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1

Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH)  

PubMed Central

This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH) in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed. PMID:15560841

Lethbridge, Jane

2004-01-01

2

Neoliberal convergence in North America and Western Europe: fiscal austerity, privatization, and public sector reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses public sector reform in North America and Western Europe. The argument is made that recent comparative literatures have yet to adequately consider governments themselves, and how changes to their budgeting, operation, and collective bargaining structures have affected jobs and income inequality. Drawing on a range of recent OECD and trade union statistics, as well as qualitative studies,

John Peters

2011-01-01

3

Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

2011-03-01

4

Organisational Responses to Public Sector Reforms in Higher Education in Uganda: A Case Study of Makerere University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses changes in university management structures and practices as a response to public sector reforms in Ugandan higher education using Makerere University as a case study. The study uses the organisational learning theory and a review of the higher education literature. Two adaptive responses in the management structures and…

Bisaso, Ronald

2010-01-01

5

Security Sector Reform in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the experience of the United Nations interventions to reform Haiti's security sector as part of a larger effort to rebuild the Haitian state. Despite multilateral attempts in the 1990s to demobilize the army, create a police force and implement reforms, the lack of elite support, insufficient judicial sector capacity and persistence of corruption led to the current

JOHANNA M ENDELSON-FORMAN

2006-01-01

6

Appraising the financial reform in Bulgarian public health care sector: the Health Insurance Act of 1998.  

PubMed

The public health care services in Bulgaria were deteriorating, especially during the decade of transitional process. The method of health care finance was a major reason for the poor performance of the Bulgarian public health care sector. Bulgarian policy-makers decided that an insurance-based financial mechanism could help to rescue the failing public health care services. This paper explores the social benefits and the feasibility of the insurance-based finance in the Bulgarian public health care sector. The discussion in the paper implies that, in the current conditions of economic recession, the insurance-based health care finance can not be socially beneficial for Bulgaria. Moreover, the insurance implementation seams to be unfeasible due to a lack of sufficient financial resources. PMID:10996066

Pavlova, M; Groot, W; van Merode, F

2000-10-01

7

Negotiating justice sector reform in Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

After almost 25 years of war, the formal justice sector in Afghanistan is dysfunctional, and comprehensive reform of both\\u000a laws and institutions have been high on the Western-supported agenda for reconstruction. This article examines the post- 2001\\u000a justice sector reforms in Afghanistan, which appear as a case of problematic legal transplants in a context of legal pluralism\\u000a and intense political contestation.

Astri Suhrke; Kaja Borchgrevink

2009-01-01

8

WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS?  

E-print Network

to undertake financial reforms if they face a strong lobby in the financial sector which is able to block lobbies are unable to block financial reforms while strong lobbies can effectively stop reforms. JEL reform induced by financial sector (in)stability as well as the lobbying potential of large financial

Boyer, Edmond

9

Preparing for a Public Sector Mental Health Reform in New Mexico: The Experience of Agencies Serving Adults with Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, New Mexico began a comprehensive reform of state-funded mental health care. This paper reports on differences in\\u000a characteristics, infrastructure, financial status, and services across mental health agencies. We administered a telephone\\u000a survey to senior leadership to assess agency status prior to and during the first year of reform. Non-profit\\/public agencies\\u000a were more likely than others to report reductions

Rafael M. Semansky; Dominic Hodgkin; Cathleen E. Willging

10

Institute of Public Sector Accounting Research  

E-print Network

and Charities http://www.business-school.ed.ac.uk/research/centres/public-sector-accounting-research CALL and local government, hospitals, higher and further education. Such influence within the sphere of the State understandings of the intermingling of accounting practices and bureaucratic procedures in the context of reforms

Edinburgh, University of

11

Public sector accrual accounting: institutionalising neo-liberal principles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of public sector accounting in implementing neoliberal reforms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The proposition that the adoption and development of accrual accounting in the public sector is a technical development intended to improve transparency and accountability is investigated. The paper compares the development and use of accrual accounting in public

Sheila Ellwood; Susan Newberry

2007-01-01

12

When does financial sector (in)stability induce financial reforms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article studies whether financial sector (in)stability had an effect on reforms in the financial sector in a large cross-country panel from 1990 to 2005. We forward the theory that countries are more likely to liberalize their financial sectors in times of financial stability. We argue that politicians are less likely to undertake financial reforms if they face a strong

Susie Lee; Ingmar Schumacher

2011-01-01

13

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece  

E-print Network

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

Feigon, Brooke

14

The third sector, user involvement and public service reform: a case study in the co-governance of health service provision.  

PubMed

The ‘modernization’ of British public services seeks to broaden public sector governance networks, bringing the views of third sector organizations, the public and service users (among others) to the design, management and delivery of welfare. Building on previous analyses of the contradictions generated by these roles, this paper draws on longitudinal qualitative research to enunciate the challenges faced by one third-sector organization in facilitating service user influence in a UK National Health Service (NHS) pilot programme, alongside other roles in tension with this advocacy function. The analysis highlights limits in the extent to which lateral governance networks pluralize stakeholder involvement. The ‘framing’ of governance may mean that traditional concerns outweigh the views of new stakeholders such as the third sector and service users. Rather than prioritizing wider stakeholders' views in the design and delivery of public services, placing third sector organizations at the centre of governance networks may do more to co-opt these organizations in reproducing predominant priorities. PMID:22165150

Martin, Graham P

2011-01-01

15

Public Sector Transformation, Racial Inequality and Downward Occupational Mobility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…

Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.

2013-01-01

16

Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase the potential for success. At the heart of this approach is a need to carefully consider how the character of state-society relations in the country---"governance"---will influence reform processes and outcomes.

Gore, Christopher David

17

Education Sector Reform: The Ugandan Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998 the Government of Uganda (GoU) began implementing an ambitious reform programme called the Education Strategic Investment Plan (ESIP) in order to effect Universal Primary Education (UPE). This paper offers a perspective on how the GoU has met the challenge of financing education reform, addressed the need to improve the quality of basic…

Penny, Alan; Ward, Michael; Read, Tony; Bines, Hazel

2008-01-01

18

Public sector enterprise resource planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of the US Department of Defense (DoD) enterprise must change. Years of under-funding have led to a wide gap between enterprise support requirements and resources. Private sector firms have faced similar choices. This paper shows how the public enterprise can be changed. Our hypothesis is that private sector implementations of standard software will lead to increased effectiveness and

Thomas R. Gulledge; Rainer A. Sommer

2003-01-01

19

Health sector reform and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: strengthening the links.  

PubMed Central

Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sector reform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sector reform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sector reform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide. PMID:10859860

Langer, A.; Nigenda, G.; Catino, J.

2000-01-01

20

Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

21

Modernising Education: New Public Management Reform in the Norwegian Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the end of the 1980s, the Norwegian education system has gone through major reform, influenced largely by new managerialist ideas. Strategies to renew the public sector were promoted as the new public management (NPM). This paper investigates the way ideas connected to NPM reforms have been introduced and interpreted in the Norwegian…

Møller, Jorunn; Skedsmo, Guri

2013-01-01

22

The Great Experiment: Financial Management Reform in the NZ Health Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the move towards a commercialized, economically driven, health sector in New Zealand. Reforms involve extensive organizational rearrangements and the creation of profit-driven businesses in place of public hospitals. These institutional rearrangements involve the fabrication of new ways of accounting. Attempts to understand the processes involved in the development of information technologies before they become accepted “facts” of organizational life.

Stewart Lawrence; Manzurul Alam; Tony Lowe

1994-01-01

23

Health Reform.online: Health Sector Reform, Health Economics and Sustainable Financing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank's Economic Development Institute has recently developed Health Reform.online to provide distance education opportunities for those interested in "health sector reform, health economics or sustainable financing." The site will house educational modules based on EDI's Health Sector Reform and Sustainable Financing training program. The first module, "Introduction to the concepts and analytical tools of health sector reform and financing," includes lessons, case studies, interactive exercises, suggested readings, an extensive glossary, and a course outline. Future EDI training opportunities will be announced at the site. A Library section allows browsing and searching of abstracts or the full-text of over 500,000 pages of World Bank health documents on health projects in developing countries. Note, to view the full-text documents, users will need to download the Prizm plug-in, available at the site. EDI plans to add links to regional partner institute Websites and courses, in the future.

1998-01-01

24

Market Orientation in the UK Higher Education Sector: the influence of the education reform process 1979?1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1979 the Conservative government has attempted to increase efficiency and customer satisfaction in all areas of the Public Sector by introducing market?orientated reforms. Higher education has been different in that this process has been associated with rapid expansion. This paper examines the nature of this reform process and argues that rather than it leading to institutions which have a

Graeme Lindsay; Timothy Rodgers

1998-01-01

25

The implications of health sector reform for human resources development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors argue that ''health for all'' is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health

Ala' Alwan; Peter Hornby

26

The Clean Development Mechanism and Power Sector Reforms in Developing  

E-print Network

in the Medium Term 19 ­ 21 May, 2003 #12;Structure of the presentation: I. Introduction II. The Kyoto Protocol facilitate the development and implementation for the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol the power sector reform experiences in Chile, the Philippines and Kenya? #12;II. The Kyoto Protocol

27

Publicity as an Instrument of Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Albert Einstein and the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS) conducted a reform-based public communication campaign for the international control of atomic energy after the Second World War. The Committee raised funds and sought publicity for its proposed solution to the problem of war and the management of peace. Its solution was the…

Caudill, Susan

28

Entrepreneurial behaviour in the Greek public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – While the term “entrepreneurship” was almost exclusively associated with private sector, it is now found with increasing frequency in the literature on the public sector and public administration. However, research on public entrepreneurs remains restricted to top and middle managers and elected politicians and focuses on policy promotion and initiatives concerning public sector transformation. The perpose of the

Leonidas A. Zampetakis; Vassilis Moustakis

2007-01-01

29

The Applicability of Market-Based Solutions to Public Sector Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the ways in which private- and public-sector location affects organizational structure and functions, and the implications for school reform. It identifies the differences that are often overlooked when policymakers utilize market-based organizational reform models to address public school problems. Two fundamental questions…

Kelley, Carolyn

30

Ownership Versus Environment: Disentangling the Sources of Public-Sector Inefficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unanswered question in the debate on public-sector inefficiency is whether reforms other than government divestiture can effectively substitute for privatization. Using a 1981-1995 panel data set of all public and private manufacturing establishments in Indonesia, we analyze whether public-sector inefficiency is primarily due to agency-type problems or to the environment in which public-sector enterprises (PSEs) operate, as measured by

Ann P. Bartel; Ann E. Harrison

2005-01-01

31

Reinventing VAT collection : industry vertical assessment, revenue increase, and public sector reliability  

E-print Network

This dissertation shows how administrative reforms of the State Tax Administration Bureaus (STABs) in Brazil between 1997 and 2005 contributed to strengthening public sector bureaucracies and institutions at the sub-national ...

Pinhanez, Monica F. (Monica Fornitani)

2008-01-01

32

The "Third Sector" and Education Reform: Some Metaphors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because their resources are inadequate, philanthropic foundations cannot bring about educational reform by themselves. Foundations are best when serving as midwives, parking garages, conversations pits, burning glasses (to focus thought), levers, and lighthouse tenders. The American people are responsible for acting voluntarily to support public

Cole, Bob

1990-01-01

33

Triggering Reform at Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An intriguing experiment is afoot in some of the nation's struggling public schools. New "Parent Trigger" laws passed in California and on the agenda in New York, Ohio, Colorado, and Chicago, allow parents of chronically failing schools to unseat the schools' leadership and staff. But the initiative has pitfalls. It's easy to mobilize parents to…

Kelly, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

34

Reforming the mission of public dental services.  

PubMed

Australia has a complex history of providing public dental services to its communities. From the early days of Colonial settlement, the provision of dental care to the Australian public has largely been driven and influenced by organized groups and associations of dentists. The Constitution of Australia, under Section 51 xxiii A, allows for the Commonwealth to provide for medical and dental services. Unlike the United Kingdom, however, dental services have not been embedded into a universal national health service agenda. In 1974, that the Australian Government through the Australian School Dental Program provided the first funding and national direction for public dental services - and that, limited to children. The Commonwealth Dental Health Program 1993-1997 was the second national endeavor to provide public dental services, this time to financially disadvantaged adults. Since that time, public dental service responsibility has been shuttled between States/Territories and the Commonwealth. A new paradigm for public dental services in Australia requires strong Commonwealth leadership, as well as the commitment of State and Territories and the organized dental profession. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission provided the most recent scenario for a radical change in mission. This paper canvases the competing roles of strategic, functional, and structural issues in relationship to social network and policy issues, which must be recognized if Australians truly seek to reform public dental services. PMID:22998313

Wright, F A C; List, P F

2012-10-01

35

STUDY ON IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE ON SELECTED PUBLIC SECTOR ENTERPRISES IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government policy measures adopted by many developing countries to reform the public sector enterprise performances can be classified into two broad categories in terms of decision criteria taken into consideration. The first category of reform primarily focuses on distancing the government from ownership change and control issues of these enterprises. Partial privatization or divestment falls in this category of change

Pradeep Kautish

2010-01-01

36

Public Sector Labor Law in Kentucky.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Kentucky's statutory and decisional law concerning public sector labor relations, as well as the practice and future of public sector relations as perceived by city and county officials. Available from Salmon P. Chase College of Law, 1401 Dixie Highway, Covington, Kentucky 41011; 1.50 per reprint. (Author/IRT)

Zielke, Laurence J.

1979-01-01

37

PRIVATIZATION AND PUBLIC ENTERPRISE REFORM: A SUGGESTIVE ACTION PLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing reforms for the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) has been an integral part of the reform process initiated in India since 1990s. While reforming, the concerns about ownership, competition and regulation, which have a direct bearing on the issue of the relative performance of publicly owned and privately owned firms have been adequately looked into. This paper focuses on the

Simrit Kaur

2004-01-01

38

Public Opinion and Health Care Reform for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issue Editor's Note Public opinion will play an important role in shaping health care reform in this country. Thus polls that attempt to measure the strength and direction of public opinion have become one focus of the debate over health care reform. Until very recently, however, children were not the focus of much public opinion research. While a great deal

Susan Nall Bales

1993-01-01

39

Accelerated reforms in healthcare financing: the need to scale up private sector participation in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government’s commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage. PMID:24596895

Ejughemre, Ufuoma John

2014-01-01

40

Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

41

Deregulating and regulatory reform in the U.S. electric power sector  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the evolution of wholesale and retail competition in the U.S electricity sector and associated industry restructuring and regulatory reforms. It begins with a discussion of the industry structure and ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2000-01-01

42

[Allergen decontamination and public sector].  

PubMed

Reduction of allergen exposure is one way to reduce exacerbations in allergic asthma. According to Danish legislation, the local authorities have to support initiatives which can reduce clinically relevant inhouse allergen exposure. A case of grotesque bureaucracy and ignorance of basic allergological facts is presented. Local administration confused allergy to cat dander with allergy to house dust mite and two appeal boards only reviewed legal aspects, not medical. After inquiry by the ombudsman, the case was reviewed by one appeal board and the patient was granted help. After three years the patient had moved to another district and the case was started all over again. It is recommended that direct contact between physicians should be preferred, in order to avoid misinterpretation of specialist statements. Original documents should always be requested to avoid transcription errors. Local public administration should respect legislation and improve the quality of their medical advisors. PMID:9012091

Madsen, F F

1997-01-01

43

Taming the tigers? Reforming the security sector in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite global trends towards military reform characterized by processes of professionalization and democratization, militaries in Southeast Asia have continued to play prominent roles in domestic politics since 11 September. This suggests that wider patterns of global military reform have not had as great an impact on the control, capacity and cooperative functions of armed forces in Southeast Asia as they

Mark Beeson; Alex J. Bellamy; Bryn Hughes

2006-01-01

44

Open Source Public Sector Business Intelligence Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although business intelligence (BI) solutions have been a long-standing topic of major interest in private sector, public\\u000a administrations (PA), however, took only first steps towards strategic management. While PA are obliged to implement new public\\u000a management (NPM) approaches, such as new accounting systems or an output-oriented management, to collect management-relevant\\u000a data, there is little support regarding how to employ these

Jörg Becker; Björn Niehaves; Felix Müller-Wienbergen; Martin Matzner

45

Psychological Resiliency in the Public Sector: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of pressures for change in the public sector and the potential mechanisms by which employee Hardiness impacts feelings of and reaction to stress. Data provided by 325 senior-level employees of different state government agencies were used to test a hypothesized model via covariance structure analysis. Results strongly supported the model, linking pressure for change with

Michael C. Rush; William A. Schoel; Steven M. Barnard

1995-01-01

46

Public Sector Rates (FY 2015) Instrument Technique  

E-print Network

Public Sector Rates (FY 2015) Instrument Technique Self Use ($/hr) Staff Assisted & Training ($/hr Technique Self Use ($/hr) Staff Assisted & Training ($/hr) AJA Sputter Coater Sputter Coater $13 $38 AJA Furnace $8 $33 Suss MJB3 - Deep UV Mask Aligner - Deep UV $0 $38 Suss MJB3 - Mask Aligner Mask Aligner $0

Braun, Paul

47

How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

2014-01-01

48

Malaria control reinvented: health sector reform and strategy development in Colombia.  

PubMed

The consequences of health sector reforms on control of malaria were analysed using Colombia as an example. One of the most complex health sector reform programmes in Latin America took place in the 1990s; it included transferring the vertical vector-borne disease control (VBDC) programme into health systems at state and district levels. A series of studies was undertaken in 1998-2000 at the national level (Ministry of Health Study), at the state level (Departamento Study) and at the health district level (District Study) using formal and informal interviews among control staff and document analysis as data collection tools. A government-financed national training programme for VBDC staff - which included direct observation of control operations - was also used to analyse health workers' performance in the postreform period (longitudinal study). The results showed that some shortcomings of the old vertical system, such as the negative aspects of trade union activity, have not been overcome while some positive aspects of the old system, such as capacity building, operational planning and supervision have been lost. This has contributed to a decrease in control activity which, in turn, has been associated with more malaria cases. Malaria control had to be reinvented at a much larger scale than anticipated by the reformers caused by a whole series of problems: complex financing of public health interventions in the new system, massive staff reductions, the difficulty of gaining access to district and state budgets, redefining entire organizations and - in addition to the reforms - introducing alternative strategies based on insecticide-treated materials and the growth of areas of general insecurity in many parts of Colombia itself. However, positive signs in the transformed system include: the strengthening of central control staff (albeit insufficient in numbers) when transferred from the Ministry of Health to the National Institute of Health, the opportunities offered by the Basic Health Plan (PAB) for new planning initiatives and intersectoral co-operation and the integration of malaria diagnosis and treatment into the general health services (associated with a decrease of malaria mortality). The potentials of the new system have not yet been fully exploited: capacity building, communication and management skills need to be improved and it require guidance from the national level. PMID:12000655

Kroeger, Axel; Ordoñez-Gonzalez, José; Aviña, Ana Isabel

2002-05-01

49

Existing Disparities in Public School Finance and Proposals for Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this report are (1) to document the present inequalities in public school spending and local tax burdens and to identify the principal reasons for existing disparities; and (2) to review and evaluate proposals for reform of the currently inadequate public school finance systems. Previous studies, current State and Federal aid…

Weiss, Steven J.

50

The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health  

PubMed Central

The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms. The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways – reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action. This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them. PMID:14613523

Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

2003-01-01

51

Immigrants' Access to Public Assistance: Missed Opportunities following Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996 reformed public assistance programs and reduced the safety net of supports for low-income families. Children living in low-income immigrant families face particular challenges in the current policy environment. In this article, the authors consider what these changes have meant for…

Crosby, Danielle A.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

2008-01-01

52

New Public Management in Educational Reform in Norway  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…

Solhaug, Trond

2011-01-01

53

Public Opinion and Health Care Reform for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent polling data suggest that there is a growing consensus to pay special attention to children's needs in the health care reform debate. The public generally desires children to have greater access to health care services, even if this would mean higher taxes, but is unsure that government is the best vehicle to provide such services. (MDM)

Bales, Susan Nall

1993-01-01

54

Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

Erickson, Paul W.

2009-01-01

55

STEM education reform A public research university imperative!  

E-print Network

STEM education reform A public research university imperative! University of Florida A significant and growing portion of future U.S. jobs will require proficiency in the STEM fields ­ from majors and workers their intended STEM majors, shortchanging the national human resource capacity in these vital areas. Many other

Sin, Peter

56

Social Sector Reform in Latin America and the Role of Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the reaction of teachers` and doctors` unions to a series of social sector reforms in the region, including administrative decentralization, provider payment mechanisms, and the introduction of performance evaluation and private provision. It combines the literature of economics and political science to understand the conditions that shape different patterns of union behavior and their effect on policy

Daniel Maceira; Maria Victoria Murillo

2001-01-01

57

Reforming the health sector in Thailand: the role of policy actors on the policy stage.  

PubMed

This paper reports on exploratory research carried out into the processes of policy-making, and in particular health sector reform, in the health sector of Thailand. It is one of a set of studies examining health sector reform processes in a number of countries. Though in the period under study (1970-1996) there had been no single health sector reform package in Thailand, there was interest in a number of quarters in the development of such an initiative. It is clear, however, that despite recognition of the need for reform such a policy was far from being formulated, let alone implemented. The research, based on both documentary analysis and interviews, explores the reasons underpinning the failure of the policy process to respond to such a perceived need. The research findings suggest that the policy formation process in Thailand successfully occurs when there is a critical mass of support from strategic interest groups. The relative power of these interest groups is constantly changing. In particular the last two decades has seen a decline in the power of the bureaucratic élites (military and civilian) and a related rise in the power of the economic élites either directly or through their influence on political parties and government. Other critical groups include the media, NGOs and the professions. Informal policy groups are also significant. A number of implications for policy makers operating under such circumstances are drawn. PMID:10947567

Green, A

2000-01-01

58

Issues and challenges of power sector reforms in a depressed economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power sector reform has become an issue in the past few years. The key motivations are to achieve better service, reliable operation, and competitive rates. However, the restructuring of electric utilities in a depressed economy like Nigeria has introduced a number of new opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include simulation of indigenous technological development, creation of job for teaming graduates.

J. C. Ekeh

2008-01-01

59

Public pension reform, demographics, and inequality.  

PubMed

"Starting from a simple, descriptive model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system is introduced. The resulting government budget constraint entails interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of an aging population. Several policy conflicts arise. The point is re-emphasized by an analysis of the German Pension Reform Act of 1992. The study reveals that the design of the pension formula decisively drives the relation between demographics and inequality." PMID:12319695

Von Weizsacker, R K

1995-05-01

60

Energy sector reform in Eritrea: initiatives and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Government of Eritrea gave priority status to the energy sector immediately after the country's independence in May 1991, as manifested by the rapid improvement in electricity and oil supplies. Electricity generation capacity has increased from a total of 30MW in 1991 to over 130MW at present. The lengths of transmission and distribution lines have similarly increased from 150km to

Semereab Habtetsion; Zemenfes Tsighe

2007-01-01

61

Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting sustainable energy options (e.g., renewable portfolio standards, energy conservation and energy efficien

Kurdgelashvili, Lado

62

Market reforms and public incentives: finding a balance in the Republic of Macedonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of Macedonia is undertaking sweeping reforms of its health sector. Funded by a World Bank credit, the reforms seek to improve the efficiency and quality of primary health care (PHC) by significantly strengthening the role of the market in health care provision. On the supply-side, one of the key reform proposals is to implement a capitation payment system

Robert J. Nordyke; John W. Peabody

2002-01-01

63

A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

Seidman, Joel

64

The internationalisation of public sector research through international joint laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the emergence of public sector international joint laboratories as an increasingly important new phenomenon in the internationalisation of public sector research. Using a survey and interview-based qualitative methodology, it explores the trends in the establishment of such labs, the aims for which they are established and the extent to which these aims are met. We find a

Koen Jonkers; Laura Cruz Castro

2010-01-01

65

The internationalisation of public sector research through international joint laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the emergence of public sector international joint laboratories as an increasingly important new phenomenon in the internationalisation of public sector research. Using a survey and interview-based qualitative methodology, it explores the trends in the establishment of such laboratories, the aims for which they are established and the extent to which these aims are met. We find a

Koen Jonkers; Laura Cruz-Castro

2010-01-01

66

Information systems security in the Greek public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security aspects of public sector information systems are important as the respective systems are often part of critical infrastructures or deal with personal or sensitive data. A set of 53 Greek public sector organizations were investigated by means of a structured questionnaire concerning important aspects of information systems security. We present the relevant theoretical background, the methodology of our

Euripidis Loukis; Diomidis Spinellis

2001-01-01

67

Good governance and budget reform in Lesotho Public Hospitals: performance, root causes and reality.  

PubMed

Lesotho has been implementing financial management reforms, including performance-based budgeting (PBB) since 2005 in an effort to increase accountability, transparency and effectiveness in governance, yet little is known about how these efforts are affecting the health sector. Supported by several development partners and $24 million in external resources, the PBB reform is intended to strengthen government capacity to manage aid funds directly and to target assistance to pressing social priorities. This study designed and tested a methodology for measuring implementation progress for PBB reform in the hospital sector in Lesotho. We found that despite some efforts on the national level to promote and support reform implementation, staff at the hospital level were largely unaware of the purpose of the reform and had made almost no progress in transforming institutions and systems to fully realize reform goals. Problems can be traced to a complex reform design, inadequate personnel and capacity to implement, professional boundaries between financial and clinical personnel and weak leadership. The Lesotho reform experience suggests that less complex designs for budget reform, better adapted to the context and realities of health sectors in developing countries, may be needed to improve governance. It also highlights the importance of measuring reform implementation at the sectoral level. PMID:23293099

Vian, Taryn; Bicknell, William J

2014-09-01

68

Why are records in the public sector organizational assets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to explore ways in which records support the mandate and activities of public sector bodies in the UK, in particular compliance with legislation, including the Freedom of Information Act 2000. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Focusing on high profile public enquiries as a trigger for examining the value of records in answering questions of public interest, the article goes on

Elizabeth Shepherd

2006-01-01

69

Essays on the economics of public sector retirement programs  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the influence of retiree health and pension policies on the retirement decisions of public sector employees. Chapter one documents the central role of eligibility for subsidized retiree health ...

Leiserson, Gregory Quick

2013-01-01

70

Public Policy for the Private Sector: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Public Policy for the Private Sector_ is a quarterly journal published by the World Bank's Finance, Private Sector, and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). Recently, new documents concerning Finance, Water, and Post-Privatization Performance have been added to this ongoing collection of policy and case study notes.

71

Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans  

PubMed Central

We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee’s work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers’ need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans. PMID:21789032

BESHEARS, JOHN; CHOI, JAMES J.; LAIBSON, DAVID; MADRIAN, BRIGITTE C.

2011-01-01

72

The theory of economic regulation and public choice and the determinants of public sector bargaining legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we used the theory of economic regulation and public choice to derive a model to explain the pattern of public sector bargaining laws among the states. We find this type of legislation is influenced by the following demand factors: (1) the extent of public sector union membership, which represents the interest group hypothesis, has a positive influence

Melissa Waters; William J. Moore

1990-01-01

73

Public Sector Agricultural Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section examines extension as an engine for innovation and reviews the numerous priorities confronting extension systems. Section two highlights the current knowledge imperative and the critical connection of extension to post-secondary higher education and training, organizational…

Rivera, William M.

2011-01-01

74

Obesity and health system reform: private vs. public responsibility.  

PubMed

Obesity is a particularly vexing public health challenge, since it not only underlies much disease and health spending but also largely stems from repeated personal behavioral choices. The newly enacted comprehensive health reform law contains a number of provisions to address obesity. For example, insurance companies are required to provide coverage for preventive-health services, which include obesity screening and nutritional counseling. In addition, employers will soon be able to offer premium discounts to workers who participate in wellness programs that emphasize behavioral choices. These policies presume that government intervention to reduce obesity is necessary and justified. Some people, however, argue that individuals have a compelling interest to pursue their own health and happiness as they see fit, and therefore any government intervention in these areas is an unwarranted intrusion into privacy and one's freedom to eat, drink, and exercise as much or as little as one wants. This paper clarifies the overlapping individual, employer, and social interest in each person's health generally to avoid obesity and its myriad costs in particular. The paper also explores recent evidence on the impact of government interventions on obesity through case studies on food labeling and employer-based anti-obesity interventions. Our analysis suggests a positive role for government intervention to reduce and prevent obesity. At the same time, we discuss criteria that can be used to draw lines between government, employer, and individual responsibility for health, and to derive principles that should guide and limit government interventions on obesity as health reform's various elements (e.g., exchanges, insurance market reforms) are implemented in the coming years. PMID:21871035

Yang, Y Tony; Nichols, Len M

2011-01-01

75

"Site-Based Management" and Reform. Toledo Public Schools, a Case in Point.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expression "site-based management" (SBM) has become part of the rhetoric of reform of U.S. public schools. The United States has been involved in school reform efforts for many years now, including attempts at SBM. The case of the Toledo (Ohio) public schools serves as a prime example of an urban school district that, like many others, shows…

Lopez, Thomas R.; Balzer, David M.

76

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

77

Impact of healthcare reforms on out-of-pocket health expenditures in Turkey for public insurees.  

PubMed

The Turkish healthcare system has been subject to major reforms since 2003. During the reform process, access to public healthcare providers was eased and private providers were included in the insurance package for public insurees. This study analyzes data on out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare expenditures to look into the impact of reforms on the size of OOP health expenditures for premium-based public insurees. The study uses Household Budget Surveys that provide a range of individual- and household-level data as well as healthcare expenditures for the years 2003, before the reforms, and 2006, after the reforms. Results show that with the reforms ratio of households with non-zero OOP expenditure has increased. Share and level of OOP expenditures have decreased. The impact varies across income levels. A semi-parametric analysis shows that wealthier individuals benefited more in terms of the decrease in OOP health expenditures. PMID:21424211

Erus, Burcay; Aktakke, Nazli

2012-06-01

78

Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

Pang, Min-Seok

2011-01-01

79

Growth and the Public Sector: A Critique of the Critics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent review article Jonas Agell, Thomas Lindh and Henry Ohlsson (1997) claim that theoretical and empirical evidence does not allow any conclusion on whether there is a relationship between the rate of economic growth and the size of the public sector. They illustrate their conclusion with simple cross-country regressions where the relation between growth and public expenditure tilts

Stefan Fölster; Magnus Henrekson

1998-01-01

80

Incentives and Workers’ Motivation in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive contracts for public sector workers under different informational assumptions. When civil servants' effort is unverifiable, lazy workers

Josse Delfgaauw; Robert Dur

2004-01-01

81

Incentives and Workers' Motivation in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive contracts for public sector workers under different informational assumptions. When civil servants' effort is unverifiable, lazy workers

J. Delfgaauw; R. A. J. Dur

2005-01-01

82

Incentives and Workers’ Motivation in the Public Sector &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civil servants have a reputation for being lazy. However, people's personal experiences with civil servants frequently run counter to this stereotype. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive contracts for public sector workers under different informational assumptions. When civil servants’ effort is unverifiable, lazy workers

Josse Delfgaauw; Robert Dur

2008-01-01

83

Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs.  

PubMed

Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach's dissemination and sustainability. PMID:16449594

Fajans, Peter; Simmons, Ruth; Ghiron, Laura

2006-03-01

84

A Decade of Urban School Reform: Persistence and Progress in the Boston Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, the Boston Public Schools has undergone critical reforms that have been of intense interest to school leaders and policymakers throughout the country. Under the leadership of superintendent Thomas Payzant, the Boston schools implemented extensive reform strategies that yielded notable results. Fittingly, at the end of Payzant's…

Reville, S. Paul, Ed.

2007-01-01

85

The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

Chouinard, Jill Anne

2013-01-01

86

Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

2010-01-01

87

International Compliance Regimes: A Public Sector Without Restraints  

E-print Network

. The international compliance regimes: overview There is no world government. United Nations decrees are in general risks of death and many lesser dangers, such as the risk of bank failures. They achieve complianceInternational Compliance Regimes: A Public Sector Without Restraints James Franklin Australian

Franklin, James

88

Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

2012-01-01

89

Limits to neoliberal reforms in the health sector: the case of pharmaceutical management in New Zealand.  

PubMed

In New Zealand in 1993, a pharmaceutical management agency (PHARMAC) was established during the height of neoliberal reforms in the health sector. The agency's relationship with pharmaceutical companies, patient lobby groups, and health professionals has been hostile at times, but despite this hostility, PHARMAC has remained substantially independent from political interference. This article draws on critical theory and Durkheimian perspectives to explain how such a strong regulatory organization was established during a time when attempts were made to reshape the health sector to conform to a neoliberal agenda. An analysis of historical and contemporary issues demonstrates the contradictory position of the state in relation to the regulation and subsidization of pharmaceuticals, with conflicting demands to retain popular support, restrain state expenditure, and respond to expectations to provide pharmaceuticals to its citizens. This article demonstrates how the establishment of PHARMAC reconciles these contradictory demands, arguing that it removes decision making from political control and has been able to sustain its place by appealing to objective assessment criteria. This case signals limits of the neoliberal agenda. PMID:24684088

Dew, Kevin; Davis, Amy

2014-01-01

90

Performance indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of structural reform of the Chicago public transportation system  

E-print Network

This thesis anticipates the need for structural change within public transportation systems and the need for clear goals and indicators relating to structural reform to provide real time course correction and periodic ...

Hesen, Anneloes, 1979-

2004-01-01

91

Organizational sense making : responsibilities to the MCAS reform in the Massachusetts public schools  

E-print Network

Educational reform has become a central concern of public policy debates at both the state and federal level. The policy trend both nationally and locally is towards uniform standards in education, with testing as the ...

Goldman, Janice J., 1953-

2005-01-01

92

Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

2012-01-01

93

Health sector reform and STD/AIDS control in resource poor settings--the case of Tanzania.  

PubMed

Integration in health sector reform tends to mean horizontal interaction between vertical programmes. This can result in a larger more complex system than a set of individual vertical programmes. This article looks at the HIV/AIDS programme in Tanzania and the possible impact of system-wide health sector reform involving 'decentralization' and horizontal integration. It implies that the build-up to reform is likely to be costly, at least initially (although eventually the system may become more cost-effective). Integration can thus save resources, but it will also demand additional inputs, and may lead to reduced service output if operations depend on horizontal functions that fail to deliver. The objective of reform must be to create a reasonably sized, well-balanced, system which aims to maximize the output of quality services, both preventive and curative, and to facilitate community efforts to improve health. It is doubtful whether present reform efforts in Tanzania will contribute to more effective services, if not based on a more thorough analysis adapted to the local situation and given considerably more resources, both human and financial. There is also a risk that key preventive programmes, such as those aimed at the control of STD/AIDS, will be further weakened because of both integration with subsequent dependence on poorly functioning horizontal units and reduction in allocated resources. PMID:11246901

Hanson, S

2000-01-01

94

Locating the Issue Public: The MultiDimensional Nature of Engagement with Health Care Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines in detail the structure of the issue public for health care reform, drawing from extensive, nationally\\u000a representative survey data tapping general attentiveness to news and public affairs, specific interests in health care issues,\\u000a and motivations (e.g., personal health and financial conditions) to follow health care reform issues. We furthermore adopt\\u000a a multi-dimensional approach to defining the contours

Vincent Price; Clarissa David; Brian Goldthorpe; Marci McCoy Roth; Joseph N. Cappella

2006-01-01

95

Health Sector Reform and Social Determinants of Health: building up theoretical and methodological interconnections to approach complex global challenges.  

PubMed

Health Sector Reform and Social Determinants of Health are central issues for the current international policy debate, considering the turbulent scenario and the threat of economic recession in a global scale. Although these themes have been discussed for a long time, three major issues still calls the attention of the scientific community and health policymakers. The first one is the matter of how to approach scientifically the intricate connections between them in order to understand the consequences of policies for healthcare services, once this debate will become much more tensioned in the coming years. The second one is the lack of explanatory frameworks to investigate the policies of reform strategies, simultaneously observed in a variety of countries within distinct health services, which aim to achieve multiple and contradictory goals vis-à-vis the so-called social determinants of health. The third one is the challenge that governments face in developing and sustaining equitable health services, bearing in mind the intense political dispute behind the health sector reform processes. This article discusses an all-embracing theoretical and methodological scheme to address these questions. The aim is to connect macro- and middle-range theories to examine Social Determinants and Health Sector Reform interdependent issues, with view to developing new knowledge and attaining scientific understanding upon the role of universal and equitable healthcare systems, in order to avoid deepening economic crises. PMID:25409637

Junior, Garibaldi Dantas Gurgel

2014-01-01

96

Public Housing Reform and Neighborhood Schools: How Local Contexts "Must" Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992, Congress enacted the HOPE VI program to overhaul the nation's public housing policy. The reform legislation was prompted by a report commissioned by Congress that deemed two-thirds of all public housing "severely distressed." Since the landmark public housing policy was enacted in 1992, the Department of Housing and Urban Development…

Smrekar, Claire

2009-01-01

97

Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.  

PubMed

Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that involves various actors within the state, the political society and civil society. PMID:23563780

Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

2013-03-01

98

Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed. PMID:22712716

2012-01-01

99

Determinants of out-of-pocket expenditures on prescribed medications in Tajikistan : Implications for healthcare sector reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of socio-economic characteristics on out-of pocket expenditures for prescribed medications in Tajikistan and provide recommendations for healthcare sector reform. The research question in this paper is: what household, personal, economic, and health factors help explain expenditures on medications? From a theoretical perspective, this paper contributes to the on-going

Nazim Habibov

2009-01-01

100

Motivating Employees of the Public Sector: Does Public Service Motivation Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes if, and to what extent, the public service motivation (PSM) construct has an added value to explain work motivation in the public sector. In order to address the specificity of PSM when studying work motivation, the theoretical model underlying this empirical study compares PSM with two other explanatory factors: material incentives, such as performance-related pay, and team

Simon Anderfuhren-Biget; Frédéric Varone; David Giauque; Adrian Ritz

2010-01-01

101

Total reward: pay and pension contributions in the private and public sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARYThis article compares total reward, which is the sum of gross pay and employers' pension contributions, for the public and private sectors.Total reward for full-time employees is higher in the public sector than the private sector, predominately due to the larger proportion of employees who do not belong to employer pension schemes (with zero pension contributions) in the private sector.

Sarah Levy; Hazel Mitchell; Guled Guled; Jessica Coleman

2010-01-01

102

Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast: HUD USER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users may download this report and accompanying charts from the HUD USER site. The report "examines the implications of welfare reform for public housing authorities (PHAs), whose residents traditionally contribute a portion of their incomes for rent." The report focuses on a small number of diverse housing authorities and finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA rent revenues will most probably vary considerably.

103

National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.

1995-01-01

104

Security sector reform in Kosovo: the complex division of labor between the EU and other multilateral institutions in building Kosovo's police force  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security Sector Reform (SSR) is critical in post-conflict settings, particularly when it comes to the reform of judicial systems, intelligence services, police, correctional systems, and the military. This article traces and analyzes the inter-institutional division of labor between the European Union (EU), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Mission in Kosovo, and the United Nations Interim Administration

Oya Dursun-Ozkanca; Katy Crossley-Frolick

2012-01-01

105

Leadership Preparation Reform in First Person: Making Assumptions Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to capture "insider" perspectives of professors in the forefront of transforming university leadership preparation programs. From interviews, we constructed first person narratives and developed "story threads" demonstrating related sequences of their thought and action in reform work. After developing themes based on…

Kottkamp, Robert B.; Silverberg, Ruth P.

2003-01-01

106

Procurement Policy The Ontario broader public sector (BPS) Procurement Directive was issued by Management Board of  

E-print Network

Procurement Policy The Ontario broader public sector (BPS) Procurement Directive was issued the Ontario Broader Public Sector (BPS) Supply Chain Code of Ethics, as follows: Ontario Broader Public Sector of Ethics and the laws of Canada and Ontario. Individuals should continuously work to improve supply chain

Boonstra, Rudy

107

Downsizing in the public sector: Metro-Toronto's hospitals.  

PubMed

This study has two objectives. First, to predict the outcomes of a public sector downsizing; second to measure effects of downsizing at organizational and inter-organizational levels. Primary data to assess the organizational level effects was collected through interviews with senior executives at two of Metro-Toronto's hospitals. Secondary data, to assess the inter-organizational effects, was collected from government documents and media reports. Due to the exploratory nature of the study's objectives a case study method was employed. Most institutional downsizing practices aligned with successful outcomes. Procedures involved at the inter-organizational level aligned with unsuccessful outcomes and negated organizational initiatives. This resulted in an overall alignment with unsuccessful procedures. The implication, based on private sector downsizings, is that the post-downsized hospital system was more costly and less effective. PMID:14730798

Flint, Douglas H

2003-01-01

108

Health sector reforms and changes in prevalence of untreated morbidity, choice of healthcare providers among the poor and rural population in India  

PubMed Central

Background: India’s health sector witnessed some major policy changes in 1990s that aimed at making health services more accessible to the population. Methods: In this paper, I tried to present some preliminary results of the significant changes that occurred between 1995/6 and 2004, especially in relation to the question of access to healthcare for the poor and rural population using data from 52nd (1995–6) and 60th round (2004) of National Sample Survey Organization on ‘morbidity and healthcare’. Results: The analysis suggests that overall utilization of healthcare services have declined and the odds of not seeking care due to financial inability has further increased among the poor and rural population during the period of reforms. Results of the multivariate logit regression model indicate that the non-poor, middle and above educated people were having greater likelihood of using services from private health care provider. Conclusion: Interestingly, poor and rural residents were more likely to have used healthcare from public facilities in 2004 than in 1995–6, suggesting that the shift from private to public sector is encouraging, provided they receive good quality health care services at public facilities and do not face catastrophic health expenditures. PMID:24757689

Ghosh, Soumitra

2014-01-01

109

Experiences in New Public Management in Africa: The Case of Performance Management Systems in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his 18-page paper entitled 'The Challenges of Governance, Public Sector Reform and Public Administration in Africa: Some Research Issues', Guy Mhone made central to public sector reforms the need to promote procedural rationality in the operation of the public sector and instrumental rationality in terms of economic, social and political outcomes. The present paper contributes to the debate on

Lewis B. Dzimbiri

110

Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

2006-01-01

111

Competence Development in the Public Sector: Development, or Dismantling of Professionalism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular, competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing…

Hjort, Katrin

2008-01-01

112

An exploratory research on the factors stimulating corporate entrepreneurship in the Greek public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Practice demonstrates and research validates that entrepreneurship is moving from the individual to the organization and from the private sector to the social and not-for-profit sectors. The present study endeavors to complement the emerging public entrepreneurship literature by aiming to identify which of those factors that stimulate corporate entrepreneurship in the public sector are preferred by entrepreneurial civil

Leonidas A. Zampetakis; Vassilis S. Moustakis

2010-01-01

113

Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then

I. Dincer; M. M. Hussain; I. Al-Zaharnah

2004-01-01

114

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution System1  

E-print Network

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution food price subsidies affect household nutrition using a dramatic expansion of the availability. These results differ from recent studies suggesting that food subsidies have little effect on nutrition

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

115

Privatization and public enterprise reform in the Asia?Pacific region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on the experience of China to show that improved enterprise performance can be achieved without privatization. Export expansion is used as an indicator of increased economic efficiency. China has reformed its traditional state?owned enterprises by the use of management contract systems, expanding enterprise autonomy and increasing retained profits. Township and village enterprises, which are public enterprises under

John Thoburn

1997-01-01

116

Leadership Imperatives for School Board Members in the Reform and Renewal of Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three leadership imperatives for school board members in school reform are presented in this paper. The imperatives are linked to specific challenges confronting the public school system, which include collective bargaining, student testing, and cultural diversity. Each is discussed and related to a legislative school board action that determines…

Scott, Hugh J.

117

Market-Based Pay Reform for Public School Teachers. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Market-Based Pay Reform for Public School Teachers"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Michael Podgursky, professor of economics at the University of Missouri, examines the effects and unintended consequences of the current compensation system for teachers in the U.S.…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

2008-01-01

118

Local Control, Democracy, and the Separation in the Public Opinion of School Finance Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What role does a person's support for local educational control play in determining her attitude towards equity-minded school finance reform? This article reports estimations of binary and ordered probit models of two state public opinion polls and discusses newspaper coverage from the same two states to determine if and how local control has such…

Shelly, Bryan

2007-01-01

119

Public Understanding to Political Voice: Action Research and Generative Curricular Practices in Issues and Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author and preservice teachers in a postbaccalaureate Issues and Reform in Secondary Education course engaged Ernest Stringer's (2004) model of action research to develop generative curricula. They adhered to Walter C. Parker's (1991, 2006) vision of public formation and essential social studies teaching and used student-centered teaching…

Agnello, Mary Frances

2007-01-01

120

Public health reform and health promotion in Canada.  

PubMed

More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds. PMID:24534261

Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita

2014-02-17

121

[Extensions of the Reformation of Martin Luther to public health in his time].  

PubMed

The reformation as the decisive social change during the first half of the 16th century influenced directly also the organisational forms of the contemporary social welfare and indirectly the development of public health of that time. By evaluation of still existing account health of that time. By evaluation of still existing account-books of the Gemeinen Kasten the changes in the provision of the poor and the development of the old hospitals caused by reformation were investigated. Here the personal influence of Martin Luther is shown. PMID:6362241

Böhmer, W; Kirsten, F

1983-10-15

122

[Cooperation between Chili and France in management training in the Chilean public health sector].  

PubMed

A cooperation programme launched in 1999 by the Chilean Health Department and the French National College of Public Health (ENSP France) has now been running for four years. Its aim was to create and validate a national scheme for manager and executive training within the Chilean public hospital systems. Developed in partnership with the Public Health National College of Rio de Janeiro (Fondation Oswaldo Cruz) with whom ENSP France has teamed up for 10 years, this cooperation was designed by the Chilean partner as a contribution to the definition and implementation of a national policy on Human Resources which might follow the vast reform of the health system currently underway in the country. The scheme which gained international support is backed by a network of 5 universities (7 in 2004) associated with the Chilean Health Department, in a joint national development project for in-house management training for the management teams already in office. More than 100 manager and senior executives et 150 intermediate executives were thus trained between 2000 and 2003. The present scheme est presently being modified to meet new challenges arising from the need to support important changes occurring in the management of Chilean public hospitals, to give them more independence, while encouraging a network of all carers. The ENSP input concerns a line of transfer of competence in training and teaching engineering for all the Chilean partners involved. A module on know-how development support in 'remote control' open training engineering was added in 2002, resulting in the French ENSP concluding a collaboration agreement with the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (France). Moreover, support for implementing an accreditation scheme for management training for the Chilean health sector is under way, linking both French and Brazilian ENSP. Designed from the start on a regional South Cone/Brazil basis, a new expansion phase will be added to this international programme in 2004 (as regards principles and methods) through a Chilean/French cooperation towards Paraguay. PMID:14963889

Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes Cárcamo, Jorge

2003-01-01

123

Experience with private sector participation in Grenoble, France, and lessons on strengthening public water operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the experience with water supply reform in Grenoble, France, where, starting from 1989, different forms of private sector participation were introduced until the decision was made to revert to municipal operations. Identified risks of private operations include interest-seeking practices and a distribution of resources favourable to service providers, together with the high cost for local communities

Emanuele Lobina; David Hall

2007-01-01

124

Thirst for reform ? private sector participation in providing Mexico City's water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case in Mexico City offered an opportunity to observe the advantages, and disadvantages of gradualist reform. Unfortunately, the authors find that the long-term nature of an incremental approach does not match well with the generally shorter-term horizons of elected politicians. Difficult decisions in implementation are left to later years, which pushes potentially unpopular actions onto the shoulders of future

Luke Haggarty; Penelope Brook; Ana Maria Zuluaga

2001-01-01

125

'Economic rationalism' in Canberra and Canada: Public sector reorganisation, politics, and power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian public sector institutions and public sector labour relations experienced intense change during the 1980s and 1990s. Proponents of restructuring sought to insert market-like pressures into areas formerly governed by bureaucratic mechanisms. This reversed a trend towards continual growth in state provision of non-market based social protection and social welfare, and continual growth in the public sector's share of the

Herman Schwartz

2003-01-01

126

DISCRIMINATION ACROSS THE SECTORS: A COMPARISON OF DISCRIMINATION TRENDS IN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS.  

E-print Network

??Differences and similarities between public and private sector organizations have been hypothesized and researched for several decades (Murray, 1975). This study investigated the differences in… (more)

Leasher, Megan K.

2007-01-01

127

Leadership Promotion of Public Values: Public Service Motivation as a Leadership Strategy in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both leadership and public service motivation are important issues in contemporary public administration. By connecting these issues, the aim of this paper is to assess the impact of transformational leadership behaviour (promoting public values) on public service motivation development. Two hypotheses were tested with a dataset of 3507 state civil servants in Belgium. The analysis shows that a positive relation

Wouter Vandenabeele

128

Reforming Public School Systems through Sustained Union-Management Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most of the past decade the policy debate over improving U.S. public education has centered on teacher quality. In this debate, teachers and their unions have often been seen as the problem, not part of the solution. Further, current discourse often assumes that conflicting interests between teacher unions and administration is inevitable.…

Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.

2011-01-01

129

Thirst for Reform? Private Sector Participation in Providing Mexico City?s Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 2001In the early 1990s Mexico City?s Federal District (the D.F.) initiated a series of service contracts with four operators in the private sector?each to be implemented in three stages over ten years. The idea was to introduce competitive pressures and to find out if a ?gradualist? approach would reduce social and political opposition to private sector involvement and would

Ana Maria Zuluaga; Luke Haggarty; Penelope Brook

1999-01-01

130

Handbook of Training and Development for the Public Sector: A Comprehensive Resource. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is intended to assist trainers, design specialists, training managers, technical trainers, and other members of the public sector who conduct training on an occasional basis. The following topics are covered: understanding human resource development (HRD) and its role in the public sector--expanding the scope and significance of HRD…

Van Wart, Montgomery; And Others

131

Agricultural Biotechnology and Globalization: The Role of Public and Private Sector Research  

E-print Network

Agricultural Biotechnology and Globalization: The Role of Public and Private Sector Research Greg biotechnology sector as it works to sustain innovations and further propagate its benefits into the new century institutional mechanisms for public and private partnership that can help agricultural biotechnology fulfill its

Kammen, Daniel M.

132

Total Reward in the UK in the Public and Private Sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent controversy has surrounded the relative value of public and private sector remuneration. We define a comprehensive measure of Total Reward (TR) which includes not just pay, but pensions and other 'benefits in kind', evaluate it as the present value of the sum of all these payments over the lifetime and compare it in the UK public and private sectors.

Alexander M. Danzer; Peter Dolton

2011-01-01

133

Competence development in the public sector: Development, or dismantling of professionalism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public\\u000a sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular,\\u000a competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing dominant Neo-Liberal political

Katrin Hjort

2008-01-01

134

FACT SHEET: Fusion Center Assessment emergency response, public health and private sector security personnel to understand local intelligence  

E-print Network

FACT SHEET: Fusion Center Assessment emergency response, public health and private sector security and private sector partners on emergencies such as blizzards, hurricanes, floods, or other major natural

135

Investigating the Effectiveness of Response Strategies for Vulnerabilities to Corruption in the Chinese Public Construction Sector.  

PubMed

Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries. PMID:24894336

Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

2014-06-01

136

The state of environmental performance evaluation in the public sector: the case of the Portuguese defence sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental performance evaluation (EPE) of organizations is becoming an autonomous management tool. The main goal of this research was to assess the state of EPE practice in the Portuguese defence sector, as a particular part of public services. A questionnaire survey was conducted involving all Portuguese military units that have a person in charge of environmental issues. The questionnaire

Tomás B. Ramos; Inês Alves; Rui Subtil; João Joanaz de Melo

2009-01-01

137

77 FR 76064 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Reform Act: Changes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Requirements for the Public Housing and Section 8 Assistance Programs AGENCY...policies relating to public housing and Section 8 assistance programs implemented...Requirements in the Public Housing and Section 8 Assistance Programs. OMB...

2012-12-26

138

The utilization rate of antenatal care after health sector reform implementation in rural areas of Islamic Republic of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Improving the utilization rate of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving the reproductive health goals in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization rate of antenatal care (ANC) by women after health sector reform (HSR) interventions in rural areas of Islamic Republic of Iran (IR Iran). Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The data were gathered by cluster sampling from 400 motherhood records of mothers whose last pregnancies had been terminated in the first 3 months of 2013. Data were collected from 21 rural health centers of Isfahan district during the year 2013. The utilization rate of ANC by mothers was assessed by the number of visits they had, the time of the first ANC visit, the occurrence of pregnancy- or delivery-related complications, and the number of postpartum visits. Results: The mean time of the first ANC was 9 ± 5.23th week of gestational age. For 69.3% of pregnant women, the first ANC was before the 12th week. Overall, the frequency of ANC visits ranged from 2 to 21, with the average of 10.6 ± 3.23 visits. 93.8% of the utilized ANC visits were adequate. 99.8% of the deliveries took place in the hospital. 99% of mothers had at least one visit in the postpartum period. 4% of the mothers had suffered from pregnancy-related complications. Conclusion: It seems that IR Iran has achieved to one of the important objectives by its reform in health care access, that is, more ANC for pregnant women.

Alikhasi, Narges; Khadivi, Reza; Kheyri, Maryam

2014-01-01

139

"A visitation of providence:" Public health and eugenic reform in the wake of the Halifax disaster.  

PubMed

The Halifax Explosion provided the opportunity for an "experiment in public health" that was meant not only to restore but also to improve the city and its population in the process. The restructuring that occurred during the restoration was influenced by pre-existing ideals and prejudices which were reflected in the goals of the newly formed committees in charge of the reconstruction. The primary emphasis on improvement as well as control was the result of existing regional concerns regarding the emigration of the province's most "desirable" stock, in the form of healthy, educated young men and women, to central Canada and the eastern United States. Public health reforms reflected the eugenic goal of improving the overall quality of the population through education, surveillance, and inspection, resorting finally to institutionalizing people who public health officials determined were genuinely deficient. PMID:24909020

Baker, Leslie

2014-01-01

140

Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.  

PubMed

The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084

Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

2014-12-01

141

Public/private-sector collaboration in contraceptive research and development: summary and historical perspective.  

PubMed

This summary and historical perspective relates exclusively to contraceptive research and development during the period between the early 1970s and the present. This paper covers the raison d'être for public/private-sector collaboration in this field, provides definitions and summarizes the issues motivating and confronting both sectors, discusses and outlines a generic memorandum of understanding (MOU) that can be used to initiate collaborative research activities, and presents a time line of selected milestones in public/private-sector collaboration, many of which were initiated by the Rockefeller Foundation. Public and private-sector collaboration takes advantage of the unique strengths of both sectors and offers good opportunities for a 'win-win' situation in product development. PMID:10661737

Spieler, J

1999-12-01

142

Unlikely Allies: Unions and Districts in the Battle for School Reform. Education Sector Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providence, Rhode Island, is one of those gritty eastern mill towns that wears its centuries-old history on its sleeve. Like many American cities, Providence is home to a struggling public school system with chronically low-performing schools. They include Roger Williams Middle, where last year only 17 percent of eighth-graders scored at or above…

Silva, Elena; Headden, Susan

2011-01-01

143

Frozen Assets: Rethinking Teacher Contracts Could Free Billions for School Reform. Education Sector Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State and federal accountability systems are pressuring public schools to improve the performance of low-achieving students. To respond, schools must be able to recruit and retain high-quality teachers, strengthen curricula, and take other steps to provide struggling students with the help they need. But such efforts are expensive and, as the…

Roza, Marguerite

2007-01-01

144

Computer-Aided Dispatch System as a Decision Making Tool in Public and Private Sectors  

E-print Network

We describe in detail seven distinct areas in both public and private sectors in which a real-time computer-aided dispatch system is applicable to the allocation of scarce resources. Characteristics of a real-time ...

Lee, I-Jen

145

Electronic Business Invading the Public Sector: Considerations on Change and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic Business (e-Business) is a powerful guiding vision for the transformation which the commercial and governmental sector have to undergo. Compared to Commerce, obviously, Government is lagging behind. Yet, for the public sector the rampant success of e- Commerce has acted as a stimulus prompting to raise the engagement in e-Business. Change occurs far and wide and becomes a topic

Maria Wimmer; Roland Traunmüller; Klaus Lenk

2001-01-01

146

Shaping Psychological Contracts in the Public and Private Sectors: A Human Resources Management Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational choices shape the way in which individuals experience their employment relationship. Given the multiple differences between the public and the private sectors, this study seeks to identify variations in employee perceptions of their psychological contract depending upon the sector in which they work. The psychological contract is seen as lying at the heart of the employer-employee exchange relationship. The

Victoria Bellou

2007-01-01

147

The role of private-for-profit managed behavioral health in the public sector.  

PubMed

Managed behavioral health, once largely confined to private sector employees, has been growing rapidly in the public sector. Throughout the country, behavioral health services, particularly for Medicaid enrollees, are coming under the management of private-for-profit firms. The authors discuss these developments, and the controversies that have come about as a result. Several public/private models of managed behavioral health services are identified. PMID:9239942

Feldman, S; Baler, S; Penner, S

1997-05-01

148

Health care inequities in north India: Role of public sector in universalizing health care  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Income inequality is associated with poor health. Inequities exist in service utilization and financing for health care. Health care costs push high number of households into poverty in India. We undertook this study to ascertain inequities in health status, service utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures in two States in north India namely, Haryana and Punjab, and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Methods: Data from National Sample Survey 60th Round on Morbidity and Health Care were analyzed by mean consumption expenditure quintiles. Indicators were devised to document inequities in the dimensions of horizontal and vertical inequity; and redistribution of public subsidy. Concentration index (CI), and equity ratio in conjunction with concentration curve were computed to measure inequity. Results: Reporting of morbidity and hospitalization rate had a pro-rich distribution in all three States indicating poor utilization of health services by low income households. Nearly 57 and 60 per cent households from poorest income quintile in Haryana and Punjab, respectively faced catastrophic OOP hospitalization expenditure at 10 per cent threshold. Lower prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was recorded in higher income groups. Public sector also incurred high costs for hospitalization in selected three States. Medicines constituted 19 to 47 per cent of hospitalization expenditure and 59 to 86 per cent OPD expenditure borne OOP by households in public sector. Public sector hospitalizations had a pro-poor distribution in Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis indicates that public sector health service utilization needs to be improved. OOP health care expenditures at public sector institutions should to be curtailed to improve utilization of poorer segments of population. Greater availability of medicines in public sector and regulation of their prices provide a unique opportunity to reduce public sector OOP expenditure. PMID:23041735

Prinja, Shankar; Kanavos, Panos; Kumar, Rajesh

2012-01-01

149

District health programmes and health-sector reform: case study in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed Central

The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% nationally. By 2003, infant and child mortality rates were less than one-third of the national rates. The maternal mortality ratio decreased by 50% despite comprehensive emergency obstetric care not being available in most district hospitals. These trends were achieved with an investment of approximately 4 million US dollars over 12 years (equivalent to US 1.00 US dollars per person per year). However, this project did not overcome weaknesses in some national disease-control programmes, especially the expanded programme on immunization, that require strong central management. In Lao PDR, which is not yet committed to using SWAps, tools developed in Sayaboury could help other district health offices assume greater planning responsibilities in the recently decentralized system. Development partners should balance their support for centrally managed disease-specific programmes with assistance to horizontally integrated primary health care at the district level. PMID:16501731

Perks, Carol; Toole, Michael J.; Phouthonsy, Khamla

2006-01-01

150

The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

2010-01-01

151

Leadership at all levels: Leading public sector organisations in an age of austerity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One of the main challenges for the public sector in the developed world is to deliver improved services through a motivated workforce in an age of austerity. This age of austerity has been brought on by the financial crisis that has left governments running enormous budget deficits, but facing electorates still expecting increased standards in public services, especially as

Keith Leslie; Adam Canwell

2010-01-01

152

Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections. CEE DP 135  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance measurement in the public sector is largely based on objective metrics, which may be subject to gaming behaviour. This paper investigates a novel subjective performance evaluation system where independent inspectors visit schools at very short notice, publicly disclose their findings and sanction schools rated fail. First, I…

Hussain, Iftikhar

2012-01-01

153

The macroeconomics of pension reform: The case of severance pay reform in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades Italy implemented a number of reforms of the public pay-as-you-go (PAYG) scheme that curtailed future pensions. Governments therefore felt the need to increase the number of workers contributing to fully funded (FF) schemes to offset the expected fall in public pensions. In the private sector an existing saving fund, the severance pay scheme (Trattamento di

Sergio Cesaratto

2011-01-01

154

Service System Design in the Public and Private Sectors Jaroslav ...  

E-print Network

On the contrary to a public systems design, a private system ... and if a quantity of customer's demand can be expressed by a real number, then ... when limited number of fire-stations or first-aid stations should be located so that time, in.

Lubos

2007-10-27

155

7 Elements of Effective Public-Sector Boards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis at the University of Southern California conducted a national study of public higher education governing board performance. 130 board members, presidents, coordinating board officials, governors, legislators, and education department staff were interviewed about ways to improve performance…

Kezar, Andrianna; Tierney, William G.

2006-01-01

156

Performance measurement and metric manipulation in the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the circumstances that influence whether managers in the public services manipulate the measurement information that is used to assess performance; and if they do, what level of deception they might use. The realistic evaluation approach is adopted. A Delphi survey and the collection of critical incidents through interviews are used to identify possible configurations of contexts–mechanisms–outcomes that

Colin Fisher; Bernadette Downes

2008-01-01

157

Clinical Trials Offshored: On Private Sector Science and Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the offshoring of clinical trials to middle- and low-income countries, and the complicated ways in which they have become integral to public health and quality of care in these contexts. I focus on the operations of United States-based contract research organizations (CROs), which make up a specialized global industry focusing on the recruitment of human subjects and

Adriana Petryna

2007-01-01

158

Supervision in Public Sector Behavioral Health: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supervision plays a key role in the provision of health and human services. An extensive literature exists on supervision as an element of professional development in behavioral health care. However, much less attention has been given to the practice of supervision in publicly funded systems of care for persons with mental and substance use conditions. This article provides a comprehensive

Michael A. Hoge; Scott Migdole; Melanie S. Farkas; Allison N. Ponce; Christie Hunnicutt

2011-01-01

159

The Efficiency of Public Sector Outsourcing Contracts: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outsourcing the provision of traditionally publicly-provided services has become commonplace in most industrialized nations. Despite its prevalence, there still is no consensus in the academic literature on the magnitude (and determinants) of expected cost savings to the government, nor the sources of those savings. After articulating the differences between outsourcing and privatization, this article considers the arguments for (and against)

Paul H. Jensen; Robin E. Stonecash

2004-01-01

160

Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary Estimates of Commercial and Public Sector Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina's impact on the economy and infrastructure of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama represents an immediate concern to commercial enterprises, area residents, and policymakers at all levels. Understanding the severity of the damages and the magnitude of the recovery efforts are important for both private and public decision makers deploying resources in the affected area. This paper provides initial estimates

Michael J. Hicks

161

Business process re-engineering in the public sector : A study of staff perceptions and critical success factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the perceptions of staff in regard to critical success factors (CSFs) for successful BPR implementation in the public sector. The research methodology involved semi-structured interviews and staff surveys within a large public sector organisation. The results of the study show that many of the key CSFs identified for BPR in the private sector are equally relevant to the success

Rodney McAdam; John Donaghy

1999-01-01

162

‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision-making, inter alia. These interventions may be more cost-effective for retention than wage increases, and imply that it is not necessarily just a matter of putting more money into the public sector to increase retention. PMID:23281664

2013-01-01

163

Overview of unconventional energy projects in the public power sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternative energy programs sponsored by publically owned utilities across the country are reviewed. Biomass conversion, diesels, combustion turbines, fuel cells, solar heating units, wind power, cogeneration, and load management are discussed in the context of the individual projects. The emphasis of the programs is on providing the services required by consumers, such as water heating, space conditioning, and insulation, rather than on the marketing of electricity as a single product.

Leber, R. E.

1981-01-01

164

Organizing a Public-sector Vasectomy Program in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although models of high-quality family planning services for men exist in Latin America, few if any have been organized within the complex and resource-constrained national public health systems. This study provides evidence from the Santa Barbara project in southern Brazil showing how vasectomy was introduced into the municipal health system. It demonstrates that once the necessary operational and quality-of-care improvements

Luis Guilherme Penteado; Francisco Cabral; Margarita Diaz; Juan Diaz; Laura Ghiron; Ruth Simmons

2001-01-01

165

International patients within the NHS: A case of public sector entrepreneurialism.  

PubMed

Many public health systems in high- and middle-income countries are under increasing financial pressures as a result of ageing populations, a rise in chronic and non-communicable diseases and shrinking public resources. At the same time the rise in patient mobility and concomitant market in medical tourism provides opportunities for additional income. This is especially the case where public sector hospitals have a reputation as global centres of excellence. Yet, this requires public sector entrepreneurship which, given the unique features of the public sector, means a change to professional culture. This paper examines how and under what conditions public sector entrepreneurship develops, drawing on the example of international patients in the UK NHS. It reports on a subset of data from a wider study of UK medical tourism, and explores inward flows and NHS responses through the lens of public entrepreneurship. Interviews in the English NHS were conducted with managers of Foundation Trusts with interest in international patient work. Data is from seven Foundation Trusts, based on indepth, semi-structured interviews with a range of NHS managers, and three other key stakeholders (n = 16). Interviews were analysed using a framework on entrepreneurship developed from academic literature. Empirical findings showed that Trust managers were actively pursuing a strategy of expanding international patient activity. Respondents emphasised that this was in the context of the current financial climate for the NHS. International patients were seen as a possible route to ameliorating pressure on stretched NHS resources. The analysis of interviews revealed that public entrepreneurial behaviour requires an organisational managerial or political context in order to develop, such as currently in the UK. Public sector workers engaged in this process develop entrepreneurship - melding political, commercial and stakeholder insights - as a coping mechanism to health system constraints. PMID:24833318

Lunt, Neil; Exworthy, Mark; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard D

2015-01-01

166

Reforms in French Public Universities. How does commitment to performance match with commitment to public values?  

E-print Network

), few studies examined how these changes transformed the identities of civil servants (Vigour, 2009, 2010; Hondeghem & Vandenabeele, 2005). In other words, civil servants share specific « public values this theoretical issue by exploring the following question: how far can civil servants commit

Boyer, Edmond

167

The Practical Importance of Inherency Analysis for Public Advocates: Rhetorical Leadership in Framing a Supportive Social Climate for Education Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that teaching rhetorical leadership, particularly the skill of inherency analysis, is crucial to preparing effective citizen leaders. Using the example of education reforms for children with disabilities, it illustrates the practical value for those interested in public concerns of understanding and using analysis of the…

Olson, Kathryn M.

2008-01-01

168

Lessons in Early Learning: Building an Integrated Pre-K-12 System in Montgomery County Public Schools. Education Reform Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2010 report looked at how Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) used local and federal dollars to craft, implement and improve a system-wide education reform strategy built on a foundation of providing high-quality pre-k education. School officials, state and federal policymakers alike will benefit from learning about the trail that MCPS…

Marietta, Geoff

2010-01-01

169

The role of retiree health insurance in the early retirement of public sector employees.  

PubMed

Most government employees have access to retiree health coverage, which provides them with group health coverage even if they retire before Medicare eligibility. We study the impact of retiree health coverage on the labor supply of public sector workers between the ages of 55 and 64. We find that retiree health coverage raises the probability of stopping full time work by 4.3 percentage points (around 38 percent) over two years among public sector workers aged 55-59, and by 6.7 percentage points (around 26 percent) over two years among public sector workers aged 60-64. In the younger age group, retiree health insurance mostly seems to facilitate transitions to part-time work rather than full retirement. However, in the older age group, it increases the probability of stopping work entirely by 4.3 percentage points (around 22 percent). PMID:25479890

Shoven, John B; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

2014-12-01

170

Advancing a Conceptual Model of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Public Service Sectors  

PubMed Central

Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health, social service, alcohol/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation process (i.e., Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment), derived from extant literature, and apply it to public sector services. We highlight features of the model likely to be particularly important in each phase, while considering the outer and inner contexts (i.e., levels) of public sector service systems. PMID:21197565

Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

2010-01-01

171

Corporate governance of public health services: lessons from New Zealand for the state sector.  

PubMed

New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted. PMID:10947611

Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M

2000-01-01

172

Awaking the Public Sector with Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Revitalizing the Public Servant's Organizational Knowledge, Innovative Capability, and Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for public sector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…

Jackson, Janese Marie

2011-01-01

173

Organizing a public-sector vasectomy program in Brazil.  

PubMed

Although models of high-quality family planning services for men exist in Latin America, few if any have been organized within the complex and resource-constrained national public health systems. This study provides evidence from the Santa Barbara project in southern Brazil showing how vasectomy was introduced into the municipal health system. It demonstrates that once the necessary operational and quality-of-care improvements were in place, and sufficient political and technical support existed to proceed, it was possible to establish low-cost, well-used, and sustainable vasectomy services free of charge. The findings show that careful attention to the development of strong technical competence and an informed choice process resulted in high user satisfaction. Focus-group discussions with men who underwent vasectomy indicate that they had no objection to being served in the context of a women's health center and that they act as opinion leaders who draw an increasing clientele to the service. PMID:11831050

Penteado, L G; Cabral, F; Díaz, M; Díaz, J; Ghiron, L; Simmons, R

2001-12-01

174

Share-Holders in Relief: The Political Culture of the Public Sector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Gordon, a respected historian of US welfare policy, attempts to "refine the story we tell about welfare by contextualizing it in a way not yet done by historians--relating it to the New Deal relief and public works which were so visible at the time of welfare's birth." Gordon examines the promises and contradictions of New Deal relief programs to offer a valuable historical context for current debates on the public sector and the role of government.

Gordon, Linda.

1998-01-01

175

Inter-organizational Information Systems and Interaction in Public vs. Private Sector - Comparing Two Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper compares inter-organizational (IO) interaction and inter-organizational information systems (IOS) in public and\\u000a private sector. The purpose of the paper is to explore differences and similarities between e-government and e-business focusing\\u000a IOS and interaction. This is done in order to facilitate learning between the two fields. The point of departure is two case\\u000a studies performed in private vs. public

Ulf Melin; Karin Axelsson

2010-01-01

176

Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

2012-01-01

177

Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

2012-01-01

178

Business administration training seminar for public sector executives: implementation and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to define the mission, characteristics, objectives and evaluation processes concerning a specific training seminar entitled “Business administration for public sector executives”. Furthermore, the research intends to underline the evaluation criteria, set by trainees and training officers as necessary in order to maximize the seminar's overall impact on all those involved. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The seminar was

M. Katharaki; C. Prachalias; M. Linardakis; K. Kioulafas

2009-01-01

179

The Nays Have It: When Public Sector Unions Win in California. Civic Report. No. 72  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This November, California voters must decide two policy questions of great concern to public-sector unions. One is a tax hike to stave off further cuts to state spending (there are two versions on the ballot with a chance of passing). The other is a "paycheck protection" measure that would ban the practice of unions' deducting money from member…

DiSalvo, Daniel

2012-01-01

180

Technology adoption in the public sector: an exploratory study of e-government in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

All around the world, the quest to improve government service delivery is becoming an important agenda for most governments. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and the Internet in particular have opened new possibilities for the government and the governed. Successful delivery of online services has rapidly become an important measure of effective public sector management and this has made many

Maniam Kaliannan; Halimah Awang; Murali Raman

2007-01-01

181

Private Service, Public Rights: The Private Children's Residential Group Care Sector in Ontario, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the core themes and issues of private residential service delivery for children and youth in Ontario, with a specific focus on staffed group care within this sector. Such exploration highlights the juxtaposition of the public rights of children with the private world of service provision. Based on twenty interviews with…

Gharabaghi, Kiaras

2009-01-01

182

Dues and Deep Pockets: Public-Sector Unions' Money Machine. Civic Report. No. 67  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At first glance, public-sector labor unions are just one of many types of organizations that participate in the political process. However, these unions differ significantly from other interest groups made up of individual citizens or non-labor organizations. Because their members' interests are tied to government policy, these unions are more…

DiSalvo, Daniel

2012-01-01

183

Money ethic, moral conduct and work related attitudes : Field study from the public sector in Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate perception of ethical and moral conduct in the public sector in Swaziland, specifically, the relationship among: money ethic, attitude towards business ethics, corruption perception, turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, and the demographic profile of respondents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Using stratified sampling technique in selected organisations,

Gbolahan Gbadamosi; Patricia Joubert

2005-01-01

184

The Comparative Value of Pensions in the Public and Private Sectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bureau of Labor Statistics' first survey of benefits available to state and local government employees reveals that public pension plans tend to provide more liberal benefits but are more likely to require employee contributions than are their private sector counterparts. (Author)

Lovejoy, Lora Mills

1988-01-01

185

Ideology, Effectiveness, and Public Sector Productivity: with Illustrations from the Field of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates how one's ideology and perspective on the role of politics in implementation affects one's view of public sector productivity. Presents two approaches, a Quality Productivity Ratio (QPR) and a Service Productivity Rating (SPR). Using illustrations from the field of higher education, emphasizes the usefulness of the latter approach…

Kelly, Rita Mae

1980-01-01

186

Teaching People to Fish? Building the Evaluation Capability of Public Sector Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to an increasing demand for public sector accountability, many government agencies have sought to develop their internal evaluation capabilities. Often these efforts have focused on increasing the capacity to supply credible evaluations, yet addressing demand is just as important. This article focuses on a government agency and tracks its five-year journey towards developing such a capability. It documents

Bron McDonald; Patricia Rogers; Bruce Kefford

2003-01-01

187

The Private Sector in the Public School: Can It Improve Education? AEI Symposia 84B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Enterprise Institute and the National Institute of Education commissioned six authors to prepare papers examining the barriers and incentives to private-sector involvement in public schools. These authors include representatives from two corporations, a former school superintendent and academic, a state policy analyst and attorney,…

Levine, Marsha, Ed.

188

Distance Learning and Adult Students. A Review of Recent Developments in the Public Education Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive state-of-the-art report presents a survey of recent distance learning developments in Britain, mainly by local colleges in the public education sector, and discusses the motivation and experience of adult learners. Distance learning in general is examined, and current models of provision and the audiences served by these programs…

Advisory Council for Adult and Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

189

Preparing for Public Life: School Sector and the Educational Context of Lasting Citizen Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School sector and educational context seem to make a difference in civic socialization. There is limited knowledge, however, of the mechanisms through which socialization may occur in public and private schools, and the extent to which they have any lasting effect. Does the private school effect on civic socialization persist into young adulthood,…

Dill, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

190

The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

Coleman, David W.

2012-01-01

191

Behavioural and Motivational Training for Senior Staff in the Portuguese Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of this research has highlighted the fact that most public sector bodies in Portugal do not have any formal specification for training requirements, nor do they have training programmes or detailed training evaluation systems. Furthermore, there is no interaction in these areas between the training body and the Departmental Customer or…

Madureira, Cesar

2006-01-01

192

PNNL's Work for Others Program Enhancing technology transfer to the public and private sectors  

E-print Network

PNNL's Work for Others Program Enhancing technology transfer to the public and private sectors What, and foreign governments. Work for Others (WFO) enables companies and federal agencies to tap into PNNL industrial competitiveness. "By taking advantage of the resources offered by the Work for Others Program

193

Professionalism and ethics in records management in the public sector in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a report of a study that looks at the practice of records management in the public sector in Zimbabwe and the extent to which records management, within Zimbabwe, can be regarded as a profession. The study reveals that records are mishandled and abused suggesting a lack of ethics. Those with the job title records manager have neither

Patrick Ngulube

2000-01-01

194

Performance Management of the Police in the Context of Public Sector Reform in Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis investigates police performance management in Maputo, which is the capital city of Mozambique. To conduct the analysis, it applies a multiangle and multi-factor framework that enables examination of core values and indicators of governance while taking into account the influencing factors within and around the Police of the Republic of Mozambique (PRM).\\u000aThe thesis sets the stage for

F. I. Alar

2010-01-01

195

Renewing the Holy Grail of human motivation in the delivery of public service : Evidence from Ghana's Local Government Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper draws on a recent case study in Ghana that explored the human resource development (HRD) challenges facing local government in a reforming public sector. It aims to investigate how public sector reform (PSR) has affected worker motivation and effectiveness among civil servants (bureaucrats) serving local government at all levels of operation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on an

Kwabena Barima Antwi

2009-01-01

196

Chartering Urban School Reform. Reflections on Public High Schools in the Midst of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents essays written by school reformers that discuss the reform movement and examine the partnership that inspired the creation of small, intimate school communities known as charters. They also reflect on the comprehensive changes that inform each charter and the personal and collective struggles to institutionalize these new…

Fine, Michelle, Ed.

197

A Social Reminder: What the Public Want from the Education Reform in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Education Commission (EC) of Hong Kong, the advisory body set up by the government on the overall development of education in Hong Kong, began developing a policy of education reform in 1998 and published its blueprint in 2000. In 2006, the EC published its fourth official report on the progress of the reform--"Progress Report on…

Wong, Kai Shung

2010-01-01

198

Mental health policy and development in Egypt - integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen) 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the

Rachel Jenkins; Ahmed Heshmat; Nasser Loza; Inkeri Siekkonen; Eman Sorour

2010-01-01

199

Change Theory for Accounting System Reform in Health Sector: A Case Study of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Change theories provide an opportunity for organizational managers to plan, monitor and evaluate changes using a framework which enable them, among others, to show a fast response to environmental fluctuations and to predict the changing patterns of individuals and technology. The current study aimed to explore whether the change in the public accounting system of the Iranian health sector has followed Kurt Lewin’s change theory or not. Methods: This study which adopted a mixed methodology approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, was conducted in 2012. In the first phase of the study, 41 participants using purposive sampling and in the second phase, 32 affiliated units of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) were selected as the study sample. Also, in phase one, we used face-to-face in-depth interviews (6 participants) and the quote method (35 participants) for data collection. We used a thematic framework analysis for analyzing data. In phase two, a questionnaire with a ten-point Likert scale was designed and then, data were analyzed using descriptive indicators, principal component and factorial analyses. Results: The results of phase one yielded a model consisting of four categories of superstructure, apparent infrastructure, hidden infrastructure and common factors. By linking all factors, totally, 12 components based on the quantitative results showed that the state of all components were not satisfactory at KUMS (5.06±2.16). Leadership and management; and technology components played the lowest and the greatest roles in implementing the accrual accounting system respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the unfreezing stage did not occur well and the components were immature, mainly because the emphasis was placed on superstructure components rather than the components of hidden infrastructure. The study suggests that a road map should be developed in the financial system based on Kurt Lewin’s change theory and the model presented in this paper underpins the change management in any organizations. PMID:24596885

Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Emami, Mozhgan

2013-01-01

200

Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces) to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation. PMID:23347433

2013-01-01

201

Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors  

PubMed Central

Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery. PMID:18257936

Pillay, Rubin

2008-01-01

202

The Winners in China's Urban Housing Reform.  

PubMed

Housing reform in China has proceeded on two tracks: privatization of public housing and development of a new private housing sector. During this period of transition, rents have remained relatively low in the remaining public housing, and purchase prices offered to occupants of public housing have been well below market prices. Although these rents and prices are partly based on known formulas, there is considerable variability in how much people pay for similar apartments. This study uses 2000 Census data to estimate the housing subsidy received by the remaining renters in the public sector and purchasers of public housing, based on private sector prices for housing of comparable quality and size. The paper also analyzes variation in the estimated discount from market prices that these people receive. The findings show that the biggest winners in China's transition from socialist housing allocation are those who were favored in the previous system, based on such factors as residence status, education and occupation. PMID:24163494

Logan, John R; Fang, Yiping; Zhang, Zhanxin

2010-01-01

203

Hearing focuses on price of Norplant; Wyeth pledges discount for public sector.  

PubMed

In November 1993, Democratic US Representative Ron Wyden held a hearing on the cost of the contraceptive implant Norplant. Its US distributor, Wyeth-Ayerst, informed the US House Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities and Technology that it would offer the public sector a discounted price for Norplant 5 years after it had been on the US market. Public funds contributed to the development of Norplant. USAID provided $17.2 million of the $41.3 million that the Population Council spent on developing Norplant. Wyeth provided the Council levonorgestrel, the drug used in Norplant, thereby holding the right to market Norplant in the US and Canada. USAID buys Norplant from the distributor for all other countries for $23, while Wyeth sells Norplant in a package of insertion and educational materials for $365. This large gap infuriates groups providing family planning services to low-income women. Medicaid pays for Norplant and its insertion for the poorest women. Wealthier women either pay for Norplant themselves, or their health insurance pays for it. This leaves low-income women with no access to Norplant. Wyeth has formed the Norplant Foundation to provide Norplant to low-income women whom Medicaid will not cover. It also trains most providers in insertion and removal procedures. The law requires Wyeth to reimburse qualified public health clinics 15% of costs. The reason Wyeth does not yet give the public sector a discounted price is that it wants Norplant to become firmly entrenched in the private sector first. Other panelists commented on how Norplant's success may encourage other companies to return to contraception research. Liability and political controversy are still concerns, however. Another panelist expressed concern that consumers have become too dependent on pharmaceutical companies and their commercial interests. PMID:12318533

1993-11-23

204

Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

2008-01-01

205

Tracking Student Mobility Between the Public and Private Post-Secondary Education Sectors in British Columbia: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study will examine the feasibility of developing a student mobility tracking system that encompasses the entire post-secondary system in BC. Currently, the vast majority of the private post-secondary sector has no formal link with institutions in the public sector. As a consequence, little is known beyond anecdotal evidence about the…

Kershaw, Adrian

2007-01-01

206

RequestTrack : G10 : Public sector and Non-profit Management "Entrepreneurship in French non profit organizations dealing with  

E-print Network

1 RequestTrack : G10 : Public sector and Non-profit Management "Entrepreneurship in French non profit organizations dealing with medical, health and social sectors" Madina RIVAL Senior Lecturer 63 (voice) madina.rival@cnam.fr (email) Abstract : In France, a large number of non-profit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

Adult Participation in Education in South-Eastern Europe: An Elaboration on the Study Report for the Assessment of the Impact of Ongoing Reforms in Education and Training on the Adult Learning Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on the findings of the Research voor Beleid (RvB) study for the second phase of the assessment of the "Impact of ongoing reforms in education and training on adult learning sector" (2010), with particular focus on adult participation in education in three EU Member States in south-eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Cyprus and Greece).…

Zarifis, George K.

2012-01-01

208

Optimal Incentives for Public Sector Workers: The Case of Teacher-Designed Incentive Pay in Texas. Working Paper 2009-05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is a popular public education reform, and millions of dollars are currently being targeted for pay for performance programs. These reforms are popular because economic and management theories suggest that well-designed incentive pay programs could improve teacher effectiveness. There is little evidence about the characteristics…

Taylor, Lori L.; Springer, Matthew G.

2009-01-01

209

Job Satisfaction of Primary Health-Care Providers (Public Sector) in Urban Setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Job satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. The core components of information necessary for what satisfies and motivates the health work force in our country are missing at policy level. Therefore present study will help us to know the factors for job satisfaction among primary health care providers in public sector. Materials and Methods: Present study is descriptive in nature conducted in public sector dispensaries/primary urban health centers in Delhi among health care providers. Pretested structured questionnaire was administered to 227 health care providers. Data was analyzed using SPSS and relevant statistical test were applied. Results: Analysis of study reveals that ANMs are more satisfied than MOs, Pharmacist and Lab assistants/Lab technicians; and the difference is significant (P < 0.01). Age and education level of health care providers don’t show any significant difference in job satisfaction. All the health care providers are dissatisfied from the training policies and practices, salaries and opportunities for career growth in the organization. Majority of variables studied for job satisfaction have low scores. Five factor were identified concerned with job satisfaction in factor analysis. Conclusion: Job satisfaction is poor for all the four groups of health care providers in dispensaries/primary urban health centers and it is not possible to assign a single factor as a sole determinant of dissatisfaction in the job. Therefore it is recommended that appropriate changes are required at the policy as well as at the dispensary/PUHC level to keep the health work force motivated under public sector in Delhi. PMID:24479088

Kumar, Pawan; Khan, Abdul Majeed; Inder, Deep; Sharma, Nandini

2013-01-01

210

Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N?=?165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€?=?MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P?=?0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P?=?0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P?public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings provide basis for identifying potential cost-reducing strategies, estimating economic burden of periodontitis management and performing economic evaluation of the specialist periodontal programme. PMID:24884465

2014-01-01

211

Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.  

PubMed

Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy. PMID:25317991

Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

2014-10-15

212

Energizing the Indian Economy: Obstacles to Growth in the Indian Oil and Gas Sector and Strategies fro Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is rapidly becoming one of the largest consumers of energy in the world. At the same time, India continues to be hindered by bureaucratic delays, an archaic tax system, security problems and prohibitive investment regulations that have made expansion and consolidation in the petroleum sector difficult. This Note explores underlying structural problems in India’s investment, tax, and regulatory climate

Krishnan A Devidoss

2007-01-01

213

Curricular Reform and the Changing Social Role of Public Higher Education in Costa Rica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dominant social, economic, and political philosophies manifested in the recent debate over the University of Costa Rica general studies curriculum reforms are discussed. It is concluded that the debate is really about the university's role in an environment that values privatization, individual (contrasted with social) benefits of higher…

Twombly, Susan B.

1997-01-01

214

Eliminating malaria in Malaysia: the role of partnerships between the public and commercial sectors in Sabah  

PubMed Central

Background Countries in the Asia Pacific region have made great progress in the fight against malaria; several are rapidly approaching elimination. However, malaria control programmes operating in elimination settings face substantial challenges, particularly around mobile migrant populations, access to remote areas and the diversity of vectors with varying biting and breeding behaviours. These challenges can be addressed through subnational collaborations with commercial partners, such as mining or plantation companies, that can conduct or support malaria control activities to cover employees. Such partnerships can be a useful tool for accessing high-risk populations and supporting malaria elimination goals. Methods This observational qualitative case study employed semi-structured key informant interviews to describe partnerships between the Malaysian Malaria Control Programme (MCP), and private palm oil, rubber and acacia plantations in the state of Sabah. Semi-structured interview guides were used to examine resource commitments, incentives, challenges, and successes of the collaborations. Results Interviews with workers from private plantations and the state of Sabah MCP indicated that partnerships with the commercial sector had contributed to decreases in incidence at plantation sites since 1991. Several plantations contribute financial and human resources toward malaria control efforts and all plantations frequently communicate with the MCP to help monitor the malaria situation on-site. Management of partnerships between private corporations and government entities can be challenging, as prioritization of malaria control may change with annual profits or arrival of new management. Conclusions Partnering with the commercial sector has been an essential operational strategy to support malaria elimination in Sabah. The successes of these partnerships rely on a common understanding that elimination will be a mutually beneficial outcome for employers and the general public. Best practices included consistent communication, developing government-staffed subsector offices for malaria control on-site, engaging commercial plantations to provide financial and human resources for malaria control activities, and the development of new worker screening programmes. The successes and challenges associated with partnerships between the public and commercial sector can serve as an example for other malaria-eliminating countries with large plantation sectors, and may also be applied to other sectors that employ migrant workers or have commercial enterprises in hard to reach areas. PMID:24443824

2014-01-01

215

Advancing the business creed? The framing of decisions about public sector managed care.  

PubMed

Relatively little research has clarified how executives of for-profit healthcare organisations frame their own motivations and behaviour, or how government officials frame their interactions with executives. Because managed care has provided an organisational structure for health services in many countries, we focused our study on executives and government officials who were administering public sector managed care services. Emphasising theoretically the economic versus non-economic motivations that guide economic behaviour, we extended a long-term research project on public sector Medicaid managed care (MMC) in the United States. Our method involved in-depth, structured interviews with chief executive officers of managed care organisations, as well as high-ranking officials of state government. Data analysis involved iterative interpretation of interview data. We found that the rate of profit, which proved relatively low in the MMC programme, occupied a limited place in executives' self-described motivations and in state officials' descriptions of corporation-government interactions. Non-economic motivations included a strong orientation toward corporate social responsibility and a creed in which market processes advanced human wellbeing. Such patterns contradict some of the given wisdom about how corporate executives and government officials construct their reality. PMID:21707659

Waitzkin, Howard; Yager, Joel; Santos, Richard

2012-01-01

216

Managed Behavioral Health Care: An Instrument to Characterize Critical Elements of Public Sector Programs  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and “unmanaged” care and among managed care arrangements. Study Design The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data Collection Methods Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. Principal Findings This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. Conclusions If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary. PMID:12236386

Ridgely, M Susan; Giard, Julienne; Shern, David; Mulkern, Virginia; Burnam, M Audrey

2002-01-01

217

Pathways and Tensions in the Family of Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper distinguishes two pathways in the various proposals for innovative reforms of public sector agricultural extension. The two "pathways" involve the participatory trends toward democratization and farmer association and, in contrast, the push toward capitalistic commercial attitudes toward agriculture as business. The introduction reviews…

Rivera, William M.

2008-01-01

218

A focus group discussion approach to the comparative analysis of private and public sector enterprises in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

State owned enterprises have in recent years presented an acute set of institutional problems compared with their counterparts in the private sector problems. Most often they have large operating deficits and impose a heavy burden on the public budget. Although experience with public enterprises varies from country to country, in many developing countries, the responsibility for devising and implementing the

May Ifeoma Nwoye

2002-01-01

219

Barriers to Private Sector Public School Collaboration. A Set of Exploratory Papers Commissioned by the National Institute of Education and the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six exploratory papers by different authors from both the corporate sector and the public school systems present several relevant perspectives on business/education collaboration. The first, by Dr. Marsha Levine (who also provides the introduction to the collection), suggests three analytic frameworks for planning and implementing public/private…

American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

220

Challenge 21. Building Tomorrow's Public Service. Report of the Multilevel Public Sector Leadership Symposium (Lake Lanier Islands, Georgia, March 22-23, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes the discussions held at a conference of public sector executives and human resource managers designed to address the problems of attracting and keeping good workers in public service. Presentations made by the governor of Georgia, federal officials, educators, and regional representatives in three plenary sessions…

Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.

221

The Reform of the European Commission: Time for Change in Europe's Public Administration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On March 1, 2000, the European Commission, the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation, adopted a White Paper that sets out a specific Action Plan for reform and modernization of the Commission. These reforms were drawn up in the wake of scandal and the resignation en masse of the Commission one year ago. The Action Plan includes a timetable specifying target dates for each of the changes, which should be completed by the second half of 2002. At the site, users can read the full text of the White Paper in .pdf format, related press releases and speeches, and brief summaries of the proposed changes in five key areas: Ethics, Human Resources, Financial Management, Priorities and Resources, and A Culture based on service. The site will soon be available in eleven languages.

2000-01-01

222

Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states  

PubMed Central

Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work. PMID:21108833

2010-01-01

223

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic level among public-sector workers in Angola  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. African countries are currently facing an increase in both cardiovascular and transmitted diseases. In addition, cardiovascular risk varies among different socioeconomic groups. Thus, we determined the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy public-sector workers and investigated possible relationships with socioeconomic status. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study comprising 42.2% (n = 615) of the public-sector workers at Agostinho Neto University, 48% (n = 294) male and 52% (n= 321) female, with ages between 20 and 72 years and from various socioeconomic groups. The study was conducted from February 2009 to December 2010. Personal, anthropometric, biochemical, hemodynamic, socioeconomic, and physical activity data were collected. Results The prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors were as follows: hypertension, 45.2% (men 46.3%, women 44.2%, P > 0.05); hypercholesterolemia, 11.1% (men 10.5%, women 11.5%, P > 0.05); low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 50.1% (men 36.9%, women 62.3%; P < 0.05); hypertriglyceridemia, 10.6% (men 12.6%, women 8.7%, P > 0.05); smoking, 7.2% (men 10.2%, women 4.4%; P < 0.05); diabetes, 5.7% (men 5.5%, women 5.9%, P > 0.05); overweight, 29.3% (men 27.3%, women 31.2%, P > 0.05); obesity, 19.6% (men 9.2%, women 29.0%; P < 0.05); sedentary lifestyle, 87.2% (men 83.0%, women 91,0%, P < 0.05); and left ventricular hypertrophy, 20% (men 32.0%, women 9.0%; P < 0.05). At least one risk factor was present in 27.7% of the sample; 15.2% had two risk factors, and 31.4% had three or more risk factors. Among the individuals with low socioeconomic status, 41.0% had three or more risk factors. Conclusions The results of this study suggest the existence of a high prevalence of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy public-sector workers in Angola. The workers in lower socioeconomic groups had higher incidences of hypertension, smoking, and left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:23924306

2013-01-01

224

Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ? R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year, a total of 5369 registered nurses could have been employed in lieu of nursing agency expenditure. Conclusions The study findings should inform workforce planning in South Africa. There is a need for uniform policies and improved management of commercial nursing agencies in the public health sector. PMID:25537936

Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

2014-01-01

225

Monitoring foods and beverages provided and sold in public sector settings.  

PubMed

This paper outlines a step-wise framework for monitoring foods and beverages provided or sold in publicly funded institutions. The focus is on foods in schools, but the framework can also be applied to foods provided or sold in other publicly funded institutions. Data collection and evaluation within this monitoring framework will consist of two components. In component I, information on existing food or nutrition policies and/or programmes within settings would be compiled. Currently, nutrition standards and voluntary guidelines associated with such policies/programmes vary widely globally. This paper, which provides a comprehensive review of such standards and guidelines, will facilitate institutional learnings for those jurisdictions that have not yet established them or are undergoing review of existing ones. In component II, the quality of foods provided or sold in public sector settings is evaluated relative to existing national or sub-national nutrition standards or voluntary guidelines. Where there are no (or only poor) standards or guidelines available, the nutritional quality of foods can be evaluated relative to standards of a similar jurisdiction or other appropriate standards. Measurement indicators are proposed (within 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches) that can be used to monitor progress over time in meeting policy objectives, and facilitate comparisons between countries. PMID:24074214

L'Abbé, M; Schermel, A; Minaker, L; Kelly, B; Lee, A; Vandevijvere, S; Twohig, P; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Walker, C

2013-10-01

226

Estimating the burden of head and neck cancers in the public health sector of Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study was designed to establish the burden of head and neck cancers (HNCA) in public sector based cancer centres of Pakistan. Data were obtained from the central body governing all the cancer centres in the country. The frequency of treated HNCAs out of the total body cancers treated across Pakistan was found to be 14.5%. Highest prevalence rates amongst all cancers were noted in Sind, notably in Karachi and Jamshoro, followed by Multan in Punjab and a much lower frequency in Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province. This variation presumably reflects levels of betel quid consumption but more data are needed to be gathered in a comprehensive way if the findings are to be applicable for improvement of the national cancer control program. PMID:18990033

Chaudhry, Saima; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Mirza, Kamran Masood; Iqbal, Hafiz Aamer; Masood, Yasmeen; Khan, Nauman Rauf; Izhar, Faisal

2008-01-01

227

Leadership in Surgery for Public Sector Hospitals in Jamaica: Strategies for the Operating Room  

PubMed Central

The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

2013-01-01

228

Vertical and Horizontal Trust at Work as Predictors of Retirement Intentions: The Finnish Public Sector Study  

PubMed Central

This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations of trust towards the supervisor (vertical trust) and trust towards co-workers (horizontal trust) with retirement intentions. The participants were 14 840 women and men working in the municipal sector in 2000–12 (Finnish Public Sector Study). Trust (vertical trust towards the supervisor and horizontal trust towards co-workers) and retirement intentions were assessed in repeated surveys. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between baseline trust and retirement intentions at 3.7 years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, health, psychological distress, health risk behaviors, personality factors, and psychosocial factors were included as covariates. Of the participants, 67.0% trusted their supervisor and 54.9% trusted their co-workers. Employees who trusted their supervisor (odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.67) and employees who trusted their co-workers (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.70) at baseline were less likely to have strong retirement intentions at follow-up compared to those who did not trust. These associations largely persisted after adjusting for all covariates and taking into account baseline retirement intentions. In conclusion, trust in the supervisor and co-workers predicted retirement intentions. These observational findings suggest that increasing trust in the workplace may contribute to lengthening working careers and preventing early retirement. PMID:25191745

Muurinen, Charlotte; Laine, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula

2014-01-01

229

We live here : tenants and the Massachusetts Public Housing Reform debate  

E-print Network

The embezzlement and corruption scandal surrounding the director of a local Massachusetts housing authority in late 2011 spurred a heated public debate about governance and efficiency in the state-funded public housing ...

Sappelt, Ruth

2014-01-01

230

Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225. PMID:25061250

Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

2014-01-01

231

Activities of the NASA sponsored SRI technology applications team in transferring aerospace technology to the public sector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization and functions of an interdisciplinary team for the application of aerospace generated technology to the solution of discrete technological problems within the public sector are presented. The interdisciplinary group formed at Stanford Research Institute, California is discussed. The functions of the group are to develop and conduct a program not only optimizing the match between public sector technological problems in criminalistics, transportation, and the postal services and potential solutions found in the aerospace data base, but ensuring that appropriate solutions are acutally utilized. The work accomplished during the period from July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971 is reported.

Berke, J. G.

1971-01-01

232

Environmental impacts of building integrated PV applications in the state public buildings sector  

SciTech Connect

If the US is to meet its commitments for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emission reductions, as anticipated by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change and the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990, it almost certainly must implement policies to increase the use of renewable energy. This paper evaluates the potential of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to deliver high-value electrical services while offsetting SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Their study focuses on PV applications in the public buildings sector because of its potential for speeding the commercialization of the technology in a market conducive to long-term return on investment. The study investigates the economic and environmental implications of PV meeting 2% of the energy demand of public buildings. The specific application investigated is a roof-mounted dispatchable peak-shaving system with uninterruptible power supply (UPS) capability. Several previous studies have shown that such a system is cost-effective on the basis of the energy services it provides. The present analysis indicates that this application can play an important role in helping the US meet its CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions targets.

Byrne, J.; Agbemabiese, L.; Kliesch, J.; Eiffert, P.; Hadjilambrinos, C.; Nigro, R.

1999-07-01

233

An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Methods Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. Results The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher program with other services is likely to address some of the barriers. The public sector facilities were also seen as being well positioned to provide voucher services because of their countrywide reach, enhanced infrastructure, and referral networks. The voucher program also has the potential to address public sector constraints such as understaffing and supply shortages. Conclusions Accrediting public facilities has the potential to increase voucher program coverage by reaching a wider pool of poor mothers, shortening distance to service, strengthening linkages between public and private sectors through public-private partnerships and referral systems as well as ensuring the awareness and buy-in of policy makers, which is crucial for mobilization of resources to support the sustainability of the programs. Specifically, identifying policy champions and consulting with key policy sectors is key to the successful inclusion of the public sector into the voucher program. PMID:24139603

2013-01-01

234

Restrictions on Undocumented Immigrants’ Access to Health Services: The Public Health Implications of Welfare Reform  

PubMed Central

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 greatly restricts the provision of many federal, state, and local public services to undocumented immigrants. These restrictions have prompted intense debates about the provision of free and discounted primary and preventive health careservices and have placed significant burdens on institutions that serve large undocumented immigrant populations. Intended to serve as a tool for reducing illegal immigration and protecting public resources, federal restrictions on undocumented immigrants’ access to publicly financed health services unduly burden health care providers and threaten the public’s health. These deleterious effects warrant the public health community’s support of strategies designed to sustain provision of health services irrespective of immigration status. PMID:14534212

Kullgren, Jeffrey T.

2003-01-01

235

Campaign Seeks Buy-In for High School Reforms: "Stand Up" Aims to Rouse Public Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kicked off the week of April 10, 2006 with a big plug on "The Oprah Winfrey Show," a new campaign spearheaded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is aiming to drum up public action to address what its organizers see as a crisis in America's public high schools. The Stand Up campaign comes as high schools have emerged as a focus of public-policy…

Robelen, Erik W.

2006-01-01

236

Reforms: a quest for efficiency or an opportunity for vested interests’? a case study of pharmaceutical policy reforms in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Regulation of the pharmaceutical sector is a challenging task for most governments in the developing countries. In Tanzania, this task falls under the Food and Drugs Authority and the Pharmacy Council. In 2010, the Pharmacy Council spearheaded policy reforms in the pharmaceutical sector aimed at taking over the control of the regulation of the business of pharmacy from the Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority. This study provides a critical analysis of these reforms. Methods The study employed a qualitative case-study design. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and document reviews. Data was analyzed thematically using a policy triangle framework. The analysis was done manually. Results The reforms adopted an incremental model of public policy-making and the process was characterized by lobbying for political support, negotiations and bargaining between the interest groups. These negotiations were largely centred on vested interests and not on the impact of the reforms on the efficiency of pharmaceutical regulations in the country. Stakeholders from the micro and meso levels were minimally involved in the policy reforms. Conclusion Recent pharmaceutical regulation reforms in Tanzania were overshadowed by vested interests, displacing a critical analysis of optimal policy options that have the potential to increase efficiency in the regulation of the business of pharmacy. Politics influenced decision-making at different levels of the reform process. PMID:23849334

2013-01-01

237

Between Public and Private: Politics, Governance, and the New Portfolio Models for Urban School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Between Public and Private" examines an innovative approach to school district management that has been adopted by a number of urban districts in recent years: a portfolio management model, in which "a central office oversees a portfolio of schools offering diverse organizational and curricular themes, including traditional public schools,…

Bulkley, Katrina E., Ed.; Henig, Jeffrey R., Ed.; Levin, Henry M., Ed.

2010-01-01

238

Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water sector is dependent on effective institutions and organisations, and, therefore, on strong competences at the individual level. In this paper we describe competence formation and competence needs in a case study of the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR) in the Ministry of Public Works in Indonesia. A framework is introduced for the water sector comprising three aggregate competences for technical issues, management, and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both surveys and interviews reveal a strong perceived requirement for other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. Further, a discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that can be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With low competence in these fields, it is difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in a multidisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this is partially compensated by the attention to continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is experienced as fundamentally formative.

Kaspersma, J. M.; Alaerts, G. J.; Slinger, J. H.

2012-07-01

239

Public-sector Maternal Health Programmes and Services for Rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Achieving Millennium Development Goal 5 in Bangladesh calls for an appreciation of the evolution of maternal healthcare within the national health system to date plus a projection of future needs. This paper assesses the development of maternal health services and policies by reviewing policy and strategy documents since the independence in 1971, with primary focus on rural areas where three-fourths of the total population of Bangladesh reside. Projections of need for facilities and human resources are based on the recommended standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1996 and 2005. Although maternal healthcare services are delivered from for-profit and not-for-profit (NGO) subsectors, this paper is focused on maternal healthcare delivery by public subsector. Maternal healthcare services in the public sector of Bangladesh have been guided by global policies (e.g. Health for All by the Year 2000), national policies (e.g. population and health policy), and plans (e.g. five- or three-yearly). The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), through its two wings—Health Services and Family Planning—sets policies, develops implementation plans, and provides rural public-health services. Since 1971, the health infrastructure has developed though not in a uniform pattern and despite policy shifts over time. Under the Family Planning wing of the MoHFW, the number of Maternal and Child Welfare Centres has not increased but new services, such as caesarean-section surgery, have been integrated. The Health Services wing of the MoHFW has ensured that all district-level public-health facilities, e.g. district hospitals and medical colleges, can provide comprehensive essential obstetric care (EOC) and have targeted to upgrade 132 of 407 rural Upazila Health Complexes to also provide such services. In 2001, they initiated a programme to train the Government's community workers (Family Welfare Assistants and Female Health Assistants) to provide skilled birthing care in the home. However, these plans have been too meagre, and their implementation is too weak to fulfill expectations in terms of the MDG 5 indicator—increased use of skilled birth attendants, especially for poor rural women. The use of skilled birth attendants, institutional deliveries, and use of caesarean section remain low and are increasing only slowly. All these indicators are substantially lower for those in the lower three socioeconomic quintiles. A wide variation exists in the availability of comprehensive EOC facilities in the public sector among the six divisions of the country. Rajshahi division has more facilities than the WHO 1996 standard (1 comprehensive EOC for 500,000 people) whereas Chittagong and Sylhet divisions have only 64% of their need for comprehensive EOC facilities. The WHO 2005 recommendation (1 comprehensive EOC for 3,500 births) suggests that there is a need for nearly five times the existing national number of comprehensive EOC facilities. Based on the WHO standard 2005, it is estimated that 9% of existing doctors and 40% of nurses/midwives were needed just for maternal healthcare in both comprehensive EOC and basic EOC facilities in 2007. While the inability to train and retain skilled professionals in rural areas is the major problem in implementation, the bifurcation of the MoHFW (Health Services and Family Planning wings) has led to duplication in management and staff for service-delivery, inefficiencies as a result of these duplications, and difficulties of coordination at all levels. The Government of Bangladesh needs to functionally integrate the Health Services and Family Planning wings, move towards a facility-based approach to delivery, ensure access to key maternal health services for women in the lower socioeconomic quintiles, consider infrastructure development based on the estimation of facilities using the WHO 1996 recommendation, and undertake a human resource-development plan based on the WHO 2005 recommendation. PMID:19489411

Anwar, Iqbal; Koblinsky, Marge

2009-01-01

240

Microeconomic Reform and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 260-page document from the Australian Productivity Commission details the proceedings of the Microeconomic Reform and the Environment, which took place on September 8, 2000 in Melbourne, Australia. The main body of the report is broken into four main sections, each dealing with a different sector of the environment: the water sector, the electricity sector, the transport sector, and the forest sector. Each section includes a short introduction to the main issues of each sector and the related workshop presentation summary. In some cases, discussions are also given. A short summary and epilogue wrap up Microeconomic Reform and the Environment.

241

District of Columbia Public Schools: While Early Reform Efforts Tackle Critical Management Issues, a District-Wide Strategic Education Plan Would Help Guide Long-Term Efforts. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. GAO-08-549T  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to long-standing problems with student academic performance, the condition of school facilities, and the overall management of the D.C. public school system, the D.C. Council approved the Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007 (Reform Act). The Reform Act made major changes to the operations and governance of the D.C. public

Ashby, Cornelia M.

2008-01-01

242

Developing a decision aid to guide public sector health policy decisions: A study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Decision aids have been developed in a number of health disciplines to support evidence-informed decision making, including patient decision aids and clinical practice guidelines. However, policy contexts differ from clinical contexts in terms of complexity and uncertainty, requiring different approaches for identifying, interpreting, and applying many different types of evidence to support decisions. With few studies in the literature offering decision guidance specifically to health policymakers, the present study aims to facilitate the structured and systematic incorporation of research evidence and, where there is currently very little guidance, values and other non-research-based evidence, into the policy making process. The resulting decision aid is intended to help public sector health policy decision makers who are tasked with making evidence-informed decisions on behalf of populations. The intent is not to develop a decision aid that will yield uniform recommendations across jurisdictions, but rather to facilitate more transparent policy decisions that reflect a balanced consideration of all relevant factors. Methods/design The study comprises three phases: a modified meta-narrative review, the use of focus groups, and the application of a Delphi method. The modified meta-narrative review will inform the initial development of the decision aid by identifying as many policy decision factors as possible and other features of methodological guidance deemed to be desirable in the literatures of all relevant disciplines. The first of two focus groups will then seek to marry these findings with focus group members' own experience and expertise in public sector population-based health policy making and screening decisions. The second focus group will examine issues surrounding the application of the decision aid and act as a sounding board for initial feedback and refinement of the draft decision aid. Finally, the Delphi method will be used to further inform and refine the decision aid with a larger audience of potential end-users. Discussion The product of this research will be a working version of a decision aid to support policy makers in population-based health policy decisions. The decision aid will address the need for more structured and systematic ways of incorporating various evidentiary sources where applicable. PMID:21569255

2011-01-01

243

Organic development: a top-down and bottom-up approach to design of public sector information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we lay out interim findings and speculate on the implications for practice and theory of integrated criminal justice systems in law enforcement. In doing this we theorize on public sector information systems and their uses of information and communication technologies as engaging in what we call \\

Michael Tyworth; Steve Sawyer

2006-01-01

244

Squaring Their Roots: Leadership Perceptions and Practices of Some U.S.-Trained African Professionals in the Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the public sector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development and…

Dant, William Patrick

2010-01-01

245

Rereporting of Child Maltreatment: Does Participation in Other Public Sector Services Moderate the Likelihood of a Second Maltreatment Report?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study uses administrative data to track the first rereports of maltreatment in a low-income, urban child welfare population (n = 4957) while controlling for other public service involvement. Service system involvement is explored across the following sectors: Child Welfare, Income Maintenance, Special Education, Juvenile Court, and…

Drake, Brett; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Sapokaite, Lina

2006-01-01

246

Geropsychology Post-Doctoral Training in Public Sector Service Delivery: The USF/Tampa VA Fellowship Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing need for geropsychologists who are specialists in practice, research, education, and advocacy for older adults. The combined USF/Tampa VA geropsychology fellowship program focuses on the training of three post-doctoral Fellows each year in public sector service delivery across diverse long term care (LTC) and primary care…

Molinari, Victor; Chiriboga, David A.; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Haley, William E.; Schinka, John A.; Hyer, Kathy; Dupree, Larry W.

2005-01-01

247

Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals. NBER Working Paper No. 17803  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much has been written about the importance of leadership in the determination of organizational success, there is little quantitative evidence due to the difficulty of separating the impact of leaders from other organizational components--particularly in the public sector. Schools provide an especially rich environment for studying the…

Branch, Gregory F.; Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

2012-01-01

248

Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns

Diane E. Hoffmann

2003-01-01

249

Why Does Unemployment Hurt the Employed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and the Private Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High unemployment rates entail substantial costs to the working population in terms of reduced subjective well-being. This paper studies the importance of individual economic security, in particular job security, by exploiting sector-specific institutional differences in the exposure to economic shocks. Public servants have stricter dismissal…

Luechinger, Simon; Meier, Stephan; Stutzer, Alois

2010-01-01

250

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCIPAL–AGENT, CONTRACTING AND ACCOUNTABILITY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: CONCEPTUAL AND CULTURAL PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to raise questions about the development of the principal-agent, contracting and accountability relationships in the UK Public Sector at the present time. We argue that the underlying philosophy of the Financial Management Initiative (FMI) in which the changes are rooted, and the development of this, through what has been Next Steps, draw increasingly heavily

Jane Broadbent; Michael Dietrich; Richard Laughlin

1996-01-01

251

The state and health care reform: the National Health Insurance and Public Health Act of 1949  

E-print Network

forces affecting policy enactment can also prevent certain policies from being enacted. This study evaluates the capacity of these three theories to explain why the National Health Insurance and Public Health Act of 1949 was not enacted. This research...

Schemmer, Ruth Ann, 1960

2012-06-07

252

Reform of the EIA process in Indonesia: improving the role of public involvement  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a planning tool has been utilised for a relatively long time in Indonesia. It was introduced formally through the Act No. 4/1982. Supporting regulation was established in 1986 when Government Regulation No. 29 was enacted. After developing the EIA system for 14 years, Indonesia finally recognized the importance of emphasizing public involvement in the EIA guidelines of 2000. EIA in the previous Indonesian regulations, i.e. Regulation No. 29/1986 and No. 51/1993, did not have provisions for direct public involvement. The Indonesian Government Regulation No. 27/1999 is currently accommodating the above issue. Guidelines for public announcement and public involvement have been introduced in a decree issued by the Head of Indonesia's Environmental Impact Management Agency No. KepDal 08/2000. This was officially enacted on 7 November 2000 in response to the demand for more public involvement, an issue that was ambiguous in the previous legislation. This paper discusses: the implementation of the new guidelines; what has been achieved; and the challenges during implementation. While the paper focuses its review on the Indonesian EIA system, Indonesia's experience is relevant to many other developing countries that are starting to adopt public involvement in their decision-making processes.

Purnama, Dadang

2003-07-01

253

Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector  

PubMed Central

During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

2008-01-01

254

The Crisis of the Publics: An International Comparative Discussion on Higher Education Reforms and Possible Implications for US Public Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To frame the larger research agenda requires an intimate blending of knowledge of the situations of foreign research universities and those of public research universities in the United States. The first step was to bring together for a two-day symposium a group of scholars and practitioners, some with deep and varied knowledge of United States…

King, Judson C., Ed.; Douglass, John Aubrey, Ed.; Feller, Irwin, Ed.

2007-01-01

255

Hexavalent IPV-based combination vaccines for public-sector markets of low-resource countries  

PubMed Central

In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vaccines containing IPV could provide reliable and continuous immunization in the post-polio eradication period. Combination vaccines can potentially simplify complex pediatric routine immunization schedules, improve compliance, and reduce costs. Hexavalent vaccines containing Diphtheria (D), Tetanus (T), whole cell pertussis (wP), Hepatitis B (HBV), Haemophilus b (Hib) and the three IPV serotype antigens have been considered as the ultimate combination vaccine for routine immunization. This product review evaluates potential hexavalent vaccine candidates by composition, probable time to market, expected cost of goods, presentation, and technical feasibility and offers suggestions for development of low-cost hexavalent combination vaccines. Because there are significant technical challenges facing wP-based hexavalent vaccine development, this review also discusses other alternative approaches to hexavalent that could also ensure a timely and reliable supply of low-cost IPV based combination vaccines. PMID:23787559

Mahmood, Kutub; Pelkowski, Sonia; Atherly, Deborah; Sitrin, Robert; Donnelly, John J

2013-01-01

256

Absorptive Capacity as a Guiding Concept for Effective Public Sector Management and Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it, assimilate it, transform, and exploit it, namely its absorptive capacity (AC), has been much researched in the context of commercial organisations and even applied to national innovation. This paper considers four key AC-related concepts and their relevance to public sector organisations with mandates to manage and conserve freshwater ecosystems for the common good. The concepts are the importance of in-house prior related knowledge, the importance of informal knowledge transfer, the need for motivation and intensity of effort, and the importance of gatekeepers. These concepts are used to synthesise guidance for a way forward in respect of such freshwater management and conservation, using the imminent release of a specific scientific conservation planning and management tool in South Africa as a case study. The tool comprises a comprehensive series of maps that depict national freshwater ecosystem priority areas for South Africa. Insights for implementing agencies relate to maintaining an internal science, rather than research capacity; making unpublished and especially tacit knowledge available through informal knowledge transfer; not underestimating the importance of intensity of effort required to create AC, driven by focussed motivation; and the potential use of a gatekeeper at national level (external to the implementing organisations), possibly playing a more general `bridging' role, and multiple internal (organisational) gatekeepers playing the more limited role of `knowledge translators'. The role of AC as a unifying framework is also proposed.

Murray, K.; Roux, D. J.; Nel, J. L.; Driver, A.; Freimund, W.

2011-05-01

257

Absorptive capacity as a guiding concept for effective public sector management and conservation of freshwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

The ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it, assimilate it, transform, and exploit it, namely its absorptive capacity (AC), has been much researched in the context of commercial organisations and even applied to national innovation. This paper considers four key AC-related concepts and their relevance to public sector organisations with mandates to manage and conserve freshwater ecosystems for the common good. The concepts are the importance of in-house prior related knowledge, the importance of informal knowledge transfer, the need for motivation and intensity of effort, and the importance of gatekeepers. These concepts are used to synthesise guidance for a way forward in respect of such freshwater management and conservation, using the imminent release of a specific scientific conservation planning and management tool in South Africa as a case study. The tool comprises a comprehensive series of maps that depict national freshwater ecosystem priority areas for South Africa. Insights for implementing agencies relate to maintaining an internal science, rather than research capacity; making unpublished and especially tacit knowledge available through informal knowledge transfer; not underestimating the importance of intensity of effort required to create AC, driven by focussed motivation; and the potential use of a gatekeeper at national level (external to the implementing organisations), possibly playing a more general 'bridging' role, and multiple internal (organisational) gatekeepers playing the more limited role of 'knowledge translators'. The role of AC as a unifying framework is also proposed. PMID:21431779

Murray, K; Roux, D J; Nel, J L; Driver, A; Freimund, W

2011-05-01

258

Thinking about Tax Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

Boskin, Michael J.

1985-01-01

259

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Australian context of a shortage of skilled professionals, this article uses the Harvard model of human resources management (HRM) to conceptualise how changes in stakeholder interests coupled with changes to situational factors affect public sector HRM policy choices that in turn affect HRM outcomes for different types of public sector employees. The findings obtained using path analysis suggest

Yvonne Brunetto; Rodney Farr-Wharton; Kate Shacklock

2011-01-01

260

Adapting private pensions to public purposes: historical perspectives on the politics of reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares how extensions of pension rights were developed and implemented in major European economies in the decades following the Second World War. Governments in Sweden, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain adapted earnings-related systems as a common policy agenda to meet rising public demand for more generous pension provision. However, this generated divergent policy pathways as a common

Noel Whiteside

2006-01-01

261

The Rationalizing Logics of Public School Reform: How Cultural Institutions Matter for Classroom Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research herein uses a mixed methods approach to examine how organizational phenomena at the macro level of analysis translate into phenomena at the micro level. Specifically, the research attempts to explain how cultural institutions may translate into individual attitudes and actions, such as public school teachers' decisions about using…

Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.

2013-01-01

262

Victorian parsimony and the early champions of modern public sector audit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most Westminster governments the essential characteristics of central government audit can be traced to the British Exchequer and Audit Act 1866. The Act was the pinnacle of government finance and accountability reforms implemented in the middle decades of the nineteenth century which were motivated by the need both to control and reduce government spending. The well-recognised Victorian affection for

Warwick Funnell

2004-01-01

263

The role of the public sector in the provision of housing supply in Turkey, 1950–2009.  

PubMed

This study examines the changing role of the public sector in Turkey with regard to housing provision since 1950, and particularly since 2000, and seeks to clarify how public intervention has affected housing provision and urban development dynamics in major cities. Three periods may be identified, with central government acting as a regulator in a first period characterized by a ‘housing boom’. During the second period, from 1980 to 2000, a new mass housing law spurred construction activity, although the main beneficiaries of the housing fund tended to be the middle classes. After 2000, contrary to emerging trends in both Northern and Southern European countries, the public sector in Turkey became actively involved in housing provision. During this process, new housing estates were created on greenfield sites on the outskirts of cities, instead of efforts being made to rehabilitate, restore or renew existing housing stock in the cities. Meanwhile, the concept of ‘urban regeneration’ has been opportunistically incorporated into the planning agenda of the public sector, and — under the pretext of regenerating squatter housing areas — existing residents have been moved out, while channels for community participation have been bypassed. PMID:22175087

Özdemir, Dilek

2011-01-01

264

Curriculum Reform in a Public Health Course at a Chiropractic College  

PubMed Central

Improving education in health promotion and prevention has been identified as a priority for all accredited professional health care training programs, an issue recently addressed by a collaboration of stakeholders in chiropractic education who developed a model course outline for public health education. Using a course evaluation questionnaire, the authors surveyed students in the public health course at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) before and after the implementation of new course content based on the model course outline. Following the new course, there were significant improvements in perceived relevance to chiropractic practice and motivation to learn the material as a foundation for clinical practice. Changes made to the content and delivery of the course based on the model course outline were well received in the short term. PMID:18483637

Borody, Cameron; Till, Hettie

2007-01-01

265

Public School Reform, Expectations, and Capitalization: What Signals Quality to Homebuyers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers new evidence on how housing markets capitalize school quality information. We use school assessment measures and house transaction data from a single school district that is coterminous with a unified city-county local government to examine the effects of two school assignment policy changes. The unusual school district-city-county government structure minimizes property tax rate and public service variation

Velma Zahirovic-Herbert; Geoffrey K. Turnbull

2009-01-01

266

Fulfilling the Compact: Building a Breakthrough, Results-Driven Public Charter School Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the Task Force on Charter School Quality and Accountability issued "Renewing the Compact," a position statement for the charter school sector that presented recommendations for achieving the goals of growth and quality. This report evaluates the sector's progress on those goals and recommends bold actions to capitalize on its successes…

Ableidinger, Joe; Steiner, Lucy; Spong, Angie; Hassel, Bryan C.

2012-01-01

267

The modernization of American public law: health care reform and popular constitutionalism.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) transformed U.S. public law in crucial ways extending far beyond health care. As important as were the doctrinal shifts wrought by National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the ACA's structural changes to public law likely will prove far more important should they become entrenched. The struggle over the ACA has triggered the kind of "constitutional moment" that has largely replaced Article V's formal amendment procedure since the Prohibition fiasco. The Court participates in this process, but the definitive and enduring character of these constitutional moments' outcomes springs from broad popular engagement. Despite the Court's ruling and the outcome of the 2012 elections, the battle over whether to implement or shelve the ACA will continue unabated, both federally and in the states, until We the People render a clear decision. Whether the ACA survives or fails will determine the basic principles that guide the development of federalism, social insurance, tax policy, and privatization for decades to come. In each of these areas, the New Deal bequeathed us a delicate accommodation between traditionalist social values and modernizing norms of economic efficiency and interest group liberalism. This balance has come under increasing stress, with individual laws rejecting tradition far more emphatically than the New Deal did. But absent broad popular engagement, no definitive new principles could be established. The ACA's entrenchment would elevate technocratic norms across public law, the first change of our fundamental law since the civil rights revolution. The ACA's failure would rejuvenate individualistic, moralistic, pre-New Deal norms and allow opponents to attempt a counterrevolution against technocracy. PMID:24834539

Super, David A

2014-04-01

268

Navigating Public-Private Partnerships: Introducing the Continuum of Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many urban districts, the public education landscape is being transformed as private-sector providers such as educational management organizations, charter management organizations, and partner support organizations partner with or run district schools. While some private-sector providers' visions for school reform have remained static…

DiMartino, Catherine

2014-01-01

269

How to promote joint participation of the public and private sectors in the organisation of animal health programmes.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that the first recorded outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in South America occurred around 1870. The disease emerged almost simultaneously in the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), in the central region of Chile, in Uruguay and in southern Brazil, due to the introduction of livestock from Europe. Argentina set up an agency for the control and eradication of FMD in 1961, Brazil began disease-control activities in Rio Grande do Sul in 1965, Paraguay and Uruguay initiated similar programmes in 1967, Chile in 1970 and Colombia in 1972. A common characteristic was observed in all early national FMD programmes, namely, they were developed, financed, operated and evaluated by the public sector, without major participation from the private sector, except when buying vaccines and abiding by the regulations. In 1987, the Hemispheric Foot and Mouth Disease Eradication Plan (PHEFA: Plan Hemisférico para la Erradicación de la Fiebre Aftosa) was launched and the private sector played a prominent role in achieving the eradication and control of FMD in several countries. However, this model of co-participation between the public and private sectors has suffered setbacks and a new approach is being developed to find ways in which local structures and activities can be self-sustaining. PMID:15884587

Melo, E Correa; Saraiva, V

2003-08-01

270

Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important part of the effort to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. STI clinics in the government hospitals in India provide services predominantly to the poor. Data on the cost and efficiency of providing STI services in India are not available to help guide efficient use of public resources for these services. Methods Standardised methods were used to obtain detailed cost and output data for the 2003–2004 fiscal year from written records and interviews in 14 government STI clinics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The economic cost per patient receiving STI treatment was calculated, and the variations of total and unit costs across the STI clinics analysed. Multivariate regression technique was used to estimate incremental unit costs. The optimal number of STIs that could be handled by the clinics was estimated. Results 18807 STIs were diagnosed and treated at the 14 STI clinics in fiscal year 2003–2004 (range 323–2784, median 1199). The economic cost of treating each STI varied 5-fold from Indian Rupees (INR) 225.5 (US$ 4.91) to INR 1201.5 (US$ 26.15) between 13 clinics, with one other clinic having a very high cost of INR 2478.5 (US$ 53.94). The average cost per STI treated for all 14 clinics combined was INR 729.5 (US$ 15.88). Personnel salaries made up 76.2% of the total cost. The number of STIs treated per doctor full-time equivalent and cost-efficiency for each STI treated had a significant direct non-linear relation (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.81; power function). With a multiple regression model, apart from the fixed costs, the incremental cost for each STI detected and cost of treatment was INR 55.57 (US$ 1.21) and for each follow-up visit was INR 3.75 (US$ 0.08). Based on estimates of optimal STI cases that could be handled without compromising quality by each doctor full-time equivalent available, it was projected that at 8 of the 14 clinics substantially more STI cases could be handled, which could increase the total STI cases treated at the 14 clinics combined by 38% at an additional cost of only 3.5% for service provision. Conclusion There is un-utilised capacity in the public sector STI clinics in this Indian state. Efforts to facilitate utilisation of this capacity would be useful, as this would enable more poor patients with STIs to be served at minimal additional cost, and would also reduce the cost per STI treated leading to more efficient use of public resources. PMID:16271151

Dandona, Lalit; Sisodia, Pratap; Prasad, TLN; Marseille, Elliot; Chalapathi Rao, M; Kumar, A Anod; Kumar, SG Prem; Ramesh, YK; Over, Mead; Someshwar, M; Kahn, James G

2005-01-01

271

Are primary care practitioners in Barbados following diabetes guidelines? - a chart audit with comparison between public and private care sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Over 19% of the population ? 40 years of age in Barbados are diabetic. The quality of diabetes primary care is uncertain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  Charts of diabetic and hypertensive patients were randomly sampled at all public and 20 private sector primary care clinics.\\u000a Charts of all diabetic patients ? 40 years of age were then selected. Processes of care, and quality targets

O Peter Adams; Anne O Carter

2011-01-01

272

Does public sector efficiency matter? Revisiting the relation between fiscal size and economic growth in a world sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits the relationship between fiscal size and economic growth. Our work differs from the empirical growth literature because this relationship depends explicitly on the efficiency of the public sector. We use a sample of 64 countries, both developed and developing, in four 5-year time-periods over 1980-2000. Building on the work of Afonso, Schuknecht and Tanzi (2005), we construct

Konstantinos Angelopoulos; Apostolis Philippopoulos; Efthymios Tsionas

2007-01-01

273

A Philadelphia Story: Building Civic Capacity for School Reform in a Privatizing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was undertaken to assess the state of civic capacity for education reform in Philadelphia. It challenges community and civic sectors of the city to put aside individual interests and work together to mobilize resources to pursue the collective good of public school improvement. The report demonstrates that many of the elements…

Gold, Eva; Simon, Elaine; Cucchiara, Maia; Mitchell, Cecily; Riffer, Morgan

2007-01-01

274

School Reform in a Vacuum: Demographic Change, Social Policy, and the Future of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their search for magic bullets to fix failing schools, policymakers seldom directly address powerful ecological factors impacting schooling. This article identifies several major demographic, societal, economic, and educational changes and trends in U.S. society over the past several years; analyzes their impact on schoolchildren; and offers a series of policy recommendations for public sector reform initiatives that show promise

Lance D. Fusarelli

2011-01-01

275

Rewards and Reform: Creating Educational Incentives That Work. Jossey-Bass Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers a variety of incentive approaches to school reform, through the perspectives of noted experts in education policy, practice, and research, as well as respected thinkers from the public and private sectors. The intended audience includes policymakers at the national, state, and district levels; teacher educators and other education…

Fuhrman, Susan H., Ed.; O'Day, Jennifer A., Ed.

276

University Governance Reforms: Potential Problems of More Autonomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University governance reforms are very much a reflection of the broader New Public Management reforms that are focusing on increasing efficiency in public organizations. The article deals with how university reform ideas of a generic nature, emphasizing that universities should be treated and reformed like any other public organizations, are…

Christensen, Tom

2011-01-01

277

The introduction of Greek Central Health Fund: Has the reform met its goal in the sector of Primary Health Care or is there a new model needed?  

PubMed

BackgroundThe National Organization for Healthcare Provision (EOPYY) originates from the recent reform in Greek healthcare, aiming amidst economic predicament, at the rationalization of health expenditure and reactivation of the pivotal role of Primary Health Care (PHC). Health funding (public/private) mix is examined, alongside the role of pre-existing health insurance funds. The main pursuit of this paper is to evaluate whether EOPYY has met its goals.MethodsThe article surveys for best practices in advanced health systems and similar sickness funds. The main benchmarks focus on PHC provision and providers¿ reimbursement. It then turns to an analysis of EOPYY, focusing on specific questions and searching the relevant databases. It compares the best practice examples to the EOPYY (alongside further developments set by new legislation in L 4238/14), revealing weaknesses relevant to non-integrated PHC network, unbalanced manpower, non-gatekeeping, under-financing and other funding problems caused by the current crisis. Finally, a new model of medical procedures cost accounting was tested in health centers.ResultsAn alternative operation of EOPYY functioning primarily as an insurer whereas its proprietary units are integrated with these of the NHS is proposed. The paper claims it is critical to revise the current induced demand favorable reimbursement system, via per capita payments for physicians combined with extra pay-for-performance payments, while cost accounting corroborates a prospective system for NHS¿s and EOPYY¿s units, under a combination of global budgets and Ambulatory Patient Groups (APGs)ConclusionsSelf-critical points on the limitations of results due to lack of adequate data (not) given by EOPYY are initially raised. Then the issue concerning the debate between `copying¿ benchmarks and `a la cart¿ selectively adopting and adapting best practices from wider experience is discussed, with preference to the latter. The idea of an `a la cart¿ choice of international examples is proposed. The `results¿ discussing EOPYY¿s dual function and induced-demand favorable reimbursement system are further critically examined. International experience shows evidence of effective alternatives, such as per capita and pay-for-performance payments for practicing doctors as well as per case reimbursement for health centers under global budget principles. PMID:25421631

Polyzos, Nikos; Karakolias, Stefanos; Dikeos, Costas; Theodorou, Mamas; Kastanioti, Catherine; Mama, Kalomira; Polizoidis, Periklis; Skamnakis, Christoforos; Tsairidis, Charalampos; Thireos, Eleutherios

2014-11-25

278

Estimating the Number of Paediatric Fevers Associated with Malaria Infection Presenting to Africa's Public Health Sector in 2007  

PubMed Central

Background As international efforts to increase the coverage of artemisinin-based combination therapy in public health sectors gather pace, concerns have been raised regarding their continued indiscriminate presumptive use for treating all childhood fevers. The availability of rapid-diagnostic tests to support practical and reliable parasitological diagnosis provides an opportunity to improve the rational treatment of febrile children across Africa. However, the cost effectiveness of diagnosis-based treatment polices will depend on the presumed numbers of fevers harbouring infection. Here we compute the number of fevers likely to present to public health facilities in Africa and the estimated number of these fevers likely to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Methods and Findings We assembled first administrative-unit level data on paediatric fever prevalence, treatment-seeking rates, and child populations. These data were combined in a geographical information system model that also incorporated an adjustment procedure for urban versus rural areas to produce spatially distributed estimates of fever burden amongst African children and the subset likely to present to public sector clinics. A second data assembly was used to estimate plausible ranges for the proportion of paediatric fevers seen at clinics positive for P. falciparum in different endemicity settings. We estimated that, of the 656 million fevers in African 0–4 y olds in 2007, 182 million (28%) were likely to have sought treatment in a public sector clinic of which 78 million (43%) were likely to have been infected with P. falciparum (range 60–103 million). Conclusions Spatial estimates of childhood fevers and care-seeking rates can be combined with a relational risk model of infection prevalence in the community to estimate the degree of parasitemia in those fevers reaching public health facilities. This quantification provides an important baseline comparison of malarial and nonmalarial fevers in different endemicity settings that can contribute to ongoing scientific and policy debates about optimum clinical and financial strategies for the introduction of new diagnostics. These models are made publicly available with the publication of this paper. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20625548

Gething, Peter W.; Kirui, Viola C.; Alegana, Victor A.; Okiro, Emelda A.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Snow, Robert W.

2010-01-01

279

The occupational and environmental status of Polish industry: a comparative study of the private and public sectors.  

PubMed

During the last decade, Poland has made a successful transition toward democracy and market economy. Since the mid-1990s, we have studied the reforms in the environmental and occupational protection system in Poland, focusing on the privately owned firms. We found that considerable progress has taken place, especially in increasing the accountability of private employers and in improved enforcement. The fundamental legitimacy of regulators and the regulatory process, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making, are among the key explanatory factors. The case-specific implementation in Poland is consistent with models advocated by several authors in relation to other industrialized European economies. We attribute these developments in Poland to the continuity of institutions, and the generally good "fit" between the policies and institutions on one hand, and their social context on the other, including a wide sharing of certain values and norms. The outstanding question from our previous work has been the fate of state-owned firms, which may be facing different issues than the privatized ones, both in terms of economics, organizational culture, and relationships with the regulatory authorities. In this article, we report the results of a comparison between the private and state-owned firms, based on the questionnaire surveys of the two sectors. We find a striking similarity in performance of both sectors and in the authorities' attitudes toward both. These findings support our earlier proposition that Poland's success in instituting an effective occupational protection system is deeply embedded in the attitudes toward protecting workers' health and safety and toward balancing competing societal objectives. These attitudes have not changed during the transition to the market economy. PMID:17208773

Broszkiewicz, Roman; Brown, Halina Szejnwald; Hibner, Zofia

2002-01-01

280

The Efficacy of Private Sector Providers in Improving Public Educational Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts required under No Child Left Behind to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in service provision. If the market does not work to drive out ineffective providers, students will be less likely to gain…

Heinrich, Carolyn; Nisar, Hiren

2012-01-01

281

Dual job holding by public sector health professionals in highly resource-constrained settings: problem or solution?  

PubMed

This paper examines the policy options for the regulation of dual job holding by medical professionals in highly resource-constrained settings. Such activity is generally driven by a lack of resources in the public sector and low pay, and has been associated with the unauthorized use of public resources and corruption. It is also typically poorly regulated; regulations are either lacking, or when they exist, are vague or poorly implemented because of low regulatory capacity. This paper draws on the limited evidence available on this topic to assess a number of regulatory options in relation to the objectives of quality of care and access to services, as well as some of the policy constraints that can undermine implementation in resource-poor settings. The approach taken in highlighting these broader social objectives seeks to avoid the value judgements regarding dual working and some of its associated forms of behaviour that have tended to characterize previous analyses. Dual practice is viewed as a possible system solution to issues such as limited public sector resources (and incomes), low regulatory capacity and the interplay between market forces and human resources. This paper therefore offers some support for policies that allow for the official recognition of such activity and embrace a degree of professional self-regulation. In providing clearer policy guidance, future research in this area needs to adopt a more evaluative approach than that which has been used to date. PMID:16283054

Jan, Stephen; Bian, Ying; Jumpa, Manuel; Meng, Qingyue; Nyazema, Norman; Prakongsai, Phusit; Mills, Anne

2005-10-01

282

Dual job holding by public sector health professionals in highly resource-constrained settings: problem or solution?  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the policy options for the regulation of dual job holding by medical professionals in highly resource-constrained settings. Such activity is generally driven by a lack of resources in the public sector and low pay, and has been associated with the unauthorized use of public resources and corruption. It is also typically poorly regulated; regulations are either lacking, or when they exist, are vague or poorly implemented because of low regulatory capacity. This paper draws on the limited evidence available on this topic to assess a number of regulatory options in relation to the objectives of quality of care and access to services, as well as some of the policy constraints that can undermine implementation in resource-poor settings. The approach taken in highlighting these broader social objectives seeks to avoid the value judgements regarding dual working and some of its associated forms of behaviour that have tended to characterize previous analyses. Dual practice is viewed as a possible system solution to issues such as limited public sector resources (and incomes), low regulatory capacity and the interplay between market forces and human resources. This paper therefore offers some support for policies that allow for the official recognition of such activity and embrace a degree of professional self-regulation. In providing clearer policy guidance, future research in this area needs to adopt a more evaluative approach than that which has been used to date. PMID:16283054

Jan, Stephen; Bian, Ying; Jumpa, Manuel; Meng, Qingyue; Nyazema, Norman; Prakongsai, Phusit; Mills, Anne

2005-01-01

283

Abortion Clients of a Public-sector Clinic and a Non-governmental Organization Clinic in Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates similarities and differences between abortion clients of a public-sector clinic and a non-governmental organization (NGO) clinic in Nepal. In 2010, a survey of 1,172 women was conducted in two highly-attended abortion clinics in Kathmandu—one public-sector clinic and another operated by an NGO. Data on the sociodemographic characteristics of clients, their fertility preferences, and use of contraceptives were analyzed. Similarities and differences between the two groups of clients were examined by either chi-square or t-test. The clients of the two clinics were similar with respect to age (27.3±5.7 years), education (26.5% had no education), and number of living children (1.88±1.08). They differed with regard to contraceptive practice, the circumstances resulting in unintended pregnancy, and future fertility preferences. Just over 50% clients of the public and 35% clients of the NGO clinic reported use of contraceptives surrounding the time of unintended pregnancy. The groups also differed in the contraceptive methods used and in reasons for not using any method. The NGO clinic contributed principally to expanding the availability of and access to abortion services. PMID:24288952

Neupane, Shailes

2013-01-01

284

Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

Davis, Tomeka M.

2013-01-01

285

A Supervisor like Me: Race, Representation, and the Satisfaction and Turnover Decisions of Public Sector Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of race representation in public organizations illustrate the importance of bureaucrat race in determining client-level outcomes. Building "upward" from this research, this study examines how supervisor race impacts outcomes for street-level bureaucrats using data from a nationally representative sample of public schools. Employing…

Grissom, Jason A.; Keiser, Lael R.

2011-01-01

286

Adaptation to Externally Driven Change: The Impact of Political Change on Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector  

PubMed Central

This article uses a quasi-natural experiment to investigate the adaptation of job satisfaction to externally driven political change in the public sector. This is important because democratic government bureaucracies often experience changes in leadership after elections. The analyses are based on data drawn from a large longitudinal data set, the British Household Panel Survey. Findings indicate that the impact of political elections is largely weak and temporary and is only present for men. For women, the internal processes of the organization tend to be more important. These findings suggest that changes in political leadership may not be associated with fundamental changes in policy.

Tabvuma, Vurain; Bui, Hong T M; Homberg, Fabian

2014-01-01

287

The Structural Pension Reform in Chile: Effects, Comparisons with Other Latin American Reforms, and Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile pioneered a structural reform in Latin America that privatized its public pension system and influenced similar reforms in another nine countries. Twenty-five years later, this article evaluates the macroeconomic, microeconomic, and social effects of this reform in Chile and the other countries in the region, and extracts lessons from those experiences. Fiscal costs of the reform have been high

Alberto Arenas de Mesa; Carmelo Mesa-Lago

2006-01-01

288

Industrial reform and air transport development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the regulatory and enterprise reform in the Chinese airline industry and its impact on the industry’s tremendous growth in recent years. It starts with a brief description of China’s general economic and industrial reform, followed by a detailed description of reforms in the air transport sector. It then examines the impact of the reform on the growth

Anming Zhang

1998-01-01

289

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal  

E-print Network

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions

Kammen, Daniel M.

290

Deregulation of the water sector in the European Union — A preliminary survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the deregulation and liberalization movement of the water sector in the European Union. It presents three different models as illustrated by three different countries: full privatization in England & Wales, PPPs in France, and public corporatization in Germany. For each of these distinct reform models the drivers and impediments are analyzed.

Aleksandra Peeroo Domanski

2008-01-01

291

Jane Addams and the provision of public recreation: a study of Jane Addams' ideas on recreation and their relationship to urban reform, 1889-1913  

E-print Network

JANE ADDAMS AND THE PROVISION OF PUBLIC RECREATION: A STUDY OF JANE ADDAMS' IDEAS ON RECREATION AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO URBAN REFORM, 1889-1913 A Thesis by SAMUEL LEE HOSE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University...-1913 A Thesis by SAMUEL LEE HOSE Approved as to style and content by: r y D. H'll (Chai an of Committee) H y C. Schmidt (Member) Leslie M. Reid (Member) John H. Lenihan (Member) He y C. Dethlo (Head of Department) May 19S3 ABSTRACT Jane...

Hose, Samuel Lee

1983-01-01

292

Declaration of Education: Toward a Culture of Achievement in D.C. Public Schools. Hearing before the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (May 20, 2005) Serial No. 109-30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this hearing on the District of Columbia's public school system (DCPS), the Honorable Tom Davis, chairman of the Committee on Government Reform, says in his opening statement that the District's improved health cannot be sustained without a better public school system, and that the lack of performance improvement threatens future growth and…

US House of Representatives, 2005

2005-01-01

293

The impact on photovoltaic worth of utulity rate and reform and of specific market, financial, and policy variables : a commercialindustrialinstitution sector analysis  

E-print Network

This work provides an assessment of the economic outlook for photovoltaic systems in the commercial, industrial and institutional sectors in the year 1986. We first summarize the expected cost and performance goals for ...

Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

1980-01-01

294

Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the Context of Economic Reform. Education Research Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in vocational education and training (VET) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe since the 1980s were examined in the context of economic reform. Formal VET provision in each country's public and private sectors was reviewed, and case studies of one firm in each country's manufacturing and tourism industries were conducted. The research identified…

Bennell, Paul; Bendera, Shane; Kanyenze, Godfrey; Kimambo, Emrode; Kiwia, Sixtus; Mbiriyakura, Tichafa; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Munetsi, N.; Muzulu, Jo; Parsalaw, Willy; Temu, John

295

Reforming Local Government in Broome County 1 Center for Local Government College of Community & Public Affairs Binghamton University  

E-print Network

#12;Reforming Local Government in Broome County 1 Center for Local Government ­ College. This council created ten major committees to examine opportunities for local government change in the following, Purchasing, Schools, Solid Waste, and Government Consolidation. After an intensive 12 months of committee

Suzuki, Masatsugu

296

Challenges of multi-actor involvement in the public sector front-end innovation processes : Constructing an open innovation model for developing well-being services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Studies with a user approach in a public service context are still rare, making the contribution of this study worthwhile. This paper aims to present a case of facilitating innovativeness by involving stakeholder groups in the development of service production in the public sector. The case is related to the provision of housing and well-being services to ageing

Lea Hennala; Satu Parjanen; Tuomo Uotila

2011-01-01

297

Cross-Sector Research Associated with Nutrition: Comparison of Private and Public Schools on Health Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Healthy People 2010 is the initiative that defines the U.S. health agenda and guides policy. The initiative provides direction for individuals to change personal behaviors and for organizations and communities to support good health through health promotion policies. The objective of this research was to compare public and private schools on…

Munoz, Marco A.

298

Developing Sustainable Leadership Capability in the Victorian State and Public Library Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been substantial changes in the labour market over the past few years and survey results indicate 60% of staff will leave public library service over the next decade. While this creates opportunities for library staff, limited training budgets and a focus on compliance and specific library skills training have led to a gap in the formal…

McCarten, Melanie

2011-01-01

299

An Annotated Bibliography of Benefits and Costs in the Public Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 2,700 books, pamphlets, and articles from all over the world published before October 1967, are listed in this annotated bibliography on public expenditure decision making. Emphasis is on the economic criteria of decision making derived through use of systematic and analytical methods. Entries are organized into 33 general…

Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

300

Is Adjudication a Public Good?: “Overcrowded Courts” and the Private-Sector Alternative of Arbitration  

E-print Network

One way to end the public subsidy for cases that do not deserve it is for courts to charge the parties to such a case a fee high enough to reimburse the court for its costs of adjudicating the case. Several thoughtful ...

Ware, Stephen J.

2013-07-11

301

The determinants of workers' effort: an analysis of Spanish public and private sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is meant to know the impact of firm ownership (public or private) over the Spanish workers' labour effort. First of all, a labour effort function is estimated where this variable is explained by the wage premium and by a group of factors representing worker, job and firm features. The database used is the 'Quality of Work Life Survey'

César Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

302

Forum Analysis in Cyberspace: The Case of Public Sector Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the uncertainty surrounding the application of the First Amendment to electronic bulletin boards, listservs, electronic conferences, and other exchanges of electronic information at public colleges and universities. Applies the notions of nonpublic forums and designated open forums to the computer network. (MLF)

Beckham, Joseph C.; Schmid, William, Jr.

1995-01-01

303

Information and Knowledge Management in Public Sector Networks: The Case of the US Intelligence Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to the public management literature by exploring the critical challenges that underpin the construction of robust information and knowledge management strategies in networked settings. The ability of the network to sustain itself, thrive, and achieve its objectives depends on the success that the network has in organizing and coordinating its constituent organizations. The network's collaborative information and

Kevin C. Desouza

2009-01-01

304

Corruption in Public Service Delivery: Experience from South Asia’s Water and Sanitation Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical information regarding the types and magnitude of corrupt behaviors documented in water supply and sanitation service provision in several South Asian localities. It also examines the strengths and weaknesses of current strategies to reduce corruption among several public water and sanitation bureaucracies in South Asia, drawing on interviews and focus group discussions with more than 1,400

Jennifer Davis

2004-01-01

305

Collaboration with HEIs: A Key Capacity Building Block for the Uganda Water and Sanitation Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capacity of public service staff in developing countries is crucial for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Literature from developed countries shows that, working with higher education institutions (HEIs), industries have improved their human resource capacity through continuing professional development. This paper reports on research…

Kayaga, Sam

2007-01-01

306

75 FR 39934 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...40 CFR part 63, subpart HH); and the NESHAP From Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities (40 CFR part 63, subpart HHH). As part of this process, EPA is holding public meetings in the Dallas, Texas, and Denver, Colorado, areas, both...

2010-07-13

307

Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.

Diane E. Hoffmann

2003-09-12

308

Welfare Reform and Head Start.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the status of social welfare programs in the United States and recent efforts to reform such programs. It proposes key issues that need to be addressed in any attempt to overhaul the federal welfare system. Welfare reform should ensure that: (1) those families on public assistance are able to meet their basic needs in order to…

National Head Start Association, Alexandria, VA.

309

Validating Five Questions of Antiretroviral Nonadherence in a Public-Sector Treatment Program in Rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract Simple questions are the most commonly used measures of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but rarely validated. We administered five adherence questions in a public-sector primary care clinic in rural South Africa: 7-day recall of missed doses, 7-day recall of late doses, a six-level Likert item, a 30-day visual analogue scale of the proportion of doses missed, and recall of the time when an ART dose was last missed. We estimated question sensitivity and specificity in detecting immunologic (or virologic) failure assessed within 45 days of the adherence question date. Of 165 individuals, 7% had immunologic failure; 137 individuals had viral loads with 9% failure detected. The Likert item performed best for immunologic failure with sensitivity/specificity of 100%/5% (when defining nonadherence as self-reported adherence less than “excellent”), 42%/55% (less than “very good”), and 25%/95% (less than “good”). The remaining questions had sensitivities ?17%, even when the least strict cutoffs defined nonadherence. When we stratified the analysis by gender, age, or education, question performance was not substantially better in any of the subsamples in comparison to the total sample. Five commonly used adherence questions performed poorly in identifying patients with treatment failure in a public-sector ART program in SSA. Valid adherence measurement instruments are urgently required to identify patients needing treatment support and those most at risk of treatment failure. Available estimates of ART adherence in SSA are mostly based on studies using adherence questions. It is thus unlikely that our understanding of ART adherence in the region is correct. PMID:21269131

Chaiyachati, Krisda; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Tanser, Frank; Newell, Marie-Louise

2011-01-01

310

A decision support system framework to improve design-construction integration and project performance on public sector underground utility projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the noted difficulties with the traditional public works project development process is the lack of integration and sharing of information between engineering and construction entities that results in a decrease in project performance. To improve project performance on public sector underground utility projects, the research develops a decision support system framework that enhances the exchange and integration of relevant information and knowledge between entities on such projects by incorporating a lessons-learned database to document, organize and disseminate lessons-learned on a project. To identify the critical activities within the project development process that could be linked to the decision support system, the Integration Definition for Functioning Modeling (IDEFO) technique was used to create a representative model of the public works project development process. The resultant model demonstrated the repeatable nature of the process both across project phases and from project-to-project and identified the decision-making activities of generating and evaluating alternatives as key opportunities for construction-related input that could be linked to a decision support system. An inspection of current industry practices was conducted through interviews with knowledgeable industry sources to determine the scope of the decision support system framework. Results revealed the type of critical decisions on underground utility projects that could benefit from construction-related input and identified the documentation of lessons-learned as a major industry weakness. A prototype decision support system incorporating a lessons-learned database was developed and the framework integrated into common project management reporting mechanisms found in the industry. The actual decision-maker can retrieve lessons-learned according to predetermined categories of critical decisions, compare and evaluated retrieved alternatives, and document the rationale behind the ultimate decision made. The framework for the decision support system was evaluated by knowledgeable industry sources and through the use of a hypothetical case study. Evaluations determined the proposed system would improve design and construction integration and project performance on public sector underground utility projects. However, additional research is required into determining both the most suitable lessons-learned database structure and ways to increase the incentive for project participants to fully participate in the methodology.

Gehrig, Gary Bruce

311

A Partnership in Mississippi for Promoting Astronomy to Diverse Sectors of the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mississippi the Harlow Shapley Visiting Lectureships are hosted by a growing consortium which currently has seven members; French Camp Academy and the Rainwater Observatory, a private high school and the state's largest observatory; Holmes Community College, a multicampus community college; Jackson Astronomical Association; Jackson State University, a historically black college or university (HBCU) and state comprehensive institution of higher learning with an urban mission; the Russell C. Davis Planetarium and the Davis Planetarium Foundation since renamed Mississippi Science Network, Inc., serving the whole state with a "Science is for Everyone" mission; St. Andrews Episcopal School, an urban high school; Tougaloo College, a private urban HCBU; and Mississippi Science Partnership. The Partnership, founded in 1990 as a novel alliance of state institutions of higher learning, a state school system and a major private corporation, with "the vision of improving the teaching and learning of mathematics and science for years to come in the state of Mississippi", leads the consortium and coordinates the Lectureships with the partners. The lecturer typically spends two days, gives public, free lectures at the college and school campuses and at the Planetarium, and holds formal and informal discussions with faculty, staff, students, amateur and professional astronomers in the region, and interested members of the public. The visit catalyzes improvements in astronomy education and research at the institutions. The Lectureships have also been an occasion for an informal meeting of the consortium where the members share their common joy and experiences in astronomy and its education and research.

Ghosh, K.; Fadavi, Mehri; Yang, Hai-Shou

1998-05-01

312

National mental health reform: less talk, more action.  

PubMed

The Council of Australian Governments revitalised national mental health reform in 2006. Unfortunately, evidence-based models of collaborative care have not yet been supported. Previous attempts at national reform have lacked a strategic vision. We continue to rely on arrangements that are fragmented between different levels of government, poorly resourced community services, and an embattled public hospital sector. Our persisting unwillingness to record or publicly report key measures of health, social or economic outcomes undermines community confidence in the mental health system. Six priority areas for urgent national action are proposed and linked to key measures of improved health system performance. In Australia, we recognise special groups (such as war veterans) and organise and fund services to meet their specific health needs. Such systems could be readily adapted to meet the needs of people with psychosis. PMID:19220184

Rosenberg, Sebastian; Hickie, Ian B; Mendoza, John

2009-02-16

313

Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework is introduced, describing three aggregate competences for technical issues, management and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation, for the water sector. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. The framework and an assessment methodology were tested in a case study on post-graduate water education for professional staff in the Directorate General Water Resources (DGWR) in Indonesia. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both the surveys and interviews show strong interest in the other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. A discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that could be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With only little competence in these disciplines, it will be difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in an interdisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this seems partly compensated by the attention for continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is reported as fundamentally formative. The policies of DGWR have gone through three distinct phases. In the first phase (1970-1987) technical competence and learning were valued highly and training was arranged effectively; in the current phase the need to develop new competences is raising new challenges.

Kaspersma, J. M.; Alaerts, G. J.; Slinger, J. H.

2012-01-01

314

The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

Gottlob, Brian J.

2006-01-01

315

Risk Analysis Strategies in the Water Utility Sector: An Inventory of Applications for Better and More Credible Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial pressures, regulatory reform, and sectoral restructuring are requiring water utilities to move from technically inclined, risk-averse management approaches toward more commercial, business-oriented practices. Risk analysis strategies and techniques traditionally applied to public health protection are now seeing broader application for asset management, assessing competition risks, and potential threats to the security of supplies. Water utility managers have to consider

B. H. MacGillivray; P. D. Hamilton; J. E. Strutt; S. J. T. Pollard

2006-01-01

316

Socio-economic and ethnic group inequities in antenatal care quality in the public and private sector in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers. Methods Quality of care for women giving birth in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, was assessed by measuring how many of 11 procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health were performed. Information on family income, self-assessed skin colour, parity and type of provider were collected. Results Antenatal care was used by 98% of the 4244 women studied (mean number of visits 8.3), but the number of consultations was higher among better-off and white women, who were also more likely to start antenatal care in the first trimester. The quality of antenatal care score ranged from 0 to 11, with an overall mean of 8.3 (SD 1.7). Mean scores were 8.9 (SD 1.5) in the wealthiest and 7.9 (SD 1.8) in the poorest quintiles (P < 0.001), 8.4 (SD 1.6) in white and 8.1 (SD 1.9) in black women (P < 0.001). Adjusted analyses showed that these differences seemed to be due to attendance patterns rather than discrimination. Mean quality scores were higher in the private 9.3 (SD 1.3) than in the public sector 8.1 (SD 1.6) (P < 0.001); these differences were not explained by maternal characteristics or by attendance patterns. Conclusions Special efforts must be made to improve quality of care in the public sector. Poor and black women should be actively encouraged to start antenatal care early in pregnancy so that they can fully benefit from it. There is a need for regular monitoring of antenatal attendances and quality of care with an equity lens, in order to assess how different social groups are benefiting from progress in health care. PMID:20123940

Victora, CG; Matijasevich, A; Silveira, MF; Santos, IS; Barros, AJD; Barros, FC

2010-01-01

317

The Reformation of Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The necessity for reforming public education is evidenced in part by the failures of past programs and in part by the requirements of the future. The anti-school mood of the present is forcing a more realistic evaluation of the potentiality education possesses in counteracting the disintegrative forces of family breakdown, individual deprivation,…

Rubin, Louis

318

Reforming Teacher Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent Google search for information regarding performance pay in education produced 6.1 million results. This number should come as no surprise given the current level of interest in incentives as a popular reform option in public education. Supporters believe pay-for-performance programs encourage less effective teachers to improve and will…

Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.

2010-01-01

319

Reform on the Move  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

2006-01-01

320

Public and Private Agri-Environmental Regulation in Post-Socialist Economies: Evidence from the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using primary survey data and interview evidence this paper analyses the implementation and enforcement of public and private environmental regulation in the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV) sector. This provides a basis for engaging in a wider debate on the nature of agri-food regulation in post-socialist economies. Depictions of the…

Gorton, Matthew; Zaric, Vlade; Lowe, Philip; Quarrie, Steve

2011-01-01

321

The privatisation debate on water services in the Netherlands: public performance of the water sector and the implications of market forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legally adopted in France and the UK, privatization of water services is still vigorously debated in the Netherlands. Advocates of privatization believe it is the best way to save on utility costs and to increase their transparency. Opponents believe that the Dutch water sector already provides high quality services for low prices, including an additional public performance that is expected

Stefan M. Kuks

2006-01-01

322

Factors Influencing Sharing Activities in Transnational Public Sector Knowledge Networks: The Case of Mobile Disease Surveillance System Adoption in the 2009 Hajj  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation contributes to the growing base of theory relating to Transnational Public Sector Knowledge Networks (TPSKNs) presented by Dawes, Gharawi, and Burke (2012). A case study explores the TPSKN formed between the United States Center for Disease Control and the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health ahead of the 2009 Hajj, one of the…

Gharawi, Mohammed A.

2012-01-01

323

Heat and health: a perspective from the public sector and the military Laurence S. Kalkstein, Department of Geography and Regional Studies, University  

E-print Network

Heat and health: a perspective from the public sector and the military Laurence S. Kalkstein.Kalkstein@usma.edu Heat is, by far, the leading weather-related killer in the United States, as well as most mid-latitude developed nations. Awareness of heat as a major health problem has only recently increased

Miami, University of

324

Behavioural criteria of managerial and leadership effectiveness within Egyptian and British public sector hospitals: an empirical case study and multi-case\\/cross-nation comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a study of managerial and leadership effectiveness carried out within an Egyptian public sector hospital in which concrete examples of ‘effective’ and ‘least effective\\/ineffective’ manager and managerial leader behaviour, as observed by superiors, peers and subordinates, were collected using the critical incident technique. These critical incidents were then content analyzed to identify a smaller

Robert G. Hamlin; Mona Nassar; Khaled Wahba

2010-01-01

325

[Publications on primary care evaluation in Spain after twenty years of reform (1984-2004). Thematic and bibliometric analysis].  

PubMed

In view of the widespread opinion as to the lack of data for evaluating the results of the Primary Care reform which began in Spain in 1984, the conducting of a thematic and bibliometric analysis for the published evaluation studies is posed. The documents published within the 1984-2004 time period, located by means of systematic bibliographic search both in biomedical journals and in theses, reports or books on any of the components of Primary Care included within the proposed thematic classification and referred to scopes broader than one single healthcare center. Three complimentary search strategies were used: electronic databases, manual review of indexes and reference work quote-based searches. A total of 684 documents met the criteria for inclusion: 85% having been taken from biomedical journals, 12.3% having been doctoral theses, and 2.6% reports or books. Documents were located in 49 different journals (29 foreign), Atención Primaria (52.7%) being the journal having provided the largest number of articles. A total 12.7% of the articles were published in journals indexed in the SCI, and 8.6% in foreign journals. In 32% of the studies, the first author was working at a reformed healthcare center. Two-thirds of the evaluations revolved around the analysis of the process; the topics most often evaluated having been related to healthcare spending (pharmacy), the system organization (emergencies) and professional satisfaction. Broad-based documentation is provided with evaluations of primary care in Spain. Studies have been focused more on the evaluation of the process than on that of the results. Research in this field requires including studies not published in journals (theses and reports). PMID:17639681

de Lorenzo-Cáceres Ascanio, Antonio; Oter Puime, Angel o

2007-01-01

326

Indian medical students in public and private sector medical schools: are motivations and career aspirations different? – studies from Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India’s large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Methods Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. Results There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. Conclusion There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions. PMID:24034988

2013-01-01

327

In Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform  

E-print Network

In Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform: Social and Environmental Challenges Roskilde, Denmark: UNEP-RIS� Centre. Rethinking reform in the electricity sector: Power liberalisation or energy; national and local politics ­ pro-growth and pro-electrification coalitions significantly overlap; social

Delaware, University of

328

DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology*  

E-print Network

DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology* 0. Introduction There has been a renaissance of interest in the epistemology of religious belief over the last twenty years which has been largely inspired of religious epistemology is a rejection of the supposedly evidentialist assumptions which drive standard

Edinburgh, University of

329

Sickle cell screening policies as portent: how will the human genome project affect public sector genetic services?  

PubMed Central

The Human Genome Project holds much promise for providing dramatic improvements in our understanding of and means to diagnose and treat many diseases. As this enormously important endeavor proceeds, research on ethical, legal, and social implications of this new science is being conducted to forecast problems and recommend policy option solutions to avoid what might otherwise become adverse consequences. Sickle cell screening is an example of a technology that was introduced in a manner that raised poignant issues. On the basis of sickle cell issues, we examined policy issues likely to occur as new genetic technologies are incorporated into medical practice. Discussion and development of a national consensus on the appropriate content and just delivery of public sector genetic services is vital; otherwise, the impact of Human Genome Project-derived technology may result in misadventures that amplify problems currently evident in newborn screening programs. New DNA-based diagnostic technologies and therapies will soon enter the stream of commerce. The recommendations offered here, while based on examination of sickle cell disease policies, are intended to address both current inequities as well as potential future issues related to stigmatization and distributive justice. PMID:8907815

Phoenix, D. D.; Lybrook, S. M.; Trottier, R. W.; Hodgin, F. C.; Crandall, L. A.

1995-01-01

330

Spatial Distribution of Bednet Coverage under Routine Distribution through the Public Health Sector in a Rural District in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the most important and cost-effective tools for malaria control. Maximizing individual and community benefit from ITNs requires high population-based coverage. Several mechanisms are used to distribute ITNs, including health facility-based targeted distribution to high-risk groups; community-based mass distribution; social marketing with or without private sector subsidies; and integrating ITN delivery with other public health interventions. The objective of this analysis is to describe bednet coverage in a district in western Kenya where the primary mechanism for distribution is to pregnant women and infants who attend antenatal and immunization clinics. We use data from a population-based census to examine the extent of, and factors correlated with, ownership of bednets. We use both multivariable logistic regression and spatial techniques to explore the relationship between household bednet ownership and sociodemographic and geographic variables. We show that only 21% of households own any bednets, far lower than the national average, and that ownership is not significantly higher amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. We also show that coverage is spatially heterogeneous with less than 2% of the population residing in zones with adequate coverage to experience indirect effects of ITN protection. PMID:22022481

Prudhomme O'Meara, Wendy; Smith, Nathan; Ekal, Emmanuel; Cole, Donald; Ndege, Samson

2011-01-01

331

Private Sector Investment in Mediterranean Fruit Fly Mass-Production and SIT Operations – The “Sheep” of the Private Sector Among the “Wolves” of the Public Good?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first large-scale use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in southern Mexico in the 1970s, the fruit industry has been the major beneficiary and sometimes a financial\\u000a contributor to the technological development of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT. Until recently, the involvement of the private\\u000a sector in the “SIT package” was

Y. Bassi; S. Steinberg; J. P. Cayol

332

What have 10 years of health insurance reforms brought about in Bulgaria? Re-appraising the Health Insurance Act of 1998.  

PubMed

This article discusses the financial reforms in the Bulgarian public health care sector. Since 1998, when the Bulgarian parliament passed the Health Insurance Act, compulsory contributions for social health insurance have become the main source of health care financing. They replaced the previous tax-based health care funding mechanism. This article reviews empirical evidence and macro indicators to analyse to what extent the expectations of this reform are achieved. Two groups of sources are reviewed: (1) publications prior to the implementation of the social health insurance in Bulgaria that discuss its potential impact; (2) publications after the insurance implementation, that investigate the actual impact of this reform. The results suggest that social health insurance in Bulgaria brought about certain efficiency improvements in the public health care sector. However, the overall social benefit of the reform is doubtful. The main reasons for this are related to the ineffective organisation of the Bulgarian public health care sector, as well as to the overall lack of financial resources for health care in the country. PMID:21216021

Atanasova, Elka; Pavlova, Milena; Velickovski, Robert; Nikov, Bogomil; Moutafova, Emanuela; Groot, Wim

2011-10-01

333

The Most Daring Education Reform of All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As long as there have been public schools, there have been reformers of public schools. All too often, they have insisted on sweeping changes; enamored of their bold, new idea, they haven't considered whether anything established ought to endure. The result? A century of faddish ideas, but little real progress. Among today's most vocal reformers

Senechal, Diana

2010-01-01

334

Education Reform and the Quality of Kindergartens in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan--the implementation of public kindergartens--and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of…

Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

2010-01-01

335

Quantum Leap: Vocational Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent technological advances, especially in computers and telecommunications, and their impact on the workplace. Highlights the need for educational reform in vocational/technical programs reflecting a systems-oriented approach rooted in the sciences. Discusses the future role of the private sector in education. (HB)

Groves, Cecil L.

1985-01-01

336

The Management of Long-Term Sickness Absence in Large Public Sector Healthcare Organisations: A Realist Evaluation Using Mixed Methods.  

PubMed

Purpose The success of measures to reduce long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in public sector organisations is contingent on organisational context. This realist evaluation investigates how interventions interact with context to influence successful management of LTSA. Methods Multi-method case study in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland comprising realist literature review, semi-structured interviews (61 participants), Process-Mapping and feedback meetings (59 participants), observation of training, analysis of documents. Results Important activities included early intervention; workplace-based occupational rehabilitation; robust sickness absence policies with clear trigger points for action. Used appropriately, in a context of good interpersonal and interdepartmental communication and shared goals, these are able to increase the motivation of staff to return to work. Line managers are encouraged to take a proactive approach when senior managers provide support and accountability. Hindering factors: delayed intervention; inconsistent implementation of policy and procedure; lack of resources; organisational complexity; stakeholders misunderstanding each other's goals and motives. Conclusions Different mechanisms have the potential to encourage common motivations for earlier return from LTSA, such as employees feeling that they have the support of their line manager to return to work and having the confidence to do so. Line managers' proactively engage when they have confidence in the support of seniors and in their own ability to address LTSA. Fostering these motivations calls for a thoughtful, diagnostic process, taking into account the contextual factors (and whether they can be modified) and considering how a given intervention can be used to trigger the appropriate mechanisms. PMID:25385199

Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam

2014-11-11

337

Occurrence of Medication Errors and Comparison of Manual and Computerized Prescription Systems in Public Sector Hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%–60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21–30 years (21%–24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber’s signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%–19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and electronic prescriptions. PMID:25165851

Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid

2014-01-01

338

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

339

The Winners in China’s Urban Housing Reform  

PubMed Central

Housing reform in China has proceeded on two tracks: privatization of public housing and development of a new private housing sector. During this period of transition, rents have remained relatively low in the remaining public housing, and purchase prices offered to occupants of public housing have been well below market prices. Although these rents and prices are partly based on known formulas, there is considerable variability in how much people pay for similar apartments. This study uses 2000 Census data to estimate the housing subsidy received by the remaining renters in the public sector and purchasers of public housing, based on private sector prices for housing of comparable quality and size. The paper also analyzes variation in the estimated discount from market prices that these people receive. The findings show that the biggest winners in China’s transition from socialist housing allocation are those who were favored in the previous system, based on such factors as residence status, education and occupation. PMID:24163494

Logan, John R.; Fang, Yiping; Zhang, Zhanxin

2013-01-01

340

Three Empirical Essays on Trade Reform in Post Apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the trade reform experience in South Africa's (SA) manufacturing sector during the first post apartheid decade, from 1994 until 2004. During this period SA implemented an intensive trade reform policy particularly in the manufacturing sector. Average Nominal Tariff Rates and average Effective Tariff Rates decreased from pre-reform levels of 20% and 48% respectively in 1993 to 7%

Riham SHENDY

2009-01-01

341

The dynamics of reform and development in China: A political economy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make economic reforms acceptable, people in power need to be bought out. However, compensation is limited by the lack of commitment and liquidity. Under these constraints, development may begin with modest reforms in some areas or sectors where investment opportunities are large and expected benefits from the pre-reform system are small. Reform then may extend to other regions or

Jean-Jacques Laffont; Yingyi Qian

1999-01-01

342

The Impact of New Technologies in Public Financial Management and Performance: Agenda for Public Financial Management Reformance in the Context of Global Best Practices  

E-print Network

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has practically penetrated into all spheres of life. Therefore a closer look at the impact of ICT in public financial management and performance is highly justified. Public finance is defined as a field of economics concerned with paying for collective or governmental activities, and with the administration and design of those activities. Activities will be viewed as services or more precisely as public services. We believe that there is need to consider performance from the perspective of effective performance and the perceived performance. In fact the real or effective performance might not correspond to the perceived performance. A service can be considered from the perspective of the decision-maker, who in our case could be a government or a collectivity. ICT can be employed in the three phases that concern the decision-maker: design, implementation and evaluation. The beneficiaries of a service can employ ICT in any of the three phases - awareness, exploit...

David, Amos

2008-01-01

343

Retaining Teacher Talent: Convergence and Contradictions in Teachers' Perceptions of Policy Reform Ideas. A Retaining Teacher Talent Report from Learning Point Associates and Public Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a new decade dawns, teachers stand at the center of a policy vortex. They serve as the primary focus of one of the Obama administration's four pillars of educational reform--effective teachers and leaders. Educational reformers of all stripes have focused tremendous energy on thinking of ways to identify effective teachers and in turn recruit,…

Coggshall, Jane G.; Ott, Amber

2010-01-01

344

Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. Conclusions These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions. PMID:21575180

2011-01-01

345

Slab reformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

346

Slab reformer  

DOEpatents

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

1985-03-12

347

Slab reformer  

DOEpatents

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

1984-02-07

348

Slab reformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

349

An industry perspective on offsite regulatory reform  

SciTech Connect

This presentation reviews current regulatory process and proposes a modified approach for use in continuing to verify reasonable assurance of the protection of public health and safety in case of a radiological emergency. Topics include the following: emergency preparedness - regulatory roles; federal agency coordination; NRC/FEMA process comparison; new approaches to regulation; NRC`s current focus; technical basis supporting regulatory reform; justification for regulatory reform; recommendation for FEMA regulatory reform.

Nelson, A. [Nuclear Energy Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

350

How teen girls think about fertility and the reproductive lifespan. Possible implications for curriculum reform and public health policy.  

PubMed

Despite an 'epidemic' of delayed childbirth in England and Wales beyond a woman's optimally fertile years, research shows that young adults are unaware of or misunderstand the risks regarding starting or extending families that such behaviour entails. Currently, sex education syllabi in British schools neglect these issues, rendering school leavers ignorant of them.These curricula cannot be improved until more is known about adolescents' knowledge of relevant topics. In the light of this, this article describes exploratory research on how teenage girls in one English school think about the reproductive lifespan. Going beyond recent 'scientific' investigations which have mostly only tested the extent of ignorance of young adults, this qualitative enquiry used theories of the life course and emerging adulthood to analyse data gathered in interviews. It sought to understand not only what girls know, but how they apply their knowledge in relation to their assumptions about aging, motherhood, pregnancy, parenting and employment. One finding is highlighted here: that whilst "correct" knowledge about the reproductive lifespan does appear to be held by teenage girls, the ability to apply that knowledge and connect the socio-cultural with the biological domain, may not always be in place. This is relevant for curriculum developers aiming to prepare future citizens to take full control of their reproductive health, and policy makers responsible for ensuring an appropriate public health message about these concerns is available after formal schooling ends. PMID:25105323

Littleton, Fiona Kisby

2014-09-01

351

The use of private-sector contracts for primary health care: theory, evidence and lessons for low-income and middle-income countries.  

PubMed Central

Contracts for the delivery of public services are promoted as a means of harnessing the resources of the private sector and making publicly funded services more accountable, transparent and efficient. This is also argued for health reforms in many low- and middle-income countries, where reform packages often promote the use of contracts despite the comparatively weaker capacity of markets and governments to manage them. This review highlights theories and evidence relating to contracts for primary health care services and examines their implications for contractual relationships in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:10916919

Palmer, N.

2000-01-01

352

Reform of the Railway Sector in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rail industry in Russia is one of the largest in the world. Russia’s vast distances, relatively under-developed road infrastructure, and high reliance on bulk commodities imply that the rail industry has a unique and key role in the transportation infrastructure of Russia. At present the industry is organised as a fully-integrated entity, operated by the Ministry of Railways. At

Darryl Biggar

2002-01-01

353

Taking Stock of a Decade of Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School reformers have made forward strides in the last ten years, and public debate has acquired a bipartisan cast. But just how successful have reform efforts been? The editors of "Education Next" assess the movement's victories and challenges. Two essays are presented in this issue's "Forum": (1) "A Battle Begun, Not Won" (Paul E. Peterson,…

Education Next, 2011

2011-01-01

354

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

355

Electricity sector restructuring and competition : lessons learned  

E-print Network

We now have over a decade of experience with the privatization, restructuring, regulatory reform, and wholesale and retail competition in electricity sectors around the world. The objectives and design attributes of these ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2003-01-01

356

What's the difference between community business and social business? : Shifting a large market of local public service to private sector : Interview with Ei Nagasawa, representative director of Community Business Support Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What's the difference between community business and social business? : Shifting a large market of local public service to private sector : Interview with Ei Nagasawa, representative director of Community Business Support Center

Morita, Utako

357

Neoliberal Policy in the Higher Education Sector in Bangladesh: Autonomy of Public Universities and the Role of the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, enormous changes have been made in the higher education sector in Bangladesh. The government promulgated the Private University Act in 1992, and formulated a 20-year Strategic Plan for Higher Education: 2006-2026 (SPHE). A critical review shows that the objective of the plan is to connect education with market-driven economic…

Kabir, Ariful Haq

2010-01-01

358

The State, Globalization and the Survival of the Urban Informal Sector in Botswana: The Challenge of Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging thesis from an ILO study by Xaba, et al. (2002) holds that in Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) there is a general decline or stagnation in the growth of formal employment on the one hand, and an increase in informal sector activities on the other hand. Secondly, in some instances, the thesis posits, the informal economy plays a far

Isaac N. Obasi; Baakile Motshegwa; A. Mfundisi

359

Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.  

PubMed

Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts. PMID:24528517

Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Raji?, A

2014-12-01

360

Healthcare reform: implications for knowledge translation in primary care  

PubMed Central

Background The primary care sector represents the linchpin of many health systems. However, the translation of evidence-based practices into patient care can be difficult, particularly during healthcare reform. This can have significant implications for patients, their communities, and the public purse. This is aptly demonstrated in the area of sexual health. The aim of this paper is to determine what works to facilitate evidence-based sexual healthcare within the primary care sector. Methods 431 clinicians (214 general practitioners and 217 practice nurses) in New South Wales, Australia, were surveyed about their awareness, their use, the perceived impact, and the factors that hindered the use of six resources to promote sexual healthcare. Descriptive statistics were calculated from the responses to the closed survey items, while responses to open-ended item were thematically analyzed. Results All six resources were reported to improve the delivery of evidence-based sexual healthcare. Two resources – both double-sided A4-placards – had the greatest reach and use. Barriers that hindered resource-use included limited time, limited perceived need, and limited access to, or familiarity with the resources. Furthermore, the reorganization of the primary care sector and the removal of particular medical benefits scheme items may have hampered clinician capacity to translate evidence-based practices into patient care. Conclusions Findings reveal: (1) the translation of evidence-based practices into patient care is viable despite reform; (2) the potential value of a multi-modal approach; (3) the dissemination of relatively inexpensive resources might influence clinical practices; and (4) reforms to governance and/or funding arrangements may widen the void between evidence-based practices and patient care. PMID:24274773

2013-01-01

361

Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector outlets in six malaria-endemic countries  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line malaria treatment throughout most of the malaria-endemic world. Data on ACT availability, price and market share are needed to provide a firm evidence base from which to assess the current situation concerning quality-assured ACT supply. This paper presents supply side data from ACTwatch outlet surveys in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia. Methods Between March 2009 and June 2010, nationally representative surveys of outlets providing anti-malarials to consumers were conducted. A census of all outlets with the potential to provide anti-malarials was conducted in clusters sampled randomly. Results 28,263 outlets were censused, 51,158 anti-malarials were audited, and 9,118 providers interviewed. The proportion of public health facilities with at least one first-line quality-assured ACT in stock ranged between 43% and 85%. Among private sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies, such as chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were widely available (> 95% of outlets) as compared to first-line quality-assured ACT (< 25%). In the public/not-for-profit sector, first-line quality-assured ACT was available for free in all countries except Benin and the DRC (US$1.29 [Inter Quartile Range (IQR): $1.29-$1.29] and $0.52[IQR: $0.00-$1.29] per adult equivalent dose respectively). In the private sector, first-line quality-assured ACT was 5-24 times more expensive than non-artemisinin therapies. The exception was Madagascar where, due to national social marketing of subsidized ACT, the price of first-line quality-assured ACT ($0.14 [IQR: $0.10, $0.57]) was significantly lower than the most popular treatment (chloroquine, $0.36 [IQR: $0.36, $0.36]). Quality-assured ACT accounted for less than 25% of total anti-malarial volumes; private-sector quality-assured ACT volumes represented less than 6% of the total market share. Most anti-malarials were distributed through the private sector, but often comprised non-artemisinin therapies, and in the DRC and Nigeria, oral artemisinin monotherapies. Provider knowledge of the first-line treatment was significantly lower in the private sector than in the public/not-for-profit sector. Conclusions These standardized, nationally representative results demonstrate the typically low availability, low market share and high prices of ACT, in the private sector where most anti-malarials are accessed, with some exceptions. The results confirm that there is substantial room to improve availability and affordability of ACT treatment in the surveyed countries. The data will also be useful for monitoring the impact of interventions such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria. PMID:22039838

2011-01-01

362

The WTO and the Millennium Round: What Is at Stake for Public Education? Common Concerns for Workers in Education and the Public Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the eve of the year 2000, global public spending on education tops one trillion dollars. Against the backdrop of globalization, public education is currently being subjected to attacks by proponents of privatization and deregulation. The process is already underway, as is apparent from an important agreement reached by the World Trade…

Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

363

Committee on ICANN Evolution and Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) (last mentioned in the November 17, 2000 Scout Report ) has this page about a large movement to reform the organization and its practices. The original mission of ICANN was "to create an effective private sector policy development process" to manage the Internet domain name system. The documents given on this site explain why this implementation has been inadequate, and they look at current discussions about what should be done to reform ICANN. There are many working papers listed, the most recent being ICANN: A Blueprint for Reform, which was released June 20, 2002.

2002-01-01

364

Higher Education and the Public, Private and Non-Profit Sectors. Equal Partners in Promoting Regional Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates collaboration by universities with public, private, and nonprofit organizations to create value-added innovative economies in their regions. Discusses the advantages of such partnerships and various approaches to regional economic development. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

Hughey, Aaron W.

2003-01-01

365

Regulatory reform and public utilities  

SciTech Connect

This book results from two seminars regarding the subject title that were held at Rutgers the State University, New Brunswick, NJ on October 30, 1981 and March 26, 1982. The seminars received financial support from leading New Jersey utilities. The introductory chapter (by the editor) and the other nine chapters are all written within the context of the pressures facing regulated utilities and their regulators. A separate abstract was prepared for each chapter.

Crew, M.A. (ed.)

1982-01-01

366

Education Reform: Ten Years after the Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 1993, Governor William Weld signed into law the Massachusetts Education Reform Act (MERA). MERA greatly increased the state role both in funding public education and in guiding the local educational process. The state’s role changed to incorporate setting curriculum frameworks and holding schools accountable for student performance. Because MERA was designed to be a systemic reform of education,

2005-01-01

367

Using internet GIS technology for early warning, response and controlling the quality of the public health sector.  

PubMed

Recent EU and Greek Government legislation highlights the need for the modernisation of the public health management system and the improvement of the overall health of EU citizens. In addition, the effusion of epidemics even in developed countries makes the need for the enhancement of public health services imperative. In order to best confront the above-described challenges, the National Technical University of Athens, in cooperation with the Greek Ministry of Health and Welfare and the European Commission (EC), designed and developed an integrated public health information network, named GEPIMI (Integrated Geographical System for EPIdemiological and other Medical Information), in the framework of a three-year pilot project. This pilot project, funded by Greek Ministry of Health and Welfare and the EC supported the Programme INTERREG II to establish an advanced and integrated web-based information system that can process and move information in real time, allowing public health authorities to monitor events at hundreds or thousands of public health facilities at once. The system is established among hospitals, primary healthcare authorities and health agents in Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, Fyrom, and Turkey. The project aims at demonstrating the best practices, prospects, applications and high potential of Telematics Healthcare Networks in Europe, with a view to promoting cooperation and interconnection between European communities in the field of Telematics Healthcare Applications. The GEPIMI System, implemented via an innovative web based system, constitutes a replication of a highly effective mechanism. It incorporates state-of-the-art technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S.), web based databases, GPS, and Smart Card Technology and supports a variety of health-related web applications including early warning and response of epidemics, remote management of medical records, seamless healthcare coverage, comprehensive statistical analysis of data, decision-making procedures, inter-communication between international scientific fora and other. PMID:18048205

Ptochos, Dimitrios; Panopoulos, Dimitrios; Metaxiotis, Kostas; Askounis, Dimitrios

2004-01-01

368

The Reform and Development of the VE System in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vocational education (VE) system in China has been reformed and redeveloped over the past 20 years and now has a rational structure and stages from junior to senior levels that match the industrial sectors and link to regular secondary education. The reform and development of the Chinese VE system was carried out in three stages. The senior…

Liu, Yufeng

369

Engaging Stakeholders in Productive Meetings to Reform Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents suggestions for leaders in science education to assist in developing effective stakeholder groups contributing to the reform in science education. In this political climate initiatives to reform science teacher education and science education for students K-16 are expected to involve stakeholders from a variety of sectors in…

Spector, Barbara; Greely, Teresa; Kingsley, Gordon

2004-01-01

370

Health Care Reform for Children with Public Coverage: How Can Policymakers Maximize Gains and Prevent Harm? Timely Analysis of Immediate Health Policy Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moving toward universal coverage has the potential to increase access to care and improve the health and well-being of uninsured children and adults. The effects of health care reform on the more than 25 million children who currently have coverage under Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) are less clear. Increased parental…

Kenney, Genevieve M.; Dorn, Stan

2009-01-01

371

Establishing an inventory-based medical equipment management system in the public sector: an experience from Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to share a practical experience of how to set up a simple framework for better medical equipment management\\u000a at public hospitals and health centres in Uganda for the 2006–2009 period. Three steps approach was employed. At first, all\\u000a available medical equipment was categorised in six operational conditions and that were indicated on the equipment by eye-catching\\u000a colour

Sitra Mulepo; Akiko Niwa; Takuji Date

2011-01-01

372

Reforming Again: Now Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

Marx, Ronald W.

2014-01-01

373

Technology transfer in human vaccinology: a retrospective review on public sector contributions in a privatizing science field.  

PubMed

As health intervention, vaccination has had a tremendous impact on reducing mortality and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. Traditionally vaccines were developed and made in the western, industrialised world and from there on gradually and with considerable delay became available for developing countries. Today that is beginning to change. Most vaccine doses are now produced in emerging economies, although industrialised countries still have a lead in vaccine development and in manufacturing innovative vaccines. Technology transfer has been an important mechanism for this increase in production capacity in emerging economies. This review looks back on various technology transfer initiatives and outlines the role of WHO and other public and private partners. It goes into a more detailed description of the role of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. For many decades RIVM has been providing access to vaccine technology by capacity building and technology transfer initiatives not only through multilateral frameworks, but also on a bilateral basis including a major project in China in the 90 s of the previous century. Looking forward it is expected that, in a globalizing world, the ambition of BRICS countries to play a role in global health will lead to an increase of south-south technology transfers. Further, it is argued that push approaches including technology transfer from the public domain, connecting innovative enabling platforms with competent developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVM), will be critical to ensure a sustainable supply of affordable and quality vaccines to national immunization programmes in developing countries. PMID:22902679

Hendriks, Jan

2012-09-28

374

Physician payments under health care reform.  

PubMed

This study examines the impact of major health insurance reform on payments made in the health care sector. We study the prices of services paid to physicians in the privately insured market during the Massachusetts health care reform. The reform increased the number of insured individuals as well as introduced an online marketplace where insurers compete. We estimate that, over the reform period, physician payments increased at least 11 percentage points relative to control areas. Payment increases began around the time legislation passed the House and Senate-the period in which their was a high probability of the bill eventually becoming law. This result is consistent with fixed-duration payment contracts being negotiated in anticipation of future demand and competition. PMID:25497755

Dunn, Abe; Shapiro, Adam Hale

2015-01-01

375

Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a large and diverse public sector workforce: baseline results from Partnering Healthy@Work  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive and anxiety disorders are common among working adults and costly to employers and individuals. Mental health screening is often an important initial strategy, but the resultant data are often of unknown representativeness and difficult to interpret. In a public sector workforce, this study used a brief screener for depression/anxiety to: a) compare prevalence of high psychological distress obtained from a researcher survey with an employer survey and population norms and b) verify whether expected correlates were observed in a screening setting. Methods Participants were public servants working for an Australian state government. High psychological distress (Kessler-10 ?22) stratified by age and sex was compared for a random weighted sample researcher survey (n?=?3406) and an anonymous volunteer employer survey (n?=?7715). Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated from log binomial regression. Results Referencing the researcher survey, prevalence of high psychological distress was greater by age and sex in the employer survey but was only dependably higher for men when compared with population norms. Modelling suggested this may be due to work stress (effort-reward imbalance) (PR?=?3.19, 95% CI 1.45-7.01) and casual/fixed-term employment (PR 2.64, 95% CI 1.26-5.56). Conclusions Depression and anxiety screening using typical employer survey methods could overestimate prevalence but expected correlates are observed in a screening setting. Guidance for employers on screening and interpretation should be provided to encourage engagement with mental health prevention and treatment programs in the workplace. PMID:24498884

2014-01-01

376

Drivers of health reform in the United States: 2012 and beyond.  

PubMed

American medicine has seen radical changes in the past decade. In particular, radiology has been affected, notably first with the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act in 2005 and then with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010. Health care reforms are not only driven by political agendas. This process is also a response to underlying social, economic, and technological realities. It is unlikely that reform efforts will just evaporate because of a single change in government or with a decision by the US Supreme Court. Regardless of who sits in the Oval Office and which party controls Congress, there are forces that will need to be addressed through policy changes in the coming years. The underlying drivers of health care reform are legion, but health care inflation, fiscal mismanagement by government, poor planning for demographic changes that affect entitlement programs, questions about the quality of health outcomes, and a desire for universal health care were all central factors in the reforms put forth since 2009. Radiologists should be preparing now for continued change in both the public and private sectors in health care for the foreseeable future. These changes are likely to have profound impacts on our profession. Radiologists and their groups should plan to pay greater attention to these events and should seek to have a much greater level of involvement in the political and social processes that lead to policy changes in health care. PMID:23025861

Lexa, Frank J

2012-10-01

377

Are nurses ready for health care reform? A decade of survey research.  

PubMed

As health care delivery organizations react to the changes brought about by public and private sector reform initiatives, RNs can anticipate that, in addition to intended outcomes, there will be unpredictable pressures and unintended consequences arising from reform. Biennial national surveys of RNs conducted over the past decade have explored various changes in the nursing workforce, quality of the workplace environment, staffing and payment policies, and RNs' views of health policy, including their expectations of health reform. The latest survey results offer a picture of RNs' capacity to practice successfully in a care delivery environment that, over the current decade, is expected to emphasize teams, care coordination, and become driven increasingly by payment incentives that reward quality, safety, and efficiency. If RNs are provided with strong clinical leadership, participate in developing an achievable vision of the future, and if supported to take risks and innovate to improve the quality and efficiency of care delivery, then the profession is likely to thrive rather than struggle during the health reform years that lie ahead. Increasing the education and preparation of nursing leaders, and particularly unit-level managers, will be increasingly vital for nursing to prosper in the future. PMID:23346730

Buerhaus, Peter I; DesRoches, Catherine; Applebaum, Sandra; Hess, Robert; Norman, Linda D; Donelan, Karen

2012-01-01

378

Charter Schools: Education Reform or Business?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As charter schools multiply, public school teachers and administrators need to understand the policy landscape in which charters are skimming money from their traditional local public schools, making scarce resources even scarcer. In this essay, the author discusses a related phenomenon that is part of some school reform plans--the reconstitution…

Tienken, Christopher H.

2011-01-01

379

The hospital sector in Germany: an overview.  

PubMed

The German health care system has recently experienced far reaching reforms within its hospital sector, including a new financing and remuneration system, the life span of which is to the year 2003. The reforms have been based on the DRG-system already in operation in another country. Other regulations of the new reform involve the system of quality assurance and quality management in German hospitals and a new form of supply of services, the so called "integrated care" system, the introduction of which was to overcome the fragmented system of ambulatory and stationary medical care in Germany. This article, in short, presents an overview of the hospital sector in Germany and reports on the latest developments resulting from implementation of the health care reform. PMID:11276937

Schölkopf, M

2000-01-01

380

BBC News: Lords Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On January 19, 1999, Tony Blair's government announced the most radical restructuring of the House of Lords, the UK's second chamber, in its 600-year existence. Honoring the Labour Party election manifesto, the Bill will remove all 759 hereditary peers, those with an automatic right to sit by virtue of birthright, within the year. In the meantime, a Royal Commission will formulate proposals for a new upper house and issue a report by December 31, 1999. A fully reformed chamber is expected to be in place by 2002, and in the meantime, publicly nominated "People's Peers" may sit in the Lords in addition to the politically appointed Life Peers. The BBC Special Report outlines this momentous constitutional change in Britain, and offers analysis, commentary, and the latest news.

1999-01-01

381

Quality of life in individuals living with HIV/AIDS attending a public sector antiretroviral service in Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome helping to understand the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined and compared the HRQoL in relation to ART status among HIV-infected patients in a public sector service in Cape Town, South Africa. In addition, we aimed to examine the relationship between ART status and HRQoL according to CD4 count strata. Methods A cross sectional study sample of 903 HIV-infected patients who were categorized as not receiving ART (ART-naïve) or receiving first-line ART for?>?6 months (ART). HRQoL outcomes were compared in the two groups. HRQoL was assessed using the EQ-5D (five domains) and Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5D VAS). Results Of the total sample, 435 were categorised as ART naïve (76% women) and 468 were on ART (78% women). There were no significant associations between groups for most of the EQ-5D domains, however ART-naïve experienced a significantly greater problem with mobility than the ART group. Being ART-naïve (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.08 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63- 7.89) and obese 2.78 (95% CI 1.24- 6.22) were identified as predictors for increased mobility problems in multivariate analysis. In addition, receiving ART (5.61 difference; 95% CI 2.50 - 8.72) and having some source of income (4.76; 95% CI 1.63 -7.89) were identified as predictors for a higher EQ-5D VAS score. When grouped according to CD4 count strata, there were no significant difference between groups for most of the EQ-5D domains, however the ART-naïve group indicated having significantly greater problems under the CD4 count of >500 cells/?L in the anxiety/depression domain (22.4% vs 8.8%, p?=?0.018) and significantly lower EQ-5D VAS scores under the CD4 counts of ?200 cells/?L (median 80 (IQR 60–90) vs 90 (IQR 80–100), p?=?0.0003) and 201–350 cells/?L (median 80 (IQR 70–90) vs 90 (80–100), p?=?0.0004) compared to ART group. Conclusions HRQoL (self-rated health state) was improved with ART use, including those with immunocompromised status, which may be relevant to the public sector ART program in South Africa. PMID:24990360

2014-01-01

382

Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions. PMID:20396645

Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

2009-01-01

383

Reform before NCLB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author compared NCLB-prompted standards-based reforms with earlier reforms and found that earlier manifestations of standards-based reforms may have been more productive and constructive. NCLB, with its emphasis on accountability through high-stakes testing, has produced many perverse results alongside documented achievement gains, the author…

Desimone, Laura M.

2013-01-01

384

ALBANIA'S RADICAL AGRARIAN REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agrarian reform in Albania included free distribution of land to rural households and the complete break up of the former collective and state farms. These key features of the Albanian reform are in sharp contrast with other Central and Eastern European countries. Our paper explains the choice of the Albanian agricultural privatization and land reform process and the radical

Azeta Cungu; Johan F. M. Swinnen

1998-01-01

385

What can we learn from international comparisons of health systems and health system reform?  

PubMed Central

Most commonly, lessons derived from comparisons of international health sector reform can only be generalized in a limited way to similar countries. However, there is little guidance as to what constitutes "similarity" in this respect. We propose that a framework for assessing similarity could be derived from the performance of individual policies in different contexts, and from the cause and effect processes related to the policies. We demonstrate this process by considering research evidence in the "public-private mix", and propose variables for an initial framework that we believe determine private involvement in the public health sector. The most influential model of public leadership places the private role in a contracting framework. Research in countries that have adopted this model suggests an additional list of variables to add to the framework. The variables can be grouped under the headings "demand factors", "supply factors", and "strength of the public sector". These illustrate the nature of a framework that could emerge, and which would help countries aiming to learn from international experience. PMID:10916918

McPake, B.; Mills, A.

2000-01-01

386

Will electricity market reform likely reduce retail rates?  

SciTech Connect

To win public support, proponents for electricity market reform to introduce competition often promise that the post-reform retail rates will be lower than the average embedded cost rates that would have prevailed under the status quo of a regulated monopoly. A simple economic analysis shows that such a promise is unlikely to occur without the critical assumption that the post-reform market has marginal costs below average costs. (author)

Woo, C.K.; Zarnikau, Jay

2009-03-15

387

Insecticide-treated nets and treatment service: a trial using public and private sector channels in rural United Republic of Tanzania.  

PubMed

The Rotary Net Initiative, implemented in Kilombero District, southern United Republic of Tanzania, allowed us to explore different sales channels for the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and the insecticide treatment service in a rural area of very high malaria transmission. Several types of ITNs were promoted and sold through different channels in the public and private sector, i.e. hospital pharmacy, mother and child health (MCH) clinic, net committee, village health workers and retail shops. The ITNs were sold for US$ 5.0-9.2, with profit margins of 9-16%. Net treatment cost US$ 0.33, with commission fees of 75%. Net transport and treatment were partially subsidized. Some outlets established their own fund by ITN sales. Sales of nets and treatments were seasonal, and certain net types were preferred. Demand for insecticide treatment was generally low. Changes in net coverage were assessed in two villages. A range of outlet features were compared qualitatively. Our experience supports suggestions that ITN technology should be delivered through MCH care services and demonstrates that specific promotion and innovation are necessary to achieve substantial net treatment levels. A large-scale ITN project in the same area and other ITN studies should lead to better understanding of ITN implementation at the population level. PMID:10191557

Fraser-Hurt, N; Lyimo, E O

1998-01-01

388

Extension system reform and the challenges ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public agricultural extension services around the world are being pressured to adapt to new funding constraints and a changing agricultural sector. The global perspective on extension is no longer that of a unified public sector service, but of a multi-institutional network of knowledge and information support for rural people. This reality and its ensuing issues were discussed at an international

William M. Rivera; Gary Alex

2004-01-01

389

Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public agricultural extension services around the world are being pressured to adapt to new funding constraints and a changing agricultural sector. The global perspective on extension is no longer that of a unified public sector service, but of a multi-institutional network of knowledge and information support for rural people. This reality and…

Rivera, William M.; Alex, Gary

2004-01-01

390

Reforming Districts through Choice, Autonomy, Equity, and Accountability: An Overview of the Voluntary Public School Choice Directors Meeting. Portfolio School Districts Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February 2011, the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) convened a conference to help districts implementing school choice under the U.S. Department of Education's Voluntary Public School Choice program. The conference, sponsored by the Department of Education, provided grantees access to the most current knowledge from district and…

Gross, Betheny; Lake, Robin

2011-01-01

391

Charter Laws: Disaster, Detour, Irrelevant, or Reform Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Charter laws have been the reform debate's path of least resistance. But the combination of regulatory barriers, open admissions, lack of consumer sovereignty, preferential funding of traditional public schools, and political control of prices means that charter laws may be irrelevant as reform catalysts, or worse. Even the strongest charter laws…

Merrifield, John

2006-01-01

392

Ravitch and Reform: Should "Left Back" be Left Back?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Ravitch's "Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms," suggesting that: the book is tedious, its documentation is limited, it neglects important reform movements, and it presents troubling accusations about an elitist attitude in public education which has historically been detrimental to the underprivileged. The review asserts that…

Goetz, William W.

2002-01-01

393

The History of Reform in Russian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reform of higher education became the subject of sharp debate and public concern in Russia during the current decade. The controversy still exists even if the reforms had been initiated in the early 1990s. By the mid-1990s, their most painful aspects had already become manifest: severe cuts in state funding; deteriorating working conditions of…

Kaplan, Vera

2007-01-01

394

Community Organizing for School Reform in New York City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines school reform via community organizing in New York City's lowest performing public school districts. It summarizes findings from a national study on community organizing for school reform, profiling 10 community organizing groups. In 2000, researchers conducted surveys of and interviews with all NYC groups currently engaged in…

Mediratta, Kavitha

395

Reform of Early Childhood Education in Shenzhen: A Legal Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The systemic reform of early childhood education (ECE) in Shenzhen has given rise to widespread debate as it has, in fact, changed ECE's rights and power relationships. It has created an impact in terms of ECE's public nature and, in a way, affected the integrity of China's education system. Although this reform possesses positive significance,…

Guolin, Zhang

2008-01-01

396

Law & School Reform: Six Strategies for Promoting Educational Equity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes the growing involvement of lawyers in America's public schools in the past half century. It discusses comparatively what leading educators and lawyers believe to be the most important law-driven school reforms and examines these reform efforts from the perspectives of law, education, research, and practice. It also considers…

Heubert, Jay P., Ed.

397

Benchmarking Exponential Growth of Educational Reform: The Sustainability Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After decades of reform efforts in public school systems in the United States, there is minimal student achievement progress to measure. This article addresses the ongoing challenges and complexities of the sustainability of educational reform through a review of the literature and the proposal of a Sustainability Index as a metric to benchmark…

Garcia, Ray

2009-01-01

398

A Kaleidoscope for Learning. Outstanding School Reform Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication features profiles of 25 outstanding school reform programs at Bureau of Indian Affairs schools. These innovative schools have captured various aspects of school reform that encompass more challenging, real world curricula; school-to-work transitions; new ways of assessing student achievement; higher order thinking and…

Shaughnessy, Lana, Ed.; Morris, Joann Sebastian, Ed.

399

The Success and Failure of One Mandated Reform for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates the implementation of a school reform policy for educating young children in one south eastern state in the US, a reform known as the non-graded primary program. The reform is examined through the lens of Sabatier and Mazmanian's [(1981). "The implementation of public policy: A framework for analysis." In D. A. Mazmanian,…

McIntyre, Ellen; Kyle, Diane W.

2006-01-01

400

The Agony of School Reform: Race, Class, and the Elusive Search for Social Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Education and Democratic Theory: Finding a Place for Community Participation in Public School Reform" (A. Belden Fields and Walter Feinberg) and "The Color of School Reform: Race, Politics, and the Challenge of Urban Education" (J. Henig, R. Hula, M. Orr, and D. Pedescleaux). Both books examine the political aspects of reform. Integrates…

Leonardo, Zeus

2003-01-01

401

An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.  

PubMed

Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders. PMID:24151086

Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

2013-12-01

402

On-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol for high temperature PEM fuel cells: Comparison of autothermal reforming and steam reforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 21st century biofuels will play an important role as alternative fuels in the transportation sector. In this paper different reforming options (steam reforming (SR) and autothermal reforming (ATR)) for the on-board conversion of bioethanol and biodiesel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells are investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. Special emphasis is placed on thermal heat integration. Methyl-oleate (C19H36O2) is chosen as reference substance for biodiesel. Bioethanol is represented by ethanol (C2H5OH). For the steam reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 75.6% (76.3%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 3. For the autothermal reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 74.1% (75.1%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 2 and ? = 0.36 (0.35). Taking into account the better dynamic behaviour and lower system complexity of the reforming concept based on ATR, autothermal reforming in combination with a water gas shift reactor is considered as the preferred option for on-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the simulation results optimum operating conditions for a novel 5 kW biofuel processor are derived.

Martin, Stefan; Wörner, Antje

2011-03-01

403

Financial market lobbies and pension reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model in which firms in the financial market lobby the government to lower compulsory contributions to the public pension system. Firms lobby in order to increase demand from households for their old-age savings products. We conclude with a comparison of two major pension reforms in Europe exemplifying the influence of financial market lobbies on pension policies.

Achim Kemmerling; Michael Neugart

2009-01-01

404

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

405

Postsecondary Education Reform in Kentucky. Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As governors and states seek to improve the responsiveness of postsecondary education, Kentucky's experience provides a powerful example of a systemic reform strategy. In 1997, Kentucky's governor proposed, and the General Assembly approved, the Postsecondary Education Improvement Act (House Bill 1), which reshaped the state system of public

Rabuzzi, Daniel A.; Carson, Ron

406

Cultural Issues in Comprehensive School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the complex educational and social conditions facing African American males in public schools, highlighting the effectiveness of comprehensive school reform to overcome barriers to these students' learning (e.g, concentrated poverty, drug use, and violence). Discusses the importance of cultural relevance and teacher-student cultural…

Cooper, Robert; Jordan, Will J.

2003-01-01

407

Restructuring Urban Schools: Chicago's Reform Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the restructuring of the Chicago (Illinois) Public Schools. Key choices made about restructuring over 10 years are discussed, and 18 key elements for improvement are identified. It is argued that the reform is on the right track, with potential for substantial impact. (SLD)

Moore, Donald R.; Pandya, Abha

1992-01-01

408

China at the Crossroads: Reform after Tiananmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication analyzes the reform movement in China before and after the Tiananmen Square demonstrations of 1989. In the aftermath of the cold war and because of recent mutual hostility, U.S.-Chinese relations are at a critical juncture. The events leading up to and encompassing the demonstrations in Tiananmen Square and the brutal manner in…

Goldstein, Steven M.

1992-01-01

409

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

E-print Network

1 Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States Rebecca M. Blank University of Michigan and NBER the United States fundamentally changed the structure of its public assistance programs to low, labor force changes, poverty and income changes, and family formation changes. A growing body

Shyy, Wei

410

Educational Reforms that Foster Ecological Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are powerful forces of resistance that must be acknowledged when introducing educational reforms that foster ecological intelligence. The foremost source of resistance is the paradigm gap that now separates generations. That is, the vast majority of university professors, classroom teachers--and thus the general public that has been educated…

Bowers, C. A.

2010-01-01

411

The Movement for Reform in the Teaching of Religion in the Public Schools of Saxony. Bulletin, 1910, No. 1. Whole Number 423  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical relations of public education to the institutions of religion have been variously significant. While governmental affairs and ecclesiastical affairs have been set apart from each other in this country, the teaching of sectarian doctrines is generally excluded from the schools of the several States, an understanding of the relations…

Show, Arley Barthlow

1910-01-01

412

Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012  

PubMed Central

Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

2014-01-01

413

Are we there yet? A journey of health reform in Australia.  

PubMed

• Five years on from the establishment of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission, it is timely to review the context for reform and some of the actions taken to date, and to highlight remaining areas of concern and priority. • The Commission's final report was released in July 2009 and presented 123 recommendations organised under four reform themes: Taking responsibility: individual and collective action to build good health and wellbeing - by people, families, communities, health professionals, employers, health funders and governments Connecting care: comprehensive care for people over their lifetime Facing inequities: recognise and tackle the causes and impacts of health inequities Driving quality performance: leadership and systems to achieve best use of people, resources and evolving knowledge. • Overall, the Australian Government's response to the Commission's report has been very positive, but challenges remain in some key areas: Financial sustainability and the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and state governments Getting the best value from the health dollar by reducing inefficiency and waste and using value-based purchasing across the public and private health sectors National leadership across the system as a whole Getting the right care in the right place at the right time Health is about more than health care - increasing focus on prevention and recognising and tackling the broader social determinants of health. PMID:23984781

Bennett, Christine C

2013-08-19

414

Reforms as experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contends that programs of social reform are not effectively assessed. This article is a preliminary effort in examining the sources of this condition and designing ways of overcoming the difficulties. The political setting of program evaluation is also considered. It is concluded that trapped and experimental administrators are not threatened by a hard-headed analysis of the reform. For such, proper

Donald T. Campbell

1969-01-01

415

Educational Reform in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

Aksit, Necmi

2007-01-01

416

Learning from School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper asserts that creating successful school reform can be difficult. The first part discusses the concept of school culture to explain challenges to school reform, examining why existing school culture is necessary for a smoothly functioning and stable school but an obstacle to educational change and noting that attempts to transform school…

Levin, Henry M.

417

Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms  

PubMed Central

Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

2012-01-01

418

Social Security Privatization Reform and Labor Markets: The Case of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the way in which social security privatization reform affects labor market outcomes. We develop a model of the labor market where we assume that, as is the case in most emerging markets, a formal and an informal sectors coexist side by side. According to our model, a social security reform that reduces the implicit tax on labor in

Sebastian Edwards; Alejandra Cox Edwards

2002-01-01

419

10 December 2009 Educators for Reform response to HEFCE Research Excellence Framework consultation  

E-print Network

1 10 December 2009 Educators for Reform response to HEFCE Research Excellence Framework consultation The threat to Britain's research base Executive summary The Higher Education Funding Council that is already taking place in the private sector. Instead research funding should be reformed to give more

Crowther, Paul

420

Urban Labor Market Growth And Uneven Regional Development In Post-Reform China, 1980–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is to investigate how labor market growth in China's industrial sector has been shaped by the marketization processes and also spatially differentiated during the reform period. It contends that a study of regional labor market dynamics has a significant implication for understanding uneven regional development during the reform period. Using a shift share analysis, this study shows that

Wonho Lee

2001-01-01

421

Product and labor market reforms in an economy with rents, bargaining and informality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developing and emerging economies have undertaken over the past decades major reforms on their product and labor markets. The impact of these reforms on size and distribution of market rents has been influenced by the presence of a significant informal sector. This paper presents a simple general equilibrium model that illustrates the possible links between product and labor market

Lodovico Pizzati; Stefano Scarpetta

422

On the Road to Reform: A Sociocultural Interpretation of Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I…

Mensah, Felicia Moore

2011-01-01

423

New Public Management and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public administration has always been under constant review. Such reviews were mostly parochial, incremental, initiated or driven by low-key staff and often ended as fads. From the end of the 1970s to the 1990s, however, governments around the world were engaged in widespread and sustained reforms of their public administration. These reforms were…

Tolofari, Sowaribi

2005-01-01

424

Learning from social security reforms: Two different cases, Chile and Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two of the most important structural reforms of social security in Latin America: the Chilean private fully funded system, and the public\\/private Argentinean “integrated” (pay-as-you-go\\/fully funded) program. Chile was the first country in the world to completely privatize the old public pension system. This landmark reform has had a strong influence on other pension reforms, not only

Fabio Bertranou

1997-01-01

425

Public health care provisions: access and equity.  

PubMed

Within the current exercise of reforming the health care system, underlying all issues, is the reassessment of the role of government. It is a government's responsibility and concern that the health sector be accessible and equitable to the population, and more important that the health sector be more efficient and affordable. Many governments in the world attempt to provide universal health care services to their population through public health care provisions. This paper reviews and analyses the experience of the Malaysian health system, focusing on the performance of the system in relation to access and equity. The performance of the Malaysian health system has been impressive. At minimum cost it has achieved virtually accessible and equitable health care to the entire population. This is evident by analysing almost all the commonly used indicators. These clearly show that when matched to comparable countries, health outcome is even better than predicted value. PMID:8870140

Bin Juni, M H

1996-09-01

426

Catalytic reforming methods  

DOEpatents

A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

2013-05-14

427

78 FR 21963 - Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Reform (the Commission) will hold a public meeting on April 29, 2013. During the public meeting, the Commission will: gain insights about how the UN Declaration can be implemented in support of tribes; hear the top three recommendations from tribal...

2013-04-12

428

Landsat Technology Transfer to the Private and Public Sectors through Community Colleges and Other Locally Available Institutions, Phase II Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1979, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) initiated a program to investigate methods of making Landsat (satellite imagery) technology available to private sector firms through a network comprising NASA, a university or research institute, local community colleges,…

Rogers, Robert H.

429

NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

None

2013-06-12

430

Campaign Finance Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1996 US election, which took in more than $260 million in soft money alone, was the most expensive in the nation's history. Long time advocates of campaign finance reform have rallied behind the revised McCain-Feingold proposal which, among other reforms, would ban soft money. However, recent Senate hearings have revealed that the bill does not have the necessary support to pass. The majority of Republican Senators, led by Mitch McConnell, who has pledged to filibuster if necessary, oppose the McCain-Feingold proposal. Recent comments by the Republican leadership in the House reveal that campaign finance reform, as it is currently envisaged, is unlikely to make progress in that chamber either. These sites provide a large number of informative and analytical pieces on campaign finance reform, written from viewpoints across the political spectrum.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

1997-01-01

431

High School Science Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Scope, Sequence, and Coordination (SS&C) reform movement. Points out the limited science opportunities for minority students in traditional high school settings. First published in 1995. (YDS)

Aldridge, Bill G.

2000-01-01

432

Blueprints for Reform: Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Blueprints for Reform is a summation of reports offering teachers, parents, policymakers, business leaders, and others a starting point for their exploration of the education system and its response to reform. This chapter looks at how student assessment in American schools might be redesigned to match the goals of science education reform put forth in that are exemplified in efforts such as Project 2061's Benchmarks for Science Literacy. It is divided into three sections that describe current assessment practice in the United States, suggest changes that are needed in order for science reform goals to be implemented, and explore possibilities and recommendations for closing the gap between current practice and a more ideal vision of science assessment.

433

NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities  

ScienceCinema

Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

None

2014-06-27

434

Meeting Five Critical Challenges of High School Reform. Lessons from Research on Three Reform Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school reform has moved to the top of the education policy agenda, commanding the attention of the federal government, governors, urban school superintendents, philanthropists, and the general public. All are alarmed by stubbornly high dropout rates, by the low academic achievement of many high school students, and by the large numbers of…

Quint, Janet

2006-01-01

435

Education Reformer: Robert J. Marzano. Models for Education Reform, Part 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frederick M. Hess, director of education policy studies at the American Enterprise Institute, a public policy think tank in Washington, D.C., and Linda Darling-Hammond, a professor of education at Stanford University, wrote in "How to Rescue Education Reform" in The New York Times on December 5 that the federal government can and should play a…

Dessoff, Alan

2012-01-01

436

Land reform, farm structure, and agricultural performance in CIS countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impacts of land reform policies in CIS countries on agricultural performance, including growth and productivity. The focal thesis of the study is that agricultural development in CIS is mainly driven by policy factors, and it is changes in policies (whether agricultural or general economic) that cumulatively affect growth, employment, and productivity in the large rural sector

Zvi LERMAN

2009-01-01

437

Rethinking Educational Reform: A Loosely Coupled and Complex Systems Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically examines two sets of ideas that have influenced educational reform in the recent past: managerialism and market approaches. It is argued that while each can be demonstrated to have led to useful change, neither provides a basis for future improvement in education. A recent example of change within the State School sector of…

Goldspink, Chris

2007-01-01

438

Models to Guide System Reform for At-Risk Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy reform for at-risk youth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…

McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna

2010-01-01

439

Standardized test outcomes for students engaged in inquiry-based science curricula in the context of urban reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable effort has been made over the past decade to address the needs of learners in large urban districts through scaleable reform initiatives. We examine the effects of a multifaceted scaling reform that focuses on supporting standards based science teaching in urban middle schools. The effort was one component of a systemic reform effort in the Detroit Public Schools, and

Robert Geier; Phyllis C. Blumenfeld; Ronald W. Marx; Joseph S. Krajcik; Barry Fishman; Elliot Soloway; Juanita Clay-Chambers

2008-01-01

440

On the road to reform: a sociocultural interpretation of reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I address some familiar areas that must be considered when teachers undertake curriculum reform and how science educators may fulfill the role of facilitator and advocate in the support of teachers on the road to reform. The commentary focuses on how Barma retells the story through the lens of activity theory.

Mensah, Felicia Moore

2011-09-01

441

Entrepreneurship in Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The private sector is more often viewed as the realm that is cutting-edge and creative, not the public sector. But this thinking is more myth than fact. There are countless examples of private sector entities that become stagnant and eventually fail. The reality is that no particular sector has a lock on being innovative and entrepreneurial. These…

McFadden, Brett W.

2013-01-01

442

The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

Stern, Jonathan M. B.

2014-01-01

443

Reforming Secondary Science Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science education reform can seem a daunting task to high school science teachers. So, you might ask, why should I be bothered? The answer is that today's students simply do not have the skill sets necessary for life in our global economy. Reforming Secondary Science Instruction offers detailed advice for changing your methods of teaching so that students are prepared for life and work. Follow along as your fellow teachers learn about inquiry, implement change strategies, try out innovative instructional materials, build professional learning communities and partnerships, use data from student assessments, and address the needs of linguistically diverse learners. The underlying message, as one author puts it, is "science education reform will not occur by simply adding occasional new activities to your teaching repertoire. Reform requires thought, work, and persistence." Every chapter offers you the opportunity to assess your own teaching techniques and find room for improvement. Whether you are early in your career or a seasoned professional, Reforming Secondary Science Instruction will help you craft a workable plan for giving your students the tools they need to succeed beyond your classroom.

2009-02-15

444

Synergies between veterinarians and para-professionals in the public and private sectors: organisational and institutional relationships that facilitate the process of privatising animal health services in developing countries.  

PubMed

The delivery of veterinary services in most developing countries was, until recently, considered to be the responsibility of the public sector. However, over the past four decades, economic constraints and the imposition of structural adjustment policies (SAPs) have led to a gradual decline in public sector investment in real terms and thus a reduction in the quality and quantity of services available to livestock keepers. Many governments acknowledged that they were no longer able to provide services that were essentially of a 'private good' nature and introduced radical policy changes which sought to introduce the concepts of a market orientated approach towards agriculture and livestock production in particular. The role of government, in the future, would be to provide a reduced range of essential 'public good' services and to create a favourable environment in which the private sector could become established as a provider of 'private good' services and at the same time act as a partner in carrying out certain public functions under contract or 'sanitary mandates'. In almost all developing countries, however, these policy changes were not accompanied by appropriate development strategies. The reasons for this are complex. Firstly, SAPs may be considered to have been foisted upon governments by donors and are thus perceived by many policy-makers as the cause of financial problems, rather than a solution to them. Secondly, most animal health senior policy-makers in the public sector have been trained as veterinarians and lack the required management skills to plan change effectively. Furthermore, as regards clinical veterinary service delivery, especially in rural or more remote areas, the solution fostered by donor investment, which involves deregulation and the deployment of privately operating para-professionals, is often perceived as a threat to the veterinary profession and might result in limiting access to international markets for the trade of livestock and livestock products. An informal delivery system has gained a foothold in many developing countries in the absence of a well-planned strategy for the privatisation of animal health services. Most governments would now acknowledge that this presents a greater risk than the deployment of well-regulated and effectively supervised para-professionals. This paper explores some of the principal challenges facing policy-makers in their efforts to bridge the transition from full state provision of animal health services to the formation of a partnership with the private sector. Governments and donors need to take active steps to facilitate the process of privatisation of animal health services, especially those targeting the poorer rural subsistence and pastoralist farming systems. This would entail an initial investment in developing the necessary management skills at all levels in the delivery system. Thereafter, further investment would be required to allow the changes to be managed using tools such as the strategic planning cycle. Should sufficient resources be made available to allow the full participation of all stakeholders in the delivery of animal health services, appropriate institutions and effective organisational relationships addressing all the more important issues will have to be identified. The paper then proceeds to describe how different livestock production systems determine the level of demand for animal health services. If these services are to be provided on a financially sustainable basis, they must be tailored to meet actual rather than perceived demand. Identifying an appropriate model for animal health service delivery thus requires careful analysis of the production system to be targeted. Governments and donors can play a useful role in providing resources for this type of study as well as for appropriate market studies, business planning, training and access to soft loans. Finally, as regards regulation, as the law stands today, many activities currently practised by para-professionals are classified as 'acts of veterinary medicine or sur

Woodford, J D

2004-04-01

445

Abortion law reform in Nepal.  

PubMed

Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

Upreti, Melissa

2014-08-01

446

Reforming Further Education Teacher Training: A Policy Communities and Policy Networks Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s teacher preparation for the schools sector in the United Kingdom was subject to a series of reforms and innovations including the establishment of new institutional arrangements to oversee the sector, namely the Teacher Training Agency (TTA--now the Training and Development Agency, TDA). Since 2002 the arrangements…

Holloway, David

2009-01-01

447

After Years of (Economic) Solitude: Neoliberal Reforms and Pay Inequality in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the evolution of pay inequality in Colombia's manufacturing sector from 1992-2004. Colombia's implementation of economic reforms, including the opening of the economy and the financial liberalization that began in the early 1990s, were the main drivers of change in the structure of the manufacturing sector, provoking fluctuations in pay inequality. Changes in pay inequality

Laura Spagnolo; Daniel Munevar

448

Educational Reform and Technical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Even though educational reform marches under a banner of economic renewal, the school subjects that appear to be most directly related to worker productivity-- business education, vocational education, economics, computers--have received little attention from reformers. The five \\

John H. Bishop

1993-01-01

449

FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet  

E-print Network

FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet Social historians have broadly defined two cycles of American history characterized by an efflorescence of social movements aiming to reform both the individual to the 1920s. The reform impulse thrived wherever there was a perceived vice, abuse or corruption

Recanati, Catherine

450

Women, Class, and School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes ordinary women's role in shaping school reform in their community, highlighting interplay of class conflict, regionalism, and gender roles in reform efforts. The women protesting the Odyssey Project framed the debate as a juncture between a national, elitist reform movement and a local grassroots countermovement protecting children,…

Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Wadsworth, Angela L.

1996-01-01

451

Emotional intelligence and educational reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This reform aims primarily on the maximization of performance

Lefkios Neophytou

2012-01-01

452

Educational Reform and Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains six studies that were commissioned for the National Assessment of Vocational Education. "Introduction" (Ann M. Milne) provides an overview of the reforms of the 1980s. "The Impact of Educational Reform on Vocational Education" (Marion Asche, Donald E. Elson, Ann Echols, Arthur Williams) examines primary strategies of reform

Milne, Ann M., Ed.

453

Teacher Education Reforms in Albania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on insights from Albanian teacher educators and government representatives, this paper examines processes of change and types of reform (modernization, structural, and systemic reform) in Albania. It also discusses the initial implementation of one of the reforms, which was directed at the balance and role of school experiences, analyzing…

Whitehead, Joan

2000-01-01

454

Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

Qi, Jie

2009-01-01

455

Prospects for Health Care Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)

Kastner, Theodore

1992-01-01

456

Post-Soviet gas sector restructuring in the CIS: a political economy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses progress and obstacles to gas sector reform in the most important CIS-countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan), taking a political economy perspective. This reform process is embedded in a very specific post-Soviet institutional framework stemming from the legacy of socialism. Firstly, we review the evolution of the gas sector for the period 1992–1998. The paper then identifies the

Christian von Hirschhausen; Hella Engerer

1998-01-01

457

Electricity power Sector reform in the GCC region  

SciTech Connect

The Gulf Cooperation Council interconnection will act as a gateway towards achieving regional and pan-Arab power pools, thus promoting social, economic, and environmental development and cooperation in the Middle East and North African countries. (author)

Al-Asaad, Hassan K.

2009-11-15

458

Making Liberia Safe Through Comprehensive Security-Sector Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

or some 15 years, Liberia was wracked by unprecedented levels of brutality, corruption, incompetence, intrigue, and foreign adventures that engulfed the entire region in intertwined con- flicts. The unrest left more than 200,000 dead and displaced more than one million Liberians, out of an initial population of barely three million. Liberia's state army, police, and intelligence services unleashed civil war,

Brooke K. Stearns; PARDEE RAND

459

The Right Reforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Phi Delta Kappa survey during 1988-89 asked principals to rate the effectiveness of nine educational reform measures. Principals believed teachers reacted most positively to improved working conditions, more school autonomy, and restrictions on extracurricular activities for nonachieving students. Principals also believed that improving…

Nardini, Mary Lois; Antes, Richard L.

1991-01-01

460

High School Science Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea for the Scope, Sequence, and Coordination (SSandC) reform effort was conceived in the early 1980s, primarily in response to practices in U.S. secondary schools that filter out the majority of students from higher level science courses. The current

Aldridge, Bill G.

2000-01-01

461

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

462

Comments on regulatory reform  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

Hendrie, J.M.

1982-01-01

463

Reforming Underperforming High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

MDRC, 2013

2013-01-01

464

Reforming using erionite catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The advantage of reforming on erionite catalysts is a product with high octane numbers and low amounts of aromatics. This advantage seems to be slight at reaction pressures lower than 25 bar. But it is possible to compensate for the influence of pressure by varying the erionite content within the catalyst and the reaction temperature. When reforming on Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts, the following reactions take place: dehydrocyclization of paraffins to naphthenes, dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics, isomerication of normal paraffins remains in the product, lowering its octane number. By using a Ni/H-erionite catalyst, the octane rating can be increased by 3 to 7 numbers through selective hydrocracking of n-alkanes in the reformate. Erionite catalysts favor shape-selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins and the formation of cyclopentane derivatives lowering the content of aromatics during reforming reactions. Reducing the reaction pressure decreases hydrocracking activity and cyclopentane formation. These results can be interpreted in terms of thermodynamic restrictions and deactivation.

Liers, J.; Meusinger, J.; Moesch, A. (Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)); Reschetilowski, W. (Karl Winnacker Inst. of DECHEMA, Frankfurt (Germany))

1993-08-01

465

Educational Reform: Who Benefits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Blau and Scott concept of "cui bono" to describe who has benefited from 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act. In eyes of legislators, everyone would benefit, and the economically depressed state would prosper. As implementation of KERA progresses, it is becoming increasingly clear that mandated changes may be structural and may benefit system…

Steffy, Betty E.

1994-01-01

466

Welfare Reform Briefing Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information on the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in light of efforts at welfare reform. Following a listing of whom to call at the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) regarding various welfare issues, the report's first section, "Basic Facts on Welfare," presents information on the AFDC in a…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

467

Public-private interactions on health in South Africa: opportunities for scaling up.  

PubMed

South Africa has long recognized partnerships between the public and private sectors as a policy objective in health, but experience is still limited and poorly documented. The objectives of this article are to understand the factors that increase the likelihood of success of public-private interactions in South Africa, and identify and discuss opportunities for them to be scaled up. There is a strong legislative framework and a number of guidelines and tools that have been developed by the Treasury for managing partnerships. The review of literature confirmed the need for the state to have effective regulations in order to oversee quality and standards and to provide stewardship and oversight. The public sector requires sufficient capacity not only to manage relationships with the private sector but also to enable innovation and experimentation. Evaluation is an integral part of all interactions not only to learn from successes but also to identify any perverse incentives that may lead to unintended consequences. Four case studies show that the private for-profit sector is already engaged in a number of projects that are closely aligned to current health system reform priorities. Factors that increase the likelihood of interactions being successful include: increasing the government's capacity to manage public-private relationships; choosing public-private interactions that are strategically important to national goals; building a knowledge base on what works, where and why; moving from pilots to large scale initiatives; harnessing the contracting expertise in private providers; and encouraging innovation and learning. PMID:23962441

Kula, Nothemba; Fryatt, Robert J

2014-08-01

468

Niche markets and evidence assessment in transition: a critical review of proposed drug reforms.  

PubMed

In response to rising demands and treatment costs, and the need to achieve better value for money in the face of tight fiscal constraints, both the National Health Service and the public drug reimbursement system are undergoing important reforms. Concurrently, the pharmaceutical sector itself is also alleged to be experiencing significant changes, perhaps most notably, a decline of the blockbuster model of drug development and a growing focus on niche market products. As pharmaceutical development strategies evolve and the resulting drug products become more complex, regulatory and policy responses must be able to evolve along with them. We explore how in numerous jurisdictions, including the UK, proposals for 'adaptive licensing' on the regulatory side and 'performance-based risk sharing agreements' on the funding side are shifting the focus of drug regulation and reimbursement towards more incremental access to new therapies and more post-market evidence generation. However, serious questions remain about how such reforms can be successfully implemented and whether they can balance demands for earlier access to promising new therapies with the need for robust evidence on safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:24841527

Gibson, Shannon G; Lemmens, Trudo

2014-01-01

469

Scapegoating Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their popular explanation of No Child Left Behind, journalists and other public voices claim that unruly and inefficient public schools are being brought under the control of effective central authorities by scientific, test-driven accountability. Other popular themes of reform in media include mayoral control of schools, non-educators as…

Shaker, Paul S.; Heilman, Elizabeth E.

2008-01-01

470

Neighborhoods Matter: The Role of Universities in the School Reform Neighborhood Development Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Where you find distressed neighborhoods, you will also find poorly performing public schools. Yet many contemporary school reform efforts ignore neighborhood-level factors that undeniably impact school performance. The purpose of this study is to use a case study approach with social institutional and urban school reform regime frameworks to…

Taylor, Henry Louis; McGlynn, Linda; Luter, D. Gavin

2013-01-01

471

Lessons in School Reform: An Evaluation of a University-operated Charter Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wayne State University Public School (UPS), Detroit (Michigan), a university-operated charter middle school, is strongly influenced by the educational reform movement. The evolution of UPS is documented as a case study of educational reform in the 1990s, focusing on the 1994-95 school year. The school is in an urban area marked by poverty and…

Dannis, Jacqueline; Colombo, Marie; Sawilowsky, Shlomo

472

Bureaucrats in business: The roles of privatization versus corporatization in state-owned enterprise reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides evidence from a sample of 12 developing countries that countries which improved state-owned enterprise performance the most followed a comprehensive strategy of reforms, including a combination of privatization and corporatization. Further evidence that corporatization works better in combination with ownership and other reforms is provided through an analysis of government contracts with public managers, private managers and

Mary M. Shirley

1999-01-01

473

Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective  

E-print Network

perspective on e-government can provide important insights into bureaucratic reform, political developmentBureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E. Fountain Center for Public Policy and Administration Department of Political Science University

Schweik, Charles M.

474

Integrating Technology in Teaching and Teacher Education: Implications for Policy and Curriculum Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses technology integration in teaching and teacher education. Emphasis is placed on policy and curriculum reform as they relate to the use of information technologies for teacher education. Particular reference is made to the situation in Cyprus public schools. It is argued that for successful technology integration, there needs to be a shift in pedagogical approaches and reform

Charalambos Vrasidas; Marina S McIsaac

2001-01-01

475

Journalism and Urban School Reform: Versions of Democratic Decision Making in Two American Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School reform involves the public: its expectation of participation and its support for a reform agenda. In theory, the press influences both. To explore this link, we compare education coverage in four press outlets, two each in Chicago and Cleveland. Articles and editors are interrogated for (1) style of journalism and (2) assumptions about the…

Shipps, Dorothy; Fowlkes, Elizabeth; Peltzman, Alissa

2006-01-01

476

Subsidizing "Stayers"? Effects of a Norwegian Child Care Reform on Marital Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since January 1999, all parents in Norway with children aged 1 to 3 years who do not attend publicly subsidized day care are eligible for "cash-for-care" (CFC). One important purpose of the reform is to enable parents to spend more time with their children. We analyze whether the CFC reform has affected marital stability, using individual register…

Hardoy, Ines; Schone, Pal

2008-01-01

477

Reforming La Policía: looking to the future of policing in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, policing in Mexico has been known more for its rampant corruption than crime fighting or public service. However, recent decades have seen not only a marked rise in crime, but a boom in substantive reform efforts. This study examines the historical development of law enforcement reform in Mexico with an emphasis on the last decade which has produced the

Anthony P. LaRose; Sean A. Maddan

2009-01-01

478

Critical Small Schools: Beyond Privatization in New York City Urban Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical Small Schools: Beyond Privatization in New York City Urban Educational Reform features the most current empirical research about the successes and challenges of the small schools movement and the implications of such for urban public educational policy. Situated in a climate of hierarchical reform, many of the principles of the original…

Hantzopoulos, Maria, Ed.; Tyner-Mullings, Alia R., Ed.

2012-01-01

479

Regulatory Autonomy and Performance: The Reform of Higher Education Re-Visited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this article is to contribute to the understanding of organizational autonomy and control in higher education reform and related expectations as regards the performance of universities. Our analyses draws on principal-agent models as a normative theory of policy reform, and institutionalist approaches in public policy and…

Enders, Jurgen; de Boer, Harry; Weyer, Elke

2013-01-01

480

The Politics of Parliamentary Reform: Lessons from the House of Commons (2001–2005)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThe 2001 parliament saw a renewed interest in Commons reform. Between 2001 and 2005 the House of Commons Modernisation Committee put forward several significant reports recommending changes to the select committees, sitting patterns, questioning of ministers and engaging with the public. The article examines the political factors that shaped the development and implementation of those reforms, and in particular assesses

Greg Power

2007-01-01

481

Financing Public Sector Projects with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds; Fact Sheet Series on Financing Renewable Energy Projects, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)  

SciTech Connect

Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) present a low-cost opportunity for public entities to issue bonds to finance renewable energy projects. The federal government lowers the cost of debt by providing a tax credit to the bondholder in lieu of interest payments from the issuer. Because CREBs are theoretically interest free, they may be more attractive than traditional tax-exempt municipal bonds. In February 2009, Congress appropriated a total of $2.4 billion for the "New CREBs" program. No more than one-third of the budget may be allocated to each of the eligible entities: governmental bodies, electric cooperatives, and public power providers. Applications for this round of "New CREBs" were due to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) on August 4, 2009. There is no indication Congress will extend the CREBs program; thus going forward, only projects that are approved under the 2009 round will be able to issue CREBs. This factsheet explains the CREBs mechanism and provides guidance on procedures related to issuing CREBs.

Kreycik, C.; Couglin, J.

2009-12-01

482

Energy analysis of Jordan's commercial sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents some insight into energy consumption in the commercial and public service sector (CAPSS) in Jordan. In this sector, space- and water-heating is dependent particularly upon the combustion of fossil fuels. Which thereby contribute significantly to air pollution and the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The results of a recent survey were used to evaluate the

J. O. Jaber; M. S. Mohsen; A. Al-Sarkhi; B. Akash

2003-01-01

483

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOEpatents

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24

484

The Politics of Teacher Education Reform. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association. [Volume 13].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a collection of papers on the politics of teacher education reform. The book begins with "Introduction to the Politics of Teacher Preparation Reform" (Karen Symms Gallagher and Jerry D. Bailey). Part 1, "Issues From the National Arena," includes "The Politics of Teacher Education Reform: Strategic Philanthropy and Public Policy…

Gallagher, Karen Symms, Ed.; Bailey, Jerry D., Ed.

485

VALUATION IN THE SERVICES SECTORS OF THE EMIRATES STOCK MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a member of the Gulf Cooperating Council countries (GCC) and over recent years has indicated willingness for implementation of the economic reforms necessary for the future evolution of a modern, open stock market. This study uses relative valuation techniques to estimate an intrinsic value for each of the banking, insurance and other services sectors

John Simpson

2006-01-01

486

All Change for the Learning and Skills Sector?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a three-year project funded under the ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme, this article examines two major questions: (1) How has the organisation of the learning and skills sector (LSS) in England changed as a result of recent policy? (2) What are the implications of these reforms? We draw on the theoretical work of…

Hodgson, Ann; Spours, Ken; Steer, Richard

2008-01-01

487

The factors affecting Nigeria's success toward implementation of global public health priorities.  

PubMed

This paper examines the challenges facing the Nigerian government toward the implementation of global public health priories. The Nigerian government recognizes the need to implement these priorities by putting in place the necessary policy framework, but political instability, poor infrastructural development and inadequate funding have remained barriers toward the achievement of success in implementing these priorities. The rest of the paper elucidates the fact that despite leadership and influence from the World Health Organization and other United Nations agencies, and some responses from the Nigerian government, tackling these public health problems requires much more fundamental reform to primary health services and a reduction in poverty. Although the government has shown enough political will to tackle these problems, it is expected that a better result will be achieved through injecting more funds into the Nigerian health sector, and deploying astute health administrators to manage the sector rather than pure health professionals without managerial acumen. PMID:25073860

Echebiri, Vitalis C

2014-07-29

488

Risk profiles associated with postnatal depressive symptoms among women in a public sector hospital in Mexico: the role of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended. PMID:25416532

de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A

2014-11-22

489

The global revolution in public management: Driving themes, missing links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1970s, a truly remarkable revolution has swept public management around the world. Understanding this revolution means sorting through three issues: the basic ideas of reform; the connections between the reforms and governmental processes, like budgeting and personnel; and the links between these processes and governance. These reforms have proven surprisingly productive but, in the process, they have

Donald F. Kettl

1997-01-01

490

Indonesian heath care and the economic crisis: is managed care the needed reform?  

PubMed

The ramifications of the current economic crisis are being felt throughout Asia, but problems are particularly acute in Indonesia; in the midst of high inflation and unemployment the government is considering expanding managed care reform. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the recent economic crisis on the health sector in Indonesia, and analyze the potential for implementing effective reform following the managed care model. The health sector is discussed, highlighting pre-existing problems in the health care supply environment. The determinants of the economic crisis are summarized, and the broad impacts of the crisis to date on the health sector are assessed. Next the prospects for success of current managed-care reform proposals are examined in some detail: viability of expanded managed care reform measures are assessed in light of the continuing crisis and its likely impacts on the consumers and suppliers of health care. Analysis of the potential impact of the continuing crisis focuses on key participants in health care reform: households, the government, and private health care providers. In conclusion the potential viability of managed care appears poor, given the current economic, political, and institutional conditions and likely future impacts, and suggest some alternative reform measures. PMID:10351668

Hotchkiss, D R; Jacobalis, S

1999-03-01

491

Steam reformer with catalytic combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

492

Steam reformer with catalytic combustor  

DOEpatents

A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

1990-03-20

493

Child and Adolescent Obesity and Employment Sector in Urban China  

PubMed Central

Despite its importance as a part of the economic reform in China, sectoral employment has been overlooked as a potential determinant of child and adolescent obesity (CAO). Using large-scale longitudinal data from surveys conducted from 1989 to 2006, this paper examines the relationship between the sector in which a parent is employed and CAO, with the sector being based on ownership and categorised as either state or non-state. Analyses of over 1,700 children and adolescents show that children and adolescents whose parents work in the state sector are less likely to be obese. Patterns of sectoral employment's effect are robust across time periods, in fixed-effects models, and across multiple measures of obesity. Additionally, the paper shows that socioeconomic characteristics of the parent, such as income, education, and occupation, typically thought to be important predictors of CAO, are not as important when the parental working sector is included in the models. PMID:24298293

Li, Yi; Zimmer, Zachary

2013-01-01

494

Enhancing formal educational and in-service training programs in rural Rwanda: a partnership among the public sector, a nongovernmental organization, and academia.  

PubMed

Global disparities in the distribution, specialization, diversity, and competency of the health workforce are striking. Countries with fewer health professionals have poorer health outcomes compared with countries that have more. Despite major gains in health indicators, Rwanda still suffers from a severe shortage of health professionals.This article describes a partnership launched in 2005 by Rwanda's Ministry of Health with the U.S. nongovernmental organization Partners In Health and with Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital. The partnership has expanded to include the Faculty of Medicine and the School of Public Health at the National University of Rwanda and other Harvard-affiliated academic medical centers. The partnership prioritizes local ownership and-with the ultimate goals of strengthening health service delivery and achieving health equity for poor and underserved populations-it has helped establish new or strengthen existing formal educational programs (conferring advanced degrees) and in-service training programs (fostering continuing professional development) targeting the local health workforce. Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital have also benefited from the partnership, expanding the opportunities for training and research in global health available to their faculty and trainees.The partnership has enabled Rwandan health professionals at partnership-supported district hospitals to acquire new competencies and deliver better health services to rural and underserved populations by leveraging resources, expertise, and growing interest in global health within the participating U.S. academic institutions. Best practices implemented during the partnership's first nine years can inform similar formal educational and in-service training programs in other low-income countries. PMID:24979292

Cancedda, Corrado; Farmer, Paul E; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Riviello, Robert; Rhatigan, Joseph; Wagner, Claire M; Ngabo, Fidele; Anatole, Manzi; Drobac, Peter C; Mpunga, Tharcisse; Nutt, Cameron T; Kakoma, Jean Baptiste; Mukherjee, Joia; Cortas, Chadi; Condo, Jeanine; Ntaganda, Fabien; Bukhman, Gene; Binagwaho, Agnes

2014-08-01

495

Moments or a Movement? Teacher Resistance to Neoliberal Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public school teachers in the USA are working in an era of intense interference from neoliberal reform policies. Corporate-driven forces are working to dismantle unions, narrow curricula, replace neighborhood schools with charter schools, tie student test scores to teacher evaluations and replace university-prepared career teachers with…

Horn, Brian R.

2014-01-01

496

Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform and changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, we use the Current Population Survey (CPS) to compare receipt of public benefit programs, earnings, and income among vulnerable households, defined as those households with low education or single mothers in 1994–95 and 1997–99. Over this period, the CPS shows a

Howard Chernick; Cordelia Reimers

2002-01-01

497

Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

Conway, Paul F.

2013-01-01

498

The Role of Teacher Collaboration in School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines teacher collaboration, collaborative arrangements, and the tools necessary for successful collaboration, as they relate to school reform. Suggests that teachers in all grade levels and disciplines need to work cooperatively with colleagues and representatives from other professional disciplines to address the public's demands for…

Gable, Robert A.; Manning, M. Lee

1997-01-01

499

AAPT Philadelphia 1/02 Gender, Educational Reform,  

E-print Network

, 1999) found gender difference on FCI pretest, little difference on post-test #12;AAPT Philadelphia 1 gathered to discuss gender issues and this study evolved Eight different schools: private and publicAAPT Philadelphia 1/02 Gender, Educational Reform, and Instructional Assessment: Part I Laura Mc

Wu, Mingshen

500

Lessons in Leadership: Perspectives on Corporate Managerialism and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1970 and 1990 enrolment in Newfoundland and Labrador schools dropped by 22 percent. The first wave of major educational reform (1990 to 2000) saw massive reductions in public school expenditures and the reduction of more than 16