Public-key encryption with chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocarev, Ljupco; Sterjev, Marjan; Fekete, Attila; Vattay, Gabor
2004-12-01
We propose public-key encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps, which are generalization of well-known and commercially used algorithms: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), ElGamal, and Rabin. For the case of generalized RSA algorithm we discuss in detail its software implementation and properties. We show that our algorithm is as secure as RSA algorithm.
Public-key encryption with chaos.
Kocarev, Ljupco; Sterjev, Marjan; Fekete, Attila; Vattay, Gabor
2004-12-01
We propose public-key encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps, which are generalization of well-known and commercially used algorithms: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), ElGamal, and Rabin. For the case of generalized RSA algorithm we discuss in detail its software implementation and properties. We show that our algorithm is as secure as RSA algorithm. PMID:15568922
An Inexpensive Device for Teaching Public Key Encryption
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pendegraft, Norman
2009-01-01
An inexpensive device to assist in teaching the main ideas of Public Key encryption and its use in class to illustrate the operation of public key encryption is described. It illustrates that there are two keys, and is particularly useful for illustrating that privacy is achieved by using the public key. Initial data from in class use seem to…
Public-key encryption and authentication of quantum information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Min; Yang, Li
2012-09-01
Public-key cryptosystems for quantum messages are considered from two aspects: public-key encryption and public-key authentication. Firstly, we propose a general construction of quantum public-key encryption scheme, and then construct an information-theoretic secure instance. Then, we propose a quantum public-key authentication scheme, which can protect the integrity of quantum messages. This scheme can both encrypt and authenticate quantum messages. It is information-theoretic secure with regard to encryption, and the success probability of tampering decreases exponentially with the security parameter with regard to authentication. Compared with classical public-key cryptosystems, one private-key in our schemes corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys, and every quantum public-key used by the sender is an unknown quantum state to the sender.
A complete classification of quantum public-key encryption protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2015-10-01
We present a classification of quantum public-key encryption protocols. There are six elements in quantum public-key encryption: plaintext, ciphertext, public-key, private-key, encryption algorithm and decryption algorithm. According to the property of each element which is either quantum or classical, the quantum public-key encryption protocols can be divided into 64 kinds. Among 64 kinds of protocols, 8 kinds have already been constructed, 52 kinds can be proved to be impossible to construct and the remaining 4 kinds have not been presented effectively yet. This indicates that the research on quantum public-key encryption protocol should be focus on the existed kinds and the unproposed kinds.
Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka
2010-03-01
Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-08-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-05-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
Novel Public Key Encryption Technique Based on Multiple Chaotic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Ranjan
2005-08-01
Public key encryption was first introduced by Diffie and Hellman in 1976. Since then, the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol has been used in developing public key systems such as Rivest-Shamir-Adleman and elliptic curve cryptography. Chaotic functions, so far, have been used for symmetric cryptography only. In this Letter we propose, for the first time, a methodology to use multiple chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Letter that reports the use of chaotic systems for public key cryptography. We have shown that the security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP)m, where N, P, and m are large numbers that can be chosen as the parameters of the cryptosystem.
Novel public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems.
Bose, Ranjan
2005-08-26
Public key encryption was first introduced by Diffie and Hellman in 1976. Since then, the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol has been used in developing public key systems such as Rivest-Shamir-Adleman and elliptic curve cryptography. Chaotic functions, so far, have been used for symmetric cryptography only. In this Letter we propose, for the first time, a methodology to use multiple chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Letter that reports the use of chaotic systems for public key cryptography. We have shown that the security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP)(m), where N, P, and m are large numbers that can be chosen as the parameters of the cryptosystem. PMID:16197262
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing
2015-09-01
In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.
Image encryption based on nonlinear encryption system and public-key cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Chi, Yingying
2015-03-01
Recently, optical asymmetric cryptosystem (OACS) has became the focus of discussion and concern of researchers. Some researchers pointed out that OACS was not tenable because of misunderstanding the concept of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS). We propose an improved cryptosystem using RSA public-key algorithm based on existing OACS and the new system conforms to the basic agreement of public key cryptosystem. At the beginning of the encryption process, the system will produce an independent phase matrix and allocate the input image, which also conforms to one-time pad cryptosystem. The simulation results show that the validity of the improved cryptosystem and the high robustness against attack scheme using phase retrieval technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, B.; Sang, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.
2013-03-01
An image hiding method based on cascaded iterative Fourier transform and public-key encryption algorithm was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image was encrypted into two phase-only masks M1 and M2 via cascaded iterative Fourier transform (CIFT) algorithm. Then, the public-key encryption algorithm RSA was adopted to encrypt M2 into M2' . Finally, a host image was enlarged by extending one pixel into 2×2 pixels and each element in M1 and M2' was multiplied with a superimposition coefficient and added to or subtracted from two different elements in the 2×2 pixels of the enlarged host image. To recover the secret image from the stego-image, the two masks were extracted from the stego-image without the original host image. By applying public-key encryption algorithm, the key distribution was facilitated, and also compared with the image hiding method based on optical interference, the proposed method may reach higher robustness by employing the characteristics of the CIFT algorithm. Computer simulations show that this method has good robustness against image processing.
Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.
Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen
2015-02-01
Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature. PMID:25634700
A simple public-key attack on phase-truncation-based double-images encryption system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Xiangling; Yang, Gaobo; He, Dajiang
2015-07-01
Phase-truncation based double-images cryptosystem can avoid the iterative Fourier transforms and realize double-images encryption. In this paper, a simple public-key attack is proposed to break this cryptosystem by using arbitrary position parameters and three public keys. The attack process is composed of two steps. Firstly, the decryption keys are simply generated with the help of arbitrary position parameters and the three public keys. Secondly, the two approximate values of the original images are obtained by using the generated decryption keys. Moreover, the proposed public-key attack is different from the existing attacks. It is not sensitive to position parameters of the double-images and the computing efficiency is also much better. Computer simulation results further prove its vulnerability.
Simultaneous transmission for an encrypted image and a double random-phase encryption key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Sheng; Zhou, Xin; Li, Da-Hai; Zhou, Ding-Fu
2007-06-01
We propose a method to simultaneously transmit double random-phase encryption key and an encrypted image by making use of the fact that an acceptable decryption result can be obtained when only partial data of the encrypted image have been taken in the decryption process. First, the original image data are encoded as an encrypted image by a double random-phase encryption technique. Second, a double random-phase encryption key is encoded as an encoded key by the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. Then the amplitude of the encrypted image is modulated by the encoded key to form what we call an encoded image. Finally, the encoded image that carries both the encrypted image and the encoded key is delivered to the receiver. Based on such a method, the receiver can have an acceptable result and secure transmission can be guaranteed by the RSA cipher system.
Encrypting Digital Camera with Automatic Encryption Key Deletion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oakley, Ernest C. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A digital video camera includes an image sensor capable of producing a frame of video data representing an image viewed by the sensor, an image memory for storing video data such as previously recorded frame data in a video frame location of the image memory, a read circuit for fetching the previously recorded frame data, an encryption circuit having an encryption key input connected to receive the previously recorded frame data from the read circuit as an encryption key, an un-encrypted data input connected to receive the frame of video data from the image sensor and an encrypted data output port, and a write circuit for writing a frame of encrypted video data received from the encrypted data output port of the encryption circuit to the memory and overwriting the video frame location storing the previously recorded frame data.
Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud
Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun
2015-01-01
Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization. PMID:26380364
Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun
2015-01-01
Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization. PMID:26380364
Key management for large scale end-to-end encryption
Witzke, E.L.
1994-07-01
Symmetric end-to-end encryption requires separate keys for each pair of communicating confidants. This is a problem of Order N{sup 2}. Other factors, such as multiple sessions per pair of confidants and multiple encryption points in the ISO Reference Model complicate key management by linear factors. Public-key encryption can reduce the number of keys managed to a linear problem which is good for scaleability of key management, but comes with complicating issues and performance penalties. Authenticity is the primary ingredient of key management. If each potential pair of communicating confidants can authenticate data from each other, then any number of public encryption keys of any type can be communicated with requisite integrity. These public encryption keys can be used with the corresponding private keys to exchange symmetric cryptovariables for high data rate privacy protection. The Digital Signature Standard (DSS), which has been adopted by the United States Government, has both public and private components, similar to a public-key cryptosystem. The Digital Signature Algorithm of the DSS is intended for authenticity but not for secrecy. In this paper, the authors will show how the use of the Digital Signature Algorithm combined with both symmetric and asymmetric (public-key) encryption techniques can provide a practical solution to key management scaleability problems, by reducing the key management complexity to a problem of order N, without sacrificing the encryption speed necessary to operate in high performance networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, X. F.; Peng, X.; Cai, L. Z.; Li, A. M.; Gao, Z.; Wang, Y. R.
2009-08-01
A hybrid cryptosystem is proposed, in which one image is encrypted to two interferograms with the aid of double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and two-step phase-shifting interferometry (2-PSI), then three pairs of public-private keys are utilized to encode and decode the session keys (geometrical parameters, the second random-phase mask) and interferograms. In the stage of decryption, the ciphered image can be decrypted by wavefront reconstruction, inverse Fresnel diffraction, and real amplitude normalization. This approach can successfully solve the problem of key management and dispatch, resulting in increased security strength. The feasibility of the proposed cryptosystem and its robustness against some types of attack are verified and analyzed by computer simulations.
Method for encryption and transmission of digital keying data
Mniszewski, S.M.; Springer, E.A.; Brenner, D.P.
1988-03-29
A cryptographic method for encrypting, transmitting and decrypting keying data between a master unit and at least one remote unit is described comprising the steps of: storing in the master unit and in the remote unit key encryption keys, generating a first storage address effective to identify a master key encryption key from the key encryption keys; indexing the first storage address by a first predetermined amount to define a second storage address effective to identify a first key encryption key from the key encryption keys; indexing the first storage address by a second predetermined amount to define a third storage address effective to identify a second key encryption key from the key encryption keys; generating a data encryption key in the master unit, using the first key encryption key; encrypting the data encryption key using the second key encryption key to produce an encrypted data encryption key; downloading to the remote unit the encrypted data encryption key together with a designator value for identifying the address of the second key encryption key at the remote unit; and decrypting the encrypted data encryption key at the remote unit to reproduce the data encryption key at the remote unit.
Two-chip implementation of the RSA public-key encryption algorithm
Rieden, R.F.; Snyder, J.B.; Widman, R.J.; Barnard, W.J.
1982-01-01
A system has been developed which employs two identical integrated circuits to perform the encryption algorithm developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA) on a 336-bit message. The integrated circuit used in the system employs the 3-micron polysilicon gate, radiation-hard, CMOS technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories.
Method for encryption and transmission of digital keying data
Mniszewski, Susan M.; Springer, Edward A.; Brenner, David P.
1988-01-01
A method for the encryption, transmission, and subsequent decryption of digital keying data. The method utilizes the Data Encryption Standard and is implemented by means of a pair of apparatus, each of which is selectable to operate as either a master unit or remote unit. Each unit contains a set of key encryption keys which are indexed by a common indexing system. The master unit operates upon command from the remote unit to generate a data encryption key and encrypt the data encryption key using a preselected key encryption key. The encrypted data encryption key and an index designator are then downloaded to the remote unit, where the data encryption key is decrypted for subsequent use in the encryption and transmission data. Downloading of the encrypted data encryption key enables frequent change of keys without requiring manual entry or storage of keys at the remote unit.
New Security Results on Encrypted Key Exchange
Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David
2003-12-15
Schemes for encrypted key exchange are designed to provide two entities communicating over a public network, and sharing a (short) password only, with a session key to be used to achieve data integrity and/or message confidentiality. An example of a very efficient and ''elegant'' scheme for encrypted key exchange considered for standardization by the IEEE P1363 Standard working group is AuthA. This scheme was conjectured secure when the symmetric-encryption primitive is instantiated via either a cipher that closely behaves like an ''ideal cipher,'' or a mask generation function that is the product of the message with a hash of the password. While the security of this scheme in the former case has been recently proven, the latter case was still an open problem. For the first time we prove in this paper that this scheme is secure under the assumptions that the hash function closely behaves like a random oracle and that the computational Diffie-Hellman problem is difficult. Furthermore, since Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks have become a common threat we enhance AuthA with a mechanism to protect against them.
Multiple-image encryption based on optical asymmetric key cryptosystem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Xie, Zhenwei; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shutian
2015-01-01
We propose a multiple-image encryption scheme with asymmetric keys and demonstrate it by optical experiments. The original secret images are multiplexed and encoded into a real-valued ciphertext using only one public encryption key. In the decryption process, each secret image can only be de-multiplexed by its corresponding private decryption key. The multiplexing capacity is analyzed through examining the distribution of cross-talk noise and the key space of private decryption key. Numerical simulations and optical experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the validity, high security, and large multiplexing capacity of the proposed method.
A Contents Encryption Mechanism Using Reused Key in IPTV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae; Cho, Young-Bok; Lee, Ki-Jeong; Park, Gil-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Ho
Recently IPTV is being spotlighted as a new stream service to stably provide video, audio and control signals to subscribers through the application of IP protocol. However, the IPTV system is facing more security threats than the traditional TV. This study proposes a multicasting encryption mechanism for secure transmission of the contents of IPTV by which the content provider encrypts their contents and send the encrypted contents and the key used for encryption of the contents to the user. In order to reduce the time and cost of Head-End, the proposed mechanism encrypts the media contents at the Head-End, embeds the code of the IPTV terminal used at the Head-End in the media contents for user tracking, and performs desynchronization for protection of the media contents from various attacks.
Key Generation for Fast Inversion of the Paillier Encryption Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirano, Takato; Tanaka, Keisuke
We study fast inversion of the Paillier encryption function. Especially, we focus only on key generation, and do not modify the Paillier encryption function. We propose three key generation algorithms based on the speeding-up techniques for the RSA encryption function. By using our algorithms, the size of the private CRT exponent is half of that of Paillier-CRT. The first algorithm employs the extended Euclidean algorithm. The second algorithm employs factoring algorithms, and can construct the private CRT exponent with low Hamming weight. The third algorithm is a variant of the second one, and has some advantage such as compression of the private CRT exponent and no requirement for factoring algorithms. We also propose the settings of the parameters for these algorithms and analyze the security of the Paillier encryption function by these algorithms against known attacks. Finally, we give experimental results of our algorithms.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement protocol based on commutative encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiwu; Wang, Ping
2016-05-01
A secure multiparty quantum key agreement protocol using single-qubit states is proposed. The agreement key is computed by performing exclusive-OR operation on all the participants' secret keys. Based on the commutative property of the commutative encryption, the exclusive-OR operation can be performed on the plaintext in the encrypted state without decrypting it. Thus, it not only protects the final shared key, but also reduces the complexity of the computation. The efficiency of the proposed protocol, compared with previous multiparty QKA protocols, is also improved. In the presented protocol, entanglement states, joint measurement and even the unitary operations are not needed, and only rotation operations and single-state measurement are required, which are easier to be realized with current technology.
Key management and encryption under the bounded storage model.
Draelos, Timothy John; Neumann, William Douglas; Lanzone, Andrew J.; Anderson, William Erik
2005-11-01
There are several engineering obstacles that need to be solved before key management and encryption under the bounded storage model can be realized. One of the critical obstacles hindering its adoption is the construction of a scheme that achieves reliable communication in the event that timing synchronization errors occur. One of the main accomplishments of this project was the development of a new scheme that solves this problem. We show in general that there exist message encoding techniques under the bounded storage model that provide an arbitrarily small probability of transmission error. We compute the maximum capacity of this channel using the unsynchronized key-expansion as side-channel information at the decoder and provide tight lower bounds for a particular class of key-expansion functions that are pseudo-invariant to timing errors. Using our results in combination with Dziembowski et al. [11] encryption scheme we can construct a scheme that solves the timing synchronization error problem. In addition to this work we conducted a detailed case study of current and future storage technologies. We analyzed the cost, capacity, and storage data rate of various technologies, so that precise security parameters can be developed for bounded storage encryption schemes. This will provide an invaluable tool for developing these schemes in practice.
Security enhanced optical encryption system by random phase key and permutation key.
He, Mingzhao; Tan, Qiaofeng; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan
2009-12-01
Conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) encrypts plaintext to white noise-like ciphertext which may attract attention of eavesdroppers, and recent research reported that DRPE is vulnerable to various attacks. Here we propose a security enhanced optical encryption system that can hide the existence of secret information by watermarking. The plaintext is encrypted using iterative fractional Fourier transform with random phase key, and ciphertext is randomly permuted with permutation key before watermarking. Cryptanalysis shows that linearity of the security system has been broken and the permutation key prevent the attacker from accessing the ciphertext in various attacks. A series of simulations have shown the effectiveness of this system and the security strength is enhanced for invisibility, nonlinearity and resistance against attacks. PMID:20052170
Sarkadi, Tamás; Koppa, Pál
2012-02-20
In the increasing number of system approaches published in the field of optical encryption, the security level of the system is evaluated by qualitative and empirical methods. To quantify the security of the optical system, we propose to use the equivalent of the key length routinely used in algorithmic encryption. We provide a calculation method of the number of independent keys and deduce the binary key length for optical data encryption. We then investigate and optimize the key length of the combined phase- and amplitude-modulated key encryption in the holographic storage environment, which is one of the promising solutions for the security enhancement of single- and double-random phase-encoding encryption and storage systems. We show that a substantial growth of the key length can be achieved by optimized phase and amplitude modulation compared to phase-only encryption. We also provide experimental confirmation of the model results. PMID:22358164
Practical and Secure Recovery of Disk Encryption Key Using Smart Cards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omote, Kazumasa; Kato, Kazuhiko
In key-recovery methods using smart cards, a user can recover the disk encryption key in cooperation with the system administrator, even if the user has lost the smart card including the disk encryption key. However, the disk encryption key is known to the system administrator in advance in most key-recovery methods. Hence user's disk data may be read by the system administrator. Furthermore, if the disk encryption key is not known to the system administrator in advance, it is difficult to achieve a key authentication. In this paper, we propose a scheme which enables to recover the disk encryption key when the user's smart card is lost. In our scheme, the disk encryption key is not preserved anywhere and then the system administrator cannot know the key before key-recovery phase. Only someone who has a user's smart card and knows the user's password can decrypt that user's disk data. Furthermore, we measured the processing time required for user authentication in an experimental environment using a virtual machine monitor. As a result, we found that this processing time is short enough to be practical.
Quantum walk public-key cryptographic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlachou, C.; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.
2015-12-01
Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public-key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that the protocol is secure and analyze the complexity of public key generation and encryption/decryption procedures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnicer, Arturo; Montes-Usategui, Mario; Arcos, Sergio; Juvells, Ignacio
2005-07-01
We show how optical encryption methods based on double random phase keys are vulnerable to an organized attack of the chosen-ciphertext type. The decryption key can be easily obtained by an opponent who has repeated access to either the encryption or decryption machines. However, we have also devised a solution that prevents the attack. Our results cast doubts on the present security of these techniques.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tapson, Frank
1996-01-01
Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)
Three-dimensional key in a modified joint transform correlator encryption scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rueda, E.; Tebaldi, M.; Torroba, R.; Bolognini, N.
2011-09-01
We propose a modified encryption joint transform correlator scheme that introduces an additional random phase mask. The positions of both the conventional and the new mask are crucial for successful recovery of the original data. Although the two random phase masks are 2D, variation of their relative distance constitutes an additional dimension. Consequently by including this notion, both random phase masks act as a 3-dimensional (3D) key code increasing thereby the security with respect to the conventional JTC encryption scheme. We employ this scheme to multiplex encrypted data, displacing the encoding masks. During decryption of the multiplexed information, we only reconstruct the object that matches the correct predetermined 3D key code, i.e. that matches the random masks positions in the encryption step. We present actual experimental results, by using BSO crystal as recording medium, as well as their respective analysis.
Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft
Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.
1995-09-25
Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.
Chaotic Image Encryption Based on Running-Key Related to Plaintext
Guanghui, Cao; Kai, Hu; Yizhi, Zhang; Jun, Zhou; Xing, Zhang
2014-01-01
In the field of chaotic image encryption, the algorithm based on correlating key with plaintext has become a new developing direction. However, for this kind of algorithm, some shortcomings in resistance to reconstruction attack, efficient utilization of chaotic resource, and reducing dynamical degradation of digital chaos are found. In order to solve these problems and further enhance the security of encryption algorithm, based on disturbance and feedback mechanism, we present a new image encryption scheme. In the running-key generation stage, by successively disturbing chaotic stream with cipher-text, the relation of running-key to plaintext is established, reconstruction attack is avoided, effective use of chaotic resource is guaranteed, and dynamical degradation of digital chaos is minimized. In the image encryption stage, by introducing random-feedback mechanism, the difficulty of breaking this scheme is increased. Comparing with the-state-of-the-art algorithms, our scheme exhibits good properties such as large key space, long key period, and extreme sensitivity to the initial key and plaintext. Therefore, it can resist brute-force, reconstruction attack, and differential attack. PMID:24711727
Optical image encryption using password key based on phase retrieval algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing
2016-04-01
A novel optical image encryption system is proposed using password key based on phase retrieval algorithm (PRA). In the encryption process, a shared image is taken as a symmetric key and the plaintext is encoded into the phase-only mask based on the iterative PRA. The linear relationship between the plaintext and ciphertext is broken using the password key, which can resist the known plaintext attack. The symmetric key and the retrieved phase are imported into the input plane and Fourier plane of 4f system during the decryption, respectively, so as to obtain the plaintext on the CCD. Finally, we analyse the key space of the password key, and the results show that the proposed scheme can resist a brute force attack due to the flexibility of the password key.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-07-25
The Public Key (PK) FPGA software performs asymmetric authentication using the 163-bit Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) on an embedded FPGA platform. A digital signature is created on user-supplied data, and communication with a host system is performed via a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus. Software includes all components necessary for signing, including custom random number generator for key creation and SHA-256 for data hashing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing
2016-08-01
A novel image encryption system based on double random phase encoding (DRPE) and RSA public-key algorithm is proposed. The main characteristic of the system is that each encryption process produces a new decryption key (even for the same plaintext), thus the encryption system conforms to the feature of the one-time pad (OTP) cryptography. The other characteristic of the system is the use of fingerprint key. Only with the rightful authorization will the true decryption be obtained, otherwise the decryption will result in noisy images. So the proposed system can be used to determine whether the ciphertext is falsified by attackers. In addition, the system conforms to the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptosystem (ACS) due to the combination with the RSA public-key algorithm. The simulation results show that the encryption scheme has high robustness against the existing attacks.
Controlled order rearrangement encryption for quantum key distribution
Deng Fuguo; Long, G.L.
2003-10-01
A technique is devised to perform orthogonal state quantum key distribution. In this scheme, entangled parts of a quantum information carrier are sent from Alice to Bob through two quantum channels. However, before the transmission, the order of the quantum information carrier in one channel is reordered so that Eve cannot steal useful information. At the receiver's end, the order of the quantum information carrier is restored. The order rearrangement operation in both parties is controlled by a prior shared control key which is used repeatedly in a quantum key distribution session.
Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaik, Cheman
A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.
Forward search as a cryptanalytic tool against a public key privacy channel
Simmons, G.J.; Holdridge, D.
1982-01-01
In symmetric cryptosystems that depend on a single (secret) key for both encryption and decryption, a cryptanalyst - since the key is unknown to him - must either work backward from the cipher or else from the cipher and some known pairs of plaintext messages and matching ciphers in attempting to recover the plaintext. In an asymmetric (two key) cryptosystem used in the public key, i.e., privacy channel, mode where the encryption key is publicly exposed so that anyone who wishes can encrypt messages that can only be decrypted by the person having the (secret) decryption key, a cryptanalytic weakness may occur that has no counterpart in symmetric systems. If the entropy of the input messages is too small (roughly speaking if it is computationally feasible to search through the most likely messages) either because the total number of messages is small or because a small number of the messages occur with high probabilities, the cryptanalyst can pre-encrypt these messages to form a cipher file that can then be matched against observed ciphers to accomplish a simple substitution decryption. This forward search cryptanalytic weakness of a public key privacy channel is purely a function of the entropy of the plaintext messages and does not depend on the existence of any cryptanalytic weakness in the concealment of the secret decryption key from a knowledge of the public encryption key in the underlying public key algorithm.
Channel-Based Key Generation for Encrypted Body-Worn Wireless Sensor Networks.
Van Torre, Patrick
2016-01-01
Body-worn sensor networks are important for rescue-workers, medical and many other applications. Sensitive data are often transmitted over such a network, motivating the need for encryption. Body-worn sensor networks are deployed in conditions where the wireless communication channel varies dramatically due to fading and shadowing, which is considered a disadvantage for communication. Interestingly, these channel variations can be employed to extract a common encryption key at both sides of the link. Legitimate users share a unique physical channel and the variations thereof provide data series on both sides of the link, with highly correlated values. An eavesdropper, however, does not share this physical channel and cannot extract the same information when intercepting the signals. This paper documents a practical wearable communication system implementing channel-based key generation, including an implementation and a measurement campaign comprising indoor as well as outdoor measurements. The results provide insight into the performance of channel-based key generation in realistic practical conditions. Employing a process known as key reconciliation, error free keys are generated in all tested scenarios. The key-generation system is computationally simple and therefore compatible with the low-power micro controllers and low-data rate transmissions commonly used in wireless sensor networks. PMID:27618051
Analysis of selected methods for the recovery of encrypted WEP key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Belka, Radosław
2014-11-01
This paper deals with some of the WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) key decryption methods based on aircrack-ng software, which was embedded in Backtrack operating system (Linux distribution). The 64-bit (40-bit) and 128-bit (104- bit) key encrypted with RC4 cipher weakness was shown. Research methods were made in different network environments. In this work we compared different types of keys to check how strong the RC4 stream cipher can be. The 40-bit and 104-bit WEP key has been tested on IEEE 802.11 based wireless LAN using laptop with live-CD Linux operating system. A short analysis of key creation methods was performed to compare the amount of time necessary to decrypt random and nonrandom WEP keys.
High efficient key-insulated attribute based encryption scheme without bilinear pairing operations.
Hong, Hanshu; Sun, Zhixin
2016-01-01
Attribute based encryption (ABE) has been widely applied for secure data protection in various data sharing systems. However, the efficiency of existing ABE schemes is not high enough since running encrypt and decrypt algorithms need frequent bilinear pairing operations, which may occupy too much computing resources on terminal devices. What's more, since different users may share the same attributes in the system, a single user's private key exposure will threaten the security and confidentiality of the whole system. Therefore, to further decrease the computation cost in attribute based cryptosystem as well as provide secure protection when key exposure happens, in this paper, we firstly propose a high efficient key-insulated ABE algorithm without pairings. The key-insulated mechanism guarantees both forward security and backward security when key exposure or user revocation happens. Besides, during the running of algorithms in our scheme, users and attribute authority needn't run any bilinear pairing operations, which will increase the efficiency to a large extent. The high efficiency and security analysis indicate that our scheme is more appropriate for secure protection in data sharing systems. PMID:26933630
A public-key cryptosystem for quantum message transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Li
2005-01-01
We present a quantum public-key cryptography protocol for quantum message transmission. The private key of this protocol includes three classical matrices: a generator matrix of a Goppa code, an invertible matrix and a permutation matrix. The public key is product of these three matrices. The encryption and decryption algorithms are merely quantum computations related with the transformations between bases of the quantum registers. The security of this protocol is based on the hypothesis that there is no effective algorithm of NP-complete problem.
Advanced technologies for encryption of satellite links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMahan, Sherry S.
The use of encryption on satellite links is discussed. Advanced technology exists to provide transmission security for large earth station with data rates up to 50 megabits per second. One of the major concerns in the use of encryption equipment with very small aperture terminals (VSAT) is the key management issue and the related operational costs. The low cost requirement and the lack of physical protection of remote VSATs place severe constraints on the design of encryption equipment. Encryption may be accomplished by embedding a tamper proof encryption module into the baseband unit of each VSAT. VSAT networks are usually star networks where there is a single large earth station that serves as a hub and all satellite communications takes place between each VSAT and the hub earth station. The hub earth station has the secret master key of each VSAT. These master keys are used to downline load encrypted session keys to each VSAT. A more secure alternative is to use public key techniques where each embedded VSAT encryption module internally generates its own secret and public numbers. The secret number never leaves the module while the public number is sent to the hub at the time of initialization of the encryption module into the VSAT. Physical access control to encryption modules of VSAT systems can be implemented using passwords, smart cards or biometrics.
Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eraerds, P.; Walenta, N.; Legré, M.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.
2010-06-01
We perform quantum key distribution (QKD) over a single fibre in the presence of four classical channels in a C-band dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) configuration using a commercial QKD system. The classical channels are used for key distillation and 1 Gbps encrypted communication, rendering the entire system independent of any other communication channel than a single dedicated fibre. We successfully distil secret keys over fibre spans of up to 50 km. The separation between the quantum channel at 1551.72 nm and the nearest classical channel is only 200 GHz, while the classical channels are all separated by 100 GHz. In addition to that, we discuss possible improvements and alternative configurations, e.g. whether it is advantageous to choose the quantum channel at 1310 nm or to opt for a pure C-band (1530-1565 nm) configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Lilong
In this paper, we present a virtual-optical based information security system model with the aid of public-key-infrastructure (PKI) techniques. The proposed model employs a hybrid architecture in which our previously published encryption algorithm based on virtual-optics imaging methodology (VOIM) can be used to encipher and decipher data while an asymmetric algorithm, for example RSA, is applied for enciphering and deciphering the session key(s). For an asymmetric system, given an encryption key, it is computationally infeasible to determine the decryption key and vice versa. The whole information security model is run under the framework of PKI, which is on basis of public-key cryptography and digital signatures. This PKI-based VOIM security approach has additional features like confidentiality, authentication, and integrity for the purpose of data encryption under the environment of network.
Applications of single-qubit rotations in quantum public-key cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.
2008-03-01
We discuss cryptographic applications of single-qubit rotations from the perspective of trapdoor one-way functions and public-key encryption. In particular, we present an asymmetric cryptosystem whose security relies on fundamental principles of quantum physics. A quantum public key is used for the encryption of messages while decryption is possible by means of a classical private key only. The trapdoor one-way function underlying the proposed cryptosystem maps integer numbers to quantum states of a qubit and its inversion can be infeasible by virtue of the Holevo’s theorem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Dandan; Min, Lequan; Chen, Guanrong
Based on a stream encryption scheme with avalanche effect (SESAE), a stream encryption scheme with both key avalanche effect and plaintext avalanche effect (SESKPAE) is introduced. Using this scheme and an ideal 2d-word (d-segment) pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), a plaintext can be encrypted such that each bit of the ciphertext block has a change with the probable probability of (2d ‑ 1)/2d when any word of the key is changed or any bit of the plaintext is changed. To that end, a novel four-dimensional discrete chaotic system (4DDCS) is proposed. Combining the 4DDCS with a generalized synchronization (GS) theorem, a novel eight-dimensional discrete GS chaotic system (8DDGSCS) is constructed. Using the 8DDGSCS, a 216-word chaotic pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG) is designed. The keyspace of the 216-word CPRNG is larger than 21195. Then, the FIPS 140-2 test suit/generalized FIPS 140-2 test suit is used to test the randomness of the 1000-key streams consisting of 20000 bits generated by the 216-word CPRNG, the RC4 algorithm PRNG and the ZUC algorithm PRNG, respectively. The test results show that for the three PRNGs, there are 100%/98.9%, 99.9%/98.8%, 100%/97.9% key streams passing the tests, respectively. Furthermore, the SP800-22 test suite is used to test the randomness of four 100-key streams consisting of 1000000 bits generated by four PRNGs, respectively. The numerical results show that the randomness performances of the 216-word CPRNG is promising, showing that there are no significant correlations between the key streams and the perturbed key streams generated via the 216-word CPRNG. Finally, using the 216-word CPRNG and the SESKPAE to encrypt two gray-scale images, test results demonstrate that the 216-word CPRNG is able to generate both key avalanche effect and plaintext avalanche effect, which are similar to those generated via an ideal CPRNG, and performs better than other comparable schemes.
Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.
Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.
Virtual-optical information security system based on public key infrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Cai, Lilong; Niu, Hanben
2005-01-01
A virtual-optical based encryption model with the aid of public key infrastructure (PKI) is presented in this paper. The proposed model employs a hybrid architecture in which our previously published encryption method based on virtual-optics scheme (VOS) can be used to encipher and decipher data while an asymmetric algorithm, for example RSA, is applied for enciphering and deciphering the session key(s). The whole information security model is run under the framework of international standard ITU-T X.509 PKI, which is on basis of public-key cryptography and digital signatures. This PKI-based VOS security approach has additional features like confidentiality, authentication, and integrity for the purpose of data encryption under the environment of network. Numerical experiments prove the effectiveness of the method. The security of proposed model is briefly analyzed by examining some possible attacks from the viewpoint of a cryptanalysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Leihong; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Ma, Xiuhua; Zhang, Dawei
2015-12-01
An optical encryption method based on compressive ghost imaging (CGI) with double random-phase encoding (DRPE), named DRPE-CGI, is proposed. The information is first encrypted by the sender with DRPE, the DRPE-coded image is encrypted by the system of computational ghost imaging with a secret key. The key of N random-phase vectors is generated by the sender and will be shared with the receiver who is the authorized user. The receiver decrypts the DRPE-coded image with the key, with the aid of CGI and a compressive sensing technique, and then reconstructs the original information by the technique of DRPE-decoding. The experiments suggest that cryptanalysts cannot get any useful information about the original image even if they eavesdrop 60% of the key at a given time, so the security of DRPE-CGI is higher than that of the security of conventional ghost imaging. Furthermore, this method can reduce 40% of the information quantity compared with ghost imaging while the qualities of reconstructing the information are the same. It can also improve the quality of the reconstructed plaintext information compared with DRPE-GI with the same sampling times. This technique can be immediately applied to encryption and data storage with the advantages of high security, fast transmission, and high quality of reconstructed information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Chuang
New telecommunication techniques utilizing distinctive quantum properties, e.g., measurement uncertainties and entanglement, extend the capabilities of existing systems. Quantum cryptography, as an example, provides physical layer security enforced by fundamental physical laws, while modern cryptographic techniques rely on assumptions of intractability of certain mathematical problems with limited computational power. Rapid growth of the Internet leading to global telecommunications puts heavy demands on information security. A novel keyed direct data encryption technique based on the fundamental and irreducible quantum noise of laser light is shown to be compatible with the existing high-speed optical communications infrastructure. With this technique, line encryption for OC-12 (622 Mbps) SONET data over 250 km in a wavelength-division-multiplexing network is demonstrated with fully streaming data. Nonlocal correlation is employed in applications including cryptographic key generation whose practical realizations require telecom-band photon counting and entangled photon-pair generation. Existing telecom-band avalanche-photodiode based photon-counting techniques suffer from large detection noise at high operation rates. New techniques such as ultrashort gating and synchronous sampling at the onset of avalanches are introduced for suppressing the detection noise at high operation speeds. Photon counting at record speeds (25 MHz) that employing an avalanche photodiode is developed, demonstrated and deployed in the experimental studies. Telecom-band correlated photons can be directly created inside optical fibers through its chi(3) nonlinearity. This technique brings practical advantages such as the easy compatibility with fiber-optic systems, excellent spatial modal purity, and potential high-speed operation. As a practical development of this technique, a novel Faraday-mirror based ultra-stable scheme for generating polarization entangled photon-pairs is proposed
Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Public Key Infrastructure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Tuey, Richard; Ma, Paul (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Security is an essential part of network communication. The advances in cryptography have provided solutions to many of the network security requirements. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the foundation of the cryptography applications. The main objective of this research is to design a model to simulate a reliable, scalable, manageable, and high-performance public key infrastructure. We build a model to simulate the NASA public key infrastructure by using SimProcess and MatLab Software. The simulation is from top level all the way down to the computation needed for encryption, decryption, digital signature, and secure web server. The application of secure web server could be utilized in wireless communications. The results of the simulation are analyzed and confirmed by using queueing theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xu; Shao, Quanqin; Zhu, Yunhai; Deng, Yuejin; Yang, Haijun
2006-10-01
With the development of informationization and the separation between data management departments and application departments, spatial data sharing becomes one of the most important objectives for the spatial information infrastructure construction, and spatial metadata management system, data transmission security and data compression are the key technologies to realize spatial data sharing. This paper discusses the key technologies for metadata based on data interoperability, deeply researches the data compression algorithms such as adaptive Huffman algorithm, LZ77 and LZ78 algorithm, studies to apply digital signature technique to encrypt spatial data, which can not only identify the transmitter of spatial data, but also find timely whether the spatial data are sophisticated during the course of network transmission, and based on the analysis of symmetric encryption algorithms including 3DES,AES and asymmetric encryption algorithm - RAS, combining with HASH algorithm, presents a improved mix encryption method for spatial data. Digital signature technology and digital watermarking technology are also discussed. Then, a new solution of spatial data network distribution is put forward, which adopts three-layer architecture. Based on the framework, we give a spatial data network distribution system, which is efficient and safe, and also prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Robert E.
2001-11-01
approximately 15 Gigabyte table of IV values can be used to encrypt any packet. On a network only partially infiltrated, bit-wise manipulated packets can spoof their validity using the linear nature of the CSC checksum. Any combination of passive and active attacks can be used to modify commands as they are being sent or login information can be taken for use on another network to access personal accounts. WEP also has a critical flaw outside of the sophisticated attacks that can be used to subvert its security. WEP uses a shared key known by both the client machines and the base stations. For this reason the key can be lost through human security problems. This includes the loss of equipment to theft, employee turnover and general mishandling of key information. In order to implement secure wireless networks it has become clear that a new scheme must be developed which can address the 3 security concerns mentioned earlier and at the same time function on existing hardware and software.
Experiences of Using a Public Key Infrastructure for the Preparation of Examination Papers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chadwick, David W.; Tassabehji, Rana; Young, Andrew
2000-01-01
Describes a project at the University of Salford (United Kingdom) that transferred examination papers between participants (lecturers, administrators and external examiners) using secure electronic mail via a managed public key infrastructure that used encryption methods. Discusses resistance to change and technology problems. (Contains 6…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Hughes, David H.; Malowicki, John; Bedi, Vijit
2015-05-01
Free-space optical communication channels offer secure links with low probability of interception and detection. Despite their point-to-point topology, additional security features may be required in privacy-critical applications. Encryption can be achieved at the physical layer by using quantized values of photons, which makes exploitation of such quantum communication links extremely difficult. One example of such technology is keyed communication in quantum noise, a novel quantum modulation protocol that offers ultra-secure communication with competitive performance characteristics. Its utilization relies on specific coherent measurements to decrypt the signal. The process of measurements is complicated by the inherent and irreducible quantum noise of coherent states. This problem is different from traditional laser communication with coherent detection; therefore continuous efforts are being made to improve the measurement techniques. Quantum-based encryption systems that use the phase of the signal as the information carrier impose aggressive requirements on the accuracy of the measurements when an unauthorized party attempts intercepting the data stream. Therefore, analysis of the secrecy of the data becomes extremely important. In this paper, we present the results of a study that had a goal of assessment of potential vulnerability of the running key. Basic results of the laboratory measurements are combined with simulation studies and statistical analysis that can be used for both conceptual improvement of the encryption approach and for quantitative comparison of secrecy of different quantum communication protocols.
Broadcast encryption: paving the road to practical content protection systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deen, G.; Ponceleon, D.; Leake, Donald, Jr.
2009-02-01
Broadcast encryption is a well established alternative to public key encryption for use in content protection systems. It offers significant performance benefits, as well as useful features such a one-to-many delivery, dynamic membership in the authorized receivers group, and provides anonymous access to content, permitting content protection systems to preserve privacy for consumers. Broadcast encryption has been successfully deployed to users for protection of commercial content on digital media such as flash memory devices and optical media for both standard-definition and high-definition content. In this paper, we present the Advanced Secure Content Cluster Technology which applies broadcast encryption to content protection for home media networks
An Identity-Based (IDB) Broadcast Encryption Scheme with Personalized Messages (BEPM)
Xu, Ke; Liao, Yongjian; Qiao, Li
2015-01-01
A broadcast encryption scheme with personalized messages (BEPM) is a scheme in which a broadcaster transmits not only encrypted broadcast messages to a subset of recipients but also encrypted personalized messages to each user individually. Several broadcast encryption (BE) schemes allow a broadcaster encrypts a message for a subset S of recipients with public keys and any user in S can decrypt the message with his/her private key. However, these BE schemes can not provide an efficient way to transmit encrypted personalized messages to each user individually. In this paper, we propose a broadcast encryption scheme with a transmission of personalized messages. Besides, the scheme is based on multilinear maps ensure constant ciphertext size and private key size of each user and the scheme can achieve statically security. More realistically, the scheme can be applied to the Conditional Access System (CAS) of pay television (pay-TV) efficiently and safely. PMID:26629817
An Identity-Based (IDB) Broadcast Encryption Scheme with Personalized Messages (BEPM).
Xu, Ke; Liao, Yongjian; Qiao, Li; Liu, Zhangyun; Yang, Xiaowei
2015-01-01
A broadcast encryption scheme with personalized messages (BEPM) is a scheme in which a broadcaster transmits not only encrypted broadcast messages to a subset of recipients but also encrypted personalized messages to each user individually. Several broadcast encryption (BE) schemes allow a broadcaster encrypts a message for a subset S of recipients with public keys and any user in S can decrypt the message with his/her private key. However, these BE schemes can not provide an efficient way to transmit encrypted personalized messages to each user individually. In this paper, we propose a broadcast encryption scheme with a transmission of personalized messages. Besides, the scheme is based on multilinear maps ensure constant ciphertext size and private key size of each user and the scheme can achieve statically security. More realistically, the scheme can be applied to the Conditional Access System (CAS) of pay television (pay-TV) efficiently and safely. PMID:26629817
Virtual microscopy and public-key cryptography for Internet telepathology.
Strauss, J S; Felten, C L; Okada, D H; Marchevsky, A M
1999-01-01
The Internet is a potentially inexpensive, widely available medium for telepathology, but there are concerns about its reliability and security. Using a digital camera, 41 photomicrographs of transbronchial biopsies, at x 100 optical magnification, were captured and digitized at 2700 x 3400 pixel, 24 bit/pixel resolution. The image files were saved in JPEG format at medium compression, attached to text files with patient information, encrypted for security in the S/MIME format using a digital signature and digital envelope, and transmitted by email. Received email files were decrypted automatically and the images viewed with standard software. Telepathology diagnoses were compared with original interpretations. The images averaged 810 kByte in size. The encryption and decryption did not cause significant delays in overall transmission time and, together with transmission, did not produce noticeable image degradation. The received image files could be viewed in a manner that simulated light microscopy. There was agreement between telepathology and original diagnoses in 92% of the cases. All the discrepancies were due to inadequate area selection because the pathological features of interest were present in histological levels other than those photographed. The use of high-resolution digital photomicrography, the Internet and public-key cryptography offers an effective and relatively inexpensive method of telepathology consultation. The method is best suited for the diagnosis of small biopsy specimens that require the transmission of only a few digital images that represent the majority of the biopsy materials. PMID:10628020
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go
2010-02-15
One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)
1998-01-01
An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.
Quantum Secure Dialogue with Quantum Encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Tian-Yu
2014-09-01
How to solve the information leakage problem has become the research focus of quantum dialogue. In this paper, in order to overcome the information leakage problem in quantum dialogue, a novel approach for sharing the initial quantum state privately between communicators, i.e., quantum encryption sharing, is proposed by utilizing the idea of quantum encryption. The proposed protocol uses EPR pairs as the private quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the traveling photons, which can be repeatedly used after rotation. Due to quantum encryption sharing, the public announcement on the state of the initial quantum state is omitted, thus the information leakage problem is overcome. The information-theoretical efficiency of the proposed protocol is nearly 100%, much higher than previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols. Moreover, the proposed protocol only needs single-photon measurements and nearly uses single photons as quantum resource so that it is convenient to implement in practice.
Fast WEP-Key Recovery Attack Using Only Encrypted IP Packets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teramura, Ryoichi; Asakura, Yasuo; Ohigashi, Toshihiro; Kuwakado, Hidenori; Morii, Masakatu
Conventional efficient key recovery attacks against Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) require specific initialization vectors or specific packets. Since it takes much time to collect the packets sufficiently, any active attack should be performed. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS), however, will be able to prevent the attack. Since the attack logs are stored at the servers, it is possible to prevent such an attack. This paper proposes an algorithm for recovering a 104-bit WEP key from any IP packets in a realistic environment. This attack needs about 36, 500 packets with a success probability 0.5, and the complexity of our attack is equivalent to about 220 computations of the RC4 key setups. Since our attack is passive, it is difficult for both WEP users and administrators to detect our attack.
Public key infrastructure for DOE security research
Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E.
1997-06-01
This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.
Video encryption using chaotic masks in joint transform correlator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka
2015-03-01
A real-time optical video encryption technique using a chaotic map has been reported. In the proposed technique, each frame of video is encrypted using two different chaotic random phase masks in the joint transform correlator architecture. The different chaotic random phase masks can be obtained either by using different iteration levels or by using different seed values of the chaotic map. The use of different chaotic random phase masks makes the decryption process very complex for an unauthorized person. Optical, as well as digital, methods can be used for video encryption but the decryption is possible only digitally. To further enhance the security of the system, the key parameters of the chaotic map are encoded using RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) public key encryption. Numerical simulations are carried out to validate the proposed technique.
Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lefton, Phyllis
1991-01-01
Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)
Compressive optical image encryption.
Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong
2015-01-01
An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume. PMID:25992946
Compressive Optical Image Encryption
Li, Jun; Sheng Li, Jiao; Yang Pan, Yang; Li, Rong
2015-01-01
An optical image encryption technique based on compressive sensing using fully optical means has been proposed. An object image is first encrypted to a white-sense stationary noise pattern using a double random phase encoding (DRPE) method in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Then, the encrypted image is highly compressed to a signal using single-pixel compressive holographic imaging in the optical domain. At the receiving terminal, the encrypted image is reconstructed well via compressive sensing theory, and the original image can be decrypted with three reconstructed holograms and the correct keys. The numerical simulations show that the method is effective and suitable for optical image security transmission in future all-optical networks because of the ability of completely optical implementation and substantially smaller hologram data volume. PMID:25992946
Quantum fully homomorphic encryption scheme based on universal quantum circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Min
2015-08-01
Fully homomorphic encryption enables arbitrary computation on encrypted data without decrypting the data. Here it is studied in the context of quantum information processing. Based on universal quantum circuit, we present a quantum fully homomorphic encryption (QFHE) scheme, which permits arbitrary quantum transformation on any encrypted data. The QFHE scheme is proved to be perfectly secure. In the scheme, the decryption key is different from the encryption key; however, the encryption key cannot be revealed. Moreover, the evaluation algorithm of the scheme is independent of the encryption key, so it is suitable for delegated quantum computing between two parties.
Arithmetic for Public-Key Cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakiyama, Kazuo; Batina, Lejla
In this chapter, we discuss arithmetic algorithms used for implementing public-key cryptography (PKC). More precisely, we explore the various algorithms for RSA exponentiation and point/divisor multiplication for curve-based cryptography. The selection of the algorithms has a profound impact on the trade-off between cost, performance, and security. The goal of this chapter is to introduce the different recoding techniques to reduce the number of computations efficiently.
Information hiding based on double random-phase encoding and public-key cryptography.
Sheng, Yuan; Xin, Zhou; Alam, Mohammed S; Xi, Lu; Xiao-Feng, Li
2009-03-01
A novel information hiding method based on double random-phase encoding (DRPE) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) public-key cryptosystem is proposed. In the proposed technique, the inherent diffusion property of DRPE is cleverly utilized to make up the diffusion insufficiency of RSA public-key cryptography, while the RSA cryptosystem is utilized for simultaneous transmission of the cipher text and the two phase-masks, which is not possible under the DRPE technique. This technique combines the complementary advantages of the DPRE and RSA encryption techniques and brings security and convenience for efficient information transmission. Extensive numerical simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed technique. PMID:19259163
PEM public key certificate cache server
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, T.
1993-12-01
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides privacy enhancement services to users of Internet electronic mail. Confidentiality, authentication, message integrity, and non-repudiation of origin are provided by applying cryptographic measures to messages transferred between end systems by the Message Transfer System. PEM supports both symmetric and asymmetric key distribution. However, the prevalent implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, modeled after the X.509 directory authentication framework. This scheme provides an infrastructure compatible with X.509. According to RFC 1422, public key certificates can be stored in directory servers, transmitted via non-secure message exchanges, or distributed via other means. Directory services provide a specialized distributed database for OSI applications. The directory contains information about objects and then provides structured mechanisms for accessing that information. Since directory services are not widely available now, a good approach is to manage certificates in a centralized certificate server. This document describes the detailed design of a centralized certificate cache serve. This server manages a cache of certificates and a cache of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL's) for PEM applications. PEMapplications contact the server to obtain/store certificates and CRL's. The server software is programmed in C and ELROS. To use this server, ISODE has to be configured and installed properly. The ISODE library 'libisode.a' has to be linked together with this library because ELROS uses the transport layer functions provided by 'libisode.a.' The X.500 DAP library that is included with the ELROS distribution has to be linked in also, since the server uses the DAP library functions to communicate with directory servers.
Low-Power Public Key Cryptography
BEAVER,CHERYL L.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.; HAMILTON,VICTORIA A.; SCHROEPPEL,RICHARD C.; GONZALES,RITA A.; MILLER,RUSSELL D.; THOMAS,EDWARD V.
2000-11-01
This report presents research on public key, digital signature algorithms for cryptographic authentication in low-powered, low-computation environments. We assessed algorithms for suitability based on their signature size, and computation and storage requirements. We evaluated a variety of general purpose and special purpose computing platforms to address issues such as memory, voltage requirements, and special functionality for low-powered applications. In addition, we examined custom design platforms. We found that a custom design offers the most flexibility and can be optimized for specific algorithms. Furthermore, the entire platform can exist on a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or can be integrated with commercially available components to produce the desired computing platform.
Visual cryptography based on optical interference encryption technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Dong-Hoan; Kim, Jong-Yun; Lee, Sang-Su; Park, Se-Joon; Cho, Woong H.; Kim, Soo-Joong
2001-07-01
In this paper, we proposed a new visual cryptography scheme based on optical interference that can improve the contrast and signal to noise ratio of reconstructed images when compared to conventional visual cryptography methods. The binary image being encrypted is divided into any number of n slides. For encryption, randomly independent keys are generated along with another random key based on a XOR process of random keys. The XOR process between each divided image and each random key produces the encryption of n encrypted images. These encrypted images are then used to make encrypted binary phase masks. For decryption, the phase masks are placed on the paths of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
76 FR 48807 - Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Certificate Action Form
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-08-09
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Certificate Action Form ACTION.... Abstract The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) uses Public Key Infrastructure...
Optical image encryption in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Situ, Guohai; Wu, Quanying
2014-11-01
In the field of optical information security, the research of double random phase encoding is becoming deeper with each passing day, however the encryption system is linear, and the dependencies between plaintext and ciphertext is not complicated, with leaving a great hidden danger to the security of the encryption system. In this paper, we encrypted the higher dimensional Wigner distribution function of low dimensional plaintext by using the bilinear property of Wigner distribution function. Computer simulation results show that this method can not only enlarge the key space, but also break through the linear characteristic of the traditional optical encryption technology. So it can significantly improve the safety of the encryption system.
Innovative hyperchaotic encryption algorithm for compressed video
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Chun; Zhong, Yuzhuo; Yang, Shiqiang
2002-12-01
It is accepted that stream cryptosystem can achieve good real-time performance and flexibility which implements encryption by selecting few parts of the block data and header information of the compressed video stream. Chaotic random number generator, for example Logistics Map, is a comparatively promising substitute, but it is easily attacked by nonlinear dynamic forecasting and geometric information extracting. In this paper, we present a hyperchaotic cryptography scheme to encrypt the compressed video, which integrates Logistics Map with Z(232 - 1) field linear congruential algorithm to strengthen the security of the mono-chaotic cryptography, meanwhile, the real-time performance and flexibility of the chaotic sequence cryptography are maintained. It also integrates with the dissymmetrical public-key cryptography and implements encryption and identity authentification on control parameters at initialization phase. In accord with the importance of data in compressed video stream, encryption is performed in layered scheme. In the innovative hyperchaotic cryptography, the value and the updating frequency of control parameters can be changed online to satisfy the requirement of the network quality, processor capability and security requirement. The innovative hyperchaotic cryprography proves robust security by cryptoanalysis, shows good real-time performance and flexible implement capability through the arithmetic evaluating and test.
Private predictive analysis on encrypted medical data.
Bos, Joppe W; Lauter, Kristin; Naehrig, Michael
2014-08-01
Increasingly, confidential medical records are being stored in data centers hosted by hospitals or large companies. As sophisticated algorithms for predictive analysis on medical data continue to be developed, it is likely that, in the future, more and more computation will be done on private patient data. While encryption provides a tool for assuring the privacy of medical information, it limits the functionality for operating on such data. Conventional encryption methods used today provide only very restricted possibilities or none at all to operate on encrypted data without decrypting it first. Homomorphic encryption provides a tool for handling such computations on encrypted data, without decrypting the data, and without even needing the decryption key. In this paper, we discuss possible application scenarios for homomorphic encryption in order to ensure privacy of sensitive medical data. We describe how to privately conduct predictive analysis tasks on encrypted data using homomorphic encryption. As a proof of concept, we present a working implementation of a prediction service running in the cloud (hosted on Microsoft's Windows Azure), which takes as input private encrypted health data, and returns the probability for suffering cardiovascular disease in encrypted form. Since the cloud service uses homomorphic encryption, it makes this prediction while handling only encrypted data, learning nothing about the submitted confidential medical data. PMID:24835616
Privacy-preserving photo sharing based on a public key infrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Lin; McNally, David; Küpçü, Alptekin; Ebrahimi, Touradj
2015-09-01
A significant number of pictures are posted to social media sites or exchanged through instant messaging and cloud-based sharing services. Most social media services offer a range of access control mechanisms to protect users privacy. As it is not in the best interest of many such services if their users restrict access to their shared pictures, most services keep users' photos unprotected which makes them available to all insiders. This paper presents an architecture for a privacy-preserving photo sharing based on an image scrambling scheme and a public key infrastructure. A secure JPEG scrambling is applied to protect regional visual information in photos. Protected images are still compatible with JPEG coding and therefore can be viewed by any one on any device. However, only those who are granted secret keys will be able to descramble the photos and view their original versions. The proposed architecture applies an attribute-based encryption along with conventional public key cryptography, to achieve secure transmission of secret keys and a fine-grained control over who may view shared photos. In addition, we demonstrate the practical feasibility of the proposed photo sharing architecture with a prototype mobile application, ProShare, which is built based on iOS platform.
Quantum computing on encrypted data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, K. A. G.; Broadbent, A.; Shalm, L. K.; Yan, Z.; Lavoie, J.; Prevedel, R.; Jennewein, T.; Resch, K. J.
2014-01-01
The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting privacy. Recently, protocols to achieve this on classical computing systems have been found. Here, we present an efficient solution to the quantum analogue of this problem that enables arbitrary quantum computations to be carried out on encrypted quantum data. We prove that an untrusted server can implement a universal set of quantum gates on encrypted quantum bits (qubits) without learning any information about the inputs, while the client, knowing the decryption key, can easily decrypt the results of the computation. We experimentally demonstrate, using single photons and linear optics, the encryption and decryption scheme on a set of gates sufficient for arbitrary quantum computations. As our protocol requires few extra resources compared with other schemes it can be easily incorporated into the design of future quantum servers. These results will play a key role in enabling the development of secure distributed quantum systems.
Quantum computing on encrypted data.
Fisher, K A G; Broadbent, A; Shalm, L K; Yan, Z; Lavoie, J; Prevedel, R; Jennewein, T; Resch, K J
2014-01-01
The ability to perform computations on encrypted data is a powerful tool for protecting privacy. Recently, protocols to achieve this on classical computing systems have been found. Here, we present an efficient solution to the quantum analogue of this problem that enables arbitrary quantum computations to be carried out on encrypted quantum data. We prove that an untrusted server can implement a universal set of quantum gates on encrypted quantum bits (qubits) without learning any information about the inputs, while the client, knowing the decryption key, can easily decrypt the results of the computation. We experimentally demonstrate, using single photons and linear optics, the encryption and decryption scheme on a set of gates sufficient for arbitrary quantum computations. As our protocol requires few extra resources compared with other schemes it can be easily incorporated into the design of future quantum servers. These results will play a key role in enabling the development of secure distributed quantum systems. PMID:24445949
Multiplexing of encrypted data using fractal masks.
Barrera, John F; Tebaldi, Myrian; Amaya, Dafne; Furlan, Walter D; Monsoriu, Juan A; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto
2012-07-15
In this Letter, we present to the best of our knowledge a new all-optical technique for multiple-image encryption and multiplexing, based on fractal encrypting masks. The optical architecture is a joint transform correlator. The multiplexed encrypted data are stored in a photorefractive crystal. The fractal parameters of the key can be easily tuned to lead to a multiplexing operation without cross talk effects. Experimental results that support the potential of the method are presented. PMID:22825170
Mosso, Fabian; Barrera, John Fredy; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto
2011-03-14
We introduce for the first time the concept of an all-optical encrypted movie. This movie joints several encrypted frames corresponding to a time evolving situation employing the same encoding mask. Thanks to a multiplexing operation we compact the encrypted movie information into a single package. But the decryption of this single package implies the existence of cross-talk if we do not adequately pre-process the encoded information before multiplexing. In this regard, we introduce a grating modulation to each encoded image, and then we proceed to multiplexing. After appropriate filtering and synchronizing procedures applied to the multiplexing, we are able to decrypt and to reproduce the movie. This movie is only properly decoded when in possession of the right decoding key. The concept development is carried-out in virtual optical systems, both for the encrypting and the filtering-decrypting stages. Experimental results are shown to confirm our approach. PMID:21445211
Broadcast Encryption for Differently Privileged
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Hongxia; Lotspiech, Jeffery
Broadcast encryption is a primary technology that has been used for content protection. It enables a broadcaster to distribute content to a set of users so that only a privileged subset of users can access the content and another subset of revoked users cannot access the content. The main enabling block in a broadcast encryption scheme is the session key block, which each authorized user processes differently, but each gets the same valid session key. Currently all existing broadcast encryption schemes have assumed that the content and authorized users are equally privileged. There are emerging scenarios that demand protection for content with different privileges and for users with different privileges. In this paper we shall present a new broadcast encryption scheme that continues to employ single session key blocks but provides different privileged protections for different content and users. In particular we will expand the elegant subset-cover-based broadcast encryption scheme. We shall introduce a new concept called “security class” into the session key blocks. We use keys derived from a chain of one-way functions. Our approach is simple, efficient and secure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondareva, Alyona P.; Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.
2014-10-01
At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent monochromatic illumination. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent monochromatic illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. Encryption is accomplished by means of optical convolution of image of scene to be encrypted and encryption diffractive optical element (DOE) point spread function (PSF) which serves as encryption key. Encryption process is described as follows. Scene is illuminated with spatially-incoherent monochromatic light. In the absence of encryption DOE lens forms image of scene in photosensor plane. DOE serves as encryption element, its PSF - encryption key. Light passing through DOE forms convolution of object image and DOE PSF. Registered by photosensor convolution is encrypted image. Decryption was conducted numerically on computer by means of inverse filtration with regularization. Kinoforms were used as encryption DOE because they have single diffraction order. Two liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) were used to implement dynamic digital information input and dynamic encryption key change. As input scene amplitude LC SLM HoloEye LC2002 with 800×600 pixels 32×32 μm2 and 256 gray levels was used. To image synthesized encryption kinoforms phase LC SLM HoloEye PLUTO VIS with 1920×1080 pixels 8×8 μm2 and 256 phase levels was used. Set of test images was successfully optically encrypted and then numerically decrypted. Encrypted images contents are hidden. Decrypted images despite quite high noise levels are positively recognizable
Novel image encryption based on quantum walks.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889
Novel Image Encryption based on Quantum Walks
Yang, Yu-Guang; Pan, Qing-Xiang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng
2015-01-01
Quantum computation has achieved a tremendous success during the last decades. In this paper, we investigate the potential application of a famous quantum computation model, i.e., quantum walks (QW) in image encryption. It is found that QW can serve as an excellent key generator thanks to its inherent nonlinear chaotic dynamic behavior. Furthermore, we construct a novel QW-based image encryption algorithm. Simulations and performance comparisons show that the proposal is secure enough for image encryption and outperforms prior works. It also opens the door towards introducing quantum computation into image encryption and promotes the convergence between quantum computation and image processing. PMID:25586889
Encryption Devices for Use in a Conditional Access System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinder, Howard G.; Palgon, Michael S.
2002-07-01
A cable television system provides conditional access to services. The cable television system includes a headend from which service 'instances', or programs, are broadcast and a plurality of set top units for receiving the instances and selectively decrypting the instances for display to system subscribers. The service instances are encrypted using public and/or private keys provided by service providers or central authorization agents. Keys used by the set tops for selective decryption may also be public or private in nature, and such keys may be reassigned at different times to provide a cable television system in which piracy concerns are minimized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunn, Lachlan J.; Chappell, James M.; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek
2014-09-01
While information-theoretic security is often associated with the one-time pad and quantum key distribution, noisy transport media leave room for classical techniques and even covert operation. Transit times across the public internet exhibit a degree of randomness, and cannot be determined noiselessly by an eavesdropper. We demonstrate the use of these measurements for information-theoretically secure communication over the public internet.
Partially Key Distribution with Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Error Control Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavallaei, Saeed Ebadi; Falahati, Abolfazl
Due to the low level of security in public key cryptosystems based on number theory, fundamental difficulties such as "key escrow" in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and a secure channel in ID-based cryptography, a new key distribution cryptosystem based on Error Control Codes (ECC) is proposed . This idea is done by some modification on McEliece cryptosystem. The security of ECC cryptosystem obtains from the NP-Completeness of block codes decoding. The capability of generating public keys with variable lengths which is suitable for different applications will be provided by using ECC. It seems that usage of these cryptosystems because of decreasing in the security of cryptosystems based on number theory and increasing the lengths of their keys would be unavoidable in future.
Development of a public key infrastructure across multiple enterprises
Sharick, T.M.; Long, J.P.; Desind, B.J.
1997-05-01
Main-stream applications are beginning to incorporate public key cryptography. It can be difficult to deploy this technology without a robust infrastructure to support it. It can also be difficult to deploy a public key infrastructure among multiple enterprises when different applications and standards must be supported. This discussion chronicles the efforts by a team within the US Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex to build a public key infrastructure and deploy applications that use it. The emphasis of this talk will be on the lessons learned during this effort and an assessment of the overall impact of this technology.
A Public-Key Based Authentication and Key Establishment Protocol Coupled with a Client Puzzle.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, M. C.; Fung, Chun-Kan
2003-01-01
Discusses network denial-of-service attacks which have become a security threat to the Internet community and suggests the need for reliable authentication protocols in client-server applications. Presents a public-key based authentication and key establishment protocol coupled with a client puzzle protocol and validates it through formal logic…
Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.
1997-08-01
This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.
Image encryption using the fractional wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilardy, Juan M.; Useche, J.; Torres, C. O.; Mattos, L.
2011-01-01
In this paper a technique for the coding of digital images is developed using Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT) and random phase masks (RPMs). The digital image to encrypt is transformed with the FWT, after the coefficients resulting from the FWT (Approximation, Details: Horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are multiplied each one by different RPMs (statistically independent) and these latest results is applied an Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT), obtaining the encrypted digital image. The decryption technique is the same encryption technique in reverse sense. This technique provides immediate advantages security compared to conventional techniques, in this technique the mother wavelet family and fractional orders associated with the FWT are additional keys that make access difficult to information to an unauthorized person (besides the RPMs used), thereby the level of encryption security is extraordinarily increased. In this work the mathematical support for the use of the FWT in the computational algorithm for the encryption is also developed.
Double image encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian
2007-07-01
We present an image encryption algorithm to simultaneously encrypt two images into a single one as the amplitudes of fractional Fourier transform with different orders. From the encrypted image we can get two original images independently by fractional Fourier transforms with two different fractional orders. This algorithm can be independent of additional random phases as the encryption/decryption keys. Numerical results are given to analyze the capability of this proposed method. A possible extension to multi-image encryption with a fractional order multiplexing scheme has also been given.
Asymmetric optical image encryption based on an improved amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.
2016-03-01
We propose a new asymmetric optical image encryption scheme based on an improved amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm. Using two random phase masks that serve as public encryption keys, an iterative amplitude and phase retrieval process is employed to encode a primary image into a real-valued ciphertext. The private keys generated in the encryption process are used to perform one-way phase modulations. The decryption process is implemented optically using conventional double random phase encoding architecture. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed system. The results illustrate that the computing efficiency of the proposed method is improved and the number of iterations required is much less than that of the cryptosystem based on the Yang-Gu algorithm.
An Efficient and Provable Secure Revocable Identity-Based Encryption Scheme
Wang, Changji; Li, Yuan; Xia, Xiaonan; Zheng, Kangjia
2014-01-01
Revocation functionality is necessary and crucial to identity-based cryptosystems. Revocable identity-based encryption (RIBE) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, many RIBE schemes have been proposed in the literature but shown to be either insecure or inefficient. In this paper, we propose a new scalable RIBE scheme with decryption key exposure resilience by combining Lewko and Waters’ identity-based encryption scheme and complete subtree method, and prove our RIBE scheme to be semantically secure using dual system encryption methodology. Compared to existing scalable and semantically secure RIBE schemes, our proposed RIBE scheme is more efficient in term of ciphertext size, public parameters size and decryption cost at price of a little looser security reduction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction of scalable and semantically secure RIBE scheme with constant size public system parameters. PMID:25238418
An investigation of DUA caching strategies for public key certificates
Cheung, T.C.
1993-11-01
Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides security services to users of Internet electronic mail. PEM is designed with the intention that it will eventually obtain public key certificates from the X.500 directory service. However, such a capability is not present in most PEM implementations today. While the prevalent PEM implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, certificates are mostly distributed via e-mail exchanges, which raises several security and performance issues. In this thesis research, we changed the reference PEM implementation to make use of the X.500 directory service instead of local databases for public key certificate management. The thesis discusses some problems with using the X.500 directory service, explores the relevant issues, and develops an approach to address them. The approach makes use of a memory cache to store public key certificates. We implemented a centralized cache server and addressed the denial-of-service security problem that is present in the server. In designing the cache, we investigated several cache management strategies. One result of our study is that the use of a cache significantly improves performance. Our research also indicates that security incurs extra performance cost. Different cache replacement algorithms do not seem to yield significant performance differences, while delaying dirty-writes to the backing store does improve performance over immediate writes.
Public Expenditures on Children through 2008: Key Facts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macomber, Jennifer; Isaacs, Julia; Kent, Adam; Vericker, Tracy
2010-01-01
This report provides the key findings on the public spending on children through 2008. They are: (1) Spending on children increased under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and other stimulus spending, but not proportionately to other federal spending. As ARRA expires, we project that spending on children will decline, assuming no…
A secure transmission scheme of streaming media based on the encrypted control message
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bing; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Yu, Li
2007-09-01
As the use of streaming media applications increased dramatically in recent years, streaming media security becomes an important presumption, protecting the privacy. This paper proposes a new encryption scheme in view of characteristics of streaming media and the disadvantage of the living method: encrypt the control message in the streaming media with the high security lever and permute and confuse the data which is non control message according to the corresponding control message. Here the so-called control message refers to the key data of the streaming media, including the streaming media header and the header of the video frame, and the seed key. We encrypt the control message using the public key encryption algorithm which can provide high security lever, such as RSA. At the same time we make use of the seed key to generate key stream, from which the permutation list P responding to GOP (group of picture) is derived. The plain text of the non-control message XORs the key stream and gets the middle cipher text. And then obtained one is permutated according to P. In contrast the decryption process is the inverse process of the above. We have set up a testbed for the above scheme and found our scheme is six to eight times faster than the conventional method. It can be applied not only between PCs but also between handheld devices.
An application of different dioids in public key cryptography
Durcheva, Mariana I.
2014-11-18
Dioids provide a natural framework for analyzing a broad class of discrete event dynamical systems such as the design and analysis of bus and railway timetables, scheduling of high-throughput industrial processes, solution of combinatorial optimization problems, the analysis and improvement of flow systems in communication networks. They have appeared in several branches of mathematics such as functional analysis, optimization, stochastic systems and dynamic programming, tropical geometry, fuzzy logic. In this paper we show how to involve dioids in public key cryptography. The main goal is to create key – exchange protocols based on dioids. Additionally the digital signature scheme is presented.
GENERAL: Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Xi-Han; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu
2008-07-01
This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige et al (2002 Acta Phys. Pol. A 101 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.
A Survey of Research Progress and Development Tendency of Attribute-Based Encryption
Pang, Liaojun; Yang, Jie; Jiang, Zhengtao
2014-01-01
With the development of cryptography, the attribute-based encryption (ABE) draws widespread attention of the researchers in recent years. The ABE scheme, which belongs to the public key encryption mechanism, takes attributes as public key and associates them with the ciphertext or the user's secret key. It is an efficient way to solve open problems in access control scenarios, for example, how to provide data confidentiality and expressive access control at the same time. In this paper, we survey the basic ABE scheme and its two variants: the key-policy ABE (KP-ABE) scheme and the ciphertext-policy ABE (CP-ABE) scheme. We also pay attention to other researches relating to the ABE schemes, including multiauthority, user/attribute revocation, accountability, and proxy reencryption, with an extensive comparison of their functionality and performance. Finally, possible future works and some conclusions are pointed out. PMID:25101313
Optical design of cipher block chaining (CBC) encryption mode by using digital holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil, Sang Keun; Jeon, Seok Hee; Jung, Jong Rae; Kim, Nam
2016-03-01
We propose an optical design of cipher block chaining (CBC) encryption by using digital holographic technique, which has higher security than the conventional electronic method because of the analog-type randomized cipher text with 2-D array. In this paper, an optical design of CBC encryption mode is implemented by 2-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic encryption technique using orthogonal polarization. A block of plain text is encrypted with the encryption key by applying 2-step phase-shifting digital holography, and it is changed into cipher text blocks which are digital holograms. These ciphered digital holograms with the encrypted information are Fourier transform holograms and are recorded on CCDs with 256 gray levels quantized intensities. The decryption is computed by these encrypted digital holograms of cipher texts, the same encryption key and the previous cipher text. Results of computer simulations are presented to verify that the proposed method shows the feasibility in the high secure CBC encryption system.
Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
Nechvatal, James; Barker, Elaine; Bassham, Lawrence; Burr, William; Dworkin, Morris; Foti, James; Roback, Edward
2001-01-01
In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a process to select a symmetric-key encryption algorithm to be used to protect sensitive (unclassified) Federal information in furtherance of NIST’s statutory responsibilities. In 1998, NIST announced the acceptance of 15 candidate algorithms and requested the assistance of the cryptographic research community in analyzing the candidates. This analysis included an initial examination of the security and efficiency characteristics for each algorithm. NIST reviewed the results of this preliminary research and selected MARS, RC™, Rijndael, Serpent and Twofish as finalists. Having reviewed further public analysis of the finalists, NIST has decided to propose Rijndael as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The research results and rationale for this selection are documented in this report.
Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
Nechvatal, J; Barker, E; Bassham, L; Burr, W; Dworkin, M; Foti, J; Roback, E
2001-01-01
In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a process to select a symmetric-key encryption algorithm to be used to protect sensitive (unclassified) Federal information in furtherance of NIST's statutory responsibilities. In 1998, NIST announced the acceptance of 15 candidate algorithms and requested the assistance of the cryptographic research community in analyzing the candidates. This analysis included an initial examination of the security and efficiency characteristics for each algorithm. NIST reviewed the results of this preliminary research and selected MARS, RC™, Rijndael, Serpent and Twofish as finalists. Having reviewed further public analysis of the finalists, NIST has decided to propose Rijndael as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The research results and rationale for this selection are documented in this report. PMID:27500035
Multiply-agile encryption in high speed communication networks
Pierson, L.G.; Witzke, E.L.
1997-05-01
Different applications have different security requirements for data privacy, data integrity, and authentication. Encryption is one technique that addresses these requirements. Encryption hardware, designed for use in high-speed communications networks, can satisfy a wide variety of security requirements if that hardware is key-agile, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile. Hence, multiply-agile encryption provides enhanced solutions to the secrecy, interoperability and quality of service issues in high-speed networks. This paper defines these three types of agile encryption. Next, implementation issues are discussed. While single-algorithm, key-agile encryptors exist, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile encryptors are still research topics.
Security of Color Image Data Designed by Public-Key Cryptosystem Associated with 2D-DWT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, R. K.; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Kuldeep
2014-08-01
In present times the security of image data is a major issue. So, we have proposed a novel technique for security of color image data by public-key cryptosystem or asymmetric cryptosystem. In this technique, we have developed security of color image data using RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) cryptosystem with two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT). Earlier proposed schemes for security of color images designed on the basis of keys, but this approach provides security of color images with the help of keys and correct arrangement of RSA parameters. If the attacker knows about exact keys, but has no information of exact arrangement of RSA parameters, then the original information cannot be recovered from the encrypted data. Computer simulation based on standard example is critically examining the behavior of the proposed technique. Security analysis and a detailed comparison between earlier developed schemes for security of color images and proposed technique are also mentioned for the robustness of the cryptosystem.
A high performance hardware implementation image encryption with AES algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farmani, Ali; Jafari, Mohamad; Miremadi, Seyed Sohrab
2011-06-01
This paper describes implementation of a high-speed encryption algorithm with high throughput for encrypting the image. Therefore, we select a highly secured symmetric key encryption algorithm AES(Advanced Encryption Standard), in order to increase the speed and throughput using pipeline technique in four stages, control unit based on logic gates, optimal design of multiplier blocks in mixcolumn phase and simultaneous production keys and rounds. Such procedure makes AES suitable for fast image encryption. Implementation of a 128-bit AES on FPGA of Altra company has been done and the results are as follow: throughput, 6 Gbps in 471MHz. The time of encrypting in tested image with 32*32 size is 1.15ms.
A Cryptosystem for Encryption and Decryption of Long Confidential Messages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giri, Debasis; Barua, Prithayan; Srivastava, P. D.; Jana, Biswapati
In this paper, we propose a cryptosystem which can encrypt and decrypt long (text) messages in efficient manner. The proposed cryptosystem is a combination of symmetric-key and asymmetric-key cryptography, where asymmetric-key cryptography is used to transmit the secret key to an intended receiver and the sender/receiver encrypts/decrypts messages using that secret key. In 2002, Hwang et al. proposed a scheme for encrypting long messages. The main drawback of their scheme is that it requires more computational overhead. Our proposed scheme is more efficient from the computational point of view compared to that of their scheme. Our scheme is a block cipher, long messages are broken into fixed length plaintext blocks for encryption. It supports parallel computation, since encryption/decryption of all the blocks of plaintext/plaintext are independent and thus can be carried out simultaneously. In addition, our scheme retains the same security level as their scheme.
Efficient multimedia encryption via entropy codec design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chung-Ping; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
2001-08-01
Efficient encryption algorithms are essential to multimedia data security, since the data size is large and real-time processing is often required. After discussing limitations of previous work on multimedia encryption, we propose a novel methodology for confidentiality, which turns entropy coders into encryption ciphers by using multiple statistical models. The choice of statistical models and the order in which they are applied are kept secret as the key Two encryption schemes are constructed by applying this methodology to the Huffman coder and the QM coder. It is shown that security is achieved without sacrificing the compression performance and the computational speed. The schemes can be applied to most modern compression systems such as MPEG audio, MPEG video and JPEG/JPEG2000 image compression.
The role of decimated sequences in scaling encryption speeds through parallelism
Witzke, E.L.
1995-09-01
Encryption performance, in terms of bits per second encrypted, has not scaled well as network performance has increased. The authors felt that multiple encryption modules operating in parallel would be the cornerstone of scalable encryption. One major problem with parallelizing encryption is ensuring that each encryption module is getting the proper portion of the key sequence at the correct point in the encryption or decryption of the message. Many encryption schemes use linear recurring sequences, which may be generated by a linear feedback shift register. Instead of using a linear feedback shift register, the authors describe a method to generate the linear recurring sequence by using parallel decimated sequences, one per encryption module. Computing decimated sequences can be time consuming, so the authors have also described a way to compute these sequences with logic gates rather than arithmetic operations.
Dynamic video encryption algorithm for H.264/AVC based on a spatiotemporal chaos system.
Xu, Hui; Tong, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Zhu; Li, Ling-Hao
2016-06-01
Video encryption schemes mostly employ the selective encryption method to encrypt parts of important and sensitive video information, aiming to ensure the real-time performance and encryption efficiency. The classic block cipher is not applicable to video encryption due to the high computational overhead. In this paper, we propose the encryption selection control module to encrypt video syntax elements dynamically which is controlled by the chaotic pseudorandom sequence. A novel spatiotemporal chaos system and binarization method is used to generate a key stream for encrypting the chosen syntax elements. The proposed scheme enhances the resistance against attacks through the dynamic encryption process and high-security stream cipher. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits high security and high efficiency with little effect on the compression ratio and time cost. PMID:27409446
Attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search.
Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo
2014-01-01
Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (ABRKS), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, ABRKS allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for ABRKS, and propose two concrete constructions for ABRKS: key-policy ABRKS and ciphertext-policy ABRKS. In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257
Attribute-Based Proxy Re-Encryption with Keyword Search
Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo
2014-01-01
Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for , and propose two concrete constructions for : key-policy and ciphertext-policy . In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257
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Multidimensional data encryption with virtual optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Lingfeng
Information security is very important in many application areas in the field of information technology. Recently, a number of optical encryption methods have been proposed for the purpose of information hiding and data security, because optical information processing techniques have obvious advantages such as high degrees of freedom (e.g. amplitude, phase, polarization, wavelength) for encryption and decryption, and high-level data security. However, the limitations of current optical encryption methods relate to the complexity of their optical hardware, the requirements of the information type, lack of flexibility, and the lack of compact and low-cost optoelectronics devices and systems. These problems make it difficult to move optical encryption out of the research lab and into real world application areas. In this thesis, a novel parameterized multidimensional data encryption method based on the concept of "virtual optics" is proposed. A strong motivation for the research in this thesis is to overcome the abovementioned problems currently existing in optical encryption and to retain most of the favorable features of optical encryption. The phrase "virtual optics" means that both the optical encryption and decryption processes are implemented in an all-digital manner, adopting optical information processing technologies such as optical holography, optical diffraction or other relevant optical processes. In addition to utilizing some geometric and physical parameters derived from a configuration of digital optics, some information disarrangement actions have also been suggested as tools for designing multiple locks and keys for data encryption in hyperspace. The sensitivities of these supposed keys are quantitatively analyzed and the possible security level of the proposed cryptosystem is assessed. Security of the cryptosystem is also analyzed by examining some possible attacks on the cryptosystem from the viewpoint of a cryptanalysis. This thesis has shown the
Image encryption by redirection and cyclical shift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Wiatrek, Bryan A.; Agaian, Sos S.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we present a novel method for encrypting and decrypting large amounts of data such as two-dimensional (2-D) images, both gray-scale and color, without the loss of information, and using private keys of varying lengths. The proposed method is based on the concept of the tensor representation of an image and splitting the 2-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT) by one-dimensional (1-D) DFTs of signals from the tensor representation, or transform. The splitting of the transform is accomplished in a three-dimensional (3-D) space, namely on the 3-D lattice placed on the torus. Each splitting-signal of the image defines the 2-D DFT along the frequency-points located on the spirals on the torus. Spirals have different form and cover the lattice on the torus in a complex form, which makes them very effective when moving data through and between the spirals, and data along the spirals. The encryption consists of several iterative applications of mapping the 3-D torus into several ones of smaller sizes, and rotates then moves the data around the spirals on all tori. The encryption results in the image which is uncorrelated. The decryption algorithm uses the encrypted data, and processes them in inverse order with an identical number of iterations. The proposed method can be extended to encrypt and decrypt documents as well as other types of digital media. Simulation results of the purposed method are presented to show the performance for image encryption.
Color image encryption based on joint fractional Fourier transform correlator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Ding; Jin, Weimin
2011-06-01
In this paper, an optical color image encryption/decryption technology based on joint fractional Fourier transform correlator and double random phase encoding (DRPE) is developed. In this method, the joint fractional power spectrum of the image to be encrypted and the key codes is recorded as the encrypted data. Different from the case with classical DRPE, the same key code was used both in the encryption and decryption. The security of the system is enhanced because of the fractional order as a new added key. This method takes full advantage of the parallel processing features of the optical system, and could optically realize single-channel color image encryption. The experimental results indicate that the new method is feasible.
Optical image encryption based on multifractional Fourier transforms.
Zhu, B; Liu, S; Ran, Q
2000-08-15
We propose a new image encryption algorithm based on a generalized fractional Fourier transform, to which we refer as a multifractional Fourier transform. We encrypt the input image simply by performing the multifractional Fourier transform with two keys. Numerical simulation results are given to verify the algorithm, and an optical implementation setup is also suggested. PMID:18066153
An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Lorenz System for Low Profile Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anees, Amir
2015-09-01
Advanced encryption standard being a benchmark for encryption is very ideal for digital images encryption for its security reasons but might not be effective for low profile applications due to its high computational and hardware complexity. In this paper, we presents a robust image encryption scheme for these types of applications based on chaotic sequences of Lorenz system, also ensuring the system security as well. The security strength is evident from the results of statistical and key analysis done in this paper.
Public key cryptosystem based on max-semirings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durcheva, Mariana I.; Trendafilov, Ivan D.
2012-11-01
When we replace addition and multiplication of real numbers by the operations of taking the maximum of two numbers and of adding two numbers respectively, we obtain the so-called max-algebra which offers an attractive language to deal with certain problems in automata theory, scheduling theory, discrete event systems, manufacturing systems, telecommunication networks, parallel processing systems and traffic control. The aim of this paper is to employ max-algebra as platforms for secret key establishment between two individuals whose only means of communication is a public channel. The proposed new cryptographic protocols are based on the difficulty of solving matrix equations since matrices over max-semirings are generally not invertible.
The Case for Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stebila, Douglas; Mosca, Michele; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises secure key agreement by using quantum mechanical systems. We argue that QKD will be an important part of future cryptographic infrastructures. It can provide long-term confidentiality for encrypted information without reliance on computational assumptions. Although QKD still requires authentication to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, it can make use of either information-theoretically secure symmetric key authentication or computationally secure public key authentication: even when using public key authentication, we argue that QKD still offers stronger security than classical key agreement.
Quantum Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Quantum Image XOR Operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Li-Hua; He, Xiang-Tao; Cheng, Shan; Hua, Tian-Xiang; Zhou, Nan-Run
2016-03-01
A novel encryption algorithm for quantum images based on quantum image XOR operations is designed. The quantum image XOR operations are designed by using the hyper-chaotic sequences generated with the Chen's hyper-chaotic system to control the control-NOT operation, which is used to encode gray-level information. The initial conditions of the Chen's hyper-chaotic system are the keys, which guarantee the security of the proposed quantum image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that the proposed quantum image encryption algorithm has larger key space, higher key sensitivity, stronger resistance of statistical analysis and lower computational complexity than its classical counterparts.
Quantum Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Quantum Image XOR Operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Li-Hua; He, Xiang-Tao; Cheng, Shan; Hua, Tian-Xiang; Zhou, Nan-Run
2016-07-01
A novel encryption algorithm for quantum images based on quantum image XOR operations is designed. The quantum image XOR operations are designed by using the hyper-chaotic sequences generated with the Chen's hyper-chaotic system to control the control-NOT operation, which is used to encode gray-level information. The initial conditions of the Chen's hyper-chaotic system are the keys, which guarantee the security of the proposed quantum image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and theoretical analyses demonstrate that the proposed quantum image encryption algorithm has larger key space, higher key sensitivity, stronger resistance of statistical analysis and lower computational complexity than its classical counterparts.
Optimal Symmetric Ternary Quantum Encryption Schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu-qi; She, Kun; Huang, Ru-fen; Ouyang, Zhong
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present two definitions of the orthogonality and orthogonal rate of an encryption operator, and we provide a verification process for the former. Then, four improved ternary quantum encryption schemes are constructed. Compared with Scheme 1 (see Section 2.3), these four schemes demonstrate significant improvements in term of calculation and execution efficiency. Especially, under the premise of the orthogonal rate ɛ as secure parameter, Scheme 3 (see Section 4.1) shows the highest level of security among them. Through custom interpolation functions, the ternary secret key source, which is composed of the digits 0, 1 and 2, is constructed. Finally, we discuss the security of both the ternary encryption operator and the secret key source, and both of them show a high level of security and high performance in execution efficiency.
Shao, Zhuhong; Shu, Huazhong; Wu, Jiasong; Dong, Zhifang; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Coatrieux, Jean Louis
2014-03-10
This paper describes a novel algorithm to encrypt double color images into a single undistinguishable image in quaternion gyrator domain. By using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, the phase masks used for encryption are obtained. Subsequently, the encrypted image is generated via cascaded quaternion gyrator transforms with different rotation angles. The parameters in quaternion gyrator transforms and phases serve as encryption keys. By knowing these keys, the original color images can be fully restituted. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the validity of the proposed encryption system as well as its robustness against loss of data and additive Gaussian noise. PMID:24663832
Fok, Mable P; Prucnal, Paul R
2009-05-01
All-optical encryption for optical code-division multiple-access systems with interleaved waveband-switching modulation is experimentally demonstrated. The scheme explores dual-pump four-wave mixing in a 35 cm highly nonlinear bismuth oxide fiber to achieve XOR operation of the plaintext and the encryption key. Bit 0 and bit 1 of the encrypted data are represented by two different wavebands. Unlike on-off keying encryption methods, the encrypted data in this approach has the same intensity for both bit 0 and bit 1. Thus no plaintext or ciphertext signatures are observed. PMID:19412257
Three-dimensional optical encryption based on ptychography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jun; Li, Tuo; Wang, Yali; Qiao, Liang; Yang, Xiubo; Shi, Yishi
2015-10-01
We propose a novel optical encryption system for three-dimension imaging combined with three-dimension Ptychography. Employing the proposed cryptosystem, a 3D object can be encrypted and decrypted successfully. Compared with the conventional three-dimensional cryptosystem, not only encrypting the pure amplitude 3D object is available, but also the encryption of complex amplitude 3D object is achievable. Considering that the probes overlapping with each other is the crucial factor in ptychography, their complex-amplitude functions can serve as a kind of secret keys that lead to the enlarged key space and the enhanced system security. Varies of simulation results demonstrate that the feasibility and robust of the cryptosystem. Furthermore, the proposed system could also be used for other potential applications, such as three-dimensional information hiding and multiple images encryption.
Sandia Scalable Encryption Software
Tarman, Thomas D.
1997-08-13
Sandia Scalable Encryption Library (SSEL) Version 1.0 is a library of functions that implement Sandia''s scalable encryption algorithm. This algorithm is used to encrypt Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) data traffic, and is capable of operating on an arbitrary number of bits at a time (which permits scaling via parallel implementations), while being interoperable with differently scaled versions of this algorithm. The routines in this library implement 8 bit and 32 bit versions of a non-linear mixer which is compatible with Sandia''s hardware-based ATM encryptor.
Investigating Encrypted Material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe
When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.
Sandia Scalable Encryption Software
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1997-08-13
Sandia Scalable Encryption Library (SSEL) Version 1.0 is a library of functions that implement Sandia''s scalable encryption algorithm. This algorithm is used to encrypt Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) data traffic, and is capable of operating on an arbitrary number of bits at a time (which permits scaling via parallel implementations), while being interoperable with differently scaled versions of this algorithm. The routines in this library implement 8 bit and 32 bit versions of a non-linearmore » mixer which is compatible with Sandia''s hardware-based ATM encryptor.« less
A novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation.
Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Xianglian; Wei, Xiaopeng
2012-01-01
We present a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation. Different from the traditional DNA encryption methods, our algorithm does not use complex biological operation but just uses the idea of DNA subsequence operations (such as elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, etc.) combining with the logistic chaotic map to scramble the location and the value of pixel points from the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed algorithm is easy to be implemented, can get good encryption effect, has a wide secret key's space, strong sensitivity to secret key, and has the abilities of resisting exhaustive attack and statistic attack. PMID:23093912
A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on DNA Subsequence Operation
Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Xianglian; Wei, Xiaopeng
2012-01-01
We present a novel image encryption algorithm based on DNA subsequence operation. Different from the traditional DNA encryption methods, our algorithm does not use complex biological operation but just uses the idea of DNA subsequence operations (such as elongation operation, truncation operation, deletion operation, etc.) combining with the logistic chaotic map to scramble the location and the value of pixel points from the image. The experimental results and security analysis show that the proposed algorithm is easy to be implemented, can get good encryption effect, has a wide secret key's space, strong sensitivity to secret key, and has the abilities of resisting exhaustive attack and statistic attack. PMID:23093912
A DRM based on renewable broadcast encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramkumar, Mahalingam; Memon, Nasir
2005-07-01
We propose an architecture for digital rights management based on a renewable, random key pre-distribution (KPD) scheme, HARPS (hashed random preloaded subsets). The proposed architecture caters for broadcast encryption by a trusted authority (TA) and by "parent" devices (devices used by vendors who manufacture compliant devices) for periodic revocation of devices. The KPD also facilitates broadcast encryption by peer devices, which permits peers to distribute content, and efficiently control access to the content encryption secret using subscription secrets. The underlying KPD also caters for broadcast authentication and mutual authentication of any two devices, irrespective of the vendors manufacturing the device, and thus provides a comprehensive solution for securing interactions between devices taking part in a DRM system.
Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Li, Baochen
2014-08-25
We demonstrate that all parameters of optical lightwave can be simultaneously designed as keys in security system. This multi-dimensional property of key can significantly enlarge the key space and further enhance the security level of the system. The single-shot off-axis digital holography with orthogonal polarized reference waves is employed to perform polarization state recording on object wave. Two pieces of polarization holograms are calculated and fabricated to be arranged in reference arms to generate random amplitude and phase distribution respectively. When reconstruction, original information which is represented with QR code can be retrieved using Fresnel diffraction with decryption keys and read out noise-free. Numerical simulation results for this cryptosystem are presented. An analysis on the key sensitivity and fault tolerance properties are also provided. PMID:25321276
Argumentation Key to Communicating Climate Change to the Public
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.
2012-12-01
Argumentation plays an important role in how we communicate climate change science to the public and is a key component integrated throughout the Next Generation Science Standards. A scientific argument can be described as a disagreement between explanations with data being used to justify each position. Argumentation is social process where two or more individuals construct and critique arguments (Kuhn & Udell, 2003; Nussbaum, 1997). Sampson, Grooms, and Walker's (2011) developed a framework for understanding the components of a scientific argument. The three components start with a claim (a conjecture, conclusion, explanation, or an answer to a research question). This claim must fit the evidence (observations that show trends over time, relationships between variables or difference between groups). The evidence must be justified with reasoning (explains how the evidence supports the explanation and whey it should count as support). In a scientific argument, or debate, the controversy focuses on how data were collected, what data can or should be included, and what inferences can be made based on a set of evidence. Toulmin's model (1969) also includes rebutting or presenting an alternative explanation supported by counter evidence and reasoning of why the alternative is not the appropriate explanation for the question of the problem. The process of scientific argumentation should involve the construction and critique of scientific arguments, one that involves the consideration of alternative hypotheses (Lawson, 2003). Scientific literacy depends as much on the ability to refute and recognize poor scientific arguments as much as it does on the ability to present an effective argument based on good scientific data (Osborne, 2010). Argument is, therefore, a core feature of science. When students learn to construct a sound scientific argument, they demonstrate critical thinking and a mastery of the science being taught. To present a convincing argument in support of
Key Information Systems Issues: An Analysis of MIS Publications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palvia, Prashant C.; And Others
1996-01-01
Presents results of a content analysis of journal articles discussing management information systems (MIS) that was conducted to identify, classify, and prioritize the key issues; to perform a trend analysis; and to compare results with previous studies. Twenty-six key issues are ranked according to frequency of occurrence. Contains 52 references.…
Encryption and the loss of patient data.
Miller, Amalia R; Tucker, Catherine E
2011-01-01
Fast-paced IT advances have made it increasingly possible and useful for firms to collect data on their customers on an unprecedented scale. One downside of this is that firms can experience negative publicity and financial damage if their data are breached. This is particularly the case in the medical sector, where we find empirical evidence that increased digitization of patient data is associated with more data breaches. The encryption of customer data is often presented as a potential solution, because encryption acts as a disincentive for potential malicious hackers, and can minimize the risk of breached data being put to malicious use. However, encryption both requires careful data management policies to be successful and does not ward off the insider threat. Indeed, we find no empirical evidence of a decrease in publicized instances of data loss associated with the use of encryption. Instead, there are actually increases in the cases of publicized data loss due to internal fraud or loss of computer equipment. PMID:21774164
Known-plaintext attack on a joint transform correlator encrypting system.
Barrera, John Fredy; Vargas, Carlos; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto; Bolognini, Nestor
2010-11-01
We demonstrate in this Letter that a joint transform correlator shows vulnerability to known-plaintext attacks. An unauthorized user, who intercepts both an object and its encrypted version, can obtain the security key code mask. In this contribution, we conduct a hybrid heuristic attack scheme merge to a Gerchberg-Saxton routine to estimate the encrypting key to decode different ciphertexts encrypted with that same key. We also analyze the success of this attack for different pairs of plaintext-ciphertext used to get the encrypting code. We present simulation results for the decrypting procedure to demonstrate the validity of our analysis. PMID:21042347
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till
Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.
On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server's Public Keys
Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, Minkyu; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho
2014-01-01
Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients' passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol. PMID:25258723
On the security of a simple three-party key exchange protocol without server's public keys.
Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, Minkyu; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho
2014-01-01
Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients' passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol. PMID:25258723
An Image Encryption Algorithm Utilizing Julia Sets and Hilbert Curves
Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lina; Xu, Rudan; Kong, Ruiqing
2014-01-01
Image encryption is an important and effective technique to protect image security. In this paper, a novel image encryption algorithm combining Julia sets and Hilbert curves is proposed. The algorithm utilizes Julia sets’ parameters to generate a random sequence as the initial keys and gets the final encryption keys by scrambling the initial keys through the Hilbert curve. The final cipher image is obtained by modulo arithmetic and diffuse operation. In this method, it needs only a few parameters for the key generation, which greatly reduces the storage space. Moreover, because of the Julia sets’ properties, such as infiniteness and chaotic characteristics, the keys have high sensitivity even to a tiny perturbation. The experimental results indicate that the algorithm has large key space, good statistical property, high sensitivity for the keys, and effective resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack. PMID:24404181
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, Matt
1988-01-01
The organization of some tools to help improve passwork security at a UNIX-based site is described along with how to install and use them. These tools and their associated library enable a site to force users to pick reasonably safe passwords (safe being site configurable) and to enable site management to try to crack existing passworks. The library contains various versions of a very fast implementation of the Data Encryption Standard and of the one-way encryption functions used to encryp the password.
Secure key storage and distribution
Agrawal, Punit
2015-06-02
This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.
Using Chaotic System in Encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Findik, Oğuz; Kahramanli, Şirzat
In this paper chaotic systems and RSA encryption algorithm are combined in order to develop an encryption algorithm which accomplishes the modern standards. E.Lorenz's weather forecast' equations which are used to simulate non-linear systems are utilized to create chaotic map. This equation can be used to generate random numbers. In order to achieve up-to-date standards and use online and offline status, a new encryption technique that combines chaotic systems and RSA encryption algorithm has been developed. The combination of RSA algorithm and chaotic systems makes encryption system.
A DNA-Inspired Encryption Methodology for Secure, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, Harry
2012-01-01
Users are pushing for greater physical mobility with their network and Internet access. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) can provide an efficient mobile network architecture, but security is a key concern. A figure summarizes differences in the state of network security for MANET and fixed networks. MANETs require the ability to distinguish trusted peers, and tolerate the ingress/egress of nodes on an unscheduled basis. Because the networks by their very nature are mobile and self-organizing, use of a Public Key Infra structure (PKI), X.509 certificates, RSA, and nonce ex changes becomes problematic if the ideal of MANET is to be achieved. Molecular biology models such as DNA evolution can provide a basis for a proprietary security architecture that achieves high degrees of diffusion and confusion, and resistance to cryptanalysis. A proprietary encryption mechanism was developed that uses the principles of DNA replication and steganography (hidden word cryptography) for confidentiality and authentication. The foundation of the approach includes organization of coded words and messages using base pairs organized into genes, an expandable genome consisting of DNA-based chromosome keys, and a DNA-based message encoding, replication, and evolution and fitness. In evolutionary computing, a fitness algorithm determines whether candidate solutions, in this case encrypted messages, are sufficiently encrypted to be transmitted. The technology provides a mechanism for confidential electronic traffic over a MANET without a PKI for authenticating users.
Attribute-Based Encryption with Partially Hidden Ciphertext Policies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishide, Takashi; Yoneyama, Kazuki; Ohta, Kazuo
We propose attribute-based encryption schemes where encryptor-specified policies (called ciphertext policies) are hidden. By using our schemes, an encryptor can encrypt data with a hidden access control policy. A decryptor obtains her secret key associated with her attributes from a trusted authority in advance and if the attributes associated with the decryptor's secret key do not satisfy the access control policy associated with the encrypted data, the decryptor cannot decrypt the data or guess even what access control policy was specified by the encryptor. We prove security of our construction based on the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption and the Decision Linear assumption. In our security notion, even the legitimate decryptor cannot obtain the information about the access control policy associated with the encrypted data more than the fact that she can decrypt the data.
Photonic encryption using all optical logic.
Blansett, Ethan L.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tang, Jason D.; Robertson, Perry J.; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tarman, Thomas David; Pierson, Lyndon George
2003-12-01
With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines two classes of all optical logic (SEED, gain competition) and how each discrete logic element can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of the SEED and gain competition devices in an optical circuit were modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model of the SEED or gain competition device takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay characteristics. These 'black box' models are interconnected and cascaded in an
Key Performance Indicators of Public Universities Based on Quality Assessment Criteria in Thailand
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sukboonyasatit, Kritsana; Thanapaisarn, Chaiwit; Manmar, Lampang
2011-01-01
The research objective was to develop public universities' key performance indicators. Qualitative research and interviews were employed with each public university's senior executive and quality assessors. The sample group was selected by the office of the public sector development commission and Thailand's public universities can be separated…
Writing for Professional Publication. Keys to Academic and Business Success.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henson, Kenneth T.
This book provides practical help for people writing for publication, especially for those writing for professional journals or university presses. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) reasons for writing; (2) finding topics; (3) getting started; (4) writing style; (5) organizing articles; (6) using journals, libraries, surveys, and action…
Status report on knapsack-based public key cryptosystems
Brickell, E.F.; Simmons, G.J.
1983-02-01
In the period since 1976, when Diffie and Hellman published the first discussion of two-key cryptography to appear in the open literature, only a handful of two-key cryptoalgorithms have been proposed - two of which are based on the knapsack problem. Consequently there was enormous interest when Shamir announced in early 1982 a cryptanalytic technique that could break many Merkle-Hellman knapsacks. In a rapid sequence of developments, Simmons and Brickell, Adleman, and Lagarias all announced other attacks on knapsack-based cryptosystems that were either computationally much more efficient or else directed at other knapsack schemes such as the Graham-Shamir or iterated systems. This paper analyzes the common features of knapsack-based cryptosystems and presents all of the cryptanalytic attacks made in 1982 from a unified viewpoint.
Chaos based encryption system for encrypting electroencephalogram signals.
Lin, Chin-Feng; Shih, Shun-Han; Zhu, Jin-De
2014-05-01
In the paper, we use the Microsoft Visual Studio Development Kit and C# programming language to implement a chaos-based electroencephalogram (EEG) encryption system involving three encryption levels. A chaos logic map, initial value, and bifurcation parameter for the map were used to generate Level I chaos-based EEG encryption bit streams. Two encryption-level parameters were added to these elements to generate Level II chaos-based EEG encryption bit streams. An additional chaotic map and chaotic address index assignment process was used to implement the Level III chaos-based EEG encryption system. Eight 16-channel EEG Vue signals were tested using the encryption system. The encryption was the most rapid and robust in the Level III system. The test yielded superior encryption results, and when the correct deciphering parameter was applied, the EEG signals were completely recovered. However, an input parameter error (e.g., a 0.00001 % initial point error) causes chaotic encryption bit streams, preventing the recovery of 16-channel EEG Vue signals. PMID:24733526
Security enhancement of a phase-truncation based image encryption algorithm.
Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu
2011-12-20
The asymmetric cryptosystem, which is based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms (PTFTs), can break the linearity of conventional systems. However, it has been proven to be vulnerable to a specific attack based on iterative Fourier transforms when the two random phase masks are used as public keys to encrypt different plaintexts. An improvement from the asymmetric cryptosystem may be taken by relocating the amplitude values in the output plane. In this paper, two different methods are adopted to realize the amplitude modulation of the output image. The first one is to extend the PTFT-based asymmetrical cryptosystem into the anamorphic fractional Fourier transform domain directly, and the second is to add an amplitude mask in the Fourier plane of the encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations are presented to prove the good performance of the proposed cryptosystems. PMID:22193194
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capell, Joyce; Deeth, David
1996-01-01
This paper describes why encryption was selected by Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space as the means for securing ATM networks. The ATM encryption testing program is part of an ATM network trial provided by Pacific Bell under the California Research Education Network (CalREN). The problem being addressed is the threat to data security which results when changing from a packet switched network infrastructure to a circuit switched ATM network backbone. As organizations move to high speed cell-based networks, there is a break down in the traditional security model which is designed to protect packet switched data networks from external attacks. This is due to the fact that most data security firewalls filter IP packets, restricting inbound and outbound protocols, e.g. ftp. ATM networks, based on cell-switching over virtual circuits, does not support this method for restricting access since the protocol information is not carried by each cell. ATM switches set up multiple virtual connections, thus there is no longer a single point of entry into the internal network. The problem is further complicated by the fact that ATM networks support high speed multi-media applications, including real time video and video teleconferencing which are incompatible with packet switched networks. The ability to restrict access to Lockheed Martin networks in support of both unclassified and classified communications is required before ATM network technology can be fully deployed. The Lockheed Martin CalREN ATM testbed provides the opportunity to test ATM encryption prototypes with actual applications to assess the viability of ATM encryption methodologies prior to installing large scale ATM networks. Two prototype ATM encryptors are being tested: (1) `MILKBUSH' a prototype encryptor developed by NSA for transmission of government classified data over ATM networks, and (2) a prototype ATM encryptor developed by Sandia National Labs in New Mexico, for the encryption of proprietary data.
DOE and Public Involvement A Key to Successful Clean Up
Sarten, S.
2008-07-01
The combination of two vital elements in the Oak Ridge, TN area are the Department of Energy and the education of the public, at any age, of the necessary work that is and has been going on this region of the country since the setting aside of land during the World War II era. A wide variety of interested citizens from surrounding counties make up a group of individuals that bring different elements of education and involvement to form a committee of whose interest is the Department of Energy's handling of contaminated material. The effort of one of the committees on this board has given the public a resource of material to develop a better understanding of the history and stewardship efforts taking place at the Oak Ridge Reservation. (authors)
Chosen-plaintext attack on a joint transform correlator encrypting system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrera, John Fredy; Vargas, Carlos; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto
2010-10-01
We demonstrate that optical encryption methods based on the joint transform correlator architecture are vulnerable to chosen-plaintext attack. An unauthorized user, who introduces three chosen plaintexts in the accessible encryption machine, can obtain the security key code mask. In this contribution, we also propose an alternative method to eliminate ambiguities that allows obtaining the right decrypting key.
A Literature Review on Image Encryption Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Majid; Shah, Tariq
2014-12-01
Image encryption plays a paramount part to guarantee classified transmission and capacity of image over web. Then again, a real-time image encryption confronts a more noteworthy test because of vast measure of information included. This paper exhibits an audit on image encryption in spatial, frequency and hybrid domains with both full encryption and selective encryption strategy.
Fresnel domain double-phase encoding encryption of color image via ptychography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Liang; Wang, Yali; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi
2015-10-01
In this paper, color image encryption combined with ptychography has been investigated. Ptychographic imaging possesses a remarkable advantage of simple optics architecture and complex amplitude of object can be reconstructed just by a series of diffraction intensity patterns via aperture movement. Traditional technique of three primary color synthesis is applied for encrypting color image. In order to reduce physical limitations, the encryption's algorithm is based on Fresnel transformation domain. It is illustrated that the proposed optical encryption scheme has well ability to recover the encrypted color plaintext and advances in security enhancement thanks to introducing ptychography, since light probe as key factor enlarges the key space. Finally, the encryption's immunity to noise and reconstruction impact from lateral offset of probe has been investigated.
Optoelectronic information encryption with phase-shifting interferometry.
Tajahuerce, E; Matoba, O; Verrall, S C; Javidi, B
2000-05-10
A technique that combines the high speed and the high security of optical encryption with the advantages of electronic transmission, storage, and decryption is introduced. Digital phase-shifting interferometry is used for efficient recording of phase and amplitude information with an intensity recording device. The encryption is performed by use of two random phase codes, one in the object plane and another in the Fresnel domain, providing high security in the encrypted image and a key with many degrees of freedom. We describe how our technique can be adapted to encrypt either the Fraunhofer or the Fresnel diffraction pattern of the input. Electronic decryption can be performed with a one-step fast Fourier transform reconstruction procedure. Experimental results for both systems including a lensless setup are shown. PMID:18345139
Wikipedia: A Key Tool for Global Public Health Promotion
Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan; Stomp, Wouter; Martone, Michael F; Lodge, Daniel J; Vondracek, Andrea; de Wolff, Jacob F; Liber, Casimir; Grover, Samir C; Vickers, Tim J; Meskó, Bertalan
2011-01-01
The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia’s medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia’s health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia’s biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information. PMID:21282098
Wikipedia: a key tool for global public health promotion.
Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan; Stomp, Wouter; Martone, Michael F; Lodge, Daniel J; Vondracek, Andrea; de Wolff, Jacob F; Liber, Casimir; Grover, Samir C; Vickers, Tim J; Meskó, Bertalan; Laurent, Michaël R
2011-01-01
The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia's medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia's health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia's biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information. PMID:21282098
Experimental multiplexing protocol to encrypt messages of any length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredy Barrera, John; Vélez, Alejandro; Torroba, Roberto
2013-05-01
As optical systems are diffraction limited, it is not possible to encrypt in a single step texts containing a large amount of characters. We overcome this situation by separately encrypting several characters, along with a multiplexing procedure to obtain an encrypted keyboard. The experimental application is performed in a joint transform correlator architecture and using digital holography. We combine the different characters into a keyboard encrypted with a single phase mask together with a selection-position key that gives the right sequence to recover safe encrypted messages. The multiplexing operation we suggest is advantageous in the sense that the technique enables processing of messages that otherwise the optical system could not process in a single step. We also employ a repositioning technique to prevent both the natural background noise over recovered characters and the possible cross talk. The lack of any single key avoids the correct message recovery. Experimental results are presented to show the feasibility of our proposal, representing an actual application of the optical encrypting protocols.
A New Color Image Encryption Scheme Using CML and a Fractional-Order Chaotic System
Wu, Xiangjun; Li, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-01-01
The chaos-based image cryptosystems have been widely investigated in recent years to provide real-time encryption and transmission. In this paper, a novel color image encryption algorithm by using coupled-map lattices (CML) and a fractional-order chaotic system is proposed to enhance the security and robustness of the encryption algorithms with a permutation-diffusion structure. To make the encryption procedure more confusing and complex, an image division-shuffling process is put forward, where the plain-image is first divided into four sub-images, and then the position of the pixels in the whole image is shuffled. In order to generate initial conditions and parameters of two chaotic systems, a 280-bit long external secret key is employed. The key space analysis, various statistical analysis, information entropy analysis, differential analysis and key sensitivity analysis are introduced to test the security of the new image encryption algorithm. The cryptosystem speed is analyzed and tested as well. Experimental results confirm that, in comparison to other image encryption schemes, the new algorithm has higher security and is fast for practical image encryption. Moreover, an extensive tolerance analysis of some common image processing operations such as noise adding, cropping, JPEG compression, rotation, brightening and darkening, has been performed on the proposed image encryption technique. Corresponding results reveal that the proposed image encryption method has good robustness against some image processing operations and geometric attacks. PMID:25826602
Public key suppression and recovery using a PANDA ring resonator for high security communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juleang, Pakorn; Phongsanam, Prapas; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.
2011-03-01
An interesting security technique that uses the dark-bright soliton conversion control within the microring resonator is proposed. The obtained outputs for a dark-bright soliton dynamic state can be controlled and used to form the public key suppression for communication security application. However, a good design should be possible to be fabricated; therefore, by using the parameters based on the practical device parameters, the simulation results obtained have shown that the proposed system can indeed be achieved. The public key suppression and public key recovery can be used in a highly secure communication system and has potential applications in optical cryptography.
The Public-Key-Infrastructure of the Radiological Society of Germany.
Schütze, B; Kämmerer, M; Klos, G; Mildenberger, P
2006-03-01
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encoding is based on the Public-Key-Procedure and permits the safe transmission of medical data. Furthermore it allows the use of an electronic signature provided that keys used belong to the key owner and that the key owner's identity is guaranteed by a trusted third party. Under the auspices of the Radiological Society of Germany (Deutsche Röntgengesellschaft, DRG) its IT-Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Informationstechnik, @GIT) built up an appropriate Certification Authority including the required Public-Key-Infrastructure. These @GIT certified PGP keys allow the legal use of telemedicine in Germany. Digital signatures based to those certified keys correspond to the advanced signature according to the German Signature Law. PMID:16324813
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knobler, Ron; Scheffel, Peter; Jackson, Scott; Gaj, Kris; Kaps, Jens Peter
2013-05-01
Various embedded systems, such as unattended ground sensors (UGS), are deployed in dangerous areas, where they are subject to compromise. Since numerous systems contain a network of devices that communicate with each other (often times with commercial off the shelf [COTS] radios), an adversary is able to intercept messages between system devices, which jeopardizes sensitive information transmitted by the system (e.g. location of system devices). Secret key algorithms such as AES are a very common means to encrypt all system messages to a sufficient security level, for which lightweight implementations exist for even very resource constrained devices. However, all system devices must use the appropriate key to encrypt and decrypt messages from each other. While traditional public key algorithms (PKAs), such as RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), provide a sufficiently secure means to provide authentication and a means to exchange keys, these traditional PKAs are not suitable for very resource constrained embedded systems or systems which contain low reliability communication links (e.g. mesh networks), especially as the size of the network increases. Therefore, most UGS and other embedded systems resort to pre-placed keys (PPKs) or other naïve schemes which greatly reduce the security and effectiveness of the overall cryptographic approach. McQ has teamed with the Cryptographic Engineering Research Group (CERG) at George Mason University (GMU) to develop an approach using revolutionary cryptographic techniques that provides both authentication and encryption, but on resource constrained embedded devices, without the burden of large amounts of key distribution or storage.
Layered Multicast Encryption of Motion JPEG2000 Code Streams for Flexible Access Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakachi, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Kan; Tonomura, Yoshihide; Fujii, Tatsuya
In this paper, we propose a layered multicast encryption scheme that provides flexible access control to motion JPEG2000 code streams. JPEG2000 generates layered code streams and offers flexible scalability in characteristics such as resolution and SNR. The layered multicast encryption proposal allows a sender to multicast the encrypted JPEG2000 code streams such that only designated groups of users can decrypt the layered code streams. While keeping the layering functionality, the proposed method offers useful properties such as 1) video quality control using only one private key, 2) guaranteed security, and 3) low computational complexity comparable to conventional non-layered encryption. Simulation results show the usefulness of the proposed method.
Image compression-encryption scheme based on hyper-chaotic system and 2D compressive sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Nanrun; Pan, Shumin; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Zhihong
2016-08-01
Most image encryption algorithms based on low-dimensional chaos systems bear security risks and suffer encryption data expansion when adopting nonlinear transformation directly. To overcome these weaknesses and reduce the possible transmission burden, an efficient image compression-encryption scheme based on hyper-chaotic system and 2D compressive sensing is proposed. The original image is measured by the measurement matrices in two directions to achieve compression and encryption simultaneously, and then the resulting image is re-encrypted by the cycle shift operation controlled by a hyper-chaotic system. Cycle shift operation can change the values of the pixels efficiently. The proposed cryptosystem decreases the volume of data to be transmitted and simplifies the keys distribution simultaneously as a nonlinear encryption system. Simulation results verify the validity and the reliability of the proposed algorithm with acceptable compression and security performance.
The Emissions Characterization and Prevention Branch (ECPB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, produces highly specialized scientific and technical documents relating to ECPB's research areas. A list of key publications coveri...
A palmprint-based cryptosystem using double encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Amioy; Kumar, Ajay
2008-03-01
We propose a novel cryptographic construct incorporating biometrics which insures a secure communication between two channels just by using Palmprint. The cryptosystem utilizes the advantages of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic approaches simultaneously; we denote it as double encryption. Any document in communication is first encrypted using symmetric cryptographic approach; the symmetric key involved is then encrypted using Asymmetric approach. Finally, the concept of fuzzy vault is explored to create a secure vault around the asymmetric key. We investigate the possible usage of palmprints in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the real palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint based key generation system.
Data publication and dissemination of interactive keys under the open access model
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The concepts of publication, citation and dissemination of interactive keys and other online keys are discussed and illustrated by a sample paper published in the present issue (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271). The present model is based on previous experience with several existing examples of publishi...
Encryption and networking applications
Long, J.P.
1995-04-01
The DOE requires that sensitive unclassified data be protected while being transmitted electronically. On most large networks it is difficult and expensive to provide the required level of physical protection. At Sandia National Laboratories, we are assembling the structure necessary to protect sensitive unclassified data using software-based encryption. This approach has the advantage that the data can be protected after arrival at its destination without additional investment While Sandia has expertise in cryptography, we had not used cryptography in this field. This discussion deals with the client-server model of file-based data exchange and interactive access to on-line data bases using Unix workstations, Macs and PCs.
Cancelable face verification using optical encryption and authentication.
Taheri, Motahareh; Mozaffari, Saeed; Keshavarzi, Parviz
2015-10-01
In a cancelable biometric system, each instance of enrollment is distorted by a transform function, and the output should not be retransformed to the original data. This paper presents a new cancelable face verification system in the encrypted domain. Encrypted facial images are generated by a double random phase encoding (DRPE) algorithm using two keys (RPM1 and RPM2). To make the system noninvertible, a photon counting (PC) method is utilized, which requires a photon distribution mask for information reduction. Verification of sparse images that are not recognizable by direct visual inspection is performed by unconstrained minimum average correlation energy filter. In the proposed method, encryption keys (RPM1, RPM2, and PDM) are used in the sender side, and the receiver needs only encrypted images and correlation filters. In this manner, the system preserves privacy if correlation filters are obtained by an adversary. Performance of PC-DRPE verification system is evaluated under illumination variation, pose changes, and facial expression. Experimental results show that utilizing encrypted images not only increases security concerns but also enhances verification performance. This improvement can be attributed to the fact that, in the proposed system, the face verification problem is converted to key verification tasks. PMID:26479930
Secure Genomic Computation through Site-Wise Encryption.
Zhao, Yongan; Wang, XiaoFeng; Tang, Haixu
2015-01-01
Commercial clouds provide on-demand IT services for big-data analysis, which have become an attractive option for users who have no access to comparable infrastructure. However, utilizing these services for human genome analysis is highly risky, as human genomic data contains identifiable information of human individuals and their disease susceptibility. Therefore, currently, no computation on personal human genomic data is conducted on public clouds. To address this issue, here we present a site-wise encryption approach to encrypt whole human genome sequences, which can be subject to secure searching of genomic signatures on public clouds. We implemented this method within the Hadoop framework, and tested it on the case of searching disease markers retrieved from the ClinVar database against patients' genomic sequences. The secure search runs only one order of magnitude slower than the simple search without encryption, indicating our method is ready to be used for secure genomic computation on public clouds. PMID:26306278
Secure Genomic Computation through Site-Wise Encryption
Zhao, Yongan; Wang, XiaoFeng; Tang, Haixu
2015-01-01
Commercial clouds provide on-demand IT services for big-data analysis, which have become an attractive option for users who have no access to comparable infrastructure. However, utilizing these services for human genome analysis is highly risky, as human genomic data contains identifiable information of human individuals and their disease susceptibility. Therefore, currently, no computation on personal human genomic data is conducted on public clouds. To address this issue, here we present a site-wise encryption approach to encrypt whole human genome sequences, which can be subject to secure searching of genomic signatures on public clouds. We implemented this method within the Hadoop framework, and tested it on the case of searching disease markers retrieved from the ClinVar database against patients’ genomic sequences. The secure search runs only one order of magnitude slower than the simple search without encryption, indicating our method is ready to be used for secure genomic computation on public clouds. PMID:26306278
Integrating end-to-end encryption and authentication technology into broadband networks
Pierson, L.G.
1995-11-01
BISDN services will involve the integration of high speed data, voice, and video functionality delivered via technology similar to Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching and SONET optical transmission systems. Customers of BISDN services may need a variety of data authenticity and privacy assurances, via Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) services Cryptographic methods can be used to assure authenticity and privacy, but are hard to scale for implementation at high speed. The incorporation of these methods into computer networks can severely impact functionality, reliability, and performance. While there are many design issues associated with the serving of public keys for authenticated signaling and for establishment of session cryptovariables, this paper is concerned with the impact of encryption itself on such communications once the signaling and setup have been completed. Network security protections should be carefully matched to the threats against which protection is desired. Even after eliminating unnecessary protections, the remaining customer-required network security protections can impose severe performance penalties. These penalties (further discussed below) usually involve increased communication processing for authentication or encryption, increased error rate, increased communication delay, and decreased reliability/availability. Protection measures involving encryption should be carefully engineered so as to impose the least performance, reliability, and functionality penalties, while achieving the required security protection. To study these trade-offs, a prototype encryptor/decryptor was developed. This effort demonstrated the viability of implementing certain encryption techniques in high speed networks. The research prototype processes ATM cells in a SONET OC-3 payload. This paper describes the functionality, reliability, security, and performance design trade-offs investigated with the prototype.
Flexible Timed-Release Encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Maki; Fujiwara, Toru
This paper presents a new scheme for Timed-Release Encryption (TRE), which is mainly designed for global use. TRE aims to control the timing of disclosing information. The major approach to TRE assumes that any participants can receive a time token broadcasted by a trusted agent, called a time server. Our scheme is based on this approach and allows participants to generate an encrypted message that can be decrypted using designated or any authenticated time servers including even those which are authenticated after encryption. In this sense, our scheme has a more flexible framework in terms of message decryption.
Optical image encryption via photon-counting imaging and compressive sensing based ptychography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rawat, Nitin; Hwang, In-Chul; Shi, Yishi; Lee, Byung-Geun
2015-06-01
In this study, we investigate the integration of compressive sensing (CS) and photon-counting imaging (PCI) techniques with a ptychography-based optical image encryption system. Primarily, the plaintext real-valued image is optically encrypted and recorded via a classical ptychography technique. Further, the sparse-based representations of the original encrypted complex data can be produced by combining CS and PCI techniques with the primary encrypted image. Such a combination takes an advantage of reduced encrypted samples (i.e., linearly projected random compressive complex samples and photon-counted complex samples) that can be exploited to realize optical decryption, which inherently serves as a secret key (i.e., independent to encryption phase keys) and makes an intruder attack futile. In addition to this, recording fewer encrypted samples provides a substantial bandwidth reduction in online transmission. We demonstrate that the fewer sparse-based complex samples have adequate information to realize decryption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating CS and PCI with conventional ptychography-based optical image encryption.
Optimal encryption of quantum bits
Boykin, P. Oscar; Roychowdhury, Vwani
2003-04-01
We show that 2n random classical bits are both necessary and sufficient for encrypting any unknown state of n quantum bits in an informationally secure manner. We also characterize the complete set of optimal protocols in terms of a set of unitary operations that comprise an orthonormal basis in a canonical inner product space. Moreover, a connection is made between quantum encryption and quantum teleportation that allows for a different proof of optimality of teleportation.
Scalable encryption using alpha rooting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wharton, Eric J.; Panetta, Karen A.; Agaian, Sos S.
2008-04-01
Full and partial encryption methods are important for subscription based content providers, such as internet and cable TV pay channels. Providers need to be able to protect their products while at the same time being able to provide demonstrations to attract new customers without giving away the full value of the content. If an algorithm were introduced which could provide any level of full or partial encryption in a fast and cost effective manner, the applications to real-time commercial implementation would be numerous. In this paper, we present a novel application of alpha rooting, using it to achieve fast and straightforward scalable encryption with a single algorithm. We further present use of the measure of enhancement, the Logarithmic AME, to select optimal parameters for the partial encryption. When parameters are selected using the measure, the output image achieves a balance between protecting the important data in the image while still containing a good overall representation of the image. We will show results for this encryption method on a number of images, using histograms to evaluate the effectiveness of the encryption.
Interactive identification protocol based on a quantum public-key cryptosystem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2014-11-01
We propose two interactive identification protocols based on a general construction of quantum public-key cryptosystem. Basic protocol contains set-up phase and authentication phase. Participants do operation with quantum computing of Boolean function in two-round transmission of authentication phase. Basic one only ensures completeness and soundness, but leaks information about private-key. We modify basic protocol with random string and random Boolean permutation. After modification, both transmitted states in two-round transmission can be proved to be ultimate mixed states. No participant or attacker will get useful information about private-key by measuring such states. Modified protocol achieves property of zero-knowledge.
Helping Students Adapt to Computer-Based Encrypted Examinations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker-Eveleth, Lori; Eveleth, Daniel M.; O'Neill, Michele; Stone, Robert W.
2006-01-01
The College of Business and Economics at the University of Idaho conducted a pilot study that used commercially available encryption software called Securexam to deliver computer-based examinations. A multi-step implementation procedure was developed, implemented, and then evaluated on the basis of what students viewed as valuable. Two key aspects…
Optical encryption/decryption of 8PSK signal using FWM-based modified XOR.
Zhang, Min; Cui, Yue; Zhan, Yueying; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Xue
2015-09-01
A scheme for optical encryption/decryption of an eight-phase-shift keying (8PSK) signal is proposed, and this scheme applies modified optical XOR gates based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Theoretical analyses and simulations are conducted. Both the performance and the parameter design of a 40-Gbit/s all-optical encryption/decryption system under various key parameters are studied. The results are useful for designing optical encryption/decryption for complex modulated signals. PMID:26368909
Pierson, L.G.; Witzke, E.L.
1999-01-01
This effort studied the integration of innovative methods of key management crypto synchronization, and key agility while scaling encryption speed. Viability of these methods for encryption of ATM cell payloads at the SONET OC- 192 data rate (10 Gb/s), and for operation at OC-48 rates (2.5 Gb/s) was shown. An SNL-Developed pipelined DES design was adapted for the encryption of ATM cells. A proof-of-principle prototype circuit board containing 11 Electronically Programmable Logic Devices (each holding the equivalent of 100,000 gates) was designed, built, and used to prototype a high speed encryptor.
Encryption in TECB Mode: Modeling, Simulation and Synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reaz, M. B. I.; Ibrahimy, M. I.; Mohd-Yasin, F.; Wei, C. S.; Kamada, M.
The growth of the Internet as a vehicle for secure communication has resulted in Data Encryption Standard (DES) no longer capable of providing high-level security for data protection. Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) is a symmetric block cipher with 192 bits key proposed to further enhance DES. Many applications crave for the speed of a hardware encryption implementation while trying to preserve the flexibility and low cost of a software implementation. This project used single core module to implement encryption in Triple DES Electronic Code Book (TECB) mode, which was modeled using hardware description language VHDL. The architecture was mapped in Altera EPF10K100EFC484-1 and EP20K200EFC672-1X for performance investigations and resulted in achieving encryption rate of 102.56 Mbps, area utilization of 2111 logic cells (25%) and a higher maximum operating frequency of 78.59 MHz by implementing on the larger FPGA device EP20K200EFC672-1X. It also suggested that 3DES hardware was 2.4 times faster than its software counterpart.
Image encryption in the wavelet domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Long; Zhou, Yicong; Chen, C. L. Philip
2013-05-01
Most existing image encryption algorithms often transfer the original image into a noise-like image which is an apparent visual sign indicating the presence of an encrypted image. Motivated by the data hiding technologies, this paper proposes a novel concept of image encryption, namely transforming an encrypted original image into another meaningful image which is the final resulting encrypted image and visually the same as the cover image, overcoming the mentioned problem. Using this concept, we introduce a new image encryption algorithm based on the wavelet decomposition. Simulations and security analysis are given to show the excellent performance of the proposed concept and algorithm.
Encryption of covert information into multiple statistical distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkatesan, R. C.
2007-10-01
A novel strategy to encrypt covert information (code) via unitary projections into the null spaces of ill-conditioned eigenstructures of multiple host statistical distributions, inferred from incomplete constraints, is presented. The host pdf's are inferred using the maximum entropy principle. The projection of the covert information is dependent upon the pdf's of the host statistical distributions. The security of the encryption/decryption strategy is based on the extreme instability of the encoding process. A self-consistent procedure to derive keys for both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography is presented. The advantages of using a multiple pdf model to achieve encryption of covert information are briefly highlighted. Numerical simulations exemplify the efficacy of the model.
Optical cryptanalysis of DRPE-based encryption systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Wan; He, Wenqi; Meng, Xiangfeng; Peng, Xiang
2009-11-01
In this paper, we analyze the security of the classical double random phase encoding (DRPE) technique in Fourier domain, as well as its extended schemes in Fresnel and fractional Fourier domains. These schemes are resistant to bruteforce attacks, for their large key spaces. However, due to the linearity property of their encryption transformations, they are vulnerable to other attacks, such as chosen-plaintext attack and known-plaintext attack. We successfully break each of the three encryption schemes with the help of a certain quantity of plaintext-ciphertext pairs. Each attack is validated by computer simulations. The cryptanalysis indicates that, to minimize the risks, it is recommendable to introduce nonlinear operations to optical encryption systems.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-03
... commercial entities by the Surface Deployment and Distribution Command, the United States Department of the... Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)....
Management of PEM public key certificates using X.500 directory service: Some problems and solutions
Cheung, Terry C.
1993-08-01
Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides security services to users of Internet electronic mail. While the prevalent PEM implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, certificates are mostly distributed vie e-mail exchanges, which raises several security and performance issues. This paper discusses some problems with this strategy, explores the relevant issues, and develops an approach to address them.
A novel hybrid color image encryption algorithm using two complex chaotic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Leyuan; Song, Hongjun; Liu, Ping
2016-02-01
Based on complex Chen and complex Lorenz systems, a novel color image encryption algorithm is proposed. The larger chaotic ranges and more complex behaviors of complex chaotic systems, which compared with real chaotic systems could additionally enhance the security and enlarge key space of color image encryption. The encryption algorithm is comprised of three step processes. In the permutation process, the pixels of plain image are scrambled via two-dimensional and one-dimensional permutation processes among RGB channels individually. In the diffusion process, the exclusive-or (XOR for short) operation is employed to conceal pixels information. Finally, the mixing RGB channels are used to achieve a multilevel encryption. The security analysis and experimental simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is large enough to resist the brute-force attack and has excellent encryption performance.
Optical-data storage-readout technique based on fractal encrypting masks.
Tebaldi, Myrian; Furlan, Walter D; Torroba, Roberto; Bolognini, Néstor
2009-02-01
We propose the use of fractal structured diffractive masks as keys in secure storage-readout systems. A joint transform correlator based on a photorefractive crystal in the Fourier domain is implemented to perform encryption and decryption. We discuss the advantages of encrypting information using this kind of deterministic keys in comparison to conventional random phase masks. Preliminary experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:19183643
The Development of a Portable Hard Disk Encryption/Decryption System with a MEMS Coded Lock.
Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Tang, Jian; Xu, Peng; Li, Yibin; Li, Shengyong
2009-01-01
In this paper, a novel portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system with a MEMS coded lock is presented, which can authenticate the user and provide the key for the AES encryption/decryption module. The portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system is composed of the authentication module, the USB portable hard-disk interface card, the ATA protocol command decoder module, the data encryption/decryption module, the cipher key management module, the MEMS coded lock controlling circuit module, the MEMS coded lock and the hard disk. The ATA protocol circuit, the MEMS control circuit and AES encryption/decryption circuit are designed and realized by FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array). The MEMS coded lock with two couplers and two groups of counter-meshing-gears (CMGs) are fabricated by a LIGA-like process and precision engineering method. The whole prototype was fabricated and tested. The test results show that the user's password could be correctly discriminated by the MEMS coded lock, and the AES encryption module could get the key from the MEMS coded lock. Moreover, the data in the hard-disk could be encrypted or decrypted, and the read-write speed of the dataflow could reach 17 MB/s in Ultra DMA mode. PMID:22291566
Experimental protocol for packaging and encrypting multiple data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fredy Barrera, John; Trejos, Sorayda; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto
2013-05-01
We present a novel single optical packaging and encryption (SOPE) procedure for multiple inputs. This procedure is based on a merging of a 2f scheme with a digital holographic technique to achieve efficient handling of multiple data. Through the 2f system with a random phase mask attached in its input plane, and the holographic technique, we obtain each processed input. A posteriori filtering and repositioning protocol on each hologram followed by an addition of all processed data, allows storing these data to form a single package. The final package is digitally multiplied by a second random phase mask acting as an encryption mask. In this way, the final user receives only one encrypted information unit and a single key, instead of a conventional multiple-image collecting method and several keys. Processing of individual images is cast into an optimization problem. The proposed optimization aims to simplify the handling and recovery of images while packing all of them into a single unit. The decoding process does not have the usual cross-talk or noise problems involved in other methods, as filtering and repositioning precedes the encryption step. All data are recovered in just one step at the same time by applying a simple Fourier transform operation and the decoding key. The proposed protocol takes advantage of optical processing and the versatility of the digital format. Experiments have been conducted using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. An application is subsequently demonstrated to illustrate the feasibility of the SOPE procedure.
1995-04-01
In order to provide needed security assurances for traffic carried in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, methods of protecting the integrity and privacy of traffic must be employed. Cryptographic methods can be used to assure authenticity and privacy, but are hard to scale and the incorporation of these methods into computer networks can severely impact functionality, reliability, and performance. To study these trade-offs, a research prototype encryptor/decryptor is under development. This prototype is to demonstrate the viability of implementing certain encryption techniques in high speed networks by processing Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells in a SONET OC-3 payload. This paper describes the objectives and design trade-offs intended to be investigated with the prototype. User requirements for high performance computing and communication have driven Sandia to do work in the areas of functionality, reliability, security, and performance of high speed communication networks. Adherence to standards (including emerging standards) achieves greater functionality of high speed computer networks by providing wide interoperability of applications, network hardware, and network software.
Photonic encryption : modeling and functional analysis of all optical logic.
Tang, Jason D.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Robertson, Perry J.
2004-10-01
With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. This paper documents the innovations and advances of work first detailed in 'Photonic Encryption using All Optical Logic,' [1]. A discussion of underlying concepts can be found in SAND2003-4474. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines S-SEED devices and how discrete logic elements can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of S-SEED devices in an optical circuit was modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the standard listed in this section that are incorporated by reference... employed then the following encryption protocol must be used: Project 25 DES Encryption Protocol,...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the standard listed in this section that are incorporated by reference... employed then the following encryption protocol must be used: Project 25 DES Encryption Protocol,...
A new optical image encryption method based on multi-beams interference and vector composition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Linfei; Liu, Jingyu; Wen, Jisen; Gao, Xiong; Mao, Haidan; Shi, Xiaoyan; Qu, Qingling
2015-06-01
In this paper, a new method for optical image encryption based on multi-beams interference principle and vector composition is proposed. In this encryption, the original image is encoded into n-1 phase only masks which are regarded as the keys of the encryption system and a ciphertext according to multi-beams interference principle and vector composition. In decryption process, n beams of parallel incident light illuminate at the phase only masks and the ciphertext, and we can obtain the decrypted image at output plane after Fourier transforms. The security of the proposed method is discussed, finding that no decrypted image can be obtained only when all the keys used are right. Furthermore, the keys can be stored separately resulting in improving the security of encryption system. Computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun
2013-04-01
We present a hybrid configuration of joint transform correlator (JTC) and joint fractional transform correlator (JFTC) for encryption purpose. The original input is encoded in the joint fractional power spectrum distribution of JFTC. In our experimental arrangement, an additional random phase mask (master key) is holographically generated beforehand by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a JTC as the object arm. The fractional order of JFTC, together with the master key, can remarkably strengthen the safety level of encryption. Different from many previous digital-holography-based encryption schemes, the stability and alignment requirement for our system is not high, since the interferometric operation is only performed in the generation procedure of the master key. The advantages and feasibility of the proposed scheme have been verified by the experimental results. By combining with a multiplex technique, an application for multiple images encryption using the system is also given a detailed description.
Testing a Variety of Encryption Technologies
Henson, T J
2001-04-09
Review and test speeds of various encryption technologies using Entrust Software. Multiple encryption algorithms are included in the product. Algorithms tested were IDEA, CAST, DES, and RC2. Test consisted of taking a 7.7 MB Word document file which included complex graphics and timing encryption, decryption and signing. Encryption is discussed in the GIAC Kickstart section: Information Security: The Big Picture--Part VI.
Private genome analysis through homomorphic encryption
2015-01-01
Background The rapid development of genome sequencing technology allows researchers to access large genome datasets. However, outsourcing the data processing o the cloud poses high risks for personal privacy. The aim of this paper is to give a practical solution for this problem using homomorphic encryption. In our approach, all the computations can be performed in an untrusted cloud without requiring the decryption key or any interaction with the data owner, which preserves the privacy of genome data. Methods We present evaluation algorithms for secure computation of the minor allele frequencies and χ2 statistic in a genome-wide association studies setting. We also describe how to privately compute the Hamming distance and approximate Edit distance between encrypted DNA sequences. Finally, we compare performance details of using two practical homomorphic encryption schemes - the BGV scheme by Gentry, Halevi and Smart and the YASHE scheme by Bos, Lauter, Loftus and Naehrig. Results The approach with the YASHE scheme analyzes data from 400 people within about 2 seconds and picks a variant associated with disease from 311 spots. For another task, using the BGV scheme, it took about 65 seconds to securely compute the approximate Edit distance for DNA sequences of size 5K and figure out the differences between them. Conclusions The performance numbers for BGV are better than YASHE when homomorphically evaluating deep circuits (like the Hamming distance algorithm or approximate Edit distance algorithm). On the other hand, it is more efficient to use the YASHE scheme for a low-degree computation, such as minor allele frequencies or χ2 test statistic in a case-control study. PMID:26733152
Shor-Preskill-type security proof for quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases
Hwang, Won-Young; Wang Xiangbin; Matsumoto, Keiji; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong
2003-01-01
We give a Shor-Preskill-type security proof to quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases [W.Y. Hwang et al., Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)]. First, we modify the Lo-Chau protocol once more so that it finally reduces to the quantum key distribution without public announcement of bases. Then we show how we can estimate the error rate in the code bits based on that in the checked bits in the proposed protocol, which is the central point of the proof. We discuss the problem of imperfect sources and that of large deviation in the error rate distributions. We discuss when the bases sequence must be discarded.
Li, Jiguo
2014-01-01
Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606
Nghiem, Nhung; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony
2013-01-01
Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies. PMID:24028228
Encrypting three-dimensional information system based on integral imaging and multiple chaotic maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Yan; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Xiong, Zhao-Long; Deng, Huan
2016-02-01
An encrypting three-dimensional (3-D) information system based on integral imaging (II) and multiple chaotic maps is proposed. In the encrypting process, the elemental image array (EIA) which represents spatial and angular information of the real 3-D scene is picked up by a microlens array. Subsequently, R, G, and B color components decomposed by the EIA are encrypted using multiple chaotic maps. Finally, these three encrypted components are interwoven to obtain the cipher information. The decryption process implements the reverse operation of the encryption process for retrieving the high-quality 3-D images. Since the encrypted EIA has the data redundancy property due to II, and all parameters of the pickup part are the secret keys of the encrypting system, the system sensitivity on the changes of the plaintext and secret keys can be significantly improved. Moreover, the algorithm based on multiple chaotic maps can effectively enhance the security. A preliminary experiment is carried out, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness, robustness, and security of the proposed system.
A DES ASIC Suitable for Network Encryption at 10 Gbps and Beyond
Gass, Karl; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Wilcox, D. Craig; Witzke, Edward L.
1999-04-30
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Data Encryption Standard (DES) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the fastest known implementation of the DES algorithm as defined in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 46-2. DES is used for protecting data by cryptographic means. The SNL DES ASIC, over 10 times faster than other currently available DES chips, is a high-speed, filly pipelined implementation offering encryption, decryption, unique key input, or algorithm bypassing on each clock cycle. Operating beyond 105 MHz on 64 bit words, this device is capable of data throughputs greater than 6.7 Billion bits per second (tester limited). Simulations predict proper operation up to 9.28 Billion bits per second. In low frequency, low data rate applications, the ASIC consumes less that one milliwatt of power. The device has features for passing control signals synchronized to throughput data. Three SNL DES ASICS may be easily cascaded to provide the much greater security of triple-key, triple-DES.
Communicating Herschel Key Programs in Solar System Studies to the Public
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rengel, M.; Hartogh, P.; Müller, T.
2011-10-01
The Herschel Space Observatory, one of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) with participation from NASA, is delivering a wealth of far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations of the cold Universe. A considerable part of the observing time for the nominal three year mission lifetime has been awarded in the form of Key Programs. Between the 42 key programs (guaranteed and open times), only two key programs are dedicated to study the Solar System: "Water and Related Chemistry in the Solar System", also known as Herschel Solar System Observations (HssO) project [1], and "TNOs are Cool: A Survey of the Transneptunian Region" [2]. In the framework of these Programs, a serie of public outreach activities and efforts of its results are being carried out. We present some of the outreach strategies developed (e.g. press releases, web pages, logos, public lectures, exhibitions, interviews, reports, etc.) and some plans in this direction. Our activities introduce people to knowledge and beauty of solar system research and wider the opportunities for the public to become more involved in topics like solar system studies, specially in the times of frequent exo-planet discoveries.
Multichanneled puzzle-like encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaya, Dafne; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto; Bolognini, Néstor
2008-07-01
In order to increase data security transmission we propose a multichanneled puzzle-like encryption method. The basic principle relies on the input information decomposition, in the same way as the pieces of a puzzle. Each decomposed part of the input object is encrypted separately in a 4 f double random phase mask architecture, by setting the optical parameters in a determined status. Each parameter set defines a channel. In order to retrieve the whole information it is necessary to properly decrypt and compose all channels. Computer simulations that confirm our proposal are presented.
A new image encryption algorithm based on logistic chaotic map with varying parameter.
Liu, Lingfeng; Miao, Suoxia
2016-01-01
In this paper, we proposed a new image encryption algorithm based on parameter-varied logistic chaotic map and dynamical algorithm. The parameter-varied logistic map can cure the weaknesses of logistic map and resist the phase space reconstruction attack. We use the parameter-varied logistic map to shuffle the plain image, and then use a dynamical algorithm to encrypt the image. We carry out several experiments, including Histogram analysis, information entropy analysis, sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, correlation analysis and computational complexity to evaluate its performances. The experiment results show that this algorithm is with high security and can be competitive for image encryption. PMID:27066326
Enhancement of utilization of encryption engine
Robertson, Robert J.; Witzke, Edward L.
2008-04-22
A method of enhancing throughput of a pipelined encryption/decryption engine for an encryption/decryption process has a predetermined number of stages and provides feedback around the stages (and of such an encryption/decryption engine) by receiving a source datablock for a given stage and encryption/decryption context identifier; indexing according to the encryption/decryption context identifier into a bank of initial variables to retrieve an initial variable for the source datablock; and generating an output datablock from the source datablock and its corresponding initial variable.
Ensemble of Chaotic and Naive Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Video Encryption
Chandrasekaran, Jeyamala; Thiruvengadam, S. J.
2015-01-01
Owing to the growth of high performance network technologies, multimedia applications over the Internet are increasing exponentially. Applications like video conferencing, video-on-demand, and pay-per-view depend upon encryption algorithms for providing confidentiality. Video communication is characterized by distinct features such as large volume, high redundancy between adjacent frames, video codec compliance, syntax compliance, and application specific requirements. Naive approaches for video encryption encrypt the entire video stream with conventional text based cryptographic algorithms. Although naive approaches are the most secure for video encryption, the computational cost associated with them is very high. This research work aims at enhancing the speed of naive approaches through chaos based S-box design. Chaotic equations are popularly known for randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, and ergodicity. The proposed methodology employs two-dimensional discrete Henon map for (i) generation of dynamic and key-dependent S-box that could be integrated with symmetric algorithms like Blowfish and Data Encryption Standard (DES) and (ii) generation of one-time keys for simple substitution ciphers. The proposed design is tested for randomness, nonlinearity, avalanche effect, bit independence criterion, and key sensitivity. Experimental results confirm that chaos based S-box design and key generation significantly reduce the computational cost of video encryption with no compromise in security. PMID:26550603
Ensemble of Chaotic and Naive Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Video Encryption.
Chandrasekaran, Jeyamala; Thiruvengadam, S J
2015-01-01
Owing to the growth of high performance network technologies, multimedia applications over the Internet are increasing exponentially. Applications like video conferencing, video-on-demand, and pay-per-view depend upon encryption algorithms for providing confidentiality. Video communication is characterized by distinct features such as large volume, high redundancy between adjacent frames, video codec compliance, syntax compliance, and application specific requirements. Naive approaches for video encryption encrypt the entire video stream with conventional text based cryptographic algorithms. Although naive approaches are the most secure for video encryption, the computational cost associated with them is very high. This research work aims at enhancing the speed of naive approaches through chaos based S-box design. Chaotic equations are popularly known for randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, and ergodicity. The proposed methodology employs two-dimensional discrete Henon map for (i) generation of dynamic and key-dependent S-box that could be integrated with symmetric algorithms like Blowfish and Data Encryption Standard (DES) and (ii) generation of one-time keys for simple substitution ciphers. The proposed design is tested for randomness, nonlinearity, avalanche effect, bit independence criterion, and key sensitivity. Experimental results confirm that chaos based S-box design and key generation significantly reduce the computational cost of video encryption with no compromise in security. PMID:26550603
Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao
2016-03-01
Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.
Secure Obfuscation for Encrypted Group Signatures
Fan, Hongfei; Liu, Qin
2015-01-01
In recent years, group signature techniques are widely used in constructing privacy-preserving security schemes for various information systems. However, conventional techniques keep the schemes secure only in normal black-box attack contexts. In other words, these schemes suppose that (the implementation of) the group signature generation algorithm is running in a platform that is perfectly protected from various intrusions and attacks. As a complementary to existing studies, how to generate group signatures securely in a more austere security context, such as a white-box attack context, is studied in this paper. We use obfuscation as an approach to acquire a higher level of security. Concretely, we introduce a special group signature functionality-an encrypted group signature, and then provide an obfuscator for the proposed functionality. A series of new security notions for both the functionality and its obfuscator has been introduced. The most important one is the average-case secure virtual black-box property w.r.t. dependent oracles and restricted dependent oracles which captures the requirement of protecting the output of the proposed obfuscator against collision attacks from group members. The security notions fit for many other specialized obfuscators, such as obfuscators for identity-based signatures, threshold signatures and key-insulated signatures. Finally, the correctness and security of the proposed obfuscator have been proven. Thereby, the obfuscated encrypted group signature functionality can be applied to variants of privacy-preserving security schemes and enhance the security level of these schemes. PMID:26167686
A pipelined FPGA implementation of an encryption algorithm based on genetic algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thirer, Nonel
2013-05-01
With the evolution of digital data storage and exchange, it is essential to protect the confidential information from every unauthorized access. High performance encryption algorithms were developed and implemented by software and hardware. Also many methods to attack the cipher text were developed. In the last years, the genetic algorithm has gained much interest in cryptanalysis of cipher texts and also in encryption ciphers. This paper analyses the possibility to use the genetic algorithm as a multiple key sequence generator for an AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) cryptographic system, and also to use a three stages pipeline (with four main blocks: Input data, AES Core, Key generator, Output data) to provide a fast encryption and storage/transmission of a large amount of data.
Asymmetric multiple-image encryption based on the cascaded fractional Fourier transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yuanchao; Tao, Ran
2015-09-01
A multiple-image cryptosystem is proposed based on the cascaded fractional Fourier transform. During an encryption procedure, each of the original images is directly separated into two phase masks. A portion of the masks is subsequently modulated into an interim mask, which is encrypted into the ciphertext image; the others are used as the encryption keys. Using phase truncation in the fractional Fourier domain, one can use an asymmetric cryptosystem to produce a real-valued noise-like ciphertext, while a legal user can reconstruct all of the original images using a different group of phase masks. The encryption key is an indivisible part of the corresponding original image and is still useful during decryption. The proposed system has high resistance to various potential attacks, including the chosen-plaintext attack. Numerical simulations also demonstrate the security and feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Optical asymmetric image encryption using gyrator wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we propose a new optical information processing tool termed as gyrator wavelet transform to secure a fully phase image, based on amplitude- and phase-truncation approach. The gyrator wavelet transform constitutes four basic parameters; gyrator transform order, type and level of mother wavelet, and position of different frequency bands. These parameters are used as encryption keys in addition to the random phase codes to the optical cryptosystem. This tool has also been applied for simultaneous compression and encryption of an image. The system's performance and its sensitivity to the encryption parameters, such as, gyrator transform order, and robustness has also been analyzed. It is expected that this tool will not only update current optical security systems, but may also shed some light on future developments. The computer simulation results demonstrate the abilities of the gyrator wavelet transform as an effective tool, which can be used in various optical information processing applications, including image encryption, and image compression. Also this tool can be applied for securing the color image, multispectral, and three-dimensional images.
Masking property of quantum random cipher with phase mask encryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu
2014-10-01
The security analysis of physical encryption protocol based on coherent pulse position modulation (CPPM) originated by Yuen is one of the most interesting topics in the study of cryptosystem with a security level beyond the Shannon limit. Although the implementation of CPPM scheme has certain difficulty, several methods have been proposed recently. This paper deals with the CPPM encryption in terms of symplectic transformation, which includes a phase mask encryption as a special example, and formulates a unified security analysis for such encryption schemes. Specifically, we give a lower bound of Eve's symbol error probability using reliability function theory to ensure that our proposed system exceeds the Shannon limit. Then we assume the secret key is given to Eve after her heterodyne measurement. Since this assumption means that Eve has a great advantage in the sense of the conventional cryptography, the lower bound of her error indeed ensures the security level beyond the Shannon limit. In addition, we show some numerical examples of the security performance.
A symmetrical image encryption scheme in wavelet and time domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yuling; Du, Minghui; Liu, Junxiu
2015-02-01
There has been an increasing concern for effective storages and secure transactions of multimedia information over the Internet. Then a great variety of encryption schemes have been proposed to ensure the information security while transmitting, but most of current approaches are designed to diffuse the data only in spatial domain which result in reducing storage efficiency. A lightweight image encryption strategy based on chaos is proposed in this paper. The encryption process is designed in transform domain. The original image is decomposed into approximation and detail components using integer wavelet transform (IWT); then as the more important component of the image, the approximation coefficients are diffused by secret keys generated from a spatiotemporal chaotic system followed by inverse IWT to construct the diffused image; finally a plain permutation is performed for diffusion image by the Logistic mapping in order to reduce the correlation between adjacent pixels further. Experimental results and performance analysis demonstrate the proposed scheme is an efficient, secure and robust encryption mechanism and it realizes effective coding compression to satisfy desirable storage.
Selectively Encrypted Pull-Up Based Watermarking of Biometric data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinde, S. A.; Patel, Kushal S.
2012-10-01
Biometric authentication systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential usage in information security. However, digital biometric data (e.g. thumb impression) are themselves vulnerable to security attacks. There are various methods are available to secure biometric data. In biometric watermarking the data are embedded in an image container and are only retrieved if the secrete key is available. This container image is encrypted to have more security against the attack. As wireless devices are equipped with battery as their power supply, they have limited computational capabilities; therefore to reduce energy consumption we use the method of selective encryption of container image. The bit pull-up-based biometric watermarking scheme is based on amplitude modulation and bit priority which reduces the retrieval error rate to great extent. By using selective Encryption mechanism we expect more efficiency in time at the time of encryption as well as decryption. Significant reduction in error rate is expected to be achieved by the bit pull-up method.
Encryption for Remote Control via Internet or Intranet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lineberger, Lewis
2005-01-01
A data-communication protocol has been devised to enable secure, reliable remote control of processes and equipment via a collision-based network, while using minimal bandwidth and computation. The network could be the Internet or an intranet. Control is made secure by use of both a password and a dynamic key, which is sent transparently to a remote user by the controlled computer (that is, the computer, located at the site of the equipment or process to be controlled, that exerts direct control over the process). The protocol functions in the presence of network latency, overcomes errors caused by missed dynamic keys, and defeats attempts by unauthorized remote users to gain control. The protocol is not suitable for real-time control, but is well suited for applications in which control latencies up to about 0.5 second are acceptable. The encryption scheme involves the use of both a dynamic and a private key, without any additional overhead that would degrade performance. The dynamic key is embedded in the equipment- or process-monitor data packets sent out by the controlled computer: in other words, the dynamic key is a subset of the data in each such data packet. The controlled computer maintains a history of the last 3 to 5 data packets for use in decrypting incoming control commands. In addition, the controlled computer records a private key (password) that is given to the remote computer. The encrypted incoming command is permuted by both the dynamic and private key. A person who records the command data in a given packet for hostile purposes cannot use that packet after the public key expires (typically within 3 seconds). Even a person in possession of an unauthorized copy of the command/remote-display software cannot use that software in the absence of the password. The use of a dynamic key embedded in the outgoing data makes the central-processing unit overhead very small. The use of a National Instruments DataSocket(TradeMark) (or equivalent) protocol or
Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks
Corndorf, Eric; Liang Chuang; Kanter, Gregory S.; Kumar, Prem; Yuen, Horace P.
2005-06-15
We demonstrate high-rate randomized data-encryption through optical fibers using the inherent quantum-measurement noise of coherent states of light. Specifically, we demonstrate 650 Mbit/s data encryption through a 10 Gbit/s data-bearing, in-line amplified 200-km-long line. In our protocol, legitimate users (who share a short secret key) communicate using an M-ry signal set while an attacker (who does not share the secret key) is forced to contend with the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states. Implementations of our protocol using both polarization-encoded signal sets as well as polarization-insensitive phase-keyed signal sets are experimentally and theoretically evaluated. Different from the performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of key generation (quantum key-generation), one possible set of performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of data encryption is established and carefully considered.
Optical encryption system using quadrature multiplexing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Mohammed Nazrul; Alam, Mohammad S.
2006-08-01
Optical security systems have attracted much research interest recently for information security and fraud deterrent applications. A number of encryption techniques have been proposed in the literature, which includes double random-phase encryption, polarization encoding, encryption and verification using a multiplexed minimum average correlation energy phase-encrypted filter. Most of these reports employ a pseudo-random code for each information to be encrypted, where it requires individual storage capacity or transmission channel for further processing of each information. The objective of this paper is to develop an optical encryption system employing quadrature multiplexing to enhance the storage/transmission capacity of the system. Two information signals are encrypted using the same code but employing two orthogonal functions and then they are multiplexed together in the same domain. As the orthogonal functions have zero cross-correlation between them, so the encrypted information are expected to be unaffected by each other. Each encryption and multiplexing process can accommodate two information signals for a single code and a single storage cell or transmission channel. The same process can be performed in multiple steps to increase the multiplexing capability of the system. For decryption purpose, the composite encoded signal is correlated using the appropriate code and the appropriate function. The proposed technique has been found to work excellent in computer simulation with binary as well as gray level images. It has also been verified that the encrypted images remain secure, because no unwanted reproduction is possible without having the appropriate code and function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alfalou, Ayman; Elbouz, Marwa; Jridi, Maher; Loussert, Alain
2009-09-01
In some recognition form applications (which require multiple images: facial identification or sign-language), many images should be transmitted or stored. This requires the use of communication systems with a good security level (encryption) and an acceptable transmission rate (compression rate). In the literature, several encryption and compression techniques can be found. In order to use optical correlation, encryption and compression techniques cannot be deployed independently and in a cascade manner. Otherwise, our system will suffer from two major problems. In fact, we cannot simply use these techniques in a cascade manner without considering the impact of one technique over another. Secondly, a standard compression can affect the correlation decision, because the correlation is sensitive to the loss of information. To solve both problems, we developed a new technique to simultaneously compress & encrypt multiple images using a BPOF optimized filter. The main idea of our approach consists in multiplexing the spectrums of different transformed images by a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). To this end, the spectral plane should be divided into several areas and each of them corresponds to the spectrum of one image. On the other hand, Encryption is achieved using the multiplexing, a specific rotation functions, biometric encryption keys and random phase keys. A random phase key is widely used in optical encryption approaches. Finally, many simulations have been conducted. Obtained results corroborate the good performance of our approach. We should also mention that the recording of the multiplexed and encrypted spectra is optimized using an adapted quantification technique to improve the overall compression rate.
An improved piecewise linear chaotic map based image encryption algorithm.
Hu, Yuping; Zhu, Congxu; Wang, Zhijian
2014-01-01
An image encryption algorithm based on improved piecewise linear chaotic map (MPWLCM) model was proposed. The algorithm uses the MPWLCM to permute and diffuse plain image simultaneously. Due to the sensitivity to initial key values, system parameters, and ergodicity in chaotic system, two pseudorandom sequences are designed and used in the processes of permutation and diffusion. The order of processing pixels is not in accordance with the index of pixels, but it is from beginning or end alternately. The cipher feedback was introduced in diffusion process. Test results and security analysis show that not only the scheme can achieve good encryption results but also its key space is large enough to resist against brute attack. PMID:24592159
Triple image encryption scheme in fractional Fourier transform domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhengjun; Dai, Jingmin; Sun, Xiaogang; Liu, Shutian
2009-02-01
We proposed a triple image encryption scheme by use of fractional Fourier transform. In this algorithm, an original image is encoded in amplitude part and other two images are encoded into phase information. The key of encryption algorithm is obtained from the difference between the third image and the output phase of transform. In general case, random phase encoding technology is not required in the proposed algorithm. Moreover, all information of images is preserved in theory when image are decrypted with correct key. The optical implementation of the algorithm is presented with an electro-optical hybrid structure. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the efficiency and the security of this algorithm. Based on this scheme a multiple image algorithm is expanded and designed.
An Improved Piecewise Linear Chaotic Map Based Image Encryption Algorithm
Hu, Yuping; Wang, Zhijian
2014-01-01
An image encryption algorithm based on improved piecewise linear chaotic map (MPWLCM) model was proposed. The algorithm uses the MPWLCM to permute and diffuse plain image simultaneously. Due to the sensitivity to initial key values, system parameters, and ergodicity in chaotic system, two pseudorandom sequences are designed and used in the processes of permutation and diffusion. The order of processing pixels is not in accordance with the index of pixels, but it is from beginning or end alternately. The cipher feedback was introduced in diffusion process. Test results and security analysis show that not only the scheme can achieve good encryption results but also its key space is large enough to resist against brute attack. PMID:24592159
Secure Data Aggregation with Fully Homomorphic Encryption in Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks
Li, Xing; Chen, Dexin; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Liangmin
2015-01-01
With the rapid development of wireless communication technology, sensor technology, information acquisition and processing technology, sensor networks will finally have a deep influence on all aspects of people’s lives. The battery resources of sensor nodes should be managed efficiently in order to prolong network lifetime in large-scale wireless sensor networks (LWSNs). Data aggregation represents an important method to remove redundancy as well as unnecessary data transmission and hence cut down the energy used in communication. As sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environments, the security of the sensitive information such as confidentiality and integrity should be considered. This paper proposes Fully homomorphic Encryption based Secure data Aggregation (FESA) in LWSNs which can protect end-to-end data confidentiality and support arbitrary aggregation operations over encrypted data. In addition, by utilizing message authentication codes (MACs), this scheme can also verify data integrity during data aggregation and forwarding processes so that false data can be detected as early as possible. Although the FHE increase the computation overhead due to its large public key size, simulation results show that it is implementable in LWSNs and performs well. Compared with other protocols, the transmitted data and network overhead are reduced in our scheme. PMID:26151208
Secure Data Aggregation with Fully Homomorphic Encryption in Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks.
Li, Xing; Chen, Dexin; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Liangmin
2015-01-01
With the rapid development of wireless communication technology, sensor technology, information acquisition and processing technology, sensor networks will finally have a deep influence on all aspects of people's lives. The battery resources of sensor nodes should be managed efficiently in order to prolong network lifetime in large-scale wireless sensor networks (LWSNs). Data aggregation represents an important method to remove redundancy as well as unnecessary data transmission and hence cut down the energy used in communication. As sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environments, the security of the sensitive information such as confidentiality and integrity should be considered. This paper proposes Fully homomorphic Encryption based Secure data Aggregation (FESA) in LWSNs which can protect end-to-end data confidentiality and support arbitrary aggregation operations over encrypted data. In addition, by utilizing message authentication codes (MACs), this scheme can also verify data integrity during data aggregation and forwarding processes so that false data can be detected as early as possible. Although the FHE increase the computation overhead due to its large public key size, simulation results show that it is implementable in LWSNs and performs well. Compared with other protocols, the transmitted data and network overhead are reduced in our scheme. PMID:26151208
Novel Authentication of Monitoring Data Through the use of Secret and Public Cryptographic Keys
Benz, Jacob M.; Tolk, Keith; Tanner, Jennifer E.
2014-07-21
The Office of Nuclear Verification (ONV) is supporting the development of a piece of equipment to provide data authentication and protection for a suite of monitoring sensors as part of a larger effort to create an arms control technology toolkit. This device, currently called the Red Box, leverages the strengths of both secret and public cryptographic keys to authenticate, digitally sign, and pass along monitoring data to allow for host review, and redaction if necessary, without the loss of confidence in the authenticity of the data by the monitoring party. The design of the Red Box will allow for the addition and removal of monitoring equipment and can also verify that the data was collected by authentic monitoring equipment prior to signing the data and sending it to the host and for review. The host will then forward the data to the monitor for review and inspection. This paper will highlight the progress to date of the Red Box development, and will explain the novel method of leveraging both symmetric and asymmetric (secret and public key) cryptography to authenticate data within a warhead monitoring regime.
Global trade, public health, and health services: stakeholders' constructions of the key issues.
Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Landwehr, Angela; Mountain, Carolyn
2005-09-01
Focusing mainly on the United States and Latin America, we aimed to identify the constructions of social reality held by the major stakeholders participating in policy debates about global trade, public health, and health services. In a multi-method, qualitative design, we used three sources of data: research and archival literature, 1980-2004; interviews with key informants who represented major organizations participating in these debates, 2002-2004; and organizational reports, 1980-2004. We targeted several types of organizations: government agencies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and trade organizations, international health organizations, multinational corporations, and advocacy groups. Many governments in Latin America define health as a right and health services as a public good. Thus, the government bears responsibility for that right. In contrast, the US government's philosophy of free trade and promoting a market economy assumes that by expanding the private sector, improved economic conditions will improve overall health with a minimum government provision of health care. US government agencies also view promotion of global health as a means to serve US interests. IFIs have emphasized reforms that include reduction and privatization of public sector services. International health organizations have tended to adopt the policy perspectives of IFIs and trade organizations. Advocacy groups have emphasized the deleterious effects of international trade agreements on public health and health services. Organizational stakeholders hold widely divergent constructions of reality regarding trade, public health, and health services. Social constructions concerning trade and health reflect broad ideologies concerning the impacts of market processes. Such constructions manifest features of "creed," regarding the role of the market in advancing human purposes and meeting human needs. Differences in constructions of trade and health constrain policies to
Dual-channel in-line digital holographic double random phase encryption
Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Rao, D V G L N
2012-01-01
We present a robust encryption method for the encoding of 2D/3D objects using digital holography and virtual optics. Using our recently developed dual-plane in-line digital holography technique, two in-line digital holograms are recorded at two different planes and are encrypted using two different double random phase encryption configurations, independently. The process of using two mutually exclusive encryption channels makes the system more robust against attacks since both the channels should be decrypted accurately in order to get a recognizable reconstruction. Results show that the reconstructed object is unrecognizable even when the portion of the correct phase keys used during decryption is close to 75%. The system is verified against blind decryptions by evaluating the SNR and MSE. Validation of the proposed method and sensitivities of the associated parameters are quantitatively analyzed and illustrated. PMID:23471012
Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.
Sampangi, Raghav V; Sampalli, Srinivas
2015-01-01
Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis. PMID:26389899
Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks †
Sampangi, Raghav V.; Sampalli, Srinivas
2015-01-01
Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis. PMID:26389899
Fault tolerant channel-encrypting quantum dialogue against collective noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, TianYu
2015-04-01
In this paper, two fault tolerant channel-encrypting quantum dialogue (QD) protocols against collective noise are presented. One is against collective-dephasing noise, while the other is against collective-rotation noise. The decoherent-free states, each of which is composed of two physical qubits, act as traveling states combating collective noise. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs, which play the role of private quantum key, are securely shared between two participants over a collective-noise channel in advance. Through encryption and decryption with private quantum key, the initial state of each traveling two-photon logical qubit is privately shared between two participants. Due to quantum encryption sharing of the initial state of each traveling logical qubit, the issue of information leakage is overcome. The private quantum key can be repeatedly used after rotation as long as the rotation angle is properly chosen, making quantum resource economized. As a result, their information-theoretical efficiency is nearly up to 66.7%. The proposed QD protocols only need single-photon measurements rather than two-photon joint measurements for quantum measurements. Security analysis shows that an eavesdropper cannot obtain anything useful about secret messages during the dialogue process without being discovered. Furthermore, the proposed QD protocols can be implemented with current techniques in experiment.