Science.gov

Sample records for public health aspects

  1. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  2. The public health aspects of complex emergencies and refugee situations.

    PubMed

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1997-01-01

    Populations affected by armed conflict have experienced severe public health consequences mediated by population displacement, food scarcity, and the collapse of basic health services, giving rise to the term complex humanitarian emergencies. These public health effects have been most severe in underdeveloped countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Refugees and internally displaced persons have experienced high mortality rates during the period immediately following their migration. In Africa, crude mortality rates have been as high as 80 times baseline rates. The most common causes of death have been diarrheal diseases, measles, acute respiratory infections, and malaria. High prevalences of acute malnutrition have contributed to high case fatality rates. In conflict-affected European countries, such as the former Yugoslavia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Chechnya, war-related injuries have been the most common cause of death among civilian populations; however, increased incidence of communicable diseases, neonatal health problems, and nutritional deficiencies (especially among the elderly) have been documented. The most effective measures to prevent mortality and morbidity in complex emergencies include protection from violence; the provision of adequate food rations, clean water and sanitation; diarrheal disease control; measles immunization; maternal and child health care, including the case management of common endemic communicable diseases; and selective feeding programs, when indicated. PMID:9143721

  3. Public health aspects of mental health: the last 75 years of the American Journal of Public Health.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C L; Westermeyer, J

    1985-01-01

    The American Journal of Public Health has reflected the relationship of public health to the field of mental health over its 75-year history. The earliest volumes of the Journal addressed movements and concerns within public mental health. Quantitative analysis of mental health articles shows wide fluctuations over the last 75 years, probably due to variations in federal funding for mental health research. Topical emphases in the Journal have included social issues and improved mental health, the contributions of epidemiological studies, and technological advances in prevention and treatment. PMID:3890568

  4. Public health aspects of nuclear and radiological incidents.

    PubMed

    Katz, Seth K; Parrillo, Steven J; Christensen, Doran; Glassman, Erik S; Gill, Kimberly B

    2014-01-01

    Radiological and nuclear incidents are low probability but very high risk events. Measures can be, and have been, implemented to limit or prevent the impact on the public. Preparedness, however, remains the key to minimizing morbidity and mortality. Incidents may be related to hospital-based mis-administration of radiation in interventional radiology or nuclear medicine, industrial or nuclear power plant accidents. Safety and security measures are in place to prevent or mitigate such events. Despite efforts to prevent them, terrorist-perpetrated incidents with, for example, a radiological dispersal device (RDD) are also possible. Due to a misunderstanding of, or lack of, formal education regarding things in this realm, there can be considerable anxiety, even fear, about radiation-related incidents. Multiple studies evaluating healthcare provider willingness to report to work rank radiation as the hazard that will keep the largest number of workers at home. Even incidents that do not constitute a disaster can spiral out of control quite rapidly, placing considerable demands on community resources. Our communities will face these threats in the future and it is the responsibility of physicians and allied healthcare personnel to be trained and ready to care for those affected. The scope of resources needed to prepare for and respond to such incidents is indeed vast. It encompasses the coordinated effort of first responders and physicians, the preparedness of national agencies involved in responding to such events, and individual community cooperation and solidarity. This article reviews the approach to the short- and long-term effects of a radiological or nuclear incident on an affected population, with a specific focus on the medical and public health issues. It also summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of our current ability to respond effectively and makes recommendations to improve these capabilities. PMID:25348384

  5. [Therapy of erectile dysfunction--public health aspects].

    PubMed

    Junuzović, Dzelaludin; Mehmedbasić, Senad; Aganović, Damir; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED)--the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain and/or maintain, a penile erection sufficient for sexual performance--is a common health condition among men that is largely untreated. It is estimated that some degree of ED affects more than one half of all men over the age of 40--152 million men worldwide. That is a big problem, that needs appropriate treatment. After diagnostic evaluation of the patient, doctor decides what is the best treatment option for the patient, following his health condition. Choice of treatment options: physio-sexual therapy, oral drug therapy, topical drug therapy, transurethral drug therapy, intracavernosal therapy, hormonal treatment, vacuum devices and surgery. Nowadays the most important contemporary treatments of ED are peroral sildenafil and intracavernosal pharmacotherapy using vasoactive medicines. However, these drugs are not suitable to every patient. More noninvasive methods to treat ED, such as oral medication or locally applicable preparations are needed. PMID:15077460

  6. Psychologists in public health: Historical aspects and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Neto, João L; Henriques, Mariana A

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the historical context of the insertion of psychology, as a profession, in health policies in Brazil, in order to understand its current challenges. Analysis was based on a non-systematic literature review about professional training, practice, and research in psychology. Three challenges were identified: working in high social vulnerability contexts, practice in multidisciplinary teams and the need to expand the research agenda. We conclude that dealing with these challenges will depend on the area's capacity to reinvent itself and become more permeable to interdisciplinary dialogue. PMID:26987823

  7. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  8. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

  9. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE): BACKGROUND AND AIR QUALITY ASPECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with the New York State Departments of Health and Environmental Conservation. The PHASE project is a ...

  10. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values. PMID:26241514

  11. Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.

    PubMed

    Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement. PMID:21866179

  12. Psychosocial and Health Aspects of Drug Use by Students in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Mutiso, Victoria; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A.; Kokonya, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of family, psychosocial, health, demographic, and behavioral characteristics on regular drug use. All the students of 17 randomly stratified public secondary schools in Nairobi were required to complete self-administered sociodemographic and the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R)…

  13. Microbiological aspects of public health planning and preparedness for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Moran-Gilad, J; Chand, M; Brown, C; Shetty, N; Morris, G; Green, J; Jenkins, C; Ling, C; McLauchlin, J; Harrison, T; Goddard, N; Brown, K; Bolton, F J; Zambon, M

    2012-12-01

    Although communicable diseases have hitherto played a small part in illness associated with Olympic Games, an outbreak of infection in a national team, Games venue or visiting spectators has the potential to disrupt a global sporting event and distract from the international celebration of athletic excellence. Preparation for hosting the Olympic Games includes implementation of early warning systems for detecting emerging infection problems. Ensuring capability for rapid microbiological diagnoses to inform situational risk assessments underpins the ability to dispel rumours. These are a prelude to control measures to minimize impact of any outbreak of infectious disease at a time of intense public scrutiny. Complex multidisciplinary teamwork combined with laboratory technical innovation and efficient information flows underlie the Health Protection Agency's preparation for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. These will deliver durable legacies for clinical and public health microbiology, outbreak investigation and control in the coming years. PMID:22892344

  14. Katrina and the Thai Tsunami - water quality and public health aspects mitigation and research needs.

    PubMed

    Englande, A J

    2008-12-01

    The South East Asian Tsunami in Thailand and Hurricane Katrina in the United States were natural disasters of different origin but of similar destruction and response. Both disasters exhibited synonymous health outcomes and similar structural damage from large surges of water, waves, and flooding. A systematic discussion and comparison of the disasters in Thailand and the Gulf Coast considers both calamities to be similar types of disaster in different coastal locations. Thus valuable comparisons can be made for improvements in response, preparedness and mitigation. Research needs are discussed and recommendations made regarding potential methologies. Recommendations are made to: (1) improve disaster response time in terms of needs assessments for public health and environmental data collection; (2) develop an access-oriented data sharing policy; and (3) prioritize natural geomorphic structures such as barrier islands, mangroves, and wetlands to help reduce the scale of future natural disasters. Based on the experiences gained opportunities to enhance disaster preparedness through research are presented. PMID:19151433

  15. Katrina and the Thai Tsunami - Water Quality and Public Health Aspects Mitigation and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Englande, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The South East Asian Tsunami in Thailand and Hurricane Katrina in the United States were natural disasters of different origin but of similar destruction and response. Both disasters exhibited synonymous health outcomes and similar structural damage from large surges of water, waves, and flooding. A systematic discussion and comparison of the disasters in Thailand and the Gulf Coast considers both calamities to be similar types of disaster in different coastal locations. Thus valuable comparisons can be made for improvements in response, preparedness and mitigation. Research needs are discussed and recommendations made regarding potential methologies. Recommendations are made to: (1) improve disaster response time in terms of needs assessments for public health and environmental data collection; (2) develop an access-oriented data sharing policy; and (3) prioritize natural geomorphic structures such as barrier islands, mangroves, and wetlands to help reduce the scale of future natural disasters. Based on the experiences gained opportunities to enhance disaster preparedness through research are presented. PMID:19151433

  16. Public health aspects of snakebite care in West Africa: perspectives from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdulrazaq G

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated by amputation, blindness, disability, disfigurement, mutilation, tissue destruction and psychological consequences. Antivenom remains the hallmark and mainstay of envenoming management while studies in Nigeria confirm its protection of over 80% against mortality from carpet-viper bites. However, the availability, distribution and utilization of antivenom remain challenging although two new antivenoms (monospecific EchiTab G and trispecific EchiTab ICP-Plus) derived from Nigerian snake venoms have proven very effective and safe in clinical trials. A hub-and-spoke strategy is suggested for broadening antivenom access to endemic rural areas together with instituting quality assurance, standardization and manpower training. With the advent of antivenomics, national health authorities must be aided in selecting and purchasing antivenoms appropriate to their national needs while manufacturers should be helped in practical ways to improve the safety, efficacy and potential coverage against snake venoms and pricing of their products. PMID:24134780

  17. Public health aspects of snakebite care in West Africa: perspectives from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated by amputation, blindness, disability, disfigurement, mutilation, tissue destruction and psychological consequences. Antivenom remains the hallmark and mainstay of envenoming management while studies in Nigeria confirm its protection of over 80% against mortality from carpet-viper bites. However, the availability, distribution and utilization of antivenom remain challenging although two new antivenoms (monospecific EchiTab G and trispecific EchiTab ICP-Plus) derived from Nigerian snake venoms have proven very effective and safe in clinical trials. A hub-and-spoke strategy is suggested for broadening antivenom access to endemic rural areas together with instituting quality assurance, standardization and manpower training. With the advent of antivenomics, national health authorities must be aided in selecting and purchasing antivenoms appropriate to their national needs while manufacturers should be helped in practical ways to improve the safety, efficacy and potential coverage against snake venoms and pricing of their products. PMID:24134780

  18. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kassiri, Hamid; Amani, Hamid; Lotfi, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary. PMID:23905014

  19. Public Health Aspects of the Family Medicine Concepts in South Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Miran; Donev, Doncho; Pollhozani, Azis; Ramadani, Naser; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Roshi, Enver; Zunic, Lejla; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family medicine as a part of the primary health care is devoted to provide continuous and comprehensive health care to the individuals and families regardless of age, gender, types of diseases and affected system or part of the body. Special emphasis in such holistic approach is given to the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Family Medicine is the first step/link between doctors and patients within patients care as well as regular inspections/examinations and follow-up of the health status of healthy people. Most countries aspire to join the European Union and therefore adopting new regulations that are applied in the European Union. Aim: The aim of this study is to present the role and importance of family medicine, or where family medicine is today in 21 Century from the beginning of development in these countries. The study is designed as a descriptive epidemiological study with data from 10 countries of the former Communist bloc, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, just about half of them are members of the EU. We examined the following variables: socio-organizational indicators, health and educational indicators and health indicators. The data used refer to 2002 and as a source of data are used official data from reference WebPages of family medicine doctors associations, WONCA website (EURACT, EQuiP, EGPRN), WebPages of Bureau of Statistics of the countries where the research was conducted as well as the Ministries of Health. Results: Results indicates that the failures and shortcomings of health care organizations in Southeast Europe. Lack of money hinders the implementation of health care reform in all mentioned countries, the most of them that is more oriented to Bismarck financing system. Problems in the political, legal and economic levels are obstacles for efficient a problem reconstructing health care system toward

  20. Public Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earth observations can be used to address human health concerns in many ways: projecting occurrence of disease or disease outbreaks; rapid detection and tracking of events; construction of risk maps; targeting interventions; and enhancing knowledge of human health-environment int...

  1. Public health incident management: Logistical and operational aspects of the 2009 initial outbreak of H1N1 influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel A; Hawk, Nicole M; Poulet, Christopher; Rovira, Jose; Rouse, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Hosting an international outbreak response team can pose a challenge to jurisdictions not familiar with incident management frameworks. Basic principles of team forming, organizing, and executing mission critical activities require simple and flexible communication that can be easily understood by the host country's public health leadership and international support agencies. Familiarity with incident command system principles before a public health emergency could save time and effort during the initial phases of the response and aid in operationalizing and sustaining complex field activities throughout the response. The 2009 initial outbreak of H1N1 in Mexico highlighted the importance of adequately organizing and managing limited resources and expertise using incident management principles. This case study describes logistical and operational aspects of the response and highlights challenges faced during this response that may be relevant to the organization of public health responses and incidents requiring international assistance and cooperation. PMID:27149316

  2. Public health incident management: logistical and operational aspects of the 2009 initial outbreak of H1N1 influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel A; Hawk, Nicole M; Poulet, Christopher; Rovira, Jose; Rouse, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Hosting an international outbreak response team can pose a challenge to jurisdictions not familiar with incident management frameworks. Basic principles of team forming, organizing, and executing mission critical activities require simple and flexible communication that can be easily understood by the host country's public health leadership and international support agencies. Familiarity with incident command system principles before a public health emergency could save time and effort during the initial phases of the response and aid in operationalizing and sustaining complex field activities throughout the response. The 2009 initial outbreak of H1N1 in Mexico highlighted the importance of adequately organizing and managing limited resources and expertise using incident management principles. This case study describes logistical and operational aspects of the response and highlights challenges faced during this response that may be relevant to the organization of public health responses and incidents requiring international assistance and cooperation. PMID:25779901

  3. National survey on cholecystectomy related bile duct injury--public health and financial aspects in Belgian hospitals--1997.

    PubMed

    Van de Sande, St; Bossens, M; Parmentier, Y; Gigot, J F

    2003-04-01

    Public health and financial aspects of cholecystectomy related bile duct injury (BDI) are highlighted in a National Cholecystectomy Survey carried out through 'datamining' the Federal State Medical Records Summaries and Financial Summaries of all Belgian hospitals in 1997. All cancer diagnoses, children < or = 10 years, cholecystectomies performed as an abdominal co-procedure or patients having undergone other non-related surgery were excluded from the study. 10.595 laparoscopic (LC) and 1.033 open cholecystectomies (OC) as well as 137 secondary BDI treatments (LC/OC) were included in the survey (total 11.765). Both LC and OC groups turned out to be significantly different as to distribution of patient's age and APR-DRG severity classes. Composite criteria in terms of ICD-9-CM and billing codes were elaborated to classify: 1) primary, intra-operatively detected and treated BDI (N = 30), 2) primary delayed BDI treatments (N = 38), 3) secondary BDI treatments (N = 137), 4) non-BDI abdomino-surgical complications (N = 119), 4) uneventful laparoscopic (N = 7.476) and 5) uneventful open cholecystectomy (N = 681). Complication rates, community costs of LC and OC groups, incidence of preoperative ERCP and/or intra-operative cholangiography as well as interventions for complications were studied. Incidence of cholecystectomy related BDI was 0.37% in LC, 2.81% in OC and 0.58% overall. Average costs amounted to [symbol: see text] 1.721 for uneventful LC, [symbol: see text] 2.924 for uneventful OC, [symbol: see text] 7.250 for primary, intra-operatively detected and immediately treated BDI [symbol: see text] 9.258 for primary delayed BDI treatments, [symbol: see text] 6.076 for secondary BDI treatments and [symbol: see text] 10.363 for non-BDI abdomino-surgical complications. In conclusion BDI with cholecystectomy reveals to be a serious complication increasing the overall average cost factor ninefold if not detected intra-operatively, in which case the raise is only fourfold

  4. Key aspects of a Flemish system to safeguard public health interests in case of chemical release incidents.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Roel; Colles, Ann; Cornelis, Christa; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Chovanova, Hana; Wildemeersch, Dirk; Mampaey, Maja; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Although well-established protocols are available for emergency services and first-responders in case of chemical release incidents, a well-developed system to monitor and safeguard public health was, until recently, lacking in Flanders. We therefore developed a decision support system (DSS) to aid public health officials in identifying the appropriate actions in case of incidents. Although the DSS includes human biomonitoring as one of its key instruments, it also goes well beyond this instrument alone. Also other, complementary, approaches that focus more on effect assessment using in vitro toxicity testing, indirect exposures through the food chain, and parallel means of data collection (e.g. through ecosurveillance or public consultation), are integrated in the Flemish approach. Even though the DSS is set up to provide a flexible and structured decision tree, the value of expert opinion is deemed essential to account for the many uncertainties associated with the early phases of technological incidents. When the DSS and the associated instruments will be fully operational, it will provide a valuable addition to the already available protocols, and will specifically safeguard public health interests. PMID:24866056

  5. The anti-tobacco campaign of the Nazis: a little known aspect of public health in Germany, 1933-45.

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, R. N.

    1996-01-01

    Historians and epidemiologists have only recently begun to explore the Nazi anti-tobacco movement. Germany had the world's strongest antismoking movement in the 1930s and early 1940s, encompassing bans on smoking in public spaces, bans on advertising, restrictions on tobacco rations for women, and the world's most refined tobacco epidemiology, linking tobacco use with the already evident epidemic of lung cancer. The anti-tobacco campaign must be understood against the backdrop of the Nazi quest for racial and bodily purity, which also motivated many other public health efforts of the era. Images p1451-a PMID:8973234

  6. The anti-tobacco campaign of the Nazis: a little known aspect of public health in Germany, 1933-45.

    PubMed

    Proctor, R N

    1996-12-01

    Historians and epidemiologists have only recently begun to explore the Nazi anti-tobacco movement. Germany had the world's strongest antismoking movement in the 1930s and early 1940s, encompassing bans on smoking in public spaces, bans on advertising, restrictions on tobacco rations for women, and the world's most refined tobacco epidemiology, linking tobacco use with the already evident epidemic of lung cancer. The anti-tobacco campaign must be understood against the backdrop of the Nazi quest for racial and bodily purity, which also motivated many other public health efforts of the era. PMID:8973234

  7. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health? Creating Healthy Communities Topics & Issues Gun Violence Climate Change Environmental Health Generation Public Health Health Equity Health ... all about it > APHA Webinars Making the Connection: Climate Changes Health Join APHA and ecoAmerica for this series ...

  8. Twitter and public health.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use. PMID:24356087

  9. [Nutritional health aspects of mycotoxins].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Melinda

    2004-08-22

    Mycotoxins produced by mould fungi can enter into the human food chain directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains), consumer goods (coffee and bear) and indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk and eggs). Mycotoxins occur in small amount in the foods; however their continuous intake even in microdoses can result in accumulation in the organism. Synergic effects of the mycotoxins as well as their possible additive multi-toxic effects seem to be especially dangerous. Mycotoxin problems are very important in Hungary because these natural toxins occur mainly in those cereals (e.g. wheat, maize) that amount to high proportion of the sowing area in Hungary and provide the main foods to the inhabitants. Public health risks of the toxins accumulating in the human and animal bodies during the long term consumption of the mycotoxins containing foods--even in small doses--have not been evaluated yet as thoroughly as their importance would require. However, there are more and more direct and indirect expressions of the danger resulting from the toxins. The most frequently observed human health effects are carcinogen effects (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, patulin); effects causing developmental abnormalities (zearalenon, ochratoxin); effects harmful to the reproduction (zearalenon, and trichotecenes), effects decreasing the resistance; immunosuppressive effects (trichotecenes), and effects causing injury of the nervous system (ochratoxin A, fumonisins). Prevention of the injury of the health caused by mycotoxins can be completed by joint and integrated activity of the various disciplines only and requires a comprehensive interdisciplinary cooperation. This paper gives a discussion on health injuring effects of the most frequently occurring mycotoxins that are very important from human health aspects in Hungary; on their occurrence in the foods and on their human risk. PMID:15493122

  10. Reinventing public health.

    PubMed

    Lee, P; Paxman, D

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is a review of the current state of public health in light of the social, political, economic, scientific, and technological changes buffeting the United States. As an assessment of progress in current public health efforts, we address the five major issues in public health for the 1990s raised by Breslow (8): reconstruction of public health; setting objectives for public health; from disease control to health promotion; determinants of health and health policy; continuing social inequities and their impacts on health; and the health implications of accelerating developments in technology. Finally, we look to the twenty-first century and provide five clear paths necessary to strengthen the capacity of public health agencies to protect and improve the health status of the population. PMID:9143710

  11. Training Public Health Advisors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pamela A.; Brusuelas, Kristin M.; Baden, Daniel J.; Duncan, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management. PMID:25564995

  12. Training Public Health Advisors.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management. PMID:25564995

  13. [Public health and public health systems sustainability].

    PubMed

    Repullo Labrador, José R; Segura Benedicto, Andreu

    2006-01-01

    Public health and healthcare originally started out separately from one another in the past, having later further developed taking different paths in modern times. The major development the health systems underwent in the last half of the 20th century entailed a heightening of the individual standpoint and a division of these two approaches despite the attempts made to bring them together as of the WHO Alma-Ata Conference in 1978. The waning of rationalism and other social phenomena had a hand the collective or population-oriented focus being focused on to a lesser degree in Public Health, but these trends also gave rise to a growing problem of rationality in individual healthcare and sustainability in the public health systems. The debate on the current scene stands to set out the sustainability-related problems mediated by internal and external agents and to revise Public Health's possible contribution to the improvement thereof by advocating yet a further attempt at bringing together and integrating these two diverging standpoints. PMID:17193811

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  15. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Donald

    2014-01-01

    There are significant shortages in the public health workforce and it's expected to worsen. Efforts to reduce this shortage are varied and include building the workforce by increasing exposure of students and young professionals in applied public health experiences. Providing these experiences increases productivity, and may help alleviate some of the workforce shortages in public health. This article seeks to highlight the work done at the Family Health Services Division (FHSD) in the Hawai‘i Department of Health over the past 6 and half years in working with students in epidemiology practicum and fellowship experiences. PMID:24660128

  16. What Ails Public Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcabes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Public health, once the gem of American social programs, has turned to dross. During the 20th century, the public-health sector wiped smallpox and polio off the U.S. map; virtually eliminated rickets, rubella, and goiter; stopped epidemic typhoid and yellow fever; and brought tuberculosis--once the leading cause of death in U.S. cities--under…

  17. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection. PMID:25439251

  18. Training Public Health Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Paul; And Others

    Funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity and carried out in Springfield, Massachusetts, during 1965-67, this training project sought to meet employment needs of disadvantaged high school graduates, the shortage of health professionals, and the need to improve and coordinate professional public health services. It combined a half-time,…

  19. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Canyon, Deon V

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of health systems is fundamental to improving health outcomes, crisis preparedness, and our capacity to meet global challenges, such as accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, reducing maternal and child mortality, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases, limiting the effects of a new influenza pandemic, and responding appropriately to climate change. To meet these complex needs, the Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health, the World Health Organization, and the Institute of Medicine promote systems thinking as the only sensible means to respond to issues that greatly exceed the normal capacity of health and medical services. This paper agrees with the application of systems thinking but argues that health organizations have misunderstood and misapplied systems thinking to the extent that the term has become meaningless. This paper presents the basic constructs of systems thinking, explains why systems thinking has been misapplied, examines some misapplications of systems thinking in health, and suggests how the concept can be applied correctly to medicine and public health to achieve the reason it was adopted in the first place. PMID:24377080

  20. Strengthening public health practice content in public health training.

    PubMed

    Gellert, G A

    1996-01-01

    U.S. schools of public health have recognized the imperative to strengthen the public health practice content of training for future public health practitioners. Five strategies to develop administrative and curriculum programs within schools of public health to address this need are described: (1) institution of centers for public health program evaluation; (2) creation of automated field placement and apprenticeship programs; (3) formalization of linkages with professional management training programs to create a track for future senior managers of community health agencies; (4) establishment of cross-departmental applied public health faculty tracks; and (5) offering applied public health evaluation scholarships for students. These initiatives may provide incentives for the institution of a public health practice focus within schools of public health. PMID:10186683

  1. Transforming Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    ALDOUS, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Historical assessments of the Occupation’s efforts to tackle enteric diseases (cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid and dysentery) have generally reflected a celebratory narrative of US-inspired public health reforms, strongly associated with the head of the Public Health and Welfare Section, Crawford F. Sams. Close inspection of the documentary record, however, reveals much greater continuity with pre-war Japanese public health practices than has hitherto been acknowledged. Indeed, there are strong grounds for disputing American claims of novelty and innovation in such areas as immunisation, particularly in relation to typhoid vaccine, and environmental sanitation, where disparaging comments about the careless use of night soil and a reluctance to control flies and other disease vectors reveal more about the politics of public health reform than the reality of pre-war practices. Likewise, the representation of American-inspired sanitary teams as clearly distinct from and far superior to traditional sanitary associations (eisei kumiai) was closer to propaganda than an accurate rendering of past and present developments. PMID:19048809

  2. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  3. Globalisation and public health.

    PubMed

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health. PMID:11801614

  4. Nanotechnology and public health.

    PubMed

    Matsudai, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    Nanotechnology is developing very quickly, and Japan is in many respects leading the world in this convergence of nanoscale engineering techniques. The public health community in Japan must start to think about the public health impacts of nanotechnology over the next 20 years. The responsibility for the benefits and the harms of nanotechnology lies with government, with corporations and the business community, with scientists and specialists in all related fields, and with NPOs and the public. There are very many questions of public health which are not yet being asked about nanotechnology. If nanoparticles are to be used in cosmetics, food production and packaging, how will they react or interact with the human skin and organs? What chemical-toxic effects on life might there be from the nanoparticles in car tires and vehicle plastic mouldings when they are disposed of by incineration? Will they pass into the soil and groundwater and enter into the food-chain? It is now an urgent ethical demand, based on the precautionary principle, that Japan join the governments of the world to take an intergovernmental initiative to intervene in the further development, production and marketing of nanotechnological products with precautionary research and regulation. PMID:16408476

  5. [Public health and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Papart, Jean-pierre

    2014-03-19

    The paper questions the legitimacy and relevance of a potential emergence of any public health policies relating to sexology, as they exist for most of the major medical issues. It discusses the two major areas of intervention of sexology namely problems related to access to pleasure on the one hand, violence, abuse and other sexual perversions on the other hand. The legitimacy and relevance of public health policy to prevent the latter, i.e. sexual violence cannot be questioned. However, interventions to promote erotic skills are beyond the role and responsibility of the State but can be assigned to the civil society, especially community associations engaged in culture, solidarity and the promotion of social links in general. PMID:24734361

  6. Geomatics and public health.

    PubMed

    Jaishankar, R; Jhonson, C P

    2006-01-01

    Geomatics technology has tremendous potential to address public health issues particularly under the present circumstances of global climate change and climate or technology induced human migration, which result in an increase in the geographical extent and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases. The authors present an overview of the science of geomatics, describe the potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases and review the applications of remote sensing for disease vector surveillance. PMID:17193755

  7. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  8. [Maternal and infant health services and the public health clinic].

    PubMed

    Urasaki, S

    1986-11-01

    The public health clinic under the jurisdiction of prefectural government should continue to play a major role in maternal-child health services. Ministry of Health's revision plan for Maternal-child Health Law, according to which maternal-child health services are to be transferred totally to municipal (city-town-village) government, is strongly opposed by public health nurses and others. The plan goes against the current movement and effort to revitalize public health clinics, where more 50% of services rendered are maternal-child health related. Secondly, municipal health centers would have much more difficulty providing quality services than prefectural public health clinics which receive annual federal aid for their operation. Federal funding for maternal-child health care, regardless of jurisdictions, is currently 1/3 of standard unit cost. Extreme financial strain on municipal governments would result in regional differences in the quality of services and/or eventual financial burden on the patients. While the national government is trying to emphasize administrative aspects of the public health clinic, it is ordinary citizens' day to day health problems that people expect the clinic to deal with, individually, via check-ups, health counseling, home visits, public health education and telephone health hot line. PMID:3642046

  9. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Victoria Y; Le‘au, Ruth Faioso

    2015-01-01

    Independent and American Samoa have a shared cultural, genetic, ethnolinguistic, and historical background but have been politically separated since 1899. In this essay, we examine the health of these two polities and identify two key health patterns that have emerged even as American Samoa has achieved a higher per capita income than Independent Samoa. Whereas the gender gap in life expectancy at birth has narrowed in Independent Samoa, this gap has not narrowed in American Samoa and its male life expectancy now lags behind that of Independent Samoa. Neonatal mortality rates in American Samoa are slightly higher than in Independent Samoa. These patterns may be linked to the higher rates of obesity and urbanization observed in American Samoa compared to Independent Samoa, as well as the differing political and institutional arrangements of the two polities. Limited data remains a persistent challenge to conducting analysis of public health in the Pacific islands, particularly in American Samoa. PMID:26019989

  10. Public Health Nursing Staff Health Education Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terence R.; And Others

    Health education attitudes toward prevention, detection, and treatment of selected chronic diseases and conditions confronting public health nursing staffs were investigated at a Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services District, which is composed of 16 county public health units (CPHU). Findings were used to determine type of…

  11. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations. PMID:27084442

  12. Evolution and public health

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Evolution and its elements of natural selection, population migration, genetic drift, and founder effects have shaped the world in which we practice public health. Human cultures and technologies have modified life on this planet and have coevolved with myriad other species, including microorganisms; plant and animal sources of food; invertebrate vectors of disease; and intermediate hosts among birds, mammals, and nonhuman primates. Molecular mechanisms of differential resistance or susceptibility to infectious agents or diets have evolved and are being discovered with modern methods. Some of these evolutionary relations require a perspective of tens of thousands of years, whereas other changes are observable in real time. The implications and applications of evolutionary understanding are important to our current programs and policies for infectious disease surveillance, gene–environment interactions, and health disparities globally. PMID:19966311

  13. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, D Kaulana; Robertson, N Tod; Hayes, Donald K

    2014-01-01

    ) parental resilience, (5) social and emotional competence of children, and (6) concrete supports for parents. This article provides an introduction to the HHVN as a diverse network of evidence-based home visiting programs with services currently available on all islands, and highlights aspects of home visiting programs that support the Family-Centered Medical Home (FCMH) model. The HHVN provides important services to families at risk and uses evidence-based practices to yield positive results. Health care professionals can support this network to promote the health of children and families by being aware that these home visiting services exist and encouraging families at-risk to participate. Continued collaboration and expanded partnerships with health providers can help strengthen the home visiting network and improve outcomes for children and families in Hawai‘i. PMID:24843840

  14. [Public health and private decisions].

    PubMed

    Karsenty, S

    1995-03-01

    The violent reactions of some members of the intellectual class with regard to certain political aspects of the fight against smoking oblige us to pose the general problem of the legitimacy of centralised public health decisions. There are three sources of legitimacy for intervention by public authorities: the existence of an externality (the risk that each imposes on the other by his or her behaviour); the invisibility of the risk in the eyes of non-professionals; the technical impossibility of individual protection against the risk. The unequal distribution of risk could be a fourth criteria of legitimate public action but one can also consider inequity as an automatic consequence of the existence of one or more of the first three conditions when they concern the less educated, less affluent, and less influential. The "hygiene" period of preventive policy, at the end of the 19th Century in Europe, corresponds to the strong externalities because of the contagiousness of infectious diseases and the patient inability to treat them in the curative domain. On the other hand, the ability to appreciate the risks, reflecting significant social differences, seems inversely proportional to the expectations of individuals toward the State. The demand for the liberty to protect oneself from health risks is all the stronger when individuals have the cognitive and material means to effectively do so. The fight against smoking thus must constantly update the external negative effects of smoking and the setbacks in curing the ill that it creates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7749645

  15. Feminism and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

  16. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai‘i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public. PMID:26279966

  17. [Public health: an interdisciplinary challenge].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F

    1993-01-01

    Presented as an opening lecture of the new postgraduate education programme of both the Technical and the Free University of Berlin, sponsored by the German Federal Minister of Research and Technology, this lecture recalls the foundation of the first School of Public Health (The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Md., USA) by William Henry Welch, 75 years ago. Already in this early experience, several central topics of Public Health can be traced back: for instance the exact description of health problems of total population groups, the aetiological understanding of health problems as well as the transfer of knowledge in public health programmes. After a definition of the Public Health concept both in- and outside Germany, the article reviews three examples of core topics of Public Health. Drawing on results from the first report "Health of Zurich", applications of descriptive epidemiology for both priority finding in Public Health as well as aetiological research are illustrated. The second example, with data from a recent representative survey of adults swiss germans on the issue of discrimination against persons infected with HIV draws attention to the central importance of social sciences within Public Health. Finally, the third example discusses recent advances in health services research, including issues of health economics, an other important part of an interdisciplinary Public Health understanding. PMID:8451865

  18. Nutritional aspects of bone health.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, René

    2014-12-01

    Bone mass, geometry and microstructure, and bony tissue material level properties determine bone strength, hence the resistance to fracture. At a given age, all these variables are the consequence of the amount accumulated and of the structure developed during growth, up to the so-called peak bone mass, and of the bone loss and microstructure degradation occurring later in life. Genetic factors primarily contribute to the variance of the determinants of bone strength. Nutritional intakes are environmental factors that influence both processes, either directly by modifying modelling and remodelling, or indirectly through changes in calcitropic hormone secretion and action. Some effects of nutrition on the offspring bone could take place during foetal life. There are interplays between genetic factors, nutritional intakes and physical exercise. Among the nutrients, sufficient dietary intakes of calcium and protein are necessary for bone health in childhood and adolescence as well as later in life. PMID:25432353

  19. Health aspects of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J T

    1988-09-01

    Recent studies of vegetarian diets and their effects on morbidity and mortality are reviewed. Vegetarian diets are heterogeneous as are their effects on nutritional status, health, and longevity. Mortality rates are similar or lower for vegetarians than for nonvegetarians. Risks of dietary deficiency disease are increased on vegan but not on all vegetarian diets. Evidence for decreased risks for certain chronic degenerative diseases varies. Both vegetarian dietary and lifestyle practices are involved. Data are strong that vegetarians are at lesser risk for obesity, atonic constipation, lung cancer, and alcoholism. Evidence is good that risks for hypertension, coronary artery disease, type II diabetes, and gallstones are lower. Data are only fair to poor that risks of breast cancer, diverticular disease of the colon, colonic cancer, calcium kidney stones, osteoporosis, dental erosion, and dental caries are lower among vegetarians. Reduced risks for chronic degenerative diseases can also be achieved by manipulations of omnivorous diets and lifestyles. PMID:3046302

  20. Health aspects of Antarctic tourism.

    PubMed

    Prociv, P

    1998-12-01

    Increasing numbers of seaborne tourists are visiting Antarctica, with most coming from the United States (3503 in 1996-97), Germany (777), and Australia (680; cf. 356 in 1994-95 and 410 in 1995-96). The impression among travel medicine clinicians is that, each year, more prospective travelers seek advice about the health demands of this type of adventure, mostly relating to fitness for travel, exposure to extreme cold, hazards in ice and snow, and other potential health risks. This is a recent phenomenon. While a regular shipping service had been established between the Falklands and the subantarctic islands of South Georgia and the South Shetlands by 1924, the first documented tourists accompanied an Argentine expedition to the South Orkneys in 1933.1 Commercial airline flights over these islands and the Antarctic Peninsula began in 1956, from Chile, and recreational cruises to the Peninsula began in 1958. Tourist numbers subsequently grew slowly, for what was clearly an exclusive and very expensive undertaking, with few ships available for these hazardous voyages. From 1957 to 1993, 37,000 tourists visited by sea, most seeing only the Peninsula.2 The dramatic recent growth in numbers is a consequence of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The small fleet of ice-strengthened research vessels and working icebreakers, which was made redundant by withdrawal of central government support from isolated communities and military activities along the northern coast of Siberia (and from Antarctic research bases), now accounts for the bulk of charter-cruise tourism to Antarctica, at competitive prices. According to the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators,3 7322 people traveled to Antarctica on commercially organized voyages in the 1996-97 season, and a record 10,000 shipborne visitors were expected for the 1997-98 season (November-March), traveling mainly from South America to the Peninsula on 15 ice-reinforced vessels, each carrying between 36 and 180

  1. Public Health 101 for Informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Denise; O'Carroll, Patrick; LaVenture, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Public health is a complex discipline that has contributed substantially to improving the health of the population. Public health action involves a variety of interventions and methods, many of which are now taken for granted by the general public. The specific focus and nature of public health interventions continue to evolve, but the fundamental principles of public health remain stable. These principles include a focus on the health of the population rather than of individuals; an emphasis on disease prevention rather than treatment; a goal of intervention at all vulnerable points in the causal pathway of disease, injury, or disability; and operation in a governmental rather than a private context. Public health practice occurs at local, state, and federal levels and involves various professional disciplines. Public health principles and practice are illustrated by a case study example of neural tube defects and folic acid. The application of information science and technology in public health practice provides previously unfathomed opportunities to improve the health of the population. Clinical informaticians and others in the health care system are crucial partners in addressing the challenges and opportunities offered by public health informatics. PMID:11687565

  2. Public health and media advocacy.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns. PMID:24328989

  3. Public Health Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report documents issues related to the work of the Florida Comprehensive Health Professions Education Plan. Public health education prepares students for initial employment or advancement in a number of positions. While the public health work force is primarily employed in various units in local, state, and federal governments, industry also…

  4. Public health challenges for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2014-01-01

    The effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service. Every human being has the right to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health," which can be fulfilled by giving every man an affordable and equitable health system he deserves and demands. In these years, complex health changes have complicated the situation in India. Most important gaps in the health care include an understanding of the burden of the disease and what leads to and causes ill health, the availability and use of appropriate technology in the management of disease, ill health and health systems that have an impact on service delivery. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has the potential to increase economic growth, improve educational opportunities, reduce impoverishment and inequalities, and foster social cohesion. Steps taken for achieving UHC will address the public health challenges and vice versa. PMID:25116820

  5. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. PMID:22118142

  6. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  7. Mental health and psychosocial support aspects in disaster preparedness: Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Lumeshor; Upadhya, Kapil Dev; Kortmann, Frank

    2006-12-01

    To improve mental health care in Nepal, a National Mental Health Policy, Strategy and Plan of Action was approved by the Government in 1997. Nepal has high vulnerability to natural disasters compounded by a prolonged violent civil conflict affecting almost all districts of the country. Floods, landslides and earthquakes are the most regularly occurring disasters in Nepal. There is a Health Sector Emergency and Disaster Response Plan of the Ministry of Health, but mental health and psychosocial relief is not adequately addressed in this plan. In 2003 guidelines on best public health practices in emergencies for district health workers was developed in which the minimum standard and indicators include aspects of mental and social aspects of health. The experience of the complex emergency in April 2005 showed that in general the emergency preparedness plan has not been prepared well enough, but on the other hand the health system was able to cope quite well because of past training. Further strengthening of the mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness is strongly recommended. PMID:17162702

  8. [Biofilms and public health].

    PubMed

    Choisy, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Micro-organisms do not always exist in planctonic forms (single cells or small groups). To survive, especially in limiting media, they may adhere to inert or living surfaces. This enables them to multiply within a community protected by an extracellular matrix, thus forming a biofilm which protects them from antimicrobials. Biofilms have many potential consequences for public health. Some are positive, such as the commensal biofilms that protect against pathogenic bacteria, while environmental biofilms may be a source of outbreaks of respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases or infections associated with implanted medical devices. Respiratory tract infection can be caused by aerosols of fragmented biofilms growing in warm humid conditions (air cooling towers, hot springs, showers, etc.). Digestive tract infection can arise from biofilms formed during food manufacturing or packaging processes. Colonized implanted medical devices can lead to sepsis. This article examines the role of central venous catheters, taking into account the surgical site. In vivo studies show that the source of catheter infection may be exogenous or endogenous, while in vitro studies of biofilms show that ablation of the device is the best solution. Prevention is difficult, as biofilm formation is multifactorial. Physical and biological knowledge of biofilms may help to limit their formation and growth. PMID:22375373

  9. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed. PMID:14748317

  10. ARSENIC AND HUMAN HEALTH: EPIDEMIOLOGIC PROGRESS AND PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide, including severely affected populations in South and Southeast Asia. While arsenic is an established human carcinogen and has been associated with a multitude of health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, a mode of action has yet to be determined for some aspects of arsenic toxicity. Herein, we emphasize the role of recent genetic and molecular epidemiologic investigations of arsenic toxicity. Additionally, we discuss considerations for the public health impacts of arsenic exposure through drinking water with respect to primary and secondary prevention efforts. PMID:22962196

  11. Public health week: marketing the concept of public health.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A; Margolis, L A

    1992-01-01

    The Public Health Programs and Services (PHP&S) Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services began a strategic planning effort in January 1986 to meet new disease trends, curb rising health care costs, consolidate limited resources, and handle shifting demographics. A strategic plan was designed to assess the opportunities and challenges facing the agency over a 5-year horizon. Priority areas were recognized, and seven strategic directives were formulated to guide PHP&S in expanding public health services to a changing community. Health promotion was acknowledged as a critical target of the strategic planning process. Among the most significant results of the health promotion directive was the establishment of an annual Public Health Week in Los Angeles County. Beginning in 1988, 1 week per year was selected to enhance the community's awareness of public health programs and the leadership role PHP&S plays in providing these programs to nearly 9 million residents of Los Angeles County. Events in Public Health Week include a professional lecture series and the honoring of an outstanding public health activist and a media personality who has fostered health promotion. Other free community activities such as mobile clinics, screenings, and health fairs are held throughout the county. With intensive media coverage of Public Health Week, PHP&S has been aggressive in promoting its own services and accomplishments while also educating the community on vital wellness issues. The strategic methodology employed by PHP&S, with its emphasis on long-range proactive planning, is receiving national recognition and could be adopted by similar agencies wishing to enhance their image and develop unique health promotion projects in their communities. PMID:1738801

  12. Masterclass in veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    Each summer, one student from each vet school in the British Isles gets the chance to attend a week-long masterclass to learn more about veterinary public health. Last year, Hannah Clifford was one of them. Here she explains how her understanding of the relevance and responsibility of vets working in public health has changed. PMID:26851115

  13. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  14. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  15. The changing global context of public health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-01

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments. PMID:10981904

  16. Advances in public health communication.

    PubMed

    Maibach, E; Holtgrave, D R

    1995-01-01

    There have been tremendous advances in recent years in the innovative use of communication to address public health problems. This article outlines the use of communication techniques and technologies to (positively) influence individuals, populations, and organizations for the purpose of promoting conditions conducive to human and environmental health. The approaches described include social marketing, risk communication, and behavioral decision theory, entertainment education, media advocacy, and interactive decision support systems. We also address criticism of these approaches among public health professionals because of perceived discrepancies in their inherent goals and objectives. In conclusion, we call for the rapid diffusion of state-of-the-art public health communication practices into public health service agencies and organizations. PMID:7639871

  17. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R.; Bherwani, Kamal M.; Henning, Kelly J.

    2008-01-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies. PMID:18382010

  18. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs. PMID:25152863

  19. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  20. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  1. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  2. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  3. SUPERFUND PUBLIC HEALTH EVALUATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual has been developed for use by a diverse audience, including EPA regional staff, state Superfund program staff, federal and state remedial contractors, and potentially responsible parties. Individuals having different levels of scienti...

  4. Ethical analysis in public health.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marc J; Reich, Michael R

    2002-03-23

    Public-health regularly encounters serious ethical dilemmas, such as rationing scarce resources, influencing individuals to change their behaviour, and limiting freedom to diminish disease transmission. Yet unlike medical ethics, there is no agreed-upon framework for analysing these difficulties. We offer such a framework. It distinguishes three philosophical views, often invoked in public-health discourse: positions based on outcomes (utilitarianism), positions focused on rights and opportunities (liberalism), and views that emphasise character and virtue (communitarianism). We explore critical variations within each approach, and identify practical problems that arise in addressing the ethical dimensions of health policy. We conclude by examining challenges posed by the feminist argument of ethics-of-care and by postmodern views about the nature of ethics. Health professionals need enhanced skills in applied philosophy to improve the coherence, transparency, and quality of public deliberations over ethical issues inherent in health policy. PMID:11937202

  5. Stigmatization and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Courtwright, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Encouraged by the success of smoking denormalization strategies as a tobacco-control measure, public health institutions are adopting a similar approach to other health behaviors. For example, a recent controversial ad campaign in New York explicitly aimed to denormalize HIV/AIDS amongst gay men. Authors such as Scott Burris have argued that efforts like this are tantamount to stigmatization and that such stigmatization is unethical because it is dehumanizing. Others have offered a limited endorsement of denormalization/stigmatization campaigns as being justified on consequentialist grounds; namely, that the potential public health benefits outweigh any stigmatizing side effects. In this paper, I examine and reject the blanket condemnation of stigmatization efforts in public health. I argue that the moral status of such efforts are best evaluated within a contractualist, as opposed to a consequentialist, framework. Contractualism in public health ethics asks whether a particular stigmatizing policy could be justified to reasonable individuals who do not know whether they will be affected by that policy. Using this approach, I argue that it is sometimes permissible for public health institutions to engage in health-related stigmatization. PMID:21797912

  6. Organizational and command aspects for coordinating the public health response to an outbreak of acute renal failure, Republic of Panama, 2006.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel A; Keim, Mark E; Schier, Joshua G; Gonzalez, Raul; Valencia, Angel; Telfer, Jana L

    2011-06-01

    The Ministry of Health of Panama (MINSA) received several reports of ill persons who had clinical presentations of acute renal insufficiency or failure during September and October 2006. On 01 October 2006, the MINSA formally asked the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to assist with the investigation. Additional agencies involved in the response included the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Gorgas Institute for Health Studies (GIHS), and the Social Security Health System (SSHS) of Panama. Through a joint effort, the MINSA, CDC, FDA, GIHS, SSHS, and PAHO were able to characterize the illness, identify the etiological agent, identify the population-at-risk, and launch an unprecedented media and social mobilization effort to prevent additional cases.International outbreak responses may require familiarity with basic emergency management principles beyond technical or scientific considerations. The management, logistical capabilities, team interaction, and efficiency of outbreak investigations can be enhanced substantially by having staff already familiar with common operational frameworks for incident responses. This report describes the inter-agency coordination and organizational structure implemented during an international response to identify the cause of an outbreak of acute renal failure in Panama. PMID:22107775

  7. USGS Science Serves Public Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide. The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health

  8. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. PMID:26581727

  9. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm. PMID:15675046

  10. Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Morris M.

    1991-01-01

    According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

  11. Core Public Health Functions for New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel; Garbutt, Barbara; Peters, Julia

    2015-07-24

    This special article defines the public health principles and core public health functions that are combined to produce the public health services essential for a highly-functioning New Zealand health system. The five core functions are: health assessment and surveillance; public health capacity development; health promotion; health protection; and preventive interventions. The core functions are interconnected and are rarely delivered individually. Public health services are not static, but evolve in response to changing needs, priorities, evidence and organisational structures. The core functions describe the different ways public health contributes to health outcomes in New Zealand and provide a framework for ensuring services are comprehensive and robust. PMID:26367356

  12. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe Mather, Carolyn M; McGurk, Meghan D

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the adults in Hawai‘i are overweight or obese, exposing them to increased risk for chronic diseases and resulting in higher health care expenses. Poor dietary habits and physical inactivity are important contributors to obesity and overweight. Because adults spend most of their waking hours at work, the workplace is an important setting for interventions to solve this growing problem. Changing the nutrition environment to support healthy eating is a recommended practice for worksite wellness interventions. Following this recommendation, the Hawai‘i State Department of Health (DOH) launched the Choose Healthy Now! Healthy Vending Pilot Project to increase access to healthy options in worksites. Choose Healthy Now! utilized an education campaign and a traffic light nutrition coding system (green = go, yellow = slow, red = uh-oh), based on federal nutrition guidelines, to help employees identify the healthier options in their worksite snack shops. Inventory of healthy items was increased and product placement techniques were used to help make the healthy choice the easy choice. DOH partnered with the Department of Human Services' Ho‘opono Vending Program to pilot the project in six government buildings on O‘ahu between May and September of 2014. Vendors added new green (healthy) and yellow (intermediate) options to their snack shop and cafeteria inventories, and labeled their snacks and beverages with green and yellow point-of-decision stickers. The following article outlines background and preliminary findings from the Choose Healthy Now! pilot. PMID:25414808

  13. Guidelines for Dietitians and Public Health Nutritionists in Home Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Prepared by the Public Health Service to clarify the role of health professionals and subprofessionals in the home care field, this guide is directed to dietitians and public health nutritionists who are involved in planning, directing, carrying out, and evaluating the nutrition aspects of medical care programs for patients at home. Program…

  14. Noise and public health.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, D M; Roettger, R W

    1976-01-01

    Environmental noise has increased to the point that it affects large numbers of people. The most consistently demonstrated health effect of exposure to noise is hearing impairment. Other effects, such as stress reaction, irritability, fatigue and disturbances to physiologic function have been seen in laboratory research but are highly individualized and restricted to such specific populations as industrial workers. Rising background sound levels in communities due to increased traffic flow, industralization, work saving machinery, and other noise sources have caused community noise levels to become dangerously high. This factor is complicated by exposure to high sound level recreational activities with greater frequency and for longer periods. Recognizing the existence of the problem, governmental agencies have begun to identify the scope of the problem, to designate standards and regulations controlling noise sources, and to regulate allowable noise exposure for workers. PMID:10297834

  15. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  16. Training Physicians for Public Health Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Lyla M., Ed.; Munthali, A. Wezi, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities. The foundation for effective public health interventions rests, in large part, on a well-trained workforce. Unfortunately there is a major shortage of public health physicians who are prepared to face today's public health challenges.…

  17. A framework for building effective public health constituencies.

    PubMed

    Nicola, R M; Hatcher, M T

    2000-03-01

    Population-based health improvements that require behavioral and social change at the community level are dependent on effective constituency participation. To achieve needed constituency involvement, a public health leader must understand what motivates and moves constituents to action on public health issues. This article provides a framework and guidance on building effective constituent involvement to achieve community health improvement. Within this framework, aspects of managing the organizational practice of constituency building and community engagement are discussed and linked with current public health planning and mobilization models that support community-based health interventions. PMID:10787773

  18. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    in organic agriculture that are often used for soil quality comparison and benchmarking. The influence of soil degradation and rehabilitation on public health has to be assessed in quantitative terms. Some links between soils and public health regarding, for example, immune maturation, antibiotic resistance development, and mental well-being, have been long hypothesized but remain to be examined. The data on soil-health relationships are scarce and very much disjointed, and a concerted international effort appears to be needed to encompass various economic and geographical settings. Current definitions of healthy soil broadly include aspects that are conducive for human health, and functional evaluation of soil quality with a focus on public health will have useful applications in public policies and perception. The 'soil-health' connection is complex in character, global in manifestation, and applicable to every human being.

  19. PUBLIC HEALTH AND PUBLIC MEDICAL CARE

    PubMed Central

    Chope, H. D.

    1956-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the historical development of the major movements and organizations dedicated to the preservation of the health and security of the American people. Statements of various national organizations on the need for integration of these various services for the protection of the indigent are presented, and the experience of one county department in San Mateo which operates a completely integrated department of public health and welfare is reviewed, giving the pros and cons of the operation of a number of disciplines through a single administration. The major advantage of an integrated department of this kind is that all the services having to do with human needs—the needs arising from emotional distress, economic reverses or illness—are combined under the direction of a physician. It is probable that failure of the health discipline to provide such services was a factor in the presentation of the Wagner Act in 1938 and the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill in 1943. Continued close cooperation between the various disciplines devoted to the protection of the health and welfare of American citizens can help in solving some of the current problems. PMID:13364660

  20. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed

    Maantay, J

    2001-07-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  1. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  2. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  3. Thinking historically about public health.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Alison; Strange, Carolyn

    2007-12-01

    This paper argues that analysing past public health policies calls for scholarship that integrates insights not just from medical history but from a broad range of historical fields. Recent studies of historic infectious disease management make this evident: they confirm that prior practices inhere in current perceptions and policies, which, like their antecedents, unfold amidst shifting amalgams of politics, culture, law and economics. Thus, explaining public health policy of the past purely in medical or epidemiological terms ignores evidence that it was rarely, if ever, designed solely on medical grounds at the time. PMID:23674428

  4. Zoological medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Osburn, Bennie I

    2006-01-01

    Public-health issues regarding zoological collections and free-ranging wildlife have historically been linked to the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases and accidents relating to bites or injection of venom or toxins by venomous animals. It is only recently that major consideration has been given worldwide to the role of the veterinary profession in contributing to investigating zoonotic diseases in free-ranging wildlife and integrating the concept of public health into the management activities of game preserves and wildlife parks. At the veterinary undergraduate level, courses in basic epidemiology, which should include outbreak investigation and disease surveillance, but also in population medicine, in infectious and parasitic diseases (especially new and emerging or re-emerging zoonoses), and in ecology should be part of the core curriculum. Foreign diseases, especially dealing with zoonotic diseases that are major threats because of possible agro-terrorism or spread of zoonoses, need to be taught in veterinary college curricula. Furthermore, knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired either during pre-veterinary studies or, at least, at the beginning of the veterinary curriculum. At the post-graduate level, master's degrees in preventive veterinary medicine, ecology and environmental health, or public health with an emphasis on infectious diseases should be offered to veterinarians seeking job opportunities in public health and wildlife management. PMID:17035205

  5. Infertility: from a personal to a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, A T; Bernstein, J

    1999-01-01

    The inability to conceive a child is most often viewed as a private matter, but public health perspectives and skills can contribute greatly to our knowledge about infertility, and the development of effective and rational public policy for prevention, access to health care, and regulation of new technologies. We offer a primer of public health aspects of infertility in an effort to encourage the broad spectrum of public health professionals to become more knowledgeable about these topics and join in the national debate about preventive strategies, cost-benefit assessment, resource allocation, and ethics. Images p494-a p495-a p499-a p506-a PMID:10670617

  6. [National public health information system].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Stevanović, Ranko; Babić-Erceg, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Information production and its communication being a key public health activity, developing modern information systems is a precondition for its fulfilling these assignments. A national public health information system (NPHIS) is a set of human resources combined with computing and communication technologies. It enables data linkage and data coverage as well as undertaking information production and dissemination in an effective, standardized and safe way. The Croatian Institute of Public Health LAN/WAN modules are under development. Health Safety System, Health Workers Registry, and Digital Library are among the Institute's developmental priorities. Communication between NPHIS participants would unfold over the Internet by using every relevant data protection method. Web technology-based applications would be run on special servers. Between individual applications, use would be made of the transaction module of communication through an exchange of the HL7 standard-based xml messages. In the conditions of transition, the health system must make an optimal use of the resources, which is not feasible without applying modern information and communication technologies. PMID:16095199

  7. [The interface between public health and cyberculture].

    PubMed

    Honorato, Eduardo Jorge Sant Ana

    2014-02-01

    This is an opinion piece that proposes a reflection on the current status of the interface between cyberculture and public health and its use as a means for research, not as a mere tool. Cyberculture thus represents a new form of interface between people. And it is precisely "through" and "by means of" social relations that individuals acquire skills and communication techniques. The forms and the means of the relationship alters, but the ends remain unchanged, namely to be in contact with other humans. In recent decades, with the advent of computers, the Internet and all the technological apparatus, human relationships are dependent on them, which is the modern so-called cyberculture. This now affects all areas of activity, and public health cannot be left behind, taking advantage of it and its benefits for its development. It is necessary to keep abreast of these changes and raise them from the theoretical to the practical plane, not only implementing public health policies but also taking the socio-virtual aspects into consideration. It is also necessary for the professionals involved to be updated on new forms of communication, interaction, research methodology, preparation of instruments, sampling approaches and all other phenomena arising from cyberculture that will work in partnership with public health. PMID:24863825

  8. [Recent progress in international public health].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in international public health in terms of public health challenges, infectious diseases prevention and control, disease surveillance, chronic and non-communicable disease prevention and treatment, global health, health literacy and precision medicine for the purpose to provide reference for the improvement of public health in China. PMID:26822634

  9. PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS OF CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    Zubiria S, Alfredo de

    1920-01-01

    Mr. Zubiria, a native of Cartagena, gives this outline of the sanitation of a country concerning which little has been observed or published. In view of constantly increasing trade with Latin America, such information may be of practical value. Imagesp511-ap511-bp512-ap513-ap513-bp516-a PMID:18010325

  10. A pioneer of public health, Bernardino Ramazzini.

    PubMed

    Franco, G

    2013-01-01

    2014 marks the tercentenary of the death of Bernardino Ramazzini, an academic who lived in the Duchy of Modena in the second half of the seventeenth century. This event represents an occasion to remember his thinking, which is remarkably anticipatory of some concepts and trends of modern public health. Although the main merit of Bernardino Ramazzini lies in his contribution to the knowledge of occupational diseases, which granted him the title of father of Occupational Medicine, his work deserves a more detailed and complete consideration. In fact, the systematic approach to the clinical presentation of diseases and their relationship to work, gathered in the famed treatise De Morbis Artificum Diatriba, resulted in little attention being paid to the preventive aspects of his thinking. The free spirit, the tension for searching, the love for the discussion characterize his scientific attitude, which spans from the anticipation of an epidemiologic approach to studies on the impact of air and climate, from workplace surveillance to suggestions for the protection of health, from proposals of primary prevention tools to recommendations of lifestyle behaviour, from educational issues to health promotion. His scientific, cultural and humanitarian stature is evidenced by his overall scientific works revealing the modernity of his thinking in the light of the present trend of public health focusing on the needs of people and promoting occupational health as an integral component of the health concept. PMID:23703301

  11. Public Health Ethics and Liberalism

    PubMed Central

    Radoilska, Lubomira

    2009-01-01

    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit the unobvious, republican background of these proposals. Finally, I expand on the liberal understanding of freedom as non-interference and show its advantages over the republican alternative of freedom as non-domination within the context of public health. The views of freedom I discuss in the paper do not overlap with the classical distinction between negative and positive freedom. In addition, my account differentiates the concepts of freedom and autonomy and does not rule out substantive accounts of the latter. Nor does it confine political liberalism to an essentially procedural form. PMID:19655049

  12. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  13. Local public health system partnerships.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interorganizational collaboration aimed at community health improvement is an expectation of local public health systems. This study assessed the extent to which such collaboration occurred within one state (Wisconsin), described the characteristics of existing partnerships, and identified factors associated with partnership effectiveness. METHODS: In Stage 1, local health department (LHD) directors in Wisconsin were surveyed (93% response rate). In Stage 2, LHDs completed self-administered mailed surveys for each partnership identified in Stage 1 (85% response rate). Two-level hierarchical logit regression methods were used to model relationships between partnership and LHD variables and partnership outcomes. Data from 924 partnerships associated with 74 LHDs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Partnerships most frequently addressed tobacco prevention and control, maternal and child health, emergency planning, community assessment and planning, and immunizations. Partnering was most frequent with other government agencies, hospitals, medical practices or clinics, community-based organizations, and schools. Partnership effectiveness was predicted by having a budget, having more partners contributing financially, having a broader array of organizations involved, and having been in existence for a longer period of time. A government mandate to start the partnership was inversely related to successful outcomes. Characteristics of LHDs did not predict partnership effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support, having a broader array of partners, and allowing sufficient time for partnerships to succeed contribute to partnership effectiveness. Further study-using objective outcome measures-is needed to examine the effects of organizational and community characteristics on the effectiveness of local public health system partnerships. PMID:15736335

  14. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  15. Jails, public health, and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Potter, Roberto Hugh

    2010-10-01

    This article outlines and discusses five categories of information about individual jails that should be considered before making general statements about jails. These are (a) the process by which individuals come to and are processed through the jail, (b) the size of the jail, (c) the region of the country where the jail is situated, (d) classification/assessment techniques, and (e) architecture and supervision styles. It is hoped that this discussion will generate a better understanding of the complexity of jail systems across the nation and help public health professionals better target their research, programs, and policies directed at the jail/community health nexus. PMID:20881141

  16. [Aesthetic surgery and public health].

    PubMed

    Fogli, A

    2003-10-01

    The increasing number of requests for aesthetic surgery legitimately leads to the question of whether it can be covered by Public Health. If we look at the definition of the World Health Organization, the answer is without any doubt an affirmative one. However, economic considerations show that there is no social system in the world that covers aesthetic surgery, except for some definite interventions. Requests for aesthetic surgery occur in all social classes. It is a personal choice and a voluntary decision. It is no longer society who assists a sick or ill patient but it is the person that assumes the responsibility for himself. PMID:14599901

  17. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  18. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Social Science Biostatistics and Informatics Community Health Environmental Health Epidemiology Global Health Health Policy and Management Health Promotion and Communication Maternal and Child Health ...

  19. Causal Inference in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Thomas A.; Goodman, Steven N.; Hernán, Miguel A.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action’s consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor’s causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world. PMID:23297653

  20. Noise exposure and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and birth defects, the evidence is limited. Most public health impacts of noise were already identified in the 1960s and noise abatement is less of a scientific but primarily a policy problem. A subject for further research is the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced cardiovascular disorders and the relationship of noise with annoyance and nonacoustical factors modifying health outcomes. A high priority study subject is the effects of noise on children, including cognitive effects and their reversibility. Noise exposure is on the increase, especially in the general living environment, both in industrialized nations and in developing world regions. This implies that in the twenty-first century noise exposure will still be a major public health problem. Images Figure 2 PMID:10698728

  1. Electromagnetic fields and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature is provided for the topic of health-related research and power frequency electromagnetic fields. Minimal evidence for concern is present on the basis of animal and plant research. General observation would accord with the implication that there is no single and manifest health effect as the result of exposure to these fields. There are persistent indications, however, that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action, possibly in the presence of other factors. Power frequency electromagnetic field exposures are essentially ubiquitous in modern society, and their implications in the larger perspective of public health are unclear at this time. Electromagnetic fields represent a methodological obstacle for epidemiologic studies and a quandary for risk assessment; there is need for more data. PMID:3319560

  2. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  3. [Network of researchers on the health aspects of reproduction].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    A symposium held 3-5 May 1990 commemorated the anniversary of the "Network" by presentations on the health aspects of reproduction in Africa. Prof. Sambra Diarra of the Ivory Coast presented a paper on "Health of Reproduction in Africa, Bi-Dimensional Problems: Biomedical and Social." He stressed the need to emphasize both maternal (MM) and infant mortality (IM) in Africa, where MM rates are 640/100,000 and IMR are 130/1000, because they remain so high. Prof. Fadel Diadhiou of Senegal followed with a paper on "Operations Research on Women's Reproductive Health in Africa." The major themes were that problems in reproductive health have resulted because of the fragmentation between the ecosystem and development and the lack of research is due to the isolation of institutions that lack human and material resources. The 3rd presentation by Prof. Mouhamadou Fall of Senegal on "The Health of Children and the Perspectives for Senegal," focused on the increasing infant and child mortality rates in Senegal (238/1000 in 1981) due to the combination of factors caused by the mother-child syndrome. These are: 1) congenital malformations caused by incest, young or advanced age of mothers; 2) diseases of the mother that cause fetal mortality: diabetes, arterial hypertension, eclampsia; 3) lack of breastfeeding and illiteracy of mothers; 4) public health diseases such as measles, malaria, diarrhea; 5) streptococcic infections and their complications such as anemia and tuberculosis. The last presentation made by Prof. Eusebe Alihonou from Benin on the "Perspectives and Priorities of Reproductive Health in Africa," concluded that the research priorities in Africa should be on health systems that lower utilization rates of services and resources and on epidemiological studies that identify health problems and analyze the risk factors. The Symposium concluded that the research priorities should be: maternal morbidity and mortality; adolescents and reproduction and the morbidity and

  4. Issues in public health entomology.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A; Pollack, R J; Kiszewski, A E; Telford, S R

    2001-01-01

    Public health entomology focuses on the population biology of vector-borne infections, seeking to understand how such pathogens perpetuate over time and attempting to devise methods for reducing the burden that they impose on human health. As public health entomology passes its centennial, a series of pervasive research themes and spirited debates characterize the discipline, many reflecting a tension between field and laboratory research. In particular, institutional support for population-based research and training programs has fallen behind that for those using modern lab-based approaches. Discussion of modes of intervention against vector-borne infections (such as deployment of genetically modified vectors, the role of DDT in malaria control, host-targeted acaricides for Lyme disease risk reduction, and truck-mounted aerosol spraying against West Nile virus transmission) illustrates the discipline's need for strengthening population-based research programs. Even with the advent of molecular methods for describing population structure, the basis for anophelism without malaria (or its eastern North American counterpart, ixodism without borreliosis) remains elusive. Such methods have not yet been extensively used to examine the phylogeography and geographical origins of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. Basic ecological questions remain poorly explored: What regulates vector populations? How may mixtures of pathogens be maintained by a single vector? What factors might limit the invasion of Asian mosquitoes into North American sites? Putative effects of "global warming" remain speculative given our relative inability to answer such questions. Finally, policy and administrative issues such as the "no-nits" dictum in American schools, the Roll Back Malaria program, and legal liability for risk due to vector-borne infections serve to demonstrate further the nature of the crossroads that the discipline of public health entomology faces at the start of the 21st Century

  5. Returns on Investment in California County Departments of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the average return on investment for the overall activities of county departments of public health in California. Methods. I gathered the elements necessary to estimate the average return on investment for county departments of public health in California during the period 2001 to 2008–2009. These came from peer-reviewed journal articles published as part of a larger project to develop a method for determining return on investment for public health by using a health economics framework. I combined these elements by using the standard formula for computing return on investment, and performed a sensitivity analysis. Then I compared the return on investment for county departments of public health with the returns on investment generated for various aspects of medical care. Results. The estimated return on investment from $1 invested in county departments of public health in California ranges from $67.07 to $88.21. Conclusions. The very large estimated return on investment for California county departments of public health relative to the return on investment for selected aspects of medical care suggests that public health is a wise investment. PMID:27310339

  6. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the National Library of ... 2009 FNLM Annual Awards Dinner celebrated advances in public health and medicine, along with the individuals and organizations ...

  7. The future of public health law.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    1986-01-01

    Developments in medicine and constitutional law dictate modification of public health legislation in the United States. Traditionally overlooked by legislators, present public health laws provide inadequate decision-making criteria and inappropriate procedures for dealing with issues. Revised legislation should provide health care officials and agencies with the tools to balance individual rights against public health necessities. This Article makes four recommendations for legislative reform: (1) remove artificial legislative distinction between venereal and other communicable diseases; (2) provide criteria defining "public health necessity" to limit discretionary exercise of police power by health officials; (3) provide strong confidentiality protections in the collection and storage of public health information; (4) empower public health officials to select from a graded series of less restrictive alternatives in dealing with public health problems. PMID:3451680

  8. Developing School Health Services in Massachusetts: A Public Health Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Anne H.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993 the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) began defining essential components of school health service programs, consistent with the public health model. The MDPH designed and funded the Enhanced School Health Service Programs to develop 4 core components of local school health services: (a) strengthening the administrative…

  9. [Public health and the health system. SESPAS Report 2010].

    PubMed

    Aboal-Viñas, José Luis

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of the relationship between public health and the health system requires definition of a conceptual framework and the choice of a particular context. The chosen context of this discussion is the management of public organizations. With this in mind, functions will be associated with organizational macroprocesses. From this point of view, this article identifies the functions-processes that any health system should develop and their goals. The current situation of public health in the health system is analyzed through the study of public health budgets and the place they occupy in the hierarchy of the health departments of the autonomous communities. The "public health" budget program represents an average of 1.34% of health expenditure in the autonomous communities in 2010. Over 20% of public health organizations of the autonomous communities have a rank lower than general directorate. These data indicate the low weight assigned to public health in the health systems of the Spanish state. To change this situation, consensus must be reached on the desired relationship between public health and the health system. Such a consensus would then have to be accepted and work would have to be undertaken to improve results. Three alternatives are proposed: (i) public health would be an organization that would be above or outside the health system; (ii) public health would be synonymous with the public health system; and (iii) public health would form part of the health system with a range of assigned functions. Finally, we provide some recommendations to help define the most effective and efficient relationship between public health and the health system. PMID:20970219

  10. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  11. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  12. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  13. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  14. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  15. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  16. Legal aspects of E-HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan; Cierkens, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Cross-border activities in health care in the European single market are increasing. Many of these cross-border developments are related to e-Health. E-Health describes the application of information and communication technologies across the whole range of functions that affect the health care sector. E-health attracts a growing interest on the European level that highlights the sharp need of appropriate regulatory framework able to ensure its promotion in the European Union. Some Directives constitute a step in this direction. Both the Data Protection Directive, the E-Commerce Directive, the Medical Device Directive and the Directive on Distance Contracting are some of the most important European legal achievements related to e-Health. Although the directives are not adopted especially for e-health applications, they are indirectly very important for e-Health. Firstly, the Data Protection Directive applies to personal data which form part of a filing system and contains several important principles that have to be complied with by e-Health actors processing personal data concerning health. Secondly, the E-commerce Directive applies to services provided at a distance by electronic means. Many e-Health applications fall within this scope. Thirdly, the Medical Devices Directive is of importance for the e-Health sector, especially with regard to e.g. the medical software that is used in many e-health applications. Finally, the Directive on Distance Contracting applies to contracts for goods or services which make use of one or more means of distance communication; E-Health business may involve the conclusion of contracts. Despite these Directives more developments are needed at the European level in order to make sure that e-Health will play an even more important role in health care systems than is the case today. The new e-Health applications like electronic health records, e-health platforms, health grids and the further use of genetic data and tissue involve new

  17. Public Health, the APHA, and Urban Renewal

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities. PMID:19608955

  18. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  19. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  20. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises. PMID:24274133

  1. Public health education for emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Bernstein, Steven L; Gutman, Deborah C; Tibbles, Carrie D; Joyce, Nina R; Lipton, Robert I; Schweigler, Lisa M; Fisher, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national Regional Public Health-Medicine Education Centers-Graduate Medical Education initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health-oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  2. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  3. Advancing the public health role of midwives and maternity support workers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Midwives are crucial to enhancing public health and wellbeing. Caring for families throughout the childbearing continuum offers midwives the perfect opportunity to address many public health agendas. All aspects of midwifery care can influence health outcomes and, as such, it is essential that all midwives embrace their public health role. In this article you will be encouraged to advance your public health role by exploring key midwifery directives regarding public health agendas; examining the outcomes of recent surveys and work conducted by the Royal College of Midwives (RCM), in the United Kingdom (UK); and reviewing ways to develop our public health role from a range of perspectives within maternity services. PMID:27451484

  4. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  5. Public and private health initiatives in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Fonner, E

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes several health initiatives in Kansas that are being forwarded by way of public/private partnerships. Consensus is being shaped on the standardization of health data and use of actionable indicators. Statewide public health improvement planning is also being pursued. A group of large employers and state agencies are creating a basis for group purchasing, consumer assessments of health plans, and coordinated public policy formulation. PMID:9718510

  6. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers. PMID:26565730

  7. Sharing Public Health Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that effective and appropriate data sharing requires the development of models of good data-sharing practice capable of taking seriously both the potential benefits to be gained and the importance of ensuring that the rights and interests of participants are respected and that risk of harms is minimized. Calls for the greater sharing of individual-level data from biomedical and public health research are receiving support among researchers and research funders. Despite its potential importance, data sharing presents important ethical, social, and institutional challenges in low-income settings. In this article, we report on qualitative research conducted in five low- and middle-income countries exploring the experiences of key research stakeholders and their views about what constitutes good data-sharing practice. PMID:26297744

  8. Public health problems of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Mutatkar, R K

    1995-10-01

    Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope. PMID:8545672

  9. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters. PMID:22235598

  10. [Legitimizing and responsibilities of public health reports: public health reports or social court reports?].

    PubMed

    Borgers, D; Streich, W

    1996-11-01

    Since 1970 various initiatives have been taken to improve the information bases of health reporting. However, the efforts made up to now by the Länder, the Federal Government and its corporate bodies are characterised by a lack of experience and shortage of resources; moreover, they are viewed with a critical eye by the public and in the political area. In this contribution the authors describe various topics and delimitations of a health reporting system which go far beyond health statistics and health programmes altogether. The chances of a national health reporting system are based on the assumption that an objective judgement based on expert knowledge and science will be possible and that beyond all particularistic interests, expert knowledge can be organised in a democratic process. Public health reporting varies between two extremes: On the one hand, the current reporting in the media on health-related subjects which is characterised by disagreement among experts, particularistic interests and emotions, and on the other hand the national health reporting, which, on the platform of policy marketing and political image shaping, is suspected of degenerating to a kind of "royal court reporting". A health reporting system based on expert knowledge and characterised by topics with relevance to health policy, expert quality of its information and neutrality to particularistic interests, should go beyond these two extremes. Given the political conditions of budgeting and distribution conflicts, health reporting has to deal with two main aspects: effectiveness and efficiency of employed resources and with the problems of a fair distribution of these resources to provide equal chances in the health sector. What cannot be solved, by questions of procedure, however, is the problem of truth and objective knowledge as well as the problem of confidence. If the general public lacks confidence in national expert knowledge, a society discourse will not lead to political

  11. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon

    2016-06-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. PMID:26404552

  12. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

  13. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  14. Defining quality improvement in public health.

    PubMed

    Riley, William J; Moran, John W; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M; Bialek, Ronald; Cofsky, Abbey

    2010-01-01

    Many industries commonly use quality improvement (QI) techniques to improve service delivery and process performance. Yet, there has been scarce application of these proven methods to public health settings and the public health field has not developed a set of shared principles or a common definition for quality improvement. This article discusses a definition of quality improvement in public health and describes a continuum of quality improvement applications for public health departments. Quality improvement is a distinct management process and set of tools and techniques that are coordinated to ensure that departments consistently meet the health needs of their communities. PMID:20009636

  15. Public Health Education for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Marian E.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Gutman, Deborah; Tibbles, Carrie D.; Joyce, Nina; Lipton, Robert; Schweigler, Lisa; Fisher, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national regional public health–medicine education centers-graduate medical education (RPHMEC-GM) initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health–oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  16. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  17. Nanotechnology and environmental and public health considerations.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology has arrived on the scene much as did predecessor technologies--hailed for its purpose and accepted with enthusiasm amid bursts of research, funding, and news of creative applications. But the early efforts to consider its environmental aspects have been small even though the implications for environmental and public health are broad. A well-crafted policy framework is needed, one linked to a clearer understanding of the direct and indirect effects, benefits, and risk of nanotechnology. A precautious approach would foster policy interventions to prevent harms by slowing developments where the risks are high and focus scientific effort on dispelling ignorance and uncertainty, especially in those areas where the consequences of being wrong are substantial. This kind of approach also would impose the burden of demonstrating the safety of the technology primarily on its proponents. The process of producing guidelines for other technologies is considered. PMID:17208882

  18. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  19. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  20. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations – and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027

  1. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: HEALTH ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It attempts to establish health damage functions for energy resource extraction, conversion (i.e., burning of coal to prod...

  2. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  3. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  4. Pharmacogenomics and public health: implementing 'populationalized' medicine.

    PubMed

    Mette, Lindsey; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Vozikis, Athanassios; Patrinos, George P

    2012-05-01

    Pharmacogenomics are frequently considered in personalized medicine to maximize therapeutic benefits and minimize adverse drug reactions. However, there is a movement towards applying this technology to populations, which may produce the same benefits, while saving already scarce health resources. We conducted a narrative literature review to examine how pharmacogenomics and public health can constructively intersect, particularly in resource-poor settings. We identified 27 articles addressing the research question. Real and theoretical connections between public health and pharmacogenomics were presented in the areas of disease, drugs and public policy. Suggested points for consideration, such as educational efforts and cultural acceptability, were also provided. Including pharmacogenomics in public health can result in both health-related and economic benefits. Including pharmacogenomics in public health holds promise but deserves extensive consideration. To fully realize the benefits of this technology, support is needed from private, public and governmental sectors in order to ensure the appropriateness within a society. PMID:22594512

  5. Public Health Legal Preparedness in Indian Country

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health–related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities. PMID:19150897

  6. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes. Images p[498]-a p499-a p500-a p501-a p502-a p503-a p504-a p506-a PMID:9847921

  7. Defining the functions of public health governance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance. PMID:25689187

  8. Defining the Functions of Public Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J.; Corso, Liza C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance. PMID:25689187

  9. Lessons from Lithuania: rethinking public health training.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L; Dixon, J

    1993-01-01

    Lithuania faces stark problems that are familiar to most countries in the former Soviet Union: high morbidity and mortality rates, pollution, an unstable economy, and rapid changes in the financing and organisation of health care. In this environment Moore and Dixon visited Kaunas Medical Academy to help identify how training in public health medicine could contribute towards improving the health of the population. Although over 200 hours are devoted to public health training for medical undergraduates, teaching is unfocused, fragmented, and includes little epidemiology--the core subject for public health physicians. Teaching is mainly through long lectures with few group discussions. Student participation and motivation are low. As well as recommending redesign of the curriculum, Moore and Dixon suggested training in teaching methods for teachers. They also suggested that postgraduate training in public health should begin and should be targeted at hospital managers, teaching staff, and existing public health physicians. Images p913-a PMID:8490421

  10. Applications of Health Information Exchange Information to Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health. PMID:25954386

  11. Management Education in Public Health: Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Darr, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing and applying the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, as well as their permutations and combinations, are vital to effective delivery of public health services. Presently, graduate programs that prepare public health professionals neither emphasize teaching management theory, nor its application. This deficit puts those who become managers in public health and those they serve at a distinct disadvantage. This deficit can be remedied by enhanced teaching of management subjects PMID:26673475

  12. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  13. Systematic review of public health branding.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors. PMID:19051110

  14. Public health finance: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Anthony D; Halverson, Paul K; Honoré, Peggy A; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to stimulate development of public health finance as a field of practice, policy, and scholarship, this article proposes a working definition of the term "public health finance," embeds it in the context of the maturing literature on the public health system and its infrastructure, and proposes a four-part typology that spans both public-sector and private-sector contributions to the financing of prevention and health promotion. A developmental strategy for the field--in applied research, training and education, and performance standards--is outlined as well. PMID:15552760

  15. Ethics, practice, and research in public health.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Buehler, James W

    2004-06-01

    Ethical issues that can arise in distinguishing public health research from practice are highlighted in 2 case studies--an investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison and an evaluation of a program for improving HIV prevention services. Regardless of whether such public health investigations represent research or practice, we see a need for ethics oversight procedures that reflect actual risks and enable timely responses to crises. Such oversight should accommodate the perspectives of persons and communities affected by public health threats and by governmental responses to those threats; it should further recognize that public health ethics is a distinct field combining bioethics, political philosophy, human rights, and law. PMID:15249291

  16. Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky’s College of Public Health to Kentucky’s LHDs seeking national public health accreditation. PMID:25806362

  17. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  18. Climate Change: The Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058

  19. Health Related Aspects of Artificial Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansler, Richard; Kubulins, Vilnis; Carome, Edward

    2011-04-01

    It was long thought that the "sleep hormone," melatonin, is produced by the pineal gland only when the eyes are in darkness. Thus, in developed countries, due to the use of electric lighting after dark, melatonin production usually occurs only when one is asleep. For most people, this is substantially less than the 9 to 10 hour production time capability of the pineal gland. However, in 2001 it was discovered that not all light, but mainly a band of wavelengths in the blue portion of the spectrum, below 530nm, suppresses melatonin production. On learning this, and that melatonin is a very active cancer fighting antioxidant and has many other health promoting properties, it was decided to make available lighting products that can enhance melatonin production. Included are lamps that do not emit the offending blue wavelengths and eyeglasses that filter out the blue portion of the spectrum. These and other related products are meant to be used for several hours in the evening, before retiring, thus maximizing the pineal gland's production time. The effects of their use on sleep and several other health related conditions are discussed.

  20. Public health and high volume hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Jones, Walter A; Malone, Samantha L; Vinci, Leon F

    2013-01-01

    High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) in unconventional gas reserves has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production. HVHF has been promoted as a way to decrease dependence on foreign energy sources, replace dirtier energy sources like coal, and generate economic development. At the same time, activities related to expanded HVHF pose potential risks including ground- and surface water contamination, climate change, air pollution, and effects on worker health. HVHF has been largely approached as an issue of energy economics and environmental regulation, but it also has significant implications for public health. We argue that public health provides an important perspective on policymaking in this arena. The American Public Health Association (APHA) recently adopted a policy position for involvement of public health professionals in this issue. Building on that foundation, this commentary lays out a set of five perspectives that guide how public health can contribute to this conversation. PMID:23552646

  1. An Ethics Framework for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Nancy E.

    2001-01-01

    More than 100 years ago, public health began as an organized discipline, its purpose being to improve the health of populations rather than of individuals. Given its population-based focus, however, public health perennially faces dilemmas concerning the appropriate extent of its reach and whether its activities infringe on individual liberties in ethically troublesome ways. In this article a framework for ethics analysis of public health programs is proposed. To advance traditional public health goals while maximizing individual liberties and furthering social justice, public health interventions should reduce morbidity or mortality; data must substantiate that a program (or the series of programs of which a program is a part) will reduce morbidity or mortality; burdens of the program must be identified and minimized; the program must be implemented fairly and must, at times, minimize preexisting social injustices; and fair procedures must be used to determine which burdens are acceptable to a community. PMID:11684600

  2. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda. PMID:11939386

  3. Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Joe W., Ed.

    Intended to be a source of information on the nature and significance of health effects related to chemical disposal, this document is the final report of the Executive Scientific Panel on Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals. The panel, which was organized by the Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology…

  4. MEDICAL CARE AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Haven

    1952-01-01

    Medical care applies to the individual, and public health to the community. One is the concentrated application of diagnosis and treatment for the life, the comfort of a patient, and includes guidance in health as for motherhood, infancy, childhood and old age. Public health services, provided by the community through its local government and the local department of health, are concerned with the prevention of diseases of all kinds. Some are controlled by sanitary authority, but the majority of preventable diseases are dealt with by public health education. It is not the function of the health department to treat the sick. The family physicians, the hospitals and dispensaries provide for medical care. Medical care of the sick and public health protection are two parallel activities to make use of medical science, one for treatment, the other for prevention of disease. PMID:13009462

  5. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305

  6. Public health and nursing: a natural partnership.

    PubMed

    Savage, Christine; Kub, Joan

    2009-11-01

    The health of individuals occurs within the context of their environment and the other individuals they interact with in the communities they live in, work in and visit. Promoting the health of the public requires multiple strategies aimed at improving the environment, the health knowledge of groups and individuals, maintaining adequate food and water, and reducing the spread of disease. Many disciplines are needed to meet these goals, but the largest segment of the professional health work force required to meet these needs is nursing. Historically, nursing leaders in public health such as Florence Nightingale and Lillian Wald made significant inroads related to serious health issues because they were nurses. Today across the globe, nurses provide the key components of public health interventions including well baby care, health education, screening and immunization clinics, disaster management and emergency preparedness. With the growing nursing shortage in acute care settings, the brain drain of nurses from certain areas of the world, the shrinking public dollars for preventive health care, the nursing workforce needed to continue to provide these essential health care services is threatened. It is essential to put the spot light on nursing's role in public health with the hopes of attracting more public funds and more nurses to provide these essential services. PMID:20049229

  7. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    PubMed

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing. PMID:18347823

  8. Primary prevention protects public health.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    It is widely accepted that epidemiological data provide the only reliable evidence of a carcinogenic effect in humans, but epidemiology is unable to provide early warning of a cancer risk. The experimental approach to carcinogenicity can ascertain and predict potential cancer risks to humans in time for primary prevention to be successful. Unfortunately, only in rare instances were experimental data considered sufficiently convincing per se to stimulate the adoption of preventive measures. The experimental testing of environmental agents is the second line of defense against potential human carcinogens. The first line is the testing of synthesized agents, be these pesticides, medical drugs, or industrial chemical/physical agents, at the time of their development. We do not know, however, how many substances have been prevented from entering the environment because most tests are carried out by commercial or private laboratories and results are rarely released. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sequence of events of the carcinogenesis process will eventually lead to a more accurate characterization and quantification of risks. However, the ways that mechanistic data have been used lately for evaluating evidence of carcinogenicity have not necessarily meant that the evaluations were more closely oriented toward public health. A tendency has surfaced to dismiss the relevance of long-term carcinogenicity studies. In the absence of absolute certainty, rarely if ever reached in biology, it is essential to adopt an attitude of responsible caution, in line with the principles of primary prevention, the only one that may prevent unlimited experimentation on the entire human species. PMID:12562637

  9. Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing. PMID:11988443

  10. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  11. [General aspects of planning and care in mental health].

    PubMed

    Saforcada, E

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews some general concepts on Planning, especially in public and welfare sectors, stressing those concerning the major flaws in the argentine system of mental health. The author considers the definition of planning levels, and sets forth three: general plan, program and project. The correlative implementation is also considered. The importance of feed-back from adequate evaluation is stressed, emphasizing three aspects: a) evaluation of dynamics, rate and extent of decrease, increase or stagnation; b) assessment of efficacity of factors involved; c) control and stabilization of goals already attained. The necessity to develop a human ecology, encompassing socio-cultural and psycho-social factors is stressed, together with fostering theoretical research and the use of its results by implementation agents. Several differences among prevailing mental health actions are pointed out which allow a distinction between two typical models: clinical and sanitarist. The main differences between them lye on: standard location of working sites, nature of basic actions, field of action, hypothesis for working, including ethiological and ecological assumptions, theoretical and methodological framework. A series of criteria for evaluating sanitary techniques and strategies are set forth, among which: operative procedures, length of treatments, degree of therapeutic concentration, and general pragmatic criteria. The indicators reviewed are: degree of efficacity, covering, degree of perseverance in treatments, cultural barriers between patient and therapist, delegation of functions into special, first-rate sanitary agents, needs for the training of mental health workers. An attempt is made at developping general evaluation criteria for mental health planning, and several indicators are proposed, among which: a) cost/efficacity ratio, including in costs the use of economical, human and physical resources; b) preventive capacities of the community; c) capacities for the

  12. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  13. Recommendations for Undergraduate Public Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegelman, Richard K.; Albertine, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This curriculum guide serves to assist faculty who are developing undergraduate courses in public health as well as educational administrators and faculty curriculum committees who are designing undergraduate public health curricula. The approach outlined in these recommendations focuses on the development of three core courses, each of which is…

  14. Teaching Practical Public Health Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary V.

    2006-01-01

    Human service fields, and more specifically public health, are increasingly requiring evaluations to prove the worth of funded programs. Many public health practitioners, however, lack the required background and skills to conduct useful, appropriate evaluations. In the late 1990s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the…

  15. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. PMID:27288163

  16. SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION WORKFORCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the sta...

  17. Latest OECD figures confirm Canada as a public health laggard.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the Canadian public health community's commitments to promoting public policy that supports health, evidence indicates that Canada's public health picture continues to decline. This may be due in part to the failure of public health agencies and local public health units to engage in public policy advocacy and public education about the social determinants of health. Examples of such activities by local public health units are now available and provide a model for such activity. PMID:23618021

  18. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  19. Social marketing and public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, R C; Flora, J A

    1988-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of community-based health education programs has out-paced the knowledge base of behavior change strategies that are appropriate and effective for public health interventions. However, experiences from a variety of large-scale studies suggest that principles and techniques of social marketing may help bridge this gap. This article discusses eight essential aspects of the social marketing process: the use of a consumer orientation to develop and market intervention techniques, exchange theory as a model from which to conceptualize service delivery and program participation, audience analysis and segmentation strategies, the use of formative research in program design and pretesting of intervention materials, channel analysis for devising distribution systems and promotional campaigns, employment of the "marketing mix" concept in intervention planning and implementation, development of a process tracking system, and a management process of problem analysis, planning, implementation, feedback and control functions. Attention to such variables could result in more cost-effective programs that reach larger numbers of the target audience. PMID:3056876

  20. Urban Public Health: Is There a Pyramid?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH). Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London) are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000–2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development. PMID:23358233

  1. Urban public health: is there a pyramid?

    PubMed

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Jiao

    2013-02-01

    Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH). Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London) are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000-2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development. PMID:23358233

  2. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  3. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  4. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  5. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  6. Moving from Intersection to Integration: Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the

  7. [Intercultural aspects of the health system reform in Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Hita, Susana

    2014-01-01

    This article is a reflection on how interculturality, understood as the way to improve the health of the Bolivian population and coupled with the concept of living well, is not contributing to improving the quality of life and health of the most vulnerable populations in the country. The discourse is coupled with the intention of saving lives in its broadest sense; however, for this it is necessary to make decisions about environmental health and extractivist policies that are not taken into account in the health issues affecting indigenous communities, a population targeted by the intercultural aspects of the health reform. PMID:25597731

  8. Public Health Practice Is Not Research

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  9. Public health practice is not research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean Lin; Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  10. Systems Science Methods in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Douglas A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies where these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. PMID:22224885

  11. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  12. Privatization of Public Services: Organizational Reform Efforts in Public Education and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The public health and the public education systems in the United States have encountered problems in quality of service, accountability, and availability of resources. Both systems are under pressure to adopt the general organizational reform of privatization. The debate over privatization in public education is contentious, but in public health, the shift of functions from the public to the private sector has been accepted with limited deliberation. We assess the benefits and concerns of privatization and suggest that shifting public health functions to the private sector raises questions about the values and mission of public health. Public health officials need to be more engaged in a public debate over the desirability of privatization as the future of public health. PMID:17008563

  13. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  14. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies. PMID:18382010

  15. [Empowerment in the public health practice].

    PubMed

    Chia, Shu-Li

    2011-02-01

    Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge. PMID:21328202

  16. Transforming public health through distance learning.

    PubMed

    Hirano, D; Dillenberg, J

    1998-09-01

    Public health agencies face old and new problems in the next century: emerging infectious and chronic diseases, health problems related to personal behaviors, a changing demography, and a deteriorating physical and social environment. To meet these challenges, public health agencies should consider the following: the advent of new communications technologies, the need for a strong workforce, and the need for new partnerships. Distance learning can serve as a means to facilitate a strong workforce and new partnerships. PMID:10187065

  17. Public health informatics: a CDC course for public health program managers.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P. W.; Yasnoff, W. A.; Wilhoite, W.

    1998-01-01

    Information science and technology are critical to the modern practice of public health. Yet today's public health professionals generally have no formal training in public health informatics--the application of information science and technology to public health practice and research. Responding to this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently developed, tested, and delivered a new training course in public health informatics. The course was designed for experienced public health program managers and included sessions on general informatics principles and concepts; key information systems issues and information technologies; and management issues as they relate to information technology projects. This course has been enthusiastically received both at the state and federal levels. We plan to develop an abbreviated version for health officers, administrators, and other public health executives. PMID:9929264

  18. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    PubMed

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. PMID:12543872

  19. The role of paediatricians in public health for children and young people.

    PubMed

    Weil, Leonora G; Lemer, Claire; Cheung, C Ronny

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing awareness among practising clinicians that public health for children and young people has an enormous impact on child health outcomes, and is an intrinsic aspect of the practice of paediatrics. This article, the first in a series, explores the key concepts of child public health, explains why public health matters to clinicians through a series of examples, and outlines opportunities and resources for further learning. PMID:27165173

  20. [Canton Hospital and public health in Canton].

    PubMed

    Li, Jichou; Guo, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Canton Hospital was not only the most influential missionary hospital in South China, but also the first one brought the concept and practice of public health to Guangzhou. In the late Qing Dynasty, it conducted free vaccination, plague treatment, health education and so on, demonstrating the importance of public health to the people. In the period of the Republic of China, it extensively cooperated with the government and social organizations in developing school health, maternal and child health, communicable disease control and epidemiological investigations to actively serve the social group. In the 1930s, its public health activities extended towards the rural areas of Guangzhou, and promoted the convergence of rural and urban medical and health services. The three-level medical system that it built provided demonstration model for the establishment of Chinese rural medical system. PMID:26815022

  1. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  2. Public Health Information and a Diverse Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Mark

    This paper discusses public health services of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). The paper provides an overview of SPC and the Pacific Islands, including geography, nationality/culture, and development status. SPC Community Health Programmes (CHP) in the following areas are then described: environmental health; AIDS and STD (sexually…

  3. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  4. Where Is the Future in Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Context: Today's societies have far-reaching impacts on future conditions for health. Against this backdrop, this article explores how the future is represented in contemporary public health, examining both its conceptual base and influential approaches through which evidence is generated for policy. Methods: Mission statements and official reviews provide insight into how the future is represented in public health's conceptual and ethical foundations. For its research practices, the article takes examples from epidemiological, intervention, and economic research, selecting risk-factor epidemiology, randomized controlled trials, and economic evaluation as exemplars. Findings: Concepts and ethics suggest that public health research and policy will be concerned with protecting both today's and tomorrow's populations from conditions that threaten their health. But rather than facilitating sustained engagement with future conditions and future health, exemplary approaches to gathering evidence focus on today's population. Thus, risk-factor epidemiology pinpoints risks in temporal proximity to the individual; controlled trials track short-term effects of interventions on the participants’ health; and economic evaluations weigh policies according to their value to the current population. While their orientation to the present and near future aligns well with the compressed timescales for policy delivery on which democratic governments tend to work, it makes it difficult for the public health community to direct attention to conditions for future health. Conclusions: This article points to the need for research perspectives and practices that, consistent with public health's conceptual and ethical foundations, represent the interests of both tomorrow's and today's populations. PMID:20579281

  5. Correctional health care: implications for public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Diane L.; Leath, Brenda A.

    2002-01-01

    "Correctional Health Care: Implications for Public Health Policy" is the first in a series of articles that examines the special health care needs of persons who are incarcerated in America's correctional facilities. The intent of the series is to gain a better understanding about the unmet health needs of incarcerated persons, the importance of addressing the health service delivery system in correctional facilities, and the implications that may arise from neglecting to address these health issues on health outcomes for individual detainees and society at-large when detainees transition back into the community. This article provides a descriptive overview of the corrections population, their sociodemographics, health care needs, and health concerns that are in need of improvement. This article also offers recommendations for public policy consideration to improve the overall health of inmates and society at large. PMID:12069208

  6. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  7. Engaging local public health system partnerships to educate the future public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2013-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine concluded that keeping the public healthy required a well-educated public health workforce, thus leading to its recommendation that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health" [2]. In response to this call, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in strengthening (or building) a functional collaborative model between academic institutions and practitioners from local health departments to educate tomorrow's public health workforce. Local and regional health departments in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of collaborations with academic partners; (3) assess how they jointly promote public health workforce development; and (4) analyze which essential public health services their partnership addresses. Despite the lack of financial resources often cited for the absence of academic-local health department collaborations, some New England states reported that their academic institution and local public health department partnerships were valued and productive. The authors discuss how effective academic-community collaborations have the potential to facilitate a broad-based appreciation of public health among students via a wide array of public health curricula and applied experiential learning opportunities in public health settings. The authors propose a model for how to combine basic public health lessons with practical experience and leadership offered by local health departments, in order to foster a real understanding of public health, its importance, practice, and relevance in today's society from a public health workforce perspective. PMID:22940868

  8. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Public–private partnerships have become a common approach to health care problems worldwide. Many public–private partnerships were created during the late 1990s, but most were focused on specific diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Recently there has been enthusiasm for using public–private partnerships to improve the delivery of health and welfare services for a wider range of health problems, especially in developing countries. The success of public–private partnerships in this context appears to be mixed, and few data are available to evaluate their effectiveness. This analysis provides an overview of the history of health-related public–private partnerships during the past 20 years and describes a research protocol commissioned by the World Health Organization to evaluate the effectiveness of public–private partnerships in a research context. PMID:17138922

  9. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  10. Public Health and the Epidemic of Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora M.; Brockmann, Brad; Dickman, Samuel; Alexander, Nicole; Rich, Josiah D.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Americans have been incarcerated in the past generation. In addition, arrests are concentrated in low-income, predominantly nonwhite communities where people are more likely to be medically underserved. As a result, rates of physical and mental illnesses are far higher among prison and jail inmates than among the general public. We review the health profiles of the incarcerated; health care in correctional facilities; and incarceration’s repercussions for public health in the communities to which inmates return upon release. The review concludes with recommendations that public health and medical practitioners capitalize on the public health opportunities provided by correctional settings to reach medically underserved communities, while simultaneously advocating for fundamental system change to reduce unnecessary incarceration. PMID:22224880

  11. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  12. Jurisdiction Size and Local Public Health Spending

    PubMed Central

    Santerre, Rexford E

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine if a minimum efficient scale (MES) holds with respect to the population serviced by a local health department (LHD) given the congestability, externality, and scale/scope economy effects potentially associated with public health services. Data Sources/Study Setting A nationally representative sample of LHDs in 2005. Study Design Multiple regression analysis is used to isolate the relation between population and spending while controlling for other factors known to influence local public health costs. Data Collection Data were obtained from the 2005 National Profile of Local Public Health Agencies, a project supported through a cooperative agreement between the National Association of County and City Health Officials and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Principal Findings The MES of a local public health department is approximately 100,000 people. After that size, additional population has little impact on public health spending per capita. Conclusions Seventy-seven percent of LHDs in the sample fall below the 100,000 MES. Higher levels of government may want to provide financial inducements so that smaller LHDs consolidate or enter into agreements with larger public health organizations to provide services. PMID:19656226

  13. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  14. The need for professional doctors of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, M I

    1986-01-01

    Planning, organizing, and operating today's complex health care systems or heading Federal, State, and city public health agencies in the United States and other countries require professionals broadly prepared in the meaning, philosophy, and strategies of public health. It is and has been recognized that the best trained clinical physician could not be expected to know the policies and practices of official public health programs. The chief health official of a State or other jurisdiction, for example, deals with the epidemiology of many diseases; with all aspects of the environment; with hospitals, drugs, health manpower, and nutrition; with issues of health economics, finance, and politics; and with administration. For these tasks, most of medical education is irrelevant. To produce the needed specialists, candidates with a BA degree would be educated as doctors of public health. The proposed 5-year postgraduate curriculum is as demanding as the training for the MD degree, but completely different. The 38 subjects or courses in the curriculum are grouped into four categories: basic tools of social analysis, health and disease in populations, protection of health and prevention of disease, and health care systems and management. At present, MPH degree holders take only a handful of core and elective courses and emerge with little systematic knowledge about the majority of problems they face. The DrPH candidates at schools of public health spend most of their time on research and dissertation writing--adequate preparation for university teachers, but academia is not the goal of most candidates, nor the greatest need of society.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3080785

  15. Informatics critical to public health surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Smith, Jack W.; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, Samuel W.; Lillibridge, Scott R.

    2003-09-01

    Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health by effective response management and coordination. As new pressures for early detection of disease outbreaks have arisen, particularly for outbreaks of possible bioterrorism (BT) origin, and as electronic health data have become increasingly available, so has the demand for public health situation awareness systems. Although these systems are valuable for early warning of public health emergencies, there remains the cost of developing and managing such large and complex systems and of investigating inevitable false alarms. Whether these systems are dependable and cost effective enough and can demonstrate a significant and indispensable role in detection or prevention of mass casualty events of BT origin remains to be proven. This article will focus on the complexities of design, analysis, implementation and evaluation of public health surveillance and situation awareness systems and, in some cases, will discuss the key technologies being studied in Center for Biosecurity Informatics Research at University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston.

  16. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response. PMID:12508505

  17. New horizons for public health in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Aringazina, Altyn; Macdonald, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    This paper, the first ever to review and critique public health developments in Kazakhstan, suggests ways in which public health can be improved strategically. The paper outlines the main threats to health in a dynamic economically developing country, but argues that with a health care reform agenda in place, and the Governments apparent support of public health policy initiatives, the time is right for new opportunities in the promotion of health. The paper utilises the Ottawa Charter, but suggests novel, more appropriate headings for Kazakhstan, to galvanise policy makers and professionals into tackling the growing burden of disease. It concludes by calling for greater transparency in relation to Government policy initiatives, and the need for greater national and international collaboration. PMID:17294711

  18. Crime is a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J

    1998-01-01

    Crime is a public health issue. It shares common causes with ill health, particularly poverty, and fear of violent crime is itself a major cause of anxiety. Community development in pre-school education, parental education, and among ethnic minorities, both reduces crime and promotes better health, for example in reducing the effects of alcohol and illicit drugs. Health workers should contribute in full to community development. PMID:9532958

  19. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  20. Public health system partnerships: role for local boards of health in preparing the future public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine's report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century, recommended that public health education be accessible to undergraduate students. Promoting access to public health education will ideally contribute to a well-educated public health workforce, thus assuring the fulfillment of the public health mission. In response to this call to action, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in developing a functional partnership between academic institutions and local boards of health in preparing future public health professionals. Local boards of health in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of their collaborations with academic partners; and (3) assess how they jointly advance public health workforce development. Despite the main barriers of a lack of time, staff, and funding that are often cited for the absence of collaborations between institutions, one New England state, in particular, reported that their academic institution and local board of health partnerships were important and effective. The authors discuss how academic-practice collaborations hold the potential to combine basic public health principles with leadership and governance experience offered by local boards of health. Such partnerships are underutilized and have the potential to integrate core public health concepts while facilitating applied experiential learning opportunities in a professional public health setting, thus contributing to the development of the future public health workforce. PMID:23897268

  1. Pooling academic resources for public health.

    PubMed

    Michael, J M; Hayakawa, J M

    1994-01-01

    In January 1984, the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) was established, bringing together 5 schools of public health with the objectives: to raise the quality of professional education in public health; to enhance the knowledge and skills of health workers through joint projects; to solve health problems through closer links with each other and with ministries of health; to increase opportunities for graduate students through curriculum development; and to make child survival a major priority. The Consortium now comprises 31 academic institutions or units in 16 countries, and is supported by UNICEF, The World Health Organization, the China Medical Board of New York, and the governments of Japan and Malaysia. During 1985-1992, it also received major support from the United States through the US Agency for International Development and the University of Hawaii. During the past 10 years, APACPH has carried out such activities as setting up a data bank on the programs of its members, assessing public health problems, designing new curriculum and systems for service delivery, facilitating information and faculty exchanges, and running workshops for academic administrators. It has also organized conferences on the impact of urbanization on health, aging, child survival, AIDS, and occupational health. Since 1987 it has published the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, the only English language journal on public health issues in the Asia and Pacific region, which will feature work being done by non-English-speaking researchers. Emphasis in the coming years will be placed on setting common standards for teaching and research, so that members can make more use of each other's programs. It is hoped that membership of the Consortium will continue to expand. A particular concern will be to focus more resources on preventive care rather than curative. PMID:7945762

  2. Public health communications and alert fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care providers play a significant role in large scale health emergency planning, detection, response, recovery and communication with the public. The effectiveness of health care providers in emergency preparedness and response roles depends, in part, on public health agencies communicating information in a way that maximizes the likelihood that the message is delivered, received, deemed credible and, when appropriate, acted on. However, during an emergency, health care providers can become inundated with alerts and advisories through numerous national, state, local and professional communication channels. We conducted an alert fatigue study as a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial which aimed to identify the most effective methods of communicating public health messages between public health agencies and providers. We report an analysis of the effects of public health message volume/frequency on recall of specific message content and effect of rate of message communications on health care provider alert fatigue. Methods Health care providers enrolled in the larger study (n=528) were randomized to receive public health messages via email, fax, short message service (SMS or cell phone text messaging) or to a control group that did not receive messages. For 12 months, study messages based on real events of public health significance were sent quarterly with follow-up telephone interviews regarding message receipt and topic recall conducted 5–10 days after the message delivery date. During a pandemic when numerous messages are sent, alert fatigue may impact ability to recall whether a specific message has been received due to the “noise” created by the higher number of messages. To determine the impact of “noise” when study messages were sent, we compared health care provider recall of the study message topic to the number of local public health messages sent to health care providers. Results We calculated the mean number of

  3. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    PubMed

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them. PMID:23130743

  4. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important. PMID:26191520

  5. Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disasters Health Disparities Profiles in Public Health Study Study Overview Graduates of CEPH-accredited schools and programs of public health are equipped with the population health skills to address the world’s most pressing health issues. ...

  6. Afterword: elaborating health and medicine's publics.

    PubMed

    Scott, J Blake

    2014-06-01

    This essay argues that medical and health humanists interested in the rhetorical work of publics can extend their research by attending to embodiment and infrastructure. In addition to discussing how such strategies are illustrated in the essays appearing in this special issue, I relate them to the rhetorical study of personal health records (PHRs) as described in consumer-directed arguments. I conclude by posing two questions to health and medical humanists: "How do discursive constructions of publics and more specific instantiations of embodied experiences mutually shape each other?" and "What do the infrastructures of health and medical users look like and involve in their enactment?" PMID:24748109

  7. Framing the Public Health of Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Ronda C.; Crews, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Caregiving has only recently been acknowledged by the nation as an important topic for millions of Americans. A psychological or sociological approach to care-giving services has been most often applied, with little attention to the population-based public health outcomes of caregivers. We conceptualize caregiving as an emerging public health issue involving complex and fluctuating roles. We contend that caregiving must be considered in the context of life span needs that vary according to the ages, developmental levels, mental health needs, and physical health demands of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:17194871

  8. [Public health policies in Chile: seeking to regain trust].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare represents a key area in the public agenda. In the case of Chile, this central part of citizen demands has emerged with an increasing criticism of the health system, its actors and institutions, while a major democratic and legitimacy crisis in Chilean society unfolds. The starting point of this analysis is the link between the critical and widespread societal dissatisfaction with the legitimacy crisis in the health sector. There is an interdependence and parallelism between these two different aspects of the crisis. The analysis is built around the dimensions of trust and legitimacy as a potential driver of the conflict, taking as an analytical framework the socio-political matrix. Conceptual elements around the ideas of trust and legitimacy in public policies are reviewed. This article focuses on recent situations surrounding the dynamics of the Chilean health system such as the rise of the Instituciones de Salud Previsional (ISAPRE) and the market-driven health system, the failed health care reform of the last decade, conflicts of interest in the formulation of public policies, loss of legitimacy of healthcare authorities, and the role of the health professionals in this process. Finally, a discussion arises seeking to regain public trust as a central issue for the future development and sustainability of health policies. PMID:27602919

  9. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-11-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278

  10. Protecting Labor Rights: Roles for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-01-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278