Science.gov

Sample records for public sector organizations

  1. Facilitating Expansive Learning in a Public Sector Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how learning opportunities can be organized to promote expansive learning in work practice. The discussion draws on results from a case study examining local development work and conditions that facilitate processes of expansive learning in a work team within a public sector organization in a Swedish…

  2. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  3. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  4. Defining the Impact of Public Administration Programmes for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broucker, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In times of financial and economic crises, public organizations seem to cut their budgets for training and education, especially when the impact of a programme is questioned. Therefore, PA programmes need to clarify what impact can be expected and what individual and organizational processes are influencing the impact of a PA programme on the…

  5. Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

  6. Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them. PMID:21180486

  7. Public Sector Impasse Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadakin, James C.

    The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…

  8. Behavioral Criteria of Mentoring Effectiveness: An Empirical Study of Formal Mentoring Relationships within a Major UK Public Sector Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical study of mentor and mentee behaviors deemed critical for developing healthy mentoring relationships and effective mentoring during the "start up" and "on going" stages of a formal mentoring scheme within a major UK public sector organization. Several identified behavioral categories (criteria) of mentoring…

  9. Quality management and the work environment: an empirical investigation in a public sector organization.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Alvaro D; James, Craig A; Karsh, Ben -Tzion; Sainfort, François

    2003-07-01

    The integration of quality management initiatives, particularly total quality management (TQM), and ergonomics has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Above all, the question of how TQM programs relate to ergonomic aspects of organizational design and culture is at the center of this discussion. This study examines how elements of a "typical", Deming-inspired, TQM program in the public sector interact with the work environment. Elements of the TQM program were defined and measured using the Malcom Baldridge Award criteria. The specific elements examined were "Management Support of Quality", "Information and Analysis", "Human Resources", "Processes and Quality Results", and "Customer Focus and Satisfaction". The relationship between these TQM elements and the work environment were defined through five separate hypotheses. The work environment was described by the constructs "Supervisor Support", "Task Clarity", "Task Orientation", and "Innovation". Data were obtained through survey questionnaires administered to employees of four departments in a municipal government organization. Results supported three of the hypotheses, but produced some unanticipated outcomes with regard to the other two. Namely, "Management Support of Quality" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support", "Task Orientation", "Task Clarity" and "Innovation"; "Human Resources" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support"; "Processes and Quality Results" was significantly related to "Task Orientation" and "Innovation". Contrary to predicted "Information and Analysis" was negatively related to "Innovation", and "Customer Focus" was unrelated to any of the outcome variables. The relationships between these TQM elements and work environment dimensions are discussed. Implications for TQM and ergonomic practice are analyzed, and directions for future research proposed. PMID:12880738

  10. Varieties of Organizational Learning: Investigating Learning in Local Level Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokharel, Mohan P.; Hult, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the learning dynamics in the local level public organizations due to a policy intervention in collaboration with university. This study aims to identify the existence of four different types of organizational learning in different localities and to explain their implications to public sector…

  11. Employment in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  12. Trends in Public Sector Arbitration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Harry; Wallace, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Presents developments in grievance arbitration in government employment by examining all public sector arbitration cases from 1971 through 1979. Predicts that issues of employee discipline and discharge will comprise the largest number of cases proceeding to arbitration. (Author/MLF)

  13. Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassco, David H. J.; Glassco, Jordan C.

    2006-05-01

    Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor / robotic intelligent "Things" that could be deployed across the internet. This paper explains how multi-organization information and device sharing alliances may be formed to enable organizations to act as agents of homeland security (in addition to other uses). Topics include: (i) using location-aware, agent based, real-time information sharing systems to integrate business systems, mobile devices, sensor and actuator based devices and embedded devices used in physical infrastructure assets, equipment and other man-made "Things"; (ii) organization-centric real-time information sharing spaces using on-demand XML schema formatted networks; (iii) object-oriented XML serialization as a methodology for heterogeneous device glue code; (iv) how complex requirements for inter / intra organization information and device ownership and sharing, security and access control, mobility and remote communication service, tailored solution life cycle management, service QoS, service and geographic scalability and the projection of remote physical presence (through sensing and robotics) and remote informational presence (knowledge of what is going elsewhere) can be more easily supported through feature inheritance with a rapid agent system development methodology; (v) how remote object identification and tracking can be supported across large areas; (vi) how agent synergy may be leveraged with analytics to complement heterogeneous device networks.

  14. Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

    This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

  15. Innovation through Initiatives -- A Framework for Building New Capabilities in Public Sector Research Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, Charlette A.; Judd, Kathleen S.

    2004-12-01

    The accelerating pace of change in science and technology has resulted in new attention to the process of identifying and developing ideas that ultimately lead to new scientific capabilities and business opportunities for an organization. The need to refresh research programs and capabilities is as important in federally funded laboratories as it is for industry. This paper explores the critical success factors for new initiatives at a federal laboratory, and building on lessons learned through this study and in private industry, identifies a more systematic process that could potentially improve the effectiveness of these initiatives in achieving results.

  16. Research Frontiers in Public Sector Performance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhonghua, Cai; Ye, Wang

    In "New Public Management" era, performance measurement has been widely used in managerial practices of public sectors. From the content and features of performance measurement, this paper aims to explore inspirations on Chinese public sector performance measurement, which based on a review of prior literatures including influencial factors, methods and indicators of public sector performance evaluation. In the end, arguments are presented in this paper pointed out the direction of future researches in this field.

  17. Recent Changes in Public-Sector Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khademian, Anne Meredith

    This report looks at recent changes in governance across the public sector to provide context and examples for the National Commission on Governing America's Schools' efforts. The report is presented in six sections. Following a brief introduction in section 1, section 2 provides an overview of the forces that have changed public-sector governance…

  18. Labor in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.

    Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…

  19. Proposed Public Sector Bargaining Legislation for Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Mary Volk

    1979-01-01

    Argues for a public sector collective bargaining statute in Colorado and analyzes the issues that must be addressed in effective public sector collective bargaining legislation. Available from University of Colorado Law Review, Inc., Fleming Law Building, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. (Author/IRT)

  20. Public Sector Labor Law in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielke, Laurence J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Kentucky's statutory and decisional law concerning public sector labor relations, as well as the practice and future of public sector relations as perceived by city and county officials. Available from Salmon P. Chase College of Law, 1401 Dixie Highway, Covington, Kentucky 41011; 1.50 per reprint. (Author/IRT)

  1. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    PubMed

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces. PMID:25558712

  2. 2008 Public Sector Cucumber Research Priority Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In December 2008, a national wide survey was conducted to identify priorities for cucumber research in the public sector. The questions in the survey were in four categories: diseases, insects, abiotic stresses and other issues. The survey was sent to cucumber-related researchers in the public insti...

  3. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private) and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170). Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in community settings. PMID

  4. Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

  5. National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-06-30

    The goal of the National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR) project was to address cyber security issues for the electric sector, particularly in the near and mid-term. The following table identifies the strategies from the DOE Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity published in September 2011 that are applicable to the NESCOR project.

  6. Public Policy and Union Security in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Nels E.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys the legal status of union security in the public sector and indicates that the basic policy options are to limit union security to the voluntary dues check-off, to authorize the parties to negotiate union or agency shop agreements, or to establish a mandatory fee for the exclusive representative. (Author/IRT)

  7. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201... § 201.22 Procurement under public sector procedures. (a) General requirements. When the importer is the... contracts for commodities shall be awarded under public sector procedures in this section unless...

  8. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  9. Public Sector Reform in Australia and Its Impact on Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of public sector reform in Australia, focusing on the Commonwealth Government and Australian Public Service. Describes management reform packages, human resources management reforms, and industrial relations reforms. Discusses the impact of these changes on public libraries. (AEF)

  10. A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Joel

    This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

  11. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801... public sector employers. (a) Section 7(a) provides an exclusion from the Act's coverage for the United States Government, any State or local government, or any political subdivision of a State or...

  12. Partnerships with the Public Sector: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational education programs and services, this resource package contains information on successful partnership programs between California Community Colleges (CCC) and public sector entities. Following a brief overview of public sector partnerships, the report presents…

  13. Enhancing formal educational and in-service training programs in rural Rwanda: a partnership among the public sector, a nongovernmental organization, and academia.

    PubMed

    Cancedda, Corrado; Farmer, Paul E; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Riviello, Robert; Rhatigan, Joseph; Wagner, Claire M; Ngabo, Fidele; Anatole, Manzi; Drobac, Peter C; Mpunga, Tharcisse; Nutt, Cameron T; Kakoma, Jean Baptiste; Mukherjee, Joia; Cortas, Chadi; Condo, Jeanine; Ntaganda, Fabien; Bukhman, Gene; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2014-08-01

    Global disparities in the distribution, specialization, diversity, and competency of the health workforce are striking. Countries with fewer health professionals have poorer health outcomes compared with countries that have more. Despite major gains in health indicators, Rwanda still suffers from a severe shortage of health professionals.This article describes a partnership launched in 2005 by Rwanda's Ministry of Health with the U.S. nongovernmental organization Partners In Health and with Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital. The partnership has expanded to include the Faculty of Medicine and the School of Public Health at the National University of Rwanda and other Harvard-affiliated academic medical centers. The partnership prioritizes local ownership and-with the ultimate goals of strengthening health service delivery and achieving health equity for poor and underserved populations-it has helped establish new or strengthen existing formal educational programs (conferring advanced degrees) and in-service training programs (fostering continuing professional development) targeting the local health workforce. Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital have also benefited from the partnership, expanding the opportunities for training and research in global health available to their faculty and trainees.The partnership has enabled Rwandan health professionals at partnership-supported district hospitals to acquire new competencies and deliver better health services to rural and underserved populations by leveraging resources, expertise, and growing interest in global health within the participating U.S. academic institutions. Best practices implemented during the partnership's first nine years can inform similar formal educational and in-service training programs in other low-income countries. PMID:24979292

  14. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector. PMID:20637908

  15. Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans

    PubMed Central

    BESHEARS, JOHN; CHOI, JAMES J.; LAIBSON, DAVID; MADRIAN, BRIGITTE C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee’s work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers’ need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans. PMID:21789032

  16. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  17. Dues and Deep Pockets: Public-Sector Unions' Money Machine. Civic Report. No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    At first glance, public-sector labor unions are just one of many types of organizations that participate in the political process. However, these unions differ significantly from other interest groups made up of individual citizens or non-labor organizations. Because their members' interests are tied to government policy, these unions are more…

  18. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. PMID:25479891

  19. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201.22 Section 201.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Procurement Procedures; Responsibilities of Importers § 201.22 Procurement under public...

  20. An Overview of Training in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David A.

    This report provides an overview of the training and education received by public sector employees, estimates of public funds expended for this training, recent trends, and identification of policy issues for future study. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes the content of chapters 2 and 3. Chapter 2 describes the major portions of the public…

  1. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201.22 Section 201.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Procurement Procedures; Responsibilities of Importers § 201.22 Procurement under public...

  2. 22 CFR 201.22 - Procurement under public sector procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procurement under public sector procedures. 201.22 Section 201.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Procurement Procedures; Responsibilities of Importers § 201.22 Procurement under public...

  3. Governing Education: Public Sector Reform or Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Paul C.

    Americans are facing a critical choice between two different systems of school control the continuance of the current system of public governance or a move to a privatized approach to schooling. The purpose of this book is to help educators and citizens better understand the issues and opportunities associated with changes in educational…

  4. Supporting SMEs in public sector bids.

    PubMed

    James, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements. PMID:27132302

  5. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained. PMID:16580128

  6. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  7. Awaking the Public Sector with Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Revitalizing the Public Servant's Organizational Knowledge, Innovative Capability, and Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janese Marie

    2011-01-01

    Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for public sector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…

  8. Management Information Systems in Public and Private Organizations: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretschneider, Stuart

    1990-01-01

    Consistent differences are identified in the organizational environment and managerial activity of data processing organizations between the public and private sectors. A public organization's environment reflects greater interdependence and accountability, leading to more red tape. (Author)

  9. The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

  10. How to Enhance the Impact of Training on Service Quality? Evidence from Malaysian Public Sector Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance role of transfer of training as a mediator in the relationship between training and service quality. Design/methodology/approach: The data of this study were collected from three sources: the employees of public sector organizations in Malaysia who participated in a Basic Financial…

  11. Negotiations Strategies: A Reference Manual for Public Sector Labor Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    This guide contains practical, field-tested advice concerning the development of a suitable negotiating strategy for management's use in public sector collective bargaining. The author stresses that strategies are long-term plans of action and that this book does not consider bargaining tactics--the individual methods used to achieve the strategic…

  12. The Speed of Obsolescence: Evidence from the Dutch Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loo, Jasper B.

    2007-01-01

    HRD is extensively concerned with human capital investment, but only focuses on how skills and knowledge become obsolete to a limited extent. In this paper we look at the speed of obsolescence. Using data from a survey among Dutch public sector employees, we find that the yearly rate of skills obsolescence is 2.6%. Subsequent analyses show that…

  13. Public Sector Transformation, Racial Inequality and Downward Occupational Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…

  14. Teaching Chinese Students: Understanding Their Public Sector Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…

  15. The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

  16. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  17. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  18. Industrial Rehabilitation in the Public Sector: The Ohio Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsheski, Jerry; Growick, Bruce

    In 1979, Ohio passed a law creating a Rehabilitation Division within its Industrial Commission and authorizing the building of two comprehensive rehabilitation centers to serve disabled workers. Ohio provides industrial rehabilitation services almost entirely through the public sector. This paper describes industrial rehabilitation policies and…

  19. Recent Court Decisions on Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifman, Burton R.

    This paper focuses on recent, significant court decisions in public sector collective bargaining under the following categories: the job security clause, the choice of instructional materials as the province of the school board under collective bargaining agreements, the effect of open meetings acts on the board of education in collective…

  20. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  1. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  2. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  3. 29 CFR 801.10 - Exclusion for public sector employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusion for public sector employers. 801.10 Section 801.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Exemptions § 801.10 Exclusion...

  4. Arbitration of Public Sector Labor Disputes: The Nevada Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodin, Joseph R.

    1974-01-01

    Having analyzed the records of all Nevada factfinding cases in 1972 and 1973, and interviewed most principals involved, the author concludes that Nevada's experience shows that arbitration of public sector disputes can be consistent with both effective bargaining and political responsibility. (Author/MW)

  5. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee’s work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee’s organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Results Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Conclusion Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change. PMID:23298253

  6. A proposed framework of big data readiness in public sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Raja Haslinda Raja Mohd; Mohamad, Rosli; Sudin, Suhizaz

    2016-08-01

    Growing interest over big data mainly linked to its great potential to unveil unforeseen pattern or profiles that support organisation's key business decisions. Following private sector moves to embrace big data, the government sector has now getting into the bandwagon. Big data has been considered as one of the potential tools to enhance service delivery of the public sector within its financial resources constraints. Malaysian government, particularly, has considered big data as one of the main national agenda. Regardless of government commitment to promote big data amongst government agencies, degrees of readiness of the government agencies as well as their employees are crucial in ensuring successful deployment of big data. This paper, therefore, proposes a conceptual framework to investigate perceived readiness of big data potentials amongst Malaysian government agencies. Perceived readiness of 28 ministries and their respective employees will be assessed using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (survey) approaches. The outcome of the study is expected to offer meaningful insight on factors affecting change readiness among public agencies on big data potentials and the expected outcome from greater/lower change readiness among the public sectors.

  7. Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

  8. Differences in public and private sector adoption of telemedicine: Indian case study for sectoral adoption.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sanjay P; Negash, Solomon; Mbarika, Victor W A; Kifle, Mengistu; Prakash, Nupur

    2007-01-01

    Telemedicine is the use of communication networks to exchange medical information for providing healthcare services and medical education from one site to another. The application of telemedicine is more promising in economically developing countries with agrarian societies. The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) identifies three healthcare services: clinical medical services, health and medical education, and consumer health information. However, it is not clear how these services can be adopted by different sectors: public and private. This paper looks at four Indian case studies, two each in public and private sectors to understand two research questions: Are there differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private hospitals. If there are differences: What are the differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private sectors? Authors have used the extant literature in telemedicine and healthcare to frame theoretical background, describe the research setting, present the case studies, and provide discussion and conclusions about their findings. Authors believe that as India continues to develop its telemedicine infrastructures, especially with continued government support through subsidies to private telemedicine initiatives, its upward trend in healthcare will continue. This is expected to put India on the path to increase its life expectancy rates, especially for it rural community which constitute over 70% of its populace. PMID:17917199

  9. Economic impact of public sector spending on health care.

    PubMed

    Hy, Ronald John

    2011-01-01

    Public sector spending on health care clearly has a positive economic impact on local communities. Not only does such spending provide residents with better health care, but it is widely recognized as an investment that returns continual dividends in the form of better jobs, higher incomes, and additional state and local tax revenues. The results of a static input/output model shows that public sector spending on health care of approximately $46 billion (in 2009 dollars) in the state of Texas yields over 588,000 jobs, $74.2 billion in total output, $26.3 billion in personal income, $22 billion in employee compensation, and $1.8 billion in state and local taxes; it clearly has a considerable positive economic impact on local economies and their quest for economic development. PMID:22106548

  10. Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

    ‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

  11. Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

  12. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs

  13. Questions and Answers in Public Sector Labor Relations. A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

    The purpose of this guide is to answer common questions about public sector labor relations with special emphasis on how this sector differs from the private sector. A beginning section offers general information defining and explaining public sector labor relations. A segment on labor relations law details legislation and the function of…

  14. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  15. Performance Contracting as a Performance Management Tool in the Public Sector in Kenya: Lessons of learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Kempe Ronald, Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment and analysis of public sector performance contracting as a performance management tool in Kenya. It aims to demonstrate that performance contracting remains a viable and important tool for improving public sector performance as a key element of the on-going public sector transformation…

  16. IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

  17. Public sector nurses in Swaziland: can the downturn be reversed?

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Katharina; Van Damme, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Background The lack of human resources for health (HRH) is increasingly being recognized as a major bottleneck to scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART), particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, whose societies and health systems are hardest hit by HIV/AIDS. In this case study of Swaziland, we describe the current HRH situation in the public sector. We identify major factors that contribute to the crisis, describe policy initiatives to tackle it and base on these a number of projections for the future. Finally, we suggest some areas for further research that may contribute to tackling the HRH crisis in Swaziland. Methods We visited Swaziland twice within 18 months in order to capture the HRH situation as well as the responses to it in 2004 and in 2005. Using semi-structured interviews with key informants and group interviews, we obtained qualitative and quantitative data on the HRH situation in the public and mission health sectors. We complemented this with an analysis of primary documents and a review of the available relevant reports and studies. Results The public health sector in Swaziland faces a serious shortage of health workers: 44% of posts for physicians, 19% of posts for nurses and 17% of nursing assistant posts were unfilled in 2004. We identified emigration and attrition due to HIV/AIDS as major factors depleting the health workforce. The annual training output of only 80 new nurses is not sufficient to compensate for these losses, and based on the situation in 2004 we estimated that the nursing workforce in the public sector would have been reduced by more than 40% by 2010. In 2005 we found that new initiatives by the Swazi government, such as the scale-up of ART, the introduction of retention measures to decrease emigration and the influx of foreign nurses could have the potential to improve the situation. A combination of such measures, together with the planned increase in the training capacity of the country's nursing schools, could even reverse

  18. Insurance Sector Dynamics: Towards Transformation into Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkur, Gopalakrishna; Varambally, K. V. M.; Rodrigues, Lewlyn L. R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to study the influence of five critical factors on service quality in the insurance sector. Having studied the influence of these critical factors, an attempt has been made to obtain a generic solution to enhance the quality of service by proposing a holistic framework of learning organization. As…

  19. Health care of female outpatients in south-central India: comparing public and private sector provision.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Jagdish; Cleland, John

    2004-11-01

    The object of this study was to compare components of quality of care provided to female outpatients by practitioners working in the private and public sectors in Karnataka State, India. Consultations conducted by 18 private practitioners and 25 public-sector practitioners were observed for 5 days using a structured protocol. Private practitioners were selected from members of the Indian Medical Association in a predominantly rural sub-district of Kolar District. Government doctors were selected from a random sample of hospitals and health centres in three sub-districts of Mysore District. A total of 451 private-sector and 650 public-sector consultations were observed; in each sector about half involved a female practitioner. The mean length of consultation was 2.81 minutes in the public sector and 6.68 minutes in the private sector. Compared with public-sector practitioners, private practitioners were significantly more likely to undertake a physical examination and to explain their diagnosis and prognosis to the patient. Privacy was much better in the private sector. One-third of public-sector patients received an injection compared with two-thirds of private patients. The mean cost of drugs dispensed or prescribed were Rupees 37 and 74 in public and private sectors, respectively. Both in terms of thoroughness of diagnosis and doctor-patient communication, the quality of care appears to be much higher in the private than in the public sector. However, over-prescription of drugs by private practitioners may be occurring. PMID:15459165

  20. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  1. Competence Development in the Public Sector: Development, or Dismantling of Professionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjort, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular, competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing…

  2. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  3. Public Disorder, Private Boons? Inter-Sectoral Dynamics Illustrated by the Kenyan Case. PROPHE Working Paper Series. WP No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Wycliffe; Levy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Within and beyond Africa, it is the public sector much more than the private sector that is the scene of strikes and other forms of disorder, conflict and difficulty. Yet the private sector can be much affected by the public problems. Effects may be simultaneously positive for the private sector and deleterious for the public sector. Although a…

  4. Public Sector/Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services. Report to the NCLIS from the Public Sector/Private Sector Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.

    The results of a 2-year study on the interactions between government and private sector information activities are presented in terms of principles and guidelines for federal policy to support the development and use of information resources, products, and services, and to implement the principles. Discussions address sources of conflict between…

  5. Who Helps Public Schools? Public Education Support Organizations in 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leon, Erwin; Roeger, Katie L.; De Vita, Carol J.; Boris, Elizabeth T.

    2010-01-01

    There are more than 19,000 nonprofit organizations devoted to supporting public education in the United States. These organizations include booster clubs, parent-teacher groups, public education funds, scholarship funds, high school alumni associations, and others. This report assesses the current status of education support organizations;…

  6. Examining the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support, Transfer of Training and Service Quality in the Malaysian Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationships among perceived organizational support (POS), transfer of training outcomes to the workplace and service quality in the context of public sector organizations in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The data for this study have been collected from three sources, the employees of public…

  7. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  8. Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Fajans, Peter; Simmons, Ruth; Ghiron, Laura

    2006-03-01

    Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach's dissemination and sustainability. PMID:16449594

  9. Performance-based budgeting in the public sector: an illustration from the VA health care system.

    PubMed

    Yaisawarng, Suthathip; Burgess, James F

    2006-03-01

    This paper estimates frontier cost functions for US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals in FY2000 that are consistent with economic theory and explicitly account for cost differences across patients' risk, level of access to care, quality of care, and hospital-specific characteristics. Results indicate that on average VA hospitals in FY2000 operate at efficiency levels of 94%, as compared to previous studies on US private sector hospitals that average closer to 90% efficient. Using these cost frontiers, management systems potentially could be implemented to enhance the equitable allocation of the VA medical care global budget and systematically distribute funds across hospitals and networks. The paper also provides recommendations to improve the efficiency of delivering health care services applicable to public sector organizations. PMID:16331724

  10. Organizations, Environments, and Models of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.

    Noting that little theory has been developed to explain how and why organizations choose to manage public relations, this paper argues that theorists cannot improve the practice of public relations until they can explain what public relations is and what it contributes to the functions of an organization. The paper addresses that issue by…

  11. Queensland public sector nurse executives: job satisfaction and career opportunities.

    PubMed

    Courtney, M; Yacopetti, J; James, C; Walsh, A

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, economic and political forces have caused radical transformations in health care systems resulting in changed circumstances within which nursing executives must function. This paper provides an understanding of nursing executives' roles and responsibilities and the impact changes in the health industry have had on their careers. One hundred and forty-seven (52%) of the 281 nursing executives employed in the Queensland Public Health Sector completed a postal self-administered survey. The findings of this study demonstrate their role has expanded to include not only nursing administration, but also responsibility for financial, human resources, strategic and resource management, staff development and quality improvement. The impact of these role changes has affected the health and well-being of nursing executives, with nearly half reporting increased stress, frustration and irritation. Their workload has increased and some reported deterioration in their health, specifically, exhaustion, fatigue and insomnia. Respondents reported they now have less time to spend with families and friends, which has had a negative impact on family relationships. Overall, nursing executives were satisfied with their current position, the work itself and their relationships with their co-workers, but dissatisfied with organisational aspects, especially the quality of mentorship and opportunities for promotion. PMID:11496477

  12. Activities of the NASA sponsored SRI technology applications team in transferring aerospace technology to the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, J. G.

    1971-01-01

    The organization and functions of an interdisciplinary team for the application of aerospace generated technology to the solution of discrete technological problems within the public sector are presented. The interdisciplinary group formed at Stanford Research Institute, California is discussed. The functions of the group are to develop and conduct a program not only optimizing the match between public sector technological problems in criminalistics, transportation, and the postal services and potential solutions found in the aerospace data base, but ensuring that appropriate solutions are acutally utilized. The work accomplished during the period from July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971 is reported.

  13. Public Relations and Publicity: Tools and Techniques for Student Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Carol Jean

    Based on the idea that to be successful, a student organization must have a sound public relations and publicity program, this handbook considers techniques of internal communication that establish good public relations with various special groups: the student body, the administration, the faculty, and the staff. The handbook states that…

  14. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  15. RADON MITIGATION CHOICES IN THE UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR DEVELOPMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares private and public sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public information effo...

  16. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL/ENERGY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT. SALARIES AND ATTENDANT PROBLEMS OF PUBLIC SECTOR ENVIRONMENTAL EMPLOYMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monograph deals with disparities between public and private sector employment conditions and practices which affect the recruitment and retention of personnel. The emphasis is on state agencies because the disparities are most evident at that level of public sector employment...

  17. Public Sector Training: A "Blind" Spot in the 1999 South African National Levy-Grant Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, South Africa implemented a levy-grant policy (Skills Development Levies Act, 1999) to give an incentive for workplace training across private and public sector workplaces alike, but the impact of the levy-grant scheme in the public sector was restricted by financial and management processes unique to that environment. This article shows…

  18. An Investigation of Conflict Management in Public and Private Sector Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Rehman, Rashid; Bibi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the earlier mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of university type (public and private sector) was examined on the conflict…

  19. Bargaining Tactics: A Reference Manual for Public Sector Labor Negotiations. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    A supplement to an earlier-published volume on bargaining tactics, this document presents specific tactics that can be used in the course of public sector collective bargaining to further management's pre-established negotiating strategies. All the tactics suggested are drawn from the author's personal experience as a public sector labor…

  20. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  1. Social Media for e-Government in the Public Health Sector: Protocol for a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Massimo; Tursunbayeva, Aizhan

    2016-01-01

    Background Public sector organizations worldwide are engaging with social media as part of a growing e-government agenda. These include government departments of health, public health agencies, and state-funded health care and research organizations. Although examples of social media in health have been described in the literature, little is known about their overall scope or how they are achieving the objectives of e-government. A systematic literature review is underway to capture and synthesize existing evidence on the adoption, use, and impacts of social media in the public health sector. A series of parallel scoping exercises has taken place to examine (1) relevant existing systematic reviews, to assess their focus, breadth, and fit with our review topic, (2) existing concepts related to e-government, public health, and the public health sector, to assess how semantic complexity might influence the review process, and (3) the results of pilot searches, to examine the fit of social media within the e-government and health literatures. The methods and observations of the scoping exercises are reported in this protocol, alongside the methods and interim results for the systematic review itself. Objective The systematic review has three main objectives: To capture the corpus of published studies on the uses of social media by public health organizations; to classify the objectives for which social media have been deployed in these contexts and the methods used; and to analyze and synthesize evidence of the uptake, use, and impacts of social media on various outcomes. Methods A set of scoping exercises were undertaken, to inform the search strategy and analytic framework. Searches have been carried out in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and the Scopus international electronic databases, and appropriate gray literature sources. Articles published between January 1, 2004, and July 12, 2015, were included. There was no restriction by language. One

  2. Occupational Structures and Profiles in Italy in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Public Service Sector with Reference to Air Pollution Control. CEDEFOP Panorama. National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannocci, Virgilio; And Others

    A study examined the knowledge and job skills required of persons employed in air pollution control (APC)-related occupations in Italy's public service sector. First, Italian legislation on APC and the functions/powers of Italy's public agencies responsible for APC were reviewed. The organization/operation of the public structures involved in…

  3. Publication Trends in Model Organism Research

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Michael R.; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Chen, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1990, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) gave some organisms special status as designated model organisms. This article documents publication trends for these NIH-designated model organisms over the past 40 years. We find that being designated a model organism by the NIH does not guarantee an increasing publication trend. An analysis of model and nonmodel organisms included in GENETICS since 1960 does reveal a sharp decline in the number of publications using nonmodel organisms yet no decline in the overall species diversity. We suggest that organisms with successful publication records tend to share critical characteristics, such as being well developed as standardized, experimental systems and being used by well-organized communities with good networks of exchange and methods of communication. PMID:25381363

  4. Investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for vulnerabilities to corruption in the chinese public construction sector.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries. PMID:24894336

  5. Managed Behavioral Health Care: An Instrument to Characterize Critical Elements of Public Sector Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ridgely, M Susan; Giard, Julienne; Shern, David; Mulkern, Virginia; Burnam, M Audrey

    2002-01-01

    Objective To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and “unmanaged” care and among managed care arrangements. Study Design The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data Collection Methods Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. Principal Findings This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. Conclusions If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary. PMID:12236386

  6. The Empowering of Public Sector Officers in the Mauritian Public Sector in the Context of Reforms: How Far Has Management Education Helped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide insights about the usefulness of management education for the public sector in the Republic of Mauritius, which embarked on reforms initiatives around two decades ago. In this context, public officers were encouraged to follow specialised management courses. However, as at date, there is…

  7. Differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in the public and private sectors of developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Roubos, Ilse; Ewen, Margaret; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubertus GM; Laing, Richard O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate potential differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Data on the availability of 30 commonly-surveyed medicines – 15 for acute and 15 for chronic conditions – were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted in 40 developing countries. Results were aggregated by World Bank country income group and World Health Organization region. Findings The availability of medicines for both acute and chronic conditions was suboptimal across countries, particularly in the public sector. Generic medicines for chronic conditions were significantly less available than generic medicines for acute conditions in both the public sector (36.0% availability versus 53.5%; P = 0.001) and the private sector (54.7% versus 66.2%; P = 0.007). Antiasthmatics, antiepileptics and antidepressants, followed by antihypertensives, were the drivers of the observed differences. An inverse association was found between country income level and the availability gap between groups of medicines, particularly in the public sector. In low- and lower-middle income countries, drugs for acute conditions were 33.9% and 12.9% more available, respectively, in the public sector than medicines for chronic conditions. Differences in availability were smaller in the private sector than in the public sector in all country income groups. Conclusion Current disease patterns do not explain the significant gaps observed in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions. Measures are needed to better respond to the epidemiological transition towards chronic conditions in developing countries alongside current efforts to scale up treatment for communicable diseases. PMID:21673857

  8. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations. PMID:27407182

  9. Building the Synergy between Public Sector and Research Data Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craglia, Massimo; Friis-Christensen, Anders; Ostländer, Nicole; Perego, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    INSPIRE is a European Directive aiming to establish a EU-wide spatial data infrastructure to give cross-border access to information that can be used to support EU environmental policies, as well as other policies and activities having an impact on the environment. In order to ensure cross-border interoperability of data infrastructures operated by EU Member States, INSPIRE sets out a framework based on common specifications for metadata, data, network services, data and service sharing, monitoring and reporting. The implementation of INSPIRE has reached important milestones: the INSPIRE Geoportal was launched in 2011 providing a single access point for the discovery of INSPIRE data and services across EU Member States (currently, about 300K), while all the technical specifications for the interoperability of data across the 34 INSPIRE themes were adopted at the end of 2013. During this period a number of EU and international initiatives has been launched, concerning cross-domain interoperability and (Linked) Open Data. In particular, the EU Open Data Portal, launched in December 2012, made provisions to access government and scientific data from EU institutions and bodies, and the EU ISA Programme (Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations) promotes cross-sector interoperability by sharing and re-using EU-wide and national standards and components. Moreover, the Research Data Alliance (RDA), an initiative jointly funded by the European Commission, the US National Science Foundation and the Australian Research Council, was launched in March 2013 to promote scientific data sharing and interoperability. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), besides being the technical coordinator of the implementation of INSPIRE, is also actively involved in the initiatives promoting cross-sector re-use in INSPIRE, and sustainable approaches to address the evolution of technologies - in particular, how to support Linked Data in INSPIRE and

  10. Job Satisfaction of Primary Health-Care Providers (Public Sector) in Urban Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Khan, Abdul Majeed; Inder, Deep; Sharma, Nandini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Job satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. The core components of information necessary for what satisfies and motivates the health work force in our country are missing at policy level. Therefore present study will help us to know the factors for job satisfaction among primary health care providers in public sector. Materials and Methods: Present study is descriptive in nature conducted in public sector dispensaries/primary urban health centers in Delhi among health care providers. Pretested structured questionnaire was administered to 227 health care providers. Data was analyzed using SPSS and relevant statistical test were applied. Results: Analysis of study reveals that ANMs are more satisfied than MOs, Pharmacist and Lab assistants/Lab technicians; and the difference is significant (P < 0.01). Age and education level of health care providers don’t show any significant difference in job satisfaction. All the health care providers are dissatisfied from the training policies and practices, salaries and opportunities for career growth in the organization. Majority of variables studied for job satisfaction have low scores. Five factor were identified concerned with job satisfaction in factor analysis. Conclusion: Job satisfaction is poor for all the four groups of health care providers in dispensaries/primary urban health centers and it is not possible to assign a single factor as a sole determinant of dissatisfaction in the job. Therefore it is recommended that appropriate changes are required at the policy as well as at the dispensary/PUHC level to keep the health work force motivated under public sector in Delhi. PMID:24479088

  11. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-01-01

    Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations

  12. Current Trends in Public Sector Labor Relations Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Reviews state labor legislation passed or debated in 1975 and early 1976. Also describes the impact of amending laws on the current labor picture and evident trends in public attitudes toward public employees. For availability, see EA 507 548. (Author)

  13. The Social Cohesion Role of the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capshaw, N. Clark

    2005-01-01

    Social cohesion, the "glue" that keeps a society together, is influenced by the various sectors or "pillars" of that society-educational institutions, social and religious institutions, business institutions, and government. In this article, the effect of the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) on social cohesion is…

  14. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Methods Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. Results The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and

  15. The Prevalence of Coworker Conflict Including Bullying in a Unionized U.S. Public Sector Workforce.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Jane; London, Matt; McPhaul, Kate M; Ghaziri, Mazen El; Lydecker, Alyson; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Johnson, Jeffrey V

    2015-01-01

    Workplace violence is an enormous problem worldwide; incidents where the perpetrator is a current or former employee are an important dimension. This large cross-sectional survey examined the prevalence of this problem among a U.S. state government unionized public sector workforce. Using participatory action research methods, we conducted a web-based survey of members of that workforce from a single northeast U.S. state, receiving 11,874 completed surveys (response rate: 71.8%). Overall, 10.0% of the respondents indicated that they had been bullied at work during the prior 6 months, with 71.9% of those who reported regular bullying identifying the perpetrator as a supervisor and/or top management. The prevalence of bullying was similar to the rates reported in Europe and Scandinavia (5%-30%). Those reports also identified the person(s) responsible for the behavior as being predominantly of higher status within the organization. PMID:26299698

  16. Legal Framework for Public Sector Collective Bargaining in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, James F.; Fox, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews the legal rulings and statutes that have shaped public employee labor relations in Texas since the late 19th century. In the absence of one comprehensive labor/management act, Texas has many diverse laws and precedents that affect the public employee. Available from Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., 43 Central Drive, Farmingdale, NY 11735;…

  17. State Profiles: Current Status of Public Sector Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    This guide summarizes the coverage of public employees by state labor relations laws. For each state, the guide describes legal provisions, current situation, and current legislative activity. The report also includes data on population, public employment, work stoppages, and state revenues and expenditures. Agencies useful in gathering and…

  18. Health care inequities in north India: Role of public sector in universalizing health care

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kanavos, Panos; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Income inequality is associated with poor health. Inequities exist in service utilization and financing for health care. Health care costs push high number of households into poverty in India. We undertook this study to ascertain inequities in health status, service utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures in two States in north India namely, Haryana and Punjab, and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Methods: Data from National Sample Survey 60th Round on Morbidity and Health Care were analyzed by mean consumption expenditure quintiles. Indicators were devised to document inequities in the dimensions of horizontal and vertical inequity; and redistribution of public subsidy. Concentration index (CI), and equity ratio in conjunction with concentration curve were computed to measure inequity. Results: Reporting of morbidity and hospitalization rate had a pro-rich distribution in all three States indicating poor utilization of health services by low income households. Nearly 57 and 60 per cent households from poorest income quintile in Haryana and Punjab, respectively faced catastrophic OOP hospitalization expenditure at 10 per cent threshold. Lower prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was recorded in higher income groups. Public sector also incurred high costs for hospitalization in selected three States. Medicines constituted 19 to 47 per cent of hospitalization expenditure and 59 to 86 per cent OPD expenditure borne OOP by households in public sector. Public sector hospitalizations had a pro-poor distribution in Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis indicates that public sector health service utilization needs to be improved. OOP health care expenditures at public sector institutions should to be curtailed to improve utilization of poorer segments of population. Greater availability of medicines in public sector and regulation of their prices provide a unique opportunity to reduce public

  19. Community-based organizations in the health sector: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael G; Lavis, John N; Guta, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues), we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry.We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff), the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks).Given the range of terms used to describe community

  20. Community-based organizations in the health sector: A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues), we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry. We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff), the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks). Given the range of terms used to describe community

  1. Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

    1992-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project. PMID:1594734

  2. Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections. CEE DP 135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Iftikhar

    2012-01-01

    Performance measurement in the public sector is largely based on objective metrics, which may be subject to gaming behaviour. This paper investigates a novel subjective performance evaluation system where independent inspectors visit schools at very short notice, publicly disclose their findings and sanction schools rated fail. First, I…

  3. 75 FR 39934 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... AGENCY Oil and Natural Gas Sector--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... opportunity for public involvement during EPA's review of air regulations affecting the oil and natural gas industry. The review in progress covers oil and natural gas exploration and production, as well as...

  4. Facilitating the Evaluation of Complexity in the Public Sector: Learning from the NHS in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John; Reid, Garth; Mooney, Allan

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary for public managers to be able to evaluate programmes in the context of complexity. This article offers key learning and reflections based on the experience of facilitating the evaluation of complexity with a range of public sector partners in Scotland. There have been several articles that consider evaluating complexity and…

  5. Organizational Politics, Job Attitudes, and Work Outcomes: Exploration and Implications for the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigoda, Eran

    2000-01-01

    A study of the effect of organizational politics on 303 Israeli public employees found that public sector workers are more likely to react to organizational politics with negligent behavior than quitting. Women, highly educated employees, and those with higher incomes showed fewer intentions of neglect. (Contains 66 references.) (SK)

  6. Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) public sector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…

  7. The Applicability of Market-Based Solutions to Public Sector Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn

    This paper examines the ways in which private- and public-sector location affects organizational structure and functions, and the implications for school reform. It identifies the differences that are often overlooked when policymakers utilize market-based organizational reform models to address public school problems. Two fundamental questions…

  8. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  9. State Policy and Postsecondary Education: The Relationship of the Independent and Public Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The relationship between the public and independent sector of higher education in Florida is examined in this conference publication. The problems and issues involved in formulating state policy with respect to postsecondary education in Florida are examined. An overview of policy positions of other states is presented as well as an assessment of…

  10. Conducting Public-sector Research on Commercialized Transgenic Seed: In Search of a Paradigm that Works

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public-sector scientists have a mandate to independently evaluate agricultural products available to American farmers on the open market, whereas the companies that sell the products are concerned about protecting their intellectual property. As a consequence of the latter concern, public scientist...

  11. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  12. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  13. Public health sector unions and deregulation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Deregulation and liberalization of health services take several forms in Europe: public-private partnerships; contracting out of services; and corporatization of health care institutions. The impact on health workers includes changes in terms and conditions of employment, breakup of collective bargaining agreements, and often more stressful working conditions. The author examines four types of trade union responses to deregulation. National health trade union action has used campaigning, awareness raising, and judicial review. Health workers' unions in alliance with other trade unions have taken part in wider campaigns against privatization and in promoting public services. Health workers' unions joining with social movements have become involved in wider alliances that link with broader public policy issues such as poverty reduction and urban/regional regeneration. European-wide action, seen through the work of the European Federation of Public Service Unions, has concentrated on the development of an alternative health policy, and the promotion of social dialogue at a European level. Trade unions must adopt a range of approaches to challenge the effects of deregulation. Increasingly, trade union members need to be aware of how to take action at both the national and European levels. PMID:15346679

  14. 7 Elements of Effective Public-Sector Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Andrianna; Tierney, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis at the University of Southern California conducted a national study of public higher education governing board performance. 130 board members, presidents, coordinating board officials, governors, legislators, and education department staff were interviewed about ways to improve performance…

  15. Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commons, Harriet V.

    1987-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

  16. Public sector retirement systems: what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Fornia, William B

    2003-06-01

    Public pension plans will continue to search for cost-sharing retiree health care solutions and may shift to a defined contribution emphasis. Fiduciary responsibility will be highlighted in view of controversial plan changes, government budgetary constraints, scrutinized investment return assumptions, potential labor shortages and increased shareholder activism. PMID:12800307

  17. Public Sector Agricultural Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section examines extension as an engine for innovation and reviews the numerous priorities confronting extension systems. Section two highlights the current knowledge imperative and the critical connection of extension to post-secondary higher education and training, organizational…

  18. The public sector and mental health parity: time for inclusion.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael F.

    1998-12-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United States, there is an uneasy division of responsibility for financing mental health care. For most illnesses, employer-sponsored health insurance and the large federal health insurance programs (Medicare, Medicaid) cover the costs of care. However, most employer-sponsored plans and Medicare provide only limited coverage for treatment of mental illness. A possible cause and result of this limited coverage in mental health is that states, and in some cases local (county) governments, finance a separate system of mental health care. This separate "public mental health system" provides a "safety net" of care for indigent individuals needing mental health care. However, there are potential negative consequences of maintaining separate systems. Continuity of treatment between systems may be impaired, and costs may be higher due to duplicate administrative costs. Maintaining a separate system managed by government may exacerbate the stigma associated with mental illness treatment. Most significantly, since eligibility for care may be linked to poverty status, and since having a serious mental illness may preclude regaining private coverage, maintaining a separate system may contribute to the poverty rate among persons with mental illnesses. AIMS OF THE PAPER: These potential problems have not been widely considered, perhaps because other problems and controversies in mental health care have captured our attention. In particular, controversies over deinstitutionalization in mental health have dominated the policy debate, especially when linked to related problems. These have included conflicts over authority and financial responsibility among federal, state and local governments, sensationalized media coverage of incidents involving people with mental illness, problems with siting community facilities, concern about mental illness among prisoners and the like. However, with the substantial reform of public mental health care in some states and

  19. International patients within the NHS: a case of public sector entrepreneurialism.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Neil; Exworthy, Mark; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Many public health systems in high- and middle-income countries are under increasing financial pressures as a result of ageing populations, a rise in chronic and non-communicable diseases and shrinking public resources. At the same time the rise in patient mobility and concomitant market in medical tourism provides opportunities for additional income. This is especially the case where public sector hospitals have a reputation as global centres of excellence. Yet, this requires public sector entrepreneurship which, given the unique features of the public sector, means a change to professional culture. This paper examines how and under what conditions public sector entrepreneurship develops, drawing on the example of international patients in the UK NHS. It reports on a subset of data from a wider study of UK medical tourism, and explores inward flows and NHS responses through the lens of public entrepreneurship. Interviews in the English NHS were conducted with managers of Foundation Trusts with interest in international patient work. Data is from seven Foundation Trusts, based on indepth, semi-structured interviews with a range of NHS managers, and three other key stakeholders (n = 16). Interviews were analysed using a framework on entrepreneurship developed from academic literature. Empirical findings showed that Trust managers were actively pursuing a strategy of expanding international patient activity. Respondents emphasised that this was in the context of the current financial climate for the NHS. International patients were seen as a possible route to ameliorating pressure on stretched NHS resources. The analysis of interviews revealed that public entrepreneurial behaviour requires an organisational managerial or political context in order to develop, such as currently in the UK. Public sector workers engaged in this process develop entrepreneurship - melding political, commercial and stakeholder insights - as a coping mechanism to health system constraints

  20. Advancing a Conceptual Model of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Public Service Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2010-01-01

    Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health, social service, alcohol/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation process (i.e., Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment), derived from extant literature, and apply it to public sector services. We highlight features of the model likely to be particularly important in each phase, while considering the outer and inner contexts (i.e., levels) of public sector service systems. PMID:21197565

  1. Corporate governance of public health services: lessons from New Zealand for the state sector.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M

    2000-01-01

    New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted. PMID:10947611

  2. Unlocking the Potential of Public Sector Information with Semantic Web Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Dupplaw, David; Sheridan, John; O'Hara, Kieron; Darlington, John; Shadbolt, Nigel; Tullo, Carol

    Governments often hold very rich data and whilst much of this information is published and available for re-use by others, it is often trapped by poor data structures, locked up in legacy data formats or in fragmented databases. One of the great benefits that Semantic Web (SW) technology offers is facilitating the large scale integration and sharing of distributed data sources. At the heart of information policy in the UK, the Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the part of the UK government charged with enabling the greater re-use of public sector information. This paper describes the actions, findings, and lessons learnt from a pilot study, involving several parts of government and the public sector. The aim was to show to government how they can adopt SW technology for the dissemination, sharing and use of its data.

  3. Public-private sector interactions and the demand for supplementary health insurance in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care. PMID:27234967

  4. The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value = 0.0028) and immunization rates (P value = 0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

  5. [Ethical dilemmas in public health care organizations].

    PubMed

    Pereda Vicandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability. PMID:25467632

  6. WARF's stem cell patents and tensions between public and private sector approaches to research.

    PubMed

    Golden, John M

    2010-01-01

    While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged public sector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other public sector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks. PMID:20579254

  7. Revolving drug funds: conducting business in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Cross, P N; Huff, M A; Quick, J D; Bates, J A

    1986-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are essential for preventive and therapeutic health services. Unfortunately, significant demand, limited funds and high prices contribute to frequent shortages of drugs in many public health programs. One method for financing pharmaceutical supplies has been the establishment of revolving drug funds (RDFs) in which, after an initial capital investment, drug supplies are replenished with monies collected from the sale of drugs. All too often however, the funds actually recovered are insufficient to replenish supplies and the fund is soon depleted. In this paper we consider the potential benefits and common pitfalls of revolving drug funds and then focus on the central role of financial planning in establishing drug sales programs. Experiences from a variety of countries suggest several causes for the failure of some RDFs, including: under-estimation of capitalization costs, prices set below true replacement cost, frequent failure to collect payment, delays in cash flow which make funds unavailable for replenishment of drug stocks, rapid program expansion for which additional capital funds are not available, losses due to theft and deterioration of drugs, unanticipated price increases due to inflation or changes in parity rates and foreign exchange purchase restrictions. Common to many of these problems is the lack of a businesslike orientation to RDFs and, in particular, lack of careful financial planning and management. Financial planning for an RDF includes four analytical tasks: assessment of the potential market, estimation of the costs of an RDF, establishment of the cost-recovery objectives, definition of the role of subsidies and surcharges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515574

  8. Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  9. Public sector reform and governance for adaptation: implications of new public management for adaptive capacity in Mexico and Norway.

    PubMed

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation--namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability--have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform. PMID:21229245

  10. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  11. Public sector employment, relative deprivation and happiness in adult urban Chinese employees.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anning

    2013-09-01

    The decline in perceived happiness within economic prosperity in Chinese society calls for further examination. In this research, we investigate the effect of employment in public sector work units on perceived happiness through the mediation of economic and social status relative deprivations. In the reform era of China, work unit is still an important mechanism maintaining social inequality, and those working in government/Communist Party agencies and public institutions have advantages of getting access to high wage, comprehensive welfare and the manipulation of administrative public power. Such economic and social status advantages are expected to reduce their relative deprivation and further promote their perceived happiness. Using a nationwide survey data conducted in 2006, we find working in public sector can significantly reduce the odds of experiencing economic relative deprivation, which is further contributive to the improvement of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22717616

  12. Distributing the ERIC Database on Compact Disc: A Case History of Private Sector Involvement in the Distribution of Public Sector Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted

    1987-01-01

    Describes the partnership between the public and private sectors in developing and marketing the ERIC database in CD-ROM format. Particular emphasis is given to the marketing research and protocols of partnership that were developed. (Author/CLB)

  13. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these. PMID:25581149

  14. Guidelines for public transportation contracting with the private sector in California: Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-30

    The manual provides practical assistance to public transit agencies in California in contracting for goods and services with the private sector. It also assists private firms seeking to provide goods and services to public transit agencies. The manual provides an overview of each of the processes involved in procurement from preparation of procurement documents to contract management and evaluation. It also provides detailed, practical guidance on each of these processes.

  15. A Guide to the Changing Court Rulings on Union Security in the Public Sector: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    1985-01-01

    Introduces two articles that (1) supply the union and management perspectives of the Supreme Court decision in "Ellis vs. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks" and (2) discuss how this decision affects the public sector in the area of education. (MLF)

  16. The Medicaid School Program: An Effective Public School and Private Sector Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…

  17. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  18. Utilization and Value of Public Sector Information for Knowledge Development: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Raed M.

    2013-01-01

    Although there appears to be a broad recognition of the key role that Public Sector Information (PSI) can play in the development of societies, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of how PSI is actually being utilized and of its wider societal value, especially in developing countries. The overarching goal of this dissertation…

  19. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balisi, Shadreck

    2014-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  20. Standard Setting in the United States: Public and Private Sector Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, D. Linda

    1992-01-01

    Examines the evolution of the U.S. standards process and its basis in U.S. political culture; evaluates the system in the light of the many structural changes taking place in the world economy; and suggests that a new balance must be struck between public and private sector roles. (23 references) (LAE)

  1. Preparing for Public Life: School Sector and the Educational Context of Lasting Citizen Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    School sector and educational context seem to make a difference in civic socialization. There is limited knowledge, however, of the mechanisms through which socialization may occur in public and private schools, and the extent to which they have any lasting effect. Does the private school effect on civic socialization persist into young adulthood,…

  2. Behavioural and Motivational Training for Senior Staff in the Portuguese Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madureira, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    The results of this research has highlighted the fact that most public sector bodies in Portugal do not have any formal specification for training requirements, nor do they have training programmes or detailed training evaluation systems. Furthermore, there is no interaction in these areas between the training body and the Departmental Customer or…

  3. The Nays Have It: When Public Sector Unions Win in California. Civic Report. No. 72

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This November, California voters must decide two policy questions of great concern to public-sector unions. One is a tax hike to stave off further cuts to state spending (there are two versions on the ballot with a chance of passing). The other is a "paycheck protection" measure that would ban the practice of unions' deducting money from member…

  4. Private Service, Public Rights: The Private Children's Residential Group Care Sector in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the core themes and issues of private residential service delivery for children and youth in Ontario, with a specific focus on staffed group care within this sector. Such exploration highlights the juxtaposition of the public rights of children with the private world of service provision. Based on twenty interviews with…

  5. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  6. The skills gap in hospital management in the South African public health sector.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa. PMID:18708881

  7. Choosing Charters: Who Leaves Public School as an Alternative Sector Expands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the number of charter schools in Florida has doubled. We examine five years of data on students moving into these schools from the traditional public sector. We consider student attributes and the school and district contexts that they are leaving. The better students are performing relative to their peers, the less likely they…

  8. Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

  9. Business as Usual: Exploring Private Sector Participation in American Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Charol; Trachtman, Roberta

    Although there is widespread publicity about the involvement of businesses with schools, and as President Reagan as well as authors of reform reports continue to call upon the private sector to help education, it is unclear to what extent such relationships exist and what they are accomplishing. A 10-page, 55-question survey was mailed to the…

  10. Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

  11. Engaging the Online Learner: Perceptions of Public and Private Sector Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagaraja, Meera; Dooley, Larry M.

    2005-01-01

    Engaging the online learner is a prominent issue that is certain to affect the future success of online learning. A critical step in progressing on this issue is to understand how public and private sector educators' adopt distinctive approaches to meet the diverse needs of their environments and their learners. The paper uses a thematic approach…

  12. Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

  13. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris,Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

    2006-05-10

    The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.

  14. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  15. Thomas J. Fagan: award for distinguished professional contributions to practice in the public sector.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Thomas J. Fagan, who received the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Practice in the Public Sector "for his service as a leader in correctional psychology." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115843

  16. Adaptation to Externally Driven Change: The Impact of Political Change on Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector

    PubMed Central

    Tabvuma, Vurain; Bui, Hong T M; Homberg, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a quasi-natural experiment to investigate the adaptation of job satisfaction to externally driven political change in the public sector. This is important because democratic government bureaucracies often experience changes in leadership after elections. The analyses are based on data drawn from a large longitudinal data set, the British Household Panel Survey. Findings indicate that the impact of political elections is largely weak and temporary and is only present for men. For women, the internal processes of the organization tend to be more important. These findings suggest that changes in political leadership may not be associated with fundamental changes in policy. PMID:25598554

  17. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a

  18. Public and private sector responses to essential drugs policies: a multilevel analysis of drug prescription and selling practices in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Fatoumata Ina; Haddad, Slim; Fournier, Pierre; Gauvin, Lise

    2003-09-01

    Many African countries have introduced cost recovery mechanisms based on the sale of drugs and measures aimed at improving drug supply. This study compares prescribing and selling practices in Mali, in 3 cities where the public sector contributes differentially to the supply of drugs on the market. Multilevel models are used to analyse the content and cost of 700 medication transactions observed in 14 private and public legal points of sale. Results show that the objective of improving access to drugs seems to have been achieved in the sites studied. Costs of prescriptions were lower where public health services had been revitalized. Affordable generic drugs were accessible and widely used, even in the private sector. However, measures intended to rationalize the prescription and delivery of drugs did not always have the desired effect. While agents in the public sector tended to prescribe fewer antibiotics, injectables, or brand-name drugs, the data confirm the virtual absence of advice concerning the use or the side effects of the drugs in both public and private sectors. In addition, data supported the notion that the public and private sectors are closely intertwined. Notably, availability of drugs in the public sector contributed to diminishing the prices charged in the private sector. Similarly, the use that agents in the public sector made of the opportunities afforded by the presence of the private pharmaceutical sector provided another illustration of interrelatedness. Finally, the data showed that the presence of a private sector, which has not been affected by measures aimed at rationalizing prescription and sales practices, limits the effects of measures implemented in the public sector. More assertive policies, based on strategies encompassing actors in the private sector, are needed to increase the safety and effectiveness of prescription and sales practices. PMID:12850118

  19. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy—understood as the principle of majority rule—does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption. PMID:26495847

  20. Metric conversion: Future progress depends upon private sector and public support. Report to Congressional requesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    In reviewing federal metric conversion (metrication) activities, the General Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated federal agency activities in (1) establishing metric guidelines and preparing reports on the transition, (2) using the metric system in procurements, (3) using the metric system in grants and other business activities, and (4) dealing with private sector and public attitudes toward conversion. Since 1990, federal preparations for metric conversion have advanced dramatically, with more than 30 agencies having developed some combination of guidelines, transition plans, and progress reports that indicate a substantially greater commitment to metrication. However, they are still facing serious difficulties in putting their plans into practice. These difficulties include a procurement environment in which most products are nonmetric and in which federal agencies represent too small a share of the total market to stimulate private sector conversion. Mixed progress has been made toward metric conversion in the areas of federal grants and other business activities. Grants for research require the use of the metric system, but such a commitment has not been made for grants in other areas, such as housing and education. Agencies that undertake other business-related activities, such as federal programs involving farmers or highway signs, are concerned about private sector and public resistance to conversion. Now that most agencies have made significant progress in preparing for metric conversion, a broader national dialogue between the government, the private sector, and the public is needed to discuss the next steps in decision-making about metric conversion.

  1. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption. PMID:26495847

  2. Workplace romance in the public sector: sex differences in reactions to the Clinton-Lewinsky affair.

    PubMed

    Powell, G N

    2000-12-01

    This study examined reactions of part-time MBA students (n = 199) and undergraduate business students (n = 220) to the affair involving U.S. President Bill Clinton and White House intern Monica Lewinsky prior to Clinton's impeachment by the House of Representatives. Consistent with research on attitudes toward workplace romance in the private sector, women believed that this affair occurring in the public sector represented a more serious problem for the nation and more than men were inclined to prefer that some type of action, e.g., resignation or impeachment, be taken. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11272740

  3. Partners in Public Service: Government and the Nonprofit Sector in the American Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamon, Lester M.; And Others

    This project undertook the following: (1) examination of the scope and structure of the private, nonprofit sector in the United States; (2) analysis of the patterns of spending by Federal, State, and local governments in fields where nonprofit organizations are active; and (3) evaluation of the impact of changes in government policy on the…

  4. Implications of private sector Hib vaccine coverage for the introduction of public sector Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine in India: evidence from retrospective time series data

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. Setting 16 of 29 states in India, 2009–2012. Design Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. Data (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. Outcome measures State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. Results The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009–2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians’ prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009–2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. Conclusions If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is

  5. Addressing gaps in health care sector legal preparedness for public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, Anthony D

    2008-03-01

    Health care providers and their legal counsel play pivotal roles in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies. Lawyers representing hospitals, health systems, and other health care provider components are being called upon to answer complex legal questions regarding public health preparedness issues that most providers have not previously faced. Many of these issues are legal issues with which public health officials should be familiar, and that can serve as a starting point for cross-sector legal preparedness planning involving both the public health and health care communities. This article examines legal issues that health care providers face in preparing for public health emergencies, and steps that providers, their legal counsel, and others can take to address those issues and to strengthen community preparedness. PMID:18388658

  6. EXAMINING THE DIMENSIONALITY OF COLQUITT'S ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE SCALE IN A PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Enoksen, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    In 2001, Colquitt developed an Organizational Justice Scale that intended to measure procedural, distributive, interpersonal, and informational justice. The dimensionality of the scale has been tested in subsequent studies with diverging results. Given the fact that contextual differences may account for more variation across research sites than individual differences, the deviating research findings may be due to context. This study examined the dimensionality of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale in a new context: the public health sector. The procedural and informational justice dimensions were highly correlated, but confirmatory factor analysis showed that a four-factor solution provided a better fit than a three-factor solution. All fit indices for the four-factor model were consistent with a good model. There was, however, evidence of a potential omitted factor, procedural-voice justice, which has also been found in a previous examination of the measure in the public sector. PMID:25871568

  7. Death of the Public Library: From 'People's University' to 'Public-Sector Leisure Centre'.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Miroslaw

    1998-01-01

    Public libraries emerged as educational institutions during the second half of the 19th century. Their aim was the intellectual and moral improvement of individuals and societies. After several decades it became evident that public libraries had failed as "people's universities." They came to acknowledge the provision of entertainment as a…

  8. Organizing for Social Partnership: Higher Education in Cross-Sector Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The most complex social challenges--such as post-secondary access and success for under-represented students, diversification of the workforce, poverty, environmental degradation, and global health--exceed the problem-solving capacity of single organizations or societal sectors. "Organizing for Social Partnership" provides colleges and…

  9. Adoption of Innovation from the Business Sector by Post-Primary Education Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Zelig, Dafna

    2016-01-01

    Business organizations adopt innovation with the objective of meeting competition and improving their business performance; education organizations, likewise, operate in a competitive environment, are evaluated by stakeholders, and adopt innovation. The research presented here links these two sectors; its objective was to characterize the process…

  10. Buprenorphine Maintenance for Opioid Dependence in Public Sector Healthcare: Benefits and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Laura G.; Mendoza, Sonia; Hansen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background Since its U.S. FDA approval in 2002, buprenorphine has been available for maintenance treatment of opiate dependence in primary care physicians’ offices. Though buprenorphine was intended to facilitate access to treatment, disparities in utilization have emerged; while buprenorphine treatment is widely used in private care setting, public healthcare integration of buprenorphine lags behind. Results Through a review of the literature, we found that U.S. disparities are partly due to a shortage of certified prescribers, concern of patient diversion, as well as economic and institutional barriers. Disparity of buprenorphine treatment dissemination is concerning since buprenorphine treatment has specific characteristics that are especially suited for low-income patient population in public sector healthcare such as flexible dosing schedules, ease of concurrently treating co-morbidities such as HIV and hepatitis C, positive patient attitudes towards treatment, and the potential of reducing addiction treatment stigma. Conclusion As the gap between buprenorphine treatment in public sector settings and private sector settings persists in the U.S., current research suggests ways to facilitate its dissemination. PMID:27088135

  11. Making choices for sectoral organization in water and sanitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.B.; Salt, E.; Rosenweig, F.

    1992-03-01

    The report provides an analytical framework for assessing the organization of the water and sanitation (W S) sector and uses the framework to develop case studies of Paraguay, Chile, Tunisia, Malaysia, and Zimbabwe. The analytical framework covers four areas: (1) the primary factors influencing sectoral organization, including historical background, political system, level of economic development, land area and population, and availability of water resources; (2) the division of roles and responsibilities among sectoral agencies; (3) the adequacy of institutional arrangements for setting policies and standards, and planning, financing, and implementing projects; and (4) the sector's ability to address the issues of cost recovery, community management, health and hygiene education, and operations and maintenance. A final section details the lessons learned from the case studies.

  12. Job satisfaction among nurses working in the private and public sectors: a qualitative study in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Saima; Malik, Asmat Ullah; Kamran, Irum; Ramzan, Musarat

    2014-01-01

    Background Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse. Methods A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients. Results All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system. Conclusion The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain aspects of its organization are key, including numbers (available quantity), skill mix (health team balance), distribution (urban/rural), and working conditions (compensation, nonfinancial incentives, and workplace safety). This study has identified the need to reform policies for

  13. Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2013-01-01

    Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

  14. Nexus between preventive policy inadequacies, workplace bullying, and mental health: Qualitative findings from the experiences of Australian public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Hurley, John; Hutchinson, Marie; Bradbury, Joanne; Browne, Graeme

    2016-02-01

    Public sector organizations have been shown to have high levels of workplace bullying, despite widespread adoption of zero-tolerance policy. Given the level of harm that stems from bullying, it has been suggested that it might be one of the most serious problems facing modern organizations. The qualitative findings from a large cross sectional study of public servants in Australia are reported in the present study. The results highlight palpable mental distress and illness stemming from exposure to workplace bullying. This distress was exacerbated by failures in prohibitive workplace procedures. Reporting bullying through formal organization processes did not lead to resolution of the problem; it instead highlighted feelings of powerlessness and mistrust. In light of the findings, we suggest that an alternative discourse is required, one that gives attention to enhancing employee resilience and self-healing behaviours to the emotional trauma of workplaces. Organizations might be better placed investing resources in fostering the resilience and emotional intelligence of their workforce, rather than continuing to invest resources in prohibitive policies that fail to address the problem. Employees should be supported to prioritize responsibility for their own mental health, rather than an overreliance on organizational responses. PMID:26752457

  15. Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-04-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  16. A Computerized Service Helps Students Find Non-Profit or Public-Sector Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    ACCESS: Networking in the Public Interest provides people and job placement offices nationwide with job listings and pertinent information on public-interest organizations. Students at subscribing institutions will be able to punch their employment interest into the computer and get back a listing of appropriate job openings. (MLW)

  17. A Supervisor like Me: Race, Representation, and the Satisfaction and Turnover Decisions of Public Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Keiser, Lael R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of race representation in public organizations illustrate the importance of bureaucrat race in determining client-level outcomes. Building "upward" from this research, this study examines how supervisor race impacts outcomes for street-level bureaucrats using data from a nationally representative sample of public schools. Employing…

  18. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    PubMed

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology. PMID:26751159

  19. Collaboration across private and public sector primary health care services: benefits, costs and policy implications.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Julie; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Fort Harris, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Ongoing care for chronic conditions is best provided by interprofessional teams. There are challenges in achieving this where teams cross organisational boundaries. This article explores the influence of organisational factors on collaboration between private and public sector primary and community health services involved in diabetes care. It involved a case study using qualitative methods. Forty-five participants from 20 organisations were purposively recruited. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and from content analysis of documents. Thematic analysis was used employing a two-level coding system and cross case comparisons. The patterns of collaborative patient care were influenced by a combination of factors relating to the benefits and costs of collaboration and the influence of support mechanisms. Benefits lay in achieving common or complementary health or organisational goals. Costs were incurred in bridging differences in organisational size, structure, complexity and culture. Collaboration was easier between private sector organisations than between private and public sectors. Financial incentives were not sufficient to overcome organisational barriers. To achieve more coordinated primary and community health care structural changes are also needed to better align funding mechanisms, priorities and accountabilities of the different organisations. PMID:21554068

  20. Skills and abilities needed by environmental health science and protection professionals in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Michele

    2003-01-01

    The National Environmental Health Science and Protection Accreditation Council (EHAC) accredits undergraduate academic environmental health science programs in the United States. The guidelines used by EHAC include core and technical courses that students should take in order to graduate with a bachelor of science degree in environmental health science. As part of a review of the accreditation guidelines, the research reported in this paper was undertaken with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the skills and abilities needed by entry-level environmental health professionals in the public sector, the research 1) examined existing environmental health priorities in public-health agencies, 2) reviewed entry-level job postings, and 3) surveyed more than 120 public-health professionals across the country. The results suggest that students who graduate from accredited programs must be skilled interpersonal communicators with a broad base of technical knowledge. PMID:12575636

  1. Reflecting the Context of MPA Education in the Time of Economic Crisis in Public Sectors in Britain and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Chrissie; Berg, Mireille van den

    2013-01-01

    The reality of the economic crisis and subsequent cuts in public sector funding in some European countries means that the context for public management education is significantly changing. In a period of economic constraint there is the obvious questioning of the cost of public management education programmes and even more of their relevance and…

  2. Transition of Higher Education Graduates to the Labour Market: Are Employment Procedures More Meritocratic in the Public Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    As an employer, the public sector might be expected to be more meritocratic than the private sector, because of its democratic values and more transparent appointments procedures. In this context meritocratic means that the employer only considers characteristics such as degree and grades, relevant for the position in question. The individuals in…

  3. Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

  4. [Organization and technology in the grocery store sector].

    PubMed

    Gambetti, Edy

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, grocery stores develop an annual turnover of 92 billion of , (data referred to 2013) and have 28.232 stores spread over a commercial area of 17.224.000 m2. The business involved are 252, linked with 30 important distribution leader companies. The total workforce is about 280.000 people. The grocery stores structure is composed by suppliers and producers warehouses and different kinds of stores (hypermarkets, supermarkets, shops and discounts). In the stores, the technological progress concerns fundamentally back-office operations; the improvement of information and computer science is the main renewal source. Other tasks as receiving goods and stocking shelves are still executed without specific inovations. In terms of organization, we observed a strong increase of part-time workers, the development of atypical contract and thie inclination to contract the easiest jobs (for example, stocking shelves). Also the warehouses often use to sub-contract the picking tasks. The increase of on-line shopping, also concerning the groceries, represents the most relevant evolution in tire near future. PMID:25558711

  5. The economic rationale of public and private sector roles in the provision of animal health services.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V

    2004-04-01

    In the changing market environment of livestock products, the delivery of animal health services is emerging as an important priority area for enhancing the competitiveness of poor livestock producers. At the same time, governments are continuing to face serious budgetary difficulties and are finding it difficult to expand the reach of these services or improve service quality. In this context of a changing environment and dwindling public resources, this paper revisits the economic framework that has thus far guided thinking about public and private sector roles in the provision of animal health services and examines the ongoing debate on livestock service delivery for the poor. The paper highlights the importance of strong institutions and appropriate legislation for regulating behaviour and enforcing contracts and re-emphasises the idea, which is supported by economic theory, that there is a need for task sharing between the public and private sectors. The paper further emphasizes the need for: a) integrating the debate on livestock service delivery with the larger debate on political economy and institutional development, and b) ensuring service access in poor marginal areas by working through membership organisations, self-help groups and civil society organisations, and by promoting the use of para-professionals and community-based animal health delivery systems. PMID:15200085

  6. African American Patients Seeking Treatment in the Public Sector: Characteristics of Buprenorphine v. Methadone Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kelly, Sharon M.; Gryczynski, Jan; Myers, C. Patrick; Jaffe, Jerome H.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Olsen, Yngvild K.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Background To expand its public-sector treatment capacity, Baltimore City made buprenorphine treatment accessible to low-income, largely African American residents. This study compares the characteristics of patients entering methadone treatment v. buprenorphine treatment to determine whether BT was attracting different types of patients. Methods Participants consisted of two samples of adult heroin-dependent African Americans. The first sample was newly-admitted to a health center or a mental health center providing buprenorphine (N=200), and the second sample was newly-admitted to one of two hospital-based methadone programs (N=178). The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Friends Supplemental Questionnaire were administered at treatment entry and data were analyzed with logistic regression. Results BT participants were more likely to be female (p=.017) and less likely to inject (p=.001). Participants with only prior buprenorphine treatment experience were nearly five time more likely to enter buprenorphine than methadone treatment (p<.001). Those with experience with both treatments were more than twice as likely to enter BT (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.11–6.62; p=.028). In the 30 days prior to treatment entry, BT participants reported more days of medical problems (p=.002) and depression (p=.044), and were more likely to endorse a lifetime history of depression (p<.001). Conclusion Methadone and buprenorphine treatment provided in the public sector may attract different patient subpopulations. Providing buprenorphine treatment through drug treatment programs co-located with a health and mental health center may have accounted for their higher rates of medical and psychiatric problems and appears to be useful in attracting a diverse group of patients into public-sector funded treatment. PMID:21962726

  7. Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy. PMID:25317991

  8. The impact of the 1975 New York City financial crisis on public sector unionism.

    PubMed

    Kruger, D H; Rodgers, R C

    1978-01-01

    Using New York City's 1975 financial crisis as an example, this article argues that the classic inelastic theory of wage demand for public sector employment (higher wages do not lead to reductions in employment) has been supplanted in the mid-1970s by a kinked demand relationship (the idea that higher wages can and do lead to reductions in employment), wherein unions can improve wages for their respective memberships only by implementing strategies that lend themselves to facilitating an increase in overall demand for government services. PMID:10318417

  9. Strengthening of partnerships between the public sector and faith-based groups.

    PubMed

    Duff, Jean F; Buckingham, Warren W

    2015-10-31

    The sharpening focus on global health and the growing recognition of the capacities and scope of faith-based groups for improving community health outcomes suggest an intentional and systematic approach to forging strong, sustained partnerships between public sector agencies and faith-based organisations. Drawing from both development and faith perspectives, this Series paper examines trends that could ground powerful, more sustainable partnerships and identifies new opportunities for collaboration based on respective strengths and existing models. This paper concludes with five areas of recommendations for more effective collaboration to achieve health goals. PMID:26159394

  10. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  11. Partnerships between the faith-based and medical sectors: Implications for preventive medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships-involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies-are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential. PMID:27512649

  12. Labour market participation after breast cancer for employees from the private and public sectors: Educational and sector gradients in the effect of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Heinesen, Eskil

    2016-05-01

    For employees who get cancer and survive, the probability of returning to work may depend on their ability to work, potential earnings losses if they do not return to work, qualifications and job type, but also on characteristics of the pre-cancer workplace. This paper focuses on differences between public and private sector employees in the effect of breast cancer on the probability of being out of the labour force three years after the diagnosis. We use propensity score weighting methods and a large longitudinal Danish administrative dataset which allows us to control for a wide range of important baseline characteristics such as education, sector of employment, labour market status, income, health, and demographics. We find that the educational gradient in the effect of cancer is significant in the public sector, where the estimated effects are 11.5 and 3.8 percentage points, respectively, for the low- and high-educated. The corresponding estimates for the private sector are 6.2 and 3.2 percentage points and here the educational gradient is only marginally significant. We discuss possible mechanisms behind the large sector gradient for the low-educated. PMID:26744998

  13. Eliminating malaria in Malaysia: the role of partnerships between the public and commercial sectors in Sabah

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    general public. Best practices included consistent communication, developing government-staffed subsector offices for malaria control on-site, engaging commercial plantations to provide financial and human resources for malaria control activities, and the development of new worker screening programmes. The successes and challenges associated with partnerships between the public and commercial sector can serve as an example for other malaria-eliminating countries with large plantation sectors, and may also be applied to other sectors that employ migrant workers or have commercial enterprises in hard to reach areas. PMID:24443824

  14. Health worker (internal customer) satisfaction and motivation in the public sector in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyepong, Irene Akua; Anafi, Patricia; Asiamah, Ebenezer; Ansah, Evelyn K; Ashon, Daniel A; Narh-Dometey, Christiana

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes factors affecting health worker motivation and satisfaction in the public sector in Ghana. The data are from a survey of public sector health care providers carried out in January 2002 and repeated in August 2003 using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. It is part of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in the health sector in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Workplace obstacles identified that caused dissatisfaction and de-motivated staff in order of the most frequently mentioned were low salaries such that obtaining basic necessities of daily living becomes a problem; lack of essential equipment, tools and supplies to work with; delayed promotions; difficulties and inconveniences with transportation to work; staff shortages; housing, additional duty allowances and in-service (continuous) training. Others included children's education, vehicles to work with such as ambulances and pickups, staff transfer procedures, staff pre-service education inadequate for job requirements, and the effect of the job on family and other social factors. There were some differences in the percentages of staff selecting a given workplace obstacle between the purely rural districts, the highly urbanized Accra metropolis and the districts that were a mixture of urbanized and rural. It is unlikely that the Ghana Health Service can provide high quality of care to its end users (external customers) if workplace obstacles that de-motivate staff (internal customers) and negatively influence their performance are not properly recognized and addressed as a complex of inter-related problems producing a common result--dissatisfied poorly motivated staff and resulting poor quality services. PMID:15688876

  15. Advancing the business creed? The framing of decisions about public sector managed care.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Yager, Joel; Santos, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research has clarified how executives of for-profit healthcare organisations frame their own motivations and behaviour, or how government officials frame their interactions with executives. Because managed care has provided an organisational structure for health services in many countries, we focused our study on executives and government officials who were administering public sector managed care services. Emphasising theoretically the economic versus non-economic motivations that guide economic behaviour, we extended a long-term research project on public sector Medicaid managed care (MMC) in the United States. Our method involved in-depth, structured interviews with chief executive officers of managed care organisations, as well as high-ranking officials of state government. Data analysis involved iterative interpretation of interview data. We found that the rate of profit, which proved relatively low in the MMC programme, occupied a limited place in executives' self-described motivations and in state officials' descriptions of corporation-government interactions. Non-economic motivations included a strong orientation toward corporate social responsibility and a creed in which market processes advanced human wellbeing. Such patterns contradict some of the given wisdom about how corporate executives and government officials construct their reality. PMID:21707659

  16. Trends in childhood vaccine purchase costs in the US public sector: 1996-2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Messonnier, Mark; Zhou, Fangjun

    2016-09-01

    While vaccination remains as one of the most cost-effective preventive strategies, the cost of fully immunizing a child has grown considerably over the last few decades. This study examines trends in non-influenza childhood vaccine purchase costs in the public sector from 1996 to 2014. Non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child for children aged 0 through 18years was calculated based on public-sector purchase prices. Purchase cost changes were then decomposed into changes attributable to recommendation updates and changes attributable to price variation. The study analyzed the growth rate of combination vaccine prices separately and compared these prices with the sum of prices of component vaccines. It is found that the average annual growth rate of non-influenza vaccine purchase cost per child during 1996-2014 was 12.6%. The growth rate attributable to price changes was 1.0% on average. Combination vaccine prices showed greater variation. The study concludes that vaccine price variation was one but a minor reason for purchase cost changes. Recommendation updates, particularly the introduction of new vaccines, played a much larger role in raising the purchase costs. If the 12.6% annual growth rate found during 1996-2014 in the study continues to apply, the purchase costs of childhood vaccines may more than double by 2020. PMID:27522176

  17. Adapting Washington Circle Performance Measures for Public Sector Substance Abuse Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Lee, Margaret T.; Horgan, Constance M.; Acevedo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The Washington Circle (WC), a group focused on developing and disseminating performance measures for substance abuse services, developed three such measures for private health plans. In this article, we explore whether these measures are appropriate for meeting measurement goals in the public sector and feasible to calculate in the public sector using data collected for administrative purposes by state and local substance abuse and/or mental health agencies. Working collaboratively, twelve states specified revised measures and six states pilot tested them. Two measures were retained from the original specifications: initiation of treatment and treatment engagement. Additional measures were focused on continuity of care after assessment, detoxification, residential or inpatient care. These data demonstrate that state agencies can calculate performance measures from routinely available information and that there is wide variability in these indicators. Ongoing research is needed to examine the reasons for these results which might include lack of patient interest or commitment, need for quality improvement efforts, or financial issues. PMID:18722075

  18. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers

  19. Public sector scale–up of zinc and ORS improves coverage in selected districts in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; Lamberti, Laura M.; Black, Robert E.; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bihar, India, a new initiative to enhance diarrhea treatment with zinc and ORS in the public sector was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation to measure changes in diarrhea careseeking and treatment in intervention districts. Methods We conducted baseline and endline household surveys among caregivers of children 2–59 months of age. We calculated summary statistics for household characteristics, knowledge, careseeking and treatments given to children with a diarrhea episode in the last 14 days and built logistic regression models to compare baseline and endline values. Results Caregivers named a public health center as an appropriate source of care for childhood diarrhea more often at endline (71.3%) compared to baseline (38.4%) but did not report increased careseeking to public sector providers for the current diarrhea episode. In logistic regression analyses, the odds of receiving zinc, with or without oral rehydration salts (ORS), increased at endline by more than 2.7 as compared to baseline. Children who were taken to the public sector for care were more likely to receive zinc (odds ratio, OR = 3.93) and zinc in addition to ORS (OR = 6.10) compared to children who were not taken to the public sector. Conclusion Coverage of zinc and ORS can improve with public sector programs targeted at training and increasing product availability, but demand creation may be needed to increase public sector careseeking in areas where the private sector has historically provided much of the care. PMID:26322230

  20. Is Satisfaction with the Acute-Care Experience Higher amongst Consumers Treated in the Private Sector? A Survey of Public and Private Sector Arthroplasty Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as ‘definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0

  1. Psychology in the Public Sector: Addressing the Psychological Effects of Combat in the U.S. Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Morgan T.

    2005-01-01

    The response of military psychology in times of war or other great public crises may presage the success of the profession in less perilous times. The ability of public-sector psychologists to provide assistance and improve the common welfare during conflict or turmoil is generally followed by an increased demand for psychological services. This…

  2. Cross-Sector Research Associated with Nutrition: Comparison of Private and Public Schools on Health Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.

    Healthy People 2010 is the initiative that defines the U.S. health agenda and guides policy. The initiative provides direction for individuals to change personal behaviors and for organizations and communities to support good health through health promotion policies. The objective of this research was to compare public and private schools on…

  3. Barriers to Private Sector Public School Collaboration. A Set of Exploratory Papers Commissioned by the National Institute of Education and the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    Six exploratory papers by different authors from both the corporate sector and the public school systems present several relevant perspectives on business/education collaboration. The first, by Dr. Marsha Levine (who also provides the introduction to the collection), suggests three analytic frameworks for planning and implementing public/private…

  4. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non

  5. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  6. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  7. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape

  8. Approaches to organizing public relations functions in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bonnie; Williams, David R; Aldridge, Alicia; Roggenkamp, Susan D

    2007-01-01

    This article provides health care audiences with a framework for understanding different perspectives of the role and functions of public relations in healthcare organizations and the resultant alternatives for organizing and enacting public relations functions. Using an example of a current issue receiving much attention in US healthcare (improving rates of organ donation), the article provides examples of how these different perspectives influence public relations goals and objectives, definitions of 'public', activities undertaken, who undertakes them and where they fit into the organizational hierarchy. PMID:19042525

  9. Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-05-01

    Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector. PMID:22763126

  10. Public moralities and markets in organs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2014-06-01

    Schweda and Schicktanz argue that the debate over the ethics of using financial incentives to procure human transplant organs rests on socioempirical premises that need to be critically assessed. They contend that once this is achieved a completely new perspective on the debate should be adopted, with organ donation being viewed primarily as a reciprocal social interaction between donor and recipient. This paper challenges this conclusion, arguing that rather than supporting a new perspective on the debate over the commercial procurement of organs, the observations of Schweda and Schicktanz support the view that human organs should be commercialized. PMID:24776980

  11. Monitoring foods and beverages provided and sold in public sector settings.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, M; Schermel, A; Minaker, L; Kelly, B; Lee, A; Vandevijvere, S; Twohig, P; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    This paper outlines a step-wise framework for monitoring foods and beverages provided or sold in publicly funded institutions. The focus is on foods in schools, but the framework can also be applied to foods provided or sold in other publicly funded institutions. Data collection and evaluation within this monitoring framework will consist of two components. In component I, information on existing food or nutrition policies and/or programmes within settings would be compiled. Currently, nutrition standards and voluntary guidelines associated with such policies/programmes vary widely globally. This paper, which provides a comprehensive review of such standards and guidelines, will facilitate institutional learnings for those jurisdictions that have not yet established them or are undergoing review of existing ones. In component II, the quality of foods provided or sold in public sector settings is evaluated relative to existing national or sub-national nutrition standards or voluntary guidelines. Where there are no (or only poor) standards or guidelines available, the nutritional quality of foods can be evaluated relative to standards of a similar jurisdiction or other appropriate standards. Measurement indicators are proposed (within 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches) that can be used to monitor progress over time in meeting policy objectives, and facilitate comparisons between countries. PMID:24074214

  12. Vertical and Horizontal Trust at Work as Predictors of Retirement Intentions: The Finnish Public Sector Study

    PubMed Central

    Muurinen, Charlotte; Laine, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula

    2014-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations of trust towards the supervisor (vertical trust) and trust towards co-workers (horizontal trust) with retirement intentions. The participants were 14 840 women and men working in the municipal sector in 2000–12 (Finnish Public Sector Study). Trust (vertical trust towards the supervisor and horizontal trust towards co-workers) and retirement intentions were assessed in repeated surveys. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between baseline trust and retirement intentions at 3.7 years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, health, psychological distress, health risk behaviors, personality factors, and psychosocial factors were included as covariates. Of the participants, 67.0% trusted their supervisor and 54.9% trusted their co-workers. Employees who trusted their supervisor (odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.67) and employees who trusted their co-workers (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.70) at baseline were less likely to have strong retirement intentions at follow-up compared to those who did not trust. These associations largely persisted after adjusting for all covariates and taking into account baseline retirement intentions. In conclusion, trust in the supervisor and co-workers predicted retirement intentions. These observational findings suggest that increasing trust in the workplace may contribute to lengthening working careers and preventing early retirement. PMID:25191745

  13. Public School Foundations: Their Organization and Operation. ERS Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Katherine; And Others

    Public school foundations are privately operated, nonprofit organizations established for the specific purpose of raising money for use by individual public school districts. This monograph examines the advantages and disadvantages of public school foundations, and describes the conditions necessary for such foundations to succeed. Chapter 1…

  14. Leadership in Surgery for Public Sector Hospitals in Jamaica: Strategies for the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

  15. Leadership in surgery for public sector hospitals in Jamaica: strategies for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica.Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

  16. Private health purchasing practices in the public sector: a comparison of state employers and the Fortune 500.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, James; Temin, Peter; Petigara, Tanaz

    2004-01-01

    State governments are influential purchasers of health benefits but have not been studied extensively. In a recent survey of senior benefit managers, we examine the extent to which states have followed the private-sector approach to purchasing health care. We found that states have adopted "industrial purchasing" practices similar to those of large private employers but offer greater choice of carriers and pay a higher percentage of premiums. Unions continue to influence health care purchasing in both the public and private sectors. Double-digit increases in health costs and the current budget crisis may force states to align their purchasing practices with the private sector to cut costs. PMID:15046142

  17. Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith

    2013-04-01

    National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that

  18. The role of regulation in influencing income-generating activities among public sector doctors in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Jumpa, Manuel; Jan, Stephen; Mills, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine in Peru the nature of dual practice (doctors holding two jobs at once – usually public sector doctors with private practices), the factors that influence individuals' decisions to undertake dual practice, the conditions faced when doing so and the potential role of regulatory intervention in this area. Methods The study entailed qualitative interviews with a sample of twenty medical practitioners based in metropolitan Lima, representing a cross-section of those primarily employed in either the private or public sectors and engaged in clinical practice or policy making. The interviews focused on: 1. individuals' experience with dual practice; 2. the general underlying pressures that influence the nature and extent of such activities; and 3. attitudes toward, and the influence of, regulation on such activities. Results Dual practice is an activity that is widespread and well-accepted, and the prime personal motivation is financial. However, there are also a number of important broad macroeconomic influences on dual practice particularly the oversupply of medical services, the deregulated nature of this market, and the economic crisis throughout the country, which combine to create major hardships for those attempting to make a living through medical practice. There is some support among doctors for tighter regulation. Conclusion Research findings suggest appropriate policy responses to dual practice involve tighter controls on the supply of medical practitioners; alleviation of financial pressures brought by macro-economic conditions; and closer regulation of such activities to ensure some degree of collective action over quality and the maintenance of professional reputations. Further research into this issue in rural areas is needed to ascertain the geographical generalizability of these policy responses. PMID:17324290

  19. Conscientious objection and abortion: rights and duties of public sector physicians.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2011-10-01

    The paper analyzes conscientious objection by physicians, through the concrete situation of legal abortion in Brazil. It reviews the two main ethical frameworks about conscientious objection in public health, the incompatibility thesis and the integrity thesis, to analyze the reality of legal abortion services in the referral services of the Brazilian public health care system. From these two perspectives, a third perspective is proposed - the justification thesis, to manage the right to conscientious objection among physicians in referral services. This analysis may contribute to the organization of services for legal abortion and to the education of future physicians working in emergency obstetric care. PMID:21808831

  20. A decision support system framework to improve design-construction integration and project performance on public sector underground utility projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrig, Gary Bruce

    One of the noted difficulties with the traditional public works project development process is the lack of integration and sharing of information between engineering and construction entities that results in a decrease in project performance. To improve project performance on public sector underground utility projects, the research develops a decision support system framework that enhances the exchange and integration of relevant information and knowledge between entities on such projects by incorporating a lessons-learned database to document, organize and disseminate lessons-learned on a project. To identify the critical activities within the project development process that could be linked to the decision support system, the Integration Definition for Functioning Modeling (IDEFO) technique was used to create a representative model of the public works project development process. The resultant model demonstrated the repeatable nature of the process both across project phases and from project-to-project and identified the decision-making activities of generating and evaluating alternatives as key opportunities for construction-related input that could be linked to a decision support system. An inspection of current industry practices was conducted through interviews with knowledgeable industry sources to determine the scope of the decision support system framework. Results revealed the type of critical decisions on underground utility projects that could benefit from construction-related input and identified the documentation of lessons-learned as a major industry weakness. A prototype decision support system incorporating a lessons-learned database was developed and the framework integrated into common project management reporting mechanisms found in the industry. The actual decision-maker can retrieve lessons-learned according to predetermined categories of critical decisions, compare and evaluated retrieved alternatives, and document the rationale behind the

  1. The Impact Analysis of Direct Public R&D and Innovation Investments in Turkish Space Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Derya; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    According to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), space sector plays a pivotal role in the functioning of modern societies and their economic development. It is in the scope of OECD's International Futures Programme. The global space economy, as defined by the OECD Space Forum, comprises the space industry's core activities in space manufacturing and in satellite operations, plus other consumer activities that have been derived over the years from governmental research and development. In 2013 commercial revenues generated by the space economy amounted to USD 256.2 billion globally that is huge amount of space investment in the world. Recently, Turkey has also entered to the sector and it has growing strategic interest in space. First satellite project was started with a technology transfer from UK by TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute in 2001 and it launched to its orbit in 2003. Then RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 satellites were developed and launched to their orbits respectively in 2011 and 2012. Today, we have other satellite projects that are going on, too. However, we do not have a mechanism or a model to assess the impacts of those projects. What kind of model can be used to measure the impact of direct public R&D and innovation investments in Turkish space sector? The aim of this study is to develop a model which would be useful for monitoring the performance of R&D and Innovation investments that are conducted through government policies and strategies and so on to give feedback for effective strategy making. When we look at the impact analysis studies in Turkey, we see a few such as TUBITAK (Özçelik and Taymaz, 2008; Erden, 2010; Tandoǧan, 2011), İşkur (World Bank Report, 2013), Ministry of Economy (TTGV, 2013), Development Agencies (İZKA, 2011; Elçi vd., 2011; Pınar, 2014; Meydan, 2014). There is need for a systematic approach to impact analysis. Since there is no data for this study, we would develop a model with

  2. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries.

    PubMed

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-08-11

    Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013-2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. PMID:27540122

  3. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries

    PubMed Central

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013–2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. PMID:27540122

  4. Patients as healthcare consumers in the public and private sectors: a qualitative study of acupuncture in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Results Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Conclusions Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS and private patients both had

  5. Structured Decision Making in Public Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Julianne G.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies of the use of Nominal Group Technique are analyzed, and an exercise with public administration students is reported suggesting that perceived levels of participation are higher in interacting than in nominal groups. Assumptions about the politics behind such methods are explored. (Author/CH)

  6. Uzbekistan Part Organizations' Solicitude for Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermukhamedov, S.

    1972-01-01

    The directive of the Twenty-Fourth Congress of the CPSU stipulating a consistent rise in the level of education and the skill level of the working people, and the complete trasition to universal secondary education for young people today determines the basic direction in the development of public education in the U.S.S.R. (Author)

  7. Environmental impacts of building integrated PV applications in the state public buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, J.; Agbemabiese, L.; Kliesch, J.; Eiffert, P.; Hadjilambrinos, C.; Nigro, R.

    1999-07-01

    If the US is to meet its commitments for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emission reductions, as anticipated by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change and the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990, it almost certainly must implement policies to increase the use of renewable energy. This paper evaluates the potential of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to deliver high-value electrical services while offsetting SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Their study focuses on PV applications in the public buildings sector because of its potential for speeding the commercialization of the technology in a market conducive to long-term return on investment. The study investigates the economic and environmental implications of PV meeting 2% of the energy demand of public buildings. The specific application investigated is a roof-mounted dispatchable peak-shaving system with uninterruptible power supply (UPS) capability. Several previous studies have shown that such a system is cost-effective on the basis of the energy services it provides. The present analysis indicates that this application can play an important role in helping the US meet its CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions targets.

  8. Communicating with Public Health Organizations: Technical Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, Alexandru; Catalan, Daniel; Kurapkiene, Skaidra; Felfly, Wadih

    By working with experts throughout Europe, ECDC pools Europe's health knowledge, so as to develop authoritative scientific opinions about the risks posed by current and emerging infectious diseases. Difficulties rose in the management of competent bodies' lists and the information was duplicated several times across the organization. ECDC started implementing a CRM system to organize the information in a structured data model, track the history of communication, provide contact information to application in house and support the nomination process and the user identity management for these applications.

  9. Organization and Financing of Washington Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This document is a handbook on school organization and finance in Washington State. It encompasses legislation passed during the 1990 and 1991 legislative sessions and school district fiscal data through the 1990-91 school year. The guide attempts to simplify the complex subject of school finance for use by educators, policy makers, and the…

  10. National Organizations Raising Public Consciousness. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Statements of seven national organizations (Muscular Dystrophy Association, Spina Bifida Association of America, National Easter Seal Society, International Association of Parents of the Deaf, American Foundation for the Blind, Down's Syndrome Congress, and the National Society for Autistic Children) about raising community awareness of issues…

  11. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  12. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  13. Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspersma, J. M.; Alaerts, G. J.; Slinger, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    The water sector is dependent on effective institutions and organisations, and, therefore, on strong competences at the individual level. In this paper we describe competence formation and competence needs in a case study of the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR) in the Ministry of Public Works in Indonesia. A framework is introduced for the water sector comprising three aggregate competences for technical issues, management, and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both surveys and interviews reveal a strong perceived requirement for other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. Further, a discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that can be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With low competence in these fields, it is difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in a multidisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this is partially compensated by the attention to continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is experienced as fundamentally formative.

  14. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  15. Effect of Public Relations Efforts on Media Visibility of Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, S. Holly

    1985-01-01

    Reveals that under some circumstances, public relations activities have no relationship or "effect" on media visibility independent of the news value characteristics of the organizations for which they are working. (FL)

  16. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014

  17. Geropsychology Post-Doctoral Training in Public Sector Service Delivery: The USF/Tampa VA Fellowship Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Victor; Chiriboga, David A.; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Haley, William E.; Schinka, John A.; Hyer, Kathy; Dupree, Larry W.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for geropsychologists who are specialists in practice, research, education, and advocacy for older adults. The combined USF/Tampa VA geropsychology fellowship program focuses on the training of three post-doctoral Fellows each year in public sector service delivery across diverse long term care (LTC) and primary care…

  18. Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals. Working Paper 66

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Gregory F.; Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Although much has been written about the importance of leadership in the determination of organizational success, there is little quantitative evidence due to the difficulty of separating the impact of leaders from other organizational components--particularly in the public sector. Schools provide an especially rich environment for studying the…

  19. Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals. NBER Working Paper No. 17803

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Gregory F.; Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Although much has been written about the importance of leadership in the determination of organizational success, there is little quantitative evidence due to the difficulty of separating the impact of leaders from other organizational components--particularly in the public sector. Schools provide an especially rich environment for studying the…

  20. Applying the Methodology of the Community College Classification Scheme to the Public Master's Colleges and Universities Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkead, J. Clint.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    This work brings forward the geographically-based classification scheme for the public Master's Colleges and Universities sector. Using the same methodology developed by Katsinas and Hardy (2005) to classify community colleges, this work classifies Master's Colleges and Universities. This work has four major findings and conclusions. First, a…

  1. Autochthonous Minority Languages in Public-Sector Primary Education: Bilingual Policies and Politics in Brittany and Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vaughan; McLeod, Wilson

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between policy and politics in relation to the development of public-sector primary education through Breton and Gaelic, considering closely the patterns of power through which such provision is delivered. Brittany and Scotland present many similarities as culturally distinctive territories, contained within…

  2. Why Does Unemployment Hurt the Employed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luechinger, Simon; Meier, Stephan; Stutzer, Alois

    2010-01-01

    High unemployment rates entail substantial costs to the working population in terms of reduced subjective well-being. This paper studies the importance of individual economic security, in particular job security, by exploiting sector-specific institutional differences in the exposure to economic shocks. Public servants have stricter dismissal…

  3. Rereporting of Child Maltreatment: Does Participation in Other Public Sector Services Moderate the Likelihood of a Second Maltreatment Report?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Brett; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Sapokaite, Lina

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study uses administrative data to track the first rereports of maltreatment in a low-income, urban child welfare population (n = 4957) while controlling for other public service involvement. Service system involvement is explored across the following sectors: Child Welfare, Income Maintenance, Special Education, Juvenile Court, and…

  4. Organisational Responses to Public Sector Reforms in Higher Education in Uganda: A Case Study of Makerere University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisaso, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses changes in university management structures and practices as a response to public sector reforms in Ugandan higher education using Makerere University as a case study. The study uses the organisational learning theory and a review of the higher education literature. Two adaptive responses in the management structures and…

  5. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  6. Squaring Their Roots: Leadership Perceptions and Practices of Some U.S.-Trained African Professionals in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dant, William Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the public sector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development and…

  7. A Public Relations Handbook for Early Childhood Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Joan

    This public relations handbook for staff members of early childhood organizations identifies elements of the communications process and provides tips on conducting effective publicity activities. News (hard breaking news and news with a human interest slant) is distinguished from trivia and examples are given of each. Guidelines for arranging…

  8. Short-run and long-run elasticities of electricity demand in the public sector: A case study of the United States Navy bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jino

    Numerous studies have examined the elasticities of electricity demand---residential as well as commercial and industrial---in the private sector. However, no one appears to have examined the behavior of the public sector demand. This study aims to fill that gap and to provide insights into the electricity demand in the public sector, using the U.S. Navy bases as a case study. This study examines electricity demand data of 38 Navy activities within the United States for a 16-year time period from 1985 through 2000. The Navy maintains a highly diverse shore infrastructure to conduct its mission and to support the fleet. The types of shore facilities include shipyards, air stations, aviation depots, hospital, and many others. These Navy activities are analogous to commercial or industrial organizations in the private sector. In this study, I used a number of analytical approaches to estimate short-run and long-run elasticities of electricity demand. Estimation using pooled data was rejected because it failed the test for homogeneity. Estimation using the time series data of each Navy activity had several wrong signs for coefficients. The Stein-rule estimator did not differ significantly from the separate cross-section estimates because of the strong rejection of the homogeneity assumption. The iterative Bayesian shrinkage estimator provided the most reasonable results. The empirical findings from this study are as follows. First, the Navy's electricity demand is price elastic. Second, the price elasticities appear to be lower than those of the private sector. The short-run price elasticities for the Navy activities ranged from -0.083 to -0.157. The long-run price elasticities ranged from -0.151 to -0.769.

  9. [Cooperation between Chili and France in management training in the Chilean public health sector].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes Cárcamo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    A cooperation programme launched in 1999 by the Chilean Health Department and the French National College of Public Health (ENSP France) has now been running for four years. Its aim was to create and validate a national scheme for manager and executive training within the Chilean public hospital systems. Developed in partnership with the Public Health National College of Rio de Janeiro (Fondation Oswaldo Cruz) with whom ENSP France has teamed up for 10 years, this cooperation was designed by the Chilean partner as a contribution to the definition and implementation of a national policy on Human Resources which might follow the vast reform of the health system currently underway in the country. The scheme which gained international support is backed by a network of 5 universities (7 in 2004) associated with the Chilean Health Department, in a joint national development project for in-house management training for the management teams already in office. More than 100 manager and senior executives et 150 intermediate executives were thus trained between 2000 and 2003. The present scheme est presently being modified to meet new challenges arising from the need to support important changes occurring in the management of Chilean public hospitals, to give them more independence, while encouraging a network of all carers. The ENSP input concerns a line of transfer of competence in training and teaching engineering for all the Chilean partners involved. A module on know-how development support in 'remote control' open training engineering was added in 2002, resulting in the French ENSP concluding a collaboration agreement with the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (France). Moreover, support for implementing an accreditation scheme for management training for the Chilean health sector is under way, linking both French and Brazilian ENSP. Designed from the start on a regional South Cone/Brazil basis, a new expansion phase will be added to this international programme

  10. Medicines management in the Philippine public sector during the response to Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Yolanda; Loquias, Monet; Capule, Francis; Guerrero, Anna Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health service delivery in the Philippines is constantly challenged by disasters and emergencies. This descriptive study documented existing policies for medicines management in the Philippines and then assessed these in the public sector response post-Haiyan. Method We used desk a review of existing laws, regulations and related issuances and a series of interviews of key informants from various national and local health agencies. Results We found that while numerous national policies covered critical aspects of medicines management, implementation post-Haiyan was problematic at all levels of the decentralized health-care system. We identified issues of quantification, warehousing, distribution, utilization monitoring and disposal. Donated medicines also added additional burden for storage and disposal, especially for expired and unwanted medicines. Discussion While the process of managing medicines during disasters did not differ greatly from non-emergency situations, the Haiyan experience highlighted the system’s weaknesses. With the current gaps in implementation, as well as the logistical obstacles brought about by disasters, there is a need to have integrated mechanisms for medicines management in the Philippines. This assessment provided an important opportunity to review the medicines management policies at national and local levels. PMID:26767142

  11. Low workplace social capital as a predictor of depression: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Kouvonen, Anne; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Stafford, Mai; Wilkinson, Richard; Schneider, Justine; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Cox, Sara J; Pentti, Jaana; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-05-15

    In a prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees, the authors examined the association between workplace social capital and depression. Data were obtained from 33,577 employees, who had no recent history of antidepressant treatment and who reported no history of physician-diagnosed depression at baseline in 2000-2002. Their risk of depression was measured with two indicators: recorded purchases of antidepressants until December 31, 2005, and self-reports of new-onset depression diagnosed by a physician in the follow-up survey in 2004-2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether self-reported and aggregate-level workplace social capital predicted indicators of depression at follow-up. The odds for antidepressant treatment and physician-diagnosed depression were 20-50% higher for employees with low self-reported social capital than for those reporting high social capital. These associations were not accounted for by sex, age, marital status, socioeconomic position, place of work, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body mass index. The association between social capital and self-reported depression attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for baseline psychological distress (a proxy for undiagnosed mental health problems). Aggregate-level social capital was not associated with subsequent depression. PMID:18413361

  12. Hexavalent IPV-based combination vaccines for public-sector markets of low-resource countries.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Kutub; Pelkowski, Sonia; Atherly, Deborah; Sitrin, Robert D; Donnelly, John J

    2013-09-01

    In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vaccines containing IPV could provide reliable and continuous immunization in the post-polio eradication period. Combination vaccines can potentially simplify complex pediatric routine immunization schedules, improve compliance, and reduce costs. Hexavalent vaccines containing Diphtheria (D), Tetanus (T), whole cell pertussis (wP), Hepatitis B (HBV), Haemophilus b (Hib) and the three IPV serotype antigens have been considered as the ultimate combination vaccine for routine immunization. This product review evaluates potential hexavalent vaccine candidates by composition, probable time to market, expected cost of goods, presentation, and technical feasibility and offers suggestions for development of low-cost hexavalent combination vaccines. Because there are significant technical challenges facing wP-based hexavalent vaccine development, this review also discusses other alternative approaches to hexavalent that could also ensure a timely and reliable supply of low-cost IPV based combination vaccines. PMID:23787559

  13. Frequency of Magnetic Resonance Imaging patterns of tuberculous spondylitis in a public sector hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Sumera; Haider, Shahbaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequencies of different MRI patterns of tuberculous spondylitisin a public sector hospital in Karachi. Methods: This descriptive multidisciplinary case series study was done from October 25, 2011 to May 28, 2012 in Radiology Department and Department of Medicine in the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. MRI scans (dorsal / lumbosacral spine) of the Patients presenting with backache in Medical OPD, were performed in Radiology Department. Axial and sagittal images of T1 weighted, T2 weighted and STIR sequences of the affected region were taken. A total of 140 patients who were diagnosed as having tuberculous spondylitis were further evaluated and analyzed for having different patterns of involvement of the spine and compared with similar studies. Results: Among frequencies of different MRI pattern of tuberculous spondylitis, contiguous vertebral involvement was 100%, discal involvement 98.6%, paravertebral abscess 92.1% cases, epidural abscess 91.4%, spinal cord / thecal sac compression 89.3%, vertebral collapse 72.9%, gibbus deformity 42.9% and psoas abscess 36.4%. Conclusion: Contiguous vertebral involvement was commonest MRI pattern, followed by disk involvement, paravertebral & epidural abscesses, thecal sac compression and vertebral collapse. PMID:27022369

  14. Hexavalent IPV-based combination vaccines for public-sector markets of low-resource countries

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Kutub; Pelkowski, Sonia; Atherly, Deborah; Sitrin, Robert; Donnelly, John J

    2013-01-01

    In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vaccines containing IPV could provide reliable and continuous immunization in the post-polio eradication period. Combination vaccines can potentially simplify complex pediatric routine immunization schedules, improve compliance, and reduce costs. Hexavalent vaccines containing Diphtheria (D), Tetanus (T), whole cell pertussis (wP), Hepatitis B (HBV), Haemophilus b (Hib) and the three IPV serotype antigens have been considered as the ultimate combination vaccine for routine immunization. This product review evaluates potential hexavalent vaccine candidates by composition, probable time to market, expected cost of goods, presentation, and technical feasibility and offers suggestions for development of low-cost hexavalent combination vaccines. Because there are significant technical challenges facing wP-based hexavalent vaccine development, this review also discusses other alternative approaches to hexavalent that could also ensure a timely and reliable supply of low-cost IPV based combination vaccines. PMID:23787559

  15. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. Setting We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Participants Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100 000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Results Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Conclusions Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. PMID:25712820

  16. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p < 0.05). PrWC workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p < 0.01), and for both epicondyles (p < 0.01), when compared to the other groups. PrWC workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p < 0.01; left, p = 0.05). There was no significant association in the report of symptoms across the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors. PMID:25854836

  17. Unravelling the quality of HIV counselling and testing services in the private and public sectors in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Ron Levey, Ilana; Wang, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the substantial investment for providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services in Zambia, there has been little effort to systematically evaluate the quality of VCT services provided by various types of health providers. This study, conducted in 2009, examines VCT in the public and private sectors including private for-profit and NGO/faith-based sectors in Copperbelt and Luapula. Methods The study used five primary data collection methods to gauge quality of VCT services: closed-ended client interviews with clients exiting VCT sites; open-ended client interviews; interviews with facility managers; review of service statistics; and an observation of the physical environment for VCT by site. Over 400 clients and 87 facility managers were interviewed from almost 90 facilities. Sites were randomly selected and results are generalizable at the provincial level. Results The study shows concerning levels of underperformance in VCT services across the sectors. It reveals serious underperformance in counselling about key risk-reduction methods. Less than one-third of clients received counselling on reducing number of sexual partners and only approximately 5% of clients received counselling about disclosing test results to partners. In terms of client profiles, the NGO sector attracts the most educated clients and less educated Zambians seek VCT services at very low rates (7%). The private for-profit performs equally or sometimes better than other sectors even though this sector is not adequately integrated into the Zambian national response to HIV. Conclusion The private for-profit sector provides VCT services on par in quality with the other sectors. Most clients did not receive counselling on partner reduction or disclosure of HIV test results to partners. In a generalized HIV epidemic where multiple concurrent sexual partners are a significant problem for transmitting the disease, risk-reduction methods and discussion should be a main focus of pre

  18. Weapons to widgets: Organic systems and public policy for tech transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cargo, Russell A.

    1994-01-01

    Large cuts in defense spending cause serious repercussions throughout the American economy. One means to counter the negative effects of defense reductions is to redirect federal dollars to temporarily prop up defense industries and, over the longer-term, stimulate growth of new nondefense industries. The creation of non-defense products and industries by channeling ideas from public laboratories into the private sector manufacturing facilities, known as technology transfer, is being undertaken in a massive program that has high visibility, large amounts of money, and broad federal agency involvement. How effectively federal money can be directed toward stimulating the creation of non-defense products will define the strength of the economy, (i.e., tax base, employment level, trade balance, capital investments, etc.), over the next decade. Key functions of the tech transfer process are technology and market assessment, capital formation, manufacturing feasibility, sales and distribution, and business organization creation. Those, however, are not functions typically associated with the federal government. Is the government prepared to provide leadership in those areas? This paper suggests organic systems theory as a means to structure the public sector's actions to provide leadership in functional areas normally outside their scope of expertise. By applying new ideas in organization theory, can we design government action to efficiently and effectively transfer technologies?

  19. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    SciTech Connect

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.

  20. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, K.L.; Hoopes, J.

    1993-10-24

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ``envoys,`` is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers.

  1. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province, South Africa. Objectives To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate) contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand-delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms of frequency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9%) than satisfied (37.8%) with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%), availability of workplace resources (83.7%), salaries (78.8%), workplace safety (73.7%), career development opportunities (64.5%) and hours of work (47.6%). Conclusion Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retention of nurses is to be achieved.

  2. Doing and Feeling Research in Public: Queer Organizing for Public Education and Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiners, Erica R.; Quinn, Therese M.

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in activism--fighting the implementation of Department of Defense-run schools in a public schools system; organizing to fight the largest national teacher education accreditation agency's removal of sexual orientation and social justice from its accreditation standards; and protesting a state's decision to hold a public meeting for…

  3. The role of the public sector in the provision of housing supply in Turkey, 1950–2009.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the changing role of the public sector in Turkey with regard to housing provision since 1950, and particularly since 2000, and seeks to clarify how public intervention has affected housing provision and urban development dynamics in major cities. Three periods may be identified, with central government acting as a regulator in a first period characterized by a ‘housing boom’. During the second period, from 1980 to 2000, a new mass housing law spurred construction activity, although the main beneficiaries of the housing fund tended to be the middle classes. After 2000, contrary to emerging trends in both Northern and Southern European countries, the public sector in Turkey became actively involved in housing provision. During this process, new housing estates were created on greenfield sites on the outskirts of cities, instead of efforts being made to rehabilitate, restore or renew existing housing stock in the cities. Meanwhile, the concept of ‘urban regeneration’ has been opportunistically incorporated into the planning agenda of the public sector, and — under the pretext of regenerating squatter housing areas — existing residents have been moved out, while channels for community participation have been bypassed. PMID:22175087

  4. ‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision

  5. Significance of Recent Decisions on Grievance Arbitrability Questions in Public Sector Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Patrick L.

    1979-01-01

    A review of court cases reveals that most jurisdictions are drifting toward the private sector presumption of arbitrability of grievances. With this drift comes the continual erosion of management prerogatives, authority, and power. (Author/IRT)

  6. Servant leadership and affective commitment in the Chinese public sector: the mediating role of perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingying; Miao, Qing

    2014-10-01

    This study examined a possible mediating mechanism between servant leadership and the affective commitment in Chinese employees. Servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and affective commitment was assessed among 239 full-time employees in the Chinese public sector in three rounds of surveys. Servant leadership influenced affective commitment through perceived organizational support. The effect of servant leadership exists in Chinese culture as well as Western cultures. PMID:25310313

  7. Scaling–up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. Methods The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale–up. Results 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2–59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled–up. Conclusion It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community–based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro–active engagement with government were essential for program success. PMID:26682047

  8. Identification of best practices in the delivery of patient food services through public/private sector partnerships.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of public/private sector partnership in patient food service delivery and identifies skills required by executives to manage partnerships effectively, features that may be generalized to other areas; and the importance of labour relations. Site visits conducted across Canada demonstrate that when partners understand each other's objectives, commit to providing strong leadership, and create meaningful labour relations and communications strategies, partnerships can be successful. PMID:15892317

  9. The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.

    PubMed

    Gilson, L; Sen, P D; Mohammed, S; Mujinja, P

    1994-03-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government. PMID:10133097

  10. Participatory involvement of farming communities and public sectors in determining malaria control strategies in Mvomero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mlozi, M R S; Shayo, E H; Senkoro, K P; Mayala, B K; Rumisha, S F; Mutayoba, B; Senkondo, E; Maerere, A; Mboera, L E G

    2006-09-01

    Addressing the malaria-agriculture linkages requires a broad inter-disciplinary and integrated approach that involves farming communities and key public sectors. In this paper, we report results of participatory involvement of farming communities in determining malaria control strategies in Mvomero District, Tanzania. A seminar involving local government leaders, health and agricultural officials comprising of a total of 27 participants was held. Public meetings in villages of Komtonga, Mbogo, Mkindo, Dihombo and Luhindo followed this. Findings from a research on the impact of agricultural practices on malaria burden in the district were shared with local communities, public sector officials and other key stakeholders as a basis for a participatory discussion. The community and key stakeholders had an opportunity to critically examine the linkages between agricultural practices and malaria in their villages and to identify problems and propose practical solutions. Several factors were identified as bottlenecks in the implementation of malaria control in the area. Lack of community participation and decision making in malaria interventions was expressed as among the major constraints. This denied the community the opportunities of determining their health priorities and accessing knowledge needed to effectively implement malaria interventions. In conclusion, this paper emphasizes the importance of participatory approach that involves community and other key stakeholders in malaria control using an ecosystem approach. An interdisciplinary and integrated approach is needed to involve farmers and more than one sector in malaria control effort. PMID:18254503

  11. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts

  12. Profiting from Public Education: Education Management Organizations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David R.; Barber, Rebecca; Molnar, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Nationally, almost a quarter of charter school students attend a school managed by a for-profit education management organization (EMO). EMOs have full executive authority over the operation and management of schools, including curriculum and instruction decisions. Because charter schools are funded with public dollars, critics…

  13. Ecological validity and the study of publics: The case for organic public engagement methods.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Pat J

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues for a method of public engagement grounded in the criteria of ecological validity. Motivated by what Hammersly called the responsibility that comes with intellectual authority: "to seek, as far as possible, to ensure the validity of their conclusions and to participate in rational debate about those conclusions" (1993: 29), organic public engagement follows the empirical turn in citizenship theory and in rhetorical studies of actually existing publics. Rather than shaping citizens into either the compliant subjects of the cynical view or the deliberatively disciplined subjects of the idealist view, organic public engagement instead takes Asen's advice that "we should ask: how do people enact citizenship?" (2004: 191). In short, organic engagement methods engage publics in the places where they already exist and through those discourses and social practices by which they enact their status as publics. Such engagements can generate practical middle-range theories that facilitate future actions and decisions that are attentive to the local ecologies of diverse publics. PMID:23887250

  14. Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-10-01

    How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms. PMID:23161587

  15. Higher Education and the Public, Private and Non-Profit Sectors. Equal Partners in Promoting Regional Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Aaron W.

    2003-01-01

    Advocates collaboration by universities with public, private, and nonprofit organizations to create value-added innovative economies in their regions. Discusses the advantages of such partnerships and various approaches to regional economic development. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  16. Organization and Finance of China's Health Sector: Historical Antecedents for Macroeconomic Structural Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Hilsenrath, Peter

    2016-01-01

    China has exploded onto the world economy over the past few decades and is undergoing rapid transformation toward relatively more services. The health sector is an important part of this transition. This article provides a historical account of the development of health care in China since 1949. It also focuses on health insurance and macroeconomic structural adjustment to less saving and more consumption. In particular, the question of how health insurance impacts precautionary savings is considered. Multivariate analysis using data from 1990 to 2012 is employed. The household savings rate is the dependent variable in 3 models segmented for rural and urban populations. Independent variables include out-of-pocket health expenditures, health insurance payouts, housing expenditure, education expenditure, and consumption as a share of gross domestic product (GDP). Out-of-pocket health expenditures were positively correlated with household savings rates. But health insurance remains weak, and increased payouts by health insurers have not been associated with lower levels of household savings so far. Housing was positively correlated, whereas education had a negative association with savings rates. This latter finding was unexpected. Perhaps education is perceived as investment and a substitute for savings. China's shift toward a more service-oriented economy includes growing dependence on the health sector. Better health insurance is an important part of this evolution. The organization and finance of health care is integrally linked with macroeconomic policy in an environment constrained by prevailing institutional convention. Problems of agency relationships, professional hegemony, and special interest politics feature prominently, as they do elsewhere. China also has a dual approach to medicine relying heavily on providers of traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these segments will take part in China's evolution, adding another layer of complexity to policy. PMID

  17. [THE ORGANIZATION OF REHABILITATION CARE OF POPULATION USING INNOVATIVE MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES AND PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP].

    PubMed

    Totskaia, E G; Sheliakina, O W; Sadovoii, M A; Netchaev, V S

    2015-01-01

    The article considers actual problems of actual stage of development of health care related to using innovative approaches to organization and management of rehabilitation care ofpopulation. The rehabilitation is most important direction of medical sector supporting complex of services in closed cycle of rendering medical care to population and significant social economic effects. The capacity and extreme unprofitability of rehabilitation services determine necessity of searching alternative forms of organization of this type of care and financing including mechanisms of public-private partnership. The experience is presented related to involvement of resources of non-public medical organizations for implementing public commitments on rendering qualitative rehabilitation services to population using innovative medical organizational technologies. PMID:26987174

  18. An Evaluation of Public-Sector-Sponsored Continuous Vocational Training Programs in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Econometric estimates were used to determine the effects of publicly funded continuous vocational training and retraining in the former East Germany. Results suggest that, despite large public expenditures, no positive effects occurred in the first years after training. (SK)

  19. [Evaluation of the efficiency and quality of hospitals publicly owned with private management and hospitals of the public sector].

    PubMed

    Giraldes, Maria Do Rosário

    2007-01-01

    , and by the Garcia de Orta Hospital, which are the less efficient hospitals. In Group V, with central hospitals and hospitals with functions of central hospital, it is the Hospital of Vila Real/Régua, EPE, to present the best situation of the Composite Efficiency Indicator, followed by the Santo António Hospital, EPE, the Santa Maria Hospital, EPE, and the HUC, while the hospitals with a worst situation of the Composite Efficiency Indicator are the Hospitals of Faro, Evora and S. José. In Group VI hospitals with a better Composite Efficiency Indicator are the hospitals of Santa Marta, Gama Pinto Institute and Orthopedic Hospital of Outão, while the Estefânia Hospital is the most inefficient. Tondela, Valongo and Peniche Hospitals (Group I), have a good value of the Composite Efficiency and Quality Indicator, while Barcelos, Oliveira de Azeméis and Póvoa de Varzim/Vila do Conde Hospitals (Group II) present also good values of this indicator. The Hospitals of Vila Franca de Xira, Bragança and Setúbal (Group III), the Hospitals of Santarém, Garcia de Orta, and Curry Cabral (Group IV), the Hospital of Vila Real/Régua, the Egas Moniz Hospital and the Santa Maria Hospital (Group V), and the Gama Pinto Institute, the Orthopedic Hospital of Outão, and the Santa Cruz Hospital (Group VI) are the best classified in their groups. EPE Hospitals (Hospitals publicly owned with private management) are the best classified in their groups in what efficiency is concerned, what is a better result tan the one shown in 2003. The lower inequality in relation to management indicators, in all hospital groups, exists in the areas of expenditure with inpatient care by user, what shows the existence of a norm of proceeding, in this traditional hospital area. The higher inequalities are those of day hospital, drugs in day hospital, drugs in outpatient care and rehabilitation by user. In what management indicators are concerned incentives must be created. The most efficient hospitals

  20. The Efficacy of Private Sector Providers in Improving Public Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn; Nisar, Hiren

    2012-01-01

    School districts required under No Child Left Behind to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in service provision. If the market does not work to drive out ineffective providers, students will be less likely to gain…

  1. Development of a University-Private Sector Synergy for Public Service: A First Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Lawrence R.; Kefalas, Asterios G.

    Visions and ideas tend to develop in universities, while private sector corporations possess the material resources needed to convert these visions into products which improve society. However, recent collaborative activities have begun with little regard for the long-term implications of external environmental conditions or the inherent…

  2. Spatial distribution and accessibility to public sector tertiary care teaching hospitals in Karachi: A Geographic Information Systems application.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Ali, Mir Shabbar

    2016-07-01

    Optimal utilization of specialized curative healthcare services is contingent on spatial access to tertiary-care hospitals by the targeted population. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution of public sector tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Karachi, and to use GIS and network analysis for modeling the accessibility to these hospitals for Karachi residents. Maps of three, six, and nine kilometer buffers were created around the five selected hospitals to determine which towns of Karachi are either entirely or partially covered/accessible. Most of the towns in Karachi were covered either partially or completely by the three buffers and service areas of 3,6, and 9 kilometers around the five selected hospitals. This study highlights the limitations of using publicly available data for road network, and the need for creating and making available in public domain, comprehensive road network vector dataset in conjunction with population breakdowns by administrative subdivisions. PMID:27427142

  3. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

  4. The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Marie; Jackson, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Health-care and public sector institutions are high-risk settings for workplace bullying. Despite growing acknowledgement of the scale and consequence of this pervasive problem, there has been little critical examination of the institutional power dynamics that enable bullying. In the aftermath of large-scale failures in care standards in public sector healthcare institutions, which were characterised by managerial bullying, attention to the nexus between bullying, power and institutional failures is warranted. In this study, employing Foucault's framework of power, we illuminate bullying as a feature of structures of power and knowledge in public sector institutions. Our analysis draws upon the experiences of a large sample (n = 3345) of workers in Australian public sector agencies - the type with which most nurses in the public setting will be familiar. In foregrounding these power dynamics, we provide further insight into how cultures that are antithetical to institutional missions can arise and seek to broaden the debate on the dynamics of care failures within public sector institutions. Understanding the practices of power in public sector institutions, particularly in the context of ongoing reform, has important implications for nursing. PMID:25131347

  5. Estimating the Number of Paediatric Fevers Associated with Malaria Infection Presenting to Africa's Public Health Sector in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Gething, Peter W.; Kirui, Viola C.; Alegana, Victor A.; Okiro, Emelda A.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Snow, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Background As international efforts to increase the coverage of artemisinin-based combination therapy in public health sectors gather pace, concerns have been raised regarding their continued indiscriminate presumptive use for treating all childhood fevers. The availability of rapid-diagnostic tests to support practical and reliable parasitological diagnosis provides an opportunity to improve the rational treatment of febrile children across Africa. However, the cost effectiveness of diagnosis-based treatment polices will depend on the presumed numbers of fevers harbouring infection. Here we compute the number of fevers likely to present to public health facilities in Africa and the estimated number of these fevers likely to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Methods and Findings We assembled first administrative-unit level data on paediatric fever prevalence, treatment-seeking rates, and child populations. These data were combined in a geographical information system model that also incorporated an adjustment procedure for urban versus rural areas to produce spatially distributed estimates of fever burden amongst African children and the subset likely to present to public sector clinics. A second data assembly was used to estimate plausible ranges for the proportion of paediatric fevers seen at clinics positive for P. falciparum in different endemicity settings. We estimated that, of the 656 million fevers in African 0–4 y olds in 2007, 182 million (28%) were likely to have sought treatment in a public sector clinic of which 78 million (43%) were likely to have been infected with P. falciparum (range 60–103 million). Conclusions Spatial estimates of childhood fevers and care-seeking rates can be combined with a relational risk model of infection prevalence in the community to estimate the degree of parasitemia in those fevers reaching public health facilities. This quantification provides an important baseline comparison of malarial and

  6. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals. PMID:27535587

  7. Dual job holding by public sector health professionals in highly resource-constrained settings: problem or solution?

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Stephen; Bian, Ying; Jumpa, Manuel; Meng, Qingyue; Nyazema, Norman; Prakongsai, Phusit; Mills, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the policy options for the regulation of dual job holding by medical professionals in highly resource-constrained settings. Such activity is generally driven by a lack of resources in the public sector and low pay, and has been associated with the unauthorized use of public resources and corruption. It is also typically poorly regulated; regulations are either lacking, or when they exist, are vague or poorly implemented because of low regulatory capacity. This paper draws on the limited evidence available on this topic to assess a number of regulatory options in relation to the objectives of quality of care and access to services, as well as some of the policy constraints that can undermine implementation in resource-poor settings. The approach taken in highlighting these broader social objectives seeks to avoid the value judgements regarding dual working and some of its associated forms of behaviour that have tended to characterize previous analyses. Dual practice is viewed as a possible system solution to issues such as limited public sector resources (and incomes), low regulatory capacity and the interplay between market forces and human resources. This paper therefore offers some support for policies that allow for the official recognition of such activity and embrace a degree of professional self-regulation. In providing clearer policy guidance, future research in this area needs to adopt a more evaluative approach than that which has been used to date. PMID:16283054

  8. Quantifying solid waste and recycling employment in Florida, USA: Trends in public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunjoo; Yi, Hongtao; Feiock, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    Measuring and tracking the numbers of jobs in solid waste management and recycling industries over time provide basic data to inform decision makers about the important role played by this sector in a state or region's 'green economy'. This study estimates the number of people employed in the solid waste and recycling industry from 1989 through 2011 in the state of Florida (USA), applying a classification scheme based on the Standard Industrial Code (SIC) and utilizing the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database. The results indicate that solid waste and recycling jobs in the private sector steadily increased from 1989 to 2011, whereas government employment for solid waste management fluctuated over the same period. PMID:26463114

  9. [Notes for understanding the problem of "public" health in the health sector].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Cristian Fabiano; da Silva, Rosane Azevedo Neves

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a theoretical review of how the public health concept has been perceived in health practices, based on the problematic field introduced in Italian and Brazilian health reforms, in order to understand the construction of public health and the meanings that this term acquires in the health arena. The main goal is to understand how public health appears in the context of health movements in Italy and Brazil, as well as its movement of variation. In this sense, an attempt is made to identify elements that contribute to the composition of a genealogy of public health. From the investigation of public health practices, the tensions produced by this concept are analyzed, giving visibility to those practices that demonstrate the public health experience as a force in the world of health. PMID:25760131

  10. Public policy and the sale of human organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2002-03-01

    Gill and Sade, in the preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, argue that living individuals should be free from legal constraints against selling their organs. The present commentary responds to several of their claims. It explains why an analogy between kidneys and blood fails; why, as a matter of public policy, we prohibit the sale of human solid organs, yet allow the sale of blood; and why their attack on Kant's putative argument against the sale of human body parts is misplaced. Finally, it rejects the claim that the state is entitled to interfere with the actions of individuals only if such actions would harm others. We draw certain lines grounded in what Rawls has termed "public reason" beyond which we do not give effect to the autonomous self-regarding decisions of individuals. Public resistance to the sale of human body parts, no matter how voluntary or well informed, is grounded in the conviction that such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity. A system of organ donation, in contrast, conveys our respect for persons and honors our common humanity. PMID:12211266

  11. Organ Allocation for Liver Transplantation According to the Public Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Danesh, Ahmad; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Asghari, Fariba; Jafarian, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation is the last resort for treating end stage liver diseases, this medical procedure is not available for all needful patients because of inadequate organ supply. Therefore, guidelines have been developed by medical experts to regulate the process. Some professionals believe that medical criteria are inadequate for organ allocation in all situations and may not secure fairness of organ allocation. Objectives The current study has been designed to identify decision criteria about allocation of donated liver to potential recipients from public points of view. Patients and Methods This is a qualitative study that was conducted through individual interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Individual interviews were conducted among patients’ companions and nurses in one of the two liver transplant centers in Iran. Group discussions were conducted among groups of ordinary people who had not dealt previously with the subject. Data was analyzed by Thematic Analysis method. Results Most of the participants in this study believe that in equal medical conditions, some individual and societal criteria could be used to prioritize patients for receiving donated livers. The criteria include psychological acceptance, ability to pay post-operative care costs, being breadwinner of the family, family support, being socially valued, ability to be instructed, lack of mental disorders, young age of the recipient, being on waiting list for a long time, lack of patient’s role in causing the illness, first time transplant recipient, critical medical condition, high success rate of transplantation, lack of concurrent medical illnesses, not being an inmate at the time of receiving transplant, and bearing Iranian nationality. Conclusions Taking public opinion into consideration may smooth the process of organ allocation to needful patients with equal medical conditions. It seems that considering these viewpoints in drafting organ allocation guidelines

  12. Raising Public Awareness: The Role of the Household Sector in Mitigating Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shis-Ping

    2015-10-01

    In addition to greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial, transportation and commercial sectors, emissions from the household sector also contribute to global warming. By examining residents of Taiwan (N = 236), this study aims to reveal the factors that influence households' intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances. The assessment in this study is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and perceived benefit or cost (BOC) is introduced as an independent variable in the proposed efficiency action toward climate change (ECC) model. According to structural equation modeling, most of the indicators presented a good fit to the corresponding ECC model constructs. The analysis indicated that BOC is a good complementary variable to the TPB, as the ECC model explained 61.9% of the variation in intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances, which was higher than that explained by the TPB (58.4%). This result indicates that the ECC model is superior to the TPB. Thus, the strategy of promoting energy-efficient appliances in the household sector should emphasize global warming and include the concept of BOC. PMID:26492262

  13. Raising Public Awareness: The Role of the Household Sector in Mitigating Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shis-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In addition to greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial, transportation and commercial sectors, emissions from the household sector also contribute to global warming. By examining residents of Taiwan (N = 236), this study aims to reveal the factors that influence households’ intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances. The assessment in this study is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and perceived benefit or cost (BOC) is introduced as an independent variable in the proposed efficiency action toward climate change (ECC) model. According to structural equation modeling, most of the indicators presented a good fit to the corresponding ECC model constructs. The analysis indicated that BOC is a good complementary variable to the TPB, as the ECC model explained 61.9% of the variation in intention to purchase energy-efficient appliances, which was higher than that explained by the TPB (58.4%). This result indicates that the ECC model is superior to the TPB. Thus, the strategy of promoting energy-efficient appliances in the household sector should emphasize global warming and include the concept of BOC. PMID:26492262

  14. Organizing the public health-clinical health interface: theoretical bases.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Michèle; Reinharz, Daniel; Gauthier, Jacques-Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of the interface between public health and clinical health within the context of the search for networking approaches geared to a more integrated delivery of health services. The articulation of an operative interface is complicated by the fact that the definition of networking modalities involves complex intra- and interdisciplinary and intra- and interorganizational systems across which a new transversal dynamics of intervention practices and exchanges between service structures must be established. A better understanding of the situation is reached by shedding light on the rationale underlying the organizational methods that form the bases of the interface between these two sectors of activity. The Quebec experience demonstrates that neither the structural-functionalist approach, which emphasizes remodelling establishment structures and functions as determinants of integration, nor the structural-constructivist approach, which prioritizes distinct fields of practice in public health and clinical health, adequately serves the purpose of networking and integration. Consequently, a theoretical reframing is imperative. In this regard, structuration theory, which fosters the simultaneous study of methods of inter-structure coordination and inter-actor cooperation, paves the way for a better understanding of the situation and, in turn, to the emergence of new integration possibilities. PMID:16645802

  15. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The results achieved during the first eight months of a program to transfer LANDSAT technology to practicing professionals in the private and public sectors (grass roots) through community colleges and other locally available institutions are reported. The approach offers hands-on interactive analysis training and demonstrations through the use of color desktop computer terminals communicating with a host computer by telephone lines. The features of the terminals and associated training materials are reviewed together with plans for their use in training and demonstration projects.

  16. Regional Bargaining Associations: Meeting the Challenge of Public Sector Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Gary M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Public employers, including school districts, are faced with unionized workers' demanding a larger share of public resources. The formation of regional bargaining associations for employers to counteract union demands is proposed. A case study of a successful association is provided. (MD)

  17. Some Thoughts on the Practice of Preventive Law in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia

    Preventive law is needed to limit the role of the courts in public policy-making, for several reasons. The judiciary usually lacks expertise in a particular policy area, litigation is expensive and time-consuming, judicial solutions are usually too simple, and attorneys representing public agencies in the future will probably be of lower quality,…

  18. Optimal allocation of public water supply to the urban sectors of Enugu, Nigeria: a linear programming approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezenwaji, Emma E.; Anyadike, Raymond N. C.; Igu, Nnaemeka I.

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies in water supply in Enugu urban area have observed that there is a persistent water supply shortage relative to demand. One of the strategies for achieving a good water supply under the circumstance is through efficient water allocation to consumers. The existing allocation system by the Enugu State Water Corporation is not achieving the desired goal, because it is not based on any scientific criteria. In this study, we have employed the linear programming modelling technique to optimise the allocation of 35,000,000 L of water produced daily by the State Water Corporation and supplied to the four sectors of the town. The result shows that the model allocated 27,470,000 L to the residential sector, 3,360,000 L to commercial, 3,120,000 L to industrial and 882,000 L to public institutions sectors leaving a balance of 168,000 L to be utilised in emergency situations. This allocation pattern departs sharply from the present management technique adopted by the corporation. It is then suggested that for urban water supply to be sustainable in the town, the corporation should rely on this technique for water supply.

  19. Firm-Level Perspectives on Public Sector Engagement with Private Healthcare Providers: Survey Evidence from Ghana and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj; Burger, Nicholas; Yoong, Joanne; Kopf, Dan; Spreng, Connor

    2011-01-01

    Background Health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are in urgent need of improvement. The private health sector is a major provider of care in the region and it will remain a significant actor in the future. Any efforts by SSA governments to improve health systems performance therefore has to account for the private health sector. Regional and international actors increasingly recognize importance of effectively engaging with the private health sector, and initiatives to improve engagement are underway in several countries. However, there is little systematic analysis of private health providers' view and experience with engagement. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we surveyed private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to understand the extent to which and how governments interact and engage with these facilities. The results suggest that government engagement with private health facilities is quite limited. The primary focus of this engagement is “command-and-control” type regulations to improve the quality of care. There is little attention paid to building the capacity of health care businesses through either technical or financial assistance. The vast majority of these facilities also receive no government assistance in meeting public health and social goals. Finally, government engagement with private pharmacies is often neglected and clinics receive a disproportionate share of government assistance. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our findings suggest that there may be considerable untapped potential for greater engagement with private health facilities—particularly pharmacies. Improving engagement will likely help governments with limited resources to better take advantage of the private sector capacity to meet access and equity objectives and to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:22132092

  20. Growing toward the Sun: How the Good-Food Movement Catapulted a Small New York City Third-Sector Organization into Rapid Growth, Success, and Many Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Carole L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of a New York City-based third-sector organization focused on what it calls "food justice." This study concentrates on how this organization, that I call Food Rights, has built a broad multi-sector network made up of a varied set of constituents and collaborators aiming to develop and promote an…

  1. Are Public Health Organizations Tweeting to the Choir? Understanding Local Health Department Twitter Followership

    PubMed Central

    Choucair, Bechara; Maier, Ryan C; Jolani, Nina; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the essential services provided by the US local health departments is informing and educating constituents about health. Communication with constituents about public health issues and health risks is among the standards required of local health departments for accreditation. Past research found that only 61% of local health departments met standards for informing and educating constituents, suggesting a considerable gap between current practices and best practice. Objective Social media platforms, such as Twitter, may aid local health departments in informing and educating their constituents by reaching large numbers of people with real-time messages at relatively low cost. Little is known about the followers of local health departments on Twitter. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of local health department Twitter followers and the relationship between local health department characteristics and follower characteristics. Methods In 2013, we collected (using NodeXL) and analyzed a sample of 4779 Twitter followers from 59 randomly selected local health departments in the United States with Twitter accounts. We coded each Twitter follower for type (individual, organization), location, health focus, and industry (eg, media, government). Local health department characteristics were adopted from the 2010 National Association of City and County Health Officials Profile Study data. Results Local health department Twitter accounts were followed by more organizations than individual users. Organizations tended to be health-focused, located outside the state from the local health department being followed, and from the education, government, and non-profit sectors. Individuals were likely to be local and not health-focused. Having a public information officer on staff, serving a larger population, and “tweeting” more frequently were associated with having a higher percentage of local followers. Conclusions Social media has the

  2. E-Procurement, from Project to Practice: Empirical Evidence from the French Public Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvallet, Godefroy; Boughzala, Younès; Assar, Saïd

    Public procurement constitutes a significant portion of national PIB in all countries and electronic platforms for supporting public transactions are an important application of e-government. In France, new regulations since 2005 are pushing public and private actors to adopt electronic means for handling all steps of the purchase process in public organisations. Based on quantitative and qualitative surveys made between 2005 and 2008, this chapter presents the general topic of e-procurement and specifically discusses the problem of e-procurement adoption in public institutions in France. The conclusions of these investigations spanning a three years period, are that public e-procurement is constantly progressing, although difficulties related to insufficient technical skills and the complexity of the juridical context hinder seriously its full adoption. They also show that a digital and an organisational divide is appearing between big administrations which have the adequate resources and skills to fully adopt e-procurement, and small administration (i.e. local authorities) which are still reluctant or unable to conduct a purchase in a digital manner.

  3. Assessing the Determinants of Information Technology Adoption in Jamaica's Public Sector Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Thomas, II.

    2010-01-01

    Superior performance improvement and productivity gains are normally achieved when labor or ordinary capital is substituted by information technology (IT) in organizations. Consequently, on average, organizations have spent more than 50% of their total capital budget on IT, but have not gained commensurate return on their investments, partly due…

  4. The World Health Organization's mechanisms for increasing the health sector budget: The South African context.

    PubMed

    Venter, Fouche Hendrik Johannes; Wolfaardt, Jaqueline Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    South Africa (SA) has limited scope for raising income taxes, and the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will necessitate growth in the health sector budget. The NHI White Paper suggests five funding scenarios to meet the expected shortfall. These scenarios are a mixture of a surcharge on taxable income, an increase in value-added tax and a payroll tax. Five alternative options, suggested by the World Health Organization, are interrogated as ways to decrease the general taxation proposed in the White Paper. The five mechanisms (corporate tax, financial transaction levy, and taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods) were chosen based on their fund-raising potential and their mandatory element. A literature review provides the information for a discussion of the potential costs of each mechanism. Within specific assumptions, potential budgetary contribution is compared with the requirement. First, raising corporate tax rates could raise enough funds, but the losses due to capital flight might be too much for the local economy to bear. Second, a levy on currency transactions is unlikely to raise the required resources, even without a probable decrease in the number of transactions. Third, the increase in the tax on tobacco and alcohol would need to be very large, even assuming that consumption patterns would remain unchanged. Lastly, a tax on unhealthy food products is a new idea and could be explored as an option - especially as the SA Treasury has announced its future implementation. Implementing only one of the mechanisms is unlikely to increase available funding sufficiently, but if they are implemented together the welfare-maximising tax rate for each mechanism may be high enough to fulfil the NHI scheme's budgetary requirement, moderating the increases in the tax burden of the SA population. PMID:27499398

  5. Public Sector Bargaining in the Mid-90s (The 1980s Were Challenging, but This Is Ridiculous)--A Union Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Donald D., II; Poltrock, Jennifer K.

    1996-01-01

    Public-sector management teams and their counterpart labor unions are faced with an ever-increasing myriad of challenges in the quest to produce collective bargaining agreements. Shrinking tax bases, declining levels of federal and state assistance, and public demands for downsizing and privatization are all factors that suggest that financial…

  6. Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Mexican and British Public Sector Hospitals: A Cross-Nation Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Ruiz, Carlos E.; Wang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Stephen M. Shortell, dean of the School of Public Health, distinguished professor of health policy and management, and professor of organization behavior in the Haas School of Business, University of California-Berkeley, has argued that evidence-based management needs to be married with evidence-based medicine if sustainable improvement in the…

  7. Bargaining Unit Determination Procedures in the Public Sector: A Comparative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Stephen L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the characteristics and relative efficacy of the procedures used in several states and the federal government to determine appropriate bargaining units. Available from Executive Enterprises Publications Co., Inc., 33 West 60th Street, New York, New York 10023; $48.00 per year. (Author/IRT)

  8. ADHD Treatment Patterns of Youth Served in Public Sectors in San Diego and Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Canino, Glorisa; Landsverk, John; Wood, Patricia A.; Chavez, Ligia; Hough, Richard L.; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates geographic variation in stimulant medication use by youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) served by public mental health and/or drug and alcohol programs in San Diego (n = 790) during 1997-1998 and in Puerto Rico (n = 726) during 1998. Youth were stratified into four groups: (a) ADHD, (b) ADHD--not…

  9. Public Sector Grievance Procedures, Due Process, and the Duty of Fair Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The occupational rights of state employees have traditionally been determined by statute, but more recently by collective bargaining. This note considers whether determination of the rights of public employees through informal contractual procedures will meet the requirements of the fourteenth amendment due process clause. (LBH)

  10. Parent child coalitions: innovative public-sector management and early childhood development in Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Cottes, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a coalition model of governance as an innovative approach to public management. In general, the coalition governance model adopts key principles of new public management and inherits criticisms similar to those levelled against the new managerialism. Looking at a case study of parent child coalitions in Manitoba, this article explores some benefits and consequences of implementing and utilizing coalition governance as a model for social policy. It finds that the attempt to increase child-centred programming across the province required innovative adjustments to the management of this social policy issue, as well as a restructuring of the overarching policy structure. Innovative public management and the implementation of a coalition governance approach helped transform early childhood development in Manitoba from a private and personal family concern to a public policy issue. It has increased citizen engagement and has also increased government access to a previously inaccessible segment of society. Although these innovations resolved some key concerns, additional criticisms remain as yet unaddressed. PMID:22165164

  11. Developing Sustainable Leadership Capability in the Victorian State and Public Library Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarten, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    There have been substantial changes in the labour market over the past few years and survey results indicate 60% of staff will leave public library service over the next decade. While this creates opportunities for library staff, limited training budgets and a focus on compliance and specific library skills training have led to a gap in the formal…

  12. Impact of a Private Health Insurance Mandate on Public Sector Autism Service Use in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Bradley D.; Sorbero, Mark J.; Goswami, Upasna; Schuster, James; Leslie, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many states have implemented regulations (commonly referred to as waivers) to increase access to publicly insured services for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In recent years, several states have passed legislation requiring improved coverage for ASD services by private insurers. This study examines the impact of such legislation on…

  13. Collaboration with HEIs: A Key Capacity Building Block for the Uganda Water and Sanitation Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaga, Sam

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of public service staff in developing countries is crucial for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Literature from developed countries shows that, working with higher education institutions (HEIs), industries have improved their human resource capacity through continuing professional development. This paper reports on research…

  14. Accounting Rule Targets Benefits in Public Sector. Districts, Others Must Tally Long-Term Obligations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Deadlines are looming for school districts and other public employers to comply with a new financial-reporting rule on the long-term costs for health and other insurance benefits that have been promised to employees. For the first time, local, state, and federal agencies will have to disclose future benefit costs in current budgets, a requirement…

  15. The Public Sector: A National Resource for Alcohol and Drug Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John

    Economic analysis of alcohol and drug treatment services usually focuses on understanding the private, profit-oriented, hospital-based setting. Professional publications of the alcoholism treatment field, as well as popular press and electronic media exposure, also focus heavily on the private system. Low cost, quality treatment services, however,…

  16. Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

  17. Financing Albanian Higher Education: Growth between the Public and Private Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pere, Engjell; Minxhozi, Luljeta

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, reforms in higher education have follow-on effects on social and economic development. This article relates mainly to economic and financial issues regarding the development of higher education. Starting from the notable increase in demand for higher education and the budgetary constraints on public education financing, we argue…

  18. Incentives and Effort in the Public Sector: Have US Education Reforms Increased Teachers' Work Hours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Christiana; Kuhn, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Beyond some contracted minimum, salaried workers' hours are largely chosen at the worker's discretion and should respond to the strength of contract incentives. Accordingly, we consider the response of teacher hours to accountability and school choice laws introduced in US public schools over the past two decades. Total weekly hours of full-time…

  19. Delivering Contextual Material on a Vocational Business and Public Sector Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Ann; Ottewill, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Summative evaluation of a course on the social/demographic environment of business and public service (151 students) found that its vocational relevance needed improvement. The tutor-led, positivist quantitative approach of the evaluation will be refined to help students learn from the evaluation process and will incorporate nonpositivist…

  20. Is Single Gender Schooling Viable in the Public Sector? Lessons from Californias Pilot Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda; Hubbard, Lea; Woody, Elisabeth

    In 1997, California became the first state to conduct large-scale experimentation with single gender public education. This longitudinal study examined the impact of single gender academies in six California districts, focusing on equity implications. Data from observations and interviews with educators, policymakers, and students indicated that…

  1. Internal Audit: Does it Enhance Governance in the Australian Public University Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to confirm if internal audit, a corporate control process, is functioning effectively in Australian public universities. The study draws on agency theory, published literature and best-practice guidelines to develop an internal audit evaluation framework. A survey instrument is thereafter developed from the framework and used as a…

  2. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  3. Curriculum resources for training direct care providers in public sector mental health.

    PubMed

    Styron, Thomas H; Shaw, Matthew; McDuffie, Ebony; Hoge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Direct care personnel who do not have graduate-level professional degrees provide a substantial amount of client care in mental health organizations across the nation. Training for them is minimal in many settings. This shortcoming may negatively affect client care, staff recruitment and retention, and the effective use of scarce resources. In this paper, we identify and review curriculum resources available to mental health organizations interested in implementing or enhancing training programs for direct care personnel. These include two relevant competency sets and six portable training curricula, as well as information on how to access these resources. PMID:16082799

  4. Microsporidiosis Acquired Through Solid Organ Transplantation: A Public Health Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hocevar, Susan N.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Spak, Cedric W.; Rosenblatt, Randall; Diaz-Luna, Hector; Castillo, Isabel; Luna, Sergio; Friedman, Glen C.; Antony, Suresh; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Tiller, Rebekah V.; Peterson, Tammie; Blau, Dianna M.; Sriram, Rama R.; da Silva, Alexandre; de Almeida, Marcos; Benedict, Theresa; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidial species most commonly recognized as a cause of renal, respiratory, and central nervous system infections in immunosuppressed patients, was identified as the cause of a temporally associated cluster of febrile illness among 3 solid organ transplant recipients from a common donor. Objective To confirm the source of the illness, assess donor and recipient risk factors, and provide therapy recommendations for ill recipients. Design Public health investigation. Setting Two transplant hospitals and community interview with the deceased donor’s family. Patients Three transplant recipients and the organ donor. Measurements Specimens were tested for microsporidia by using culture, immunofluorescent antibody, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Donor medical records were reviewed and a questionnaire was developed to assess for microsporidial infection. Results Kidneys and lungs were procured from the deceased donor and transplanted to 3 recipients who became ill with fever 7 to 10 weeks after the transplant. Results of urine culture, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction testing were positive for Encephalitozoon cuniculi of genotype III in each recipient; the organism was also identified in biopsy or autopsy specimens in all recipients. The donor had positive serologic test results for Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Surviving recipients received albendazole. Donor assessment did not identify factors for suspected Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Limitation Inability to detect organism by culture or polymerase chain reaction in donor due to lack of autopsy specimens. Conclusion Transmission of microsporidiosis through organ transplantation is described. Microsporidiosis is now recognized as an emerging transplant-associated disease and should be considered in febrile transplant recipients when tests for routinely encountered agents are unrevealing. Donor-derived disease is critical

  5. Race/Ethnicity and rates of self-reported maltreatment among high-risk youth in public sectors of care.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anna S; McCabe, Kristen M; Yeh, May; Garland, Ann F; Hough, Richard L; Landsverk, John

    2003-08-01

    This study examined rates of youth-reported maltreatment history and the association between youth-reported maltreatment and foster care history across four racial/ethnic groups in a public system of care. Interviews were conducted with 1,045 youth (European Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Pacific Islanders) and their primary caregivers, sampled from one of five service sectors (alcohol/drug services, child welfare, juvenilejustice, mental health, and special education) in San Diego. Overall, racial/ethnic differences in youth-reported maltreatment were minimal. However, in the child welfare sector, African American youth self-reported maltreatment less frequently than other youth. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in foster care history, with African Americans far more likely to have been placed, even after controlling for youth-reported maltreatment, income, age, and gender. Furthermore, maltreatment history was associated with placement for all youth except African Americans. These results suggest that the overrepresentation of minority children in child welfare does not stem from greater rates of maltreatment. PMID:12934635

  6. Artificial interfaces ("AI") in surgery: historic development, current status and program implementation in the public health sector.

    PubMed

    Healy, Donagh A; Murphy, Shane P; Burke, John P; Coffey, John C

    2013-06-01

    The past two decades have seen considerable advances in the application of artificial interfaces (AI) in surgery. Several have been developed including AESOP (Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning), Zeus and the Da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS). Whilst each has advantages DVSS is being used increasingly across multiple surgical specialities. These developments generate many challenges in an era where the emphasis is increasingly on safer and cost-effective surgery. Whilst the role of DVSS is firmly established in urologic and gynaecologic surgery, the role of DVSS in gastrointestinal surgery is evolving. Recent data indicate that it is at least as oncologically effective, whilst providing numerous benefits (e.g. reduced conversion and complication rates) over traditional laparoscopic approaches. The increasing adoption of AI/DVSS worldwide places institutes and health sectors under increasing pressure to adopt and develop such programs. This article provides (1) an update on the current status of AI in surgery in general and in colorectal surgery and (2) an appraisal of the cost implications of the establishment and implementation of AI/DVSS-based provisions in the public health sector. The numerous challenges faced generate many opportunities in the implementation of present and future surgical technologies. PMID:23375732

  7. Blurring the Boundaries: A Case Study of Private Sector Involvement in Philadelphia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Herold, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    As a result of a state takeover, the School District of Philadelphia has been implementing a "diverse provider model" in which for-profit and nonprofit organizations have been hired as school managers. This study explores the first three years of the model, examining the shift away from the rhetoric of competition to the evolution of a…

  8. Diffusion Milieus as a Focus of Research on Innovation in the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Irwin; Menzel, Donald C.

    1977-01-01

    Presents an approach to the diffusion of technological innovations in state and local governments that is organized around the concept of "diffusion milieus." Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; single issues supplied upon request. (Author/JG)

  9. Improving data management practices in the Portuguese HIV/AIDS surveillance system during a time of public sector austerity.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, Tara; Cortes Martins, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In a climate of public sector austerity, the demand for accurate information about disease epidemiology rises as health program managers try to align spending to health needs. A policy of case re-notification to improve HIV information quality resulted in a nine-fold increase in the number of case reports received in 2013 by the Portuguese HIV surveillance office. We used value stream mapping to introduce improvements to data processing practices, identify and reduce waste. Two cycles of improvement were trialled. Before intervention, processing time was nine minutes and 28 seconds (95%CI 8:53-10:58) per report. Two months post intervention, it was six minutes and 34 seconds (95% CI 6:25-6:43). One year after the start of the project, processing time was five minutes and 20 seconds (95% CI 1:46-8:52). PMID:26734448

  10. Examining Adoption of e-Procurement in Public Sector Using the Perceived Characteristics of Innovating: Indonesian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Fathul

    This study aims to examine factors affecting adoption of e-procurement in public sector with special reference to Indonesian context. The Perceived Characteristics of Innovating defined by Moore and Benbasat [1] used as the framework. Based on a survey to 87 contractors/suppliers in the city of Yogyakarta, the study finds that only trialability that affects use intention of e-procurement among the contractors/suppliers. The survey conducted in the early stage of e-procurement implementation is of the possible explanations. Government policy that forces the contractors/suppliers to use the e-procurement also partakes in this context. Practical implication of the findings are also discussed in the paper.

  11. Improving data management practices in the Portuguese HIV/AIDS surveillance system during a time of public sector austerity

    PubMed Central

    Shivaji, Tara; Cortes Martins, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In a climate of public sector austerity, the demand for accurate information about disease epidemiology rises as health program managers try to align spending to health needs. A policy of case re-notification to improve HIV information quality resulted in a nine-fold increase in the number of case reports received in 2013 by the Portuguese HIV surveillance office. We used value stream mapping to introduce improvements to data processing practices, identify and reduce waste. Two cycles of improvement were trialled. Before intervention, processing time was nine minutes and 28 seconds (95%CI 8:53–10:58) per report. Two months post intervention, it was six minutes and 34 seconds (95% CI 6:25–6:43). One year after the start of the project, processing time was five minutes and 20 seconds (95% CI 1:46–8:52). PMID:26734448

  12. Clients’ perceptions of the quality of care in Mexico City’s public-sector legal abortion program

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Davida; Díaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Juárez, Clara; García, Sandra G.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Harper, Cynthia C.

    2014-01-01

    Context In 2007 the Mexico City legislature made the groundbreaking decision to legalize first trimester abortion. Limited research has been conducted to understand clients’ perceptions of the abortion services available in public sector facilities. Methods We measured clients’ perceptions of quality of care at three public sector sites in Mexico City in 2009 (n=402). We assessed six domains of quality of care (client-staff interaction, information provision, technical competence, post-abortion contraceptive services, accessibility, and the facility environment), and conducted ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify which domains were important to women for their overall evaluation of care. We measured the association of overall service evaluation with socio-demographic factors and abortion-visit characteristics, in addition to specific quality of care domains. Results Clients reported a high quality of care for abortion services with an overall mean rating of 8.8 out of 10. Multivariable analysis showed that important domains for high evaluation included client perception of doctor as technically skilled (p<0.05), comfort with doctor (p<0.001), perception of confidentiality (p<.01), perception that receptionist was respectful (p<.05) and counseling on self-care at home following the abortion and post-abortion emotions (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Other relevant domains for high evaluation were convenient site hours (p<0.01), waiting time (p<0.001) and clean facility (p<0.05). Nulliparous women rated their care less favorably than parous women (p<0.05). Conclusions Our findings highlight important domains of service quality to women’s overall evaluations of abortion care in Mexico City. Strategies to improve clients’ service experiences should focus on improving counseling, service accessibility and waiting time. PMID:22227626

  13. Employee control over working times and risk of cause-specific disability pension: the Finnish Public Sector Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahtera, Jussi; Laine, Sari; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Koskinen, Aki; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between worktime control and subsequent retirement on health ground (disability pension) among employees. Methods A prospective cohort study of 30 700 public sector employees (78% women) aged 18 to 64 at baseline. Two scores of worktime control, self-assessed and co-worker assessed, were obtained from responses to the baseline survey in 2000-2001 (score range 1 to 5). Information on cause-specific disability pension during follow-up was collected from national registers. Results During a mean follow-up of 4.4 years, 1178 employees were granted disability pension (incidence per 1000 person-years 9.2 in women and 8.7 in men). The most common causes of a disability pension were musculoskeletal disorders (43% of all pensions), mental disorders (25%), tumours (8%), and diseases of the circulatory system (6%) and the nervous system (6%). A 1 unit increase in self-assessed and co-worker assessed worktime control score was associated with a 41-48% lowering of the risk of disabling musculoskeletal disorders in men and 33-35% lowering in women. This association was robust to adjustment for all 17 baseline covariates (in men and women combined, adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.87 and 0.64, 95% CI 0.51-0.79 per 1 unit increase in self-assessed and co-worker assessed worktime control, respectively).Self-assessed worktime control was also associated with the risk of disability retirement due to mental disorders in women, but this association was not replicated using co-workers’ assessment. Disability pensions from other disease categories were not related to control over working times. Conclusions In this cohort of public sector employees, high worktime control among employees was associated with reduced risk of early retirement caused by musculoskeletal disorders independent of baseline characteristics. PMID:19914911

  14. Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspersma, J. M.; Alaerts, G. J.; Slinger, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A framework is introduced, describing three aggregate competences for technical issues, management and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation, for the water sector. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. The framework and an assessment methodology were tested in a case study on post-graduate water education for professional staff in the Directorate General Water Resources (DGWR) in Indonesia. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both the surveys and interviews show strong interest in the other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. A discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that could be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With only little competence in these disciplines, it will be difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in an interdisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this seems partly compensated by the attention for continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is reported as fundamentally formative. The policies of DGWR have gone through three distinct phases. In the first phase (1970-1987) technical competence and learning were valued highly and training was arranged effectively; in the current phase the need to develop new competences is raising new challenges.

  15. Contracting and Procurement for Evidence-Based Interventions in Public-Sector Human Services: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Aarons, Gregory A; Trott, Elise M; Green, Amy E; Finn, Natalie; Ehrhart, Mark G; Hecht, Debra B

    2016-09-01

    Sustainment of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) in human services depends on the inner context of community-based organizations (CBOs) that provide services and the outer context of their broader environment. Increasingly, public officials are experimenting with contracting models from for-profit industries to procure human services. In this case study, we conducted qualitative interviews with key government and CBO stakeholders to examine implementation of the Best Value-Performance Information Procurement System to contract for EBIs in a child welfare system. Findings suggest that stakeholder relationships may be compromised when procurement disregards local knowledge, communication, collaboration, and other factors supporting EBIs and public health initiatives. PMID:26386977

  16. A Partnership in Mississippi for Promoting Astronomy to Diverse Sectors of the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, K.; Fadavi, Mehri; Yang, Hai-Shou

    1998-05-01

    In Mississippi the Harlow Shapley Visiting Lectureships are hosted by a growing consortium which currently has seven members; French Camp Academy and the Rainwater Observatory, a private high school and the state's largest observatory; Holmes Community College, a multicampus community college; Jackson Astronomical Association; Jackson State University, a historically black college or university (HBCU) and state comprehensive institution of higher learning with an urban mission; the Russell C. Davis Planetarium and the Davis Planetarium Foundation since renamed Mississippi Science Network, Inc., serving the whole state with a "Science is for Everyone" mission; St. Andrews Episcopal School, an urban high school; Tougaloo College, a private urban HCBU; and Mississippi Science Partnership. The Partnership, founded in 1990 as a novel alliance of state institutions of higher learning, a state school system and a major private corporation, with "the vision of improving the teaching and learning of mathematics and science for years to come in the state of Mississippi", leads the consortium and coordinates the Lectureships with the partners. The lecturer typically spends two days, gives public, free lectures at the college and school campuses and at the Planetarium, and holds formal and informal discussions with faculty, staff, students, amateur and professional astronomers in the region, and interested members of the public. The visit catalyzes improvements in astronomy education and research at the institutions. The Lectureships have also been an occasion for an informal meeting of the consortium where the members share their common joy and experiences in astronomy and its education and research.

  17. 78 FR 14437 - Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... regulations, proposing to add one new exemption and to revise an existing exemption. See 76 FR 24816-24820... of the fund's total assets.'' 60 FR 47211 (September 11, 1995) (preamble to proposed rule). This... funds also apply to the interests in the holdings of sector unit investment trusts. 76 FR...

  18. Lessons from Five States: Public Sector Use of Washington Circle Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, Deborah W.; Lee, Margaret T.; Horgan, Constance; Acevedo, Andrea; Botticelli, Michael; Clark, Spencer; Davis, Steven; Gallati, Robert; Haberlin, Karin; Hanchett, Andrew; Lambert–Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Siemianowski, James; Tikoo, Minakshi

    2011-01-01

    Five states (Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, and Oklahoma) have incorporated Washington Circle (WC) substance abuse performance measures in various ways into their quality improvement strategies. In this paper we focus on what other states and local providers might learn from these states’ experiences as they consider using WC performance measures. Using a case study approach, we report that the use of WC measures differs across these five states, although there are important common themes required for adoption and sustainability of performance measures which include: leadership, evaluation of specification and use of measures over time, state-specific adaptation of the WC measure specifications, collaboration with consultants and partners, inclusion of WC measures in the context of other initiatives, reporting to providers and the public, and data and resource requirements. As additional states adopt some of the WC measures, or adopt other performance measurement approaches, these states’ experiences could help them to develop implementations based on their particular needs. PMID:21257282

  19. A combined nurse-pharmacist managed pain clinic: joint venture of public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Briggs, Michelle; Closs, S José

    2012-02-01

    Chronic pain has become one of the most prevalent problems in primary care. The management of chronic pain is complex and often requires a multidisciplinary approach. The limited capacity of general practitioners to manage chronic pain and long waiting time for secondary care referrals further add to the complexity of chronic pain management. Restricted financial and skilled human capital make it hard for healthcare systems across the world to establish and maintain multidisciplinary pain clinics, in spite of their documented effectiveness. Affordability and accessibility to such multidisciplinary pain clinics is often problematic for patients. The purpose of this paper is to share our experience and relevant research evidence of a community based combined nurse-pharmacist managed pain clinic. The pain clinic serves as an example of public-private partnership in healthcare. PMID:22120700

  20. Traffic mitigation reference guide: a review of options available to the public and private sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Brittle, C.; McConnell, N.; O'Hare, S.

    1984-12-01

    The document is a reprint of a guide on how to reduce traffic impacts, through city, developer, and employer actions. It covers a wide variety of techniques, including carpooling and vanpooling programs, transit usage, parking management approaches, variable work hours, bicycle programs, and various kinds of brokerage activities. The document also includes material on incorporation of traffic-mitigation techniques into local plans, policies, ordinances, and development project approvals, along with specific techniques for monitoring of compliance and enforcement. Funding of traffic-mitigation activities from public or private sources is also discussed. The document should be of interest to traffic and highway planners, the transit community, staffs of elected officials, major employers, and private developers themselves.

  1. Lifestyle of the Employees Working in Hamadan Public Sectors: Application of the Trans-Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Shojaeizade, Davod; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: A healthy lifestyle is a valuable source to reduce the prevalence of health problems, and promoteehealth. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the lifestyle and obesity status of Hamadan public employees and their status based on the trans-theoretical model (TTM). Patients and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 on 1200 public employees in Hamadan city, Iran selected through proportional stratified random sampling. Data collection was performed using a three-section questionnaire including demographic characteristics, The FANTASTIC lifestyle questionnaire, and the five-part algorithm. Data were analyzed by SPSS-20 using linear regression, Chi-square, Fisher exact test, and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of the employees was 38.12 ± 8.04 years. Most of the employees (61.7%) had favorable lifestyle. About half of the employees were at the preparation stage of TTM. Most of the employees were in a poor condition regarding the physical activity and healthy eating habits. In most of the evaluated items, females got higher scores than males. The associations between lifestyle and age, gender, work experience, income satisfaction, and marital status were significant. Moreover, the associations between obesity and work experience, marital status, number of offspring, and gender were significant (P < 0. 05). Significant predicting variables of obesity were age and work experience; they explained 31.2% variance of obesity (adjusted R2 = 0.312, R2 change = 0.01). Conclusions: Planning health education interventions for employees through effective approaches seems necessary. PMID:25838939

  2. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  3. Public health departments and accountable care organizations: finding common ground in population health.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Costich, Julia F

    2015-05-01

    We examined areas of potential collaboration between accountable care organizations and public health agencies, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators. We interviewed 9 key informants on 4 topics: advantages of public health agency involvement in accountable care organizations; services public health agencies could provide; practical, cultural, and legal barriers to accountable care organization-public health agency involvement; and business models that facilitate accountable care organization-public health agency collaboration. Public health agencies could help accountable care organizations partner with community organizations and reach vulnerable patients, provide population-based services and surveillance data, and promote policies that improve member health. Barriers include accountable care organizations' need for short-term financial yield, limited public health agency technical and financial capacity, and the absence of a financial model. PMID:25790392

  4. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. PMID:21555087

  5. Socio-economic and ethnic group inequities in antenatal care quality in the public and private sector in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, CG; Matijasevich, A; Silveira, MF; Santos, IS; Barros, AJD; Barros, FC

    2010-01-01

    Background Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers. Methods Quality of care for women giving birth in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, was assessed by measuring how many of 11 procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health were performed. Information on family income, self-assessed skin colour, parity and type of provider were collected. Results Antenatal care was used by 98% of the 4244 women studied (mean number of visits 8.3), but the number of consultations was higher among better-off and white women, who were also more likely to start antenatal care in the first trimester. The quality of antenatal care score ranged from 0 to 11, with an overall mean of 8.3 (SD 1.7). Mean scores were 8.9 (SD 1.5) in the wealthiest and 7.9 (SD 1.8) in the poorest quintiles (P < 0.001), 8.4 (SD 1.6) in white and 8.1 (SD 1.9) in black women (P < 0.001). Adjusted analyses showed that these differences seemed to be due to attendance patterns rather than discrimination. Mean quality scores were higher in the private 9.3 (SD 1.3) than in the public sector 8.1 (SD 1.6) (P < 0.001); these differences were not explained by maternal characteristics or by attendance patterns. Conclusions Special efforts must be made to improve quality of care in the public sector. Poor and black women should be actively encouraged to start antenatal care early in pregnancy so that they can fully benefit from it. There is a need for regular monitoring of antenatal attendances and quality of care with an equity lens, in order to assess how different social groups are benefiting from progress in health care. PMID:20123940

  6. [Governance and health: the rise of the managerialism in public sector reform].

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean L; Lamothe, Lise; Langley, Ann; Stéphane, Guérard

    2010-01-01

    The article examines various healthcare systems reform projects in Canada and some Canadian provinces and reveals some tendencies in governance renewal. The analisis is based on the hypothesis that reform is an exercise aiming at the renewal of governance conception and practices. In renewing governance, reform leaders hope to use adequate and effective levers to attain announced reform objectives. The article shows that the conceptions and operational modalities of governance have changed over time and that they reveal tensions inherent to the transformation and legitimation process of public healthcare systems. The first section discusses the relationships between reform and change. The second section defines the conception of gouvernance used for the analisis. Based on a content analisis of the various reform reports, the third section reveals the evolution of the conception of governance in healthcare systems in Canada. In order to expose the new tendencies, ideologies and operational principles at the heart of the reform projects are analysed. Five ideologies are identified: the democratic ideology, the "population health" ideology, the business ideology, the managerial ideology and the ideology of equity and humanism. This leads to a discussion on the dominant influence of the managerial ideology in the current reform projects. PMID:20963305

  7. Transferring a National Information System from the Public Sector to the Private Sector--How the Administration on Aging Did It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Describes the methods and results of the transfer of the SCAN bibliographic database, sponsored by the Administration on Aging (AoA) to the private sector American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) when Congress repealed authority for AoA. Steps involved in the establishment of a bibliographic database are outlined. Four sources are given.…

  8. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  9. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Moorman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices). Results In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion Hospital managers and

  10. Dissemination of Climate Model Output to the Public and Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Stockwell, PhD

    2010-09-23

    aerosol, and land alteration. A particular concern is that atmospheric levels of CO{sub 2} may be rising faster than at any time in Earth's history, except possibly following rare events like impacts from large extraterrestrial objects (AMS, 2007). Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have increased since the mid-1700s through fossil fuel burning and changes in land use, with more than 80% of this increase occurring since 1900. The increased levels of CO{sub 2} will remain in the atmosphere for hundreds to thousands of years. The complexity of the climate system makes it difficult to predict specific aspects of human-induced climate change, such as exactly how and where changes will occur, and their magnitude. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) was established by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations in 1988. The IPCC was tasked with assessing the scientific, technical and socioeconomic information needed to understand the risk of human-induced climate change, its observed and projected impacts, and options for adaptation and mitigation. The IPCC concluded in its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) that warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and that most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increased in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations (IPCC, 2007).

  11. Evolution of Doctoral Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Successes of Doctoral Students of Education in a Public Sector University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a part of the findings from a larger study undertaken to explore the experience of graduate students in education in Pakistan. Analysis of a smaller slice of data collected from students who were enrolled in the PhD and MPhil programmes of the Department of Education in a large public sector university in Northern Pakistan was…

  12. Public and Private Sectors in Asian Higher Education Systems: Issues and Prospects. Reports from the International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia (3rd, Hiroshima, Japan, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The roles of public and private sectors of higher education in Asia and relationships to national systems are explored in reports from the Third International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia. The focus was China, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Japan, and Thailand. Patterns by which national systems of higher education are differentiated…

  13. Cross-Sectoral Partnerships: A Case Study of the Best Practices Used by CVS/Pharmacy in Developing Partnerships with the Public Workforce Development System in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the private-public sector partnership between CVS/pharmacy and the federal/state workforce development system in Minnesota. The study describes how CVS creates partnerships with the federal/state system of one-stop career centers and other partners in the workforce development arena such as community or faith-based…

  14. Public and Private Agri-Environmental Regulation in Post-Socialist Economies: Evidence from the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Matthew; Zaric, Vlade; Lowe, Philip; Quarrie, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Using primary survey data and interview evidence this paper analyses the implementation and enforcement of public and private environmental regulation in the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV) sector. This provides a basis for engaging in a wider debate on the nature of agri-food regulation in post-socialist economies. Depictions of the…

  15. Resource Utilisation Performance Indicators in the Public Sector of Higher Education, or Never Mind the Technique Feel the Structure. Coombe Lodge Information Bank Number 1450.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Derek W.; Cuthbert, R. E.

    A discussion is presented of the process of resource allocation and the use of performance indicators in public sector higher education in Britain. First, background is presented on the method of providing resources to institutions of advanced further education (AFE) and non-advanced further education (NAFE) on the basis of pooled recurrent…

  16. When Government Is No Longer Employer of Choice: What May the Sector Perceptions of Public Managers Be Like after the Economy Recovers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Craig; Ponomariov, Branco

    2012-01-01

    In today's economic climate, government is now considered by many to be the "employer of choice." However, employers at all levels of government may eventually lose their recent gains in the war for talent, as the economy improves. Accordingly, it is important to explain how public sector managers viewed the relative advantages and…

  17. Factors Influencing Sharing Activities in Transnational Public Sector Knowledge Networks: The Case of Mobile Disease Surveillance System Adoption in the 2009 Hajj

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharawi, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the growing base of theory relating to Transnational Public Sector Knowledge Networks (TPSKNs) presented by Dawes, Gharawi, and Burke (2012). A case study explores the TPSKN formed between the United States Center for Disease Control and the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health ahead of the 2009 Hajj, one of the…

  18. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  19. Cost of Delivering Health Care Services in Public Sector Primary and Community Health Centres in North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Verma, Ramesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kumar, Dinesh; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background With the commitment of the national government to provide universal healthcare at cheap and affordable prices in India, public healthcare services are being strengthened in India. However, there is dearth of cost data for provision of health services through public system like primary & community health centres. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap in evidence by assessing the total annual and per capita cost of delivering the package of health services at PHC and CHC level. Secondly, we determined the per capita cost of delivering specific health services like cost per antenatal care visit, per institutional delivery, per outpatient consultation, per bed-day hospitalization etc. Methods We undertook economic costing of fourteen public health facilities (seven PHCs and CHCs each) in three North-Indian states viz., Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Bottom-up costing method was adopted for collection of data on all resources spent on delivery of health services in selected health facilities. Analysis was undertaken using a health system perspective. The joint costs like human resource, capital, and equipment were apportioned as per the time value spent on a particular service. Capital costs were discounted and annualized over the estimated life of the item. Mean annual costs and unit costs were estimated along with their 95% confidence intervals using bootstrap methodology. Results The overall annual cost of delivering services through public sector primary and community health facilities in three states of north India were INR 8.8 million (95% CI: 7,365,630–10,294,065) and INR 26.9 million (95% CI: 22,225,159.3–32,290,099.6), respectively. Human resources accounted for more than 50% of the overall costs at both the level of PHCs and CHCs. Per capita per year costs for provision of complete package of preventive, curative and promotive services at PHC and CHC were INR 170.8 (95% CI: 131.6–208.3) and INR162.1 (95% CI: 112–219

  20. How shall we examine and learn about public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector? Realist evaluation of PPPs in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eliza L Y; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Chau, Patsy Y K; Yam, Carrie H K; Cheung, Annie W L; Fung, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The World Health Organization advocates the goal of universal coverage of health systems to ensure that everyone can avail the services they need and are protected from the associated financial risks. Governments are increasingly engaging and interacting with the private sector in initiatives collectively referred to as public-private partnerships (PPPs) to enhance the capacity of health systems to meet this objective. Understanding the values that motivate partners and demonstrating commitment for building relationships were found to be key lessons in building effective PPPs; however there, remain many research gaps. This study focusses on the practice of PPPs at the inter-organisational (meso) level and interpersonal (micro) level in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The influence of the structural components of different PPPs on stakeholder interpretation and actions, as well as the eventual outcomes of the PPPs, is examined, in terms of a realist evaluation, which applies a context-mechanism-outcome configuration as the research methodology. Seven key factors initiating commitment in a partnership, critical for sustainable PPPs, were identified as follows: (1) building of trust; (2) clearly defined objectives and roles; (3) time commitment; (4) transparency and candid information, particularly in relation to risk and benefit; (5) contract flexibility; (6) technical assistance or financial incentive behind procedural arrangements; and (7) the awareness and acceptability of structural changes related to responsibility and decisions (power and authority). PMID:26605970

  1. A Correlational Analysis of Strategic Information Systems Planning in K-12 Public Educational Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Three decades of research has indicated that strategic information systems planning is a vital component to business success. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship strategic information systems planning and financial commitment has within the K-12 public education sector. Data for this study was obtained from top management of…

  2. Impact of Affirmative Action on Quality of Service Delivery in the Public Service Sector of Kenya: A Comparative Case Study of the Ministry of State in the Office of the President and Ministry of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilonzo, Evans Mbuthi; Ikamari, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the impact of affirmative action policy on the quality service delivery in the public service sector of Kenya. The study was carried out on the premise that there is a relationship between affirmative Action implementation and the quality of service delivery in the public service sector of Kenya. A lot of…

  3. Creating Standards for Student Organizations at Public Institutions in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damania, Nicky Pessi

    2012-01-01

    At institutions of higher education, the environment for developing student organizations has been less than optimum due to a lack of development of effective and efficient standards for these organizations. Even though there are tools for improving organizations, there are no set standards for their operation and governance to ignite leadership…

  4. From Schoolhouse to Statehouse: Community Organizing for Public School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Thomas

    This report reviews the activities, strategies, successes, and problems of diverse school reform efforts across a 14-state sample of community organizations. In 1999 and 2000, interviewers visited over 40 organizations and conducted telephone interviews with dozens of other organizations involved in education reform. They met with directors,…

  5. Racial-ethnic differences in access, diagnosis, and outcomes in public-sector inpatient mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E; Flanagan, Elizabeth H; Andres-Hyman, Raquel; Ortiz, Jose; Amer, Mona M; Davidson, Larry

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated inequities in access, diagnosis, and treatment for African Americans and Hispanic Americans receiving treatment in northeast, public sector, inpatient mental health settings as part of a Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services Health Disparities Initiative. Data from 1,484 adults were obtained through a random extract of patients admitted to state inpatient facilities between 2002 and 2005. After controlling for demographic variables and symptom severity, logistic and linear regression showed that Hispanic Americans were significantly more likely to enter inpatient care through crisis/emergency sources and were significantly less likely to self-refer or come to inpatient care through other sources (e.g., family, outpatient). After admission, Hispanic Americans were more likely to be diagnosed with other psychotic disorders (e.g., schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder), were less likely to receive an Axis II diagnosis at discharge, and had a shorter length of stay than non-Hispanic White Americans. African Americans were more likely than other groups to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, drug-related, and Cluster B diagnoses (discharge only), and they were less likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders and other nonpsychotic disorders. Although African Americans were more likely than other groups to come to inpatient units from numerous routes, including self-referral and referral from other sources (e.g., family, outpatient), they were more likely to terminate treatment against medical advice and displayed shorter length of stay despite receiving ratings of greater symptom severity at discharge. These findings highlight the need for policies, programs, and system interventions designed to eliminate disparities and improve the quality and cultural responsiveness of behavioral health services. PMID:25961650

  6. First-Episode Service for Psychotic Disorders in the U.S. Public Sector: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Srihari, Vinod H; Tek, Cenk; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Phutane, Vivek; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Pollard, Jessica; Ozkan, Banu; Saksa, John; Walsh, Barbara C; Wood, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive first-episode service (the clinic for Specialized Treatment Early in Psychosis, STEP) based in an urban U.S. community mental health center, compared to treatment as usual. Methods This pragmatic randomized controlled trial enrolled 120 ‘first-episode psychosis’ patients within 5 years of illness onset and 12 weeks of antipsychotic exposure. Referrals were mostly from area inpatient psychiatric units and enrollees were randomly allocated to STEP or referral to routine care (TU). Main outcomes included hospital utilization (primary), ability to work, attend age-appropriate schooling or actively seek these opportunities (‘vocational engagement’), and general functioning. Analysis was by modified intent to treat (excluding only 3 who withdrew consent) for hospitalization and completers for other outcomes. Results After one year, STEP effected reductions on all measures of inpatient utilization vs. usual treatment: not psychiatrically hospitalized (77% vs. 56%, RR 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.58); mean hospitalizations (0.33±0.70 vs. 0.68±0.92, p=0.02) and mean bed days (5.34±13.53 vs. 11.51±15.04, p=0.05). For every 5 patients allocated in STEP vs. usual treatment, one additional patient avoided psychiatric hospitalization over the first year (NNT = 5, CI 2.7–26.5). STEP also delivered better vocational engagement (91.7% vs. 66.7%, RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.48) and salutary trends in measures of global functioning. Conclusions This trial demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of a U.S. public sector model of early intervention for psychotic illnesses. Such services can also support translational research and are a relevant model for other serious mental illnesses. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00309452. PMID:25639994

  7. Public Service Units at UALR: Directions and Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joel E.

    This report discusses the conceptual framework and the decisions involved in the development of the directions and organizational structure of the Research and Public Service (RAPS) unit at the University of Arkansas, Little Rock (UALR). Fundamental considerations, such as the official authorization for UALR's public service role and questions…

  8. African Trade Unions and the Challenge of Organizing Women Workers in the Unorganized Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Date-Bah, Eugenia

    1993-01-01

    Democratization should be considered in terms of equal representation of women and men in government as well as in the relevant bodies and decision-making organs of society. Trade unions should be perceived and assessed in relation to the participation of women within their structures and the reflection of women's concerns in their policies and…

  9. The Impact of Sector on School Organizations: Institutional and Market Logics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Scott; Quirke, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on new institutional and market theories, this article derives three hypotheses for the effects of markets on educational organizations: They (1) weaken formal structures, (2) reverse tendencies toward isomorphism, and (3) force schools to recouple and compete via performance indicators. These ideas are investigated with data on private…

  10. The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-02-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa. PMID:20150608

  11. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions, phase 2 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A program established by NASA with the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) applies a network where the major participants are NASA, universities or research institutes, community colleges, and local private and public organizations. Local users are given an opportunity to obtain "hands on" training in LANDSAT data analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques using a desk top, interactive remote analysis station (RAS). The RAS communicates with a central computing facility via telephone line, and provides for generation of land use and land suitability maps and other data products via remote command. During the period from 22 September 1980 - 6 March 1982, 15 workshops and other training activities were successfully conducted throughout Michigan providing hands on training on the RAS terminals for 250 or more people and user awareness activities such as exhibits and demonstrations for 2,000 or more participants.

  12. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms from the Romanian sector of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Oros, Andra; Plavan, Gabriel; Nicoara, Mircea

    2015-05-25

    The aim of this research was to study the accumulation of heavy metals (cadmium - Cd, lead - Pb, chromium - Cr, nickel - Ni, and copper - Cu) from water and sediments into living tissues of relevant marine species from different trophic levels of a food web, representative for shallow waters of the Romanian Black Sea Coast where the main anthropogenic impacts exist. The heavy metals concentrations were analysed by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer with graphite furnace, the results being further used to calculate the bioconcentration factors for a few key taxa like green and red algae, molluscs and fishes. Seven sampling sites influenced by anthropogenic pollution sources (municipal wastewater treatment plants and diffuse sources) were considered and a total of 300 samples were analysed for the period 2011-2012, this being the first unitary study for the Romanian Black Sea marine ecosystem. In 2011 and 2012 there were no significant differences between the sampling areas considering the heavy metals concentrations in water. For the sediments significant differences were observed between sampling sites for some heavy metals, namely Pb in 2011 and Pb, Cu and Cd in 2012, the highest concentrations being registered in the southern sector of the Romanian Black Sea shore, where the anthropogenic pollution sources are represented by the harbour and wastewater treatment plants. The values of the bioaccumulation factors (BCFsed) shows that algae are good accumulators for Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd, in comparison with BCFwater where the order of heavy metal accumulation was different: Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd>Cu. Molluscs have higher bioconcentration factors for Cu and Cd for sediments and for Cu and Ni for water. Rapana venosa accumulated more Cd and Cu. For fishes, Pb, Cu and Ni had the highest values in the tissues of benthonic species Mullus barbatus. In bivalve molluscs and fishes, in the majority of cases, there were not recorded exceeding mean concentrations as compared to the maximum

  13. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3 - Broadly, publicly supported organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Broadly, publicly supported organizations. 1.509(a)-3 Section 1.509(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(a)-3 Broadly, publicly supported organizations. (a) In...

  14. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3 - Broadly, publicly supported organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Broadly, publicly supported organizations. 1.509(a)-3 Section 1.509(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(a)-3 Broadly, publicly supported organizations. (a) In...

  15. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3 - Broadly, publicly supported organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Broadly, publicly supported organizations. 1.509(a)-3 Section 1.509(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(a)-3 Broadly, publicly supported organizations. (a) In...

  16. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3 - Broadly, publicly supported organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Broadly, publicly supported organizations. 1.509(a)-3 Section 1.509(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(a)-3 Broadly, publicly supported organizations. (a) In...

  17. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3 - Broadly, publicly supported organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Broadly, publicly supported organizations. 1.509(a)-3 Section 1.509(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations § 1.509(a)-3 Broadly, publicly supported organizations. (a) In...

  18. The Uniting of a Profession: The History of Public Relations Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoch, Kathleen S.

    A chronological history of major public relations organizations in the United States is presented in this paper. Following an overview of the public relations profession, the paper traces the development of several sporatically formed organizations, starting with the Financial Advertising Association in 1915, and leading to the largest…

  19. 77 FR 12202 - Public Inspection of Material Relating to Tax-Exempt Organizations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Register (72 FR 45394-01) on August 14, 2007. One comment was received from the public in response to the... status filed by the political organization shall be open to public inspection. (c) Letters or documents... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BG60 Public Inspection of Material Relating to...

  20. A Public Policy for Neighborhood and Community Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Milton

    1979-01-01

    It is in the interest of federal and local governments to enlarge the power of community and neighborhood organizations for the sake of effective governing. During this era of budgetary and tax restraint, these organizations must be brought into the process of service delivery and development. (Author/RLV)

  1. Does labour epidural slow the progress of labour and lead to complications? Obstetricians’ perception working in private and public sector teaching hospitals in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001) of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses. PMID:26903670

  2. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low

  3. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  4. Organizing for Instruction: A Comparative Study of Public, Charter, and Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Lisa M.; Spillane, James P.; Pustejovsky, James

    2011-01-01

    Guided by theories of institutions, organizations, and sense-making, this manuscript examines how public, charter, and Catholic school staff in a large urban area organize for instruction and respond to educational change. To build theory about institutional processes of "organizing" from participants' perspectives, data included a survey…

  5. Organization of Academic Advising in Ohio's Two-Year Public Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Verne W.

    2012-01-01

    Academic advising administrators, academic advising professional organization leaders, and academic advising scholars have not had access to information about how academic advising is organized in their states. The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the organization of academic advising in Ohio's two-year public colleges; (b) to…

  6. Who is accessing public-sector anti-retroviral treatment in the Free State, South Africa? An exploratory study of the first three years of programme implementation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although South Africa has the largest public-sector anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, anti-retroviral coverage in adults was only 40.2% in 2008. However, longitudinal studies of who is accessing the South African public-sector ART programme are scarce. This study therefore had one main research question: who is accessing public-sector ART in the Free State Province, South Africa? The study aimed to extend the current literature by investigating, in a quantitative manner and using a longitudinal study design, the participants enrolled in the public-sector ART programme in the period 2004-2006 in the Free State Province of South Africa. Methods Differences in the demographic (age, sex, population group and marital status) socio-economic (education, income, neo-material indicators), geographic (travel costs, relocation for ART), and medical characteristics (CD4, viral load, time since first diagnosis, treatment status) among 912 patients enrolled in the Free State public-sector ART programme between 2004 and 2006 were assessed with one-way analysis of variance, Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, and cross tabulations with the chi square test. Results The patients accessing treatment tended to be female (71.1%) and unemployed (83.4%). However, although relatively poor, those most likely to access ART services were not the most impoverished patients. The proportion of female patients increased (P < 0.05) and their socio-economic situation improved between 2004 and 2006 (P < 0.05). The increasing mean transport cost (P < 0.05) to visit the facility is worrying, because this cost is an important barrier to ART uptake and adherence. Encouragingly, the study results revealed that the interval between the first HIV-positive diagnosis and ART initiation decreased steadily over time (P < 0.05). This was also reflected in the increasing baseline CD4 cell count at ART initiation (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our analysis showed significant changes in the

  7. Essays on Urban School Organization: Evidence from Chicago Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew Philip

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is an empirical investigation of educational policies, practices and organizational settings that shape the schooling experiences of Chicago Public School (CPS) students. The first chapter, "Educational Choice and Student Participation: The Case of the Supplemental Educational Services Provision in Chicago Public…

  8. Studies in Public Library Government, Organization, and Support. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Guy

    This report consists of six individual reports that were done by staff members at the Library Research Center as part of the overall project. In Part I, "Financing Public Library Expansion: Case Studies of Three Defeated Bond Issue Referendums," Ruth G. Lindahl and William S. Berner analyze defeated library bond issue referendums in Champaign,…

  9. Abandoning the dead donor rule? A national survey of public views on death and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Green, Sydney R; Sutin, Angelina R

    2015-04-01

    Brain dead organ donors are the principal source of transplantable organs. However, it is controversial whether brain death is the same as biological death. Therefore, it is unclear whether organ removal in brain death is consistent with the 'dead donor rule', which states that organ removal must not cause death. Our aim was to evaluate the public's opinion about organ removal if explicitly described as causing the death of a donor in irreversible apneic coma. We conducted a cross-sectional internet survey of the American public (n=1096). Questionnaire domains included opinions about a hypothetical scenario of organ removal described as causing the death of a patient in irreversible coma, and items measuring willingness to donate organs after death. Some 71% of the sample agreed that it should be legal for patients to donate organs in the scenario described and 67% agreed that they would want to donate organs in a similar situation. Of the 85% of the sample who agreed that they were willing to donate organs after death, 76% agreed that they would donate in the scenario of irreversible coma with organ removal causing death. There appears to be public support for organ donation in a scenario explicitly described as violating the dead donor rule. Further, most but not all people who would agree to donate when organ removal is described as occurring after death would also agree to donate when organ removal is described as causing death in irreversible coma. PMID:25260779

  10. VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN 10 PUBLIC-ACCESS BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA carried out studies of indoor air quality in 10 buildings. Qualitative analysis identified over 200 aromatics, halogens, esters, alcohols, phenols, ethers, ketones, aldehydes, and epoxides, in addition to several hundred aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total organic load...

  11. Organic Education in Public Schools of Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Organic education, which was introduced into the United States during the last third of the 19th century, was based upon Froebel's ideal of life as a connected whole. The late 19th century was a favorable period for innovation, for its economic prosperity made leaders feel that with the use of scientific methods anything was possible, and its…

  12. Neoliberal Policy in the Higher Education Sector in Bangladesh: Autonomy of Public Universities and the Role of the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, enormous changes have been made in the higher education sector in Bangladesh. The government promulgated the Private University Act in 1992, and formulated a 20-year Strategic Plan for Higher Education: 2006-2026 (SPHE). A critical review shows that the objective of the plan is to connect education with market-driven economic…

  13. The Relationship among Training Policy, Knowledge Transfer, and Performance Improvement: A Study of Private Sector Organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafloot, Fayez M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore human resource (HR) managers' perceptions of training practices (i.e., needs assessment, trainee preparation, training program review, accountability, management support, knowledge transfer, and performance improvement) in Saudi private sector organizations. The research questions were: (1) How do HR…

  14. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  15. 78 FR 44959 - Public Workshop Related to the International Maritime Organization's Development of a Mandatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Workshop The Coast Guard will hold a public... on topics related to the development of a mandatory code for ships operating in polar waters by the International Maritime Organization (IMO Polar Code). Various safety topics will be discussed including...

  16. 78 FR 46950 - Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... claims. \\2\\ See Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11... Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  17. Open Systems Approach--Can It Work for Public School Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, A. E.

    The problem of public school education in today's environment is presented, and a case is made for restructuring public school organizations and/or management processes along the pattern of an open systems approach. The closed system of operating allows externalities to impact on it, and there is a continuing emphasis on reacting. With the benefit…

  18. Maternal satisfaction with organized perinatal care in Serbian public hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the experiences and expectations of women across the continuum of antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal care is important to assess the quality of maternal care and to determine problematic areas which could be improved. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with maternal satisfaction with hospital-based perinatal care in Serbia. Methods Our survey was conducted from January 2009 to January 2010 using a 28-item, self-administered questionnaire. The sample consisted of 50% of women who expected childbirths during the study period from all 76 public institutions with obstetric departments in Serbia. The following three composite outcome variables were constructed: satisfaction with technical and professional aspects of care; communication and interpersonal aspects of care; and environmental factors. Results We analyzed 34,431 completed questionnaires (84.2% of the study sample). The highest and lowest average satisfaction scores (4.43 and 3.25, respectively) referred to the overall participation of midwives during delivery and the quality of food served in the hospital, respectively. Younger mothers and multiparas were less concerned with the environmental conditions (OR = 0.55, p = 0.006; OR = 1.82, p = 0.004). Final model indicated that mothers informed of patients’ rights, pregnancy and delivery through the Maternal Counseling Service were more likely to be satisfied with all three outcome variables. The highest value of the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was between the overall satisfaction score and satisfaction with communication and interpersonal aspects of care. Conclusions Our study illuminated the importance of interpersonal aspects of care and education for maternal satisfaction. Improvement of the environmental conditions in hospitals, the WHO program, Baby-friendly Hospital, and above all providing all pregnant women with antenatal education, are recommendations which would

  19. Toxics Release Inventory, 1996. Public data release: Ten years of right-to-know industry sector analyses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents the data for 15 industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently required to report to TRI. These chapters set the TRI data in context of economic, regulatory, and technological developments that influence industry-wide releases and other waste management. They also analyze reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit SIC code level. Industry sectors covered are: Food and Beverage Processing; Tobacco Products; Textile Mill Products; Apparel and Fabricated Textiles; Lumber and Wood Products; Furniture; Printing and Publishing; Rubber and Plastics Products; Leather and Leather Products; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete; Fabricated Metals; Industrial Machinery; Transportation Equipment; Instruments and Photographic Equipment; and Miscellaneous Manufacturing.

  20. Navigating Public-Private Partnerships: Introducing the Continuum of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In many urban districts, the public education landscape is being transformed as private-sector providers such as educational management organizations, charter management organizations, and partner support organizations partner with or run district schools. While some private-sector providers' visions for school reform have remained static…

  1. Examining public trust in risk-managing organizations after a major disaster.

    PubMed

    Nakayachi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the public's trust in risk-managing organizations after suffering serious damage from a major disaster. It is natural for public trust to decrease in organizations responsible for mitigating the damage. However, what about trust in organizations that address hazards not directly related to the disaster? Based on the results of surveys conducted by a national institute, the Japanese government concluded, in a White Paper on Science and Technology, that the public's trust in scientists declined overall after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Because scientists play a key role in risk assessment and risk management in most areas, one could predict that trust in risk-managing organizations overall would decrease after a major disaster. The methodology of that survey, however, had limitations that prevented such conclusions. For this research, two surveys were conducted to measure the public's trust in risk-managing organizations regarding various hazards, before and after the Tohoku Earthquake (n = 1,192 in 2008 and n = 1,138 in 2012). The results showed that trust decreased in risk-managing organizations that deal with earthquakes and nuclear accidents, whereas trust levels related to many other hazards, especially in areas not touched by the Tohoku Earthquake, remained steady or even increased. These results reject the assertion that distrust rippled through all risk-managing organizations. The implications of this research are discussed, with the observation that this result is not necessarily gratifying for risk managers because high trust sometimes reduces public preparedness for disasters. PMID:24953080

  2. 7 CFR 1955.119 - Sale of SFH inventory property to a public body or nonprofit organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale of SFH inventory property to a public body or... to a public body or nonprofit organization. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 1955.111 through... public body or nonprofit organization to use for transitional housing for the homeless. A public body...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.119 - Sale of SFH inventory property to a public body or nonprofit organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sale of SFH inventory property to a public body or... to a public body or nonprofit organization. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 1955.111 through... public body or nonprofit organization to use for transitional housing for the homeless. A public body...

  4. The Rights of Gay Student Organizations at Public State-Supported Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory, Sherry L.

    1997-01-01

    Considers gay student organizations' rights at state-supported public institutions, discusses the First Amendment and the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Offers advice on the major principles and issues that should be taken into account in writing a campus policy regarding the rights of gay student organizations. (Author/RJM)

  5. Effects of Message Interactivity upon Relational Maintenance Strategy in Digital Communications between Organizations and the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication between organizations and the public is strategically important in shaping mutual understanding and long term relationship. The primary focus of this project was to investigate the relationship between message interactivity and relational maintenance strategy in the email communication process on organization websites. At…

  6. Public inspection of exempt organization returns--Internal Revenue Service. Notice of proposed rulemaking.

    PubMed

    1983-03-01

    This document contains proposed regulations relating to the public inspection of returns of certain tax exempt organizations. The regulations clarify the rules relating to the disclosure of certain information of exempt organizations. Additionally, the regulations reflect changes made by Pub. L. 96-603 and Pub. L. 95-488. PMID:10259814

  7. 19 CFR 148.89 - Property of public international organizations and foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property of public international organizations and foreign governments. 148.89 Section 148.89 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... Personnel of Foreign Governments and International Organizations and Special Treatment for...

  8. [Toward a new organization of public health services in Spain. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Rivadeneyra Sicilia, Ana

    2008-04-01

    Public health in Spain shows significant weaknesses. Spanish public health services respond reasonably well in crisis situations but tend to be invisible and occupy a marginal position in political agendas and in relation to health services. The organization of the public health subsystem is clearly out of date in terms of its ability to promote and protect community health, to prevent diseases, and to cope effectively with the new public health threats and challenges related to the physical and social environment in today's globalized world. Consequently, there is broad consensus on the need to rethink functions, strategies and the organization of public health in Spain, in line with European and international trends. Thus, public health reform is currently a pending challenge and a strategic priority. Indeed, some Autonomous Communities have initiated a process of modernization and change. Empowerment of public health in the political agendas and in relation to the health services is strongly recommended by promoting intersectorial approaches, the Health in All Policies strategy and Health Impact Assessment. There is also a need for a specific law that would update public health functions, organization and structures, allocate competencies by facilitating alliances and partnership, and regulate coordination and intersectorial intervention. The following key elements related to this reform are described: 1) a participatory leadership in public health; 2) the generation of intelligence and evidence in public health; 3) improvement of professional education and development; 4) the importance of transparent, independent and competent performance and communication, and 5) new and flexible organization coherent with the new strategies and close to the local level and primary health care services. Coordination between the State and the Autonomous Communities should involved a functional and intelligent relationship by building up common spaces, alliances, networks and

  9. Lobbying and advocacy for the public's health: what are the limits for nonprofit organizations?

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, J S

    1999-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations play an important role in advocating for the public's health in the United States. This article describes the rules under US law for lobbying by nonprofit organizations. The 2 most common kinds of non-profits working to improve the public's health are "public charities" and "social welfare organizations." Although social welfare organizations may engage in relatively unlimited lobbying, public charities may not engage in "substantial" lobbying. Lobbying is divided into 2 main categories. Direct lobbying refers to communications with law-makers that take a position on specific legislation, and grassroots lobbying includes attempts to persuade members of the general public to take action regarding legislation. Even public charities may engage in some direct lobbying and a smaller amount of grassroots lobbying. Much public health advocacy, however, is not lobbying, since there are several important exceptions to the lobbying rules. These exceptions include "non-partisan analysis, study, or research" and discussions of broad social problems. Lobbying with federal or earmarked foundation funds is generally prohibited. PMID:10474565

  10. The Rise of Organized Labor: Workers, Employers, and the Public Interest. Public Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James; Giese, James R.

    This booklet is part of a series of units designed to help students take and defend a position on public issues. The booklet is premised on the idea that the study of how various labor-related conflicts were resolved in the past can throw light on the problem of how they ought to be resolved here and now. That is why this particular unit looks at…

  11. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: ‘basic elective ventilation’; ‘epistemically complex elective ventilation’; ‘practically complex elective ventilation’; and ‘epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation’. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation. PMID:23222143

  12. The WTO and the Millennium Round: What Is at Stake for Public Education? Common Concerns for Workers in Education and the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    On the eve of the year 2000, global public spending on education tops one trillion dollars. Against the backdrop of globalization, public education is currently being subjected to attacks by proponents of privatization and deregulation. The process is already underway, as is apparent from an important agreement reached by the World Trade…

  13. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Major first year accomplishments are summarized and plans are provided for the next 12-month period for a program established by NASA with the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan to investigate methods of making LANDSAT technology readily available to a broader set of private sector firms through local community colleges. The program applies a network where the major participants are NASA, university or research institutes, community colleges, and obtain hands-on training in LANDSAT data analysis techniques, using a desk-top, interactive remote analysis station which communicates with a central computing facility via telephone line, and provides for generation of land cover maps and data products via remote command.

  14. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05). Most respondents, 303 (79.1%), were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation. PMID:24434412

  15. Of Syndicalism, Slavery and the Thirteenth Amendment: The Unconstitutionality of "Exclusive Representation" in Public-Sector Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Edwin, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Possible compulsory unionism and its underlying philosophy are examined. Focus is on "exclusive representation" and the destruction of dissenting public employees' freedom of self-determination in employment and on the thirteenth amendment and equal protection. (LBH)

  16. Keeping Public Information Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Wayne P.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward the transfer of federal government information from the public domain to the private sector. Topics include free access, privatization, information-policy revision, accountability, copyright issues, costs, pricing, and market needs versus public needs. (LRW)

  17. Occupational Structures and Profiles in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Public Service Sector with Reference to Air Pollution Control. CEDEFOP Panorama. National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Christoph; Funderich, Kirk

    A study examined the knowledge and job skills required of persons employed in air pollution control-related occupations in Germany's public service sector. In all, 18 persons from 11 offices in 10 public institutions were interviewed. In seven cases, two people from the same institution (one performing managerial duties and the other directly…

  18. Will Dengue Vaccines Be Used in the Public Sector and if so, How? Findings from an 8-country Survey of Policymakers and Opinion Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Don L.; DeRoeck, Denise A.; Mahoney, Richard T.; Wichmann, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background A face-to-face survey of 158 policymakers and other influential professionals was conducted in eight dengue-endemic countries in Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam) and Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua) to provide an indication of the potential demand for dengue vaccination in endemic countries, and to anticipate their research and other requirements in order to make decisions about the introduction of dengue vaccines. The study took place in anticipation of the licensure of the first dengue vaccine in the next several years. Methods/Principal Findings Semi-structured interviews were conducted on an individual or small group basis with government health officials, research scientists, medical association officers, vaccine producers, local-level health authorities, and others considered to have a role in influencing decisions about dengue control and vaccines. Most informants across countries considered dengue a priority disease and expressed interest in the public sector use of dengue vaccines, with a major driver being the political pressure from the public and the medical community to control the disease. There was interest in a vaccine that protects children as young as possible and that can fit into existing childhood immunization schedules. Dengue vaccination in most countries surveyed will likely be targeted to high-risk areas and begin with routine immunization of infants and young children, followed by catch-up campaigns for older age groups, as funding permits. Key data requirements for decision-making were additional local dengue surveillance data, vaccine cost-effectiveness estimates, post-marketing safety surveillance data and, in some countries vaccine safety and immunogenicity data in the local population. Conclusions/Significance The lookout for the public sector use of dengue vaccines in the eight countries appears quite favorable. Major determinants of whether and when countries will introduce dengue vaccines

  19. Reducing Adult Illiteracy in New York State: The Role of the Public and Private Sectors. Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance, an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.

    A comprehensive strategy for allocating New York's resources for combating illiteracy must be adopted. The state's education department must become more active in coordinating literacy education efforts by publishing and circulating a directory of all public, private, and volunteer literacy services currently available. The state education…

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Group Treatment for Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Public Sector Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jane; Snowdon, Sharon; Gopold, Michelle; Guymer, Elise

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study of a brief group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention (12 two-hour sessions) was conducted with clients of public mental health services meeting four or more criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were randomly assigned to receive the ACT group intervention in addition to their current…

  1. Industrial sector-based volatile organic compound (VOC) source profiles measured in manufacturing facilities in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Yu, Yufan; Mo, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Yin, Shasha; Peng, Kang; Yang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Cai, Huihua

    2013-07-01

    Industrial sector-based VOC source profiles are reported for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based source samples (stack emissions and fugitive emissions) analyzed from sources operating under normal conditions. The industrial sectors considered are printing (letterpress, offset and gravure printing processes), wood furniture coating, shoemaking, paint manufacturing and metal surface coating. More than 250 VOC species were detected following US EPA methods TO-14 and TO-15. The results indicated that benzene and toluene were the major species associated with letterpress printing, while ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol were the most abundant compounds of other two printing processes. Acetone and 2-butanone were the major species observed in the shoemaking sector. The source profile patterns were found to be similar for the paint manufacturing, wood furniture coating, and metal surface coating sectors, with aromatics being the most abundant group and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) as the second largest contributor in the profiles. While OVOCs were one of the most significant VOC groups detected in these five industrial sectors in the PRD region, they have not been reported in most other source profile studies. Such comparisons with other studies show that there are differences in source profiles for different regions or countries, indicating the importance of developing local source profiles. PMID:23584189

  2. Self-Organization Leads to Supraoptimal Performance in Public Transportation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The performance of public transportation systems affects a large part of the population. Current theory assumes that passengers are served optimally when vehicles arrive at stations with regular intervals. In this paper, it is shown that self-organization can improve the performance of public transportation systems beyond the theoretical optimum by responding adaptively to local conditions. This is possible because of a “slower-is-faster” effect, where passengers wait more time at stations but total travel times are reduced. The proposed self-organizing method uses “antipheromones” to regulate headways, which are inspired by the stigmergy (communication via environment) of some ant colonies. PMID:21738674

  3. Self-organization leads to supraoptimal performance in public transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The performance of public transportation systems affects a large part of the population. Current theory assumes that passengers are served optimally when vehicles arrive at stations with regular intervals. In this paper, it is shown that self-organization can improve the performance of public transportation systems beyond the theoretical optimum by responding adaptively to local conditions. This is possible because of a "slower-is-faster" effect, where passengers wait more time at stations but total travel times are reduced. The proposed self-organizing method uses "antipheromones" to regulate headways, which are inspired by the stigmergy (communication via environment) of some ant colonies. PMID:21738674

  4. Laypeople's ethical concerns about a New Israeli organ transplantation prioritization policy aimed to encourage organ donor registration among the public.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit; Ashkenazi, Tamar; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Seidmann, Vered

    2011-08-01

    A new policy recently enacted in Israel promises preferred status in receiving organs for transplantation to individuals who register to be organ donors and to their close family members. Proponents believe it will increase the supply of organs for transplantation from the deceased. Ethical issues were raised in government committees appointed to discuss the policy before its approval, but discussions among laypeople were not solicited. This study aimed to elicit laypeople's views about the policy by conducting thirteen group interviews and thirty-six individual interviews. Participants included religious and nonreligious people, immigrants, and Arabs. Some participants thought the law would contribute to fairness by prioritizing those willing to give, but others articulated ethical concerns that were not emphasized by scholars, in particular that the policy would add to the erosion of social solidarity, increase divisiveness, and enable people to abuse the system. Mistrust in the health care system emerged as a prominent reason for not registering as an organ donor. Implications about the importance of transparency in the organ transplantation system as a basis for an information campaign, social norms regarding organ donation, and the public's involvement in policy issues on organ donation are discussed. PMID:21940423

  5. Assisting Public Organizations in Their Outsourcing Endeavors: A Decision Support Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremic, TIbor; Tukel, Oya

    2006-01-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in outsourcing practices in recent years. The public organizations in the United States have outsourced some functions and are now being compelled to outsource additional ones. While there are numerous studies that document and analyze outsourcing practices, there is limited research to guide public or governmental organizations in determining what functions to outsource. This study fills this gap by developing a decision support model for a typical public organization in determining what to outsource and how. A set of outsourcing decision factors is identified that can be used as parameters in the three integer programming formulations developed. These formulations are used as solution engines in the model. The first formulation identifies which functions are the best candidates for outsourcing given the organization's priorities. The other formulations place the functions into recommended contracts and re-assign displaced employees. Data from NASA Glenn Research Center in Ohio is used to test and analyze the model. Analysis indicates that cost and skills-related factors are the most sensitive parameters for the data tested. The model and the formulations are a relatively comprehensive package and may help guide outsourcing decisionmakers and policymakers in public organizations.

  6. FEDERAL ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAMS. PERSPECTIVES FROM THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS: VOLUME I. SUMMARY OF A PUBLIC HEARING, JULY 14 AND 15, 1981, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 11 of the Federal Nonnuclear Research and Development Act mandates an annual public hearing on the adequacy of attention to energy conservation method and the environmental consequences of the application of energy technologies. This report summarizes the views of 88 indi...

  7. [Equity in the health sector: evaluation of public policy in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 1993-1997].

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Virginia; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Kayano, Jorge; Nascimento, Paulo Roberto; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Terence, Marcelo Fernando; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Heimann, Luiza Sterman

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates government measures to reduce inequity in the health sector in Belo Horizonte from 1993 to 1997. Our hypothesis is that a municipal administration committed to equity can reduce disparities in health with the support of the Unified National Health System (SUS). The methodology used an urban quality of life index in Belo Horizonte to detect social inequalities in living conditions, as well as differences between the component indices in the infant mortality rate. Other municipal measures were assessed according to the investment resulting from the implementation of a participatory local budget and open planning process. The urban quality of life index appeared to be an appropriate measure for orienting municipal administration. The infant mortality rate proved to be a good indicator for measuring inequality in health. There was a reduction in IMR and mortality reducing gaps in the districts studied. We observed greater investment of physical and financial resources in the districts with the lowest urban quality of life index, and it can thus be stated that the municipal administration reduced the prevailing inequalities. PMID:12118313

  8. Barriers and Potential Improvements for Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) in China: A Qualitative Study from Perspectives of Both Health and Public Security Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric P. F.; Jing, Jun; Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the acceptability, the barriers to the implementation of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSPs) and the potential improvement strategies in China from the perspectives of governmental health and public security officials. Purposive sampling was used for recruitment of participants who had been involved in NSPs implementation. Semi-Structured individual interviews were conducted in Mandarin to address three aspects of NSPs: (1) participants’ attitudes towards NSPs, (2) participants’ opinions on the effectiveness and barriers of NSPs, and (3) suggestions for improving the program. Content analysis was used to analyse the translated interview data. A total of 68 participants from 12 Hunan counties were interviewed (34 from each of the Bureau of Health and the Narcotic Division). Both groups recognised the importance and effectiveness of NSPs in HIV prevention, but public security officials regarded NSPs as a temporary intervention in place of punitive measures. Most health officials (32/34) regarded the main barriers to its implementation as administrative and structural, whereas participants from Narcotics Division (n=24) questioned the legitimacy of NSPs and concerned about the poor management of drug users’ risk behaviours. Close cooperation between the health and public security sectors, engagement of the drug user community and an enabling policy environment were reportedly to be critical for potential improvements of NSPs in China. Misconceptions about NSPs encourage drug users’ addictive behaviour, and an unclear leadership and insufficient support de-motivate the participants from the Bureau of Health and the Narcotics Division to actively support the program implementation. PMID:26114556

  9. Public Sector Readiness for Digital Preservation in New Zealand: The Rate of Adoption of an Innovation in Records Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent legislation in New Zealand has placed statutory obligations on its government organizations to introduce sound records management practices and to ensure long-term access to their digital records. To obtain a base level of knowledge on current digital preservation practices and on awareness of digital preservation issues, an online survey…

  10. The Consequences of Transfer of Training for Service Quality and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study in the Malaysian Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumrah, Abdul Rahim; Boyle, Stephen; Fein, Erich C.

    2013-01-01

    The significance of transfer of training to organizations has been acknowledged by many studies. However, the consequences of transfer of training, particularly for employees, have still not been adequately explored. The present study was conducted to address this gap. Specifically, it explores the relationship among transfer of training, service…

  11. Network Organizational Development in the Public Sector: A Case Study of the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robert; Wamsley, Gary; Schroder, Aaron; Robins, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Does information technology "pull" the organizational management toward change in terms of authority and control, or is information technology "pushed" through the organization, by management, to maintain its existing system of authority and control? These conflicting positions are explored through a case study of the Federal Emergency Management…

  12. Job Change and Workplace Learning in the Public Sector: The Significance of New Technology for Unskilled Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Anne; Rainbird, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Interviews (n=350) and a survey (n=323) of managers, trainers, and union representatives in British health care agencies showed that technology caused some job enlargement and enrichment; positive or negative effects depended on context. Other jobs were deskilled due to work organization, not technology. Technology's impact on job change was…

  13. 41 CFR 102-79.75 - May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations for antenna site outleases on major pedestrian access levels, courtyards, and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.75 Section 102-79.75 Public Contracts and Property...

  14. 41 CFR 102-79.75 - May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations for antenna site outleases on major pedestrian access levels, courtyards, and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.75 Section 102-79.75 Public Contracts and Property...

  15. 41 CFR 102-79.75 - May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations for antenna site outleases on major pedestrian access levels, courtyards, and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.75 Section 102-79.75 Public Contracts and Property...

  16. 41 CFR 102-79.75 - May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations for antenna site outleases on major pedestrian access levels, courtyards, and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.75 Section 102-79.75 Public Contracts and Property...

  17. 41 CFR 102-79.75 - May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May Executive agencies assess fees for antenna placements against public service organizations for antenna site outleases on major pedestrian access levels, courtyards, and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.75 Section 102-79.75 Public Contracts and Property...

  18. An Overview of the Challenges in Designing, Integrating, and Delivering BARD: A Public Chemical-Biology Resource and Query Portal for Multiple Organizations, Locations, and Disciplines.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Andrea; Bittker, Joshua A; Lahr, David L; Brudz, Steve; Chatwin, Simon; Oprea, Tudor I; Waller, Anna; Yang, Jeremy J; Southall, Noel; Guha, Rajarshi; Schürer, Stephan C; Vempati, Uma D; Southern, Mark R; Dawson, Eric S; Clemons, Paul A; Chung, Thomas D Y

    2014-06-01

    Recent industry-academic partnerships involve collaboration among disciplines, locations, and organizations using publicly funded "open-access" and proprietary commercial data sources. These require the effective integration of chemical and biological information from diverse data sources, which presents key informatics, personnel, and organizational challenges. The BioAssay Research Database (BARD) was conceived to address these challenges and serve as a community-wide resource and intuitive web portal for public-sector chemical-biology data. Its initial focus is to enable scientists to more effectively use the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Molecular Libraries Program (MLP) data generated from the 3-year pilot and 6-year production phases of the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN), which is currently in its final year. BARD evolves the current data standards through structured assay and result annotations that leverage BioAssay Ontology and other industry-standard ontologies, and a core hierarchy of assay definition terms and data standards defined specifically for small-molecule assay data. We initially focused on migrating the highest-value MLP data into BARD and bringing it up to this new standard. We review the technical and organizational challenges overcome by the interdisciplinary BARD team, veterans of public- and private-sector data-integration projects, who are collaborating to describe (functional specifications), design (technical specifications), and implement this next-generation software solution. PMID:24441647

  19. An overview of the challenges in designing, integrating, and delivering BARD: a public chemical biology resource and query portal across multiple organizations, locations, and disciplines

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Andrea; Bittker, Joshua; Lahr, David; Brudz, Steve; Chatwin, Simon; Oprea, Tudor I.; Waller, Anna; Yang, Jeremy; Southall, Noel; Guha, Rajarshi; Schurer, Stephan; Vempati, Uma; Southern, Mark R.; Dawson, Eric S.; Clemons, Paul A.; Chung, Thomas D.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Recent industry-academic partnerships involve collaboration across disciplines, locations, and organizations using publicly funded “open-access” and proprietary commercial data sources. These require effective integration of chemical and biological information from diverse data sources, presenting key informatics, personnel, and organizational challenges. BARD (BioAssay Research Database) was conceived to address these challenges and to serve as a community-wide resource and intuitive web portal for public-sector chemical biology data. Its initial focus is to enable scientists to more effectively use the NIH Roadmap Molecular Libraries Program (MLP) data generated from 3-year pilot and 6-year production phases of the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN), currently in its final year. BARD evolves the current data standards through structured assay and result annotations that leverage the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) and other industry-standard ontologies, and a core hierarchy of assay definition terms and data standards defined specifically for small-molecule assay data. We have initially focused on migrating the highest-value MLP data into BARD and bringing it up to this new standard. We review the technical and organizational challenges overcome by the inter-disciplinary BARD team, veterans of public and private sector data-integration projects, collaborating to describe (functional specifications), design (technical specifications), and implement this next-generation software solution. PMID:24441647

  20. Association between organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming among Canadian public health organizations

    PubMed Central

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in more and less facilitating external environments. OC was conceptualized as skills and resources/supports for chronic disease prevention programming. Data were from a census of 210 Canadian public health organizations with mandates for chronic disease prevention. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling. Overall, the results supported the model. Organizational supports for evaluation accounted for 33% of the variance in skills. Skills and resources/supports were directly and strongly related to involvement. Organizations operating within facilitating external contexts for chronic disease prevention had more effective partnerships, more resources/supports, stronger skills and greater involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices. Results also suggested that organizations functioning in less facilitating environments may not benefit as expected from partnerships. Empirical testing of this conceptual model helps develop a better understanding of public health OC. PMID:25361958

  1. Structure and Organization of the SWRL Drama and Public Speaking Program for 1972-73 Tryout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.; And Others

    The structure and organization of the first four levels of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Drama and Public Speaking Program to be tried out in 1972-1973 are described in this paper. The program structure is defined in terms of skill, content, and assessment areas. Specific subareas of content are listed and are to be used to guide lesson…

  2. Organizing and Planning. Developing Publication Materials. Student Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Pat

    Supporting performance objective 3 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on developing publication materials are included in this packet. (The packet is the second in a set of three on organizing and planning--CE 016 987-989.) The student…

  3. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel's (DGP's) Spring Working Group to be held April 15-19, 2013, in Montreal, Canada, the FAA's Office of Hazardous Materials Safety and the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration's (PHMSA) Office of Hazardous Materials Safety announce a public...

  4. Planning Activities and Organization for Planning at Four-Year Public Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Billy L.; Shrout, John R.

    A survey was conducted to determine: (1) what percentage of total planning time of the various personnel involved in institutional planning is allocated to the several planning functions; and (2) how planning functions are organized at small four-year public institutions. A questionnaire was mailed to the chief executive officers of 188…

  5. 7 CFR 3560.659 - Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies. 3560.659 Section 3560.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.659 - Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies. 3560.659 Section 3560.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.659 - Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies. 3560.659 Section 3560.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.659 - Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies. 3560.659 Section 3560.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.659 - Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies. 3560.659 Section 3560.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND...

  10. Effect of Learning Organization Perception to the Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Private and Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balay, Refik

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of faculty members' learning organization perceptions to the organizational commitment through quantitative method. The study group consists of 172 faculty members working in two universities, which are private (Zirve University) and public (Harran University) ones. The research results show that faculty…

  11. 8 CFR 316.20 - American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false American institutions of research, public international organizations, and designations under the International Immunities Act. 316.20 Section 316.20 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.20...

  12. Parent Power and Public Education Reform: The Experience of Participation in Grassroots Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mediratta, Kavitha

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of participation in grassroots organizing on the capacity and commitment of public school parents and community members to engage in future activism. The study used a mixed-methods research design, drawing on qualitative and quantitative data collected from individuals involved in seven exemplar…

  13. Technology transfer in human vaccinology: a retrospective review on public sector contributions in a privatizing science field.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan

    2012-09-28

    As health intervention, vaccination has had a tremendous impact on reducing mortality and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. Traditionally vaccines were developed and made in the western, industrialised world and from there on gradually and with considerable delay became available for developing countries. Today that is beginning to change. Most vaccine doses are now produced in emerging economies, although industrialised countries still have a lead in vaccine development and in manufacturing innovative vaccines. Technology transfer has been an important mechanism for this increase in production capacity in emerging economies. This review looks back on various technology transfer initiatives and outlines the role of WHO and other public and private partners. It goes into a more detailed description of the role of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. For many decades RIVM has been providing access to vaccine technology by capacity building and technology transfer initiatives not only through multilateral frameworks, but also on a bilateral basis including a major project in China in the 90 s of the previous century. Looking forward it is expected that, in a globalizing world, the ambition of BRICS countries to play a role in global health will lead to an increase of south-south technology transfers. Further, it is argued that push approaches including technology transfer from the public domain, connecting innovative enabling platforms with competent developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVM), will be critical to ensure a sustainable supply of affordable and quality vaccines to national immunization programmes in developing countries. PMID:22902679

  14. Safer injections following a new national medicine policy in the public sector, Burkina Faso 1995 – 2000

    PubMed Central

    Logez, Sophie; Hutin, Yvan; Somda, Paul; Thuault, Jérôme; Holloway, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Background The common failure of health systems to ensure adequate and sufficient supplies of injection devices may have a negative impact on injection safety. We conducted an assessment in April 2001 to determine to which extent an increase in safe injection practices between 1995 and 2000 was related to the increased access to injection devices because of a new essential medicine policy in Burkina Faso. Methods We reviewed outcomes of the new medicine policy implemented in1995. In April 2001, a retrospective programme review assessed the situation between 1995 and 2000. We visited 52 health care facilities where injections had been observed during a 2000 injection safety assessment and their adjacent operational public pharmaceutical depots. Data collection included structured observations of available injection devices and an estimation of the proportion of prescriptions including at least one injection. We interviewed wholesaler managers at national and regional levels on supply of injection devices to public health facilities. Results Fifty of 52 (96%) health care facilities were equipped with a pharmaceutical depot selling syringes and needles, 37 (74%) of which had been established between 1995 and 2000. Of 50 pharmaceutical depots, 96% had single-use 5 ml syringes available. At all facilities, patients were buying syringes and needles out of the depot for their injections prescribed at the dispensary. While injection devices were available in greater quantities, the proportion of prescriptions including at least one injection remained stable between 1995 (26.5 %) and 2000 (23.8 %). Conclusion The implementation of pharmaceutical depots next to public health care facilities increased geographical access to essential medicines and basic supplies, among which syringes and needles, contributing substantially to safer injection practices in the absence of increased use of therapeutic injections. PMID:16364178

  15. Occupational stress and health-related quality of life among public sector bank employees: A cross-sectional study in Mysore, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Malamardi, Sowmya N.; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan; Nair, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Phadnis, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational morbidities have been estimated to cause an economic loss up to 10–20% of the gross national product of a country. It is an important cause of occupational morbidity and decreased quality of life (QOL) for the workers. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the level of occupational stress and its association with the QOL among the public sector bank employees. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among employees of public sector banks in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study. Job stress was measured by using occupational stress index (OSI) scale questionnaire and health-related QOL was measured using the short form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. The sample size estimated for the study was 526 and cluster random sampling technique was used. Chi-square test was used to find the association between the study variables and level of stress. Multiple linear regression model was used to find the determinants of health-related QOL among the study subjects. Results: The total number of the study subjects was 546 out of which 57% were males and 43% were females. The proportion of study subjects reporting to be current smokers was 4.2% and almost all study subjects reported occasional alcohol consumption. The mean physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) using the original United States standardization were 47.90 and 48.30, respectively. The individuals with mild stress scored higher in both PCS and MCS than the individuals who had moderate to severe stress levels. There was significant association of health related quality of life with the age of the respondent,presence of at least one morbidity and level of stress with health-related QOL. Conclusion: This study has shown an association of occupational stress with the QOL. There is a need for interventions aimed at mitigating the occupational stress among employees of the banking sector. PMID

  16. Age discrimination--disability benefits; public sector. Arnett v. California Public Employees Retirement System, No. 98-15574, __F.3d __(9th Cir.1999).

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Under the statutory formula for determining disability retirement benefits for California public safety employees, the amount of benefits differs solely on the basis of the retiree's age when hired. This formula may violate the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) under a disparate treatment theory if the employees can prove discriminatory motive. While a formula for determining benefits that is based upon actual years of service does not violate ADEA, a formula based upon potential years of service as determined with reference to a presumed retirement age may violate the act. The disparate impact theory may be used to prove violation of ADEA in the Ninth Circuit. PMID:11258160

  17. Dealing With Public Solicitation of Organs From Living Donors--An ELPAT View.

    PubMed

    Frunza, Mihaela; Van Assche, Kristof; Lennerling, Annette; Sterckx, Sigrid; Citterio, Franco; Mamode, Nizam; Zuidema, Willij C; Burnapp, Lisa; Weimar, Willem; Dor, Frank J M F

    2015-10-01

    Although transplant professionals have initially been reluctant to perform transplants after public solicitation of organs from living donors, nowadays these transplants are increasingly being performed and reported. After clarifying the existing terminology, we elaborate an operational definition of public solicitation that is consistent with the Ethical, Legal, and Psychosocial Aspects of Transplantation classification for living organ donation. Our aim is to critically assess this phenomenon, from a legal, moral, and practical perspective, and to offer some recommendations. From a legal point of view, we analyze the current situation in the Europe and the United States. From a moral perspective, we evaluate the various arguments used in the literature, both in favor and against. Finally, we offer a set of recommendations aimed at maximizing the organ donor pool while safeguarding the interests of potential living donors. PMID:25769072

  18. Developing a 'critical' approach to patient and public involvement in patient safety in the NHS: learning lessons from other parts of the public sector?

    PubMed

    Ocloo, Josephine E; Fulop, Naomi J

    2012-12-01

    There has been considerable momentum within the NHS over the last 10 years to develop greater patient and public involvement (PPI). This commitment has been reflected in numerous policy initiatives. In patient safety, the drive to increase involvement has increasingly been seen as an important way of building a safety culture. Evidence suggests, however, that progress has been slow and even more variable than in health care generally. Given this context, the paper analyses some of the key underlying drivers for involvement in the wider context of health and social care and makes some suggestions on what lessons can be learned for developing the PPI agenda in patient safety. To develop PPI further, it is argued that a greater understanding is needed of the contested nature of involvement in patient safety and how this has similarities to the emergence of user involvement in other parts of the public services. This understanding has led to the development of a range of critical theories to guide involvement that also make more explicit the underlying factors that support and hinder involvement processes, often related to power inequities and control. Achieving greater PPI in patient safety is therefore seen to require a more critical framework for understanding processes of involvement that can also help guide and evaluate involvement practices. PMID:21711471

  19. Are pricing and reimbursement decision-making criteria aligned with public preferences regarding allocation principles in the Polish healthcare sector?

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    Given growing interest in multicriteria decision making and multiple cost-effectiveness thresholds' approach, it was decided to investigate its usefulness in Poland. The pricing and reimbursement (P&R) regulations were reviewed and a cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst nurses. The study investigated whether P&R rules are aligned with the preferences of healthcare professional towards the concept of equity. The references to aversion to inequalities in health and capacity to benefit were recognized as the most and least important principle respectively by the group of nurses. Different weightings of health gain dependent on disease severity were accepted by half of the study's population. In the review of legal acts, references to capacity to benefit were frequently found. The opposite was registered for other concepts of equity. There is room for further improvement with respect to the alignment between the Polish P&R decision making criteria and public preferences regarding allocation principles. PMID:25052370

  20. The golden goose in the crosshairs: the transition to defined contribution pension plans in the public sector: unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    State, county, and local governments are currently facing a myriad of economic issues, based on shrinking tax revenues combined with increased expenditures. Of these, the costs related to defined benefit pension plans are one of the most serious issues facing many public employers. Through a comprehensive review of the existing literature, this article examines how the shift from the defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) pension plan has the potential to enhance levels of labor unrest due to changes in union militancy, bargaining skills deficits, intra-organizational conflict, and issues related to economic trade-offs. Besides the capacity for immediate and deleterious ramifications in the collective bargaining process, the transition to the DC pension also presents some potentially negative consequences related to human resource management, including changes in the psychological contract, recruitment strategies, employee turnover, and changes in retirement patterns. Recommendations to improve labor relations and human resource management practices in the DC pension environment are also explored. PMID:23484365

  1. Considerations for Public Health Organizations Attempting to Implement a Social Media Presence: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In the past decade, social media has become an integral part of our everyday lives, but research on how this tool is used by public health workers and organizations is still developing. Budget cuts and staff reduction in county departments have required employees to take on more responsibilities. These reductions have caused a reduction in the time for training or collaborating with others in the field. To make up for the loss, many employees are seeking collaboration through social media sites but are unable to do so because state departments block these Internet sites. Objective This study sought to highlight the key considerations and decision-making process for a public health organization deciding whether to implement a social media presence for their organization. Methods Using 3 structured interviews, 15 stakeholders were questioned on their personal experience with social media, experience within the context of public health, and their thoughts on implementation for their center. Interviews were coded using constant comparative qualitative methods. Results The following themes emerged from the interviews: (1) personal experience with technology and social networking sites, (2) use of social networking sites in public health, (3) use of social networking sites in work environments, (4) social networking sites access, (5) ways the Rural South Public Health Training Center could use social networking sites, and (6) perceived outcomes of social networking site usage for the Rural South Public Health Training Center (positive and negative). Conclusions The collective voice of the center showed a positive perceived perception of social media implementation, with the benefits outweighing the risks. Despite the benefits, there is a cautious skepticism of the importance of social networking site use. PMID:27227160

  2. [Does aesthetic surgery form part of mainstream surgery or is it an entirely separate sector? Reflections and proposals for better protection of the public].

    PubMed

    Gréco, J M

    1993-11-01

    In contempt of the laws and regulations in force, several thousand unqualified practitioners carry out aesthetic surgery although only a mere few hundred are legally entitled to practice this surgical specialty. We are aware, in the present system which has no efficient control systems, that the public is no longer able to identify this small group of charlatans and incompetents. We call on massive concerted effort by the responsible public authorities to ensure that the general public receives the necessary protection. Amongst others, we demand that: The ministry of health, integrates all medical products and medical devices aimed at the aesthetic sector into the list of medical products and medical devices to marketing authorization (authorization de mise sur le marché--AMM) or to endorsement in compliance with the Huriet Law of 10.12.1988. The conseil national de l'ordre des medecins, (national council of doctors advisory board), ensures that the laws and regulations in force governing the value of diplomas, qualifications and competences are respected, be aware of the obsolescence of the general nature of the medical degree, inapplicable due to the efficiency and thus the dangerous nature of modern medicine. The ministry of justice, clearly defines the nature of the informed consent demanded from the patient prior to any therapeutic treatment, ensures the conditions required for legitimate compensation for prejudices caused by therapeutic risks, specifies the doctor's responsibility without malpractice conditions, be aware of the perverse effects caused by the abandonment of the obligation of means and its replacement by an obligation of results demanded from the doctor, to correct the unjust and anomalous situation which opposes the ten year responsibility of the medical product or medical devices manufacturer with the thirty year responsibility of the doctor using these products or equipment. PMID:8193949

  3. Do senior management cultures affect performance? Evidence from Italian public healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Prenestini, Anna; Lega, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are often characterized by diffuse power, ambiguous goals, and a plurality of actors. In this complex and pluralistic context, senior healthcare managers are expected to provide strategic direction and lead their organizations toward their goals and performance targets. The present work explores the relationship between senior management team culture and performance by investigating Italian public healthcare organizations in the Tuscany region. Our assessment of senior management culture was accomplished through the use of an established framework and a corresponding tool, the competing values framework, which supports the idea that specific aspects of performance are related to a dominant management culture. Organizational performance was assessed using a wide range of measures collected by a multidimensional performance evaluation system, which was developed in Tuscany to measure the performance of its 12 local health authorities (LHAs) and four teaching hospitals (THs). Usable responses were received from 80 senior managers of 11 different healthcare organizations (two THs and nine LHAs). Our findings show that Tuscan healthcare organizations are characterized by various dominant cultures: developmental, clan, rational, and hierarchical. These variations in dominant culture were associated with performance measures. The implications for management theory, professional practice, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24195342

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  6. Organizing an Effective Public Relations Program for the Stroudsberg Area School District. Maxi I and Maxi II, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Thomas J.

    The purpose of this project was to organize an effective, comprehensive, public relations program in a medium size school district and, hopefully, increase the image of the district. The data contained in this report will demonstrate a clear need for the organization of a public relations program, the extent to which an effective, comprehensive…

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  10. Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  11. Accountable Care Organizations and Clinical Commissioning Groups Face an Uncertain Challenge for Improving Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) in the United States of America (USA) and Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) in the United Kingdom (UK) are newly proposed cross-organisational structures in health services both tasked with a role which includes improving public health. Although there are very significant differences between the UK and USA health systems, there appears to be some similar confusion as to how ACOs and CCGs will regard and address public or population health. This short perspective article gives an overview of ACOs in the USA and CCGs in the UK, with the underlying context of possible public health functions. It concludes by considering the challenges facing both countries and highlighting the opportunity for shared learning. Acknowledgments this article was based on a research proposal prepared for the Commonwealth Fund’s Harkness Fellowship in Health Care Policy and Practice 2012/2013. PMID:25170452

  12. Evaluating the impact of the Management Academy for Public Health: developing entrepreneurial managers and organizations.

    PubMed

    Umble, Karl E; Orton, Stephen; Rosen, Benson; Ottoson, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The Management Academy for Public Health is a management development program with the goals of helping public health managers learn to manage people, data, and finance, to think and plan like entrepreneurs, and to strengthen public health organizations. Managers enroll as teams and develop business plans in the Academy's extensive project-based learning component. Extensive internal and external evaluation shows that the program improves managers' knowledge, skills, and confidence in key curriculum areas; that participants apply many of the skills in their jobs; that many of the business plans receive funding, resulting in new public health programs; that the training experience helped agencies respond and plan after September 11, 2001; and that many participants report beginning to think more like entrepreneurs through activities like teaming, partnering, innovating, negotiating, finding funds, and generating revenue. The program demonstrates that robust training including extensive work-based project work with coaching can help public health managers gain many skills needed for the drive to "reinvent" government. PMID:16912605

  13. RACISM IN ORGANIZATIONS: THE CASE OF A COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Derek M.; Childs, Erica L.; Eng, Eugenia; Jeffries, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Racism is part of the foundation of U.S. society and institutions, yet few studies in community psychology or organizational studies have examined how racism affects organizations. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of institutional racism, which describes how, in spite of professional standards and ethics, racism functions within organizations to adversely affect the quality of services, the organizational climate, and staff job satisfaction and morale. Grounded in systems theory and organizational empowerment, the framework is based on data that describe how racism was made manifest in a county public health department. The findings highlight the importance of understanding how organizations are influenced by external forces and can negatively affect clients, communities, and their own staff members. PMID:18852826

  14. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a large and diverse public sector workforce: baseline results from Partnering Healthy@Work

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive and anxiety disorders are common among working adults and costly to employers and individuals. Mental health screening is often an important initial strategy, but the resultant data are often of unknown representativeness and difficult to interpret. In a public sector workforce, this study used a brief screener for depression/anxiety to: a) compare prevalence of high psychological distress obtained from a researcher survey with an employer survey and population norms and b) verify whether expected correlates were observed in a screening setting. Methods Participants were public servants working for an Australian state government. High psychological distress (Kessler-10 ≥22) stratified by age and sex was compared for a random weighted sample researcher survey (n = 3406) and an anonymous volunteer employer survey (n = 7715). Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated from log binomial regression. Results Referencing the researcher survey, prevalence of high psychological distress was greater by age and sex in the employer survey but was only dependably higher for men when compared with population norms. Modelling suggested this may be due to work stress (effort-reward imbalance) (PR = 3.19, 95% CI 1.45-7.01) and casual/fixed-term employment (PR 2.64, 95% CI 1.26-5.56). Conclusions Depression and anxiety screening using typical employer survey methods could overestimate prevalence but expected correlates are observed in a screening setting. Guidance for employers on screening and interpretation should be provided to encourage engagement with mental health prevention and treatment programs in the workplace. PMID:24498884

  15. Insecticide-treated nets and treatment service: a trial using public and private sector channels in rural United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Hurt, N.; Lyimo, E. O.

    1998-01-01

    The Rotary Net Initiative, implemented in Kilombero District, southern United Republic of Tanzania, allowed us to explore different sales channels for the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and the insecticide treatment service in a rural area of very high malaria transmission. Several types of ITNs were promoted and sold through different channels in the public and private sector, i.e. hospital pharmacy, mother and child health (MCH) clinic, net committee, village health workers and retail shops. The ITNs were sold for US$ 5.0-9.2, with profit margins of 9-16%. Net treatment cost US$ 0.33, with commission fees of 75%. Net transport and treatment were partially subsidized. Some outlets established their own fund by ITN sales. Sales of nets and treatments were seasonal, and certain net types were preferred. Demand for insecticide treatment was generally low. Changes in net coverage were assessed in two villages. A range of outlet features were compared qualitatively. Our experience supports suggestions that ITN technology should be delivered through MCH care services and demonstrates that specific promotion and innovation are necessary to achieve substantial net treatment levels. A large-scale ITN project in the same area and other ITN studies should lead to better understanding of ITN implementation at the population level. PMID:10191557

  16. Public perception and attitude of saudis toward organ and tissue donation.

    PubMed

    Al-Jumah, Mohammed A; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A

    2011-03-01

    Biobanks depend on the willingness of people to contribute samples for both research and storage; however, the requirements to perform research on biobanked samples are different than the requirements for their use in organ transplants. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize public attitudes toward tissue and organ donation for transplantation and biobanking and (2) to identify significant predictors of these attitudes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 1051 adult subjects, all of whom accompanied their ill relatives to the outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City. All subjects were given an interview questionnaire about their previous healthcare experiences and an attitude scale to assess their willingness to participate in organ donation for transplantation or tissue donation for research. A total of 64.7% of all participants reported having a positive attitude toward organ donation, and 68.8% of participants reported having a positive attitude toward biobanking. There was a significant and direct correlation between the attitude score related to organ donation and the attitude score related to tissue donation for research (r = 0.513, P < 0.001). After adjusting for other variables by multiple regression analyses, a positive attitude toward either organ donation or tissue donation for research was significantly more prevalent among females (P < 0.001), those who had previously participated in health-related research (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), and those who were aware of organ retention controversies (P = 0.036 and P = 0.001, respectively). Other significant predictors of positive attitudes toward only biobanking were a history of previous blood tests (P = 0.038) and the completion of secondary education (P < 0.001). The attitude of the Saudi public is favorable toward both organ donation and tissue biobanking. Attitudes about the 2 types of donations are related

  17. Rheumatology in India: a Bird's Eye View on Organization, Epidemiology, Training Programs and Publications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India is home to the world's second largest population. Rheumatology is an emerging specialty in India. We reviewed organization, epidemiology and training facilities for Rheumatology in India. Also, we also looked at publications in the field of rheumatology from India from over the past six years using Scopus and Medline databases. Despite rheumatologic disorders affecting 6%-24% of the population, rheumatology in India is still in its infancy. Till recently, there were as few as two centers in the country training less than five fellows per year. However, acute shortage of specialists and increasing patient numbers led to heightened awareness regarding the need to train rheumatologists. Subsequently, six new centers have now started 3-year training programs in rheumatology. The epidemiology of rheumatic diseases in India is being actively studies under the Community Oriented Programme for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) initiative. The most number of publications on rheumatic diseases from India are on rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and osteoporosis, many of which have been widely cited. Major collaborators worldwide are USA, UK and France, whereas those from Asia are Japan, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. The Indian Rheumatology Association (IRA) is the national organization of rheumatologists. The flagship publication of the IRA, the Indian Journal of Rheumatology, is indexed in Scopus and Embase. To conclude, rheumatology in India is an actively expanding and productive field with significant contributions to world literature. There is a need to train more personnel in the subject in India. PMID:27365996

  18. Electronic Public Health Registry of Extensively Drug-Resistant Organisms, Illinois, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michael Y.; Cheng-Leidig, Robynn; Driscoll, Mary; Tang, Angela S.; Gao, Wei; Runningdeer, Erica; Arwady, M. Allison; Weinstein, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    In response to clusters of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in Illinois, USA, the Illinois Department of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chicago Prevention Epicenter launched a statewide Web-based registry designed for bidirectional data exchange among health care facilities. CRE occurrences are entered and searchable in the system, enabling interfacility communication of patient information. For rapid notification of facilities, admission feeds are automated. During the first 12 months of implementation (November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014), 1,557 CRE reports (≈4.3/day) were submitted from 115 acute care hospitals, 5 long-term acute care hospitals, 46 long-term care facilities, and 7 reference laboratories. Guided by a state and local public health task force of infection prevention specialists and microbiologists and a nonprofit informatics entity, Illinois Department of Public Health deployed a statewide registry of extensively drug-resistant organisms. The legal, technical, and collaborative underpinnings of the system enable rapid incorporation of other emerging organisms. PMID:26402744

  19. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of

  20. Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a variety of publications available from government and nongovernment sources. The government publications are from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and are designed for educators, students, and the public. (Author/SA)