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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Public Relations & the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph synthesizes the laws and regulations that form the basis of the right to representation in the court of public opinion by all who would seek to influence public and private decisions. It expresses the framework of human and social values that underlie this constitutional freedom and that give public relations and other management…

Walsh, Frank

2

A Review of Model Public Health Laws  

PubMed Central

Model public health laws (public health laws or private policies publicly recommended by at least 1 organization for adoption by government bodies or by specified private entities) are promoted as exemplary. We assessed the information sponsors of model public health laws provide on the methods used in developing their models and on their models’ adoption and effectiveness. Through a systematic search, we identified 107 model public health laws published from 1907 to 2004. As of our assessment in 2005, only 18 (44%) of the sponsors presented any information on the procedures and evidence used in developing their model public health laws; information on adoption was provided for only 7 (6.5%) model laws. No sponsors provided information on model effectiveness. We recommend sponsors improve their disclosure of information about the methods and evidence used in developing model public health laws and about their adoption and effectiveness.

Hartsfield, DeKeely; Moulton, Anthony D.; McKie, Karen L.

2007-01-01

3

Weapons of Mass Destruction & Public International Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) into the hands of rogue dictators and terrorists has brought a sea change in strategic international relations, and is accelerating the necessity of public international law to protect humanity. Traditional balances of power have little force left to deter WMD. Major powers must seriously revamp and proactively exploit public international law, and,

Michael Donlan

2005-01-01

4

The Theory of Public Enforcement of Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter of the forthcoming Handbook of Law and Economics surveys the theory of the public enforcement of law %u2013 the use of governmental agents (regulators, inspectors, tax auditors, police, prosecutors) to detect and to sanction violators of legal rules. The theoretical core of our analysis addresses the following basic questions: Should the form of the sanction imposed on a

A. Mitchell Polinsky; Steven Shavell

2005-01-01

5

Law Students Practice in Public.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The glass walls and observation lounge of Hamline University Law Center's moot court allow passersby to glimpse the action day or night. Faculty offices, secretarial spaces, and several student organizations are housed on the second floor. The brick and masonry exterior was designed to fit in with other campus buildings. (Author/MLF)|

American School and University, 1981

1981-01-01

6

Public opinion and smoke-free laws.  

PubMed

Public support for Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky's smoke-free law, perception of health risks from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), smoking behaviors, and frequency of visiting restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues were assessed pre- and post-law. Two cohorts of noninstitutionalized adults (N = 2,146) were randomly selected and invited to participate in a 10- to 15-min telephone survey. Public support for the smoke-free law increased from 56% to 63%, and respondents were 1.3 times more likely to perceive SHS exposure as a health risk after the law took effect. Although adult smoking and home smoking policy did not change post-law, adults frequented public venues at least as much as before the law. Lexington adults favored the smoke-free legislation despite living in a traditionally protobacco climate. The smoke-free law acted as a public health intervention as it increased perception of risk of heart disease and cancer from SHS exposure. PMID:18337432

Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J; Langley, Ronald E; Hedgecock, Susan; Butler, Karen M; Greathouse-Maggio, Lisa

2007-11-01

7

The future of public health law.  

PubMed

Developments in medicine and constitutional law dictate modification of public health legislation in the United States. Traditionally overlooked by legislators, present public health laws provide inadequate decision-making criteria and inappropriate procedures for dealing with issues. Revised legislation should provide health care officials and agencies with the tools to balance individual rights against public health necessities. This Article makes four recommendations for legislative reform: (1) remove artificial legislative distinction between venereal and other communicable diseases; (2) provide criteria defining "public health necessity" to limit discretionary exercise of police power by health officials; (3) provide strong confidentiality protections in the collection and storage of public health information; (4) empower public health officials to select from a graded series of less restrictive alternatives in dealing with public health problems. PMID:3451680

Gostin, L O

1986-01-01

8

Nurse Reinvestment Act. Public Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the text of the Nurse Reinvestment Act, which amends the Public Health Service Act to address the increasing shortage of registered nurses by instituting a series of policies to improve nurse recruitment and nurse retention. Title I details two initiatives to boost recruitment of nurses. The first initiative includes the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

9

Informational Privacy, Public Health, and State Laws  

PubMed Central

Developments in information technology that make it possible to rapidly transmit health information also raise questions about the possible inappropriate use and protection of identifiable (or potentially identifiable) personal health information. Despite efforts to improve state laws, adoption of provisions has lagged. We found that half of states have no statutes addressing nondisclosure of personally identifiable health information generally held by public health agencies. Exceptional treatment of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, or tuberculosis-related information was common. Where other provisions were found, there was little consistency in the laws across states. The variation in state laws supports the need to build consensus on the appropriate use and disclosure of public health information among public health practitioners.

Matthews, Gene

2011-01-01

10

Informational privacy, public health, and state laws.  

PubMed

Developments in information technology that make it possible to rapidly transmit health information also raise questions about the possible inappropriate use and protection of identifiable (or potentially identifiable) personal health information. Despite efforts to improve state laws, adoption of provisions has lagged. We found that half of states have no statutes addressing nondisclosure of personally identifiable health information generally held by public health agencies. Exceptional treatment of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, or tuberculosis-related information was common. Where other provisions were found, there was little consistency in the laws across states. The variation in state laws supports the need to build consensus on the appropriate use and disclosure of public health information among public health practitioners. PMID:21852633

O'Connor, Jean; Matthews, Gene

2011-08-18

11

Discrimination in Public Employment: The Evolving Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph reviews the current status of constitutional, statutory, and case law governing public employers' obligations to assure equal employment opportunities and employees' rights to nondiscriminatory treatment. An initial overview of the legal framework discusses federal equal protection mandates including the guarantee of equal…

McCarthy, Martha M.

12

Globalization of public health law and ethics.  

PubMed

The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African. PMID:23093515

Sohn, Myongsei

2012-09-01

13

A Theory and Definition of Public Health Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature, both academic and judicial, on the intersection of law and health is pervasive. The subject of law and health is widely taught, practiced, and analyzed. The fields that characterize these branches of study are called health law, health care law, law and medicine, forensic medicine, and public health law. Do these names imply different disciplines, each with a

Lawrence O. Gostin

2008-01-01

14

Law, public health, and the diabetes epidemic.  

PubMed

The prevalence of new cases of diabetes continues to increase, and the health burden for those with diabetes remains high. This is attributable, in part, to low adoption of evidence-based interventions for diabetes prevention and control. Law is a critical tool for health improvement, yet assessments reported in this paper indicate that federal, state, and local laws give only partial support to guidelines and evidence-based interventions relevant to diabetes prevention and control. Public health practitioners and policymakers who are concerned with the human, fiscal, and economic costs of the epidemic can explore new ways to translate the evidence base for diabetes prevention and control into effective laws and policies. PMID:24050425

Moulton, Anthony D; Albright, Ann L; Gregg, Edward W; Goodman, Richard A

2013-10-01

15

Making the Case for Laws That Improve Health: A Framework for Public Health Law Research  

PubMed Central

Context: Public health law has received considerable attention in recent years and has become an essential field in public health. Public health law research, however, has received less attention. Methods: Expert commentary. Findings: This article explores public health law research, defined as the scientific study of the relation of law and legal practices to population health. The article offers a logic model of public health law research and a typology of approaches to studying the effects of law on public health. Research on the content and prevalence of public health laws, processes of adopting and implementing laws, and the extent to which and mechanisms through which law affects health outcomes can use methods drawn from epidemiology, economics, sociology, and other disciplines. The maturation of public health law research as a field depends on methodological rigor, adequate research funding, access to appropriate data sources, and policymakers’ use of research findings. Conclusions: Public health law research is a young field but holds great promise for supporting evidence-based policymaking that will improve population health.

Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Swanson, Jeffrey; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Wood, Jennifer; Mello, Michelle M

2010-01-01

16

A Career Cluster in Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a program at Great Plains Technology Center that is not only serving its community's needs but it is also serving as a national pilot site. When Oklahoma's Great Plains Technology Center began developing its Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security Cluster in 2003, the National Partnership for Careers in Law, Public

Reese, Susan

2007-01-01

17

Montana Library Laws, Rules, and Public Library Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 1 of this handbook of Montana library laws, rules, and public library standards contains excerpts from the Constitution of Montana, including articles on property tax exemptions, educational goals and duties, and code of ethics. Montana library laws covering the following areas are presented in Chapter 2: publication and updating of the…

Montana State Library, Helena.

18

Coded Statutory Data Sets for Evaluation of Public Health Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background and objectives: The evaluation of public health law requires reliable accounts of underlying statutes and regulations. States often enact public health-related statutes with nonuniform provisions, and variation in the structure of state legal codes can foster inaccuracy in evaluating the impact of specific categories of law. The…

Costich, Julia Field

2012-01-01

19

Religion and the Public Schools: A Summary of the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to provide school officials an understanding of the legal aspects of common religious liberty and church-state questions in the public school context, this pamphlet attempts an objective summary of the current status of church-state law as it applies to the public schools. The document seeks to catalogue objectively the law as found in…

Stern, Marc D.

20

Montana Library Laws, Rules, and Public Library Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chapter 1 of this handbook of Montana library laws, rules, and public library standards contains excerpts from the Constitution of Montana, including articles on property tax exemptions, educational goals and duties, and code of ethics. Montana library laws covering the following areas are presented in Chapter 2: publication and updating of the…

Montana State Library, Helena.

21

Public Policies, Laws, and Landscape Design in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laws are, in many cases, instruments of public policies and may strongly influence landscape design. Examples of such laws in Brazil are: the National System of Protected Areas (SNUC); and the Forest Code which regulates private land-use. Both laws are currently under public discussion, bringing to the table issues of science-based policy, and the attempt, by different sectors\\/groups, to influence

N. Bensusan; R. Lemos de Sá; A. Lima

22

The Scientific Basis for Law as a Public Health Tool  

PubMed Central

Systematic reviews are generating valuable scientific knowledge about the impact of public health laws, but this knowledge is not readily accessible to policy makers. We identified 65 systematic reviews of studies on the effectiveness of 52 public health laws: 27 of those laws were found effective, 23 had insufficient evidence to judge effectiveness, 1 was harmful, and 1 was found to be ineffective. This is a valuable, scientific foundation—that uses the highest relevant standard of evidence—for the role of law as a public health tool. Additional primary studies and systematic reviews are needed to address significant gaps in knowledge about the lawspublic health impact, as are energetic, sustained initiatives to make the findings available to public policy makers.

Mercer, Shawna L.; Popovic, Tanja; Briss, Peter A.; Goodman, Richard A.; Thombley, Melisa L.; Hahn, Robert A.; Fox, Daniel M.

2009-01-01

23

Moving from intersection to integration: public health law research and public health systems and services research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the

Scott Burris; Glen P. Mays; F Douglas Scutchfield; Jennifer K Ibrahim

2012-01-01

24

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS, CONCESSIONS AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LAW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public private partnerships have been developed in several areas of the public sector and are widely used within the EU and the rest of the world, in particular in transport, public health, public safety, waste management and water distribution. In times of tight public budgets their importance can hardly be underestimated. Public Private Partnerships come in different forms. This paper

Steven Van Garsse

25

Critical opportunities for public health law: a call for action.  

PubMed

Although legal interventions are responsible for many sentinel public health achievements, law is underutilized as a tool for advancing population health. Our purpose was to identify critical opportunities for public health lawmaking. We articulated key criteria and illustrated their use with 5 examples. These opportunities involve significant health problems that are potentially amenable to change through law and for which an effective legal intervention is available: optimizing graduated driver licensing laws, increasing tax rates on alcoholic beverages, regulating sodium in foods, enacting laws to facilitate reversal of opioid overdoses, and improving mental health interventions in the college setting. We call for a national conversation about critical opportunities for public health law to advance evidence-based policymaking. PMID:24028265

Mello, Michelle M; Wood, Jennifer; Burris, Scott; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Swanson, Jeffrey W

2013-09-12

26

Public Employment Services and European Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can the EU's community of welfare states adapt their public policies to economic globalization? What happens when the economic and social aims of the EU come into conflict? This book examines the developing legal regimes and regulation of public services in the UK and other European countries. Public services are examined though a case-study of the complex area of

Mark Freedland FBA; Paul Craig QC FBA; Catherine Jacqueson; Nicola Kountouris

27

The Regulation of Public Social Life: Communication Law Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Develops a taxonomy of the indirect, intentional, or unintended regulations which influence social interaction in public spaces. Suggests an expansion of the scope of communication law. Describes how the taxonomy developed through a case study of a suburban municipality, encompassing zoning laws, penal codes, minimum drinking and driving ages,…

Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

1996-01-01

28

Coded Statutory Data Sets for Evaluation of Public Health Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: The evaluation of public health law requires reliable accounts of underlying statutes and regulations. States often enact public health-related statutes with nonuniform provisions, and variation in the structure of state legal codes can foster inaccuracy in evaluating the impact of specific categories of law. The optimal format for empirical analysis is a machine-readable 50-state coded data set.

Julia Field Costich

2012-01-01

29

State public health laws: an expression of constituency expectations.  

PubMed

One expression by the body politic about public health in any jurisdiction is the law under which the public health agency practices. The degree of congruence between a widely used model of public health and current statutes can be a measure of that opinion. This study identified the extent to which the statements of purpose expressed in state laws are consistent with Public Health in America (PHA); the published mission statements of state health agencies are consistent with either statute or PHA; and which concepts from PHA are most underrepresented and what additional concepts are included. PMID:10787778

Gebbie, K M

2000-03-01

30

Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze for the first time a unique public procurement database, which includes information about a number of bidders for a contract, a final price, an identification of a winner and an identification of a contracting authority for each of more than 40000 public procurements in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2011, focusing on the distributional properties of the variables of interest. We uncover several scaling laws —the exponential law for the number of bidders, and the power laws for the total revenues and total spendings of the participating companies, which even follows Zipf's law for the 100 most spending institutions. We propose an analogy between extensive and non-extensive systems in physics and the public procurement market situations. Through an entropy maximization, such analogy yields some interesting results and policy implications with respect to the Maxwell-Boltzmann and Pareto distributions in the analyzed quantities.

Kristoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, Jiri

2012-07-01

31

FindLaw for the Public  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most comprehensive legal resources on the Internet, Findlaw (described in the February 23, 1996 Scout Report) offers this resource center for consumers. In the Consumer Law Center, users will find thousands of consumer-focused articles and resources in a number of different categories, such as Banking, Credit, Discrimination, Estate Planning, Family Law, Government Benefits, Health and Medicine, Intellectual Property, Investments, Labor & Employment, Personal Injury, Landlord/ Tenant & Real Estate, and many others. The Consumer Center also offers contact information for national consumer organizations, better business bureaus, corporations, trade associations and related organizations, as well as tips and guidance on filing effective consumer complaints. In addition, the site provides information on the process of hiring a lawyer and using lawyers to settle disputes or claims.

1994-01-01

32

The Economic Theory of Public Enforcement of Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the theory of the public enforcement of law--the use of public agents (inspectors, tax auditors, police, prosecutors) to detect and to sanction violators of legal rules. We first present the basic elements of the theory, focusing on the probability of imposition of sanctions, the magnitude and form of sanctions, and the rule of liability. We then examine

A. Mitchell Polinsky; Steven Shavell

2000-01-01

33

The regulation of public social life: Communication law revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex arena of legal regulations governing public space and the built environment shape the opportunities for and nature of social interaction. This article develops a taxonomy of the indirect or accidental, intentional, or unintended regulations which influence social interaction in public spaces and suggests an expansion of the scope of communication law. The taxonomy developed through a case study

Susan J. Drucker; Gary Gumpert

1996-01-01

34

Immigrant workers: health, law, and public policy.  

PubMed

Immigrant workers are a large segment of the lower echelon of the U.S. labor force, and as many as 3.6 to 6 million of these workers and their families are living in the U.S. illegally. This paper examines who the recent immigrants are: explains why their current situation in the U.S. is an important public health matter; discusses the ethical and policy issues stemming from their health needs and from illegal status; and concludes with a brief look at some implications of the Simpson-Mazzoli Immigration and Reform Act, currently before Congress. The paper suggests that the illegal status of undocumented workers intensifies their health risks; that the immigrants' responsibility for budget short-falls in public services is not as clearcut as frequently assumed; and that legislation aimed at regulating the status of immigrant workers in the U.S. is unlikely to solve many of the central problems. PMID:6512224

Guttmacher, S

1984-01-01

35

The effect of public disclosure laws on biomedical research.  

PubMed

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and state 'open-records' laws govern access to records in the possession of federal agencies and state entities, such as public universities. Although these laws are intended to promote 'open government' and to assure the existence of an informed citizenry capable of holding government officials accountable for their decisions, an inherent tension exists between the public's access to information and biomedical research institutions' need to ensure the confidentiality of proprietary records and to protect the personal safety of employees. Recognizing these and other conflicts, the federal FOIA and state public-disclosure laws contain express exemptions to protect sensitive information from disclosure. Although some state open-records laws are modeled after the federal FOIA, important differences exist based on the language used by the state law, court interpretations, and exemptions. Two specific types of exemptions are particularly relevant to research facilities: exemptions for research information and exemptions for personal information. Responding to FOIA and state open-records requests requires knowledge of relevant laws and the involvement of all interested parties to facilitate a coordinated and orderly response. PMID:22776187

Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

2012-05-01

36

Privatising the Public University: The Case of Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Privatising the Public University: The Case of Law" is the first full-length critical study examining the impact of the dramatic reforms that have swept through universities over the last two decades. Drawing on extensive research and interviews in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Canada, Margaret Thornton considers the impact of the market on…

Thornton, Margaret

2011-01-01

37

Privatising the Public University: The Case of Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Privatising the Public University: The Case of Law" is the first full-length critical study examining the impact of the dramatic reforms that have swept through universities over the last two decades. Drawing on extensive research and interviews in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Canada, Margaret Thornton considers the impact of the market on…

Thornton, Margaret

2011-01-01

38

Private, state and international public interests in space law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the hierarchy and the interrelationship of private, state and public interests in international space law. Our purpose is to discuss which of these interests must have priority in relation to the others and to try to outline a fair and equitable balance among them in order to stimulate the rightful achievement of each one of them,

JoséMonserrat Filho

1996-01-01

39

Public international law principles: an Islamic Sufi approach – Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Many laws have been derived from the religions' legislations and many of them do not have the capability of uniqueness and publicity, due to a variety of reasons, especially at the level of countries. However, the spirit of legislations is the same and unique in all religions and it is the Tariqah (Sufi path), Sufism, mysticism and ethical

Bijan Bidabad

2012-01-01

40

Public Health Law and the Prevention and Control of Obesity  

PubMed Central

Context: Obesity constitutes a major public health challenge in the United States. Obesogenic environments have increased owing to the consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value and the reduction of daily physical activity (e.g., increased portion sizes of meals eaten in and out of the home and fewer physical activity requirements in schools). Policymakers and public health practitioners need to know the best practices and have the competencies to use laws and legal authorities to reverse the obesity epidemic. For instance, statutes and regulations at the federal, state, and local levels of government have been implemented to improve nutritional choices and access to healthy foods, encourage physical activity, and educate consumers about adopting healthy lifestyles. Methods: In an effort to understand the application of laws and legal authorities for obesity prevention and control, in June 2008 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened the National Summit on Legal Preparedness for Obesity Prevention and Control. An outcome of this summit will be the publication of the proceeding's white papers written by eight law and subject-matter experts with substantive contributions from summit participants, which will identify actionable options that sectors and organizations at various jurisdictional levels can consider adopting. Findings: Law has played a critical role in the control of chronic diseases and the behaviors that lead to them. The use of a systematic legal framework—the use of legislation, regulation, and policy to address the multiple factors that contribute to obesogenic environments—can assist in the development, implementation, and evaluation of a variety of legal approaches for obesity prevention and control. Conclusions: Although public health–focused legal interventions are in an early stage and the direct and indirect impact they may have on the obesity epidemic is not yet understood, efforts such as the summit and white papers should help determine potentially viable legal interventions and assess their impact on population-level change.

Dietz, William H; Benken, Donald E; Hunter, Alicia S

2009-01-01

41

64 FR 73855 - CUMULATIVE LIST OF PUBLIC LAWS This is a cumulative list of public laws for the 106th Congress...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fedreg. Comments may be addressed to the Director, Office of the Federal Register, Washington, DC 20408 or send e-mail to info@nara.fedreg.gov. The List of Public Laws will resume when bills are enacted into public law during...

1999-12-30

42

62 FR 68365 - CUMULATIVE LIST OF PUBLIC LAWS This is a Cumulative List of Public Laws for the 105th Congress...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fedreg.html. Comments may be addressed to the Director, Office of the Federal Register, Washington, DC 20408 or send e-mail to info@nara.fedreg.gov. The List of Public Laws will resume when bills are enacted into public law during...

1997-12-31

43

75 FR 17988 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162 SUMMARY: On March 24, 2010...certification under United States Public Law 101-162, Section 609, because Mexico's...consistent with the requirements of U.S. law. DATES: Effective Date: On...

2010-04-08

44

75 FR 16225 - Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certifications Pursuant to Section 609 of Public Law 101-162 SUMMARY: On March 24, 2010...certification under United States Public Law 101-162, Section 609, because Mexico's...consistent with the requirements of U.S. law. DATES: Effective Date: On...

2010-03-31

45

12 CFR 590.100 - Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law 96-161.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law 96-161. 590.100 Section 590.100...THE TREASURY PREEMPTION OF STATE USURY LAWS § 590.100 Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law 96-161. The Office continues to...

2013-01-01

46

12 CFR 190.100 - Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law 96-161.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law 96-161. 190.100 Section 190.100...THE TREASURY PREEMPTION OF STATE USURY LAWS § 190.100 Status of Interpretations issued under Public Law 96-161. The OCC continues to...

2013-01-01

47

The Impact of Right-to-Carry Concealed Firearm Laws on Mass Public Shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right-to-carry (RTC) laws mandate that concealed weapon permits be granted to qualified applicants. Such laws could reduce the number of mass public shootings as prospective shooters consider the possibility of encountering armed civilians. However, these laws might increase the number of shootings by making it easier for prospective shooters to acquire guns. We evaluate 25 RTC laws using state panel

Grant Duwe; Tomislav Kovandzic; Carlisle E. Moody

2002-01-01

48

Public health law, human rights and HIV: a work in progress.  

PubMed

Australia has been a global leader in balancing public health law, human rights and HIV. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategy launched in 1989 set the agenda for law reform. The Intergovernmental Committee on AIDS subsequently established a legal working party with one of its key tasks to formulate public health legislation that would protect public health and human rights. The NSW Public Health Act 1991 has provided the framework for managing HIV in NSW over the subsequent decades. Recent changes to criminal law in NSW and opportunities to redefine public health law may affect how HIV transmission risks are managed in the future. PMID:20513311

Clayton, Stevie

49

Transfers of Excess and Surplus Federal Personal Property--Impact of Public Law 94-519.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the impact and implementation of Public Law 94-519, which became effective in October 1977. The Law significantly altered the Government's policies and procedures on the transfer of excess and surplus Federal personal property to non-...

1980-01-01

50

Secret Law and the Value of Publicity &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Revelations in the United States of secret legal opinions by the Department of Justice, dramatically altering the conventional interpretations of laws governing torture, interrogation, and surveillance, have made the issue of “secret law” newly prominent. The dangers of secret law from the perspective of democratic accountability are clear, and need no elaboration. But distaste for secret law goes beyond questions

CHRISTOPHER KUTZ

2009-01-01

51

42 CFR 411.7 - Services that must be furnished at public expense under a Federal law or Federal Government...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must be furnished at public expense under a Federal law or Federal Government contract. 411.7 Section 411.7 Public Health CENTERS...must be furnished at public expense under a Federal law or Federal Government contract....

2012-10-01

52

The Public Safety Impact of Community Notification Laws: Rearrest of Convicted Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex offender management is one of the highest-profile issues in public safety today. Although states have enacted community notification laws as a means to protect communities from sexual offending, limited research has been conducted to examine the impact of these laws on public safety. As such, this study used a quasi-experimental design to…

Freeman, Naomi J.

2012-01-01

53

Federal Support for the "Category B" Student under Public Law 81-874.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public Law 81-874, enacted by Congress in 1950, allowed distribution of direct federal financial assistance to local public school districts serving children of parents who either lived or worked on tax-exempt federal property. The law, as subsequently amended, divides the affected children into Category A (students whose parents both reside on…

King, Dan L.; Huckins, Larry L.

54

Fear and loathing in public policy: Ethical issues in laws for sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laws intended to increase protection from sex offenders are often prompted by sensational crimes that provoke public outrage. As public policy, questions have been raised about the legality and effectiveness of these legislative initiatives as enacted in North America, Australasia and the UK since the early 1990s. Mental health professionals involved in the implementation of these laws are faced with

James Vess

2009-01-01

55

Public Smoking Bans, Youth Access Laws, and Cigarette Sales at Vending Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco control policies have proliferated in many countries in recent years, in particular youth access laws and public smoking bans. The eff ectiveness of youth access laws is still disputed, however, as are the costs of public smoking bans to the hospitality industry. Using a unique data set on cigarette sales at more than 100k vending machines that provides fi

Michael Kvasnicka

2010-01-01

56

The overlap between public health and law enforcement: sharing tools and data to foster healthier communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement and public health agencies have much in common. Both seek to improve their communities' health and safety. Both analyze data to identify problems and measure results. Both share an interest in eradicating certain social ills, such as violence. And law enforcement has increasingly begun to adopt strategies long associated with public health, such as collaboration and community engagement.

Robert V. Wolf

2012-01-01

57

Health Professions Education Partnerships Act of 1998. Public Law 105-392.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the full text of Public Law 105-392, the Health Professions Partnerships Act of 1998, a law which amends the Public Health Service Act to consolidate and reauthorize health professions and minority and disadvantaged health education programs. Title I concerns health professions education and financial assistance programs.…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

58

76 FR 49504 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Law...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...One Current Public Collection of Information: Law Enforcement Officer Flying Armed Training AGENCY...of a database of all Federal, State and local law enforcement agencies that have received the Law Enforcement Officer (LEO) Flying Armed...

2011-08-10

59

29 CFR 553.213 - Public agency employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities. 553.213 Section...LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies...employees engaged in both fire protection and law enforcement activities. (a) Some...

2013-07-01

60

Chinese Practice in Public International Law: 2006 (I)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis part of the Survey covers materials reflecting Chinese practice in 2006 relating to: I. Subjects under discussion at the ILC (Shared natural resources; responsibility of international organizations; reservation to treaties; unilateral acts of states; effects of armed conflicts on treaties; obligation to extradition or prosecution; fragmentation of international law); II. International human rights law (general commitment on human rights;

Lijiang ZHU

2007-01-01

61

Anti-SLAPP Laws: A Legal Development Publications Advisers Can Utilize to Bolster Support for Freedom of the Student Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains a type of lawsuit called a Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation (SLAPP) action. Notes that a number of states have passed anti-SLAPP laws. Contends that this development in libel law is relevant to student publications advisers. (PM)|

Martinson, David L.

2003-01-01

62

Public Management and Organizational Performance: The Case of Law Enforcement Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigating the impact of management on performance in public organizations is a key challenge for public administration. To that end, we apply to a national sample of law enforcement agencies a recently developed formal model of public management. The model frames a set of specific expectations about the management-performance relationship. The study estimates the impacts of both internally- and externally-oriented

Sean Nicholson-Crotty; Laurence J. O'Toole Jr

2004-01-01

63

The Impact of the Law on the Practice of Public Relations Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review of the literature useful for public relations researchers and students explored the primary legal concerns that public relations practitioners face, including first amendment rights, insider trading, regulations when working with foreign organizations, disclosure, privacy, copyright/trademark law, advertising, and defamation. Public

Pohl, Gayle M.

64

Chinese Practice in Public International Law: 2006 (II)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractContinued from Part I published earlier this year, this part of the survey covers materials reflecting Chinese practice in 2006 relating to: Fundamental principles of international law (Section IV; territorial integrity, including Taiwan issue and Tibet issue, non-interference of internal affairs and friendly co-operation); International law of recognition (Section V; recognition of States and governments); International peace and security (Section

Lijiang ZHU

2007-01-01

65

Public health law in an age of terrorism: rethinking individual rights and common goods.  

PubMed

The balance between individual interests and common goods needs to be recalibrated in an age of terrorism. Public health agencies should have a robust infrastructure to conduct essential public health services at a level of performance that matches evolving threats to the health of the public. This includes a well-trained workforce, electronic information, surveillance, and laboratory capacity. This paper explains modern efforts at public health law reform: a Model Public Health Statute and the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA), which has been enacted wholly or in part by nineteen states and the District of Columbia. Next, the paper shows why existing public health laws provide a weak foundation for public health practice. Finally, the paper offers a systematic defense of MSEHPA, which has galvanized the public debate around the appropriate balance between public goods and individual rights. PMID:12442842

Gostin, Lawrence O

66

8 CFR 1245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. 1245.20 Section...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. (a) Eligibility...to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the alien is: (1) A Jewish national of Syria;...

2010-01-01

67

8 CFR 245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. 245.20 Section...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. (a) Eligibility...to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the alien is: (1) A Jewish national of Syria;...

2010-01-01

68

8 CFR 1245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. 1245.20 Section...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. (a) Eligibility...to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the alien is: (1) A Jewish national of Syria;...

2009-01-01

69

8 CFR 245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. 245.20 Section...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. (a) Eligibility...to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the alien is: (1) A Jewish national of Syria;...

2009-01-01

70

8 CFR 1245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. 1245.20 Section...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. (a) Eligibility...to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the alien is: (1) A Jewish national of Syria;...

2008-01-01

71

8 CFR 245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. 245.20 Section...of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378. (a) Eligibility...to adjust status under Public Law 106-378 if the alien is: (1) A Jewish national of Syria;...

2008-01-01

72

78 FR 30388 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OSPREY; Invitation for Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel OSPREY; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel OSPREY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Passenger...

2013-05-22

73

78 FR 13752 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GATO; Invitation for Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GATO; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel GATO is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Six pack...

2013-02-28

74

78 FR 37659 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ORCA; Invitation for Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ORCA; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel ORCA is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``commercial...

2013-06-21

75

78 FR 13752 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel SPIRIT is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Private...

2013-02-28

76

77 FR 22631 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SPIRIT; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel SPIRIT is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Coastwise...

2012-04-16

77

Regulations to Implement Public Law 96-320, The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The regulations discussed in this analysis implement Public Law 96-320, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Act of 1980, by establishing a regulatory system which will permit and encourage commercial development of OTEC technology. In addition the ...

1981-01-01

78

CAVEAT EMPTOR: Individualism versus the "Common Good" in the Public Laws of Antebellum America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the development and growth of public law in the United States during the industrial and technological revolution which followed the Revolutionary War. Examines how these new laws, combined with a spirit of individualism, created a harsh environment in which men were treated as free-willed, self-reliant, risk- and responsibility-taking…

Pleasant, Deborah L.

1988-01-01

79

A Conflict Theory Perspective for Viewing Certain Problems Associated with Public Law 94-142.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public Law 94-142, passed in November of 1975, requires that the states provide "equal educational opportunity" to the handicapped. This law thus serves as an excellent example of mandated or "power-coercive" change, in which change is generated from the outside through the use of political and economic sanctions. Sociology's conflict theory…

Griffin, Gerald; Rostetter, David

80

Law and Public Education: Cases and Materials. Contemporary Legal Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to serve as a general introduction to the broad area of educational law for students without previous exposure to the subject or as a tool for more advanced students seeking to focus on a particular area of the law as it applies to public education. Although its emphasis is primarily legal, the book also contains historical,…

Goldstein, Stephen R.

81

A Conflict Theory Perspective for Viewing Certain Problems Associated with Public Law 94-142.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public Law 94-142, passed in November of 1975, requires that the states provide "equal educational opportunity" to the handicapped. This law thus serves as an excellent example of mandated or "power-coercive" change, in which change is generated from the outside through the use of political and economic sanctions. Sociology's conflict theory…

Griffin, Gerald; Rostetter, David

82

Right of Publicity and the Intersection of Copyright and Trademark Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Right of Publicity has its root in privacy law. Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis, in an 1890 article in the Harvard Law Review, first defined this right as the right “to be left alone”. William Prosser followed their lead by enunciating a personal right of privacy based in four categories: 1) Protection against intrusion into one’s private affairs; 2)

Marc Greenberg; Michael L. Lovitz

2012-01-01

83

Public health law and disaster medicine: understanding the legal environment.  

PubMed

Disaster medicine specialists, policy makers, and the public often feel frustrated when they encounter the complex legal framework that surrounds public health emergencies and disasters. Such a framework is particularly difficult to understand when one considers that the federal government has no express powers over public health or disaster management. In fact, under the US Constitution, the states, rather than the federal government, possess public health governance. Although public health sovereignty formally resides within the states, and notwithstanding the federal government's lack of express constitutional powers over public health crises and disaster management, the federal government has gradually taken on a greater leadership role in managing public health emergencies. In order to clarify the state and federal responsibilities surrounding public health emergencies and disasters, this article explores necessary and pertinent legal topics. These topics include public health duties, public health disasters, state sovereignty, governmental coercion, de facto constitutional empowerment, separation of powers, limited powers, federalism, state police powers, general and federal declarations of emergencies, the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA), and public health and national security. PMID:18271154

Gionis, Thomas A; Wecht, Cyril; Marshall, Lewis W

84

School Law for Public, Private, and Parochial Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Here is a book to serve educators from all types of schools in either pre-service or professional development that is designed as a text for master's and licensure (post-master's) level. This book covers all the relevant issues in school law: (1) The legal system; (2) The federal and state role in education; (3) Church-state relationships; (4)…

Bradley, Leo H.

2005-01-01

85

Free Expression and Censorship: Public Policy and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph traces the legal history of the conflict between constitutional rights of expression in the schools and school boards' control of education. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the law and policy of free expression. Chapter 2 is a case study of "Kuhlmeier v. Hazelwood School District," in which a high school principal deleted two…

Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Mawdsley, Alice L.

86

Chinese Practice in Public International Law: 2006 (III)†  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued from Part II published last year, this part of the Survey covers materials reflecting Chinese practice in 2006 relating to: XI. Outer Space Law (Definition and Delimitation of Outer Space; Draft Protocol on Matters Specific to Space Assets to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment; The Status and Application of Five UN Treaties on Outer Space; Practice

Lijiang ZHU

2008-01-01

87

Collaboration Between Public Health and Law Enforcement: New Paradigms and Partnerships for Bioterrorism Planning and Response  

PubMed Central

The biological attacks with powders containing Bacillus anthracis sent through the mail during September and October 2001 led to unprecedented public health and law enforcement investigations, which involved thousands of investigators from federal, state, and local agencies. Following recognition of the first cases of anthrax in Florida in early October 2001, investigators from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) were mobilized to assist investigators from state and local public health and law enforcement agencies. Although public health and criminal investigations have been conducted in concert in the past, the response to the anthrax attacks required close collaboration because of the immediate and ongoing threat to public safety. We describe the collaborations between CDC and FBI during the investigation of the 2001 anthrax attacks and highlight the challenges and successes of public health and law enforcement collaborations in general.

Cohen, Mitchell L.; Friedman, Cindy R.; Scripp, Robert M.; Watz, Craig G.

2002-01-01

88

Public Health Law and the Prevention and Control of Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Obesity constitutes a major public health challenge in the United States. Obesogenic environments have increased owing to the consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value and the reduction of daily physical activity (e.g., increased portion sizes of meals eaten in and out of the home and fewer physical activity requirements in schools). Policymakers and public health practitioners need

WILLIAM H. DIETZ; DONALD E. BENKEN; ALICIA S. HUNTER

2009-01-01

89

PRETRIAL PUBLICITY: The Media, the Law, and Common Sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

As media coverage becomes more extensive and accessible, it is likely to become more difficult to find jurors who have not been exposed to relevant pretrial publicity. Courts' assessments of the likelihood that pretrial publicity has resulted in prejudice against a defendant and of jurors' ability to disregard any prejudice are often based on judicial common sense and often reflect

Christina A. Studebaker; Steven D. Penrod

1997-01-01

90

Achieving public health legal preparedness: how dissonant views on public health law threaten emergency preparedness and response  

PubMed Central

Background Effective management of modern public health emergencies requires the coordinated efforts of multiple agencies representing various disciplines. Organizational culture differences between public health (PH) and emergency management (EM) entities may hinder inter-agency collaboration. We examine how PH and EM differ in their approach to PH law and how such differences affect their collaboration towards PH preparedness. Methods We conducted 144 semi-structured interviews with local and state PH and EM officials between April 2008 and November 2009. Thematic qualitative analysis in ATLAS.ti was used to extract characteristics of each agency's approach to PH legal preparedness. Results Two conflicting approaches to the law emerge. The PH approach is characterized by perceived uncertainty regarding legal authority over preparedness planning tasks; expectation for guidance on interpretation of existing laws; and concern about individual and organizational liability. The EM approach reveals perception of broad legal authority; flexible interpretation of existing laws; and ethical concerns over infringement of individual freedoms and privacy. Conclusions Distinct interpretations of preparedness law impede effective collaboration for PH preparedness. Clarification of legal authority mandates, designation within laws of scope of preparedness activities and guidance on interpretation of current federal and state laws are needed.

Botoseneanu, Anda; Wu, Helen; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Peter D.

2011-01-01

91

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and

D. A. Feurer; C. L. Weaver

1981-01-01

92

Public Policy for Genetic Manipulation: A View from the Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document proposes that recent scientific discoveries indicate that a genetic technology will come into being in the foreseeable future, and that the practice of this technology will give rise to immense problems of public policy necessitating social c...

H. P. Green

1969-01-01

93

The public health applications of law enforcement medical direction: A practical experience with the Dallas Police Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, 132 law enforcement officers were killed in the line of duty in The United States. Additionally, some have explored both the public health implications of interactions with law enforcement as well as the potential benefits of the use of law enforcement officers as public health and emergency healthcare providers. By virtue of these novel analyses and techniques, professional

Alexander L Eastman

2009-01-01

94

78 FR 64260 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requested pursuant to Public Law 99-399 (Omnibus Diplomatic...1986), as amended; Public Law 107-56 (USA PATRIOT Act...Dated: October 17, 2013. Timothy R. Schnabel, Attorney-Adviser...Office of Private International Law, Office of Legal Adviser,...

2013-10-28

95

Web Access and the Law: A Public Policy Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details the public policy framework that establishes the legal foundation for requiring access to Web-based information resources for people with disabilities. Highlights include fair use doctrine in regards to disability access to digital information; American with Disabilities Act; and Sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act.…

Noble, Steve

2002-01-01

96

Communication and Public Health Emergencies: A Guide for Law Enforcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These headlines illustrate the emotional impact of public health emergencies as well as the increased sense of fear or panic that headlines can incite. Fear and dread may be entirely appropriate responses to critical incidents, given the scale of human su...

A. M. Luna C. S. Brito E. L. Sanberg

2009-01-01

97

American Revolution: Crisis of Law and Change. Public Issues Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is part of a series of units designed to help students take and defend a position on public issues. By looking at how decisions were made in the past, students can see that history did not have to happen just the way it did. By looking at how conflicts were resolved in other times and places, students can clarify their positions on…

Giese, James R.; Glade, Mary Elizabeth

98

Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics.  

PubMed

This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: 'basic elective ventilation'; 'epistemically complex elective ventilation'; 'practically complex elective ventilation'; and 'epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation'. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation. PMID:23222143

Coggon, John

2012-12-07

99

Controlling Environmental Policy: The limits of public law in Germany and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Controlling Environmental Policy: The Limits of public law in Germany and the United States, Yale University Law Professor Susan Rose-Ackerman provides an informative description and critique of environmental policy-making in Germany, with frequent cross-references to the comparable attributes of the American system. As described by Rose-Ackerman, the German system shares many features of its American counterpart, particularly its reliance

Ackerman

1995-01-01

100

Public health laws and implications for a national accreditation program: parallel roadways without intersection?  

PubMed

Public health law has been one of the leading contributors to the extension of life expectancy in the 20th century. Nonetheless, the legal infrastructure supporting public health law in the United States is underdeveloped and nonuniform. With national interest growing in public health agency accreditation, the individual legal approach taken by states may pose an obstacle to wholesale adoption of a proposed voluntary national model. This article describes the legal foundations supporting accreditation or assessment programs in states participating in the Multi-State Learning Collaborative, a project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The Turning Point Model State Public Health Act is recommended as one option to resolve the current impasse, assist in acceptance of a national accreditation model, and provide a common public health legal infrastructure. PMID:17563627

Beitsch, Leslie M; Landrum, Laura B; Chang, Carol; Wojciehowski, Kathleen

101

Jacobson v Massachusetts: It's Not Your Great-Great-Grandfather's Public Health Law  

PubMed Central

Jacobson v Massachusetts, a 1905 US Supreme Court decision, raised questions about the power of state government to protect the public’s health and the Constitution’s protection of personal liberty. We examined conceptions about state power and personal liberty in Jacobson and later cases that expanded, superseded, or even ignored those ideas. Public health and constitutional law have evolved to better protect both health and human rights. States’ sovereign power to make laws of all kinds has not changed in the past century. What has changed is the Court’s recognition of the importance of individual liberty and how it limits that power. Preserving the public’s health in the 21st century requires preserving respect for personal liberty.

Mariner, Wendy K.; Annas, George J.; Glantz, Leonard H.

2005-01-01

102

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-four. Michigan  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Michigan governing the regulation of public energy facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

103

Partners in public health law: elected officials, health directors, and attorneys.  

PubMed

The partnership that has developed over the years between elected officials, health directors, and attorneys came about through necessity and practicality. This article examines this partnership and some of the conflicts and problems it contains. The article discusses the problems of overlap of authority between public health departments and elected officials. It also emphasizes that existing laws and regulations often provide sufficiently flexible authority, and that such laws and regulations can be exercised in new ways to address current public health problems. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges faced by public health officials and legislators in forming a partnership to secure necessary financial support and legal authority for public health activities. PMID:12508497

Benjamin, Georges; Lopez, Wilfredo; Monson, Angela Zoe

2002-01-01

104

Paternalism and its discontents: motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health.  

PubMed

The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

2006-12-28

105

The Inverse Benefit Law: How Drug Marketing Undermines Patient Safety and Public Health  

PubMed Central

Recent highly publicized withdrawals of drugs from the market because of safety concerns raise the question of whether these events are random failures or part of a recurring pattern. The inverse benefit law, inspired by Hart's inverse care law, states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively the drugs are marketed. The law is manifested through 6 basic marketing strategies: reducing thresholds for diagnosing disease, relying on surrogate endpoints, exaggerating safety claims, exaggerating efficacy claims, creating new diseases, and encouraging unapproved uses. The inverse benefit law highlights the need for comparative effectiveness research and other reforms to improve evidence-based prescribing.

Light, Donald W.

2011-01-01

106

Rule of Law and Public Higher Education Institutions: A Perspective on School-Student Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1980s, the entire society in mainland China has undergone a rapid and intertwined transformation in thinking, behavior, and institutions. There is no sign that this transition is slowing down. During the process, public higher education institutions were dragged into rule of law at the end of the twentieth century. This indicates that…

Kui, Shen

2006-01-01

107

Trade Mark Protection, Public Health and International Investment Law: Strains and Paradoxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims at exploring the antinomies and paradoxes of trade mark protection in international investment law. The negative impact of trade mark protection on public health seems counterintuitive or even paradoxical. Strong trade mark protection is usually associated with positive effects on consumer protection and, more generally, there is a sort of mystical thinking about trade marks. Brand names

Valentina S. Vadi

2009-01-01

108

Law and Public Education. Cases and Materials. Third Edition. Contemporary Legal Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|All three branches of American government--legislative, executive, and judicial--play a significant role in shaping the enterprise of American public education. This book, an update of the 1980 second edition, describes and analyzes changes in education and the dynamic impact of the law on education's authority. The book can serve as an advanced…

Goldstein, Stephen R.; And Others

109

Public international law of the international telecommunication instruments: cyber security treaty provisions since 1850  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to describe the history of cyber security public international law since 1850 that is found in treaty instruments developed by the signatory nations of what is now known as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Because of the esoteric nature of the subject and, until recently, the very difficult access to reference materials, knowledge of these

Anthony Rutkowski

2011-01-01

110

Brutal Cops, News Coverage, and Public Perceptions of Law Enforcement: An Experimental Investigation of Reality Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the relationship between newspaper coverage of police brutality, the public construction of law enforcement reality, and the predictive capacity of exemplification theory. Two randomly selected subsamples were assigned to either a control or test condition in a posttest only experiment. Those in the test group were exposed to six newspaper accounts recounting incidents of police brutality. A

Gregg A. Payne; David Dozier

111

Public Law 93-579, 93rd Congress, S. 3418. "Privacy Act of 1974".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the announced purpose of protecting the privacy of individuals identified in information systems maintained by Federal agencies, Public Law 93-579 regulates the collection, maintenance, use and dissemination of personal information by the agencies. The act enables an individual to determine what records are being kept; to have access to them,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

112

An Evaluation of the Delaware State Public Elementary and Secondary Educational Equalization Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the wake of court decisions in the cases of "Serrano v. Priest,""San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez," and "Robinson v. Cahill," Congress set aside funds as part of Public Law 93-380 for state departments of education to study the equitability of current educational funding arrangements. This document analyzes Delaware's…

Link, Charles R.; And Others

113

Patent Policy. Universities' Research Efforts under Public Law 96-517. Report to the Honorable Robert Dole, United States Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents information on the experience of universities under the Patent and Trademark Amendments of 1980 (Public Law 96-517), and summarizes findings from annual reporting requirements of the law. The objectives of the report were to find what the perceived impact of the law had been at universities active in patent activities, find…

1986

114

Balancing the Rights and Responsibilities of the School Board and the Public's Right To Know: California's Open Meeting Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper--part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002--discusses open-meeting laws. All 50 states have adopted laws that require school officials to conduct their business in open sessions before the public and the press. This paper examines the Brown Act, California's…

Stine, David O.; Gordon, Sherry G.

115

Private Governments or Public Policy Tools? The Law and Public Policy of New Jersey's Special Improvement Districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business improvement districts (BIDs)—special districts usually governed by business and property owners—have been portrayed by some observers as private governments serving narrow commercial interests and by others as policy tools—instruments employed by states and general-purpose local governments to mobilize resources and advance public purposes. We use data from case law, case studies of local practices, and a statewide survey of

Jonathan B. Justice; Robert S. Goldsmith

2006-01-01

116

Jacobson v Massachusetts: it's not your great-great-grandfather's public health law.  

PubMed

Jacobson v Massachusetts, a 1905 US Supreme Court decision, raised questions about the power of state government to protect the public's health and the Constitution's protection of personal liberty. We examined conceptions about state power and personal liberty in Jacobson and later cases that expanded, superseded, or even ignored those ideas. Public health and constitutional law have evolved to better protect both health and human rights. States' sovereign power to make laws of all kinds has not changed in the past century. What has changed is the Court's recognition of the importance of individual liberty and how it limits that power. Preserving the public's health in the 21st century requires preserving respect for personal liberty. PMID:15798113

Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J; Glantz, Leonard H

2005-04-01

117

45 CFR 287.20 - May a Public Law 102-477 Tribe operate a NEW Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May a Public Law 102-477 Tribe operate a NEW Program? 287.20 Section...NEW) PROGRAM Eligible Tribes § 287.20 May a Public Law 102-477 Tribe operate a NEW Program? Yes, if the...

2011-10-01

118

Issues Associated with the Conveyance and Transfer of DOE Lands under Public Law 105-119  

SciTech Connect

Public Law 105-119 (Law) was enacted in November 1997 as part of the Defense Authorization Act of 1998 (Act). The Law specifically requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify lands that are suitable for conveyance or transfer at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) within 90 days after enactment of the Act. In general, suitable lands include those parcels that are not required to meet the national security missions assigned to DOE at LANL within a ten year period beginning on the date of enactment of the Act. Additional suitability criteria are addressed below and include the need to establish clear title to the land and to restore areas contaminated with hazardous wastes. This proposed change in future land ownership is intended to serve as the final settlement of DOE community assistance obligations with respect to LANL and Los Alamos County and to stimulate economic development.

Ladino, A.G.

1999-04-21

119

Public opinion about laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States.  

PubMed

Weight discrimination is pervasive in American society and impairs quality of life for obese persons. With approximately two-thirds of Americans now overweight or obese, vast numbers of people are vulnerable to weight prejudice and its consequences. Currently, no laws exist to prohibit weight discrimination. This study conducted an online survey with a national sample of 1,001 adults (representing demographics of the United States) to examine public support for six potential legislative measures to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States. Results indicated substantial support (65% of men, 81% of women) for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, especially for legal measures that would prohibit employers from refusing to hire, terminate, or deny promotion based on a person's body weight. Laws that proposed extending the same protections to obese persons as people with physical disabilities received the least support, suggesting that Americans may not be in favor of considering obesity as a disability. Findings also highlight specific predictors of support (related to sex, age, education, income, body weight, and political ideology). These findings can be used to inform policy makers in efforts to develop antidiscrimination laws. Such measures will rectify health disparities for overweight Americans and facilitate public health efforts to address obesity. PMID:20508626

Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

2010-05-27

120

Review of employee privacy issues: Implications for law enforcement and other public and private sector agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been predicted that the number of lawsuits filed for workplace privacy violations will increase over the next few years\\u000a primarily because of advances in technological innovations and a change in how workplace privacy is defined. This could have\\u000a implications for law enforcement agencies as well as other public and private sector agencies. This article examines current\\u000a interpretations of

Bobbie L. Raynes

1997-01-01

121

Legal and Public Health Considerations Affecting the Success, Reach, and Impact of Menu-Labeling Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the rate of con- sumption of away-from-home meals has increased dramati- cally, the distinction between requiring nutrition informa- tion for packaged but not res- taurant products is no longer reasonable. Public health necessitates that nutrition labels must be included with restaurant menus as a strategy to educate con- sumers and address the esca- lation of obesity. Menu-labeling laws are

Jennifer L. Pomeranz; Kelly D. Brownell

2008-01-01

122

Greater public access to U.S. research data permitted under new law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amid last year's frantic congressional deal-making to fund the U.S. government for the fiscal year 1999, Senator Richard Shelby (Republican from Alabama) slipped a small provision into the end-of-year omnibus appropriations bill that could have large implications for researchers. Now part of Public Law 105-277, Shelby's rider is intended ``...to require Federal awarding agencies to ensure that all data produced

Peter Folger

1999-01-01

123

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

124

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-eight. Virginia  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

125

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

126

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

127

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-seven. Vermont  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Vermont governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

128

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-six. Utah  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Utah governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilites, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

129

Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

1981-01-01

130

41 CFR 102-80.90 - Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522...90 Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522... Yes, the Fire Administration Authorization...

2009-07-01

131

41 CFR 102-80.90 - Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522...90 Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522... Yes, the Fire Administration Authorization...

2013-01-01

132

41 CFR 102-80.90 - Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522) relevant to fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522...90 Is the Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-522... Yes, the Fire Administration Authorization...

2010-07-01

133

Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A case involving the mental health rights of children is currently working its way toward the Supreme Court. That case, Bartley v. Kremens, challenges the power of parents to institutionalize their children in mental hospitals or institutions for the retarded without due process of law. (Author/RK)|

Ellis, James W.

1976-01-01

134

45 CFR 287.165 - What are the data collection and reporting requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...collection and reporting requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that consolidate a NEW...collection and reporting requirements for Public Law 102-477 Tribes that consolidate a NEW...programs operated by a Tribe under Public Law 102-477. This system includes a...

2011-10-01

135

Bioterrorism Surveillance and Privacy: Intersection of HIPAA, the Common Rule, and Public Health Law  

PubMed Central

The threat of bioterrorism in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks cannot be ignored. Syndromic surveillance, the practice of electronically monitoring and reporting real-time medical data to proactively identify unusual disease patterns, highlights the conflict between safeguarding public health while protecting individual privacy. Both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the Common Rule (which promulgates protections for individuals in federally sponsored medical research programs) safeguard individuals. Public health law protects the entire populace; uneven state-level implementation lacks adequate privacy protections. We propose 3 models for a nationwide bioterrorism surveillance review process: a nationally coordinated systems approach to using protected health information, creating public health information privacy boards, expanding institutional review boards, or some combination of these.

Nordin, James D.; Kasimow, Sophie; Levitt, Mary Jeanne; Goodman, Michael J.

2008-01-01

136

Bioterrorism surveillance and privacy: intersection of HIPAA, the Common Rule, and public health law.  

PubMed

The threat of bioterrorism in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks cannot be ignored. Syndromic surveillance, the practice of electronically monitoring and reporting real-time medical data to proactively identify unusual disease patterns, highlights the conflict between safeguarding public health while protecting individual privacy. Both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the Common Rule (which promulgates protections for individuals in federally sponsored medical research programs) safeguard individuals. Public health law protects the entire populace; uneven state-level implementation lacks adequate privacy protections. We propose 3 models for a nationwide bioterrorism surveillance review process: a nationally coordinated systems approach to using protected health information, creating public health information privacy boards, expanding institutional review boards, or some combination of these. PMID:18382006

Nordin, James D; Kasimow, Sophie; Levitt, Mary Jeanne; Goodman, Michael J

2008-04-01

137

The public health information infrastructure. A national review of the law on health information privacy.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to review and analyze the laws in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico that regulate the acquisition, storage, and use of public health data and to offer proposals for reform of the laws on public health information privacy. Virtually all states reported some statutory protection for governmentally maintained health data for public health information in general (49 states), communicable diseases (42 states), and sexually transmitted diseases (43 states). State statutes permitted disclosure of data for statistical purposes (42 states), contact tracing (39 states), epidemiologic investigations (22 states), and subpoena or court order (14 states). The survey revealed significant problems that affect both the development of fair and effective public health information systems and the protection of privacy. Statutes may be silent about the degree of privacy protection afforded, confer weaker privacy protection to certain kinds of information, or grant health officials broad discretion to disseminate personal information. Our proposals for law reform are based on a meeting of experts at the Carter Presidential Center under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists: (1) an independent data protection commission should be established, (2) health authorities should justify the collection of personally identifiable information, (3) subjects should be given basic information about data practices, (4) data should be held and used in accordance with fair information practices, (5) legally binding privacy and security assurances should attach to identifiable health information with significant penalties for breach of these assurances, (6) disclosure of data should be made only for purposes consistent with the original collection, and (7) secondary uses beyond those originally intended by the data collector should be permitted only with informed consent. PMID:8648874

Gostin, L O; Lazzarini, Z; Neslund, V S; Osterholm, M T

1996-06-26

138

How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?  

PubMed

The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision. PMID:23645877

Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

2013-05-03

139

State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?  

SciTech Connect

In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

Sautter, John A.

2010-10-15

140

Should industry care for children? Public health advocacy and law in Australia.  

PubMed

This paper uses examples to illustrate the challenges to health and law professionals interested in public health interventions to reduce the negative impact of companies making money by selling products that put children and young people at risk. Examples included are folate to prevent neural tube defects, with issues around the food industry attempting to block mandatory fortification of flour with folate; fetal alcohol syndrome and hazardous drinking in young people, with a focus on the actions of the alcohol industry including vendors; smoking and the ways in which the tobacco industry still target children; and childhood obesity, with problems again from the food and drink industries including vendors. PMID:19249801

Stanley, F; Daube, M

2009-02-27

141

Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

2007-08-02

142

Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

2007-08-02

143

Public health responsibility in the Thai Constitutional Law between 1932-2006 (B.E. 2475-2549).  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to survey the area of public health, written by the Thai Constitutional Law since 1932-2006 (B.E. 2475-2549) and to estimate the Thai Constitutional Laws. A review of all constitutional laws in Thailand enacted between 1932 and 2006. The most important responsibility of a government is its responsibility towards citizen's rights. Most Thai Constitutional Laws have prescribed the state's responsibility for providing public health for the Thai population and the majority of them included health promotion and the provision of health care free of charge. Some also stipulated that the medical services be of international standard. But there was no responsibility expected of the Thai citizen for their own health. Public health features prominently in the Thai constitution as a responsibility of the government. However there is no mention of the responsibilities of citizens to take some care with their own health. PMID:19533882

Nongkhai, Surachart Na; Usathaporn, Suthee

2008-10-01

144

U.S. Drug Control Policies: Federal Spending on Law Enforcement versus Treatment in Public Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the relationships among federal anti-drug law enforcement expenditures, education and treatment expenditures, and public health outcomes. The data include four types of spending: criminal justice system, interdiction and international intelligence, education in the community and workplace, and drug treatment. These data were combined with mortality rates for drug abuse, a public health outcome. The empirical findings support

Edward Shepard; Paul R. Blackley

2004-01-01

145

45 CFR 507.1 - Payments under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended by Public Law 91-289.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Payments under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended by Public Law 91-289. 507.1 Section 507.1 Public Welfare Regulations...Payments under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended by Public Law 91-289. (a) Upon a determination by the...

2011-10-01

146

Teaching Rights of Publicity: Blending Copyright and Trademark, Common Law and Statutes, and Domestic and Foreign Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Article is to explain why we believe that rights of publicity should be taught as a stand-alone course, why we believe that a course in comparative rights of publicity is worthwhile as a stand-alone course, and to explain some of the challenges and opportunities that the course presents. Ultimately, we hope to encourage and persuade more

David S. Welkowitz; Tyler Ochoa

2008-01-01

147

Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.  

PubMed

Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy. PMID:23093516

Howse, Genevieve

2012-09-01

148

Constitutional and administrative law comments on public-private partnerships in urban development: Experiences from the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public-private partnership agreements can be seen as government making use of private law to achieve planning objectives. Public-private partnerships (PPP’s) have extensively been used in urban development projects during the past few decades in the Netherlands (and elsewhere around the globe). A lot of experience has been gained regarding PPP’s, in particular on the local level. However, from the legal

F. A. M. Hobma

2011-01-01

149

Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?  

PubMed

Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches. PMID:16229381

Aginam, Obijiofor

2005-09-01

150

The risk of domestic violence and women with HIV infection: implications for partner notification, public policy, and the law.  

PubMed

Partner notification has emerged as an important strategy in the fight against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and states have now adopted a plethora of laws that encourage or mandate notification, often without the patient's consent. As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to spread among women, the future development of AIDS control strategies and public health laws must be shaped by concern for the safety and autonomy of patients who face a risk of domestic violence. Three distinct recommendations flow from this premise. First, all HIV-infected women should be assessed for the risk of domestic violence and offered appropriate interventions. Second, where a risk of abuse is indicated, partners should never be notified without the patient's consent. State laws that presently permit involuntary notification should be repealed or amended. Third, laws that punish a patient's refusal to notify partners should also be modified or repealed. PMID:7485675

Rothenberg, K H; Paskey, S J

1995-11-01

151

Information and the War against Terrorism, Part II: Were American Intelligence and Law Enforcement Effectively Positioned To Protect the Public?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers the legal response to terrorism following the September 11th attacks and questions whether American intelligence and law enforcement are positioned to protect the public in an effective manner. Highlights include the business of intelligence; the collection of information; use of technology; the need to improve information sharing; and…

Strickland, Lee S.

2002-01-01

152

Conservation Service Reform Act of 1986: Public Law 99-412, Ninety-Ninth Congress, August 28, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Public Law 99-412 amends the National Energy Conservation Policy Act to continue the effort to control energy demand growth. The bill changes some plan requirements affecting utilities, eligibility, exemptions and waivers, alternative state plans, and reporting. Title II repeals Title VII of the NECPA dealing with commercial and multifamily buildings and demonstration projects.

Not Available

1986-01-01

153

66 FR 3657 - CUMULATIVE LIST OF PUBLIC LAWS This is the cumulative list of public laws for the 106th Congress...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fedreg. Comments may be addressed to the Director, Office of the Federal Register, Washington, DC 20408 or send e-mail to info@nara.fedreg.gov. The text of laws may be ordered in individual pamphlet form (referred to as...

2001-01-16

154

Minimum Wage Laws: Who Benefits, Who Loses? Series on Public Issues No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is the thesis of this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, that minimum wage laws actually hurt those whom such laws are designed to help. From this point of departure, separate subsections examine economic implications of minimum wage laws, including discussion of what…

Hobson, Margaret Jane; Maurice, S. Charles

155

Law and Me: A Resource Guide for Social Studies Teachers in Milwaukee Public High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four units on legal education for high school social studies courses in Milwaukee schools are presented. Unit 1 briefly considers the nature of law in a democratic society. Using fictional situations, group activities, and diagrams, students examine the social contract, the pervasive nature of law in everyday life, and the sources of laws. In Unit…

Donegan, Robert; And Others

156

Law and Me: A Resource Guide for Social Studies Teachers in Milwaukee Public High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four units on legal education for high school social studies courses in Milwaukee schools are presented. Unit 1 briefly considers the nature of law in a democratic society. Using fictional situations, group activities, and diagrams, students examine the social contract, the pervasive nature of law in everyday life, and the sources of laws. In…

Donegan, Robert; And Others

157

8 CFR 1245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...applicant status. All nationals of the People's Republic of China who...

2013-01-01

158

8 CFR 245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...applicant status. All nationals of the People's Republic of China who...

2009-01-01

159

8 CFR 1245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...applicant status. All nationals of the People's Republic of China who...

2010-01-01

160

8 CFR 245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...applicant status. All nationals of the People's Republic of China who...

2010-01-01

161

8 CFR 1245.9 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law 102...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of the People's Republic of China under Public Law...applicant status. All nationals of the People's Republic of China who...

2009-01-01

162

42 CFR 62.76 - How will amounts of money due under the option under section 204(c)(1) of Public Law 100-177 be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...money due under the option under section 204(c)(1) of Public Law 100-177 be required to be repaid? 62.76 Section 62...money due under the option under section 204(c)(1) of Public Law 100-177 be required to be repaid? Program...

2011-10-01

163

7 CFR 1940.326 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency. 1940.326 Section 1940...successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a lead Agency. (a) When other Federal...consult with these agencies to determine a lead Agency for preparing the EIS....

2013-01-01

164

Medical monitoring for pharmaceutical injuries: tort law for the public's health?  

PubMed

A remarkable development in personal injury litigation in recent years involves attempts to expand legal claims beyond existing injuries to anticipated future harms. Attorneys have begun to sue on behalf of individuals exposed to defective pharmaceutical products who have no current injury, but who may be at risk for developing one after a latency period. This strategy seeks to make drug manufacturers pay for medical monitoring, a court-ordered program that provides diagnostic tests to exposed individuals to facilitate early detection of adverse health effects. Because medical monitoring does not depend on the existence of an actual injury and large populations may be exposed, some commentators have warned that it has the potential to spiral out of control. We examine medical monitoring in the context of 2 major cases involving diet drugs and an oral hypoglycemic drug. We conclude that this expansion of tort law should be applied sparingly, but that the performance of courts to date in these cases gives cause for optimism. Judges appear to be paying close attention to sophisticated epidemiological, clinical, and cost-effectiveness considerations. Medical monitoring arms the courts with a new mechanism for addressing harms proactively rather than reactively, which could yield new victories for public health. PMID:12588274

Studdert, David M; Mello, Michelle M; Brennan, Troyen A

2003-02-19

165

Public health, cultural norms and the criminal law: an inconvenient union? A case study of female genital cutting.  

PubMed

Social and cultural stereotypes held about women and their health needs constitute a significant barrier to the enforcement of laws protecting women's health. While the promulgation of remedial legislation to address the problem is a positive step towards protecting women's health, these laws are promulgated in a cultural milieu that remains unwelcoming to women's rights. The clash between long-held cultural perceptions and health laws, such as those affecting women's reproductive health, engenders more problems for women's health because the laws sometimes fail to produce the desired behavioural changes. This paper attempts to debunk the uncritical assumption that legislative reforms without more are positive instruments of change in protecting women's health. In outlining this thesis, the paper examines the legal prohibition of Female Genital Cutting ('FGC') as a case study. To determine whether FGC prohibition laws are likely to be effective in achieving the public health agenda of protecting women's health, the paper analyzes FGC laws against the normative and instrumental theories of legal compliance, as well as against the socio-cultural worldviews underlying the practice. It concludes that legislative efforts to protect women's health may remain ineffective without structured efforts between health systems, governments or legal institutions and the cultural society. PMID:23248844

Iyioha, Ireh

2012-09-01

166

The Paradox of Law Enforcement in Immigrant Communities: Does Tough Immigration Enforcement Undermine Public Safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frustrated by federal inaction on immigration reform, several U.S. states in recent years have proposed or enacted laws designed to stem the flow of illegal immigrants into the United States and to facilitate their removal. An underappreciated implication of these laws is the potential alienation of immigrant communities—even law-abiding, cooperative individuals—from the criminal justice system. The ability of the criminal

David S. Kirk; Andrew V. Papachristos; Jeffrey Fagan; Tom R. Tyler

2012-01-01

167

The appeal to law to provide public answers to bioethical questions: it all depends what sort of answers you want.  

PubMed

Bioethics as an academic discipline comes into public discourse when real life "hard cases" receive media attention. Since cases of this sort increasingly often become the subject of litigation, the forum for debate can be a court of law, with judges as the final arbiters. Judges (unlike philosophers) are obliged to give final and definitive rulings in a constrained time period. Their training is in a type of discourse very different from moral philosophy, though still concerned with right and wrong. This paper explores the differences between the tools and methods used in public legal debate and private academic discourse, and the different nature of the answers they produce. It attempts to suggest some ways in which bioethicists can better understand lawyers' reasoning in cases of this sort, and how communication between bioethics and law might be improved. PMID:18214685

James, Timothy

2008-01-24

168

The Law of Special Education in the United States and England: Civil Rights and Public Duties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the law of special educational needs in the United States and England, focusing on local authorities' power to determine provision levels. American courts have closely linked education and equality; constitutional law concentrates on the child's legal rights. The English system does not recognize a right to education or equal access to…

Allen, Tom

1996-01-01

169

The Law and Emergencies: Surveillance for Public Health-Related Legal Issues During Hurricanes Katrina and Rita  

PubMed Central

Law influenced every aspect of the public health response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, from evacuation orders, to waivers of medical licensing requirements, to the clean-up of public health threats on private property. We used public health surveillance of news reports to identify and characterize legal issues arising during the disaster response in 5 Gulf Coast states. Data collected from news reports of the events in real time were followed-up by interviews with selected state legal and emergency management officials. Our analysis indicates the value of surveillance during and after emergency responses in identifying public health–related legal issues and helps to inform the strengthening of legal preparedness frameworks for future disasters.

Weiss, Rachel I.; McKie, Karen L.; Goodman, Richard A.

2007-01-01

170

The law and emergencies: surveillance for public health-related legal issues during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.  

PubMed

Law influenced every aspect of the public health response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, from evacuation orders, to waivers of medical licensing requirements, to the clean-up of public health threats on private property. We used public health surveillance of news reports to identify and characterize legal issues arising during the disaster response in 5 Gulf Coast states. Data collected from news reports of the events in real time were followed-up by interviews with selected state legal and emergency management officials. Our analysis indicates the value of surveillance during and after emergency responses in identifying public health-related legal issues and helps to inform the strengthening of legal preparedness frameworks for future disasters. PMID:17413083

Weiss, Rachel I; McKie, Karen L; Goodman, Richard A

2007-04-05

171

Driver: A Public Education Project by Law Enforcement. Volume 1. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DRIVER project was a two-year demonstration project entailing the design, implementation, and evaluation of a traffic safety education program executed by law enforcement personnel through the mass media. The project's chief objective was to determine...

J. W. Billheimer J. B. Moore

1987-01-01

172

Driver: A Public Education Project by Law Enforcement. Volume 2. Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DRIVER project was a two-year demonstration project entailing the design, implementation, and evaluation of a traffic safety education program executed by law enforcement personnel through the mass media. The project's chief objective was to determine...

J. W. Billheimer J. B. Moore

1987-01-01

173

Repeal of the Pennsylvania motorcycle helmet law: reflections on the ethical and political dynamics of public health reform  

PubMed Central

Background In June of 2003 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania passed S. 259 which repealed the state's 35-year old motorcycle helmet safety law. Motorcycle helmets are now only required for riders who are under the age of 21 and for those who are 21 years or older who have had a motorcycle operator's license for less than two years, or who have not completed an approved motorcycle safety course. Discussion Prior to the repeal, and in the years that have followed, there has been intense debate and controversy regarding Pennsylvania's decision to repeal the law that required universal and mandatory use of motorcycle helmets for all riders. Proponents of the helmet repeal have argued in favor of individual rights and freedom, whereas advocates for mandatory helmet laws have voiced concerns over public health and safety based on available data. Summary This commentary will discuss the policy-making process that led to Pennsylvania's repeal of the motorcycle helmet safety law from an ethical, political, and economic perspective.

2010-01-01

174

7 CFR 1950.104 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

County Supervisors, to the greatest extent possible, should keep themselves informed of the plans of borrowers with FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans secured by real estate who may enter the armed...

2010-01-01

175

"Street art" draws attention of the public, potential investors, and law enforcement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Blek le Rat, the man who gave birth to Banksyhttp://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/visual_arts/article4066727.eceBanksy [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.banksy.co.uk/Tate Modern: Street Arthttp://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibitions/streetart/default.shtmTIME: Art of the Street Photo Essayhttp://www.time.com/time/photoessays/street_art/Streetarthttp://streetart.antville.org/Many experts and neophytes throughout the ages have asked, "What is art?" Some say there must be a mission statement or intentionality to have real "art", and others say that the matter is completely subjective. Some have created distinctions of "high" and "low" art to distinguish between the work of the Old Masters, for example, and that of young Turks who go around creating street art. One of these young Turks is the Bristol-born Banksy, who is well known for his graffiti projects across the world. Appearing almost out of nowhere, his work has included snarky representations of Queen Elizabeth II, law enforcement representatives, and deeply cynical send-ups of consumer culture. In recent times, Banksy's work, along with fellow street artists like Swoon, has garnered significant attention from cultural critics, the general public, and people who are plain furious about what they call defacement of property. Recently, a piece by Jennifer Hill at Reuters took a close look at the growing interest among investors in such work, even though the work sometimes appears on large buildings and structures, and therefore cannot be moved or modified due to its placement. Financial planner Christine Ross at the SG Hambros Private Bank noted that in thinking about the rising value of such work, "When you come to sell, who knows where the market will be? It can very much depend on what's in vogue. While you'll probably find a buyer for most pieces, at what price?" The first link will take users to a piece by Jennifer Hill from Reuters UK about the rising interest in various types of street art. The second link leads to an article from the Times Online about the "grand old man" of street art, Blek le Rat. Moving on, the third link leads to the homepage of the elusive Banksy. On the site, visitors can learn about his work, and even download a few works for their own personal use. The fourth link leads to information about a current exhibit at the Tate Modern in London, which presents the work of six internationally, acclaimed street artists. The exhibition looks quite fascinating, and well worth a visit. The fifth link leads to an interactive photo essay from TIME which offers up a selection of street art from artists such as WK, Miss Van, and Pez. The final link whisks visitors away to the collaborative weblog "Streetart" which is a place for "photos of DIY posters, guerilla stickers, home-made stencils, etc.".

Grinnell, Max

2008-06-13

176

An Analysis of Five Major Public Laws and Their Impact on the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study developed and tested a systematic format for discovering and displaying relationships among five major federal laws concerning the handicapped: P.L. 93-112 (Rehabilitation Act of 1973), P.L. 93-380 (Education Amendments of 1974), P.L. 94-63 (Special Health Revenue Sharing Act of 1974), P.L. 94-103 (Developmentally Disabled Assistance and…

King, John D.; Humphrey, Jackie Hance

177

Public Opinion About Laws to Prohibit Weight Discrimination in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight discrimination is pervasive in American society and impairs quality of life for obese persons. With approximately two-thirds of Americans now overweight or obese, vast numbers of people are vulnerable to weight prejudice and its consequences. Currently, no laws exist to prohibit weight discrimination. This study conducted an online survey with a national sample of 1,001 adults (representing demographics of

Rebecca M. Puhl; Chelsea A. Heuer

2011-01-01

178

Wagner's Law and public expenditure in Iraq: a test using disaggregated data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in time series analysis have encouraged economists to re-examine the validity of Wagner's Law. Recent econometric tests have shown mixed results with some upholding the hypothesis while others contradict it. Carrying out econometric work with aggregated data could account for this. This study using disaggregated data measured in both real and nominal terms also leads to contradictory results.

A. A. Asseery; D. Law; N. Perdikis

1999-01-01

179

Nondiscretionary Concealed Weapons Law: A Case Study of Statistics, Standards of Proof, and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 15 years, the National Rifle Association (NRA) has conducted a highly successful campaign to encourage states to enact legislation enabling citizens who meet modest requirements to carry concealed handguns. Many will be surprised – some even horrified -- to learn that 31 states have now adopted such laws, and the NRA campaign has been given a substantial

John Donohue; Ian Ayres

1999-01-01

180

Reconsidering the legality of cigarette smoking advertisements on television public health and the law.  

PubMed

Television advertisements depicting the use of electronic cigarettes have recently exposed minors to images of smoking behaviors. While these advertisements are currently legal, existing laws should be interpreted or expanded to ban the commercial depiction of smoking behaviors with any product that resembles a cigarette to shield minors from potentially influential advertising. PMID:23581678

Hodge, James G; Collmer, Veda; Orenstein, Daniel G; Millea, Chase; Van Buren, Laura

2013-01-01

181

Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985: public law 99-58. Ninety-Ninth Congress, July 2, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Public Law 99-58 extends Titles I and II of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to June 30, 1989 by adding section 171 to Part C-Expiration of Title I. Other amendments pertain to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, specifically to require a test drawdown, and terminate certain emergency authorities. Title II amendments mandate a review of coal imports that will cover quantity, quality, and source as well as identifying domestic coal production and consumption by state to determine if there are any significant trends.

Not Available

1985-01-01

182

Nurse Training. Title VIII--Public Health Service Act. The Complete Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To keep the nursing profession and other interested groups informed of the new provisions in nurse training legislation, this publication contains the complete text of Title VIII of the Public Health Service Act, as of November 18, 1971. Major provisions of the Act cover: (1) Grants for Expansion and Improvement of Nurse Training, (2) Assistance…

1972

183

Oklahoma State Plan, FY 88-90: Part B of the Education of the Handicapped Act as amended by Public Law 94-142.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Oklahoma state plan documents the policies and procedures that public and private schools, agencies, and institutions follow when providing special education and related services to handicapped children, consistent with Public Law 94-142. Part I includes submission statements and certifications. Part II contains policies, procedures, and…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Div. of Special Education.

184

State of Washington Three Year Program Plan Public Law 94-142: Providing Programs and Services to Children with Handicapping Conditions, 1987-1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is Washington's program plan for operating and administering Public Law 94-142, The Education of All Handicapped Children Act, and the Preschool Incentive Grant Proposal for fiscal years 1987-1989. The plan contains submission statements and certificates, written comments received from the public regarding the state plan, and a right to…

Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

185

Administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. Public Law 90-602, April 1, 1977 (1976 Annual Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare is required by Subpart 3, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC 263b et seq. (Public Law 90-602) to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or befor...

1977-01-01

186

Public health law: the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.  

PubMed

Congress of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was immediately challenged by lawsuits attacking the constitutionality of the legislation. The lawsuits, joined by over 2 dozen state's attorney generals, contend that PPACA is an unconstitutional exercise of federal power. Specifically, the suits argue that the individual insurance mandate portion of the law is justified by neither the "Commerce Power" nor Congress' authority to "tax" and provide for "the general welfare." This essay outlines and analyzes the constitutional arguments for, and against, PPACA forecasting the likely resolution of the debate if the suits reach the US Supreme Court. PMID:21394042

De Ville, Kenneth

187

Special Education Teacher's Perception of Problems Encountered in Implementing Public Law 94-142: Two Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two papers report results of an investigation of the attitudes of public school teachers regarding two topics: the mandates of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act and mainstreaming of educable mentally retarded (EMR) students into elementary classes. The first paper discusses the development and field testing of an…

Gold, Veronica; Burkholder, Lynn

188

Inequities in Mass Communication Law: The FCC's Application of the Duopoly Rule to Public Broadcasting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-part petition was filed in December 1974 with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) which presented the first serious threat to public broadcasters' exemption from the FCC's multiple-ownership rules. The petition requested a revision of the rules that permit multiple ownership of noncommercial educational stations within a single…

Avery, Robert K.

189

The Developing Case Law of Public School Extra-Curricular Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supreme Court has established standards of judicial review that may be more important in determining the outcomes of cases than are the substantive issues involved. The public school's authority to establish rules and regulations governing student conduct is generally accepted unless the rules infringe on established constitutional rights or…

Abbott, Jeff H.

190

The Future of Communicable Disease Control: Toward a New Concept in Public Health Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

ach s tate, t hrough t he e xercise o f i ts police powers, has the constitutional prerogative to intervene in the private sphere when necessary for the preservation of the health, safety, and morals of the community. Pursuant to this consti- tutional authority, all states and many localities have enacted public health statutes designed to control the spread

LARRY G OSTIN

191

Distributive effects of Public Law 92-500. [Potential effects of subsidy program on income distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title II of the 1972 ''Clean Water Act'' provided for a potentially massive Federal construction grant program for the construction of publicly owned wastewater treatment plants. Part of this subsidy accrues to municipalities and the remainder to industry. The regulations for these Federal grants are somewhat perplexing and it is not obvious who will benefit and by how much. The

1977-01-01

192

The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

Hodgson, Douglas Charles

2012-01-01

193

National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

194

Public relations and the law in crisis mode: Texaco’s initial reaction to incriminating tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public relations specialists and lawyers are given many opportunities to work together, but the collaboration may not always be a “marriage made in heaven.” In times of crisis, that collaboration may be more of a “shotgun wedding,” with two very different professional perspectives forced into a quick merger. What is born of that crisis depends in part on what each

Elizabeth A Hoger; Lisa L Swem

2000-01-01

195

Offensive Advertising, Public Policy, and the Law: The Rulings on the Zagorka Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the case of a controversial beer advertisement which was promulgated in Bulgaria in 2001, and which provoked eight lawsuits against the brewery, its advertising agency, and the Bulgarian National Television. The case set a precedent in Bulgaria and generated considerable public interest and debate. To the best of the authors’ knowledge this is the first case in

Elena Millan; Richard Elliott

2004-01-01

196

law, economic analysis of  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law. Keywords adverse possession; asymmetric information; Becker, G.; Bentham, J.; bona fide purchase rule; Coase, R.; collective action; compensated takings; contract formation; contractual

A. Mitchell Polinsky; Steven Shavell

197

Integration of Roles? Implementing New Information Laws in UK Public Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 2002, a government report Privacy and datasharing recommended that public organizations appoint Chief Knowledge Officers to integrate information-handling issues into decision-making processes. In the space of five years, a role that had previously been ascribed to clerical-level Data Protection Officers has changed out of all recognition. Significant legislation has been enacted including: a revised Data Protection Act 1998;

Adam Warren; Charles Oppenheim

2004-01-01

198

Pharmaceutical marketing practices: balancing public health and law enforcement interests; moving beyond regulation-through-litigation.  

PubMed

Fraudulent or abusive sales and marketing practices by pharmaceutical companies can result in costly overutilization of products that are increasingly paid for by government healthcare programs and may result in adverse health and safety consequences to the patient-beneficiaries of those programs. Federal enforcement efforts in this area are largely modeled on those used to combat white-collar crime, with cases taking years to reach conclusion. This approach overlooks the impact on patients who receive unnecessary care or are denied access to appropriate care during the course of the investigation. Many states are beginning to regulate certain pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices, but state-by-state regulation ignores the importance of a uniform federal regulatory and enforcement approach in an area already occupied by federal law. This Article explores current federal and state efforts to limit overutilization, fraud, and abuse in the sale and marketing of prescription drugs, and illustrates the merits of an expanded role for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices. This approach borrows lessons learned from the FDA's efficient and effective regulatory and enforcement methods and maintains a careful balance between the interests of patient-beneficiaries, the government and industry. PMID:17002233

Zalesky, Christopher D

2006-01-01

199

Motorcycle helmet laws in the United States from 1990 to 2005: politics and public health.  

PubMed

The passage of universal helmet legislation requiring motorcycle riders of all ages to wear helmets is a timely and controversial issue with far-reaching public health implications, especially as the number of motorcycle fatalities continues to rise. In 2008, only 20 states had a universal helmet policy, an effective safety measure for reducing motorcycle fatalities and serious injuries. We used state-specific longitudinal data for the continental United States from 1990 through 2005 to determine which industry, political, economic, and demographic factors had a significant influence on the enactment of universal helmet policies. Our findings suggest that political climate and ideology are important predictors of helmet policies. PMID:19106423

Homer, Jenny; French, Michael

2008-12-23

200

Motorcycle Helmet Laws in the United States From 1990 to 2005: Politics and Public Health  

PubMed Central

The passage of universal helmet legislation requiring motorcycle riders of all ages to wear helmets is a timely and controversial issue with far-reaching public health implications, especially as the number of motorcycle fatalities continues to rise. In 2008, only 20 states had a universal helmet policy, an effective safety measure for reducing motorcycle fatalities and serious injuries. We used state-specific longitudinal data for the continental United States from 1990 through 2005 to determine which industry, political, economic, and demographic factors had a significant influence on the enactment of universal helmet policies. Our findings suggest that political climate and ideology are important predictors of helmet policies.

Homer, Jenny

2009-01-01

201

The school-to-juvenile justice pipeline: Factors associated with the use of school-based law enforcement officers by public schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the mass school shootings of the mid-1990s and public perception that violence in schools had increased at an alarming rate, federal and local zero-tolerance policies were implemented in public schools. These policies have contributed to the creation of a school-to-juvenile justice pipeline. In this study, one system in the pipeline is examined: school-based law enforcement officers. The

Teresa LLanira Sarmiento-Brooks

2008-01-01

202

Public perceptions of the seriousness of victim-precipitated homicides: An empirical analysis of the consensus model of the law on homicide in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminal statutes on homicide widely support the consensus model of the criminal law. The present study attempted to ascertain whether the typical lack of recognition of victim-precipitated homicide as a separate, less serious category of homicide by criminal statutes reflects public views on this issue. To this end, a representative sample of the Israeli population was requested to evaluate the

S. Herzog

2005-01-01

203

8 CFR 233.5 - Aliens entering Guam pursuant to section 14 of Public Law 99-396, âOmnibus Territories Act.â  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aliens entering Guam pursuant to section 14 of Public Law...Territories Act.â 233.5 Section 233.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2013-01-01

204

USDA-NRCS's ROLE FOR SOILS INFORMATION IN THE SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT OF 1977 (PUBLIC LAW 95-87)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87) authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to implement a regulatory program to control the environmental impacts of mining operations. The Secretary of Interior administers this program through the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) with assistance from state and other federal agencies as specified in the

H. Raymond

205

Report to Congress on Implementation of Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (As Required by Section 1001(3) of Public Law 107-56), February 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (Patriot Act), Public Law 107-56, directs the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ or Department) to undertake a series of actions related to claims of civil rights or civil liber...

2009-01-01

206

Report to Congress on Implementation of Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (as Required by Section 1001(3) of Public Law 107-56), August 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (Patriot Act), Public Law 107-56, directs the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ or Department) to undertake a series of actions related to claims of civil rights or civil liber...

2013-01-01

207

Report to Congress on Implementation of Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (As Required by Section 1001(3) of Public Law 107-56), April 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (Patriot Act), Public Law 107-56, directs the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ or Department) to undertake a series of actions related to claims of civil rights or civil liber...

2013-01-01

208

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part XI: The Basin-Plateau Tribes. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XI of the series, deals with the Indian tribes of Nevada: The Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

209

7 CFR 1901.506 - Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 securities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSTRUCTIONS Certificates of Beneficial Ownership and Insured Notes § 1901.506 Book-entry procedure for FmHA or its successor...Public Law 103-354 securities. (ii) Have the effect of a taking of delivery by the transferee or pledgee. (iii)...

2013-01-01

210

Kentucky's Consolidated State Application: Revised Accountability Workbook. State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, submitted by the Kentucky Department of Education to the U.S. Department of Education, is for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110). By January 31, 2003, States must complete and submit to the Department this Consolidated State Application Accountability…

US Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

211

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

Fay, George E., Comp.

212

Law and Public Management—The Human Rights Challenge: Judging Asylum and Immigration Claims: The Human Rights Act and the Refugee Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immigration appeals have not received much attention from legal scholars or from public administrators. This is despite the increased interest in asylum law, practice and decisions. There is much to be considered in relation to the jurisdiction of the immigration appellate process to include human rights issues arising in immigration and asylum decisions taken by the Home Office after 2

Charles Blake

2001-01-01

213

76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Private International Law would like to...Conference on Private International Law on the 1980 Hague...5) allegations of domestic violence; (6) the views...definitions; (10) international relocation of a...

2011-02-03

214

Real or perceived impediments to minimum pricing of alcohol in Australia: Public opinion, the industry and the law.  

PubMed

A burgeoning body of empirical evidence demonstrates that increases in the price of alcohol can reduce per capita alcohol consumption and harmful drinking. Taxes on alcohol can be raised to increase prices, but this strategy can be undermined if the industry absorbs the tax increase and cross-subsidises the price of one alcoholic beverage with other products. Such loss-leading strategies are not possible with minimum pricing. We argue that a minimum (or floor) price for alcohol should be used as a complement to alcohol taxation. Several jurisdictions have already introduced minimum pricing (e.g., Canada, Ukraine) and others are currently investigating pathways to introduce a floor price (e.g., Scotland). Tasked by the Australian government to examine the public interest case for a minimum price, Australia's peak preventative health agency recommended against setting one at the present time. The agency was concerned that there was insufficient Australian specific modelling evidence to make robust estimates of the net benefits. Nonetheless, its initial judgement was that it would be difficult for a minimum price to produce benefits for Australia at the national level. Whilst modelling evidence is certainly warranted to support the introduction of the policy, the development and uptake of policy is influenced by more than just empirical evidence. This article considers three potential impediments to minimum pricing: public opinion and misunderstandings or misgivings about the operation of a minimum price; the strength of alcohol industry objections and measures to undercut the minimum price through discounts and promotions; and legal obstacles including competition and trade law. The analysis of these factors is situated in an Australian context, but has salience internationally. PMID:23773685

Chalmers, Jenny; Carragher, Natacha; Davoren, Sondra; O'Brien, Paula

2013-06-14

215

Students and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

216

Law-Related Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies five "motives" behind law-related education. They are citizenship education, delinquency prevention, survival skills, critical thinking, and ethics education. Presents a brief survey designed to collect information about law-related education in the Michigan public schools. (JDH)|

Little, Timothy H.

1987-01-01

217

Public Hearings: Gambling, Law Enforcement, Organized Crime Held at Boston, Massachusetts on April 9, 10, and 11, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains testimony before the National Gambling Commission concerning gambling, law enforcement and organized crime. Hearings were conducted in Boston, Massachusetts on April 9, 10, 11, 1975.

1975-01-01

218

Sustainable Commerce: Public Health Law and Environmental Law Provide Tools for Industry and Government to Construct Globally-Competitive Green Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the legal mechanics underlying the sustainable commerce private\\/public governance paradigm whereby industry and government create sustainable commerce initiatives which coordinately grow local\\/state economies and employment, enhance local\\/state competitiveness in the global marketplace, and at the same time substantially improve local\\/state public health and environmental infrastructure. This includes an examination of the legal foundation for state\\/local sustainable commerce

T. Rick Irvin; Peter A. Appel

2009-01-01

219

Poverty, Productivity, and Public Health: The Effects of "Right to Work" Laws on Key Standards of Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On February 1, 2012, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels signed a "right to work" (RTW) provision in the state's labor laws, making Indiana the 23rd RTW state in the nation. In addition to becoming the 23rd RTW state in the nation, Indiana is the first in more than a decade to pass a law undermining the ability of unions to organize and represent…

Minor, Darrell

2012-01-01

220

75 FR 55846 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Public Meeting on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Working Group on Procurement will next meet November 1-5, 2010 in Vienna. At that meeting, the Working Group will continue its work on revisions to the 1994 Model Law on Procurement of Goods,...

2010-09-14

221

The Public Safety Potential of Megan's Law in Massachusetts: An Assessment from a Sample of Criminal Sexual Psychopaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an exploratory assessment of the potential of Megan's Law to prevent subsequent sex offenses in Massachusetts. Using secondary data on 136 criminal sexual psychopaths, the authors found that 27 percent of the sample had a prior conviction that met the requirements of the Massachusetts Registry Law before their most recent sex crime. Of these 36 offenders who

Anthony J. Petrosino; Carolyn Petrosino

1999-01-01

222

1987 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240  

SciTech Connect

In response to Section 7(b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), this report summarizes the progress of states and low-level radioactive waste compacts in 1987 in establishing new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1987 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities.

Not Available

1988-08-01

223

Economic analysis of law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analysis of law concerns predicting impacts of legislative rules on incentives and behaviour of individuals and judging social efficiency of alternative legislative rules. It applies price theory, welfare theory and public choice theory on creating and applying law. One of its main shortcomings however is the lack of criteria of social efficiency. Modern history of economic analysis of law

Robert Holman

2004-01-01

224

New Tax Law Boosts School Construction with Public-Private Partnerships. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 1463.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a provision in a tax bill implemented in June 2001 that allows towns and cities to build public school facilities faster, better, and less expensively by forming public-private partnerships with qualified real estate investors and developers. Private sector investors can fund construction, then lease the facilities to public

Utt, Ronald D.

225

Responsibility of international organizations under international law for the acts of global health public-private partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public-private partnerships governing global health are making progress in relation to the prevention and treatment of diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. This progress should not be underestimated as these partnerships are making strides above and beyond efforts of either the public or private sector alone. As a consequence, partnerships are increasingy exercising public power over global health in

L. Clarke

2011-01-01

226

Ann Davies - In Law More Than in Life? Liberalism, Reason, and Religion in Public Schools - Rhetoric & Public Affairs 9:3  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the First Amendment, the free exercise of religion is set apart from the right of free speech, suggesting that religion is a unique form of speech, as well as of privacy and autonomy. The amendment extends this exceptionalism by prohibiting Congress from making any law \\

Ann Davies

227

Integration of Virtual Public-Private Partnerships into Local Law Enforcement to Achieve Enhanced Intelligence-Led Policing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In light of the recent emergence of fusion centers and centralized intelligence units, and the move to develop intelligence capacity within local law enforcement agencies in the United States, intelligence-led policing (ILP) is well-positioned to be on th...

J. M. Simeone

2007-01-01

228

One in Ten: Protecting Children's Access to Federal Public Benefits under the New Welfare and Immigration Laws. Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act of 1996 revised laws governing privacy and confidentiality of information that government agencies collect from immigrants during the benefits application process. Noting that these changes evoked confusion and anxiety in the…

Brady, Sheri A.

229

Criminal Personality Profiling and Crime Scene AssessmentA Contemporary Investigative Tool to Assist Law Enforcement Public Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the justice system, there appears to be a growing demand for experts in the field of behavioral science who can help law enforcement solve bizarre and unusual cases. There are multiple factors and antecedent events that are involved in a violent crime. These factors and events include the intent, the plan, the type of criminal, the type of victim,

JOSEPH A. DAVIS

1999-01-01

230

Are Nuclear Weapons Illegal? The Role of Public International Law and the International Court of Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional international law contains various limitations on nuclear weapons, such as possession, testing, deployment, use or threat of use. There are a number of general principles of customary nature that could be considered as well with reference to the legality of these weapons of mass destruction. It is argued that given the current threats in the nuclear proliferation, a comprehensive

Anguel Anastassov

2010-01-01

231

Repeal of the Pennsylvania motorcycle helmet law: reflections on the ethical and political dynamics of public health reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In June of 2003 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania passed S. 259 which repealed the state's 35-year old motorcycle helmet safety law. Motorcycle helmets are now only required for riders who are under the age of 21 and for those who are 21 years or older who have had a motorcycle operator's license for less than two years, or who

Robert A Cherry

2010-01-01

232

Religious Expression in Public Schools. A Legal Memorandum: Quarterly Law Topics for School Leaders. Vol. 6, No. 2, Winter 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question is not, Will religious controversy hit your school? but rather, Will you be adequately grounded in knowledge about the law when it does? As communities have become more culturally diverse, the number of disagreements regarding the role and place of religion in schools has increased. Consequently, every principal must know the current…

Shoop, Robert J.

2006-01-01

233

Pediatric Do-Not-Attempt-Resuscitation Orders and Public Schools: A National Assessment of Policies and Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some children living with life-shortening medical conditions may wish to attend school without the threat of having resuscitation attempted in the event of cardiopulmonary arrest on the school premises. Despite recent attention to in-school do-not-attempt-resuscitation (DNAR) orders, no assessment of state laws or school policies has yet been made. We therefore sought to survey a national sample of prominent school

Michael B. Kimberly; Amanda L. Forte; Jean M. Carroll; Chris Feudtner

2005-01-01

234

Public attitudes and law reform: extending the legal framework for child contact to unmarried fathers, grandparents and step-parents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demographic transformations of partnership and parenthood present fresh challenges for family law and the rules governing child contact following parental separation are no exception. As children are now more likely to live in non-traditional families and experience family transitions, more kin act as de-facto parents, at least in some respects. Unmarried fathers, grandparents and step-parents are increasingly pressing their

Fran Wasoff

2009-01-01

235

Law in the Curriculum. Fastback 106.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of law in the K-12 curriculum can help students develop respect for the law and gain a better understanding of the rationale for various laws. Currently, there are two main approaches to the study of law in public schools. One is to offer a separate course or courses in law; the second is to integrate the concepts of law throughout the…

Nelson, Murry R.

236

The Effect of Mt. Healthy City School District v. Doyle Upon Public Sector Labor Law: An Employer Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a U.S. Supreme Court decision involving public employers'"mixed motives" in discharging employees for constitutionally protected and unprotected reasons. Describes the Court's test to distinguish which reason was the dominant factor. (RW)

Lane, Thomas H.

1981-01-01

237

Report on the Coordination of Federal and State Energy Policy. Public Law 93-275, Section 20.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For reasons of national security and public health and welfare, the Federal government can strongly influence and accelerate energy conservation by correcting market distortions which have led to the increased use of energy. It also can foster new energy-...

1974-01-01

238

The Impact of State Laws and District Policies on Physical Education and Recess Practices in a Nationally-Representative Sample of U.S. Public Elementary Schools  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the impact of state and school district-level policies on the prevalence of physical education (PE) and recess in a nationally representative sample of U.S. public elementary schools. Design Analyses from annual, nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys of School Administrators in the US. Setting Data were collected through surveys conducted between February and June during the 2006-07, through 2008-09 school years. State laws and district policies were compiled annually by UIC researchers using established legal research techniques. Participants The sample size was 47 states, 690 districts, and 1761 schools. Main Exposures State and District-level PE and recess-related laws Outcome Measures Twenty minutes of daily recess and 150 minutes of PE weekly Results The odds of schools having 150 weekly minutes of PE increased if they were located in states (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-5.7) or school districts (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3) having a law or policy, respectively, requiring 150 minutes of PE weekly. Schools located in states with laws encouraging daily recess were significantly more likely to have 20 minutes of recess daily (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8). District policies were not significantly associated with school-level recess practices. Adequate PE time was inversely associated with recess and vice versa suggesting that schools are substituting one form of physical activity for another rather than providing the recommended amount of both recess and PE. Conclusions By mandating PE or recess, policy makers can effectively increase school-based physical activity opportunities for youth.

Slater, Sandy J.; Nicholson, Lisa; Chriqui, Jamie; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank

2012-01-01

239

Implementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act [Public Law 94-142]. Eighth Annual Report to Congress. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The report examines the progress made in implementing the requirements mandated by the Education of the Handicapped Act, as amended by PL 98-199, with a specific focus on activities during school year 1984-85. Data are presented regarding four major topics: (1) students receiving a free appropriate public education (factors associated with…

Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC. Div. of Educational Services.

240

Using Surveys to Track Student Sexual Behavior and Attitudes in the Public Schools: Current Case Law and Future Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two recent federal court cases have addressed the constitutionality of using sexual surveys in public schools. This article compares these cases with an earlier case dealing with the same issue but reaching different results. This article also describes the constitutional rights of parents to educate their children and the school's rights to…

Bullis, Ronald K.

2008-01-01

241

Nutrition Education and Training Program. Public Law 95-166. Annual Evaluation Report, September 1, 1981-June 30, 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1981 Nutrition and Education Training Program described in this report is a continuation of activities begun in 1979 in the Baltimore, Maryland public schools. In 1981, the project integrated the objectives and learning activities developed during 1979 and 1980 into elementary and secondary education health, home economics, and science…

Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

242

Using Surveys to Track Student Sexual Behavior and Attitudes in the Public Schools: Current Case Law and Future Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent federal court cases have addressed the constitutionality of using sexual surveys in public schools. This article compares these cases with an earlier case dealing with the same issue but reaching different results. This article also describes the constitutional rights of parents to educate their children and the school's rights to decide what sexual information it will present to

Ronald K. Bullis

2008-01-01

243

Fitness to plead: implications from case-law arising from the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of fitness to plead constitutes a legal cornerstone in ensuring that individuals receive a fair trial. The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 has abolished the defendant's right to silence both within police interviews and in court, except where the defendant is judged to have a mental or physical condition that makes it undesirable that he or

Nicola S. Gray; Chris OConnor; Tegwyn Williams; Jackie Short; Malcolm MacCulloch

2001-01-01

244

Statement...Concerning Enforcement of Equal Opportunities and Anti-Discrimination Laws in the Public Broadcasting Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

J. Stanley Pottinger, Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Civil Rights Division (CRD) of the Department of Justice, was invited to testify before the committee concerning the existence and extent of discrimination in the public broadcasting industry. The Justice Department was concerned with the Civil Rights Act, Title VI. Members of his…

Pottinger, J. Stanley

245

Nutrition Education and Training Program. Public Law 95-166. Annual Evaluation Report, September 1, 1981-June 30, 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1981 Nutrition and Education Training Program described in this report is a continuation of activities begun in 1979 in the Baltimore, Maryland public schools. In 1981, the project integrated the objectives and learning activities developed during 1979 and 1980 into elementary and secondary education health, home economics, and science…

Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

246

Annual report on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, (1988), April 1, 1989. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The Secretary of Health and Human Services is required by Subpart 3, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC 263b et seq. (Public Law 90-602) to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or before April 1 on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act. The detailed information required in the report is outlined in Section 360D of the Public Health Service Act. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. The report provides a summary of the operations of the Center in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1988. In reviewing the operations of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health as reported in the document, it should be kept in mind that the day-to-day administration of the Act is only part of the Center's function. Other responsibilities include the administration and enforcement of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (not covered in the report).

Not Available

1989-04-01

247

76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Special Law Enforcement Commissions AGENCY: Bureau...online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Protocols and...

2011-01-25

248

78 FR 44188 - Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, as Amended by Public Law 104-13; Proposed Collection, Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The proposed information collection described below will be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35, as amended). The Tennessee Valley Authority is soliciting public comments on this proposed collection as provided by 5 CFR Section 1320.8(d)(1). Requests for information, including copies of the......

2013-07-23

249

Recommendations for management of greater-than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240  

SciTech Connect

This report sets forth the Department's findings and recommendations for ensuring the safe management and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with concentrations of radionuclides that exceed the limits established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for Class C LLW. Chapters are devoted to: Identification of Greater-Than Class-C Low-Level Waste; Regulatory Needs and Legislative Authorities; Proposed Actions to Ensure the Safe Management of Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste; System Considerations for Waste Disposal; Funding Options; Requirements for Implementation; and Schedule and Cost. Three Appendices are included: Public Law 99-240, Section 3(b); Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Waste Types and Quantities; and Descriptions of Systems Considerations for Waste Disposal. (LM)

Not Available

1987-02-01

250

The interplay of public health law and industry self-regulation: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools.  

PubMed

It is increasingly recognized that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption contributes to childhood obesity. Most states have adopted laws that regulate the availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in school settings. However, such policies have encountered resistance from consumer and parent groups, as well as the beverage industry. The beverage industry's recent adoption of voluntary guidelines, which call for the curtailment of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, raises the question, Is further policy intervention in this area needed, and if so, what form should it take? We examine the interplay of public and private regulation of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, by drawing on a 50-state legal and regulatory analysis and a review of industry self-regulation initiatives. PMID:17901427

Mello, Michelle M; Pomeranz, Jennifer; Moran, Patricia

2007-09-27

251

American Society of International Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Society of International Law (ASIL) aims to educate and engage the public in issues concerning international law. The society's extensive Website contains a wealth of information, including several online publications, bibliographies, the ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law, and ASILEX, a searchable database of ASIL publications from 1964 to the present. In addition, the site provides a detailed introduction and history of the society, profiles its membership, and maintains a calendar of important events and activities.

252

School Law Update, 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 separate chapters comprising this volume. The titles and authors of the chapters are as follows: (1) Due Process of Law: Loudermill v. Cleveland Board of Education (Hooker); (2) Schools, Technology and the Law (Helm); (3)…

Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

253

Researching International Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for the undergraduate student who is doing research on public international law and graduate students in fields other than law, this guide is specifically addressed to students at San Francisco State University, although the resources discussed are typical of those to be found in a medium-sized academic library. The guide is divided into…

Kennedy, Ann

254

Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

2004-01-01

255

Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

2004-01-01

256

From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.  

PubMed Central

Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is needed. This review describes from a public health perspective the possible scope and key considerations of protocols that should be included in the convention. The key international areas that should be considered in tobacco control are: prices, smuggling; tax-free tobacco products; advertising and sponsorship; the Internet; testing methods; package design and labelling; agriculture; and information sharing.

Joossens, L.

2000-01-01

257

Publications  

Cancer.gov

Publications News Updates PLCO Update Suggests Positive Predictive Value of Prostate Screening Drops over Time (Posted 01/13/2009) Report from Large NCI Study Suggests PSA Testing Could Be Done at Longer Intervals for Men Who Choose to Test(Posted

258

Publications  

Cancer.gov

Publications View All  |  2013-2010  |  2009-2000  |  1999-1990  |  1989-1980  |  1979-1970 2013 2012 2011 2010 Baker SG, Kramer BS. Surrogate endpoint analysis: an exercise in extrapolation. J Natl Cancer Inst 2013;105(5):316-320.[ PubMed

259

Policy Transparency and College Enrollment: Did the Texas Top 10% Law Broaden Access to the Public Flagships?  

PubMed Central

By guaranteeing college admission to all students who graduate in the top 10% of their high school class, H.B. 588 replaced an opaque de facto practice of admitting nearly all top 10% graduates with a transparent de jure policy that required public institutions to admit all applicants eligible for the guarantee. The transparency of the new admission regime sent a clear message to students attending high schools that previously sent few students to the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University. Using 18 years of administrative data to examine sending patterns, we find a sizeable decrease in the concentration of flagship enrollees originating from select feeder schools and growing shares of enrollees originating from high schools located in rural areas, small towns, and midsize cities, as well as schools with concentrations of poor and minority students. We also find substantial year-to-year persistence in sending behavior once a campus becomes a sending school, and this persistence increased after the top-10% policy was implemented.

Long, Mark C.; Saenz, Victor B.; Tienda, Marta

2012-01-01

260

Policy Transparency and College Enrollment: Did the Texas Top 10% Law Broaden Access to the Public Flagships?  

PubMed

By guaranteeing college admission to all students who graduate in the top 10% of their high school class, H.B. 588 replaced an opaque de facto practice of admitting nearly all top 10% graduates with a transparent de jure policy that required public institutions to admit all applicants eligible for the guarantee. The transparency of the new admission regime sent a clear message to students attending high schools that previously sent few students to the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University. Using 18 years of administrative data to examine sending patterns, we find a sizeable decrease in the concentration of flagship enrollees originating from select feeder schools and growing shares of enrollees originating from high schools located in rural areas, small towns, and midsize cities, as well as schools with concentrations of poor and minority students. We also find substantial year-to-year persistence in sending behavior once a campus becomes a sending school, and this persistence increased after the top-10% policy was implemented. PMID:23436938

Long, Mark C; Saenz, Victor B; Tienda, Marta

2010-01-01

261

Obamacare: A Budget-Busting, Job-Kill Health Care Law. A Report on the Economic and Fiscal Consequences of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148) & the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (Public Law 111-152).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the economic and fiscal consequences of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA,) signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Several rationales were offered in support of this legislation, including that...

D. Camp E. Cantor F. Upton J. Boehner J. Kline P. Ryan

2010-01-01

262

Oversight of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Hearing before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on Oversight of the Indian Child Welfare Act (Public Law 95-608).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Select Committee on Indian Affairs met on June 30, 1980, for an oversight hearing on the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 to correct flaws and straighten out problems concerning Public Law 95-608 and the way it is implemented. Various members of the administration and a group of Indian leaders from across the country attended the hearing, at…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

263

Indian Employment, Training, and Related Services Demonstration Act. Hearing on Public Law 102-477, Indian Employment, Training and Related Services Demonstration Act of 1992 before the Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs held a hearing to assess the success of Public Law 102-477, the Indian Employment, Training, and Related Services Demonstration Act of 1992. Specifically, the hearing looked at how well the Act is working in terms of enhancing program efficiency, reducing unemployment in Native communities, and improving…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

264

Judicial Requirements for School Finance and Property Tax Redesign: The Rapidly Evolving Case Law. Proceedings of National Tax Association and Fund for Public Policy Research Seminar on Financing the Seventies. (Boston, Massachusetts, April 12-14, 1972.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent court decisions striking down State school finance systems as being in violation of the equal protection clause. Part one summarizes the relevant constitutional law as well as holdings and rationales of the cases. Part two considers alternative schemes that utilize the property tax as part of the system for funding public schools.…

Schoettle, Ferdinand P.

1972-01-01

265

Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General Report to Congress on Implementation of Section 1001 of the USA Patriot Act (As Required by Section 1001(3) of Public Law 107-56), February 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (Patriot Act), Public Law 107-56, directs the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ or Department) to undertake a series of actions related to claims of civil rights or civil liber...

2011-01-01

266

Department of Justice, Office of Inspector General Report to Congress on Implementation of Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (as Required by Section 1001(3) of Public Law 107-56), August 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (Patriot Act), Public Law 107-56, directs the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ or Department) to undertake a series of actions related to claims of civil rights or civil liber...

2011-01-01

267

Department of Justice Office of Inspector General Report to Congress on Implementation of Section 1001 of the USA Patriot Act (as required by Section 1001(3) of Public Law 107-56). March 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act (Patriot Act), Public Law 107-56, directs the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) in the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ or Department) to undertake a series of actions related to claims civil rights or civil libertie...

2005-01-01

268

Older Americans Act Amendments of 1987: A Summary of Provisions. Public Law 100-175. An Information Paper Prepared for Use by the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, 100th Congress, 1st Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Older American Act Amendments of 1987 (Public Law 100-175) contain no major overhaul of the Act, but new provisions do significantly expand certain service components of the state and area agency on aging program under title III to address the special needs of certain populations, including the frail elderly living at home, residents of…

O'Shaughnessy, Carol

269

Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

Gerber, Scott D.

1994-01-01

270

Helmet Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Hampshire) do not have a motorcycle helmet law. Bicycle Helmets Learn More About Bicycle Safety Issue Brief Related Links Fewer states have enacted bicycle helmet laws. GHSA only tracks state laws. However, ...

271

What's Law?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A guide for secondary school social studies teachers provides materials suitable for a 10-week course on law or individual lessons on specific topics which may be covered in the social studies curriculum. Material is organized according to topics. Topic I, "What Is Law?" contains lessons on defining law, reasons for writing laws, and the relation…

Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

272

Rethinking the New Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article contributes to an emerging theoretical debate over the legitimate scope of public health law by linking it to a particular doctrinal debate in public nuisance law. State and local governments have been largely stymied in their efforts to use public nuisance litigation against harmful industries to vindicate collectively-held, common law rights to non-interference with public health and safety.

Lindsay F. Wiley

2012-01-01

273

Law and Ethics in Nursing and Healthcare - An Introduction Avery Graham Law and Ethics in Nursing and Healthcare - An Introduction 352pp £23.99 Sage Publications 978 1 8486 0734 7 1848607342 [Formula: see text].  

PubMed

There are many books on law and ethics in nursing and health care. Some are encyclopaedic, others rather simplistic. All healthcare professionals should have some grounding in both subjects. PMID:24107048

2013-10-01

274

Chalcopyrite dissolution rate laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analysis of 173 rate measurements from 21 publications was used to develop rate laws for chalcopyrite dissolution under environmentally relevant conditions. Multiple linear regression analysis of 28 data for nonoxidative chalcopyrite dissolution in the presence of O2 and Cl? produced the following rate law:r=10-1.52e-28200\\/RT[H+]1.68Here, r is the rate of chalcopyrite dissolution in units of molm?2s?1 where the surface area is

Bryn E. Kimball; J. Donald Rimstidt; Susan L. Brantley

2010-01-01

275

State Laws and Regulations on Genetic Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication was preceded by State Laws Pertaining to Phenylketonuria as of November 1970 published by the Maternal and Child Health Service, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1971. The present publication has...

1980-01-01

276

1991 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress during 1991 of States and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. It has been prepared in response to requirements in Section 7 (b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act). By the end of 1991, 9 compact regions (totaling 42 States) were functioning with plans to establish low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Appalachian, Central, Central Midwest, Midwest, Northeast, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southeast, and Southwestern. Also planning to construct disposal facilities, but unaffiliated with a compact region, are Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, and Vermont. The District of Columbia, New Hampshire, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island and Michigan are unaffiliated with a compact region and do not plan to construct a disposal facility. Michigan was the host State for the Midwest compact region until July 1991 when the Midwest Interstate Compact Commission revoked Michigan`s membership. Only the Central, Central Midwest, and Southwestern compact regions met the January 1, 1992, milestone in the Act to submit a complete disposal license application. None of the States or compact regions project meeting the January 1, 1993, milestone to have an operational low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Also summarized are significant events that occurred in low-level radioactive waste management in 1991 and early 1992, including the 1992 United States Supreme Court decision in New York v. United States in which New York challenged the constitutionality of the Act, particularly the ``take-title`` provision. Summary information is also provided on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1991 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities.

Not Available

1992-11-01

277

Wetland Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

State and Federal laws affecting coastal wetlands and the importance of these laws to the wetland areas are discussed. Wetlands usually include swamps, marshes, bogs, sloughs, mud flats, and natural ponds. The term 'wetland' encompasses a variety of envir...

F. Dennis

1982-01-01

278

Public management and essential public health functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide an overview of how different approaches to improving public sector management relate to so-called core or essential public health functions, such as disease surveillance, health education, monitoring and evaluation, workforce development, enforcement of public health laws and regulations, public health research, and health policy development. The authors summarize key themes in the public management literature and draw

Peyvand Khaleghian; Das Gupta Monica

2004-01-01

279

Benford's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benford's Law predicts the frequency of the lead- ing digit in numbers met in a wide range of natu- rally occurring phenomena. In data following Ben- ford's Law, numbers start with a small leading digit more often those with a large leading digit. Here we demonstrate that Benford's Law also describes a wide range of computational phenomena. In par- ticular,

Ian Gent; Toby Walsh

280

Radiation Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site lists physical laws that describe radiation. Topics covered include the Plank Radiation Law, and the Wien and Stefan-Boltzmann Laws. The site also features a table summarizing the blackbody temperatures necessary to give a peak for emitted radiation in various regions of the spectrum, and three Java applets illustrating important properties of blackbody radiation.

Astronomy, Department O.; Knoxville, University O.

281

22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW...

2013-04-01

282

State and Local Law Enforcement Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides statistical data pertaining to state and local law enforcement, including: personnel, operating expenditures, 9-1-1 participation, computers and information systems, video cameras, police-public contact, and law enforcement training academies.

Justice, U. S.

283

The Coming of Secret Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces trends in the federal government's policy toward publication of statutes and publication practices from the time of the colonies to the present administration. The impairment of the publication of federal administrative law is then discussed in the context of the rise of a national security state. (118 notes with references) (CLB)

Relyea, Harold C.

1988-01-01

284

Environmental Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a list of the seventeen major environmental laws which govern their agency and the programs they administer. Users can link to summaries or the full-text version of each law, provided, for the most part, by Cornell University. Those new to the subject may want to visit the Introduction to Laws and Regulations section, which explains how environmental laws come into being. Additional sections of the site--Regulations and Proposed Rules, Codified Regulations, and Current Legislation and Laws--link to further information such as Federal Register documents issued by EPA and the Code of Federal Regulations database.

Agency., United S.

285

Copyright Law of the United States of America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contents of this publication of the United States copyright law include: (1) prefatory note; (2) Constitutional provision respecting copyright; (3) Copyright Law of the United States of America (Title 17, United States Code); (4) schedule of laws repo...

1969-01-01

286

The Federal German Law on Technical Equipment (Equipment Safety Law).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany introduced legislation with effect from 1 December 1968 relating to the safety of technical equipment. The requirements of this Law affect UK manufacturers exporting a wide range of products, and this publication has been p...

1973-01-01

287

School Law Update, 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 papers in this volume. Written in law review style and including legal citations, the papers and authors included are: (1) "Who Runs the Schools" (Flygare); (2) "Copyright Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction" (Helm); (3)…

Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

288

Consumer Law Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is one of a series prepared and distributed by the Legal Assistance Branch of the Administrative and Civil Law Department of The Judge Advocate General's School, U.S. Army (TJAGSA) to assist legal assistance attorneys in the delivery of l...

1998-01-01

289

Environmental Law II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

290

Laws and Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes how private decisions and public policies are shaped by personal and societal preferences (values), material or other explicit incentives (laws) and social sanctions or rewards (norms). It first examines how honor, stigma and social norms arise from individuals? behaviors and inferences, and how they interact with material incentives. It then characterizes optimal incentive-setting in the presence of

Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

2011-01-01

291

42 CFR 62.76 - How will amounts of money due under the option under section 204(c)(1) of Public Law 100-177 be...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...76 Section 62.76 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS SCHOLARSHIP AND LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAMS Special Repayment Program §...

2012-10-01

292

What Works in Securities Laws?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effect of securities laws on stock market development in 49 countries. We find little evidence that public enforcement benefits stock markets, but strong evidence that laws mandating disclosure and facilitating private enforcement through liability rules benefit stock markets. Copyright 2006 by The American Finance Association.

RAFAEL LA PORTA; FLORENCIO LOPEZ-DE-SILANES; ANDREI SHLEIFER

2006-01-01

293

Ohm's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

See how the equation form of Ohm's law relates to a simple circuit. Adjust the voltage and resistance, and see the current change according to Ohm's law. The sizes of the symbols in the equation change to match the circuit diagram.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Gratny, Mindy

2004-06-01

294

LAW FACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article is not dedicated to a subject matter of research. Instead it outlines various kinds of facts commonly used to analyze the relations of law and society. To illustrate, it gives examples of eight distinct kinds of facts on how action departs from relevant laws on the books: actions in crusades; actions following deep norms when coordination norms

Arthur L. Stinchcombe

2005-01-01

295

Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings under State Law and Its Impact on Use by Nonprofit Institutions: A 10-State Analysis. CLIR Publication No. 146  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the third of three studies of copyright and sound recordings commissioned by the National Recording Preservation Board (NRPB) in support of the congressionally mandated study of the state of audio preservation in the United States. All three studies have focused on how laws pertaining to sound recordings made before 1972 affect…

Council on Library and Information Resources, 2009

2009-01-01

296

Jurist: Law Professors on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bernard Hibbitts, Professor and Associate Dean for Communications & Information Technology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, provides this site, "designed to connect Neterate legal academics to each other, to law students, to the legal profession and to the public at large as individual law professors become independent information-providers on the [web]." The site is highlighted by links to the home pages of over fifty law professors, to over fifty pre- and post-prints of articles (in nine subjects from business law to regulation), and to twenty meta-pages, maintained by law professors, on topics from administrative to tax law. Also included are a large list of online law course pages, three lectures, and pointers to other resources. What is interesting about this site is that it is essentially an annotated tour through the law resources of the Internet conducted by professors of law.

1997-01-01

297

Citizenship, Public and Private  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knop develops private international law as the private side of citizenship. She shows that although individuals think of citizenship as public, private international law covers some of the same ground. Private international law also harks back to a historical conception of the legal citizen as someone who could sue and be sued, and someone who belonged to a community of

Karen Knop

2008-01-01

298

The gap between law and ethics in human embryonic stem cell research: Overcoming the effect of U.S. Federal policy on research advances and public benefit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key ethical issues arise in association with the conduct of stem cell research by research institutions in the United States.\\u000a These ethical issues, summarized in detail, receive no adequate translation into federal laws or regulations, also described\\u000a in this article. U.S. Federal policy takes a passive approach to these ethical issues, translating them simply into limitations\\u000a on taxpayer funding, and

Patrick L. Taylor

2005-01-01

299

75 FR 51841 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...public land laws, including the mining laws, except the sale provisions of FLPMA...appropriation under the public land laws, including the mining laws, except the sale provisions of the FLPMA. Upon segregation, the BLM will no longer accept...

2010-08-23

300

Florida Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine collection from the University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries documents the laws and legal heritage of Florida. It has digitized texts from the holdings of the University of Florida's Lawton Chiles Legal Information Center and the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History as well as other sources. This omnibus collection features the Journal of the Florida House of Representatives, a variety of general texts on Florida laws, and the Florida Water Law collection. This last collection is particularly fascinating as it brings together over 7,000 documents related to long-term water management plans across the Sunshine State. Moving on, the Florida Historical Legal Documents section of the site contains primary source materials that survey changes in Florida law from 1822 through 1845, when the area became a state. Finally, the House Journal section brings together the official record of actions taken by the House and its committees.

2011-01-01

301

Newton's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of four educational wall-sheets includes Newton's Three Laws and the Law of Gravitation. They include activities that are designed to be displayed as a set on classroom walls. The pre-activity reading featuring the Swift satellite and most activities can be used in middle-school classrooms. Optional extension activities are suitable for advanced middle-school students and students in ninth grade.

Cominsky, Lynn

2010-01-01

302

Energy law '90  

SciTech Connect

This publication covers: competition and the impact on energy companies of the EC Single Energy Market, and the increasing impact of environmental issues on the operations of energy and mineral companies, are discussed by leading international lawyers and others engaged in the field. The texts, thoroughly edited and revised by the Section on Energy and Natural Resources Law largely reflect some of the most up to date and authoritative thinking on the subject across a very wide international spectrum.

Not Available

1990-01-01

303

An analysis of the legal contexts of Public Education Law: Its judicial interpretations and applications with regard to discipline and special education and non-special education students in K-12 public schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated legal implications of differential disciplinary treatment of special education and non-special education students in K-12 public schools. It focused on interpreting and applying federal and state education legislation by courts and how various judicial decisions affect discipline practices in public school systems, asking if preferential treatment was afforded to students with disabilities through implementation and interpretation of

Janet Marie Roland

2006-01-01

304

Law in Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is intended to give students an overview of laws in Wyoming. Subjects covered include civil and criminal law; courts in Wyoming; juvenile law, juvenile court procedure; rights of children; family law; employment law; automobile-related law; laws affecting the schools; and citizenship rights and responsibilities. The laws and courts…

Wyoming Law-Related Education Advisory Council, Cheyenne.

305

43 CFR 2650.3-1 - Lawful entries and lawful settlements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...protected: Provided, That: (1) Occupancy has been or is being maintained in accordance with the appropriate public land law, and (2) Settlement or entry was not in violation of Public Land Order 4582, as amended. Any person who...

2010-10-01

306

Charles's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the history and theory of Charles's Law, which states, "the volume of a given quantity of gas varies directly with its temperature." A series of interactive flash animations show the application of this theory and demonstrate how different heating elements, such as candles and even the Sun, affect the molecules in common things such as balloons and thermometers. Mathematical equations are provided to demonstrate the calculations. Once the presentation is complete, a short quiz is provided to test the full understanding of the Charles's Law.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-17

307

Boyle's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the history and theory of Boyle's Law. The presentation offers two different variations of the concept. The first involves "a change in pressure exerted on a given quantity of gas causing an inverse effect on its volume." The second simply flips this first variation and shows how the change in quantity affects the pressure. The presentation is filled with helpful, and interactive, flash animations. This is not only aesthetically pleasing, but also helps the student engage with the topic. Once both variations are complete, a short quiz is provided to test the full understanding of Boyle's Law.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-16

308

25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General...Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its...

2013-04-01

309

25 CFR 26.22 - May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General...Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its...

2011-04-01

310

State Plans under the Library Services Act: A Summary of Programs for Fiscal 1958 Submitted under Public Law 597, 84th Congress. Supplement 1. Bulletin, 1959, No. 17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bulletin outlines the programs submitted by 50 States and Territories for the second year of the Library Services Act. These programs reflect the planning and development which has been taking place across the Nation in the extension and improvement of public library service in rural areas. In the first year, fiscal 1957 (July 1, 1956,…

Office of Education, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1959

1959-01-01

311

National Energy Policy Plan; A Report to Congress Required by Title VIII of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91)  

SciTech Connect

This plan report is divided into the following chapters: the course ahead, currently predominant fuels (oil, gas), America's energy triad, sources of diversity and long-term supply, sources of uncertainty, summary of current projections, and public comments on the nation's policy toward energy. (DLC)

Not Available

1985-01-01

312

"The law was actually drafted by us but the Government is to be congratulated on its wise actions": British American Tobacco and public policy in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background and objective British American Tobacco (BAT) has historically enjoyed a monopoly position in Kenya. Analysis of recent tobacco control debates and a case study of BAT's response to the emergence of competition in Kenya are used to explore the company's ability to shape public policy and its treatment of tobacco farmers. Design Analysis of internal industry documents from BAT's Guildford depository, other relevant data and interviews with key informants. Results BAT enjoys extensive high?level political connections in Kenya, including close relationships with successive Kenyan presidents. Such links seems to have been used to influence public policy. Health legislation has been diluted and delayed, and when a competitor emerged in the market, BAT used its contacts to have the government pass legislation drafted by BAT that compelled farmers to sell tobacco to BAT rather than to its competitor. BAT was already paying farmers less than any other African leaf?growing company, and the legislation entrenched poor pay and a quasi?feudal relationship. BAT's public relation's response to the threat of competition and the ministers' public statements extolling the economic importance of tobacco growing suggest that BAT has manipulated tobacco farming as a political issue. Conclusions The extent of BAT's influence over public policy is consistent with the observations that, despite ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, progress in implementing tobacco control measures in Kenya has been limited. The benefits of tobacco farming seem to be deliberately exaggerated, and an analysis of its true cost benefits is urgently needed. Tobacco farmers must be protected against BAT's predatory practices and fully informed about its activities to help them have an informed role in policy debates. As image, particularly around the importance of tobacco farming, seems key to BAT's ability to influence policy, the truth about its treatment of farmers must be publicised.

Patel, Preeti; Collin, Jeff; Gilmore, Anna B

2007-01-01

313

Administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, April 1, 1985 (1984 annual report). Report for 1 January-31 December 1984  

SciTech Connect

The Secretary of Health and Human Services is required by Subpart 3, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC 263b et seq. (Public Law 90-602) to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or before April 1 on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act. The detailed information required to be included in the report is outlined in Section 360D of the Public Health Service Act. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Act. The report covers the detailed operation of the Agency in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1984. Manufacturers of electronic products are required by 21 CFR 1002.20 to report accidental radiation occurrences to the CDRH, FDA. During the calendar year 1984, the Radiation Incidents Registry received 11 reports alleging injury involving 235 persons.

Not Available

1985-04-01

314

School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

Splitt, David A.

1982-01-01

315

Faraday's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Light a light bulb by waving a magnet. This simulation of a Faraday's Law is from the Physics Education Technology website of University of Colorado. It is accessible for teachers and students alike. Included are links to related topics and additional ideas and activities for teachers to use.

2008-11-05

316

Copyright Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the University of the Pacific purchased a new integrated library system there was a desire to make access to all types of materials more visible in the system. This required reviewing copyright law and determining the differences in the print and electronic environment. Licensing restrictions in the contracts for electronic databases and journals also influenced how the University of

Janice M. Krueger; Karen Matthews

2004-01-01

317

Does public\\/private status affect the level of earnings management in code-law contexts outside the United States? A study based on the Spanish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the difference in earnings quality between public and private firms in Spain. We go beyond the income-increasing incentives on which the United States debate has been exclusively based and build on previous Belgian results by considering institutional differences and differences in the type of blockholder and by proposing a new income-smoothing methodology.No significant differences are found for

Laura Arnedo; Fermín Lizarraga; Santiago Sánchez

2007-01-01

318

Biodiversity Law of Costa Rica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This newly online document details the legal technicalities of Costa Rica's Biodiversity Law, made public in July 1999. The document (.pdf format) contains the following sections, among others: Natural System of Conservation Areas; Guarantees of Environmental Safety; Conservation and Sustainable Use of Ecosystems and Species; Access to Genetic Components and Biochemicals and Protection of Associated Knowledge; Education and Public Awareness; Environmental Impact Assessments; Incentives; and Procedures, Processes, and Agreements. For those interested in conservation law or the intricacies of biological diversity protection in developing countries, this document will be of great interest.

319

Ampereâs Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins with a demonstration introducing students to the force between two current carrying loops, comparing the attraction and repulsion between the loops to that between two magnets. After formal lecture on Ampereâs law, students begin to use the concepts to calculate the magnetic field around a loop. This is applied to determine the magnetic field of a toroid, imagining a toroid as a looped solenoid.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

320

Biotech Law Web Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biotech Law home page offers legal and scientific information of interest to researchers in biotechnology/pharmaceutical science. At this time, the site provides basic articles on methods of record keeping for inventors, an explanation of the U.S. legal standard for inventorship and an overview of patent application preparation. The Biotech law home page also includes more advanced articles on intellectual property licensing, parallel importing of patented products, and the effects of electronic publication on U.S. Patent rights. In addition to a "heads up" guide to recently-issued U.S. biotech patents, the home page provides links to additional sources of information on intellectual property protection, as well as links to selected scientific resources on Internet.

Foley & Lardner.

1996-01-01

321

Summary of Federal Laws and Regulations Affecting Agricultural Employers, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hired labor's importance to U.S. farm production requires agricultural employers to understand Federal laws and regulations governing employment, taxes, wages, and working conditions. This single-source publication summarizes these laws and regulations. T...

J. L. Runyan

2000-01-01

322

43 CFR 4.438 - Action by administrative law judge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Action by administrative law judge. 4.438 Section 4.438 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of...Hearings on Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.438 Action by administrative law judge. (a)...

2011-10-01

323

Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides statistical data pertaining to state and local law enforcement, including: personnel, operating expenditures, 9-1-1 participation, computers and information systems, video cameras, police-public contact, and law enforcement training academies.

Justice, U. S.

324

Bragg's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It may be beneficial to have students perform the Wave Interference activity prior to engaging them in this activity. The following handouts are identical, with the exception that one is in Word format, while the other is in PDF format. The students should perform the exercise in a computer laboratory. Before proceeding through the questions, they should be given an opportunity to review the material on this web page. Bragg\\'s Law Activity Sheet (Acrobat (PDF) 73kB Mar2 10) Bragg\\'s Law Activity Sheet for Word (Microsoft Word 37kB Feb25 10) The following Powerpoint presentation can be used as an introduction to Bragg's Law. Bragg\\'s Law Powerpoint Presentation (PowerPoint 974kB Feb25 10) Wave Interference Activity Prior to investigating Bragg's law through this activity, it may be helpful to explore interference of sinusoidal waveforms by following the link below. Wave Interference Activity Bragg's Law Applet Java Applet created by Konstantin Lukin with supervision by Glenn A. Richard, Project Java Webmaster Original Bragg's Law Applet page on Mineral Physics Institute web server at Stony Brook University: Project Java - Bragg's Law and Diffraction: How waves reveal the atomic structure of crystals Bragg's Law refers to the simple equation: nà = 2d sinà derived by the English physicists Sir W.H. Bragg and his son Sir W.L. Bragg in 1913 to explain why the cleavage faces of crystals appear to reflect X-ray beams at certain angles of incidence (Ã, Ã). The variable d is the distance between atomic layers in a crystal, and the variable lambda is the wavelength of the incident X-ray beam (see applet); n is an integer. This observation is an example of X-ray wave interference (Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen), commonly known as X-ray diffraction (XRD), and was direct evidence for the periodic atomic structure of crystals postulated for several centuries. The Braggs were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1915 for their work in determining crystal structures beginning with NaCl, ZnS and diamond. Although Bragg's law was used to explain the interference pattern of X-rays scattered by crystals, diffraction has been developed to study the structure of all states of matter with any beam, e.g., ions, electrons, neutrons, and protons, with a wavelength similar to the distance between the atomic or molecular structures of interest. How to Use this Applet The applet shows two rays incident on two atomic layers of a crystal, e.g., atoms, ions, and molecules, separated by the distance d. The layers look like rows because the layers are projected onto two dimensions and your view is parallel to the layers. The applet begins with the scattered rays in phase and interferring constructively. Bragg's Law is satisfied and diffraction is occurring. The meter indicates how well the phases of the two rays match. The small light on the meter is green when Bragg's equation is satisfied and red when it is not satisfied. The meter can be observed while the three variables in Bragg's are changed by clicking on the scroll-bar arrows and by typing the values in the boxes. The d and à variables can be changed by dragging on the arrows provided on the crystal layers and scattered beam, respectively. Bragg's Law Applet with details meter activated, but no constructive interference. Note that the peaks and troughs on the scattered beams are not aligned. Bragg's Law Applet with constructive interference and n = 2. Note that the peaks and troughs on the scattered beams are aligned. Deriving Bragg's Law by Paul Schields Bragg's Law can easily be derived by considering the conditions necessary to make the phases of the beams coincide when the incident angle equals and reflecting angle. The rays of the incident beam are always in phase and parallel up to the point at which the top beam strikes the top layer at atom z (Fig. 1). The second beam continues to the next layer where it is scattered by atom B. The second beam must travel the extra distance AB + BC if the two beams are to continue traveling adjacent and parallel. This extra distance must be an integral (n) multiple of the wavelength (Ã) for the phases of the two beams to be the same: nà = AB +BC (2). Fig. 1 Deriving Bragg's Law using the reflection geometry and applying trigonometry. The lower beam must travel the extra distance (AB + BC) to continue traveling parallel and adjacent to the top beam. Recognizing d as the hypotenuse of the right triangle Abz, we can use trigonometry to relate d and à to the distance (AB + BC). The distance AB is opposite à so, AB = d sinÃ(3). Because AB = BC eq. (2) becomes, nà = 2AB (4) Substituting eq. (3) in eq. (4) we have, nà = 2 d sinÃ, (1) and Bragg's Law has been derived. The location of the surface does not change the derivation of Bragg's Law. Experimental Diffraction Patterns The following figures show experimental x-ray diffraction patterns of cubic SiC using synchrotron radiation. Detail from previous image Players in the Discovery of X-ray Diffraction Friedrich and Knipping first observed Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen in 1912 after a hint from their research advisor, Max von Laue, at the University of Munich. Bragg's Law greatly simplified von Laue's description of X-ray interference. The Braggs used crystals in the reflection geometry to analyze the intensity and wavelengths of X-rays (spectra) generated by different materials. Their apparatus for characterizing X-ray spectra was the Bragg spectrometer. Laue knew that X-rays had wavelengths on the order of 1 Ã. After learning that Paul Ewald's optical theories had approximated the distance between atoms in a crystal by the same length, Laue postulated that X-rays would diffract, by analogy to the diffraction of light from small periodic scratches drawn on a solid surface (an optical diffraction grating). In 1918 Ewald constructed a theory, in a form similar to his optical theory, quantitatively explaining the fundamental physical interactions associated with XRD. Elements of Ewald's eloquent theory continue to be useful for many applications in physics. Kennedy Walker split cylinder apparatus in the Mineral Physics Institute High Pressure Laboratory at Stony Brook University Do We Have Diamonds? If we perform a high pressure experiment in a press, such as the Kennedy-Walker split cylinder apparatus, to convert graphite into diamonds, we can use X-ray diffraction techniques to determine whether we achieved the intended result. The carbon atoms in graphite are arranged into planes that are separated by d-spacings of 3.35Ã. If we use X-rays with a wavelength (Ã) of 1.54Ã, and we have diamonds in the material we are testing, we will find peaks on our X-ray pattern at à values that correspond to each of the d-spacings that characterize diamond. These d-spacings are 1.075Ã, 1.261Ã, and 2.06Ã. To discover where to expect peaks if diamond, graphite, or both are present, you can set à to 1.54à in the applet, and set distance to one of the d-spacings. Then start with à at 6 degrees, and vary it until you find a Bragg's condition. Do the same with each of the remaining d-spacings. Remember that in the applet, you are varying Ã, while on the X-ray pattern printout, the angles are given as 2Ã. Consequently, when the applet indicates a Bragg's condition at a particular angle, you must multiply that angle by 2 to locate the angle on the X-ray pattern printout where you would expect a peak. First stage anvils in the Kennedy Walker split cylinder apparatus

Richard, Glenn

325

31 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Federal Law Enforcement Training Center  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...This appendix applies to the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center...The public reading room for the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center...at the following location: Library, Building 262, Federal Law Enforcement Training...

2013-07-01

326

43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or is certified as a Federal law enforcement officer; ...with section 658 of Public Law 104-208 (the 1996 amendment of the Gun Control Act of 1968); (6) Is...performance as an active duty law enforcement officer;...

2009-10-01

327

43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or is certified as a Federal law enforcement officer; ...with section 658 of Public Law 104-208 (the 1996 amendment of the Gun Control Act of 1968); (6) Is...performance as an active duty law enforcement officer;...

2010-10-01

328

49 CFR 801.57 - Records compiled for law enforcement purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compiled for law enforcement purposes. 801.57 Section... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption...compiled for law enforcement purposes. Pursuant to 5...an unwarranted invasion of privacy, would disclose...or would endanger the life or security of law...

2012-10-01

329

49 CFR 801.57 - Records compiled for law enforcement purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compiled for law enforcement purposes. 801.57 Section... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption...compiled for law enforcement purposes. Pursuant to 5...an unwarranted invasion of privacy, would disclose...or would endanger the life or security of law...

2011-10-01

330

State Medical Marijuana Laws: Understanding the Laws and their Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Since the 1970s, numerous states have had medical marijuana laws. However, public policy makers, activists and the media have given significant attention to the debate regarding allowances for medical marijuana use since the 1996 California and Arizona ballot initiatives. Much of this on-going debate stems from confusion about the various ways states approach the issue. In this paper, we

Rosalie Liccardo Pacula; Jamie F. Chriqui; Deborah A. Reichmann; Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath

331

Public Law 98-616: an act to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to authorize appropriations for the efiscal years 1985 through 1988, and for other purposes. Submitted to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Ninety-Eighth Congress, November 8, 1984  

SciTech Connect

Congress passed the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984, Public Law 98-616, to authorize funding appropriations and to change funding levels in several categories. Amendments to each of the seven titles include specific provisions for dioxins and used oil and for the monitoring, treating, and release of hazardous materials. The bill amends provisions for citizen suits, the determination of public health hazards, underground storage, landfills, and uranium mill tailings.

Not Available

1984-01-01

332

Bullard's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first scientist to measure heat flow through the floor of the oceans systematically, Teddy Bullard had received his Ph D in the thirties as a nuclear physicist under Rutherford at Cambridge University. Immediately before WWII and then entirely thereafter, Teddy Bullard devoted himself to better understanding the Earth, ending his career as the Head of the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics at Cambridge. However, he sometimes regretted that he had had to abandon nuclear physics to find a job. He especially bemoaned the fact that unlike, most of his contemporaries from the Cavendish, he had had no important physical law named after him. To rectify this oversight Maurice Hill, the leader of the marine group at the Department, formulated what came to be known Bullard's Law - "Never take a second heat flow measurement within 20 km of the original for fear that it differ from the first by two orders of magnitude". In this presentation, I review the background information that led to Bullard's Law, to the realization that the early workers (1949 - 1965: Maxwell, Von Herzen, Bullard, Day, Langseth, Gerard, Uyeda, Yasui, Vacquier, Reitzel, Nason and Lee amongst others) had measured the heat flow correctly and that they had observed a large but real variability in heat flow near the crest of the mid-ocean ridges. I discuss the early attempts to explain the variability, and, the various sedimentary observations (Skornyakova, Arrhenius, Bonatti and Bostrom), magnetic measurements (Irving) and physical inferences (Elder and Lister) that led to the realization that fluid flowing through the oceanic crust might have created the variability. I finish by discussing an expedition to the Galapagos Spreading Center where NSF funded Dick Von Herzen and I to prove Lister wrong. Instead our graduate student Dave Williams, to my surprise but not Dick's, observed the first deep sea hydrothermal plume. The rest is history.

Sclater, J. G.

2002-12-01

333

Conservation Laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

334

International law and communicable diseases.  

PubMed Central

Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases.

Aginam, Obijiofor

2002-01-01

335

The Mix of Law and Religion debated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prominent Australian Jesuit and Notre Dame Professor of Social Justice and Human Rights, Father Frank Brennan, gave a public lecture this week on the Fremantle Campus.\\u000aThe lecture entitled: The Mix of Law and Religion – Lessons from the Stem Cell Debate was presented by the School of Law and chaired by Senior Law lecturer, Ben Clarke.\\u000aFollowing on from

Moira Saunders

2007-01-01

336

Commentary on technology transfer to law enforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Florida Department of Law Enforcement is currently participating in multiple national projects to assess the needs of law enforcement, as related to electronic surveillance. The purpose of these projects is to articulate those needs and concerns, from a state and local perspective, to the respective industries and provide support for federal legislation requiring industry to include law enforcement needs when designing and implementing or transferring new technology to public or commercial use.

Tudor, Ron P.

1994-03-01

337

Reaction: Student Press Law Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a reaction from the Student Press Law Center to the Hazelwood School District versus Kuhlmeier decision. Urges student journalists and advisors to continue to do their best to produce quality, intelligent publications and to educate school administration and community about the importance of a free student press. (MG)

Goodman, Mark

1988-01-01

338

Indonesia's new deposit guarantee law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blanket guarantee introduced in 1998 in response to the emerging banking and economic crisis resulted in $50?billion of losses to the general public. The government has now introduced a law that allows the phasing out of this blanket guarantee, but also allows its reinstatement in the event of a threatened collapse of the banking system. Rather than eliminating the

Ross H. Mcleod

2006-01-01

339

Power Law Distribution in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the statistical distribution of student's performance, which is measured through their marks, in university entrance examination (Vestibular) of UNESP (Universidade Estadual Paulista) with respect to (i) period of study-day versus night period (ii) teaching conditions - private versus public school (iii) economical conditions - high versus low family income. We observed long ubiquitous power law tails in physical

Hari M. Gupta; José R. Campanha; Fábio R. Chavarette

2003-01-01

340

The Law of the Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report on the Conference on the Legal Aspects of Coastal Zone Management is presented. Six papers of broad appeal were selected for this publication. They are as follows: (1) the operation of the Federal Coastal Zone Management Act as amended; (2) overview of changes occurring in the law of the Sea - implications for Federal-State relations; (3) preemption and

BETTY-JANE KIRWAN; ROBERT E. LUTZ

1977-01-01

341

Making School Bully Laws Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the last decade, bully prevention activities moved from the local districts to the state houses where legislators amended public school laws to incorporate safety regulations. For instance, the 2001 authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, referred to as No Child Left Behind, included the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and…

Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Edmondson, Lynne

2011-01-01

342

Nurse Training Act of 1975. First Report to the Congress, February 1, 1977. Report of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare on the Supply and Distribution of and Requirements for Nurses as Required by Section 951, Nurse Training Act of 1975, Title IX, Public Law 94-63. Health Manpower References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In compliance with section 951 of Public Law 94-63, this first annual report presents and analyzes information on the supply and distribution of nursing personnel. The report is organized into three parts. Part I presents data on the projections of supply, distribution, and requirements of nursing personnel. Also included in this section is a…

Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Nursing.

343

Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

Strauss, Peter L.

1996-01-01

344

The Yearbook of Education Law, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Law Association's yearbook of education law provides lawyers, administrators, and professors with a comprehensive review and analysis of the previous year's state and federal court decisions and legislation affecting the operation, management, and governance of public elementary and secondary schools, higher education, and…

Russo, Charles J., Ed.

345

The Yearbook of Education Law, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Education Law Association's yearbook of education law provides lawyers, administrators, and professors with a comprehensive review and analysis of the previous year's state and federal court decisions and legislation affecting the operation, management, and governance of public elementary and secondary schools, higher education, and…

Russo, Charles J., Ed.

346

Laws Must Be Nonpartisan, Not Bipartisan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that current campaign finance laws and regulations unfairly advantage incumbents and discourage challengers. This has resulted in the predominance of interest groups, media campaigns, and an emphasis on fund raising over political leadership. Argues for campaign finance laws written to serve the public interest. (MJP)

Mulford, Ross Clayton

1996-01-01

347

Outsourcing the Constitution and Administrative Law Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, the constitutional constraints and administrative law requirements imposed on government agencies generally have no applicability to private entities performing outsourced public administrative activities. In this article, the authors broadly explore the issues associated with outsourcing constitutional and administrative law norms along with government work by imposing them on private contractors. The authors seek to help frame

David H. Rosenbloom; Suzanne J. Piotrowski

2005-01-01

348

Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

2010-01-01

349

In Digital Age, Sunshine Laws Turn Hazy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School board members are struggling to interpret laws that govern where and how they do business now that as many conversations take place digitally as they do face to face. As online and digital interactions increase, so too does public concern that officials have more opportunities to violate state open-meetings and open-records laws meant to…

Fleming, Nora

2013-01-01

350

School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Courts generally rule against drug testing of public employees. A urine sample represents "unreasonable search" under the Fourth Amendment. Testing unreliability was illustrated in "Jones v. McKenzie." Factual, "reasonable suspicion" must exist for judicial approval. Tests do not resolve employee drug abuse; intervention should be the first line…

Splitt, David A.

1987-01-01

351

School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Courts generally rule against drug testing of public employees. A urine sample represents "unreasonable search" under the Fourth Amendment. Testing unreliability was illustrated in "Jones v. McKenzie." Factual, "reasonable suspicion" must exist for judicial approval. Tests do not resolve employee drug abuse; intervention should be the first line…

Splitt, David A.

1987-01-01

352

Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1989: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240  

SciTech Connect

This response is submitted in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act), Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes expenditures made during the calendar year 1989 of surcharge rebates from the July 1, 1986, milestones. Title I of the Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer a Surcharge Escrow Account. This account consists of a portion of the surcharge fees paid by generators of low-level radioactive waste in nonsited compacts (regional compacts currently without operating disposal sites) and nonmember States (States without disposal sites that are not members of compacts) to the three States with operating disposal facilities (Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington) (sited States) for using their disposal facilities. In administering the Surcharge Escrow Account, the Act requires DOE to: invest the funds in interest-bearing United States Government securities; determine eligibility of rebates of the funds by evaluating State and compact progress toward developing new disposal sites against milestones set forth in the Act; disburse the collected rebates and interest; assess compliance of rebate expenditures with the limitations prescribed in the Act; and submit a report annually to Congress summarizing rebate expenditures by States and regions. 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

353

Public Pension Plans: The State Regulatory Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a 50-state survey of the laws defining the reporting, disclosure and investment standards that govern public employee retirement systems. In addition to reviewing these laws, the report describes the legislative and executive oversight of public retirement systems mandated by state law. The data for the report…

Reilly, Sarah C.

354

New Zealand: Public Registers Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2007, the Commonwealth Law Bulletin (Vol. 33, No. 3), published an article on the New Zealand Law Commission’s Issues Paper on Public Registers (IP 3, 2007), including the four options for reform that the Commission was putting forward for consideration by interested persons.The Law Commission’s Public Registers Report (the Report) has now been published, completing stage 2 of

2008-01-01

355

TORT LAW: GENERAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter gives a general overview of the economic literature on tort law. It discusses the legal definitions of tort law, the development of tort law, the fundamental economic rationale of tort law and the scope of tort liability. A brief overview of the main topics of the economic analysis of tort law is given.

Hans-Bernd Schäfer

356

Rethinking the New Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to an emerging theoretical debate over the legitimate scope of public health law by linking it to a particular doctrinal debate that has arisen in the context of public nuisance litigation brought by state and local governments against industries that allegedly interfere with the public’s health. In response to evolving scientific understanding about the determinants of health,

Lindsay F. Wiley

2011-01-01

357

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion: the law of ellipses, the equal areas law and the harmonic law. Each law is discussed in detail and includes an interactive animation that is helpful in understanding the law.

2010-04-29

358

A Quantitative Analysis of Arkansas Principals' Knowledge of School Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the study was to quantify the legal knowledge of Arkansas public school principals in seven areas: Arkansas law, constitutional issues, discipline, employee relations, federal law, special education/504, and tort liability and determine if significant relationships existed between legal knowledge recency of school law training,…

Smith, Christy Lack

2010-01-01

359

A Quantitative Analysis of Arkansas Principals' Knowledge of School Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to quantify the legal knowledge of Arkansas public school principals in seven areas: Arkansas law, constitutional issues, discipline, employee relations, federal law, special education/504, and tort liability and determine if significant relationships existed between legal knowledge recency of school law training,…

Smith, Christy Lack

2010-01-01

360

45 CFR 152.40 - Relation to State laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Relation to State laws. 152.40 Section 152.40 Public Welfare...INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Relationship to Existing Laws and Programs § 152.40 Relation to State laws. The standards established under this...

2011-10-01

361

43 CFR 4.474 - Authority of administrative law judge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 4.474 Section 4.474 Public Lands...Districts) § 4.474 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) The administrative law judge is vested with the duty and...

2011-10-01

362

42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Relationship to State laws. 2.20 Section 2.20 Public Health...Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing these regulations...290dd-3) do not preempt the field of law which they cover to the exclusion of...

2011-10-01

363

Improving Laws and Legal Authorities for Obesity Prevention and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second paper in a two part series on the laws and legal authorities for obesity prevention and control. In this paper, the authors present the applicable laws and legal authorities that public health professionals and lawyers can consider implementing to close the legal gaps identified in the first paper (“Assessing Laws and Legal Authorities for Obesity Prevention

Lawrence O. Gostin; Jennifer L. Pomeranz

2009-01-01

364

Law and American Education: A Case Brief Approach. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This third edition expands coverage on such topics as the law and students with disabilities, confidentiality, sexual harassment, student searches and tuition vouchers. It also includes some new topics such as bullying, copyright law, and the law and the internet. Both public and nonpublic school educators are aware that courts, over the last…

Palestini, Robert; Falk, Karen Palestini

2012-01-01

365

34 CFR 685.219 - Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...services: Emergency management, military service, public safety, law enforcement, public interest law services, early childhood education (including licensed or regulated child care, Head Start, and State funded pre-kindergarten),...

2013-07-01

366

Drug Impaired Driving Laws  

MedlinePLUS

Drug Impaired Driving Laws While all states have drunk driving laws, only some have enacted laws to address drug impairment. ... in control of the vehicle. Learn More About Impaired Driving Issue Brief 3 states – California, New York and ...

367

The Yale Law Journal: Pocket Part  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most law students have heard of The Yale Law Journal, but they may not know about The Yale Law Journal Pocket Part. The Pocket Part supplements the scholarship and work of The Yale Law Journal by providing original essays and responses to articles printed in the Journal. Users of this site can read the complete contents of The Pocket Part here, and they can also search the archive by topic, including legislation, civil rights, and tort law. Of course, users are most welcome to submit pieces for publication consideration, and they can also contact the editors with more general queries and comments. Finally, there are also a number of relevant links offered here, including one to The Yale Law Journal.

368

Law-Review Operations and Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national study of the administrative organization and decision-making structure of student-run law reviews identifies practices that should be considered by any such publication in making management decisions and provides an empirical basis for identifying strengths and weaknesses of individual publications. (MSE)

Fidler, Josh E.

1983-01-01

369

What Conversation? Free Speech and Defamation Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common rationales for free speech are offered in legal writing across many countries, even though their laws regulating speech differ markedly. This article suggests another way of thinking about speech, based on particular qualities of speech which help to explain why public speech – or at least public speech perceived as valuable for cultural, political or other purposes – is

Andrew T. Kenyon

2010-01-01

370

Public Attitudes and the Enforceability of Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study discusses the special characteristics of new communication and information technologies and how they are distinguished from traditional intellectual property. Computer programs, for example, are not only available in what appear to be infinite n...

P. T. Shattuck

1986-01-01

371

Sexual Orientation, Public Schools, and the Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Schools are experiencing an increased level of litigation about issues pertaining to sexual orientation. This monograph provides educators and attorneys with a comprehensive analysis of this litigation along with practical tips for avoiding lawsuits in this sensitive area. The monograph consists of six chapters and addresses the following topics:…

Fossey, Richard; DeMitchell, Todd A.; Eckes, Suzanne

2007-01-01

372

Berkeley Center for Law & Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established at Berkeley's Boalt Hall in 1995, the mission of the Berkeley Center for Law & Technology is "to foster beneficial and ethical advancement of technology by promoting the understanding and guiding the development of intellectual property and related fields of law and policy as they intersect with business, science and technology." First-time visitors to their homepage can make their way through some of their new publications and papers, which can include everything from work on stem cell research ethics to international copyright law. By clicking on the "Research" section, visitors can learn more about faculty research and the scholarship of those persons working closely in affiliation with the Center through research appointments.

2008-01-01

373

Law, autonomy and politics: The changing socio-political roles of law in postcolonial Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and explain the particular socio-political roles that law has been expected and perceived to play in postcolonial Hong Kong. I argue—through looking at the public sphere's responses to the 1999 Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) interpretation of the Basic Law (BL), which effectively overturned a supposedly final decision of

Wai Man Sin

2006-01-01

374

Library Laws Handbook: State Laws Relating to Michigan Libraries. [Revised Edition].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents excerpts and copies of state laws relating to Michigan libraries. The following are included: Preamble of the Constitution of Michigan of 1963; Legislative Council Act (excerpt); Incompatible Public Offices; Freedom of Information Act; Open Meetings Act; Laws, Documents, and Reports (excerpts); Administrative Procedures Act…

Michigan Library, Lansing.

375

Public Library Buildings and the American Disabilities Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) became law in January, 1992. Six publications are reviewed here. The review deals principally with building accessibility issues contained in each publication.

Richard L. Waters

1993-01-01

376

Ireland (Contraceptive laws).  

PubMed

Recent legal developments affecting planned parenthood in Ireland are reported. The Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1935, which first prohibited the import and sale of contraceptives, and the Censorship of Publications Act, 1929, which prohibits the distribution of printed material advocating "the unnatural prevention of conception" have never been repealed. In the 1960s, the Fertility Guidance Company Ltd. was established. The organization opened a fertility guidance clinic in February 1969 which was attended mostly by people from the upper and middle classes. In 1971, the Company opened another clinic closer to poorer families, and the name was changed to the Irish Family Planning Association (IFPA). The pill is available in most pharmacies under the pretense that it is a menstrual cycle regulator. Many of the other contraceptives had to be acquired by the client through the mail either from Northern Ireland or from the IPPF Regional Despatch Center in London. Women requiring IUDs were referred to Belfast where the Northern Ireland FPA cared for them. In December 1972, a new organization, Family Planning Services Ltd., was established to provide mail-order contraceptives, since the customs authorities were increasingly confiscating imported contraceptives. In 1973, the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional for the law to prohibit the import of contraceptives for personal use. The problem of legislating for the distribution, sale, and advocacy of contraceptives remains. It is believed there is now some urgency to change the law since, with the sudden legality of importing contraceptives, there is no means of regulating their distribution. In December 1973, the IFPA received a summons as did the Family Planning Services Ltd. The summonses are to be answered in a Dublin District Court on February 19, 1974. They concern the selling of contraceptives and the distribution of a family planning booklet. PMID:12178323

Nowlan, D

1974-01-01

377

Censorship in Public Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the legal obligations owed by librarians to the users of their facilities, focusing on the viewing of pornography on the Internet in the public library. The meanings commonly ascribed to the word censorship are presented. Australian federal law that governs the classification of films, videos, computer games, and publications

Biggins, Barbara; Handsley, Elizabeth

378

Developments in British environmental law  

SciTech Connect

Decisions on whether or not to build nuclear power plants are increasingly settled in the courts because of conflicting interests in the growth of electric power demand and environmental protection that has led to a breakdown in public order. Lawyers share the same sense of bewilderment as lay people over nuclear as well as noise, smoke, and other types of environmental questions. The author reviews British criminal and civil law to see how the courts have dealt with pollution issues in the past. Public inquiry over a proposed development has triggered many of Britain's major law and environment problems, the Windscale inquiry being a notable example. A reluctance to legislate is an underlying factor in the trend toward inquiry and litigation. 139 references.

Williams, D.G.T.

1984-07-01

379

Sadi Carnot's contribution to the second law of thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify an operative principle in Sadi Carnot's only publication that is closely related to a distinct version of the second law of thermodynamics. Although Carnot did not propose the second law of thermodynamics, he assumed its equivalent in proving Carnot's theorem. We show that, in the absence of the first law, Carnot's assumption is equivalent to Clausius' version of the second law. Both Carnot's assumption and Clausius' version, in the absence of the first law, are more restrictive than Kelvin's statement of the second law.

Lemons, Don S.; Penner, Margaret K.

2008-01-01

380

75 FR 51117 - Proposed Data Collection(s) Available for Public Comment and Recommendations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...equal to the full amount of the government pension. Public Law 98-21 changed...two-thirds of the amount of the government pension. Public Law 108-203 amended...exemption to public service offset, that Federal Insurance...

2010-08-18

381

Paris court attacks abortion law.  

PubMed

A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424

Dorozynski, A

1995-07-15

382

Law As a Career.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a guide for people considering a career in law, this booklet addresses the following questions: (1) "What is the lawyer's role in society?" (2) "Should you be a lawyer?" (3) "What about jobs?" (4) "How much do lawyers make?" (5) "How do you choose a law school?" (6) "How to get into law school?" (7) "What is law school like?" (8) "How…

American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

383

Innovations in Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

Martz, Carlton

2000-01-01

384

Hyperphysics: Kepler's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hyperphysics page, from Georgia State University, provides detailed explanations for each of Kepler's Laws: the Law of Orbits, Law of Periods, and the Law of Areas. Each description offers appropriate formulas and equations as well as related images and graphics. Various links are provided throughout the article for related information.

Nave, Carl R.

2008-10-28

385

The corruption process of a law enforcement officer: a paradigm of occupational stress and deviancy.  

PubMed

The public does not want all laws enforced. In the closed society of law enforcement institutions, police discretion, the conspiracy of silence, the lack of an administration with integrity, and susceptible law enforcement officers contribute to the development of corruption from occupational deviance. Corruption in law enforcement agencies may have similar roots in business, law, medicine, and other professions. Understanding the law enforcement corruption paradigm may therefore be helpful in correcting and curbing corruption in other professions. PMID:9785287

McCafferty, F L; Souryal, S; McCafferty, M A

1998-01-01

386

How International Law Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

How International Law Works presents a theory of international law, how it operates, and why it works. Though appeals to international law have grown ever more central to international disputes and international relations, there is no well-developed, comprehensive theory of how international law shapes policy outcomes.\\u000aFilling a conspicuous gap in the literature on international law, Andrew T. Guzman builds

Andrew T Guzman

2008-01-01

387

Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the probability of measuring a particular value of some quantity varies inversely as a power of that value, the quantity is said to follow a power law, also known variously as Zipf's law or the Pareto distribution. Power laws appear widely in physics, biology, earth and planetary sciences, economics and finance, computer science, demography and the social sciences. For instance, the distributions of the sizes of cities, earthquakes, forest fires, solar flares, moon craters and people's personal fortunes all appear to follow power laws. The origin of power-law behaviour has been a topic of debate in the scientific community for more than a century. Here we review some of the empirical evidence for the existence of power-law forms and the theories proposed to explain them.

Newman, Mej

2005-09-01

388

The invention of health law.  

PubMed

By default, the courts are inventing health law. The law governing the American health system arises from an unruly mix of statutes, regulations, and judge-crafted doctrines conceived, in the main, without medical care in mind. Courts are ill-equipped to put order to this chaos, and until recently they have been disinclined to try. But political gridlock and popular ire over managed care have pushed them into the breach, and the Supreme Court has become a proactive health policy player. How might judges make sense of health law's disparate doctrinal standards? Scholars from diverse ideological starting points have converged toward a single answer: the law should look to deploy medical resources in a systematically rational manner, so as to maximize the benefits that every dollar buys. This answer bases the orderly development of health care law upon our ability to reach stable understandings, in myriad circumstances, of what welfare maximization requires. In this Article, I contend that this goal is not achievable. Scientific ignorance, cognitive limitations, and normative disagreements yield shifting, incomplete, and contradictory understandings of social welfare in the health sphere. The chaotic state of health care law today reflects this unruliness. In making systemic welfare maximization the lodestar for health law, we risk falling so far short of aspirations for reasoned decision making as to invite disillusion about the possibilities for any sort of rationality in this field. Accordingly, I urge that we define health law's aims more modestly, based on acknowledgement that its rationality is discontinuous across substantive contexts and changeable with time. This concession to human limits, I argue, opens the way to health policy that mediates wisely between our desire for public action to maximize the well being of the many and our intimate wishes to be treated noninstrumentally, as separate ends. I conclude with an effort to identify the goals of health law, so constructed, should pursue and to suggest how a strategy of accommodation among these goals might apply to a variety of legal controversies. PMID:15046033

Bloche, M Gregg

2003-03-01

389

Ethics, Psychology, and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to the Journal of Forensic Psychology's new section on “Ethics, Psychology, and Public Policy,” this essay outlines the contours that characterize the interrelationship between ethics, psychology, and public policy. Offering a broad and inclusive framework for understanding this interrelationship, it lays out and comments upon several spheres of analysis - the practical\\/professional, law, lawmaking, and public policy, justice

Christopher R. Williams

2009-01-01

390

Therapeutic jurisprudence and outpatient commitment law: Kendra's Law and case study.  

PubMed

This article considers the implications of assisted outpatient commitment laws (OPC), with specific focus on New York's "Kendra's Law" through the lens of therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ). In this article, the author offers perspectives on the relationship between involuntary civil commitment, outpatient commitment, and the concept of the "least restrictive alternative"; considers pertinent empirical research, and looks at OPC's controversial relationship to forced drugging. Here, the civil libertarian critique is briefly considered, as well as the MacArthur Research Network research. Finally, the author looks closely at Kendra's Law, providing a brief overview of the law itself, and identifying some "pressure points" and pivotal issues, and considers the TJ implications of Kendra's Law, to determine how it "fits" into the public's "take" on all of mental disability law. PMID:16700141

Perlin, Michael L

391

12 CFR 1030.1 - Authority, purpose, coverage, and effect on state laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...coverage, and effect on state laws. (a) Authority...C. 3201 et seq., Public Law 102-242, 105 Stat...credit unions. In addition, the advertising rules in § 1030.8 of this...brokers. (d) Effect on state laws. State law...

2013-01-01

392

Environmental laws in health care.  

PubMed

Federal and state regulations regarding the management and disposal of medical waste are currently quite extensive and will only become more comprehensive in the future. The public's heightened awareness and concerns over infectious diseases and discoveries of medical waste on beaches in New Jersey, Alabama, and other states, as well as medical waste being found in open trash bins and at public landfills, has brought to the public's attention the need for governmental intervention into this growing area of concern. Because regulations originating from the local, state, and federal levels have the potential to significantly affect hospitals, it is important that a specific person or department within the organization have a clearly designated responsibility to stay informed and follow up on these regulations. The designated person or department must work closely with the hospital's attorney to make sure that he or she stays current on environmental laws and keeps the institution adequately advised of its legal responsibilities. PMID:10121995

Ruff, G G

1992-11-01

393

Handbook for Public Library Boards of Trustees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook for Tennessee library boards of trustees has five major sections: (1) public library laws of Tennessee; (2) public library services in Tennessee, including those of the Tennessee State Library and Archives and the Tennessee regional library ...

1973-01-01

394

Generalization of Snell's Law  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents several derivations of Snell's Law of Refraction and one of the principle of reflection. In all of these, we place different constraints upon the problem and produce the familiar laws governing reflection and refraction. The main resu...

M. L. Hawkins

1990-01-01

395

Criminal Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Naval Justice School lawyer course in military criminal law is to prepare military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and solutions to substantive criminal law problems. Two basic legal skills will be developed in the course:...

1987-01-01

396

Criminal Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Naval Justice School lawyer course in military criminal law is to prepare military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and solutions to substantive criminal law problems. Two basic legal skills will be developed in the course:...

1988-01-01

397

Criminal Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Naval Justice School lawyer course in military criminal law is to prepare military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and solutions to substantive criminal law problems. Two basic legal skills will be developed in the course:...

1989-01-01

398

Criminal Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Naval Justice School lawyer course in military criminal law is to prepare military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and solutions to substantive criminal law problems. Two basic legal skills will be developed in the course:...

1986-01-01

399

Newton's 3rd Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video shows how Newton's Third Law of Motion can be demonstrated using a low-friction "sled" and two rubber bands. The video includes a brief description of Newton's third law and explains the reaction force on the sled.

Fix, Darren

2009-02-26

400

Kansas State Department of Education. Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook, State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110) Amended May 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kansas accountability system, the school accreditation system known as Quality Performance Accreditation, includes all public school districts and public schools in the state. The system produces adequate yearly progress (AYP) decisions for all public schools, including those with variant grade configurations, those serving special…

Kansas State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

401

Monitoring and decreasing public smoking among youth.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of tobacco possession laws on public smoking among youth. There were two intervention sites: a fast food restaurant and a shopping mall. Two control sites were also monitored for public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings suggest that when police issued tickets to minors for violating tobacco possession laws, the number of youth smoking in public declined in both towns, with a more dramatic decrease occurring at the fast food site. In contrast, public smoking among youth in the control sites was not affected. The significance of reducing number of youth smoking in public through tobacco possession laws is discussed. PMID:16894236

Jason, Leonard A; Pokorny, Steven B; Sanem, Julia R; Adams, Monica L

2006-09-01

402

Generalized law for aftershocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A generalized law for aftershock decay rates is provided through the combination of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude relation, Bath's law, and the modified Omori's law. Several large quakes with readily identified aftershocks were studied. Results indicate that aftershock decay rates depended on several parameters specific to each seismic region. It was found that the law can be used to forecast the rate of aftershock occurrence after specific information about the main shock's magnitude and the area's land is known.

Shcherbakov, Robert; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Agu

403

Advertising Law Internet Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advertising Law Internet Site houses articles about the legal aspects of marketing products, with particular emphasis on infomercials, home shopping, and direct response TV. Other articles discuss 900 Number regulations, contest laws, business opportunity laws, and additional aspects of promotion law. The site also houses copies of FTC Guides and Speeches and FTC Rules and statutes. Consumer Advisories issued by the FTC will also be made available at the site.

404

Health care law versus constitutional law.  

PubMed

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

Hall, Mark A

2012-12-21

405

Understanding Trademark Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding Trademark Law is a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the law of trademarks and unfair competition. It provides a thorough introduction to the federal laws protecting registered trademarks and trade dress, as well as the broad array of federal and state unfair competition doctrines which protect unregistered trademarks and trade dress. Coverage includes the standards and procedures for obtaining

Mary LaFrance

2009-01-01

406

Wisconsin Environmental Law Handbook  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an analysis of business' obligations in sections on: Wisconsin's Environmental Policy Act; Surface Water Regulation and Zoning; Water Pollution Discharge Permits; Air Pollution Control; Solid Waste and Recycling; Hazardous Waste Management; Hazardous Substance Control and Reporting; Groundwater Law and Regulations; Mining Laws and Regulations; Common Law Liability and Insurance; and Environmental Enforcement.

Not Available

1990-01-01

407

Newton's Laws of Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE is a point in connection with Newton's laws of motion which tha text-books on dynamics, which found the science upon those laws, seem to me to leave very inconveniently and unnecessarily mysterious. The point to which I allude is the meaning of the words ``rest or uniform motion in a straight line'' in the first law. The difficult words

1887-01-01

408

Employment and Labor Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews and compares the employment and labor laws of three countries-US, South Africa, and Ghana. The methodology employed is a qualitative review of each countries employment and labor laws that are centered on collective bargaining, employment discrimination and other workplace standards, unemployment compensation, pensions, workplace safety, and workers compensation. Even though, the three countries have laws covering various

Jeffrey S. Siekpe; Walter E. Greene

2006-01-01

409

Soft Law As Delegation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines one of the most important trends in international legal governance since the end of the Cold War: the rise of “soft law,” or legally non-binding instruments that are given legal effect through domestic law or internationally binding agreements such as treaties. Scholars studying the design of international agreements have long puzzled over why states use soft law.

Timothy Meyer

2008-01-01

410

EC Customs Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

EC Customs Law places the law relating to customs duty in the context of the EC and international trade. This fully updated second edition covers significant changes in EC customs procedure, legislation, and case-law since the first edition. It includes coverage of the recently implemented 2005 amendments to the Community Customs Code, and an exploration the impact of major expansion

Timothy Lyons QC

411

Preventive School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this chapter is to suggest outlines of a preventive law practice, raise issues, and provoke further thought and discussion concerning the application of preventive law principles and techniques to the management and operation of educational systems. The theory of preventive law and some of its premises are examined in order to…

Bednar, William C., Jr.

412

Operational Law Handbook,2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Operational Law Handbook is a 'how to' guide for judge advocates practicing operational law. It provides reference and describes tactics and techniques for the practice of operational law. It supports the doctrinal concepts and principles of FM 3-0 an...

2007-01-01

413

State Highway Safety Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... has enacted laws governing various driver behaviors, from distracted driving to motorcyle helmet use. GHSA maintains comprehensive information about these laws and publishes it online in two formats: By Type of Law ... phone 202.789.0942 , fax 202.789.0946, headquarters@ghsa.org

414

Law enforcement and transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple model to analyze law enforcement problems in transition economies. Law enforcement implies coordination problems and multiplicity of equilibria due to a law abidance and a fiscal externality. We analyze two institutional mechanisms for solving the coordination problem. A first mechanism, which we call “dualism”, follows the scenario of Chinese transition where the government keeps direct control

Gérard Roland; Thierry Verdier

2003-01-01

415

International Soft Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the concept of soft law has existed for years, scholars have not reached consensus on why states use soft law or even whether “soft law” is a coherent analytic category. In part, this confusion reflects a deep diversity in both the types of international agreements and the strategic situations that produce them. In this paper, we advance four complementary

Andrew T Guzman; Timothy L Meyer

2010-01-01

416

Zipf's law in multifragmentation  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the meaning of Zipf's law in nuclear multifragmentation. We remark that Zipf's law is a consequence of a power-law fragment size distribution with exponent {tau}{approx_equal}2. We also recall why the presence of such a distribution is not a reliable signal of a liquid-gas phase transition.

Campi, X.; Krivine, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques Bat. 100, Universite de Paris XI, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

2005-11-01

417

Law of Empires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

Martz, Carlton

2001-01-01

418

Special-Purpose Public Police.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is the last in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. In this volume, certain types of public forces not having general law-enforcement responsibilities are described, including reserve…

Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

419

Print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the print media coverage of California's smokefree bar law in the state of California.?DESIGN—Content analysis of newspaper, trade journal, and magazine items.?SUBJECTS—Items regarding the smokefree bar law published seven months before and one year following the implementation of the smokefree bar law (June 1997 to December 1998). Items consisted of news articles (n = 446), opinion editorials (n = 31), editorials (n = 104), letters to the editor (n = 240), and cartoons (n = 10).?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Number and timing of publication of items, presence of tobacco industry arguments or public health arguments regarding law, positive, negative, and neutral views of opinion items published.?RESULTS—53% of items published concerning the smokefree bar law were news articles, 47% were opinion items. 45% of items regarding the smokefree bar law were published during the first month of implementation. The tobacco industry dominated coverage in most categories (economics, choice, enforcement, ventilation, legislation, individual quotes), except for categories public health used the most frequently (government role, tactics, organisational quotes). Anti-law editorials and letters to the editor were published more than pro-law editorials and letters. Region of the state, paper size, presence of local clean indoor air legislation, and voting on tobacco related ballot initiatives did not have an impact on the presence of opinion items.?CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco industry succeeded in obtaining more coverage of the smokefree bar law, both in news items and opinion items. The tobacco industry used historical arguments of restricting freedom of choice and economic ramifications in fighting the smokefree bar law, while public health groups focused on the worker protection issue, and exposed tobacco industry tactics. Despite the skewed coverage, public health groups obtained adequate attention to their arguments to keep the law in effect.???Keywords: content analysis; politics; passive smoking; smokefree bar law; California

Magzamen, S.; Charlesworth, A.; Glantz, S.

2001-01-01

420

43 CFR 4.452-4 - Authority of administrative law judge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Public Land Hearings and Appeals Hearings on Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.452-4 Authority of administrative law judge. The administrative law judge is vested with general authority to...

2012-10-01

421

43 CFR 4.452-4 - Authority of administrative law judge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Public Land Hearings and Appeals Hearings on Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.452-4 Authority of administrative law judge. The administrative law judge is vested with general authority to...

2011-10-01

422

76 FR 72023 - Notice of Meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...range of current international legal topics...mechanisms of international lawmaking; systems...federalism and international law; and the possibility...Restatement of Foreign Relations Law. Members of the public who wish to...

2011-11-21

423

Under Sunshine Law, Don't Let It Rain on E-Mail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Missouri Sunshine Law; discusses a Missouri appellate court decision indicating that the sunshine law may prohibit the electronic exchange (voice or email) of information concerning public matters among a quorum of school board members. (PKP)|

Norton-Powers, Jennifer

2002-01-01

424

Line of Fire: A Study of Selected Felonius Assaults on Law Enforcement Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General information concerning assaults, both fatal and nonfatal, on duly sworn law enforcement officers is collected by the FBI and relased annually in the publication Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted. The data included on nonfatal assaults ...

A. J. Pinizzotto E. F. Davis C. E. Miller

1997-01-01

425

5 CFR 792.200 - What are the benefits of the child care subsidy program law?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the benefits of the child care subsidy program law? Sec. 630 of Public Law 107-67...homes for both full-time and part-time programs such as before and after school programs and daytime summer...

2010-01-01

426

5 CFR 792.200 - What are the benefits of the child care subsidy program law?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the benefits of the child care subsidy program law? Sec. 630 of Public Law 107-67...homes for both full-time and part-time programs such as before and after school programs and daytime summer...

2009-01-01

427

45 CFR 1151.5 - Inconsistent State laws and effect of employment opportunities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...State laws and effect of employment opportunities. 1151.5 Section 1151.5 Public...State laws and effect of employment opportunities. (a) Recipients are not excused...The presence of limited employment opportunities in a particular profession does...

2012-10-01

428

77 FR 13695 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ROYALISTE; Invitation for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel ROYALISTE; Invitation for Public...build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request...Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Moored dockside attraction vessel and occasional sail training...

2012-03-07

429

General Outlook on Turkish Librarianship: UNAK-Turkish Platform of Law Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to give an overview of education of librarians, professional associations, publications and the types of libraries in Turkey. In addition, the activities of the Turkish Platform of Law Librarians and law librarianship in Turkey are presented.

Sami Çukadar; Kerem Kahvecio?lu

2010-01-01

430

Search and Seizure in the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chapter 5 in a book on school law reviews the law governing search and seizure in the public school setting. Three types of searches illustrate problems encountered by school personnel: the search of a student's person, including the "strip search"; the search of a vehicle; and the search of a school newspaper room. Recent case law indicates that…

Brammer, J. William, Jr.

431

Search and Seizure in the Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 5 in a book on school law reviews the law governing search and seizure in the public school setting. Three types of searches illustrate problems encountered by school personnel: the search of a student's person, including the "strip search"; the search of a vehicle; and the search of a school newspaper room. Recent case law indicates that…

Brammer, J. William, Jr.

432

[Circumcision: history, religion and law].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to describe the circumcision procedure during history, its therapeutic and preventive goals, with focus on bioethical, economic and law issues. The origins of this practice are lost in antiquity. It was performed since 3000 BC by the Egyptians for hygienic and religious reasons. Moreover, male circumcision is a religious commandment in Judaism and Islam, and it is customary in some Oriental Orthodox and other Christian churches of Africa. Nowadays, circumcision is performed as a routine procedure by the Jews and the Muslims for religious reasons. The world prevalence of men with circumcision is 12.5-33%, especially in USA, Canada, Islamic people and Africa; in Europe the prevalence rate is low (in Great Britain it is 1.5%). Currently, male circumcision is being highly debated because of ethical, law and scientific issues and the different roles of this procedure: therapeutic, prophylactic (but there is no universal consensus) and ritualistic role. Nowadays, in Italy there is a strong debate about the consensus for this practice and its indications. The Italian law does not allow performing ritualistic circumcision, as a free of charge procedure in public hospitals, at the government's expenses, because the Italian law must protect different religious cultures, in name of the laity of the State. Thus, national bioethical committee (CNB) has established that ritualistic circumcision may only be performed on a paying basis in public hospitals. As a protective practice, circumcision has decreased in the entire world because of the improvement of hygienical conditions and, above all, the lack of unanimous consent on the real usefulness of protective circumcision, even if several studies have recently demonstrated the protecting role of male circumcision against HIV infection. PMID:21452153

Totaro, Angelo; Volpe, Andrea; Racioppi, Marco; Pinto, Francesco; Sacco, Emilio; Bassi, Pier Francesco

433

International law and law enforcement firearms.  

PubMed

Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

434

Monitoring and Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the impact of tobacco possession laws on public smoking among youth. There were two intervention sites: a fast food restaurant and a shopping mall. Two control sites were also monitored for public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings suggest that when police issued tickets to minors for violating tobacco possession laws,…

Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Sanem, Julia R.; Adams, Monica L.

2006-01-01

435

Working mothers, breastfeeding, and the law.  

PubMed

Workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding. Research shows that supportive state laws correlate with higher rates, yet by 2009, only 23 states had adopted any laws to encourage breastfeeding in the workplace. Federal law provided virtually no protection to working mothers until the 2010 enactment of the "reasonable break time" provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This provision nonetheless leaves many working mothers uncovered, requires break time only to pump for (not feed) children younger than 1 year, and exempts small employers that demonstrate hardship. Public health professionals should explore ways to improve legal support for all working mothers wishing to breastfeed. Researchers should identify the laws that are most effective and assist policymakers in translating them into policy. PMID:21164100

Murtagh, Lindsey; Moulton, Anthony D

2010-12-16

436

The IP Law Book Review, vol. 2 #1, September 2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews and Reviewers:\\u000aMAKING AND UNMAKING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: CREATIVE PRODUCTION IN LEGAL AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE edited by Mario Biagioli, Peter Jaszi, and Martha Woodmansee. Reviewed by Rebecca Tushnet, Georgetown University Law School\\u000aCOPYRIGHT LAW AND THE PUBLIC INTEREST IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY by Isabella Alexander. Reviewed by H. Tomas Gomez-Arostegui, Lewis & Clark Law School\\u000aTHE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE OF KNOWLEDGE:

William T Gallagher; Chester Chuang

2011-01-01

437

Towards corporate liability in international criminal law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please note that the electronic publication of this dissertation through Igitur is subject to a 2-year embargo period! Seeking to address the problem of corporate involvement in genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, this study explores the desirability and feasibility of subjecting multinational corporations (MNCs) to regulation through international criminal law. It traces the evolution of the ‘collective criminality’

D. E. Stoitchkova

2010-01-01

438

ECS Law & Education Center Footnotes. No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Commentary and advice in four legal areas are offered in this newsletter on educational law. First, the document outlines preventive legal review for public educators in four basic steps, including anticipation of legal challenges, evaluation of the challenges' legal merits, consideration of the policy issues raised by potential challenges, and…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. Law and Education Center.

439

Commentary: personality disorders and criminal law.  

PubMed

The history of the personality-disorder diagnosis in law and psychiatry-in particular, the antisocial personality disorder-is recounted along with the arguments of renowned forensic psychiatrists as well as public opinion. Jurisdictions around the world are divided on the impact of the diagnosis on criminal responsibility or on sentencing. PMID:19535554

Slovenko, Ralph

2009-01-01

440

The Yearbook of Education Law 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Yearbook of Education Law contains analyses of the previous year's federal and state court decisions that affect private and public elementary and secondary schools and higher education. The Yearbook provides summaries and analyses of relevant state appellate and federal trial and appellate court cases. Contents include: (1) Employees; (2)…

Russo, Charles, Ed.

2008-01-01

441

Federal immunity Law in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monitors and analyzes developments in immunity law in 1998 applicable to higher education. The review suggests that the extent of a plaintiff's constitutional rights and the scope of a public official's qualified immunity depend to a not insignificant degree on which circuit, or even which panel, decides the case. (SLD)

Johnsen, Christopher; Todd, James C.

1999-01-01

442

Federal School Law and Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Federal laws address some of the factors that have been associated with school failure, specifically poverty and disability. The primary federally funded legislation that addresses the needs of at-risk youths in public are the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 2004 and No Child Left Behind (2002). This article reviews the intended…

Palley, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

443

Withholding Increments. Focus on School Law Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Local boards of education in New Jersey are authorized by law to withhold increments of staff members in certain circumstances. The purpose of this publication is to provide an analysis and summary of decisions involving a board's exercise of this authority, and it is intended to serve as a guide and a reference tool to be used in determining…

Weger, Christine D.; Galante, Susan

444

Does Delaware law improve firm value?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present evidence consistent with the theory that Delaware corporate law improves firm value and facilitates the sale of public firms. Using Tobin's Q as an estimate of firm value, I find that Delaware firms are worth significantly more than similar firms incorporated elsewhere. The result is robust to controls for firm size, diversification, profitability, investment opportunity, industry, managerial ownership,

Robert Daines

2001-01-01

445

Law Enforcement Year-End Review, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005, the BLMs law enforcement Agents and Rangers continued to investigate and prosecute a wide range of cases, including the illegal digging on and theft of artifacts from public lands. In many of the cases involving the theft of artifacts, the posses...

2005-01-01

446

The Yearbook of Education Law 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Yearbook of Education Law contains analyses of the previous year's federal and state court decisions that affect private and public elementary and secondary schools and higher education. The Yearbook provides summaries and analyses of relevant state appellate and federal trial and appellate court cases. Contents include: (1) Employees; (2)…

Russo, Charles, Ed.

2008-01-01

447

Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect: Summary of State Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Family-Centered Practice Home Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family-Centered Practice Across the ... Connections Act Laws & Policies Library Search Mandated Reporters Publications Catalog Resources in ... Stay Connected Home » Definitions of Child Abuse ...

448

Questions and Answers: Recent Changes in Health Care Law (2000).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet provides an overview of recent changes in federal law that can affect the health benefits of millions of working Americans and their families. The questions and answers in this publication address the benefits and requirements of the followin...

2000-01-01

449

45 CFR 98.3 - Effect on State law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...98.3 Section 98.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Goals, Purposes and Definitions § 98.3 Effect on State law. (a) Nothing in the...

2011-10-01

450

45 CFR 98.3 - Effect on State law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...98.3 Section 98.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Goals, Purposes and Definitions § 98.3 Effect on State law. (a) Nothing in the...

2012-10-01

451

42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws. The statutes authorizing these...

2012-10-01

452

Press Law and Press Freedom for High School Publications: Court Cases and Related Decisions Discussing Free Expression Guarantees and Limitations for High School Students and Journalists. Contributions to the Study of Mass Media and Communications, Number 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to this reference manual, the nation's courts offer public high school journalists the same constitutional protection for expression, free speech, and free press as adults. Part 1 traces the development of the First and Fourth Amendments and explains how these provisions apply to high school publications. Part 2 examines expression that…

Ingelhart, Louis E.

453

Law enforcement intelligence: implications for self-radicalized terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tragic events over the last three years has further strengthened the emerging preventative and proactive philosophies adopted by US law enforcement post-September 11, 2001. Law enforcement and the American public now have a heightened awareness of homegrown terrorism. While these terrorist actors operate independent of traditional terrorist networks and groups, they are often influenced by such groups

Jeremy G. Carter; David L. Carter

2012-01-01

454

Law enforcement intelligence: implications for self-radicalized terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tragic events over the last three years has further strengthened the emerging preventative and proactive philosophies adopted by US law enforcement post-September 11, 2001. Law enforcement and the American public now have a heightened awareness of homegrown terrorism. While these terrorist actors operate independent of traditional terrorist networks and groups, they are often influenced by such groups

Jeremy G. Carter; David L. Carter

2011-01-01

455

Autonomy and Morality in DRM and Anti-Circumvention Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital rights management technology, or DRM, provides self-enforcing technical exclusion from pre-determined uses of informational works. Such technical exclusion may supplement or even supplant intellectual property laws. The deployment of DRM has been subsidized by laws prohibiting both disabling of technical controls and assisting others to disable technical controls. To date the public debate over deployment of DRM, has been

Dan L. Burk; Tarleton Gillespie

2006-01-01

456

45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5.68 Public Welfare... Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to...

2010-10-01

457

45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Welfare 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5.68 Public Welfare... Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to...

2009-10-01

458

Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

Soltero, Carlos R.

459

43 CFR 4.438 - Action by administrative law judge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Action by administrative law judge. 4.438 Section 4.438 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of...Hearings on Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.438 Action by administrative law judge. (a)...

2012-10-01

460

Theory and method reconsidered: a Marxist analysis of Trespass law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law governing agents' possession of and separation from land is given as an object of study by struggles over land possession in the conjuncture involving squatting, factory occupations, and public protests and gatherings infringing private property rights. Marx's mature method, incorporating a concrete ? abstract ? concrete logical trajectory, can be adapted and developed in relation to law so as

Peter Vincent-Jones

1987-01-01

461

50 CFR 600.705 - Relation to other laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 600...Fisheries § 600.705 Relation to other laws. ...and title 43âPublic Lands (in regard to...which implements the International Convention for...regulations of the International Pacific Halibut...

2011-10-01

462

50 CFR 600.705 - Relation to other laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Relation to other laws. 600...Fisheries § 600.705 Relation to other laws. ...and title 43âPublic Lands (in regard to...which implements the International Convention for...regulations of the International Pacific Halibut...

2012-10-01

463

An Exploratory Analysis of Florida Law Enforcement Domestic Violence Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high social cost of domestic violence has caught the attention of lawmakers and criminal justice agency administrators across the country. As public awareness and concern over the incidence of domestic violence has risen, domestic violence legislation has focused on, among other things, the law enforcement response to domestic violence. The purpose of this study is to examine Florida law

Kimberly M. Tatum; Keith Clement

2007-01-01

464

Do Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws Affect Criminal Behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, sex offenders have been the targets of some of the most far-reaching and novel crime legislation in the U.S. Two key innovations have been registration and notification laws which, respectively, require that convicted sex offenders provide valid contact information to law enforcement authorities, and that information on sex offenders be made public. Using detailed information on the

J. J. Prescott; Jonah E. Rockoff

2008-01-01

465

Cohabitants, Property and the Law: A Study of Injustice  

Microsoft Academic Search

With cohabitation outside marriage becoming increasingly common, the law's response to the problems that arise on separation has become a key issue for public and family policy. This article draws upon the findings of a qualitative empirical study of how property disputes are handled when cohabitants separate. It argues that the unfairness of the current law is best understood as

Gillian Douglas; Julia Pearce; Hilary Woodward

2009-01-01

466

Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

Soltero, Carlos R.

467

Duverger's Law and the Study of Electoral Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its first publication in 1951, Duverger's Political Parties has influenced an entire branch of political science devoted to the study of the political consequences of electoral laws. This essay examines the two propositions known as Duverger's law and Duverger's hypothesis, both concerned with how electoral institutions shape party systems. First explaining the propositions and their context, the essay examines

Kenneth Benoit

2006-01-01

468

Newspapers and Law-Related Education. Grades 10-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to assist teachers of students in grades 10-12 who wish to use the newspaper as a supplemental tool in law-related education, this guide provides model lessons demonstrating ways in which the daily newspaper can enhance textbook material. Although the guide is based on ongoing law-related education programs in St. Louis Public Schools,…

Diamond, Sandra; Riekes, Linda

469

Newspapers and Law-Related Education. Grades 5-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to assist teachers of students in grades 5-7 who wish to use the newspaper as a supplemental tool in law-related education, this guide provides model lessons demonstrating ways in which the daily newspaper can enhance textbook material. Although the guide is based on ongoing law-related education programs in the St. Louis Public Schools,…

Diamond, Sandra; Riekes, Linda

470

Making Future Lawyers Squirm: Law Schools Focus on Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spurred by public dissatisfaction with the legal profession and expansion of the bar exam's ethics section, law schools are trying to invigorate the field of legal ethics, giving students more exposure to moral and ethical conflicts they are likely to face as professionals. Some legal experts say law schools should do more to integrate ethical…

Mangan, Katherine S.

1998-01-01

471

The Internet and the Law: What Educators Need To Know.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book discusses the key legal issues public schools face in using the World Wide Web, e-mail, and other computer technologies. Chapter 1 covers the foundations of school Internet law, including Supreme Court decisions, the legal standard of conduct, standards for technology literacy, and federal vs. state law. Chapter 2 discusses freedom of…

Conn, Kathleen

472

Global Health Law: Health in a Global Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of public health law traditionally focuses on constitutions, statutes, regulations, and common law at the national and sub-national level. However, the determinants of health (e.g., pathogens, air, food, water, even lifestyle choices) do not originate solely within national borders. Health threats inexorably spread to neighboring countries, regions, and even continents. Peoples’ lives are profoundly affected by commerce, politics,

Lawrence O. Gostin

2008-01-01

473

Law & School Reform: Six Strategies for Promoting Educational Equity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes the growing involvement of lawyers in America's public schools in the past half century. It discusses comparatively what leading educators and lawyers believe to be the most important law-driven school reforms and examines these reform efforts from the perspectives of law, education, research, and practice. It also considers…

Heubert, Jay P., Ed.

474

Torts as Public Wrongs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article is a rejoinder to the civil recourse theorist's claim that tort law will be better served by retreating to the philosopher's prefecture of private wrongs. A subsidiary goal of this Article is to refute John Goldberg's claim that my sociologically-inspired theory of torts as public wrongs serves the interests of tort reformers rather than American consumers. In a

Michael L. Rustad

2012-01-01

475

Mandatory public reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss early experience with American state laws that are starting to mandate public disclosure of adverse outcome event rates from surveillance programs which previously were regarded as a solely confidential activity of internal quality review committees. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a literature review of sources identified from the PARADIGM database.

David Birnbaum

2008-01-01

476

Audiovisual Library of International Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations' Audiovisual Library of International Law was first proposed in 1997, and in recent years it has grown by leaps and bounds. It is a unique multimedia resource that provides "high quality international law training and research materials to an unlimited number of recipients on a global level." The Library consists of a "Historic Archives" section, along with a "Lecture Series" section, and an online research library with links to treaties, jurisprudence, publications, and research guides. In the "Historic Archives" section, visitors will find a drop-down menu with links to topics such as disarmament, human rights, and the laws of outer space. The "Lecture Series" section includes dozens of lectures organized by subject matter headings ranging from the Arctic to the United Nations. Subject experts deliver the video lectures and it's easy to see how these talks could be used to complement classroom lectures and discussions. Finally, the research library is a great tool for those seeking to explore various facets of United Nations treaties and other aspects of international jurisprudence. As a bonus, the site starts off with Orson Welles reading the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations. [KMG

477

Keeping Public Information Public.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the trend toward the transfer of federal government information from the public domain to the private sector. Topics include free access, privatization, information-policy revision, accountability, copyright issues, costs, pricing, and market needs versus public needs. (LRW)|

Kelley, Wayne P.

1998-01-01

478

Newton's Second Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to Sir Isaac Newton's Second Law of Motion. Topics include the two ways to study the dynamics of a system in which there is motion, a brief description of Newton's work in studying and measuring the motion of objects, and a summary of his three laws of motion. The lesson includes an activity in which students test Newton's Second Law by measuring the acceleration of a cart which is being pulled by increasingly larger masses.

Pratte, John

479

Electrodynamic force law controversy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment.

Graneau, Peter; Graneau, Neal

2001-05-01

480

Breakdown Of the Institutional Divide between 'Law' and 'Popular Culture' - Does this Jeopardize the Traditional Virtues Associated with Law?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the belief that the line between 'law' and 'popular culture' is disintegrating in light of the proliferation of law in film, media and mass-market publications. Although it is evident that there are detrimental factors associated with this 'vanishing line', some argue that it is not necessarily a negative phenomenon. Indeed it has been posited by some cultural

Stephanie Vamos

481

Bullying Policies and Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources | Policies & Laws Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Related Topics CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

482

Federal Law Enforcement Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplies census statistics about federal employees with law enforcement authority. Provides additional information about the functionality, budget, expenditures, and staffing of federal crime labs and police departments.

Justice, U. S.

483

Public Health Legal Preparedness in Indian Country  

PubMed Central

American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health–related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities.

Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D.

2009-01-01

484

Papers and Proceedings of the Surgeon General's Conference on Agricultural Safety and Health. Held in Des Moines, Iowa on April 30-May 3, 1991. (Public Law 101-517).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of a conference on agricultural safety and health were presented. Included in the publication were speeches given by several participants on the potential for developing a national coalition, questions to guide the national agenda, medical...

J. E. Parker J. R. Myers M. L. Myers R. F. Herrick S. A. Olenchock

1992-01-01

485

Shaping public policy.  

PubMed Central

Public policy is an area of increasing study. Of concern in this presentation is the consensus-building feature of policymaking in the United States. The role of government in following the procedures established to achieve consensus and the importance of citizen participation in this open process cannot be under-estimated. The five central features of American consensus building are separation of powers, multiple levels of government, citizen participation, policymaker accountability, and individual freedoms. These features frame the efforts of those who shape the public policies that determine the ways laws are made and enforced and public funds are spent.

Crooks, G M

1987-01-01

486

78 FR 16754 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Public Meeting of the Study Group on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts...a public meeting of the Study Group on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts...non- binding principles relevant to the choice of law in international commercial...

2013-03-18

487

77 FR 58606 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Public Meeting of the Study Group on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts...a public meeting of the Study Group on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts...non- binding principles relevant to the choice of law in international commercial...

2012-09-21

488

Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This user-friendly book - noted for its comprehensive legal process approach to the depth and complexity of modern environmental law - gives students a solid doctrinal footing in the law and helps build their analytical skills. Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society, Fourth Edition, uses the legal process approach, building on a base of common law and constitutional

Zygmunt J. B. Plater; Robert H Abrams; Robert L Graham; Lisa Heinzerling; David A Wirth; Noah D Hall

2010-01-01

489

International law and law enforcement firearms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition,

Jorma Jussila; Pertti Normia

2004-01-01

490

Science and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)|

Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

2000-01-01

491

Law-Related Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its beginnings in the 1960s, precollegiate law-related education has proliferated. This author looks at suggested causes for this movement and at some of the results supporters of law-related education hope to accomplish. He examines program commonalities and problems and speculates on the future. (Author/SJL)

Magnon, Tony

1981-01-01

492

Physics Flashlets: Kepler's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates Kepler's Second Law, that orbits sweep out equal areas during equal intervals of time, for any part of the orbit. The user can choose from three buttons between circular or increasingly elliptical orbits to observe that the law holds in all cases.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather

2008-10-05

493

The ecology of law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical paper is a plea for grafting yet another branch onto the flourishing tree of what may be called the social sciences of law: an ecology of law. In a nutshell, ecology deals with the evolution of (populations of) physical and social entities, well-known examples being animals and organizations. In the current paper, the argument is that the application

Arjen van Witteloostuijn

2003-01-01

494

Civil Law: 12 Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity. Activities…

Dresbach, Debra

495

Images and Benford's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benford's law had been proposed in the past as a way to modelize the probability distribution of the first digit in a set of natural numbers. We show in this paper that the magnitude of the gradient of an image obeys this law. We show, experimentally, that this also applies for the laplacian pyramid code. This yields to the field

Jean-michel Jolion

2001-01-01

496

The law and neuroscience.  

PubMed

Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making. PMID:18995814

Gazzaniga, Michael S

2008-11-01

497

Ohm's Law 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this extension to the Ohm's Law I activity, students observe just how much time it takes to use up the "juice" in a battery, and if it is better to use batteries in series or parallel. This extension is suitable as a teacher demonstration and may be started before students begin work on the Ohm's Law I activity.

K-12 Outreach Office,

498

Social Studies: Law Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

Curriculum Review, 1979

1979-01-01

499

Earthquakes and friction laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes have long been recognized as resulting from a stick–slip frictional instability. The development of a full constitutive law for rock friction now shows that the gamut of earthquake phenomena—seismogenesis and seismic coupling, pre- and post-seismic phenomena, and the insensitivity of earthquakes to stress transients—all appear as manifestations of the richness of this friction law.

Christopher H. Scholz

1998-01-01

500

Charles' Law of Gases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

Petty, John T.

1995-01-01