substance P Causes Seizures in Neurocysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a helminth infection of the brain, is a major cause of seizures. The mediators responsible for seizures in NCC are unknown, and their management remains controversial. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide produced by neurons, endothelial cells and immunocytes. The current studies examined the hypothesis that SP mediates seizures in NCC. We demonstrated by immunostaining that 5 of 5 brain biopsies from NCC patients contained substance P (SP)-positive (+) cells adjacent to but not distant from degenerating worms; no SP+ cells were detected in uninfected brains. In a rodent model of NCC, seizures were induced after intrahippocampal injection of SP alone or after injection of extracts of cysticercosis granuloma obtained from infected wild type (WT), but not from infected SP precursor-deficient mice. Seizure activity correlated with SP levels within WT granuloma extracts and was prevented by intrahippocampal pre-injection of SP receptor antagonist. Furthermore, extracts of granulomas from WT mice caused seizures when injected into the hippocampus of WT mice, but not when injected into SP receptor (NK1R) deficient mice. These findings indicate that SP causes seizures in NCC, and, suggests that seizures in NCC in humans may be prevented and/or treated with SP-receptor antagonists. PMID:22346746

Robinson, Prema; Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Serpa, Jose A.; Goodman, Jerry Clay; Eckols, Kristian T.; Firozgary, Bahrom; Tweardy, David J.

2012-01-01

218

Seizure or syncope: Lessons over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25-year-old woman with recurrent syncopal episodes presented with a first time generalized tonic clonic (GTC) seizure. She had experienced two prior fainting spells lasting seconds and associated with diet pills and dehydration. She had another similar spell prior to falling, sustaining a laceration to the right posterior occiput, and having a witnessed GTC seizure. Her scalp electroencephalography (EEG) showed

Volney L. Sheen

219

Detecting the onset of epileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizure is a phenomenon occurring in a large percentage of the population in every country of the world. It represents a distinctive indicator of an abnormality in the central nervous system. The main indicators in the EEG that predict a seizure are the presence of focal or multifocal receptive spikes or sharp waves (or both) and focal mono-rhythmic discharges. In

A. Zapata-Ferrer; L. R. Maya; A. Gaona Gonzalez; M. A. A. Pantaleon; M. C. Garcia; N. M. Nasab; R. H. Valencia; M. V. Herrera

1999-01-01

220

Electroconvulsive treatment for nonepileptic seizure disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its striking prevalence among females, the paroxysmal disorder presenting with nonepileptic seizures was termed hysteria in premodern times. In our time, the disorder has remained widely misunderstood and mistreated. The diagnostic early history of painful traumatic events as the source of the nonepileptic seizures is hidden by the shame of the victim and remains ignored. Early effective psychotherapeutic

Dietrich Blumer; Steven Rice; Bola Adamolekun

2009-01-01

221

Chaotic time series analyses of epileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of seizure events, typical of everyday clinical practice, were tested for possible chaos. After a careful elimination of spurious effects, evidence of chaos was found in two seizure events. This was confirmed by direct examination of exponential separation of initially nearby states in low-dimensional trajectory recoveries. The resulting Lyapunov exponent calculation provides a clear indication of chaos in

G. W. Frank; T. Lookman; M. A. H. Nerenberg; C. Essex; J. Lemieux; W. Blume

1990-01-01

222

Anticonvulsants for soman-induced seizure activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes studies of anticonvulsants for the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent soman: a basic research effort to understand how different pharmacological classes of compounds influence the expression of seizure produced by soman in rats, and a drug screening effort to determine whether clinically useful antiepileptics can modulate soman-induced seizures in rats. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were used in these studies.

Tsung-Ming Shih; John H. McDonough; Irwin Koplovitz

1999-01-01

223

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2010-10-01

224

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2012-10-01

225

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

...Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2014-10-01

226

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2011-10-01

227

Search and Seizure in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the people of the United States from unreasonable searches and seizures. On first reading, these protections seem clearly defined. The amendment was meant to protect Americans from the kinds of random searches and seizures that the colonists experienced under British colonial rule. Under…

Staros, Kari; Williams, Charles F.

2007-01-01

228

43 CFR 3.16 - Seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seizure. 3.16 Section 3.16 Public Lands: Interior Office...Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.16 Seizure. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on...

2013-10-01

229

Molecular mechanism of circadian rhythmicity of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The circadian pattern of seizures in people with epilepsy (PWE) was first described two millennia ago. However, these phenomena have not received enough scientific attention, possibly due to the lack of promising hypotheses to address the interaction between seizure generation and a physiological clock. To propose testable hypotheses at the molecular level, interactions between circadian rhythm, especially transcription factors governing clock genes expression, and the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, the major signaling pathway in epilepsy, will be reviewed. Then, two closely related hypotheses will be proposed: (1) Rhythmic activity of hyperactivated mTOR signaling molecules results in rhythmic increases in neuronal excitability. These rhythmic increases in excitability periodically exceed the seizure threshold, displaying the behavioral seizures. (2) Oscillation of neuronal excitability in SCN modulates the rhythmic excitability in the hippocampus through subiculum via long-range projections. Findings from published results, their implications, and proposals for new experiments will be discussed. These attempts may ignite further discussion on what we still need to learn about the rhythmicity of spontaneous seizures. PMID:23189039

Cho, Chang-Hoon

2012-01-01

230

EPILAB: a software package for studies on the prediction of epileptic seizures.  

PubMed

A Matlab®-based software package, EPILAB, was developed for supporting researchers in performing studies on the prediction of epileptic seizures. It provides an intuitive and convenient graphical user interface. Fundamental concepts that are crucial for epileptic seizure prediction studies were implemented. This includes, for example, the development and statistical validation of prediction methodologies in long-term continuous recordings. Seizure prediction is usually based on electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) signals. EPILAB is able to process both EEG and ECG data stored in different formats. More than 35 time and frequency domain measures (features) can be extracted based on univariate and multivariate data analysis. These features can be post-processed and used for prediction purposes. The predictions may be conducted based on optimized thresholds or by applying classifications methods such as artificial neural networks, cellular neuronal networks, and support vector machines. EPILAB proved to be an efficient tool for seizure prediction, and aims to be a way to communicate, evaluate, and compare results and data among the seizure prediction community. PMID:21763347

Teixeira, C A; Direito, B; Feldwisch-Drentrup, H; Valderrama, M; Costa, R P; Alvarado-Rojas, C; Nikolopoulos, S; Le Van Quyen, M; Timmer, J; Schelter, B; Dourado, A

2011-09-15

231

The effects of coenzyme Q10 on seizures in mice: The involvement of nitric oxide.  

PubMed

Coenzyme Q10 is a potent antioxidant in both mitochondria and lipid membranes. It has also been recognized to have an effect on gene expression. This study was designed to investigate whether acute or subchronic treatment with coenzyme Q10 altered the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole or electroshock in mice. We also evaluated the involvement of nitric oxide in the effects of coenzyme Q10 in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure models. Acute oral treatment with different doses of coenzyme Q10 did not affect the seizure in intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole, intravenous pentylenetetrazole, and electroshock models in mice. Subchronic oral administration of coenzyme Q10 (100mg/kg or more) increased time latencies to the onset of myoclonic jerks and clonic seizures induced by intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole and at the doses of 25mg/kg or more increased the seizure threshold induced by intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole. Subchronic doses of coenzyme Q10 (50mg/kg or more) also decreased the incidence of tonic seizures in the electroshock-induced seizure model. Moreover, acute treatment with the precursor of nitric oxide synthesis, l-arginine (60mg/kg), led to a significant potentiation of the antiseizure effects of subchronic administration of coenzyme Q10 (400mg/kg in intraperitoneal and 6.25mg/kg in intravenous pentylenetetrazole tests). Acute treatment with l-NAME (5mg/kg), a nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, significantly attenuated the antiseizure effects of subchronic doses of coenzyme Q10 in both seizure models induced by pentylenetetrazole. On the other hand, acute administration of aminoguanidine (100mg/kg), a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, did not affect the seizures in mice treated with subchronic doses of coenzyme Q10 in both intraperitoneal and intravenous pentylenetetrazole tests. In conclusion, only subchronic and not acute administration of coenzyme Q10 attenuated seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole or electroshock. We also demonstrated, for the first time, the interaction between nitric oxide and coenzyme Q10 in antiseizure activity probably through the induction of constitutive nitric oxide synthase. PMID:24972157

Sattarinezhad, Elahe; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Sheikhnouri, Kiandokht; Mousavi, Zahra; Moezi, Leila

2014-08-01

232

?-Hydroxybutyric acid-induced electrographic seizures.  

PubMed

We describe a case of absence-like electrographic seizures during NREM sleep in a patient who was taking sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). An overnight full montage electroencephalography (EEG) study revealed numerous frontally predominant rhythmic 1.5-2 Hz sharp waves and spike-wave activity during stage N2 and N3 sleep at the peak dose time for sodium oxybate, resembling atypical absence-like electrographic seizures. The patient was later weaned off sodium oxybate, and a repeat study did not show any such electrographic seizures. Absence-like seizures induced by GHB had previously been described in experimental animal models. We present the first reported human case of absence-like electrographic seizure associated with sodium oxybate. PMID:25024661

Cheung, Joseph; Lucey, Brendan P; Duntley, Stephen P; Darken, Rachel S

2014-07-15

233

Toward new paradigms of seizure detection  

PubMed Central

Great effort has been made toward defining and characterizing the pre-ictal state. Many studies have pursued the idea that there are recognizable electrographic (EEG-based) features that occur before overt clinical seizure activity. However, development of reliable EEG-based seizure detection and prediction algorithms has been difficult. In this review, we discuss the concepts of seizure detection vs. prediction and the pre-ictal “clinical milieu” and “EEG milieu”. We proceed to discuss novel concepts of seizure detection based on the pre-ictal “physiological milieu”; in particular, we indicate some early evidence for the hypothesis that pre-ictal cell swelling/extracellular space constriction can be detected with novel optical methods. Development and validation of optical seizure detection technology could provide an entirely new translational approach for the many patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:23246145

Binder, Devin K.; Haut, Sheryl R.

2012-01-01

234

Helicopter mishap attributed to single seizure.  

PubMed

A case report is presented of a 36-year-old U.S. Coast Guard aviator who had a single seizure while operating a helicopter on the ground. His seizure activity produced a loss of consciousness during which he pushed the cyclic to the left anterior quadrant that resulted in a ground mishap. No risk factors were identified in an extensive neurological workup. The current guidance for handling seizures in military aviation personnel is reviewed, along with considerations for treatment. Although the military aviation selection process carefully screens applicants for seizure history and potential, occasional seizures in the aviation population remain possible. Such events may result in military aircraft mishaps despite careful risk factor surveillance, as demonstrated by this case. PMID:18419038

Simon, Esan; Watts, Darron; Bohnker, Bruce K

2008-03-01

235

Towards a Probabilistic Definition of Seizures  

E-print Network

This writing: a) Draws attention to the intricacies inherent to the pursuit of a universal seizure definition even when powerful, well understood signal analysis methods are utilized to this end; b) Identifies this aim as a multi-objective optimization problem and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of adopting or rejecting a unitary seizure definition; c) Introduces a Probabilistic Measure of Seizure Activity to manage this thorny issue. The challenges posed by the attempt to define seizures unitarily may be partly related to their fractal properties and understood through a simplistic analogy to the so-called "Richardson effect". A revision of the time-honored conceptualization of seizures may be warranted to further advance epileptology.

Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.09.009

2011-01-01

236

Neuronal ensemble synchrony during human focal seizures.  

PubMed

Seizures are classically characterized as the expression of hypersynchronous neural activity, yet the true degree of synchrony in neuronal spiking (action potentials) during human seizures remains a fundamental question. We quantified the temporal precision of spike synchrony in ensembles of neocortical neurons during seizures in people with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. Two seizure types were analyzed: those characterized by sustained gamma (?40-60 Hz) local field potential (LFP) oscillations or by spike-wave complexes (SWCs; ?3 Hz). Fine (<10 ms) temporal synchrony was rarely present during gamma-band seizures, where neuronal spiking remained highly irregular and asynchronous. In SWC seizures, phase locking of neuronal spiking to the SWC spike phase induced synchrony at a coarse 50-100 ms level. In addition, transient fine synchrony occurred primarily during the initial ?20 ms period of the SWC spike phase and varied across subjects and seizures. Sporadic coherence events between neuronal population spike counts and LFPs were observed during SWC seizures in high (?80 Hz) gamma-band and during high-frequency oscillations (?130 Hz). Maximum entropy models of the joint neuronal spiking probability, constrained only on single neurons' nonstationary coarse spiking rates and local network activation, explained most of the fine synchrony in both seizure types. Our findings indicate that fine neuronal ensemble synchrony occurs mostly during SWC, not gamma-band, seizures, and primarily during the initial phase of SWC spikes. Furthermore, these fine synchrony events result mostly from transient increases in overall neuronal network spiking rates, rather than changes in precise spiking correlations between specific pairs of neurons. PMID:25057195

Truccolo, Wilson; Ahmed, Omar J; Harrison, Matthew T; Eskandar, Emad N; Cosgrove, G Rees; Madsen, Joseph R; Blum, Andrew S; Potter, N Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R; Cash, Sydney S

2014-07-23

237

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures.  

PubMed

Acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) represents a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. They usually present abruptly with seizure or impaired consciousness as well as high-grade fever following antecedent infection. Seizures in AERRPS are almost exclusively of localized origin, whose semiology includes eye deviation, hemifacial twitching, hemiclonic convulsion, and autonomic manifestations. Partial seizures are brief, but repeat with increasing frequency and develop status epilepticus at nadir. They are extremely pharmaco-resistant and are only suppressed by intravenous administration of high-dose barbiturates. Although acute seizures are hardly controlled, patients gradually recover with decreasing seizure frequency and continuously evolve into post-encephalitic epilepsy without latent period. Residual cognitive impairment is common. Electroencephalograms in active stage demonstrate electrical seizure activities and interictal periodic discharges. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals late cerebral atrophy with limited signal abnormality. Persistent fever during active stage, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, and up-regulation of neopterin raise the hypothesis that inflammatory process is involved in this condition. Furthermore, early production of autoantibody against NMDA receptor 2B in serum and CSF, although its disease specificity is still in controversy, is suggestive of autoimmune etiology. Exploration for definite clinical marker is currently in progress. PMID:19327924

Sakuma, Hiroshi

2009-08-01

238

Inhomogeneous Cortical Synchronization and Partial Epileptic Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective: Interictal synchronization clusters have recently been described in several publications using diverse techniques, including neurophysiological recordings and fMRI, in patients suffering from epilepsy. However, little is known about the role of these hyper-synchronous areas during seizures. In this work, we report an analysis of synchronization clusters jointly with several network measures during seizure activity; we then discuss our findings in the context of prior literature. Methods: Subdural activity was recorded by electrocorticography (with 60 electrodes placed at temporal and parietal lobe locations) in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy with partial seizures with and without secondary generalization (SG). Both interictal and ictal activities (during four seizures) were investigated and characterized using local synchronization and complex network methodology. The modularity, density of links, average clustering coefficient, and average path lengths were calculated to obtain information about the dynamics of the global network. Functional connectivity changes during the seizures were compared with the time evolution of highly synchronized areas. Results: Our findings reveal temporal changes in local synchronization areas during seizures and a tight relationship between the cortical locations of these areas and the patterns of their evolution over time. Seizure evolution and SG appear to be driven by two different underlying mechanisms. PMID:25309507

Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Pastor, Jesus Eduardo; de Sola, Rafael G.; Ortega, Guillermo J.

2014-01-01

239

Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

2012-12-01

240

Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control  

SciTech Connect

The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

2009-07-02

241

Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.  

PubMed

It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

2014-01-01

242

Dynamics of supercoiled and linear pTZ18U plasmids observed with a long-lifetime metal-ligand complex.  

PubMed

The metal-ligand complex, [Ru(bpy)2(dppz)]2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) (Ru-BD), was used as a spectroscopic probe for studying nucleic acid dynamics. The Ru-BD complex displays a long lifetime of over 100 ns and a molecular light switch property upon DNA binding due to shielding of its dppz ligand from water. To further show the usefulness of this luminophore (Ru-BD) for probing DNA dynamics, we examined its intensity and anisotropy decays when intercalated into supercoiled and linear pTZ18U plasmids using frequency-domain fluorometry with a light-emitting diode (LED) as the modulated light source. Compared to the supercoiled plasmids with an average intensity decay time of 120.8 ns at 25 degrees C, we obtained somewhat longer lifetimes for the linear plasmids ((tau) = 141.4 ns at 25 degrees C), suggesting a more efficient shielding from water by the linear plasmids. The anisotropy decay data also showed longer rotational correlation times for the linear plasmids (495 and 35 ns at 25 degrees C) as compared to the supercoiled plasmids (412 and 27 ns at 25 degrees C). The slow and fast rotational correlation times appear to be consistent with the bending and torsional motions of the plasmids, respectively. The anisotropy values were quite similar, although the values of the supercoiled plasmids were slightly higher in both the steady-state and anisotropy decay measurements. These results indicate that Ru-BD can be applied in the study of both bending and torsional dynamics of nucleic acids. PMID:12073934

Kang, Jung Sook; Abugo, Omoefe O; Lakowicz, Joseph R

2002-01-01

243

Ictal Vomiting in Partial Seizures of Temporal Lobe Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 3 cases presenting ictal vomiting during partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. Two patients had complex partial seizures accompanying vomiting characteristics. Ictal vomiting occurred early in the course of the seizure when rhythmic discharges involved predominantly the left hemispere, the language dominance hemispere. The other patient had ictal vomiting in simple partial seizures which originated from the right

Chien Chen; Der-Jen Yen; Chun-Hing Yiu; Yang-Hsin Shih; Hsiang-Yu Yu; Ming-Shung Su

1999-01-01

244

Continuous Assessment of Epileptic Seizures with Wrist-worn Biosensors  

E-print Network

Continuous Assessment of Epileptic Seizures with Wrist-worn Biosensors by Ming-Zher Poh Bachelor;Continuous Assessment of Epileptic Seizures with Wrist-worn Biosensors by Ming-Zher Poh Submitted seizures. The apprehension about injury, or even death, resulting from a seizure often overshadows

245

Change of seizure frequency in pregnant epileptic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pregnancy on seizure frequency was monitored prospectively in 136 pregnancies of 122 epileptic women. Pregnancy did not influence the seizure frequency in 68 pregnancies (50%). In 50 pregnancies (37%) the number of seizures increased during pregnancy or puerperium. The seizure frequency decreased in 18 pregnancies (13%). In 34 out of 50 pregnancies (68%) the increase was associated

D Schmidt; R Canger; G Avanzini; D Battino; C Cusi; G Beck-Mannagetta; S Koch; D Rating; D Janz

1983-01-01

246

Ultra-low dose naltrexone potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of low dose morphine on clonic seizures.  

PubMed

Significant potentiation of analgesic effects of opioids can be achieved through selective blockade of their stimulatory effects on intracellular signaling pathways by ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists. However, the generality and specificity of this interaction is not well understood. The bimodal modulation of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by opioids provide a model to assess the potential usefulness of this approach in seizure disorders and to examine the differential mechanisms involved in opioid anti- (morphine at 0.5-3 mg/kg) versus pro-convulsant (20-100 mg/kg) effects. Systemic administration of ultra-low doses of naltrexone (100 fg/kg-10 ng/kg) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of morphine at 0.5 mg/kg while higher degrees of opioid receptor antagonism blocked this effect. Moreover, inhibition of opioid-induced excitatory signaling by naltrexone (1 ng/kg) unmasked a strong anticonvulsant effect for very low doses of morphine (1 ng/kg-100 microg/kg), suggesting that a presumed inhibitory component of opioid receptor signaling can exert strong seizure-protective effects even at very low levels of opioid receptor activation. However, ultra-low dose naltrexone could not increase the maximal anticonvulsant effect of morphine (1-3 mg/kg), possibly due to a ceiling effect. The proconvulsant effects of morphine on seizure threshold were minimally altered by ultra-low doses of naltrexone while being completely blocked by a higher dose (1 mg/kg) of the antagonist. The present data suggest that ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists may provide a potent strategy to modulate seizure susceptibility, especially in conjunction with very low doses of opioids. PMID:15541894

Honar, H; Riazi, K; Homayoun, H; Sadeghipour, H; Rashidi, N; Ebrahimkhani, M R; Mirazi, N; Dehpour, A R

2004-01-01

247

Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

Loertscher, Jennifer

2011-01-01

248

Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS Summer School  

E-print Network

Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy)Phenotyping seizures (epilepsy) 1st ISBS Summer School1st ISBS;Epilepsy · A group of CNS disorders · Associated with sudden transient seizure episodes - Abnormal motor · Genetic forms are rare (account for Seizure definitions · Clonic

Kalueff, Allan V.

249

Patient-specific seizure onset detection  

E-print Network

Approximately one percent of the world's population exhibits symptoms of epilepsy, a serious disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes those affected to experiencing recurrent seizures. The risk of injury ...

Shoeb, Ali Hossam, 1981-

2003-01-01

250

Seizures in Adults (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... malformations in the brain (The Basics) Patient information: Brain cancer (The Basics) Patient information: Brain metastases (The Basics) ... materials. Patient information: Seizures (The Basics) Patient information: Brain cancer (The Basics) Patient information: Head injury in children ...

251

Analysis of Epileptic Seizures with Complex Network  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a disease of abnormal neural activities involving large area of brain networks. Until now the nature of functional brain network associated with epilepsy is still unclear. Recent researches indicate that the small world or scale-free attributes and the occurrence of highly clustered connection patterns could represent a general organizational principle in the human brain functional network. In this paper, we seek to find whether the small world or scale-free property of brain network is correlated with epilepsy seizure formation. A mass neural model was adopted to generate multiple channel EEG recordings based on regular, small world, random, and scale-free network models. Whether the connection patterns of cortical networks are directly associated with the epileptic seizures was investigated. The results showed that small world and scale-free cortical networks are highly correlated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures. In particular, the property of small world network is more significant during the epileptic seizures. PMID:25147576

Ni, Yan; Wang, Yinghua; Yu, Tao; Li, Xiaoli

2014-01-01

252

Automatic Detection of Seizures with Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are an estimated two million people with epilepsy in the United States. Many of these people do not respond to anti-epileptic drug therapy. Two devices can be developed to assist in the treatment of epilepsy. The first is a microcomputer-based system designed to process massive amounts of electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected during long-term monitoring of patients for the purpose of diagnosing seizures, assessing the effectiveness of medical therapy, or selecting patients for epilepsy surgery. Such a device would select and display important EEG events. Currently many such events are missed. A second device could be implanted and would detect seizures and initiate therapy. Both of these devices require a reliable seizure detection algorithm. A new algorithm is described. It is believed to represent an improvement over existing seizure detection algorithms because better signal features were selected and better standardization methods were used.

Olsen, Dale E.; Harris, John C.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Cristion, John A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Webber, W. Robert S.

1993-01-01

253

Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC  

MedlinePLUS

... of pupillary dilatation. Jerking may begin in one area of body, arm, leg, or face. The seizure can’t ... awake and aware. Jerking may proceed from one area of the body to another and sometimes spreads to become a ...

254

Infection or Inflammation and ICU Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective treatment of seizures associated with central nervous system (CNS) infection and inflammation depends on rapid diagnosis\\u000a and early attainment of bactericidal activity in the cerebrospinal fluid with appropriate antimicrobial agents, or appropriate\\u000a management of vasculitis-induced cerebral complications. Despite the rarity of these disorders, there is nothing specific\\u000a regarding the management in the intensive care unit of seizures in these

Wendy C. Ziai

255

Alcohol-Related Seizures in the ICU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol abuse is a common cause of seizures resulting in admission to the intensive care unit. The cause of the alcohol-related\\u000a seizures (ARS) is usually abstinence in a chronic alcoholic, although some patients may still have detectable levels of alcohol\\u000a in their blood. ARS generally occur between 7 and 48 h after abstinence. Approximately half of patients presenting with ARS

Zachary Webb

256

Seizure or syncope: lessons over time.  

PubMed

A 25-year-old woman with recurrent syncopal episodes presented with a first time generalized tonic clonic (GTC) seizure. She had experienced two prior fainting spells lasting seconds and associated with diet pills and dehydration. She had another similar spell prior to falling, sustaining a laceration to the right posterior occiput, and having a witnessed GTC seizure. Her scalp electroencephalography (EEG) showed left temporal slowing with sharp features. T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI revealed two moderately enhancing focal lesions within the left frontal and temporal regions. These findings raised the possibility of an underlying seizure focus. Repeat imaging studies of this patient 1 month later, however, demonstrated resolution of these findings and an area of encephalomalacia, consistent with a traumatic coup contrecoup injury. A repeat EEG was normal. Therefore, the cause of the loss of consciousness was due to syncope with the consequent head injury giving rise to an isolated seizure. Understanding the underlying cause of a seizure is important in dictating treatment. In this setting the patient was not initiated on seizure medication and has done well. PMID:22245277

Sheen, Volney L

2012-03-01

257

FGF-2 Overexpression Increases Excitability and Seizure Susceptibility but Decreases Seizure-Induced Cell Loss  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) has multiple, pleiotropic effects on the nervous system that include neurogenesis, neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. Thus, alteration in FGF-2 expression patterns may have a profound impact in brain function, both in normal physiology and in pathology. Here, we used FGF-2 transgenic mice (TgFGF2) to study the effects of endogenous FGF-2 overexpression on susceptibility to seizures and to the pathological consequences of seizures. TgFGF2 mice display increased FGF-2 expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells. Increased density of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles was observed in the hippocampus of TgFGF2 mice, and electrophysiological data (input/output curves and patch-clamp recordings in CA1) confirmed an increase in excitatory inputs in CA1, suggesting the presence of a latent hyperexcitability. Indeed, TgFGF2 mice displayed increased susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, in that latency to generalized seizure onset was reduced, whereas behavioral seizure scores and lethality were increased. Finally, WT and TgFGF2 mice with similar seizure scores were used for examining seizure-induced cellular consequences. Neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, cell damage (assessed with Fluoro-Jade B, silver impregnation and anti-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry) was significantly lower in TgFGF2 mice, especially in the areas of overexpression (CA1 and CA3), indicating reduction of seizure-induced necrosis and apoptosis. These data suggest that FGF-2 may be implicated in seizure susceptibility and in seizure-induced plasticity, exerting different, and apparently contrasting effects: favoring ictogenesis but reducing seizure-induced cell death. PMID:19052202

Zucchini, Silvia; Buzzi, Andrea; Barbieri, Mario; Rodi, Donata; Paradiso, Beatrice; Binaschi, Anna; Coffin, J. Douglas; Marzola, Andrea; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Belluzzi, Ottorino

2008-01-01

258

Fgf-2 overexpression increases excitability and seizure susceptibility but decreases seizure-induced cell loss.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) has multiple, pleiotropic effects on the nervous system that include neurogenesis, neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. Thus, alteration in FGF-2 expression patterns may have a profound impact in brain function, both in normal physiology and in pathology. Here, we used FGF-2 transgenic mice (TgFGF2) to study the effects of endogenous FGF-2 overexpression on susceptibility to seizures and to the pathological consequences of seizures. TgFGF2 mice display increased FGF-2 expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells. Increased density of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles was observed in the hippocampus of TgFGF2 mice, and electrophysiological data (input/output curves and patch-clamp recordings in CA1) confirmed an increase in excitatory inputs in CA1, suggesting the presence of a latent hyperexcitability. Indeed, TgFGF2 mice displayed increased susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, in that latency to generalized seizure onset was reduced, whereas behavioral seizure scores and lethality were increased. Finally, WT and TgFGF2 mice with similar seizure scores were used for examining seizure-induced cellular consequences. Neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, cell damage (assessed with Fluoro-Jade B, silver impregnation and anti-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry) was significantly lower in TgFGF2 mice, especially in the areas of overexpression (CA1 and CA3), indicating reduction of seizure-induced necrosis and apoptosis. These data suggest that FGF-2 may be implicated in seizure susceptibility and in seizure-induced plasticity, exerting different, and apparently contrasting effects: favoring ictogenesis but reducing seizure-induced cell death. PMID:19052202

Zucchini, Silvia; Buzzi, Andrea; Barbieri, Mario; Rodi, Donata; Paradiso, Beatrice; Binaschi, Anna; Coffin, J Douglas; Marzola, Andrea; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Belluzzi, Ottorino; Simonato, Michele

2008-12-01

259

Monitor for status epilepticus seizures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

1994-01-01

260

Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical…

Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

2006-01-01

261

Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. PMID:25174001

Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

2014-08-01

262

The perils of thresholding  

E-print Network

The thresholding of time series of activity or intensity is frequently used to define and differentiate events. This is either implicit, for example due to resolution limits, or explicit, in order to filter certain small scale physics from the supposed true asymptotic events. Thresholding the birth-death process, however, introduces a scaling region into the event size distribution, which is characterised by an exponent that is unrelated to the actual asymptote and is rather an artefact of thresholding. As a result, numerical fits of simulation data produce a range of exponents, with the true asymptote visible only in the tail of the distribution. This tail is increasingly difficult to sample as the threshold is increased. In the present case, the exponents and the spurious nature of the scaling region can be determined analytically, thus demonstrating the way in which thresholding conceals the true asymptote. The analysis also suggests a procedure for detecting the influence of the threshold by means of a da...

Font-Clos, Francesc; Deluca, Anna; Moloney, Nicholas R

2014-01-01

263

HRS Threshold Adjustment Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This test will determine the optimal, non-standard discriminator thresholds for the few anomalous channels on each HRS detector. A 15 second flat field observation followed by a 210 second dark count is performed at each of 10 discriminator threshold values for each detector. The result of the test will be the optimal threshold values to be entered into the PDB. Edited 4/30/91 to add comments to disable/re-enable cross-talk tables.

Skapik, Joe

1991-07-01

264

Tramadol induced seizure: A 3-year study  

PubMed Central

Background: Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic. Seizures have been reported in patients receiving this drug. In this study we evaluated the correlation between tramadol consumption and seizure occurrence. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects with a history of tramadol consumption and seizure were studied. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were performed in the first 24 hours and again one week later. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 18 months after the initial attack. Results: In the 28 subjects, 26 (92.8%) were males and 2 (7.2%) were females. The mean age of the subjects was 28.4 years. Thirteen patients had abused more than 400 mg/day of tramadol. Sixteen subjects concomitantly used other drugs. The seizures occurred within the first 24 hours of tramadol intake in 25 of the subjects. The first EEG was abnormal in 12 cases, but the second EEG was abnormal in only one case. Neuroimaging of only one subject displayed patchy white matter lesions. Conclusion: In conclusion, the neurotoxicity of tramadol commonly manifests as generalized tonic clonic seizures most frequently within 24 hours after tramadol intake and was more common in subjects concomitantly consuming alcohol, illicit drugs, anti-psychotics, or anti-depressants. PMID:24009919

Boostani, Reza; Derakhshan, Siavash

2012-01-01

265

Positron emission tomography in generalized seizures  

SciTech Connect

The authors used /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to study nine patients with clinical absence or generalized seizures. One patient had only absence seizures, two had only generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and six had both seizure types. Interictal scans in eight failed to reveal focal or lateralized hypometabolism. No apparent abnormalities were noted. Two patients had PET scans after isotope injection during hyperventilation-induced generalized spike-wave discharges. Diffusely increased metabolic rates were found in one compared with an interictal scan, and in another compared with control values. Another patient had FDG injected during absence status: EEG showed generalized spike-wave discharges (during which she was unresponsive) intermixed with slow activity accompanied by confusion. Metabolic rates were decreased, compared with the interictal scan, throughout both cortical and subcortical structures. Interictal PET did not detect specific anatomic regions responsible for absence seizure onset in any patient, but the results of the ictal scans did suggest that pathophysiologic differences exist between absence status and single absence attacks.

Theodore, W.H.; Brooks, R.; Margolin, R.; Patronas, N.; Sato, S.; Porter, R.J.; Mansi, L.; Bairamian, D.; DiChiro, G.

1985-05-01

266

Differential noradrenergic influence on seizure expression in genetically Fast and Slow kindling rat strains during massed trial stimulation of the amygdala.  

PubMed

The involvement of alpha(2) noradrenergic receptors during amygdala 'massed' stimulation (MS) was examined in rats that were selectively bred to be seizure-prone (Fast) or seizure-resistant (Slow) to amygdala kindling. The selective alpha(2) noradrenergic agonist guanfacine, or the antagonist idazoxan, was intraperitoneally injected during the MS procedure to study subsequent changes in afterdischarge (AD) threshold, AD duration and behavioral seizure expression. These measurements were again assessed weekly for 2 weeks after the MS treatment. Daily kindling began immediately thereafter. Following 6 stage-5 once daily convulsive seizures, guanfacine or idazoxan were re-administered. With idazoxan, the Slow rats expressed greater numbers of convulsive seizures and longer AD durations compared to guanfacine or saline controls during MS treatment. This pro-convulsive property of idazoxan was absent in Fast rats. By contrast, Fast rats showed enhanced convulsive expression in the presence of guanfacine. In the fully kindled rat, idazoxan and guanfacine differentially impacted seizure duration and severity in the Slow rats, but again not in the Fast rats. These data suggest that some aspect(s) of the alpha(2) noradrenergic system in the Fast and Slow rats are dissimilar and the mechanisms by which these receptors govern seizure genesis and propagation may be genetically controlled and distinct. PMID:17027042

Shin, Rick S; McIntyre, Dan C

2007-02-01

267

Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures  

SciTech Connect

Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

1990-01-01

268

Selective impairment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the flurothyl model of neonatal seizures  

E-print Network

Selective impairment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the flurothyl model of neonatal seizures, Marseille, France Keywords: CA3 pyramidal cells, early seizures, GABA, glutamate, hippocampus Abstract Neonatal seizures can result in long-term adverse consequences including alteration of seizure

Cossart, Rosa

269

Automated Seizure Detection: Unrecognized Challenges, Unexpected Insights  

E-print Network

One of epileptology's fundamental aims is the formulation of a universal, internally consistent seizure definition. To assess this aim's feasibility, three signal analysis methods were applied to a seizure time series and performance comparisons were undertaken among them and with respect to a validated algorithm. One of the methods uses a Fisher's matrix weighted measure of the rate of parameters change of a 2n order auto-regressive model, another is based on the Wavelet Transform Maximum Modulus for quantification of changes in the logarithm of the standard deviation of ECoG power and yet another employs the ratio of short-to-long term averages computed from cortical signals. The central finding, fluctuating concordance among all methods' output as a function of seizure duration, uncovers unexpected hurdles in the path to a universal definition, while furnishing relevant knowledge in the dynamical (spectral non-stationarity and varying ictal signal complexity) and clinical (probable attainability of consens...

Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.09.011

2011-01-01

270

Threshold Bound States  

E-print Network

Relationships between the coupling constant and the binding energy of threshold bound states are obtained in a simple manner from an iterative algorithm for solving the eigenvalue problem. The absence of threshold bound states in higher dimensions can be easily understood.

W. A. Berger; H. G. Miller; D. Waxman

2007-02-08

271

Bayesian Threshold Estimation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time…

Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

2009-01-01

272

ONLINE AUTOMATIC EPILEPTIC SEIZURE DETECTION FROM ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG)  

E-print Network

ONLINE AUTOMATIC EPILEPTIC SEIZURE DETECTION FROM ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG) By HUI LIU of this research possible. I appreciate his constant enthusiasm for guiding, searching, facilitating and driving.......................................................................................................................4 Seizure Classification and Artifact Categories

Slatton, Clint

273

A seizure warning system for long-term epilepsy monitoring.  

PubMed

We developed a system to provide a warning early in the development of a seizure with a reasonably low false alarm rate. Such a warning will improve the close observation of seizures and interaction between observers and patients early in the seizure, even in seizures having no obvious clinical manifestation. The system relies on the availability of the EEG recording of one sample seizure, which is used as a template for subsequent detection. We evaluated the performance in 24 seizure types from scalp and intracerebral recordings. It yielded a 100% detection rate and a false alarm rate averaging one false alarm every 5 hours. The warning signal was given, on average, 9.6 seconds after EEG seizure onset. The system will be useful in improving the clinical observation of seizures and may allow ictal SPECT scans to be more widely performed. PMID:8848202

Qu, H; Gotman, J

1995-12-01

274

Treatment of Seizures in Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... changing). Teens with epilepsy need counseling about the effects of seizures and seizure medications on sexual activity. All medications have the potential to cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy, although some may ...

275

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

...Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2014-04-01

276

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2011-04-01

277

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2012-04-01

278

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2013-04-01

279

19 CFR 12.109 - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.109 Section 12.109 Customs Duties...Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals § 12.109 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any...

2010-04-01

280

Continuous assessment of epileptic seizures with wrist-worn biosensors  

E-print Network

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized predominantly by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The apprehension about injury, or even death, resulting from a seizure often overshadows the ...

Poh, Ming-Zher

2011-01-01

281

Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

2004-03-01

282

Detection of seizure rhythmicity by recurrences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epileptic seizures show a certain degree of rhythmicity, a feature of heuristic and practical interest. In this paper, we introduce a simple model of this type of behavior, and suggest a measure for detecting and quantifying it. To evaluate our method, we develop a set of test segments that incorporate rhythmicity features, and present results from the application of this measure to test segments. We then analyze electrocorticogram segments containing seizures, and present two examples. Finally, we discuss the similarity of our method to techniques for detecting unstable periodic orbits in chaotic time series.

Harrison, Mary Ann F.; Frei, Mark G.; Osorio, Ivan

2008-09-01

283

Effect of sleep-wake reversal and sleep deprivation on the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Albino Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in a previously O2 flushed, CO2 free chamber. The exposure began with attainment of 60 psi (gauge) and the end point was the first generalized oxygen toxicity seizure. Animals were exposed to reversal diurnal conditions since weanlings until their sleep-wake cycles had completely reversed, and then divided into four groups of 20 based on the time of day exposed. The time of exposure to oxygen at high pressure prior to seizure was now significantly longer in the group exposed from 1900 to 2000 hr and a reversal of the circadian rhythm of oxygen toxicity seizure susceptibility was noted. Animals maintained on normal diurnal conditions were deprived of sleep on the day of exposure for the 12 hours prior to exposure at 1900 hr, while controls were allowed to sleep. There was no significant differences in the time prior to seizure between the deprived animals and the controls with an n = 40. Thus the inherent threshold in susceptibility to high-pressure oxygen seizures seems not to be a function of sleep itself, but of some biochemical/physiologic event which manifests a circadian rhythm.

Dexter, J. D.; Hof, D. G.; Mengel, C. E.

1972-01-01

284

Mechanisms of Seizure Propagation in 2-Dimensional Centre-Surround Recurrent Networks  

PubMed Central

Understanding how seizures spread throughout the brain is an important problem in the treatment of epilepsy, especially for implantable devices that aim to avert focal seizures before they spread to, and overwhelm, the rest of the brain. This paper presents an analysis of the speed of propagation in a computational model of seizure-like activity in a 2-dimensional recurrent network of integrate-and-fire neurons containing both excitatory and inhibitory populations and having a difference of Gaussians connectivity structure, an approximation to that observed in cerebral cortex. In the same computational model network, alternative mechanisms are explored in order to simulate the range of seizure-like activity propagation speeds (0.1–100 mm/s) observed in two animal-slice-based models of epilepsy: (1) low extracellular , which creates excess excitation and (2) introduction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonists, which reduce inhibition. Moreover, two alternative connection topologies are considered: excitation broader than inhibition, and inhibition broader than excitation. It was found that the empirically observed range of propagation velocities can be obtained for both connection topologies. For the case of the GABA antagonist model simulation, consistent with other studies, it was found that there is an effective threshold in the degree of inhibition below which waves begin to propagate. For the case of the low extracellular model simulation, it was found that activity-dependent reductions in inhibition provide a potential explanation for the emergence of slowly propagating waves. This was simulated as a depression of inhibitory synapses, but it may also be achieved by other mechanisms. This work provides a localised network understanding of the propagation of seizures in 2-dimensional centre-surround networks that can be tested empirically. PMID:23967201

Hall, David; Kuhlmann, Levin

2013-01-01

285

Neuropharmacological specificity of brain structures involved in soman-induced seizures.  

PubMed

Pharmacological control of seizure activity following nerve agent exposure is critical in reducing neuropathology and improving survival in casualties. Three classes of drugs, anticholinergics, benzodiazepines and excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonists, have been shown to be effective at moderating nerve agent-induced seizures. However, little is known about which brain structures are involved in producing the anticonvulsant response. This study evaluated drugs from each class, injected directly into one of three specific brain structures, the perirhinal cortex, the entorhinal cortex, or the mediodorsal thalamus, for their ability to modulate seizures induced by the nerve agent soman. The drugs evaluated were the anticholinergic scopolamine, the benzodiazepine midazolam, and the EAA antagonist MK-801. For each drug treatment in each brain area, anticonvulsant ED?? values were calculated using an up-down dosing procedure over successive animals. There was no statistical difference in the anticonvulsant ED?? values for scopolamine and MK-801 in the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices. MK-801 pretreatment in the mediodorsal thalamus had a significantly lower anticonvulsant ED?? value than any other treatment/injection site combination. Midazolam required significantly higher doses than scopolamine and MK-801 in the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices to produce an anticonvulsant response and was ineffective in the mediodorsal thalamus. These findings support the contention that specific neuroanatomical pathways are activated during nerve agentinduced seizures and that the discrete brain structures involved have unique pharmacological thresholds for producing an anticonvulsant response. This study is also the first to show the involvement of the mediodorsal thalamus in the control of nerve agent-induced seizures. PMID:22774227

Skovira, Jacob W; Shih, Tsung-Ming; McDonough, John H

2012-06-01

286

Effect of quercetin and rutin in some acute seizure models in mice.  

PubMed

Quercetin is one of the most widely occurring flavonoid which is also often present in plants as glycosidic form - rutin. These compounds are ingredients of plant diet and are also present in numerous pharmaceutical preparations and diet supplements which are taken by patients suffering from epilepsy and treating with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Influence of these compounds on central nervous system-related effects was proved both in experimental and clinical studies. Their influence on anxiety, depression, memory processes and convulsant activity was reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin and rutin in some models of seizures, i.e., in the model of psychomotor seizures induced by 6Hz stimulation, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold and intravenous pentylenetetrazole tests in mice. We also examined a possible mechanism of anticonvulsant activity of quercetin and its influence on action of two AEDs, i.e., valproic acid and levetiracetam, in the 6Hz seizure test. Our results revealed only a weak anticonvulsant potential of the studied flavonoids because they showed anticonvulsant action at doses from 10 to 200mg/kg only in the 6Hz test and did not change seizure thresholds in the remaining tests. Moreover, anticonvulsant action of the studied flavonoids was short-term, noted only at pretreatment time ranging between 30 and 60min. The highest anticonvulsant activity of quercetin was correlated with its high plasma and brain concentration, which was revealed in a pharmacokinetic study. We did not note changes in the anticonvulsant action of the used AEDs combined with quercetin in the model of psychomotor seizures in mice. Neither quercetin and rutin nor combinations of quercetin with the studied AEDs produced any significant impairments of motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test), muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test) and long-term memory (evaluated in the passive avoidance test) in mice. The results of the present study suggest that quercetin and rutin have only weak and short-term anticonvulsant potential. These flavonoids seem to be safe for patients with epilepsy because they neither changed activity of the studied AEDs nor produced any adverse effects. PMID:24857758

Nieoczym, Dorota; Soca?a, Katarzyna; Raszewski, Grzegorz; Wla?, Piotr

2014-10-01

287

U.S. Government Computer Search and Seizure Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the way in which the spread of computing technology has impacted the search and seizure policies of relevant U.S. government agencies. Among the changes that have occurred is a total redesign by the Justice Department of its search and seizure guidelines and policies. the article discusses numerous questions that involve search and seizure procedures as they pertain

Randy Coneby; Frederick Gallegos

1999-01-01

288

Epileptic seizures triggered directly by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal, secondarily generalizing epileptic seizures were released by magnetic stimulation in a patient with focal epilepsy. The stimulation induced seizures had a similar clinical appearance to the patient's spontaneous seizures. They were released exclusively by an angulated “figure-of-8” coil which stimulates the brain more focally as compared to the commonly used flat round coil. The epileptic focus could be located

J. Classen; O. W. Witte; G. Schlaug; R. J. Seitz; H. Holthausen; R. Benecke

1995-01-01

289

Seizure warning algorithm based on optimization and nonlinear dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that temporal lobe seizures are preceded by a preictal transition, characterized by a gradual dynamical change from asymptomatic interictal state to seizure. We herein report the first prospective analysis of the online automated algorithm for detecting the preictal transition in ongoing EEG signals. Such, the algorithm constitutes a seizure warning system. The algorithm estimates STL max,

Panos M. Pardalos; Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse; Leonidas D. Iasemidis; J. Chris Sackellares; Deng-shan Shiau; Paul R. Carney; Oleg A. Prokopyev; Vitaliy A. Yatsenko

2004-01-01

290

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2012-04-01

291

Multivariate linear discrimination of seizures Kristin K. Jergera  

E-print Network

Multivariate linear discrimination of seizures Kristin K. Jergera , Steven L. Weinsteind , Tim Accepted 15 August 2004 Available online 5 January 2005 Abstract Objective: To discriminate seizures from interictal dynamics based on multivariate synchrony measures, and to identify dynamics of a pre-seizure state

Sauer, Timothy

292

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2010-04-01

293

INVITED REVIEW Cortical Up State Activity Is Enhanced After Seizures  

E-print Network

INVITED REVIEW Cortical Up State Activity Is Enhanced After Seizures: A Quantitative Analysis/3 neocortical neurons 24 hours after chemo- convulsant-induced seizure. Down states in postseizure tissue show channels, and blocking BK channels in vitro and in vivo can decrease excitability and eliminate seizures

Barth, Alison L.

294

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2010-01-01

295

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2013-01-01

296

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2013-01-01

297

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2010-01-01

298

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2014-01-01

299

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2010-04-01

300

Seizure Recognition on Epilepsy Feature Tensor , Canan Aykut Bingol  

E-print Network

Seizure Recognition on Epilepsy Feature Tensor Evrim Acar , Canan Aykut Bingol , Haluk Bingol of various features in seizure recognition, we introduce a mathe- matical model capable of recognizing patient-speci c epileptic seizures with high accuracy. We represent multi-channel EEG signals (recorded

Bystroff, Chris

301

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2014-01-01

302

SEIZURE FREQUENCY MODULATION USING NON-INVASIVE TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION  

E-print Network

SEIZURE FREQUENCY MODULATION USING NON-INVASIVE TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION W. Besio1 , K: 318-257-4562 Fax: 318-257-4175 E-mail: walterb@latech.edu Epilepsy and seizures affect 2.5 million of detecting and terminating seizures before the onset. A concentric ring electrode system for detecting

Besio, Walter G.

303

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2013-04-01

304

Adaptive Control of Epileptic Seizures using Reinforcement Learning  

E-print Network

Adaptive Control of Epileptic Seizures using Reinforcement Learning Arthur Guez Master of Science potential recording, so as to minimize the frequency and duration of seizures. The methodology leverages reduces the incidence of seizures, while also minimizing the amount of stimulation applied. This work

Verbrugge, Clark

305

Symptoms of Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seizures are more common in individuals with intellectual disabilities than in the general population. As a result, differences in functioning for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures have been evaluated. Research on differences in psychopathology for individuals with intellectual disability with and without seizures

Fitzgerald, Mary E.; Matson, Johnny L.; Barker, Alyse

2011-01-01

306

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2011-07-01

307

Seizure prediction and the preseizure period Brian Litta  

E-print Network

Seizure prediction and the preseizure period Brian Litta and Klaus Lehnertzb Beginning in the 1970s engineers designed systems to predict epileptic seizures based upon quantitative changes in the electroencephalogram, which they hypothesized began well in advance of clinical seizure onset. These efforts flourished

Litt, Brian

308

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2012-01-01

309

14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13...Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under section...safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued by the Regional...

2011-01-01

310

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2012-04-01

311

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2010-07-01

312

Modulation of Instantaneous Synchrony During Seizures by Deep Brain Stimulation  

E-print Network

Modulation of Instantaneous Synchrony During Seizures by Deep Brain Stimulation Ananda S. Fine Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology Abstract--Epileptic seizures were experimentally induced in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus in vivo. Recordings of seizure activity were made in both hippocampi

Nicholls, David

313

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2014-04-01

314

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2013-07-01

315

Characterization of Dopamine Release in a Penicillin Model of Seizure  

E-print Network

Characterization of Dopamine Release in a Penicillin Model of Seizure Taylor C. Hood, James O Epilepsy Seizure on Granulare Cell Layer of Dentate Gyrus in Rat: a Stereological Study." Neuroscience on Convulsive and Nonconvulsive Epileptic Seizures in Rats." Toxicology Letters 78 (1995): 76. Acta

Collins, Gary S.

316

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2011-04-01

317

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2012-07-01

318

Analysis of Instantaneous Synchrony During Seizures Ananda S. Fine  

E-print Network

Analysis of Instantaneous Synchrony During Seizures Ananda S. Fine Department of Bioengineering of Technology Abstract--Epileptic seizures were experimentally induced in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus in vivo. Recordings of seizure activity were made in both hippocampi as well as anteromedial region

Nicholls, David

319

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2010-04-01

320

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2011-04-01

321

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2012-04-01

322

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2011-01-01

323

27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure or forfeiture. 555.186 Section...of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive...S.C. 842(l)-(n) is subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions...

2014-04-01

324

A Unifying Explanation of Primary Generalized Seizures Through Nonlinear  

E-print Network

A Unifying Explanation of Primary Generalized Seizures Through Nonlinear Brain Modeling- dictions with regards to seizure phenomena. We show that mapping the structure of the nonlinear bifurcation--clonic and absence seizures are pre- dicted and interrelated by the global bifurcation diagram of the model

Breakspear, Michael

325

8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280...AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Link to an amendment...at 76 FR 74630, December 1, 2011. Seizure of an aircraft under the...

2012-01-01

326

Real-Time Seizure Monitoring and Spectral Analysis Microsystem  

E-print Network

Real-Time Seizure Monitoring and Spectral Analysis Microsystem J. N. Y. Aziz, R. Karakiewicz, R of an envisioned miniature implantable brain implant for automated epileptic seizure therapy. The microsystem com demonstrate the functionality of the integrated microsystem in real-time epileptic seizure monitoring

Genov, Roman

327

15 CFR 904.501 - Notice of seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of seizure. 904.501 Section 904.501 Commerce...GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.501 Notice of seizure. Within 60 days from the date of...

2012-01-01

328

Brief Communication Glutamate Transporters Prevent the Generation of Seizures  

E-print Network

Brief Communication Glutamate Transporters Prevent the Generation of Seizures in the Developing Rat to prevent the activation by local glutamate concentrations of NMDA receptors and the generation of seizures excitotoxic (Olney et al., 1969) and may generate epilep- tic seizures (Tanaka et al., 1997; Meldrum et al

Boyer, Edmond

329

21 CFR 1316.72 - Officers who will make seizures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Officers who will make seizures. 1316.72 Section 1316.72 Food...FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.72 Officers who will make seizures. For the purpose of...

2011-04-01

330

NEUROSYSTEMS Pharmaco-resistant seizures: self-triggering capacity,  

E-print Network

NEUROSYSTEMS Pharmaco-resistant seizures: self-triggering capacity, scale-free properties Colleges, Claremont, CA, USA Keywords: human, inter-seizure interval, predictability, probability, scale-free, seizure energy, self-triggering Abstract Relevant and timely questions such as regarding

Milton, John G.

331

28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section...Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director...vested in the Attorney General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C....

2014-07-01

332

26 CFR 301.7321-1 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure of property. 301.7321-1 Section... Other Offenses § 301.7321-1 Seizure of property. Any property subject...alcohol, tobacco, and firearms). Upon seizure of property by the district...

2013-04-01

333

Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG  

PubMed Central

Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG). However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here, we describe an algorithm that we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determined whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures from non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy.

Loui, Psyche; Koplin-Green, Matan; Frick, Mark; Massone, Michael

2014-01-01

334

Neonatal Seizures: Soothing a Burning Topic  

PubMed Central

Neonatal seizures are a potentially life-threatening pediatric problem with a variety of causes, such as birth trauma, asphyxia, congenital anomalies, metabolic disturbances, infections, and drug withdrawal or intoxication. Thorough and timely evaluations of such patients are necessary to identify and treat the underlying etiology, therefore reducing potential morbidity and mortality. We review neonatal seizures and hypocalcemia, and present the case of a 6 day old male who presented to a tertiary pediatric emergency department with seizure-like episodes. He was found to have markedly low serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations, as well as a significantly elevated serum phosphate concentration. The etiology of these abnormalities was found to be maternal ingestion of extremely high doses of calcium carbonate during the third trimester of her pregnancy, an occurrence that has been reported only once in the literature. Education pertaining to the dangers of excessive calcium carbonate intake during pregnancy may be an important piece of anticipatory guidance for pregnant mothers with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux, and questioning the mother of a neonate presenting with seizures about such over-the-counter medications may help to elucidate the diagnosis. PMID:24084610

Thornton, Matthew D.; Chen, Lei; Langhan, Melissa L.

2013-01-01

335

Oxygen and seizure dynamics: I. Experiments.  

PubMed

We utilized a novel ratiometric nanoquantum dot fluorescence resonance energy transfer (NQD-FRET) optical sensor to quantitatively measure oxygen dynamics from single cell microdomains during hypoxic episodes as well as during 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced spontaneous seizure-like events in rat hippocampal slices. Coupling oxygen sensing with electrical recordings, we found the greatest reduction in the O2 concentration ([O2]) in the densely packed cell body stratum (st.) pyramidale layer of the CA1 and differential layer-specific O2 dynamics between the st. pyramidale and st. oriens layers. These hypoxic decrements occurred up to several seconds before seizure onset could be electrically measured extracellularly. Without 4-AP, we quantified a narrow range of [O2], similar to the endogenous hypoxia found before epileptiform activity, which permits a quiescent network to enter into a seizure-like state. We demonstrated layer-specific patterns of O2 utilization accompanying layer-specific neuronal interplay in seizure. None of the oxygen overshoot artifacts seen with polarographic measurement techniques were observed. We therefore conclude that endogenously generated hypoxia may be more than just a consequence of increased cellular excitability but an influential and critical factor for orchestrating network dynamics associated with epileptiform activity. PMID:24598521

Ingram, Justin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Cressman, John R; Hazra, Anupam; Wei, Yina; Koo, Yong-Eun; Žiburkus, Jok?bas; Kopelman, Raoul; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J

2014-07-15

336

Search and Seizure in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators concerned about school safety have resorted to searching students, their lockers, and their possessions. These searches have led to litigation over whether the Fourth Amendment's prohibition of unreasonable searches and seizures applies to public schools. Although courts have upheld reasonable searches, administrators should carefully…

Russo, Charles J.; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

1998-01-01

337

Search and Seizure in the Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The protection afforded a minor student by the fourth amendment is perhaps open to some speculation due to his age and the unique situation presented by the school environment. The search and seizure issue is discussed in terms of the findings in several court cases. For journal availability see HE 508 741. (LBH)

Medlin, Kay Cowden

1976-01-01

338

Search and Seizure in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the application of the Fourth Amendment, which protects persons against unreasonable search and seizure, as it applies to the student-college relationship. The topics discussed in terms of federal and state court decisions include warrantless searches, delegation of authority to conduct searches, notice of identity and purpose…

Mondschein, Eric S.; West, Michael A.

339

Epileptic Seizures: Quakes of the brain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of universality proposes that dynamical systems with the same power law behaviors are equivalent at large scales. We test this hypothesis on the Earth's crust and the epileptic brain, and discover that power laws also govern the distributions of seizure energies and recurrence times. This robust correspondence is extended over seven statistics, including the direct and inverse Omori

Ivan Osorio; Mark G. Frei; Didier Sornette; John Milton; Ying-Cheng Lai

2007-01-01

340

Seizure Management for School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

Frueh, Eileen

2008-01-01

341

Seizures and Teens: Maximizing Health and Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…

Sundstrom, Diane

2007-01-01

342

Threshold voltage extraction circuit  

E-print Network

A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

Hoon, Siew Kuok

2012-06-07

343

Efficient threshold cryptosystems  

E-print Network

A threshold signature or decryption scheme is a distributed implementation of a cryptosystem, in which the secret key is secret-shared among a group of servers. These servers can then sign or decrypt messages by following ...

Jarecki, Stanisł aw (Stanisł aw Michal), 1971-

2001-01-01

344

Threshold cross section measurements  

E-print Network

Accurate measurements of particles masses, couplings and widths are possible by measuring production cross sections near threshold. We discuss the prospects for performing such measurements at a high luminosity muon collider.

M. S. Berger

1998-02-02

345

Nerve agent-induced seizures and their pharmacological modulation  

SciTech Connect

Intoxication with nerve agents produces prolonged central nervous system seizures (status epilepticus) that can produce irreversible brain pathology (15). This report summarizes our recent findings regarding the neurotransmitter changes that occur in discrete brain regions as a function of seizure duration and the differential effectiveness of anticholinergic, benzodiazepine and excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonist drugs in terminating soman-induced seizures when given at different times after seizure onset. These results are discussed in relation to a model we have proposed to explain the sequence of electrophysiological, biochemical and neurochemical events and mechanisms controlling nerve agent-induced seizures.

McDonough, J.H.; Shih, T.M.; Adams, N.L.; Koviak, T.A.; Cook, L.A.

1993-05-13

346

Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This scenario predicts exponential distributions of the duration of the seizures and of the inter-ictal intervals. These predictions were validated in rat models of absence epilepsy, as well as in a few human cases. Nonetheless, deviations from the predictions with respect to seizure duration distributions remained unexplained. The objective of the present work is to implement a simple but realistic computational model of a neuronal network including synaptic plasticity and ionic current dynamics and to explore the dynamics of the model with special emphasis on the distributions of seizure and inter-ictal period durations. We use as a basis our lumped model of cortical neuronal circuits. Here we introduce 'activity dependent' parameters, namely post-synaptic voltage-dependent plasticity, as well as a voltage-dependent hyperpolarization-activated current driven by slow and fast activation conductances. We examine the distributions of the durations of the seizure-like model activity and the normal activity, described respectively by the limit cycle and the steady state in the dynamics. We use a parametric ?-distribution fit as a quantifier. Our results show that autonomous, activity-dependent membrane processes can account for experimentally obtained statistical distributions of seizure durations, which were not explainable using the previous model. The activity-dependent membrane processes that display the strongest effect in accounting for these distributions are the hyperpolarization-dependent cationic (Ih) current and the GABAa plastic dynamics. Plastic synapses (NMDA-type) in the interneuron population show only a minor effect. The inter-ictal statistics retain their consistency with the experimental data and the previous model.

Koppert, M. M. J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F. H.; Viergever, M. A.

2011-08-01

347

Exciting threshold dependence of self-sustained spikes in excitable neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of self-sustained spikes on the exciting threshold is investigated by two neuron models with an initial stimulus. We find that in the sub-excitable regime of neuron, the exciting threshold is the key factor for an initial stimulus to induce self-sustained spikes, which is robust to the network structures. Furthermore, we even observe self-sustained spikes in a one-dimensional chain, in contrast to previous results stating that an external pacing or a loop structure is the necessary condition to sustain spikes. While in the excitable regime of neuron, we also find the effect of the exciting threshold, i.e. that the lower exciting threshold will result in strong firing synchronization but the higher threshold will result in weak firing synchronization. These findings may be helpful in understanding the microscopic mechanism of epileptic seizures.

Wang, Jianxiong; Liu, Zonghua

2011-07-01

348

Regional Seismic Threshold Monioring  

E-print Network

A database comprising a total of 45 events, selected to provide the best possible ray path coverage of the Barents Sea and adjacent areas, was compiled and reanalyzed in a consistent manner. This resulted in new regional attenuation relations for Pn and Sn, together with a preferred average velocity model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have now applied these attenuation relations to investigate a regional threshold monitoring scheme for the Barents Sea area. A grid system with an approximately 100-km grid spacing was deployed for the Barents Sea region, and the observations at the arrays, ARCES, SPITS, FINES and NORES, were then used for calculating threshold magnitudes for each of the grid points. During an interval without seismic signals, the threshold magnitudes showed large variations over the region, and, in particular, in the vicinity of each array. However, for the region around the island of Novaya Zemlya, the variations are modest, varying around a mean of magnitude 2.1-2.2. In order to investigate in more detail the variations in threshold magnitudes for the Novaya Zemlya region, we deployed a dense grid with an areal extent of about 500 x 500 km around the former Novaya Zemlya nuclear test site. For each of the grid nodes, we calculated magnitude thresholds for the two-hour time interval 00:00 - 02:00 on 23 February 2002. At 01:21:12.1 there was an event with a magnitude of about 3, located about 100 km northeast of the former nuclear test site. Regions of different sizes were constructed by selecting grid points within different radii from the former nuclear test site. Average, minimum and maximum threshold magnitudes were calculated for circular regions with radii of 20, 50, 100 and 200 km, respectively. The most importan...

T. Kv& aelig; rna; T. Kvrna; E. Hicks; J. Schweitzer; F. Ringdal

2002-01-01

349

Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures  

SciTech Connect

Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

1983-04-01

350

Successful psychotherapy for psychogenic seizures in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined factors contributing to the development and successful treatment of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), in civilian men. In-depth interviews were conducted with therapist-client dyads comprising two male clients who had been successfully treated for PNES and their therapists. A theory-building case study approach provided evidence that those factors known to contribute to PNES and other somatoform symptoms

Maria Clare Quinn; Margot J. Schofield; Warwick Middleton

2012-01-01

351

Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of nonepileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (NES) can be classified into five categories. This review focuses on NES associated with\\u000a emotional conflict, by far the most common and important group. Etiology is speculative, but the background histories of these\\u000a patients are often similar. The presence of a trauma history, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the use of dissociation\\u000a plus cognitive dysfunction possibly point

John J. Barry; Katherine Sanborn

2001-01-01

352

Seizure sensitivity is ameliorated by targeted expression of K+-Cl- cotransporter function in the mushroom body of the Drosophila brain.  

PubMed

The kcc(DHS1) allele of kazachoc (kcc) was identified as a seizure-enhancer mutation exacerbating the bang-sensitive (BS) paralytic behavioral phenotypes of several seizure-sensitive Drosophila mutants. On their own, young kcc(DHS1) flies also display seizure-like behavior and demonstrate a reduced threshold for seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock. The product of kcc shows substantial homology to KCC2, the mammalian neuronal K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter. The kcc(DHS1) allele is a hypomorph, and its seizure-like phenotype reflects reduced expression of the kcc gene. We report here that kcc functions as a K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter when expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes: under hypotonic conditions that induce oocyte swelling, oocytes that express Drosophila kcc display robust ion transport activity observed as a Cl(-)-dependent uptake of the K(+) congener (86)Rb(+). Ectopic, spatially restricted expression of a UAS-kcc(+) transgene was used to determine where cotransporter function is required in order to rescue the kcc(DHS1) BS paralytic phenotype. Interestingly, phenotypic rescue is largely accounted for by targeted, circumscribed expression in the mushroom bodies (MBs) and the ellipsoid body (EB) of the central complex. Intriguingly, we observed that MB induction of kcc(+) functioned as a general seizure suppressor in Drosophila. Drosophila MBs have generated considerable interest especially for their role as the neural substrate for olfactory learning and memory; they have not been previously implicated in seizure susceptibility. We show that kcc(DHS1) seizure sensitivity in MB neurons acts via a weakening of chemical synaptic inhibition by GABAergic transmission and suggest that this is due to disruption of intracellular Cl(-) gradients in MB neurons. PMID:19884312

Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Mercado, Adriana; Fajilan, Adriel A; Lee, Ann W; Hsu, Richard; Mount, David B; Tanouye, Mark A

2010-01-01

353

[Epileptic seizures complicated by Takotsubo syndrome].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Takotsubo syndrome is a disorder characterised by a reversible ventricular dysfunction, angina-like precordial pain and electromyographic changes with no evidence of coronary obstruction in examinations performed by coronary catheterisation. It is triggered by stress and is frequent following bouts of epileptic seizures. We report the case of a patient who began with this cardiomyopathy following epileptic seizures suffered after one of her haemodialysis sessions. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a 55-year-old female on haemodialysis due to chronic renal failure, with epilepsy secondary to a residual lesion in the right frontoparietal area due to a haematoma that required surgical evacuation. After her haemodialysis session she suffered an attack of focal epilepsy with secondary generalisation and, some hours later, pain in the middle of her chest. Serial enzymes revealed increased levels of troponin I and, electrocardiographically, negative T waves were observed in precordial derivations (V2-V6). Coronary catheterisation was performed, with normal results, and alterations were noted in contractility, which were confirmed as being transient in a serial echocardiography study. All the previous data lead us to a suspected diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome. CONCLUSIONS. Cardiac complications are one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in epilepsy, and Takotsubo syndrome is an example of them. The real incidence of this syndrome is unknown, but given its involvement in mortality caused by heart problems in epilepsy it is important to suspect it in the presence of cardiac dysfunction following epileptic seizures. PMID:25342054

Garea Garcia-Malvar, M J; Gonzalez-Silva, Y; Epureanu-Epureanu, V

2014-11-01

354

Assessment of the convulsant liability of antidepressants using zebrafish and mouse seizure models.  

PubMed

In the past, antidepressants have been thought to possess proconvulsant properties. This assumption remains controversial, however, because anticonvulsant effects have been attributed to certain antidepressants. To date, it remains unclear which antidepressants can be used for the treatment of patients with epilepsy with depression. The present study was designed to determine the anticonvulsant and/or proconvulsant effects of three antidepressants (citalopram, reboxetine, bupropion) against pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazole-induced acute seizures in larval zebrafish and mice. In zebrafish, all antidepressants were anticonvulsant in the pentylenetetrazole model. In addition, citalopram was anticonvulsant in the zebrafish pilocarpine model, whereas reboxetine and bupropion were without significant effect. In mice all three antidepressants increased some thresholds for pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsive-like behaviors at varying doses, whereas thresholds for pilocarpine-induced convulsive-like behaviors were generally lowered, particularly at the highest doses tested. In general we conclude that the convulsant liability of antidepressants is model and concentration dependent. PMID:21962757

Vermoesen, Katia; Serruys, Ann-Sophie K; Loyens, Ellen; Afrikanova, Tatiana; Massie, Ann; Schallier, Anneleen; Michotte, Yvette; Crawford, Alexander D; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter A M; Smolders, Ilse; Clinckers, Ralph

2011-11-01

355

Enhanced sensitivity of laforin- and malin-deficient mice to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole  

PubMed Central

Lafora disease is a rare form of inherited progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A gene encoding laforin, or in the EPM2B gene, which encodes malin. It is characterized by the presence of polyglucosan inclusion bodies (Lafora bodies) in brain and other tissues. Genetically engineered mice lacking expression of either the laforin (Epm2a?/?) or malin (Epm2b?/?) genes display a number of neurological and behavioral abnormalities that resemble those found in patients suffering from Lafora disease; of these, both Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice have shown altered motor activity, impaired motor coordination, episodic memory deficits, and different degrees of spontaneous epileptic activity. In this study, we analyze the sensitivity of Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an antagonist of the ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, commonly used to induce epileptic tonic-clonic seizures in laboratory animals. PTZ-induced epileptic activity, including myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, was analyzed in 2 age groups of mice comprising representative samples of young adult and aged mice, after administration of PTZ at sub-convulsive and convulsive doses. Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice showed a lower convulsive threshold after PTZ injections at sub-convulsive doses. A lower convulsive threshold and shorter latencies to develop epileptic seizures were observed after PTZ injections at convulsive doses. Different patterns of generalized seizures and of discharges were observed in Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice. Epm2a?/? and Epm2b?/? mice present an increased sensitivity to the convulsant agent PTZ that may reflect different degrees of increased GABAA receptor-mediated hyperexcitability. PMID:25309313

Garcia-Cabrero, Ana M.; Sanchez-Elexpuru, Gentzane; Serratosa, Jose M.; Sanchez, Marina P.

2014-01-01

356

Elaborating on Threshold Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

2013-01-01

357

[Epilepsy with generalized convulsive seizures on awakening (epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures "around sleep")].  

PubMed

Seventy patients with idiopathic epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) on awakening were analyzed. In 30% of patients, seizures occurred with the same frequency or less often only on falling asleep. Two groups of patients were specified: with isolated GTCS on awakening and with a combination of the latter with myoclonia and absences. Awakening as a factor provoking seizures can be significant not only for night sleep but also for day sleep, mostly in patients with isolated GTCS. This allows to define the syndrome as an epilepsy with GTCS "around sleep". At the same time, there were 6 patients with clinical and EEG features of symptomatic epilepsy. Heterogeneity of the syndrome with GTCS "around sleep" is also related to the mental state of patients and their response to AED: carbamazepine is more effective in patients with isolated GTCS and valproate in those with the combination of GTCS with myoclonia and absences. PMID:18454092

Karlov, V A; Ozherel'eva, Iu V

2008-01-01

358

Dynamic interactions determine partial thalamic quiescence in a computer network model of spike-and-wave seizures.  

PubMed

In vivo intracellular recording from cat thalamus and cortex was performed during spontaneous spike-wave seizures characterized by synchronously firing cortical neurons correlated with the electroencephalogram. During these seizures, thalamic reticular (RE) neurons discharged with long spike bursts riding on a depolarization, whereas thalamocortical (TC) neurons were either entrained into the seizures (40%) or were quiescent (60%). During quiescence, TC neurons showed phasic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) that coincided with paroxysmal depolarizing shifts in the simultaneously recorded cortical neuron. Computer simulations of a reciprocally connected TC-RE pair showed two major modes of TC-RE interaction. In one mode, a mutual oscillation involved direct TC neuron excitation of the RE neuron leading to a burst that fed back an IPSP into the TC neuron, producing a low-threshold spike. In the other, quiescent mode, the TC neuron was subject to stronger coalescing IPSPs. Simulated cortical stimulation could trigger a transition between the two modes. This transition could go in either direction and was dependent on the precise timing of the input. The transition did not always follow the stimulation immediately. A larger, multicolumnar simulation was set up to assess the role of the TC-RE pair in the context of extensive divergence and convergence. The amount of TC neuron spiking generally correlated with the strength of total inhibitory input, but large variations in the amount of spiking could be seen. Evidence for mutual oscillation could be demonstrated by comparing TC neuron firing with that in reciprocally connected RE neurons. An additional mechanism for TC neuron quiescence was assessed with the use of a cooperative model of gamma-aminobutyric acid-B (GABA(B))-mediated responses. With this model, RE neurons receiving repeated strong excitatory input produced TC neuron quiescence due to burst-duration-associated augmentation of GABA(B) current. We predict the existence of spatial inhomogeneity in apparently generalized spike-wave seizures, involving a center-surround pattern. In the center, intense cortical and RE neuron activity would be associated with TC neuron quiescence. In the surround, less intense hyperpolarization of TC neurons would allow low-threshold spikes to occur. This surround, an "epileptic penumbra," would be the forefront of the expanding epileptic wave during the process of initial seizure generalization. Therapeutically, we would then predict that agents that reduce TC neuron activity would have a greater effect on seizure onset than on ongoing spike-wave seizures or other thalamic oscillations. PMID:9114229

Lytton, W W; Contreras, D; Destexhe, A; Steriade, M

1997-04-01

359

Anoxic-epileptic seizures: observational study of epileptic seizures induced by syncopes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe a large series of children with anoxic-epileptic seizures (AES)—that is, epileptic seizures induced by syncopes. Methods: Retrospective case-note review in a tertiary paediatric neurology unit. For all 27 children seen with a definite diagnosis of AES between 1972 and 2002, a review of clinical histories, videotapes, and EEG/ECG studies was undertaken. Main outcome measures were: age of onset, frequency and type of syncopes; age of onset and frequency of AES; type and duration of induced epileptic seizures; effect of treatment of syncopal and epileptic components. Results: Median age of onset of syncopes was 8 months (range 0.2–120), frequency 2 in total to 40/day, median total ?200. Syncopes were predominantly reflex asystolic (RAS), prolonged expiratory apnoea (cyanotic breath-holding spells), or of mixed or uncertain origin; there was one each of ear piercing and hair grooming vasovagal syncope and one of compulsive Valsalva. Median age of onset of AES was 17 months (range 7–120), frequency from total 1 to 3/day, median total 3. The epileptic component was almost always bilateral clonic; three had additional epilepsy, one each with complex partial seizures, myoclonic absences, and febrile seizures plus. Median duration of epileptic component was 5 minutes (range 0.5–40, mean 11). Cardiac pacing prevented RAS in two patients: most other anti-syncope therapies were ineffective. Diazepam terminated the epileptic component in 6/8. Valproate or carbamazepine abolished AES in 5/7 without influencing syncope frequency. Conclusions: Although uncommon compared with simple syncopes, syncope triggered epileptic seizures (AES) are an important treatable basis of status epilepticus. PMID:16159903

Horrocks, I; Nechay, A; Stephenson, J; Zuberi, S

2005-01-01

360

Myotendinous rupture of temporalis muscle: A rare injury following seizure  

PubMed Central

Seizures are one of the most common pediatric neurologic disorders. Many complications secondary to seizures have been described in the literature including head trauma, fractures, drowning and burns. However, to the best of our knowledge, rupture of the myotendinous insertion of the temporalis muscle on the mandible secondary to a seizure has never been described in the literature. We report the case of a unilateral temporalis muscle rupture in a 16-year-old boy who developed unilateral facial swelling following new onset tonic-clonic seizures. We emphasize on the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in this case report. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain such an injury. The favored mechanism in our patient is a pull on the temporalis myotendinous insertion on the mandible following vigorous and brisk deviation of the head and neck during seizure. Radiologists should be familiar with this type of injury following seizures in order to prevent misdiagnosis and subsequently mistreatment. PMID:24976940

Naffaa, Lena N; Tandon, Yasmeen K; Rubin, Michael

2014-01-01

361

Toward Multiscale Modeling and Prediction of Epileptic Seizures  

E-print Network

Epileptic seizures are one of the most well-known dysfunctions of the nervous system. During a seizure, a highly synchronized behavior of neural activity is observed that can cause symptoms ranging from mild sensual malfunctions to the complete loss of body control. Epileptic seizures and their prediction have been studied theoretically and experimentally, mostly based on using electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, the dynamical mechanisms that cause seizures are far from being understood. In this paper, we try to contribute towards the understanding by viewing the prediction and dynamical analysis as a multiscale problem involving multiple time as well as multiple spatial scales. On the smallest spatial scale we consider single neurons and investigate predictability of spiking. For clusters of neurons (or neuronal regions) we use patient data near the onset of epileptic seizures and find oscillatory behavior and scaling laws near the seizure onset. On the largest spatial scale we introduce a measure ba...

Kuehn, Christian

2011-01-01

362

Sensitivity testing of the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ).  

PubMed

The sensitivity of the Seizure Severity Questionnaire (SSQ) was evaluated using pooled data from open-label extensions of two clinical trials in patients with partial-onset seizures. The SSQ includes questions relating to frequency and helpfulness of warning signs as well as frequency, severity, and bothersomeness of ictal and postictal effects. Differences between mean change from baseline for each SSQ item for responders and nonresponders were described and compared between patients solely with complex partial seizures (CPSs: responders, n=166; nonresponders, n=127) and those solely with secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPSs: responders, n=26; nonresponders, n=24) at baseline. Seizure Severity Questionnaire total score and individual SSQ items related to ictal movement, consciousness, bothersomeness of postictal effects, and frequency of postictal emotional effects showed differentiation between seizure type responders. These data provide further validation of the SSQ by demonstrating its sensitivity in describing treatment effects. PMID:24275520

Borghs, Simon; de la Loge, Christine; Brabant, Yves; Cramer, Joyce

2014-02-01

363

Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat  

SciTech Connect

Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

Anderson, M.C.

1988-01-01

364

[Pediatric seizures and end-stage renal disease].  

PubMed

Neonates and infants with hypocalcemia usually present with seizures, whereas this is less common in older children and teenagers. We report on a case of hypocalcemic seizures in a 16-year-old girl with undiagnosed end-stage renal disease with progressive growth retardation and bone deformations. We highlight the value of checking serum calcium, phosphate, and creatinine in children with growth retardation, seizures, and/or unexplained bone deformations. We also discuss the clinical consequences of pediatric renal osteodystrophy. PMID:23453718

Roland-Gosselin, B; Ranchin, B; Leclerc, A-L; Dijoud, F; Belot, A; Demède, D; Raux, S; Cochat, P; Bacchetta, J

2013-04-01

365

Epileptic Seizure Detection in EEGs Using Time-Frequency Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of recorded epileptic seizure activity in EEG segments is crucial for the localization and classification of epileptic seizures. However, since seizure evolution is typically a dynamic and nonstationary process and the signals are composed of multiple frequencies, visual and conventional frequency-based methods have limited application. In this paper, we demonstrate the suitability of the time-frequency ( t-f) analysis

Alexandros T. Tzallas; Markos G. Tsipouras; Dimitrios I. Fotiadis

2009-01-01

366

Global Hypoxia–Ischemia and Critical Care Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures after cardiopulmonary arrest are a common problem in the intensive care unit, occurring in as many as one-third of\\u000a these patients during hospitalization. The etiology, treatment, and prognostic importance of seizures in this setting have\\u000a not been well delineated in the literature. Whether seizures exacerbate global hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in humans remains\\u000a unclear, which raises uncertainty about how aggressively

Matthew A. Koenig; Romergryko Geocadin

367

Progressive NKCC1-dependent neuronal chloride accumulation during neonatal seizures  

PubMed Central

Seizures induce excitatory shifts in the reversal potential for GABAA receptor-mediated responses, which may contribute to the intractability of electroencephalographic seizures and preclude the efficacy of widely-used GABAergic anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital. We now report that in intact hippocampi prepared from neonatal rats and transgenic mice expressing Clomeleon, recurrent seizures progressively increase the intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) assayed by Clomeleon imaging and invert the net effect of GABAA receptor activation from inhibition to excitation assayed by the frequency of action potentials and intracellular Ca2+ transients. These changes correlate with increasing frequency of seizure-like events and reduction in phenobarbital efficacy. The Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1) co-transporter blocker bumetanide inhibited seizure-induced neuronal Cl? accumulation and the consequent facilitation of recurrent seizures. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which seizure activity leads to [Cl?]i accumulation, thereby increasing the probability of subsequent seizures. This provides a potential mechanism for the early crescendo phase of neonatal seizures. PMID:20810895

Dzhala, Volodymyr I.; Kuchibhotla, Kishore V.; Glykys, Joseph C.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Swiercz, Waldemar B.; Feng, Guoping; Kuner, Thomas; Augustine, George J.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Staley, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

368

Chvostek's sign and hypocalcaemia in children with seizures.  

PubMed

Chvostek's sign (CS) was investigated in 154 patients with seizures (epilepsy, n = 91; non-epileptic event, n = 41; febrile convulsion, n = 19; hypocalcaemic seizure, n = 3). Patients with febrile convulsions or non-epileptic seizures had either negative or mild CS. Marked CS was only found among those with the diagnosis of epilepsy or hypocalcaemia. Normocalcaemic patients had no other signs of neuromuscular hyperexcitability (NMH) while those with hypocalcaemia manifested positive Trousseau's sign (TS) and other signs of NMH. There was no significant correlation between CS and seizure control, epilepsy classification and EEG findings. PMID:15121128

Ahmed, M A S; Martinez, A; Mariam, S; Whitehouse, W

2004-06-01

369

Neck myoclonia with absence seizures in an Indian girl.  

PubMed

Absence seizures associated with myoclonic phenomena have been associated with 4 seizure types. Recently, a new seizure type of neck myoclonia with absences was described. We present a case of 9-year-old girl who presented with abnormal head shaking and vacant stare for the past 5 months with an ictal electroencephalograph (EEG) record showing 3-Hz spike-and-wave discharges. The seizures were easily controlled with valproate and clobazam. Neck myoclonia with absences might be a new idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome in development. PMID:24556548

Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Aneja, Satinder

2014-11-01

370

Evolving functional network properties and synchronizability during human epileptic seizures  

E-print Network

We assess electrical brain dynamics before, during, and after one-hundred human epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations by statistical and spectral properties of functionally defined networks. We observe a concave-like temporal evolution of characteristic path length and cluster coefficient indicative of a movement from a more random toward a more regular and then back toward a more random functional topology. Surprisingly, synchronizability was significantly decreased during the seizure state but increased already prior to seizure end. Our findings underline the high relevance of studying complex systems from the view point of complex networks, which may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying epileptic seizures.

Schindler, Kaspar A; Horstmann, Marie-Therese; Elger, Christian E; Lehnertz, Klaus

2013-01-01

371

Evolving functional network properties and synchronizability during human epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess electrical brain dynamics before, during, and after 100 human epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations by statistical and spectral properties of functionally defined networks. We observe a concave-like temporal evolution of characteristic path length and cluster coefficient indicative of a movement from a more random toward a more regular and then back toward a more random functional topology. Surprisingly, synchronizability was significantly decreased during the seizure state but increased already prior to seizure end. Our findings underline the high relevance of studying complex systems from the viewpoint of complex networks, which may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying epileptic seizures.

Schindler, Kaspar A.; Bialonski, Stephan; Horstmann, Marie-Therese; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus

2008-09-01

372

Improving models for control of seizures and spreading depression.  

E-print Network

??Epileptic seizures and spreading depression are both pathological conditions characterized by abnormal, excessive discharge of population neuronal activities, accompanied by massive perturbation of ion homeostasis.… (more)

Wei, Yina

2013-01-01

373

Urethane anesthesia blocks the development and expression of kindled seizures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of anesthetic and subanesthetic doses of urethane on the development of amygdala kindled seizures and on the expression of previously kindled seizures was studied in hooded rats. An anesthetic dose of urethane almost completely eliminated evoked after discharge and completely eliminated convulsive behavior in both groups. It also eliminated the seizure response to pentylenetetrazol. Subanesthetic doses of urethane strongly attenuated the expression of previously kindled seizures. These results suggest that urethane may not be an appropriate anesthetic for the study of epileptiform phenomena.

Cain, D.P.; Raithby, A.; Corcoran, M.E.

1989-01-01

374

Disulfiram-induced de novo seizures in the absence of ethanol challenge.  

PubMed

The literature on disulfiram-associated seizures is reviewed. A case report of a disulfiram-induced de novo seizure in a 35-year-old man is presented. Possible mechanisms of seizure facilitation are discussed. PMID:6632888

McConchie, R D; Panitz, D R; Sauber, S R; Shapiro, S

1983-07-01

375

78 FR 56984 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...based on the fact that they have had one or more seizures and are taking anti- seizure medication, rather than an individual...

2013-09-16

376

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2012-04-01

377

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2013-04-01

378

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2012-01-01

379

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2014-01-01

380

78 FR 68144 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...based on the fact that they have had one or more seizures and are taking anti- seizure medication, rather than an individual...

2013-11-13

381

Characterization of Seizures Induced by Acute and Repeated Exposure to Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine  

E-print Network

Characterization of Seizures Induced by Acute and Repeated Exposure. To provide a basis for the investigation of antidotes for TETS-induced seizures, we characterized caused immobility, myoclonic body jerks, clonic seizures of the forelimbs and/or hindlimbs, tonic

Hammock, Bruce D.

382

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2012-01-01

383

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2013-01-01

384

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2012-01-01

385

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2011-01-01

386

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2010-04-01

387

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2011-04-01

388

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2013-04-01

389

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2012-01-01

390

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2014-01-01

391

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2013-04-01

392

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2010-01-01

393

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2011-01-01

394

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2013-01-01

395

Cortico-thalamic feedback: a key to explain absence seizures Alain Destexhe  

E-print Network

Cortico-thalamic feedback: a key to explain absence seizures Alain Destexhe UNIC, CNRS, Gif important for seizure generation. Computational models have succeeded in proposing plausible mechanisms mechanisms of such seizures involve thalamocortical loops, the particular oscillatory properties of thalamic

Destexhe, Alain

396

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2011-01-01

397

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

...2014-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2014-01-01

398

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2013-01-01

399

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2011-01-01

400

78 FR 3079 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...based on the fact that they have had one or more seizures and are taking anti- seizure medication, rather than an individual...

2013-01-15

401

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2013-01-01

402

78 FR 49319 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...based on the fact that they have had one or more seizures and are taking anti- seizure medication, rather than an individual...

2013-08-13

403

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2014-01-01

404

9 CFR 381.216 - Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

...2014-01-01 false Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.216 Procedure for judicial seizure, condemnation, and...

2014-01-01

405

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2013-01-01

406

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2014-04-01

407

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2012-04-01

408

75 FR 37707 - Administrative Process for Seizures and Forfeitures Under the Immigration and Nationality Act and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1651-AA58 Administrative Process for Seizures and Forfeitures Under the Immigration...final rule that consolidated the asset seizure and forfeiture procedures for customs...ICE retained authority to perform asset seizures and forfeitures under the...

2010-06-30

409

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2013-01-01

410

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2010-01-01

411

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2011-04-01

412

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2012-01-01

413

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2012-04-01

414

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2014-04-01

415

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2011-01-01

416

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2010-04-01

417

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2011-01-01

418

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2012-01-01

419

9 CFR 329.8 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 329...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.8 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2010-01-01

420

9 CFR 381.215 - Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 381.215 Section...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses...Poultry or other articles subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2014-01-01

421

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2011-04-01

422

9 CFR 381.217 - Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law. 381...PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.217 Authority for condemnation or seizure under other provisions of law....

2010-01-01

423

19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...  

...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property...detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition has been...

2014-04-01

424

9 CFR 329.6 - Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. 329.6 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES...Articles or livestock subject to judicial seizure and condemnation. Any...

2010-01-01

425

9 CFR 329.7 - Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and disposition...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.7 Procedure for seizure, condemnation, and...

2010-01-01

426

27 CFR 72.21 - Personal property and carriers subject to seizure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. 72.21 Section 72.21 Alcohol...DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.21 Personal property and carriers subject to seizure. (a) Personal...

2010-04-01

427

Seizures and Teens: The Impact of Seizures and Epilepsy on Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a teenager or child of any age develops seizures, the impact on the family can be enormous. Worries and fears may affect everyone, and left untreated, crises can occur too easily. This article explores the way that epilepsy can affect family dynamics. Common factors that may contribute to family stress and patterns of coping will be…

Weinstein, Sandra Cushner

2007-01-01

428

Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)…

Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

2008-01-01

429

Block term decomposition for modelling epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recordings of neural activity, such as EEG, are an inherent mixture of different ongoing brain processes as well as artefacts and are typically characterised by low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, EEG datasets are often inherently multidimensional, comprising information in time, along different channels, subjects, trials, etc. Additional information may be conveyed by expanding the signal into even more dimensions, e.g. incorporating spectral features applying wavelet transform. The underlying sources might show differences in each of these modes. Therefore, tensor-based blind source separation techniques which can extract the sources of interest from such multiway arrays, simultaneously exploiting the signal characteristics in all dimensions, have gained increasing interest. Canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) has been successfully used to extract epileptic seizure activity from wavelet-transformed EEG data (Bioinformatics 23(13):i10-i18, 2007; NeuroImage 37:844-854, 2007), where each source is described by a rank-1 tensor, i.e. by the combination of one particular temporal, spectral and spatial signature. However, in certain scenarios, where the seizure pattern is nonstationary, such a trilinear signal model is insufficient. Here, we present the application of a recently introduced technique, called block term decomposition (BTD) to separate EEG tensors into rank- ( L r , L r ,1) terms, allowing to model more variability in the data than what would be possible with CPD. In a simulation study, we investigate the robustness of BTD against noise and different choices of model parameters. Furthermore, we show various real EEG recordings where BTD outperforms CPD in capturing complex seizure characteristics.

Hunyadi, Borbála; Camps, Daan; Sorber, Laurent; Paesschen, Wim Van; Vos, Maarten De; Huffel, Sabine Van; Lathauwer, Lieven De

2014-12-01

430

Pediatric seizure disorders in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Seizure disorders in young animals pose different considerations as to cause and therapeutic decisions compared with adult animals. Infectious diseases of the nervous system are more likely in puppies and kittens compared with adults. The diagnosis of canine distemper is often based on clinical signs. Idiopathic epilepsy typically occurs in dogs between 1 and 5 years of age; however, inflammatory brain diseases such as necrotizing encephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis also commonly occur in young to middle-aged small-breed dogs. The choice of which anticonvulsant to administer for maintenance therapy is tailored to each individual patient. PMID:24580991

Lavely, James A

2014-03-01

431

Pathology Case Study: Seizures and Progressive Dementia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a neuropathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 70-year-old female has seizures and progressive dementia. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Friese, Michael; Kern, Michael A.; Rudolf, Jobst; Schroãâder, Roland; Wengler-Becker, Ursula

2008-02-29

432

Pathology Case Study: New Onset Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 26-year-old nurse is experiencing headaches and seizures. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including neuroimaging results, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Hamilton, Ronald; Martinez, A. Julio (Augusto Julio)

2009-09-24

433

A micropower support vector machine based seizure detection architecture embedded medical devices  

E-print Network

Implantable neurostimulators for the treatment of epilepsy that are capable of sensing seizures can enable novel therapeutic applications. However, detecting seizures is challenging due to significant intracranial EEG ...

Denison, Timothy

434

A micropower support vector machine based seizure detection architecture for embedded medical devices  

E-print Network

Implantable neurostimulators for the treatment of epilepsy that are capable of sensing seizures can enable novel therapeutic applications. However, detecting seizures is challenging due to significant intracranial EEG ...

Shoeb, Ali H.

435

Owners or hospital staff can be unaware of seizure occurrence.  

E-print Network

1 #12;Owners or hospital staff can be unaware of seizure occurrence. 2 #12;Canine seizures ­ There has been a rise in malpractice lawsuits directed at veterinary doctors. Appease worried owners malpractice. Owners of practice always benefit from keeping their establishment technologically competent. 20

Levi, Anthony F. J.

436

Amnesic syndrome after theophylline associated seizures: iatrogenic brain injury.  

PubMed Central

Two patients developed a disabling amnesic syndrome after seizures associated with oral theophylline treatment. Such seizures are more likely in the elderly, in the presence of pre-existing neurological disease, and when theophylline is given with certain antibiotics and cimetidine. The mechanism of neuronal injury may be by the excessive release of endogenous excitotoxic glutamate. Images PMID:8201347

O'Riordan, J I; Hutchinson, J; FitzGerald, M X; Hutchinson, M

1994-01-01

437

Another Tool in the Fight against Epilepsy: Seizure Response Dogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epilepsy, a chronic neurological seizure disorder, affects 2.7 million Americans, half of them children, and worldwide, it is the most common brain disorder. While there is not a cure for epilepsy, the goal of treatment is to achieve the greatest freedom from seizures that can be attained with the minimal amount of side effects. These days…

Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

2007-01-01

438

Search & Seizure in the Schools. A Model Policy and Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of search and seizure in the public schools is clouded by conflicting legal decisions. School policies and rules on the issue should be made only after considerable deliberation and community input. Because of the lack of clarity, this model of search and seizure policy and rules is intended only as a basis for consideration of the…

Bartlett, Larry; And Others

439

Survey of Washington Search and Seizure Law: 1998 Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Survey, as did the previous Surveys, summarizes the predominant treatment of search and seizure issues under the Fourth Amendment and under article I, section 7 of the Washington State Constitution to the extent that this state's provision is interpreted differently from the federal provision. The Survey focuses primarily on substantive search and seizure law in the criminal context; it

Justice Charles W. Johnson

1998-01-01

440

Dynamical intrinsic functional architecture of the brain during absence seizures.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent and temporary brain dysfunction due to discharges of interconnected groups of neurons. The brain of epilepsy patients has a dynamic bifurcation that switches between epileptic and normal states. The dysfunctional state involves large-scale brain networks. It is very important to understand the network mechanisms of seizure initiation, maintenance, and termination in epilepsy. Absence epilepsy provides a unique model for neuroimaging investigation on dynamic evolutions of brain networks over seizure repertoire. By using a dynamic functional connectivity and graph theoretical analyses to study absence seizures (AS), we aimed to obtain transition of network properties that account for seizure onset and offset. We measured resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) from children with AS. We used simultaneous EEG to define the preictal, ictal and postictal intervals of seizures. We measured dynamic connectivity maps of the thalamus network and the default mode network (DMN), as well as functional connectome topologies, during the three different seizure intervals. The analysis of dynamic changes of anti-correlation between the thalamus and the DMN is consistent with an inhibitory effect of seizures on the default mode of brain function, which gradually fades out after seizure onset. Also, we observed complex transitions of functional network topology, implicating adaptive reconfiguration of functional brain networks. In conclusion, our work revealed novel insights into modifications in large-scale functional connectome during AS, which may contribute to a better understanding the network mechanisms of state bifurcations in epileptogenesis. PMID:23913255

Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Mantini, Dante; Xu, Qiang; Ji, Gong-Jun; Zhang, Han; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhengge; Chen, Guanghui; Tian, Lei; Jiao, Qing; Zang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guangming

2014-11-01

441

If I Had - A Child Who Had a Seizure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Sperling, MD, Emory University If I Had - A Child Who Had a Seizure - Dr. Raymond Sze, MD, Children's National Medical Center If I Had - Esophageal Cancer - ... Back to Home Page If I Had - A Child Who Had a Seizure - Dr. Raymond Sze, MD, ...

442

CONSTRAINED ICA FOR SEIZURE ONSET ANALYSIS IN THE EEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of epileptic seizure waveform from the electroencephalogram (EEG) using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was demonstrated by James and Lowe. A recent variation, Constrained ICA, allows a supplied reference signal to select a single component to be extracted. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the problem of seizure waveform extraction from EEG signals prior to the

Oliver Gibson; Christopher James

443

Fear as the main feature of epileptic seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThere are circumstances in which partial seizures may be misdiagnosed as acute psychiatric disturbances. In particular, when fear is the prominent feature the patient may be considered for years as having panic attacks. Eight patients in whom fear was the main symptom of the seizures are reported on. Patients who had a proved lack of consciousness during the fits and

A Biraben; D Taussig; P Thomas; C Even; J P Vignal; J M Scarabin; P Chauvel

2001-01-01

444

Ontogenetic study of metaphit-induced audiogenic seizures in rats.  

PubMed

Ontogenetic differences in susceptibility to metaphit (1-(1-(3-isothiocyanatophenyl)cyclohexyl)-piperidine)-induced audiogenic seizures were examined in young, developing (ages: 12, 18, and 25 days) and adult (90 days old) Wistar albino rats. Metaphit was injected in a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. and animals were subjected to intense audio stimulation (100 +/- 3 dB, 60 s) at hourly intervals after administration. Audiogenic seizures (AGS) were scored according to a four point descriptive rating scale (0-3). AGS were elicited in all age groups; they were induced for 12, 15, 15, and 30 h in 12-, 18-, 25-day-old, and adult rats, respectively. Younger animals reached a peak incidence and severity of seizures before adult rats. Twenty-five-day-old rats showed greatest incidence and severity of seizures, and shortest latency. Twelve-day-old animals had longest latencies. Besides audiogenic seizures, we observed convulsions induced by metaphit only in the form of running episodes, forelimb clonus, clonic convulsions, and rearing. Results suggest that young rats develop metaphit-induced sound seizures more rapidly, but that adults have longer period of seizure susceptibility. Different susceptibility to seizures is probably due to changes in excitatory and inhibitory pathways, while maturation of blood-brain barrier is less probable, since metaphit has a lipophilic nature. PMID:15763274

Zivanovic, Dragana; Stanojlovic, Olivera; Mirkovic, Slobodan; Susic, Veselinka

2005-03-22

445

Seizures and hyponatremia after excessive intake of diet coke.  

PubMed

We describe a case of epileptic seizures after a massive intake of diet coke. Apart from the hyponatremia due to water intoxication the convulsions can be potentiated by the high dose of caffeine and aspartame from the diet coke. To our knowledge this is the first report of seizures due to excessive diet coke intake. PMID:18180668

Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Loo, Michel; De Cauwer, Harald G; Merlevede, Karen

2008-02-01

446

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

...Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2014-04-01

447

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2012-07-01

448

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2012-04-01

449

Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

2010-01-01

450

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2010-07-01

451

Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

2009-01-01

452

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2013-04-01

453

Effects of Early Seizures on Later Behavior and Epileptogenicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…

Holmes, Gregory L.

2004-01-01

454

Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

2012-01-01

455

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

...National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2014-07-01

456

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2011-04-01

457

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2011-07-01

458

32 CFR 935.101 - Seizure of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seizure of property. 935.101 Section 935.101 National Defense...REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Criminal Actions § 935.101 Seizure of property. Any property seized in connection with an...

2013-07-01

459

19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture. 12.104e Section 12.104e Customs...CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever any designated...

2010-04-01

460

Mapping seizure pathways in the temporal lobe.  

PubMed

Interest in temporal lobe seizure pathways has a long history based initially on the human condition of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This interest in TLE has extended more recently into explorations of experimental models. In this review, the network structures in the temporal lobe that are recruited in animal models during various forms of limbic seizures and status epilepticus are described. Common to all of the various models is recruitment of the parahippocampal cortices, including the piriform, perirhinal, and entorhinal areas. This cortical involvement is seen in in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological recordings throughout the network, in trans-synaptic neuroplastic changes in associated network structures manifest at the molecular level, in network energy utilization visualized by 14C2-deoxyglucose uptake, and finally, in the behavioral consequences of network lesions. The conclusions of the animal models reviewed here are very similar to those described for the human condition presented recently in the 2006 Lennox lecture by Warren Blume, and addressed 53 years ago in the quadrennial meeting of the ILAE in 1953 by Henri Gastaut. PMID:18304253

McIntyre, Dan C; Gilby, Krista L

2008-01-01

461

Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation  

PubMed Central

Objective Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common neurological disorder observed in the pediatric age group. The present study provides information about epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as risk factors associated with FS among Iranian children. Materials & Methods On the computerized literature valid databases, the FS prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random effects model. A metaregression analysis was introduced to explore heterogeneity between studies. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using Stata10. Results The important viral or bacterial infection causes of FSs were; recent upper respiratory infection 42.3% (95% CI: 37.2%–47.4%), gastroenteritis21.5% (95% CI: 13.6%–29.4%), and otitis media nfections15.2% (95% CI: 9.8%- 20.7%) respectively. The pooled prevalence rate of FS among other childhood convulsions was 47.9% (95% CI: 38.8–59.9%). The meta–regression analysis showed that the sample size does not significantly affect heterogeneity for the factor ‘prevalence FS’. Conclusion Almost half of all childhood convulsions among Iranian children are associated with Febrile seizure. PMID:25143771

DELPISHEH, Ali; VEISANI, Yousef; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh; FAYYAZI, Afshin

2014-01-01

462

Gas threshold Cerenkov counters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report describes two designs are reported of gas threshold Cerenkov counters for recording electrons of primary cosmic rays without recording protons. Also presented are design and technological measures which ensure maximum light collection of the Cerenkov radiation originating on the photocathode of the photomultiplier inside the radiator. The dependence of the reflection factor on the length of the light wave for different coatings is shown as well as for the throughput of the different optical materials employed. A range of methods for determining the efficiency of the counters during the recording of cosmic ray nucons and ways of increasing it further are given.

Logachev, V. I.; Sinitsyna, V. G.; Chukin, V. S.

1975-01-01

463

Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a “pre-seizure” state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

2014-01-01

464

Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

2013-09-01

465

Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures  

E-print Network

We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients, and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

Bialonski, Stephan

2013-01-01

466

Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a ``pre-seizure'' state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

2014-01-01

467

Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. PMID:23119054

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

2012-01-01

468

Seizure, Fit or Attack? The Use of Diagnostic Labels by Patients with Epileptic or Non-Epileptic Seizures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an analysis of the use of diagnostic labels such as "seizure", "attack", "fit", and "blackout" by patients who experience seizures. While previous research on patients' preferences for diagnostic terminology has relied on questionnaires, we assess patients' own preferences and their responses to a doctor's use of different labels…

Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

2010-01-01

469

Coloring geographical threshold graphs  

SciTech Connect

We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

2008-01-01

470

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in children: a review.  

PubMed

One of the considerations when a child presents with paroxysmal events is psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). PNES are discernible changes in behavior or consciousness that resemble epileptic seizures but are not accompanied by electrophysiologic changes. They are usually understood as the manifestation of a conversion disorder that reflects underlying psychological distress. There is a lack of population-based data on the prevalence or incidence of PNES in pediatric populations. The prevalence of PNES in children would appear to be lower than that in the adult population, but the prevalence of PNES seems to increase with age, and nonepileptic paroxysmal events are more likely to be PNES in adolescence than earlier in childhood. In terms of manifestation, PNES in childhood have been described using various categorizations and terminology, making comparisons across studies difficult. There is some evidence that events are more likely to involve unresponsiveness in younger children and prominent motor symptoms in older children. The most common precipitating factors would appear to be school-related difficulties and interpersonal conflict within the child's family. In terms of psychopathology, children with PNES are at high risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety. Accurate diagnosis of PNES in children is likely to involve taking a comprehensive description of the episodes, garnering the child's medical/developmental history, video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) to rule out epileptic seizures, and an evaluation of family functioning. The importance of effective and sensitive communication of the diagnosis of PNES has been emphasized and management approaches will typically involve multidisciplinary efforts to safely manage the events at home and at school. Interventions to reduce the effect of precipitating psychosocial stressors and the involvement of a mental health professional to treat comorbid psychopathology will also form part of an effective management plan. Outcome at follow-up is reported to be largely positive, although studies have not been able to follow all children, and few studies have focused on predictors of a good outcome. Future controlled intervention studies using a range of outcome measures are needed to identify efficacious approaches and predictors of best outcome. PMID:23944981

Reilly, Colin; Menlove, Leanne; Fenton, Virginia; Das, Krishna B

2013-10-01

471

Seizures as imbalanced up states: excitatory and inhibitory conductances during seizure-like events  

PubMed Central

Precisely timed and dynamically balanced excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) conductances underlie the basis of neural network activity. Normal E/I balance is often shifted in epilepsy, resulting in neuronal network hyperexcitability and recurrent seizures. However, dynamics of the actual excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances (ge and gi, respectively) during seizures remain unknown. To study the dynamics of E and I network balance, we calculated ge and gi during the initiation, body, and termination of seizure-like events (SLEs) in the rat hippocampus in vitro. Repetitive emergent SLEs in 4-aminopyridine (100 ?M) and reduced extracellular magnesium (0.6 mM) were recorded in the identified CA1 pyramidal cells (PC) and oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons. Calculated ge/gi ratio dynamics showed that the initiation stage of the SLEs was dominated by inhibition in the PCs and was more balanced in the O-LM cells. During the body of the SLEs, the balance shifted toward excitation, with ge and gi peaking in both cell types at nearly the same time. In the termination phase, PCs were again dominated by inhibition, whereas O-LM cells experienced persistent excitatory synaptic barrage. In this way, increased excitability of interneurons may play roles in both seizure initiation (Žiburkus J, Cressman JR, Barreto E, Schiff SJ. J Neurophysiol 95: 3948–3954, 2006) and in their termination. Overall, SLE stages can be characterized in PC and O-LM cells by dynamically distinct changes in the balance of ge and gi, where a temporal sequence of imbalance shifts with the changing firing patterns of the cellular subtypes comprising the hyperexcitable microcircuits. PMID:23221405

Cressman, John R.; Schiff, Steven J.

2013-01-01

472

Pathology Case Study: Recent Onset Seizures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This neuropathology case study, provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, is an excellent learning tool for students and instructors in the health science fields. In this case, a 12-year-old boy presents with a history of headaches, âÂÂand a recent onset of right-sided seizures followed by the loss of consciousnessâÂÂ. Visitors are shown CT scan images of the patientâÂÂs brain, along with microscopic images. The official diagnosis found in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section is accompanied by a discussion of the contributing doctorâÂÂs findings and a list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions.

Biernat, Wojciech; Liberski, P. P.; Zakrzewski, Krzysztof

2009-05-12

473

Epileptic Seizure Forewarning by Nonlinear Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Nicolet Biomedical Inc. (NBI) is collaborating with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to convert ORNL.s patented technology for forewarning of epileptic seizures to a clinical prototype. This technical report describes the highlights of the first year.s effort. The software requirements for the clinical device were specified from which the hardware specifications were obtained. ORNL's research-class FORTRAN was converted to run under a graphical user interface (GUI) that was custom-built for this application by NBI. The resulting software package was cloned to desktop computers that are being tested in five different clinical sites. Two hundred electroencephalogram (EEG) datasets from those clinical sites were provided to ORNL for detailed analysis and improvement of the forewarning methodology. Effort under this CRADA is continuing into the second year as planned.

Hively, LM

2001-02-05

474

Brain Arteriovenous Malformations and Endovascular Treatment: Effect on Seizures  

PubMed Central

Summary We report our experience in treating patients with seizures associated with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) without a clinical history of intracranial hemorrhage. Between 2001 and 2003, the neurovascular unit at Beijing Tiantan Hospital treated 109 patients with brain AVM endovascularly. Thirty patients (27.5%) experienced seizures before treatment. We studied the following factors: sex, age, AVM size, AVM location, seizure type, duration of seizure history, endovascular treatment and AVM obliteration. Clinical follow-up was via telephone interview. Thirty patients with seizure disorders due to brain AVMs were endovascularly treated. The age of the patients ranged from eight to 55 years. There were 22 males and eight females. The AVMs were smaller than 3 cm in five patients, between 3 cm and 6 cm in 22, and larger than 6 cm in three. The most frequent location of the AVMs was in the frontal, followed by the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Sixty-seven embolization procedures were performed and total obliteration was achieved in four patients. Two patients developed a hemiparesis and three suffered temporary dysphasia after embolization. Two patients had visual field deficits. There were no deaths. The results of post-embolization seizure control during the average follow-up period of 80 months were excellent in 21 patients, good in four, fair in two and poor in three. Successful seizure control can be obtained with endovascular embolization. PMID:20377978

Lv, X.; Li, Y.; Jiang, C.; Yang, X.; Wu, Z.

2010-01-01

475

Detection of seizure-like movements using a wrist accelerometer.  

PubMed

Caregivers of people with epilepsy are commonly concerned about unwitnessed seizures causing injury and even death. The goal of this study was to determine if a wrist-worn motion detector could detect tonic-clonic seizures. Individuals admitted for continuous video/EEG monitoring wore a wristwatch-size device that was programmed to detect rhythmic movements such as those that occur during tonic-clonic seizures. When such movement was detected, the device sent a Bluetooth signal to a computer that registered the time and duration of the movements. Recorded detections were compared with the routinely recorded video/EEG data. Six of 40 patients had a total of eight tonic-clonic seizures. Seven of the eight seizures were detected. Nonseizure movements were detected 204 times, with opportunity for canceling transmission by the patient. Only one false detection occurred during sleep. In principle, this device should allow caregivers of people with tonic-clonic seizures to be alerted when a seizure occurs. PMID:21450533

Lockman, Juliana; Fisher, Robert S; Olson, Donald M

2011-04-01

476

A case of seizures induced by abstract reasoning.  

PubMed

We describe a case of reflex seizures induced by abstract reasoning but not other cognitive processes. The patient, a 46-year-old man, experienced myoclonic seizures whenever he played shogi (Japanese chess). To identify the critical thought processes responsible for inducing his seizures, we monitored his clinical seizures and epileptiform discharges while he performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), spatial working memory, mental rotation, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) tasks. A myoclonic seizure occurred only during the WCST. Generalized 3- to 5-Hz spike-and-slow-wave bursts occurred repeatedly during the Block Design subtest of the WAIS-R and the WCST, whereas no discharges occurred during other subtests of the WAIS-R including the calculation, spatial working memory, and mental rotation tasks. These results indicate that abstract reasoning, independent of other cognitive processes, could induce the patient's epileptiform discharges, suggesting that his reflex seizures might be a distinct subtype of nonverbal thinking-induced seizures. PMID:20171146

Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro

2010-04-01

477

Newborn seizure detection based on heart rate variability.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigate the use of heart rate variability (HRV) for automatic newborn seizure detection. The proposed method consists of a sequence of processing steps, namely, obtaining HRV from the ECG, extracting a discriminating HRV feature set, selecting an optimal subset from the full feature set, and, finally, classifying the HRV into seizure/nonseizure using a supervised statistical classifier. Due to the fact that HRV signals are nonstationary, a set of time-frequency features from the newborn HRV is proposed and extracted. In order to achieve efficient HRV-based automatic newborn seizure detection, a two-phase wrapper-based feature selection technique is used to select the feature subset with minimum redundancy and maximum class discriminability. Tested on ECG recordings obtained from eight newborns with identified EEG seizure, the proposed HRV-based neonatal seizure detection algorithm achieved 85.7% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity. These results suggest that the HRV is sensitive to changes in the cardioregulatory system induced by the seizure, and therefore, can be used as a basis for an automatic seizure detection. PMID:19628449

Malarvili, M B; Mesbah, Mostefa

2009-11-01

478

Absent posterior alpha rhythm: An indirect indicator of seizure disorder?  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis: Absence of normal posterior alpha rhythm is an indirect indicator of seizure disorder. Materials and Methods: Study group consists of 116 child and adolescent patients in the age range of 5-17 years, with established history of seizure disorder. Follow-up cases of seizure disorder formed first comparison group, patients with a history of pseudo-seizures formed second comparison group and patients with a history of headache formed the third comparison group. Results: In significant 48.3% (56) patients within the study group there was no visible alpha rhythm. Whereas, this absent alpha rhythm criteria was seen in only 11.2% (4) patients in first and 15% (8) patients in second and in only 6.1% (2) patients in third comparison groups. Discussion: Absent alpha rhythm- a criterion seems to have a certain amount of specificity for electroencephalograms (EEGs) with seizure disorder patients. Presence of seizure activity and absence of alpha activity in EEG significantly correlated to each other (Significant at < 0.01 level). Absent alpha rhythm appears to be a state marker rather than a trait marker of seizure disorder. PMID:24574560

Aich, Tapas Kumar

2014-01-01

479

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Where Do the Seizures Really Begin?  

PubMed Central

Defining precisely the site of seizure onset has important implication for our understanding of the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy as well as for the surgical treatment of the disorder. Removal of the limbic areas of the medial temporal lobe has led to a high rate of seizure control, but the relatively large number of patients for whom seizure control is incomplete as well as the low rate of surgical cure suggest that the focus extends beyond the usual limits of surgical resection. A reevaluation of the extent of the pathology as well as new data from animal models suggest that the seizure focus extends, at least in some cases, beyond the hippocampus and amygdala that are usually removed at the time of surgery. In this review we will examine current information about the pathology and physiology of the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome, with a special emphasis on the distribution of the changes and the patterns of seizure onset. We will then propose a hypothesis for the nature of the seizure focus in this disorder and discuss its clinical implications, with the ultimate goal of improving surgical outcomes and developing nonsurgical therapies that may improve seizure control. PMID:18848643

Bertram, Edward H.

2010-01-01

480

The Role of Resting State Networks in Focal Neocortical Seizures  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of resting state functional networks in epilepsy is incompletely understood. While some pathologic diagnoses have been shown to have maintained but altered resting state connectivity, others have implicated resting state connectivity in disease progression. However little is known about how these resting state networks influence the behavior of a focal neocortical seizure. Methods Using data taken from invasively monitored patients with intractable focal neocortical epilepsy, we evaluated network connectivity (as determined by oscillatory covariance of the slow cortical potential (<0.5 Hz)) as it relates to neocortical seizure foci both in the interictal and ictal states. Results Similar to what has been shown in the past for sleep and anesthesia, electophysiologic resting state networks that are defined by this slow cortical potential covariance maintain their topographic correlation structure throughout an ictal event. Moreover, in the context of focal epilepsy in which the seizure has a specific site of onset, seizure propagation is not chaotic or random. Rather, the seizure (reflected by an elevation of high frequency power) preferentially propagates along the network that contains the seizure onset zone. Significance Taken together, these findings further undergird the fundamental role of resting state networks, provide novel insights into the network-influenced behavior of seizures, and potentially identify additional targets for surgical disconnection including informing the location for the completion of multiple subpial transections (MSPTs). PMID:25247680

Bandt, S. Kathleen; Bundy, David T.; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ayoub, Kareem W.; Sharma, Mohit; Hacker, Carl D.; Pahwa, Mrinal; Leuthardt, Eric C.

2014-01-01