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1

The Public Sector Reform Movement: Mapping the Global Policy Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public sector reform in both developed and developing countries has now become a routine matter of public policy—reform is almost continuous, if not always successful. While the role of international transfer agents such as the World Bank and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in promoting reforms has often been noted, there has been no comprehensive mapping of

Leslie A. Pal; Derek Ireland

2009-01-01

2

Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms may have differential impacts on various cadres of health workers. PMID:11989961

Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

2002-04-01

3

Reforming public sector : Facing the challenges of effective human resource development policy in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore and understand the public sector reform (PSR) as it affects local governments in Ghana within the context of challenges facing human resource capacity building and development policies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Adopting an exploratory case study design, the research triangulated both secondary and primary sources of data. Primary data generated from self-completing questionnaire and interview

K. B. Antwi; F. Analoui

2008-01-01

4

The power of words: explaining recent accounting reforms in the Australian public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the power of words and their usage in the context of recent reforms to accounting regulation for the Australian public sector. The broad framework for analysis advanced by Mills (1989) is applied. Mills argued that the discipline of accounting is peculiarly dependent on a specialised vocabulary or terminology, both in determining the nature and content of accounting

Brad Potter

1999-01-01

5

Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH) in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often

Jane Lethbridge

2004-01-01

6

Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

2011-03-01

7

Public sector reform and governance for adaptation: implications of new public management for adaptive capacity in Mexico and Norway.  

PubMed

Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation--namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability--have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform. PMID:21229245

Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

2011-03-01

8

[Governance and health: the rise of the managerialism in public sector reform].  

PubMed

The article examines various healthcare systems reform projects in Canada and some Canadian provinces and reveals some tendencies in governance renewal. The analisis is based on the hypothesis that reform is an exercise aiming at the renewal of governance conception and practices. In renewing governance, reform leaders hope to use adequate and effective levers to attain announced reform objectives. The article shows that the conceptions and operational modalities of governance have changed over time and that they reveal tensions inherent to the transformation and legitimation process of public healthcare systems. The first section discusses the relationships between reform and change. The second section defines the conception of gouvernance used for the analisis. Based on a content analisis of the various reform reports, the third section reveals the evolution of the conception of governance in healthcare systems in Canada. In order to expose the new tendencies, ideologies and operational principles at the heart of the reform projects are analysed. Five ideologies are identified: the democratic ideology, the "population health" ideology, the business ideology, the managerial ideology and the ideology of equity and humanism. This leads to a discussion on the dominant influence of the managerial ideology in the current reform projects. PMID:20963305

Denis, Jean L; Lamothe, Lise; Langley, Ann; Stéphane, Guérard

2010-01-01

9

Integrating Job Stress and Social Exchange Theories to Predict Employee Strain in Reformed Public Sector Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the organizational characteristics that contribute to employee wellbeing in public sector agencies that have undergone substantial organizational change. Two studies were undertaken, the first involving 2,466 police officers working in a state-based law enforcement agency, whereas the second comprised 1,010 occupationally diverse employees working in a State Government authority. The research was guided by a theoretical framework

Andrew J. Noblet; John J. Rodwell

2009-01-01

10

Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health Sector Reform  

E-print Network

Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health, District Collector, Tiruvannamalai. #12;2 Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Rs. 18 billion to medical & public health, Rs.3.5 billion to family welfare, and Rs.0.482 billion

11

A Private Dilemma for Public Sector Management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent criticisms of public sector managers suggest that their capacity to make good decisions may be impeded by an increasingly complex working environment, a product of public sector reform. This study investigates relationships between the information processing capacity and critical thinking ability of public sector managers and their decision-making performance in situations of different complexity. Information processing was measured using

David Clark-Murphy

12

Sector reputation and public organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Economic pressures and rising stakeholder expectations have led public sector organisations to measure their reputation. The paper aims to highlight the importance of reputation for the public sector, define sector reputation and report findings on a quantitative study of sector reputations of four different types of Finnish public sector organisations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Inspired by stakeholder theory and the

Vilma Luoma-aho

2008-01-01

13

Budgetary and accounting experience in public sector- comparative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade the public sector has been affected by the introduction of significant reforms in the public accounting system in the international context. During the reform process different countries have put into practice numerous intermediate variants between the extremes of cash and accrual budgeting and accounting. The reasons for the different national systems may be due to the

Rodica Gabriela Blidisel; Adina Popa; Andra Pop

14

Public and Private Sector Managers: Are They Really That Different.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since passage of the 1978 Civil Service Reform Act, which mandated new systems for executive selection, development, and performance appraisal, the importance of describing managerial and executive jobs in the public sector has increased. This recent atte...

A. W. Lau, C. M. Pavett, A. R. Newman

1982-01-01

15

[Neoliberal health sector reforms in Latin America: unprepared managers and unhappy workers].  

PubMed

This work analyzes the neoliberal health sector reforms that have taken place in Latin America, the preparation of health care workers for the reforms, the reforms' impacts on the workers, and the consequences that the reforms have had on efficiency and quality in the health sector. The piece also looks at the process of formulating and implementing the reforms. The piece utilizes secondary sources and in-depth interviews with health sector managers in Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Mexico. Neoliberal reforms have not solved the human resources problems that health sector evaluations and academic studies had identified as the leading causes of health system inefficiency and low-quality services that existed before the reforms. The reforms worsened the situation by putting new pressures on health personnel, in terms of both the lack of necessary training to face the challenges that came with the reforms and efforts to take away from workers the rights and benefits that they had gained during years of struggles by unions, and to replace them with temporary contracts, reduced job security, and lower benefits. The secrecy with which the reforms were developed and applied made workers even more unified. In response, unions opposed the reforms, and in some countries they were able to delay the reforms. The neoliberal reforms have not improved the efficiency or quality of health systems in Latin America despite the resources that have been invested. Nor have the neoliberal reforms supported specific changes that have been applied in the public sector and that have demonstrated their ability to solve important health problems. These specific changes have produced better results than the neoliberal reforms, and at a lower cost. PMID:15826401

Ugalde, Antonio; Homedes, Nuria

2005-03-01

16

China's health care sector in transition: resources, demand and reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development and reforms have had profound impacts on China's health care sector. As a resul, the health care sector in China is in transition. This report reviews the major changes, and the possible policy response to these changes in China's health care sector. It discusses resource availability in the Chinese health sector, and analyses the trend of household demand

Yanrui Wu

1997-01-01

17

Leadership in a Paradoxical Public-sector Environment: The Challenges of Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the heart of any public-sector reform discourse are the conflicting contentions about what constitutes good public leadership. The battles fought - and to be fought - over public-sector reform are over the appropriate role of the state. These contending perspectives are the traditional hierarchical model and the neo-liberal managerialist model of public administration. The aspiration to build a responsive

Smita Tripathi; John Dixon

2008-01-01

18

Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase the potential for success. At the heart of this approach is a need to carefully consider how the character of state-society relations in the country---"governance"---will influence reform processes and outcomes.

Gore, Christopher David

19

The Clean Development Mechanism and Power Sector Reforms in Developing  

E-print Network

, agriculture (reduction of CH4 and N2O) industrial processes, and sink projects (afforestation of restructuring and privatisation · The drivers for power sector reform have varied from region to region: - Latin

20

Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

21

Health sector reforms in sub-Saharan Africa: lessons of the last 10 years.  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years the poorest countries, especially in Africa, have struggled with worsening economic conditions and reduced public finance for health services. Some governments have responded in a piecemeal fashion, reacting to internal and external pressures. Others have embarked on major reforms of various aspects of their health systems. This paper reviews two specific types of strategy that have been initiated by governments: reform of financing strategies, and reform of public sector organization and procedures. Particular attention is paid to the experience of introducing user fees, community financing and decentralization since these have been some of the most popular strategies. The paper describes the nature, objectives and extent of reforms. It then presents an evaluation framework related to the criteria of efficiency and equity, and evaluates current reform experience using this framework. It concludes that assessment of the potential impact of reforms on efficiency and equity is undermined by the limited duration of many reforms and the limited nature of existing evaluations. It is clear, however, that a policy package is required rather than implementation of isolated reform strategies, and that in order to design an effective policy package, more needs to be known about the implementation and operation of reforms--particularly with respect to the influence of context, actors and processes. PMID:10156640

Gilson, L; Mills, A

1995-01-01

22

Development Gateway: Public Sector Transparency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This particular site casts an eye on the question of transparency in governmental transactions through interviews with leaders from a broad range of sectors, along with allowing space for individual feedback. The "Points of View" section is a good place to start, as it includes commentary from government officials from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Tanzania about the question of public sector transparency. Other sections on the site address such thorny questions as "What tools help sustain public sector transparency?" and "What practices promote public-private partnerships?" Those visual learners coming to visit the site may appreciate the gallery of charts that offer indicators of levels of governance and transparency for more than 209 countries.

23

Health Reform.online: Health Sector Reform, Health Economics and Sustainable Financing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank's Economic Development Institute has recently developed Health Reform.online to provide distance education opportunities for those interested in "health sector reform, health economics or sustainable financing." The site will house educational modules based on EDI's Health Sector Reform and Sustainable Financing training program. The first module, "Introduction to the concepts and analytical tools of health sector reform and financing," includes lessons, case studies, interactive exercises, suggested readings, an extensive glossary, and a course outline. Future EDI training opportunities will be announced at the site. A Library section allows browsing and searching of abstracts or the full-text of over 500,000 pages of World Bank health documents on health projects in developing countries. Note, to view the full-text documents, users will need to download the Prizm plug-in, available at the site. EDI plans to add links to regional partner institute Websites and courses, in the future.

1998-01-01

24

Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the

Christopher David Gore

2008-01-01

25

The implementation of the EU security sector reform policies in the Democratic Republic of Congo?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the way in which the European Union engages in the implementation of security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Adopting a governance perspective complemented with resource-dependency theory, the analysis concentrates on the multitude of public and private actors involved, the relations between these actors and the impact this has on the implementation of SSR policies

Arnout Justaert

2012-01-01

26

Can ICT Reform Public Agencies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the reorganisation of the administration of admission to higher education in Norway, which has also included the development of a nationwide, ICT-based case handling system. This reform process was initiated out of the need to provide politicians with information for control and regulatory purposes, and the reform resulted in a centralised management information system. This system, however, has evolved into a coordinated but also partly locally delegated decision-making instrument which processes most of the applications for admission to higher education in Norway.

Jansen, Arild; Løvdal, Einar

27

Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms: A Practitioner's Guide to Pension, Health, Labor Market, Public Sector Downsizing, Taxation, Decentralization and Macroeconomic Modeling (Volume 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the distributional impact of policy reforms on the well-being or welfare of different stakeholder groups, particularly on the poor and vulnerable, has an important role in the elaboration and implementation of poverty reduction strategies in developing countries. In recent years this type of work has been labeled as Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) and is increasingly

Aline Coudouel; Stefano Paternostro

28

The influence of health sector reform and external assistance in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Despite health reform and increasing public investment in the health sector, utilization of curative health services, immunization coverage and patient satisfaction with the public health care system are steadily decreasing in Burkina Faso. It seems that the health care system itself is "ill". This paper examines the major symptoms associated with this illness. The central thesis suggests that any further improvement of health care performance in Burkina Faso will be subject to profound central reform in the area of human resources and financial management of the sector. Such a broad reform package cannot be achieved through the current project approach, but a sector-wide approach (SWAp) does not seem to be realistic at the present time. Policy discussions at a level higher than the Ministry of Health could be beneficial for achieving better donor coordination and increasing the commitment of the Ministry of Health to a sector-wide approach. Health sector reform issues and priorities and the role of international cooperation are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11238434

Bodart, C; Servais, G; Mohamed, Y L; Schmidt-Ehry, B

2001-03-01

29

Publicity as an Instrument of Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Albert Einstein and the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS) conducted a reform-based public communication campaign for the international control of atomic energy after the Second World War. The Committee raised funds and sought publicity for its proposed solution to the problem of war and the management of peace. Its solution was the…

Caudill, Susan

30

First Generation Indian External Sector Reforms in Context  

E-print Network

India's first generation external sector reforms are a fascinating case study of emergence from a post-Independence socialist-style economy to the world’s largest free market democracy. Part I of this article reviews the Indian license Raj system...

Bhala, Raj

2013-01-01

31

Health sector reforms in Argentina and the performance of the health financing system.  

PubMed

In Argentina, health sector reforms put particular emphasis on decentralization and self-management of the tax-funded health sector, and the restructuring of the social health insurance during the 1990s. Unlike other countries in the region, there was no comprehensive plan to reform and unify the sector. In order to assess the effects of the reforms on the performance of the health financing system, this study looks at impacts on the three inter-related functions of revenue collection, pooling, and purchasing/provision of health services. Data from various sources are used to illustrate the findings. It was found that the introduction of cost recovery by self-managed hospitals increased their budgets only marginally and competition among social health insurance funds did not reduce fragmentation as expected. Although reforming the Solidarity Redistribution Fund and implementing a single basic package for the insured was an important step towards equity and transparency, the extent of risk pooling is still very limited. This study also provides recommendations regarding strengthening reimbursement mechanisms for public hospitals, and regulating the private sector as approaches to improving the fairness of the health financing system and protecting people from financial hardship as a result of illness. PMID:18378350

Cavagnero, Eleonora

2008-10-01

32

Reinventing VAT collection : industry vertical assessment, revenue increase, and public sector reliability  

E-print Network

This dissertation shows how administrative reforms of the State Tax Administration Bureaus (STABs) in Brazil between 1997 and 2005 contributed to strengthening public sector bureaucracies and institutions at the sub-national ...

Pinhanez, Monica F. (Monica Fornitani)

2008-01-01

33

Wage Determination in the Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparative statistics are used in this study to show that wages in the public sector tend to be higher than in the private sector for most blue collar jobs and lower level white collar jobs. However, salaries are usually lower in the public sector for managerial and professional occupations. (Author/DS)

Fogel, Walter; Lewin, David

1974-01-01

34

The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.  

PubMed Central

The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

2002-01-01

35

Institute of Public Sector Accounting Research  

E-print Network

Institute of Public Sector Accounting Research I·P·S·A·R In Government, Public Services and Charities http://www.business-school.ed.ac.uk/research/centres/public-sector-accounting-research CALL FOR PAPERS for a RESEARCH WORKSHOP and a special issue of FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT "MODERNISING

Edinburgh, University of

36

Demise of the standard model for power sector reform and the emergence of hybrid power markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following earlier reforms in the power sectors of industrialized countries and emerging markets (e.g. Chile), developing countries were encouraged to unbundle their electricity industries and to introduce competition and private sector participation. This paper highlights the developments that led to how power sector reform came to be defined as a standard model and theoretical framework in its own right, and

Katharine Nawaal Gratwick; Anton Eberhard

2008-01-01

37

Implementing social media in public sector organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media has been widely adopted by organizations in the recent past, and public sector organizations are also showing an increased interest in using this tool to meet their goals. In this paper, we describe three cases of social media adoption by public sector organizations, and the struggles faced in that implementation. We argue through the experience of implementing these

Cliff Lampe; Rebecca Roth

2012-01-01

38

Regulatory reform proposals and the public health.  

PubMed Central

The U.S. Congress is considering legislation that would change policy for environmental health in important ways. Current approaches have been criticized for addressing the wrong set of priorities and consuming too many resources. The legislation requires additional analyses and sets new decision criteria to be applied to federal agency actions taken to protect the environment and public health. Close review of the legislation suggests that though it is intended to address identified problems, it is unlikely to lead to an improved basis for public policy and is likely to paralyze the regulatory process. Reform proposals that reduce rather than increase fragmentation of decision-making and that address problems comprehensively rather than selectively are needed. PMID:8732938

Buffler, P A; Kyle, A D

1996-01-01

39

Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the expanding literature on how reforms may affect health workers and which reactions they may provoke, little research has been conducted on the mechanisms of effect through which health sector reforms either promote or discourage health worker performance. This paper seeks to trace these mechanisms and examines the contextual framework of reform objectives in Uganda and Bangladesh, and

Freddie Ssengooba; Syed Azizur Rahman; Charles Hongoro; Elizeus Rutebemberwa; Ahmed Mustafa; Tara Kielmann; Barbara McPake

2007-01-01

40

Accelerated reforms in healthcare financing: the need to scale up private sector participation in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government’s commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage. PMID:24596895

Ejughemre, Ufuoma John

2014-01-01

41

Security sector reform: The building of security in Bosnia and Herzegovina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Bosnia and examines whether the reform of security structures has enhanced security of Bosnia as a whole. The experience of recent armed conflict, and fragmentation and ethnicization of security structures have created special challenges for SSR in Bosnia. Transformation of the security sector in Bosnia is made even more

Slobodan Perdan

2006-01-01

42

Chapter 53 Recent developments in public sector labor markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews recent developments in research on public sector labor markets. Public sector labor markets have two important characteristics which account for the interest in their operation. First, public sector labor markets are large — in most developed countries the public sector workforce accounts for over 15% of total employment. Second, public sector labor markets are different from private

Robert G. Gregory; Jeff Borland

1999-01-01

43

Health sector reform in Brazil: a case study of inequity.  

PubMed

Health sector reform in Brazil built the Unified Health System according to a dense body of administrative instruments for organizing decentralized service networks and institutionalizing a complex decision-making arena. This article focuses on the equity in health care services. Equity is defined as a principle governing distributive functions designed to reduce or offset socially unjust inequalities, and it is applied to evaluate the distribution of financial resources and the use of health services. Even though in the Constitution the term "equity" refers to equal opportunity of access for equal needs, the implemented policies have not guaranteed these rights. Underfunding, fiscal stress, and lack of priorities for the sector have contributed to a progressive deterioration of health care services, with continuing regressive tax collection and unequal distribution of financial resources among regions. The data suggest that despite regulatory measures to increase efficiency and reduce inequalities, delivery of health care services remains extremely unequal across the country. People in lower income groups experience more difficulties in getting access to health services. Utilization rates vary greatly by type of service among income groups, positions in the labor market, and levels of education. PMID:10707303

Almeida, C; Travassos, C; Porto, S; Labra, M E

2000-01-01

44

Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

45

China's ongoing public hospital reform: initiatives, constraints and prospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first phase of China's ambitious national health-care reform will be concluded in 2011. However, public hospital reform – its central component – has not been proceeding smoothly. Heavy vested interests, enormous budgetary demands and the congested policy gridlock have made it extremely difficult to succeed. Nevertheless, a number of promising initiatives are presently being undertaken and are expected to

Jingwei Alex He

2011-01-01

46

Deregulating and regulatory reform in the U.S. electric power sector  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the evolution of wholesale and retail competition in the U.S electricity sector and associated industry restructuring and regulatory reforms. It begins with a discussion of the industry structure and ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2000-01-01

47

Gender and equity in health sector reform programmes: a review.  

PubMed

This paper reviews current literature and debates about Health Sector Reform (HSR) in developing countries in the context of its possible implications for women's health and for gender equity. It points out that gender is a significant marker of social and economic vulnerability which is manifest in inequalities of access to health care and in women's and men's different positioning as users and producers of health care. Any analysis of equity must therefore include a consideration of gender issues. Two main approaches to thinking about gender issues in health care are distinguished--a 'women's health' approach, and a 'gender inequality' approach. The framework developed by Cassels (1995), highlighting six main components of HSR, is used to try to pinpoint the implications of HSR in relation to both of these approaches. This review makes no claim to sociological or geographical comprehensiveness. It attempts instead to provide an analysis of the gender and women's health issues most likely to be associated with each of the major elements of HSR and to outline an agenda for further research. It points out that there is a severe paucity of information on the actual impact of HSR from a gender point of view and in relation to substantive forms of vulnerability (e.g. particular categories of women, specific age groups). The use of generic categories, such as 'the poor' or 'very poor', leads to insufficient disaggregation of the impact of changes in the terms on which health care is provided. This suggests the need for more carefully focused data collection and empirical research. PMID:10166098

Standing, H

1997-03-01

48

Psychological Resiliency in the Public Sector: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of pressures for change in the public sector and the potential mechanisms by which employee Hardiness impacts feelings of and reaction to stress. Data provided by 325 senior-level employees of different state government agencies were used to test a hypothesized model via covariance structure analysis. Results strongly supported the model, linking pressure for change with

Michael C. Rush; William A. Schoel; Steven M. Barnard

1995-01-01

49

Public Pension Reforms in the United States and JapanA Study of Comparative Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1980s, facing the financial crises in their public pension systems, the governments of both the United States and Japan proposed reform. In each case the reform efforts failed. A few years later policy proposals by special commissions led to the enactment of reform legislation in both countries. No major political upheavals occurred in the intervening years; but

JUNKO KATO

1991-01-01

50

Policy process for health sector reforms: a case study of Punjab Province (Pakistan).  

PubMed

The health sector in the Punjab (Pakistan) faces many problems, and, the government introduced reforms during 1993-2000. This paper explores the policy process for the reforms. A case study method was used and, to assist this, a conceptual framework was developed. Analysis of four initiatives indicated that there were deviations from the government guidelines and that the policy processes used were weak. The progress of different reforms was affected by a variety of factors: the immaturity of the political process and civil society, which together with innate conservatism and resistance to change on the part of the bureaucracy resulted in weak strategic sectoral leadership and a lack of clear purpose underpinning the reforms. It also resulted in weaknesses in preparation of the detail of reforms leading to poor implementation. The study suggests a need for broadening the stakeholders' base, building the capacity of policy-makers in policy analysis and strengthening the institutional basis of policymaking bodies. PMID:19946945

Tarin, Ehsanullah; Green, Andrew; Omar, Maye; Shaw, Jane

2009-01-01

51

Business as Usual: Exploring Private Sector Participation in American Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is widespread publicity about the involvement of businesses with schools, and as President Reagan as well as authors of reform reports continue to call upon the private sector to help education, it is unclear to what extent such relationships exist and what they are accomplishing. A 10-page, 55-question survey was mailed to the…

Shakeshaft, Charol; Trachtman, Roberta

52

Reforms in housing sector in India: impact on housing development and housing amenities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The housing sector in India for several decades faced a number of set-backs, such as an unorganized market, development disparities, a compartmentalized development approach and a deterrent rent control system. There was not even a concerted attempt to understand the housing problem let alone promote it. Reforms introduced in the sector during the 1990s, however, have overturned the situation to

M. Mahadeva

2006-01-01

53

Friends, Enemies, or Strangers? On Relationships between Public and Private Sector Service Providers in Hybrid Forms of Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid forms of governance receive special attention in literature on regulatory reforms. It is often assumed that a combination of public and private sector involvement in a regulatory regime is superior to “pure public” or “pure private” regimes. By paying close attention to such hybrids, this article finds that hybrids have two key dimensions: first, the “amount” of public and

JEROEN VAN DER HEIJDEN

2011-01-01

54

Financing reforms of public health services in China: lessons for other nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financing reforms of China's public health services are characterised by a reduction in government budgetary support and the introduction of charges. These reforms have changed the financing structure of public health institutions. Before the financing reforms, in 1980, government budgetary support covered the full costs of public health institutions, while after the reforms by the middle of the 1990s, the

Xingzhu Liu; Anne Mills

2002-01-01

55

BETTER REGULATION IN EUROPE: BETWEEN PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY REFORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can the European regulatory state be managed? The European Union (EU) and its Member States have looked at Better Regulation as a possible answer to this difficult question. This emerging public policy presents conceptual challenges to scholars of public management and administrative reforms, but also opportunities. In this conceptual article, we start from the problems created by the value-laden discourse

CLAUDIO M. RADAELLI; ANNE C. M. MEUWESE

2009-01-01

56

Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

Williamson, Ben

2014-01-01

57

Cross-sector organizational engagement with ethics: a comparison between private sector companies and public sector entities of Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to describe and compare similarities as well as differences in the organizational engagement with ethics between private sector companies and public sector entities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted in order to examine the organizational engagement with ethics in the largest private sector companies and the largest public sector entities in Sweden.

Göran Svensson; Greg Wood; Michael Callaghan

2009-01-01

58

Employment and earnings trends during a period of regulatory reform in the United States electricity sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines trends in employment and earnings in the U.S. electricity sector during a period of regulatory reform. Econometric models are specified using a large data set of individual employees from the Current Population Survey. OLS earnings estimations find no evidence of an adverse effect on employee earnings during the period of regulatory reform, even after correction for sample selectivity bias using the Heckman two-step approach. In fact, earnings premiums in the electricity sector have increased over the period of regulatory reform. Probit models do find strong evidence that declines in the probability of electricity sector employment, for many occupations, have occurred during the regulatory reform period. These findings deviate significantly from other restructured industries, with the electricity sector being the first industry to show significant employment declines associated with regulatory reform. Using the Blinder-Oaxaca technique, earnings premiums are calculated for electricity sector employees by occupation. These earnings differential variables are found to have a significant negative impact on employment for a number of occupations. Lastly, a longitudinal analysis is used to examine the experiences of electricity sector workers who leave this industry for new employment. This longitudinal procedure allows for analyzing whether electricity sector earnings premiums depict a compensating differential. While the sample size for this analysis is small, an examination of the mean wages of the employees that made an industry change from the electricity sector suggest they continue to receive high earnings in their new positions. These findings suggest that electric utilities, either unable or unwilling to cut employee earnings, have chosen to become more competitive in a deregulated environment through employment actions.

Niederjohn, Matthew Scott

59

A Methodology for Increasing Business Process Maturity in Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-profit organizations such as public sector organizations have some specifics, which make renovation projects significantly different. It is clear that radical changes in the execution of busi- ness processes and in the organizational structures are not suitable for the public sector because they are not possible for many, also political, reasons. A business process change in public sector mostly means

Mojca Indihar Stemberger; Andrej Kovacic; Jurij Jaklic

2007-01-01

60

Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments. However, the two most important reform policies – decentralization and privatization – have had a negative impact on the conditions of employment and prompted opposition from organized professionals and unions. In several countries of the region, the workforce became the most important obstacle to successful reform. This article is based on fieldwork and a review of the literature. It discusses the reasons that led health workers to oppose reform; the institutional and legal constraints to implementing reform as originally designed; the mismatch between the types of personnel needed for reform and the availability of professionals; the deficiencies of the reform implementation process; and the regulatory weaknesses of the region. The discussion presents workforce strategies that the reforms could have included to achieve the intended goals, and the need to take into account the values and political realities of the countries. The authors suggest that autochthonous solutions are more likely to succeed than solutions imported from the outside. PMID:15659241

Homedes, Nuria; Ugalde, Antonio

2005-01-01

61

Reform responses : how public management reforms affect managerial relations and loyalties in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between professionals and managers in public domains are the subject of\\u000asharp controversies, especially in domains like education. According to public opinion,\\u000athe rise of Managerialism has fuelled clashes between managers and professionals. In\\u000athe past few years, academic research has mainly studied how management reforms\\u000aaffect professionals and their work. How managers, such as school managers, are\\u000aaffected

M. Noordegraaf; B. C. de Wit

2009-01-01

62

Vouchers, Caseworkers, and the Reform: Public Training Programs in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the role of training vouchers in public training programs. Using a rich administrative data set from the Federal Employment Agency in Germany, we apply regression and propensity score matching procedures to measure the eect of the Hartz reform in 2003, which introduced training vouchers and imposed more selective criteria on the applicants. Besides esti- mating the total

Ulf Rinne; Arne Uhlendorff; Zhong Zhao

2008-01-01

63

Vouchers, Selection, and the Reform: Public Training Programs Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the role of training vouchers in public training programs. Using a rich administrative data set from the Federal Employment Agency in Germany, we apply regression and propensity score matching procedures to measure the eect of the Hartz reform in 2003, which introduced training vouchers and imposed more selective criteria on the applicants. Besides esti- mating the total

Ulf Rinne; Arne Uhlendorff; Zhong Zhao

2008-01-01

64

Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

Erickson, Paul W.

2009-01-01

65

Public Opinion and Health Care Reform for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent polling data suggest that there is a growing consensus to pay special attention to children's needs in the health care reform debate. The public generally desires children to have greater access to health care services, even if this would mean higher taxes, but is unsure that government is the best vehicle to provide such services. (MDM)

Bales, Susan Nall

1993-01-01

66

The Post-reform Performance of the Manufacturing Sector in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing played an important part in sustaining India's economic growth in the 1970s and 1980s. The economic reforms of the early 1990s did not lead to sustained growth of the manufacturing sector. After an acceleration in the mid-1990s, growth slowed in the decade's second half. The analysis presented in this paper reveals that manufacturing-sector growth in the postreform period is

Kaliappa Kalirajan; Shashanka Bhide

2004-01-01

67

Basing care reforms on evidence: The Kenya health sector costing model  

PubMed Central

Background The Government of the Republic of Kenya is in the process of implementing health care reforms. However, poor knowledge about costs of health care services is perceived as a major obstacle towards evidence-based, effective and efficient health care reforms. Against this background, the Ministry of Health of Kenya in cooperation with its development partners conducted a comprehensive costing exercise and subsequently developed the Kenya Health Sector Costing Model in order to fill this data gap. Methods Based on standard methodology of costing of health care services in developing countries, standard questionnaires and analyses were employed in 207 health care facilities representing different trustees (e.g. Government, Faith Based/Nongovernmental, private-for-profit organisations), levels of care and regions (urban, rural). In addition, a total of 1369 patients were randomly selected and asked about their demand-sided costs. A standard step-down costing methodology was applied to calculate the costs per service unit and per diagnosis of the financial year 2006/2007. Results The total costs of essential health care services in Kenya were calculated as 690 million Euros or 18.65 Euro per capita. 54% were incurred by public sector facilities, 17% by Faith Based and other Nongovernmental facilities and 23% in the private sector. Some 6% of the total cost is due to the overall administration provided directly by the Ministry and its decentralised organs. Around 37% of this cost is absorbed by salaries and 22% by drugs and medical supplies. Generally, costs of lower levels of care are lower than of higher levels, but health centres are an exemption. They have higher costs per service unit than district hospitals. Conclusions The results of this study signify that the costs of health care services are quite high compared with the Kenyan domestic product, but a major share are fixed costs so that an increasing coverage does not necessarily increase the health care costs proportionally. Instead, productivity will rise in particular in under-utilized private health care institutions. The results of this study also show that private-for-profit health care facilities are not only the luxurious providers catering exclusively for the rich but also play an important role in the service provision for the poorer population. The study findings also demonstrated a high degree of cost variability across private providers, suggesting differences in quality and efficiencies. PMID:21619567

2011-01-01

68

Power sector reform and power market design in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power industry in India is changing from regulated industry to a competitive industry. Power sector restructuring program in recent years along with new electricity act in India has paved the path for the development of a power market in the country. In this transition phase, it is now essential to design the most appropriate market suitable for the country.

S. Byabortta; R. N. Lahiri; S. Chowdhury; P. Banerjee

2005-01-01

69

Sector reform impact on rural drinking water schemes -A case study from Raigad district in Maharashtra  

E-print Network

the specific viewpoint of rural drinking water supply. In particular, we look at the mechanics of a Government- Sector reform impact on rural drinking water schemes - A case study from Raigad district of Technology, Bombay Abstract: This paper analyses the ground level impact of the national rural drinking water

Sohoni, Milind

70

EU Dairy Sector: Impact of Luxemburg Reform, EU Enlargement and Trade Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU dairy sector is facing a period of significant changes that are due to three major decisions: the EU enlargement, the Luxembourg reform and on-going WTO negotiations. To evaluate the impact of such changes we developed a model of the EU and world dairy industry. The model is composed of two modules that interact: a milk and beef supply

Zohra Bouamra-Mechemache; Hela Hadj Ali-Kein; Roelof A. Jongeneel; Axel Tonini; Vincent Requillart

2005-01-01

71

EU Dairy sector : impact of Luxemburg reform, EU enlargement and trade negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU dairy sector is facing a period of significant changes that are due to three major decisions : the EU enlargement, le Luxembourg reform and on-going WTO negotiations. To evaluate the impact of such changes we developed a model of the EU and world dairy industry. The model is composed of two modules that interact : a milk and

Z. Bouamra-Mechemache; H. Hadj-Ali Kein; R. Jongeneel; A. Réquillart V. Tonini

2005-01-01

72

Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments.

Núria Homedes; Antonio Ugalde

2005-01-01

73

The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the

Felix Rigoli; Gilles Dussault

2003-01-01

74

BANKING SECTOR REFORMS AND EQUITY - A SUB-REGIONAL ANALYSIS IN ANDHRA PRADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in government policies are continuous to correct the ill effects of its earlier policies. In this study an attempt is made to examine the equity aspect due to reforms in the banking sector at sub-regional level in the state of Andhra Pradesh covering the period 1985 to 2004. The analysis indicates that the share of rural areas in

K. S. Reddy; P. Prudhvikar Reddy

2006-01-01

75

Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting sustainable energy options (e.g., renewable portfolio standards, energy conservation and energy efficien

Kurdgelashvili, Lado

76

Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the expanding literature on how reforms may affect health workers and which reactions they may provoke, little research has been conducted on the mechanisms of effect through which health sector reforms either promote or discourage health worker performance. This paper seeks to trace these mechanisms and examines the contextual framework of reform objectives in Uganda and Bangladesh, and health workers' responses to the changes in their working environments by taking a 'realistic evaluation' approach. Methods The study findings were generated by triangulating both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis among policy technocrats, health managers and groups of health providers. Quantitative surveys were conducted with over 700 individual health workers in both Bangladesh and Uganda and supplemented with qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions and key interviews with professional cadres, health managers and key institutions involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of the reforms of interest. Results The reforms in both countries affected the workforce through various mechanisms. In Bangladesh, the effects of the unification efforts resulted in a power struggle and general mistrust between the two former workforce tracts, family planning and health. However positive effects of the reforms were felt regarding the changes in payment schemes. Ugandan findings show how the workforce responded to a strong and rapidly implemented system of decentralisation where the power of new local authorities was influenced by resource constraints and nepotism in recruitment. On the other hand, closer ties to local authorities provided the opportunity to gain insight into the operational constraints originating from higher levels that health staff were dealing with. Conclusion Findings from the study suggest that a) reform planners should use the proposed dynamic responses model to help design reform objectives that encourage positive responses among health workers b) the role of context has been underestimated and it is necessary to address broader systemic problems before initiating reform processes, c) reform programs need to incorporate active implementation research systems to learn the contextual dynamics and responses as well as have inbuilt program capacity for corrective measures d) health workers are key stakeholders in any reform process and should participate at all stages and e) some effects of reforms on the health workforce operate indirectly through levels of satisfaction voiced by communities utilising the services. PMID:17270042

Ssengooba, Freddie; Rahman, Syed Azizur; Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Mustafa, Ahmed; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara

2007-01-01

77

Policy reform as creative destruction: political and administrative challenges in preserving the public-private mix.  

PubMed

As political pressure for affordable universal coverage intensifies, various proposals have been crafted to improve the system without sacrificing the role of the private sector. Some analysts view the preservation of a mixed public-private system as an exercise in incrementalism, avoiding disquieting departures from familiar arrangements. A review of the political and administrative challenges of several main options--market innovation, tax credits, play or pay, and Medicaid expansion--suggests that the path to true reform is a slippery slope. Over time, changes in particular sectors, such as insurance, employers, government, and providers, will very likely implicate the others too. Although redefining the public-private mix may be more incremental than (say) adoption of a Canadian model, it will also entail considerable "creative destruction" of existing patterns and cannot fail to disturb the institutional status quo substantially. PMID:1612719

Brown, L D

1992-01-01

78

Health sector reform in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT): targeting the forest or the trees?  

PubMed Central

Since the signing of the Oslo Peace Accords and the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1994, reform activities have targeted various spheres, including the health sector. Several international aid and UN organizations have been involved, as well as local and international non-governmental organizations, with considerable financial and technical investments. Although important achievements have been made, it is not evident that the quality of care has improved or that the most pressing health needs have been addressed, even before the second Palestinian Uprising that began in September 2000. The crisis of the Israeli re-invasion of Palestinian-controlled towns and villages since April 2002 and the attendant collapse of state structures and services have raised the problems to critical levels. This paper attempts to analyze some of the obstacles that have faced reform efforts. In our assessment, those include: ongoing conflict, frail Palestinian quasi-state structures and institutions, multiple and at times inappropriate donor policies and practices in the health sector, and a policy vacuum characterized by the absence of internal Palestinian debate on the type and direction of reform the country needs to take. In the face of all these considerations, it is important that reform efforts be flexible and consider realistically the political and economic contexts of the health system, rather than focus on mere narrow technical, managerial and financial solutions imported from the outside. PMID:12582108

GIACAMAN, RITA; ABDUL-RAHIM, HANAN F; WICK, LAURA

2006-01-01

79

BPR: alive and well in the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines three business process re-engineering (BPR) projects, one conducted in the private sector and two conducted in the UK's higher education sector. The broad aim of the paper is to compare public and private sector applications of BPR. The paper begins with a brief overview of BPR and identifies three unresolved issues from the literature (the choice of

Robert MacIntosh

2003-01-01

80

Public sector employment, relative deprivation and happiness in adult urban Chinese employees.  

PubMed

The decline in perceived happiness within economic prosperity in Chinese society calls for further examination. In this research, we investigate the effect of employment in public sector work units on perceived happiness through the mediation of economic and social status relative deprivations. In the reform era of China, work unit is still an important mechanism maintaining social inequality, and those working in government/Communist Party agencies and public institutions have advantages of getting access to high wage, comprehensive welfare and the manipulation of administrative public power. Such economic and social status advantages are expected to reduce their relative deprivation and further promote their perceived happiness. Using a nationwide survey data conducted in 2006, we find working in public sector can significantly reduce the odds of experiencing economic relative deprivation, which is further contributive to the improvement of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22717616

Hu, Anning

2013-09-01

81

Forestry Sector Reform and Distributional Change of Natural Resource Rent in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the collapse of the centralized Soeharto regime, deforestation caused by over-logging accelerated. To tackle this problem, an IMF\\/World Bank-led forestry sector reform program adopted a market-friendly approach involving the resumption of round wood exports and raising of the resource rent fee, with the aim to stop rent accumulation by plywood companies, which had enjoyed a supply of round wood

Gaku Kato

2005-01-01

82

The Effects of Public Sector Hiring and Compensation Policies  

E-print Network

of growth in the government labor force, these policies have encouraged queuing for government jobs of the market for educated labor in Egypt, namely queuing for public sector jobs, which leads to unemploymentThe Effects of Public Sector Hiring and Compensation Policies on the Egyptian Labor Market Ragui

Levinson, David M.

83

Equality Act 2010 Introduction to the Public Sector  

E-print Network

.HEIsarerequiredtotakeaccountofdisabledpeople's impairmentsandmustmakereasonableadjustmentsfor disabled people. Manchester Metropolitan University Public Sector Equality Duty Factsheet #12 of the specific duties is transparency in how HEIs are responding to the equality duty. It is important to noteEquality Act 2010 Introduction to the Public Sector Equality Duty This Briefing provides staff

84

Does it pay to work in the public sector?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses microeconomic data from the British Household Panel and General Household Surveys to describe how the distribution of pay differs between the public and private sectors in 1983 and in the early 1990s. Separate analyses by gender and education group reveal that it is women and those with intermediate-level qualifications who do best in the public sector. The

Richard Disney; Amanda Gosling

1998-01-01

85

A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

Seidman, Joel

86

Sectorial Relations & Chicago School Reform: A Preliminary View from the Foundation Sector. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are sectorial relations among nonprofit organizations, business, and government truly dependent, or are they instead a complex mix of dependent and independent actions? This working paper is based on a dissertation in progress, which is a comparative analysis of how private foundations influence the reform of urban public education. It compares…

McKersie, William S.

87

Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community. PMID:19874613

Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

2009-01-01

88

THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES IN THE ITALIAN PUBLIC SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, the Italian public administration has undergone significant reform, which aimed to rectify the structural defects in the system, leading to inefficiency in public management and an improper allocation and utilization of resources. The Italian legislator, following the New Public Management guidelines, introduced private principles and instruments in the public field to improve the efficiency, effectiveness

Calogero Marino

2010-01-01

89

Good governance and budget reform in Lesotho Public Hospitals: performance, root causes and reality.  

PubMed

Lesotho has been implementing financial management reforms, including performance-based budgeting (PBB) since 2005 in an effort to increase accountability, transparency and effectiveness in governance, yet little is known about how these efforts are affecting the health sector. Supported by several development partners and $24 million in external resources, the PBB reform is intended to strengthen government capacity to manage aid funds directly and to target assistance to pressing social priorities. This study designed and tested a methodology for measuring implementation progress for PBB reform in the hospital sector in Lesotho. We found that despite some efforts on the national level to promote and support reform implementation, staff at the hospital level were largely unaware of the purpose of the reform and had made almost no progress in transforming institutions and systems to fully realize reform goals. Problems can be traced to a complex reform design, inadequate personnel and capacity to implement, professional boundaries between financial and clinical personnel and weak leadership. The Lesotho reform experience suggests that less complex designs for budget reform, better adapted to the context and realities of health sectors in developing countries, may be needed to improve governance. It also highlights the importance of measuring reform implementation at the sectoral level. PMID:23293099

Vian, Taryn; Bicknell, William J

2014-09-01

90

Future Directions for Public Health Education Reforms in India  

PubMed Central

Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching–learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour. PMID:25295242

Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Negandhi, Himanshu; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

2014-01-01

91

Research on the Reuse of Public Sector Information in UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the laws and practices relating to the value-added utilization of public sector information in UK, which mainly discusses the public welfare, fair competition and transparent principle and analyses the problem in the process of information valued-added utilization. According to the status quo of our country, it examines some countermeasures to the value-added utilization of public sector information.

Xiao Xie; Shuai Liu; Jing Li

2011-01-01

92

Gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs.  

PubMed

"In this study gender wage differentials in private and public sector jobs in Austria are calculated. Occupational attainment is considered as endogenous by the use of an ordered response model. Results show that wage discrimination is also present in the public sector, though on a lower level. Both in private firms and for public servants a substantial part of this unwarranted differential is due to unequal professional advancement." PMID:12319010

Zweimuller, J; Winter-ebmer, R

1994-07-01

93

Reproductive health and health sector reform in developing countries: establishing a framework for dialogue.  

PubMed Central

It is not clear how policy-making in the field of reproductive health relates to changes associated with programmes for the reform of the health sector in developing countries. There has been little communication between these two areas, yet policy on reproductive health has to be implemented in the context of structural change. This paper examines factors that limit dialogue between the two areas and proposes the following framework for encouraging it: the identification of policy groups and the development of bases for collaborative links between them; the introduction of a common understanding around relevant policy contexts; reaching agreement on compatible aims relating to reproductive health and health sector change; developing causal links between policy content in reproductive health and health sector change as a basis for evidence-based policy-making; and strengthening policy-making structures, systems, skills, and values. PMID:12219159

Lubben, Marianne; Mayhew, Susannah H.; Collins, Charles; Green, Andrew

2002-01-01

94

Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became increasingly clear that governments would keep intervening in the market-place as competition forces alone could not bring the expected economic, technical and political benefits in a vital industry which continued to have particular technical and economic attributes as well as a strong capacity to influence other policy areas.

Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

95

A diagnosis of leadership effectiveness in the Irish public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Ireland has followed other countries in modernizing its public sector according to the principles of ‘new public management’ (without introducing market mechanisms on the same scale as its Anglo-Saxon counterparts), the capacity of its public managers to supply the leadership required to drive this programme forward has been identified as a crucial factor affecting its sustainability. A broadly representative

Joe Wallis; Linda McLoughlin

2007-01-01

96

The Impact of Economic Reform on the Performance of the Seed Sector in Eastern and Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the seed sector has been included in economic reform programmes in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa but it is not clear whether these initiatives have helped or hindered the process of improving small farmers' access to improved seed. This study explores this issue using the contrasting experiences of the seed sector in Malawi, Zambia

Elizabeth Cromwell

1992-01-01

97

Adoption of the Internet in rural NGOs in Indonesia – A study on Internet appropriation for rural sector reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today rural sector reform is a paramount issue in Indonesian development. Yet, different social actors have different perspectives and stances towards it. Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) in Indonesia have established themselves in pivotal positions in the social, economic and political landscape across the country, and a large number of their works has often been connected with development in rural sector. But,

Yanuar Nugroho

2008-01-01

98

Public Policy for the Private Sector: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Public Policy for the Private Sector_ is a quarterly journal published by the World Bank's Finance, Private Sector, and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). Recently, new documents concerning Finance, Water, and Post-Privatization Performance have been added to this ongoing collection of policy and case study notes.

99

An Analysis of Private and Public Sector Location Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent models of location are drawn together and compared as to structure, criteria, and constraints. Private sector models are distinguished as those in which the total cost of transport and facilities is isolated as the objective to be minimized. The solution techniques of six such models are discussed. Public sector models are characterized by a criterion function involving a surrogate

Charles Revelle; David Marks; Jon C. Liebman

1970-01-01

100

Essays on the economics of public sector retirement programs  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the influence of retiree health and pension policies on the retirement decisions of public sector employees. Chapter one documents the central role of eligibility for subsidized retiree health ...

Leiserson, Gregory Quick

2013-01-01

101

Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans.  

PubMed

We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee's work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers' need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans. PMID:21789032

Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

2011-04-01

102

Obesity and health system reform: private vs. public responsibility.  

PubMed

Obesity is a particularly vexing public health challenge, since it not only underlies much disease and health spending but also largely stems from repeated personal behavioral choices. The newly enacted comprehensive health reform law contains a number of provisions to address obesity. For example, insurance companies are required to provide coverage for preventive-health services, which include obesity screening and nutritional counseling. In addition, employers will soon be able to offer premium discounts to workers who participate in wellness programs that emphasize behavioral choices. These policies presume that government intervention to reduce obesity is necessary and justified. Some people, however, argue that individuals have a compelling interest to pursue their own health and happiness as they see fit, and therefore any government intervention in these areas is an unwarranted intrusion into privacy and one's freedom to eat, drink, and exercise as much or as little as one wants. This paper clarifies the overlapping individual, employer, and social interest in each person's health generally to avoid obesity and its myriad costs in particular. The paper also explores recent evidence on the impact of government interventions on obesity through case studies on food labeling and employer-based anti-obesity interventions. Our analysis suggests a positive role for government intervention to reduce and prevent obesity. At the same time, we discuss criteria that can be used to draw lines between government, employer, and individual responsibility for health, and to derive principles that should guide and limit government interventions on obesity as health reform's various elements (e.g., exchanges, insurance market reforms) are implemented in the coming years. PMID:21871035

Yang, Y Tony; Nichols, Len M

2011-01-01

103

Impact of healthcare reforms on out-of-pocket health expenditures in Turkey for public insurees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turkish healthcare system has been subject to major reforms since 2003. During the reform process, access to public healthcare\\u000a providers was eased and private providers were included in the insurance package for public insurees. This study analyzes\\u000a data on out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare expenditures to look into the impact of reforms on the size of OOP health expenditures\\u000a for premium-based

Burcay Erus; Nazli Aktakke

2012-01-01

104

Efficiency in Public Higher Education: Administrative Reform and Redundancy. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the state of Oregon's efforts at administrative reform in public higher education. The early stages of implementation of the Higher Education Administrative Efficiency Act initiated by Oregon during the 1995 session were analyzed. Four factors were found to be primarily responsible for the need to reform public higher education…

Arnold, James C.; And Others

105

Going up? Women in the Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to document women's reflections on their careers over a ten-year period to provide quantitative baseline data on which to frame follow-up in-depth interviews. The participants work in the public service in Queensland (Australia) and had been recommended for, and participated in, women in management (WIM) courses conducted…

McMahon, Mary; Limerick, Brigid; Cranston, Neil; Andersen, Cheryl

2006-01-01

106

Accounting for human resource development in the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the merits of utilizing human resource accounting (HRA) concepts to account for human resource development (HRD) in the public sector. It describes the development of the economic theory of human capital and the increasing recognition of human resources as human assets of public organizations to be managed and accounted for in a manner similar to capital assets.

Kenneth A. Klase

1996-01-01

107

Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

Pang, Min-Seok

2011-01-01

108

Goal Setting and Performance Management in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public sector in North America as well as parts of Europe is increasingly adopting a performance management system that includes goal setting, coaching, and the evaluation of an employee on goal attainment. The purpose of this article is three-fold. First, the extant literature on goal setting for individual employees is summarized in terms of its applicability to the public

Gary P. Latham; Laura Borgogni; Laura Petitta

2008-01-01

109

Performance management in the public sector: fact or fiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since New Labour came to power in the UK in 1997, there has been a drive to improve the effectiveness of public services through the use of private sector principles. From, the Modernising Government White Paper to the development of the Public Services Productivity Panel who, produced a raft of White Papers tackling health, social services, welfare and criminal justice.

Zoe Radnor; Mary McGuire

2004-01-01

110

Organizational Learning Facilitators in the Canadian Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational learning (OL) is considered to be a central element in the renewal of Canada's federal public service. What factors facilitate OL in this sector? How can these factors be measured? This study aims to answer these questions by describing the development of an instrument designed to produce a valid measure of the organizational learning facilitators (OLFs) relevant to public

Jacques Barette; Louise Lemyre; Wayne Corneil; Nancy Beauregard

2012-01-01

111

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

112

Shelf stable meals for public sector uses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

Schmandt, J. (editor)

1977-01-01

113

Public funding and repertoire conventionality in the German public theatre sector: an econometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically examines the relationship between public funding and repertoire decisions in the German public theatre sector. A cross-sectional econometric model is constructed to estimate the effects for a sample of 127 public theatres covering the theatre season 1998\\/1999 using a conventionality index as the dependent variable which has to be calculated first. The empirical results show that public

Adriana Neligan

2006-01-01

114

The role of nurse practitioners in health sector reform in Iran (2011)  

PubMed Central

Background: Most countries use educated nurses called “nurse practitioners” (NPs) besides the family physicians for diagnosis, treatment, and specifically health education of the family. The main goal of this study was to redefine the role of NPs for better use of their capabilities in the so-called “family physician reform” in Iran. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative and comparative study carried out in three stages (triangulation method) in 2011. In the first stage, we conducted a literature review to design a conceptual framework. The second stage was a comparative study on four countries. In this study, we focused on the role of NPs, which in turn helped to redefine this role in the health sector reform of Iran. In the third stage, two expert panels were involved and the suggested roles were confirmed. Results: In the United States, NPs are licensed by the state in which they practice and have a national board certification. In Canada, nurses involved in clinics should participate in specific training course of diagnosis and management of health care after registration. In Austria, nurses in Nursing homes and maternity do some of the medical procedures under the supervision of the physicians. In the United Kingdom, NPs increasingly substitute for GPs in the care of minor illness and routine management of chronic diseases. Conclusions: There is still debate in nursing and medical circles about what the focus of the NP roles should be. In Iran, whereas a noticeable reform toward “family physician” is ongoing, redefining the nurses’ role is essential. They can perform more active roles in associating with GPs in the clinics of family physicians, both in urban and rural areas, even with higher degrees of autonomy. PMID:24403938

Vatankhah, Soudabe; Khalesi, Nader; Ebadifardazar, Farbod; Ferdousi, Masoud; Naji, Homayon; Farahabadi, Seyed Mohammad Ehsaan

2013-01-01

115

Internships in Public Policy: Students in the Public Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Internships in Public Policy program, funded by the National Science Foundation and administered by the Massachusetts Internship Office, was a pilot project designed to test whether the emerging professional talents or graduate students in the social ...

D. V. Bakinowski, D. F. Beatrice, J. M. Schwalm

1973-01-01

116

The political economy of healthcare reform in China: negotiating public and private.  

PubMed

China's healthcare system is experiencing significant growth from expanded government-backed insurance, greater public-sector spending on hospitals, and the introduction of private insurance and for-profit clinics. An incremental reform process has sought to develop market incentives for medical innovation and liberalize physician compensation and hospital finance while continuing to keep basic care affordable to a large population that pays for many components of care out-of-pocket. Additional changes presently under consideration by policymakers are likely to further restructure insurance and the delivery of care and will alter competitive dynamics in major healthcare industries, notably pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and diagnostic testing. This article describes the institutional history of China's healthcare system and identifies dilemmas emerging as the country negotiates divisions between public and private in healthcare. Building on this analysis, the article considers opportunities for public-private partnerships and greater systems integration to reconcile otherwise incommensurable approaches to rewarding innovation and improving access. The article concludes with observations on the public function of health insurance and its significance to further development of China's healthcare system. PMID:24052932

Daemmrich, Arthur

2013-01-01

117

Auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the second stage of the Brazilian power sector reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reform process in the electricity sector of any country has as main objective the design of a power market capable to induce a reliable and efficient energy supply, translated into adequate tariffs. Brazil started its reform process in 1996, inspired by similar schemes in the electricity sector of more developed countries. However, the existence of particularities in the country's

Luiz Augusto Barroso; José Rosenblatt; André Guimarães; Bernardo Bezerra; Mario Veiga Pereira

2006-01-01

118

A Decade of Urban School Reform: Persistence and Progress in the Boston Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, the Boston Public Schools has undergone critical reforms that have been of intense interest to school leaders and policymakers throughout the country. Under the leadership of superintendent Thomas Payzant, the Boston schools implemented extensive reform strategies that yielded notable results. Fittingly, at the end of Payzant's…

Reville, S. Paul, Ed.

2007-01-01

119

An Institutional Perspective on Health Sector Reforms and the Process of Reframing Health Information SystemsCase Study From Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health sector reform, including structural and process changes such as the incorporation of feasible information and communication technologies, is a priority in many least developed countries. However, such changes have not been particularly effective, the reasons for which will be explored in this article. Particular attention will be paid to attempts to integrate information systems in HIV\\/AIDS program in Mozambique.

Bruno Piotti; Baltazar Chilundo; Sundeep Sahay

2006-01-01

120

A comparative analysis of the changes in nursing practice related to health sector reform in five countries of the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To identify changes in nursing practice and the nursing-practice environment that have occurred with implementation of health sector reform in five countries in the Americas. Methods. An exploratory study of selected settings in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mex- ico, and the United States of America was conducted between 1997 and 1999 to collect narra- tive data from 125 professional nurses

Edilma B. Guevara; Elnora P. Mendias

2002-01-01

121

Denver's Public Schools: Reforms, Challenges, and the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Denver is currently in the national education spotlight, largely because of its willingness to try a unique combination of major education reforms not seen in other large urban school districts. While many observers hold these reforms in high regard, a steep road lies ahead. Current student results are unacceptable by all measures. The time is…

Bray, Judy; Medler, Alex

2009-01-01

122

The Public Sector - A Modern Pitfall for Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swedish public sector has, for a long period of time, provided a number of services to the Swedish citizens such as child care, schooling, medical service, geriatric-care and libraries to mention some. A majority of these services were earlier performed by women as a part of their housewife duties. Not surprisingly, these services have continued to be performed by

Jeanette Dareblom

123

Public sector use of technology in managing human resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of technology in human resources has increased dramatically and is now a vital aspect of many personnel-related decisions such as collecting job information, recruitment, and employee selection. This paper will describe a number of large-scale technology interventions within the public sector. Through these descriptions, the paper will also describe how technology can successfully be used to improve human

Brian Cronin; Ray Morath; Pat Curtin; Michael Heil

2006-01-01

124

A systems perspective of performance management in public sector organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents, from a systemic perspective, an examination and discussion of performance measurement, performance indicators and associated improvement initiatives, as typically applied in public sector organisations. Such mechanisms are usually implemented as a causal loop which is established between perceived performance and resulting actions, thereby constituting a form of feedback control. Within this context a two-dimensional matrix model is postulated in

Tony Boland; Alan Fowler

2000-01-01

125

Leadership Climate in the Public Sector: Feelings Matter Too!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is substantial empirical evidence supporting the important role of leadership in organizational contexts, there is limited empirical evidence that focuses on the distinction between how employees feel about senior leaders and what they think about senior leaders. This is particularly true in the public-sector environment. In this paper, a model is tested that identifies key consequences of affectively

Simon Albrecht

2005-01-01

126

PARTNER, GLOBAL PUBLIC SECTOR DIRECTOR OF GLOBAL SALES STRATEGY & EXECUTION  

E-print Network

PARTNER, GLOBAL PUBLIC SECTOR DIRECTOR OF GLOBAL SALES STRATEGY & EXECUTION IBM SMARTER CITIES and processes that make the world work--into things no one would recognize as computers: cars, appliances of experience, George has held a variety of Sales and Consulting roles. George currently serves as the Director

Subramanian, Venkat

127

Public sector nurses in Swaziland: can the downturn be reversed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The lack of human resources for health (HRH) is increasingly being recognized as a major bottleneck to scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART), particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, whose societies and health systems are hardest hit by HIV\\/AIDS. In this case study of Swaziland, we describe the current HRH situation in the public sector. We identify major factors that contribute to

Katharina Kober; Wim Van Damme

2006-01-01

128

Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

2012-01-01

129

Retrieval Bargaining: A Guide for Public Sector Labor Negotiations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retrieval bargaining is the process of removing, through collective bargaining, benefits won by employees in previous negotiations. This document treats the retrieval bargaining process, explaining first the factors that could make such cutback management techniques necessary in the public sector, including federal funding reductions, inflationary…

Neal, Richard G.

130

Limits to neoliberal reforms in the health sector: the case of pharmaceutical management in New Zealand.  

PubMed

In New Zealand in 1993, a pharmaceutical management agency (PHARMAC) was established during the height of neoliberal reforms in the health sector. The agency's relationship with pharmaceutical companies, patient lobby groups, and health professionals has been hostile at times, but despite this hostility, PHARMAC has remained substantially independent from political interference. This article draws on critical theory and Durkheimian perspectives to explain how such a strong regulatory organization was established during a time when attempts were made to reshape the health sector to conform to a neoliberal agenda. An analysis of historical and contemporary issues demonstrates the contradictory position of the state in relation to the regulation and subsidization of pharmaceuticals, with conflicting demands to retain popular support, restrain state expenditure, and respond to expectations to provide pharmaceuticals to its citizens. This article demonstrates how the establishment of PHARMAC reconciles these contradictory demands, arguing that it removes decision making from political control and has been able to sustain its place by appealing to objective assessment criteria. This case signals limits of the neoliberal agenda. PMID:24684088

Dew, Kevin; Davis, Amy

2014-01-01

131

Right Place of Human Resource Management in the Reform of Health Sector  

PubMed Central

Background In this paper the real role and place of human resource (HR) in health system reform will be discussed and determined within the whole system through the comprehensive Human Resource Management (HRM) model. Method: Delphi survey and a questionnaire were used to 1) collect HR manager ideas and comments and 2) identify the main challenges of HRM. Then the results were discussed in an expert panel after being analyzed by content analysis method. Also, a deep focus study of recorded documents related to Health Human Resource Management was done. Then based on all achieved results, a rich picture was drawn to illustrate the right place of HRM in health sector. Finally, the authors revitalize the missed function of HRM within the health sector by drawing a holistic conceptual model. Result: The most percentage of frequency about HR belongs to “Lack of reliable HR information system” (91%) and the least percentage of frequency belongs to “Low responsibility of HR” (28%). The most percentage of frequency about HR manager belongs to “Inattention to HR managers as key managers and consider them in background” (80%) and the least percentage of frequency belongs to “Lack of coordination between universities’ policies” (30%). According to the conceptual framework, human resources employed in health system are viewed from two comprehensive approaches: instrumental approach and institutional. Conclusion: Unlike the common belief that looks HRM through the supportive approach, it is discussed that HRM not only has an instrumental role, but also do have a driver role. PMID:23515234

HASSANI, Seyed Abas; MOBARAKI, Hossein; BAYAT, Maboubeh; MAFIMORADI, Shiva

2013-01-01

132

Preventive health reform: what does it mean for public health?  

PubMed

A revitalised public health strategy offers the most sustainable way to address current health inequalities and prevent chronic non-communicable diseases. Success in these goals requires a whole-of-government approach and long-term investments. A sizeable proportion of this investment must be outside the health sector, in the social, economic and environmental fabric of our society. The benefits of the federal government's proposed prevention agenda will only be realised if there is greater clarity about what constitutes preventive health activity, who is responsible for carrying out the preventive agenda, how it is integrated and funded within the health care system, and how prevention outcomes will be measured and evaluated. PMID:18558895

Russell, Lesley M; Rubin, George L; Leeder, Stephen R

2008-06-16

133

Health of the public: The private-sector challenge.  

PubMed

The rapid growth of managed care poses challenges and opportunities for the health of the public. The fundamental risk is that both mission and accountability will be defined too narrowly; the opportunity lies in broadening both. What would a socially responsible managed care system look like? Such a system would provide excellent individual care to its enrollees, yet it would also include programs and activities that address broader populations and policies. We propose 8 attributes of such a system that can be used as a guide by managed care systems and to judge whether a managed care system is a responsible, accountable, and responsive contributor to the health of its community. As the role of the public sector shrinks, the private sector must expand its responsibility. It is both prudent and reasonable for managed care systems to seize their unique opportunity to improve the health of the public. PMID:8847770

Showstack, J; Lurie, N; Leatherman, S; Fisher, E; Inui, T

1996-10-01

134

Organizational sense making : responsibilities to the MCAS reform in the Massachusetts public schools  

E-print Network

Educational reform has become a central concern of public policy debates at both the state and federal level. The policy trend both nationally and locally is towards uniform standards in education, with testing as the ...

Goldman, Janice J., 1953-

2005-01-01

135

[Psychiatric reform, federalism, and the decentralization of the public health in Brazil].  

PubMed

This study examines the relationships between Brazilian psychiatric reform, the adoption of the Centers for Psychosocial Care (CAPS) and the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). The adherence of municipal governments was a variable determinant for the spread of reform, especially due to the continental scale and fragmentation of the Brazilian federation. The article demonstrates the institutional stability of psychiatric reform in Brazil over two decades. The institutional nature of the decision-making process in the public arena has permitted the implementation of new organizational formats through imitation and financial incentives. The psychiatric reform was successful in defending the advantages of CAPS in relation to the asylum and hospital model dominant in past decades. The inductive policies, strengthened and upheld by Law 10.216/2001, transformed the agenda of psychiatric reform, limited to pioneering cities in a national public policy. PMID:22124901

Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Siqueira, Sandra Venâncio; Uhr, Deborah; Silva, Paulo Fagundes da; Molinaro, Alex Alexandre

2011-12-01

136

School-Level Implementation of Standards-Based Reform: Findings from the Follow-up Public School Survey on Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of the Follow-up Public School Survey on Education Reform, which examined the implementation of the key provisions in the reauthorized Title I Act. The survey is one of many national assessments of Title I and was adapted from the Public School Survey on Education Reform. The instrument was administered to a…

Heid, Camilla; Webber, Ann

137

Locating the Issue Public: The MultiDimensional Nature of Engagement with Health Care Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines in detail the structure of the issue public for health care reform, drawing from extensive, nationally\\u000a representative survey data tapping general attentiveness to news and public affairs, specific interests in health care issues,\\u000a and motivations (e.g., personal health and financial conditions) to follow health care reform issues. We furthermore adopt\\u000a a multi-dimensional approach to defining the contours

Vincent Price; Clarissa David; Brian Goldthorpe; Marci McCoy Roth; Joseph N. Cappella

2006-01-01

138

Public Housing Reform and Neighborhood Schools: How Local Contexts "Must" Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992, Congress enacted the HOPE VI program to overhaul the nation's public housing policy. The reform legislation was prompted by a report commissioned by Congress that deemed two-thirds of all public housing "severely distressed." Since the landmark public housing policy was enacted in 1992, the Department of Housing and Urban Development…

Smrekar, Claire

2009-01-01

139

Geropsychology PostDoctoral Training in Public Sector Service Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing need for geropsychologists who are specialists in practice, research, education, and advocacy for older adults. The combined USF\\/Tampa VA geropsychology fellowship program focuses on the training of three post-doctoral Fellows each year in public sector service delivery across diverse long term care (LTC) and primary care settings. Addressing the bio-psycho-social needs of frail, poor, and minority

Victor Molinari; David A. Chiriboga; Lawrence Schonfeld; William E. Haley; John A. Schinka; Kathy Hyer; Larry W. Dupree

2005-01-01

140

Cost-effectiveness of public sector substance abuse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Costs and cost-effectiveness of public sector substance abuse treatment in 2 California counties with similar substance abuse\\u000a treatment system histories are compared; one county (MidState) has adopted managed care principles. As hypothesized, MidState's\\u000a costs for the index treatment episode were significantly lower than SouthState's, although unexpectedly because of lower outpatient\\u000a utilization. Treatment benefits in the 7 Addiction Severity Index functional

Martha C. Beattie; Teh-Wei Hu; Rui Li; Jason Bond

2005-01-01

141

Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed. PMID:22712716

2012-01-01

142

Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.  

PubMed

Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that involves various actors within the state, the political society and civil society. PMID:23563780

Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

2013-03-01

143

Role of public private partnerships to manage risks in public sector projects in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clients of public sector works have an obligation to ensure that the large scale investment in public works is effective and can achieve improvement in social and economic performance. However, construction activity is usually subject to more risk than other business activities because of its complexity particularly in coordinating a wide range of disparate and interrelated skills and activities.

Li-Yin Shen; Andrew Platten; X. P. Deng

2006-01-01

144

Motivating Employees of the Public Sector: Does Public Service Motivation Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes if, and to what extent, the public service motivation (PSM) construct has an added value to explain work motivation in the public sector. In order to address the specificity of PSM when studying work motivation, the theoretical model underlying this empirical study compares PSM with two other explanatory factors: material incentives, such as performance-related pay, and team

Simon Anderfuhren-Biget; Frédéric Varone; David Giauque; Adrian Ritz

2010-01-01

145

Trouble with champions: local public sector–third sector partnerships and the future prospects for collaborative governance in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Britain, the former Labour government employed a range of collaborative governance initiatives to get public sector officers (PSOs) and third sector champions (TSCs) working together successfully. This article draws upon evidence from a series of policy seminars undertaken in a subregion of North East England to explore the strengths and weaknesses of inter- and intra-sector relationships. The article shows

Tony Chapman; Judith Brown; Chris Ford; Beth Baxter

2010-01-01

146

Electricity sector reform in developing countries: an econometric assessment of the effects of privatization, competition and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity sectors in both developed and developing countries have been subject to restructuring to introduce private capital\\u000a and increase competition. Although the effects of such reforms in a number of the developed economies are now well documented,\\u000a the experience of developing countries is much less well researched. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the\\u000a effects of privatization, competition and

Yin-Fang Zhang; David Parker; Colin Kirkpatrick

2008-01-01

147

School Reform: The Critical Issues. Hoover Institution Press Publication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a collection of recent articles on the problems in today's schools, why school and students are underperforming, exploring a range of topics and explaining why some reforms in education are destined to fail while others have been proven to work. The first section, "Teaching Approaches," presents articles on progressive…

Evers, Williamson M., Ed.; Izumi, Lance T., Ed.; Riley, Pamela A., Ed.

148

Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.  

PubMed

The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently. PMID:3749949

Maynard, A

1986-01-01

149

What's the Problem in Public Sector Workforce Recruitment? A Multi-Sector Comparative Analysis of Managerial Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public sector workforce recruitment is problematic, but the nature of that problem is not clearly defined. Workforce recruitment is essentially a matching problem that requires managers to recruit desired employees in available labor pools. This research asks whether sectoral differences and competition for labor affect whether public managers frame the major problem of workforce recruitment as the size, qualifications, or

Brian K. Collins

2008-01-01

150

Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast: HUD USER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users may download this report and accompanying charts from the HUD USER site. The report "examines the implications of welfare reform for public housing authorities (PHAs), whose residents traditionally contribute a portion of their incomes for rent." The report focuses on a small number of diverse housing authorities and finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA rent revenues will most probably vary considerably.

151

Information services using Internet technologies in the Public sector Christos Bouras, Spyridon Kastaniotis, Vassilis Triantafillou  

E-print Network

Information services using Internet technologies in the Public sector Christos Bouras, Spyridon safety issues and allows information exchange between the public and different departments of Greek Power sector, databases, communication networks, Internet 1. Introduction The new information society

Bouras, Christos

152

Learning From Rudolf Steiner: The Relevance of Waldorf Education for Urban Public School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this paper investigates the relevance of Waldorf education for public urban school reform. Based on analysis of survey data from over 500 graduates of private U.S. Waldorf schools, review of documents from the Gates Foundation, and staff-interview and student-achievement data from four public Waldorf-methods schools, she develops…

Oberman, Ida

2007-01-01

153

National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.

1995-01-01

154

Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point to the importance of critical ethnographic studies of energy, not simply as technical policy, but also as technical-political practice. It is in these grounded, institutional, and power-laden terms of how development is actually practiced that the wider outcomes of reform are revealed. Situating energy in development reveals the wider politics and relations of reforms.

Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

155

Aligning talent management with approaches to equality and diversity : Challenges for UK public sector managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of talent management interventions in UK public sector organisations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper draws upon the findings of a qualitative study of talent management in two UK public sector case study organisations. Findings – Implementing talent management was found to present particular tensions for public sector managers, particularly

Lynette Harrisr; Carley Foster

2010-01-01

156

Speed of adjustment and self-fulfilling failure of economic reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic reform programme where inefficient public labour is laid off is considered. The immediate effect is a lowering of wages and increased profitability in the private modern sector. Over time, as capital accumulates in the modern sector, wages and production increases. Big bang reform generates a sharp transitory drop in wages while gradual reform gives a more modest decline.

Halvor Mehlum

2001-01-01

157

[Emotional exhaustion common among women in the public sector].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional investigation aimed at assessing levels of emotional exhaustion among female employees within the Swedish public sector. Other aims were to study the associations between self-rated emotional exhaustion and psychosocial factors at work, as well as findings from medical examinations. Data was collected by means of questionnaires including the Maslach Burnout Inventory, among 183 women working in geriatric care and 143 employees at the National Social Insurance Office. We found high proportions of emotional exhaustion in both samples (geriatric care = 34%; Social Insurance Office = 26%). Participants with high scores for emotional exhaustion reported more job-strain, less social support at work and more somatic, emotional and cognitive complaints than those with low or intermediate scores. Medical examinations performed on 19 participants with low scores and 41 with high scores for emotional exhaustion revealed significantly more findings among participants with high emotional exhaustion, particularly fatigue, sleep disturbances and cognitive impairment. There were no group differences in terms of depression or other findings. This study shows that individuals at risk for stress-related disorders may be identified using simple questionnaires. Early interventions for stress in the workplace may prevent incapacitating conditions among a great proportion of women working in the public sector. PMID:12082783

Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio; Evengård, Birgitta; Blomkvist, Vanja; Yilbar, Berrin; Orth-Gomér, Kristina

2002-05-01

158

Health sector reforms and changes in prevalence of untreated morbidity, choice of healthcare providers among the poor and rural population in India  

PubMed Central

Background: India’s health sector witnessed some major policy changes in 1990s that aimed at making health services more accessible to the population. Methods: In this paper, I tried to present some preliminary results of the significant changes that occurred between 1995/6 and 2004, especially in relation to the question of access to healthcare for the poor and rural population using data from 52nd (1995–6) and 60th round (2004) of National Sample Survey Organization on ‘morbidity and healthcare’. Results: The analysis suggests that overall utilization of healthcare services have declined and the odds of not seeking care due to financial inability has further increased among the poor and rural population during the period of reforms. Results of the multivariate logit regression model indicate that the non-poor, middle and above educated people were having greater likelihood of using services from private health care provider. Conclusion: Interestingly, poor and rural residents were more likely to have used healthcare from public facilities in 2004 than in 1995–6, suggesting that the shift from private to public sector is encouraging, provided they receive good quality health care services at public facilities and do not face catastrophic health expenditures. PMID:24757689

Ghosh, Soumitra

2014-01-01

159

Financial Sector Reforms, Economic Growth, and Stability: Experiences in Selected Asian and Latin American Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword; Abbreviations; Opening Address; Seminar Proceedings: A Summary Report; Financial Reforms, Opening Up, and Stability: Policy Issues and Sequencing Considerations; Financial Deregulation and Bank Supervision: The Case of Indonesia; Globa...

S. Faruqi

1994-01-01

160

Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?  

PubMed

How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms. PMID:23161587

Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

2013-10-01

161

Competence Development in the Public Sector: Development, or Dismantling of Professionalism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular, competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing…

Hjort, Katrin

2008-01-01

162

Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then

I. Dincer; M. M. Hussain; I. Al-Zaharnah

2004-01-01

163

Public Schools in Marketized Environments: Shifting Incentives and Unintended Consequences of Competition-Based Educational Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By opening the system to competition, popular school choice reforms seek to remake public education into a more consumer-oriented endeavor. While the underlying theory holds that competitive pressures will induce change and improvement in educational processes, research indicates that organizations often respond instead by developing promotional…

Lubienski, Christopher

2005-01-01

164

Local Control, Democracy, and the Separation in the Public Opinion of School Finance Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What role does a person's support for local educational control play in determining her attitude towards equity-minded school finance reform? This article reports estimations of binary and ordered probit models of two state public opinion polls and discusses newspaper coverage from the same two states to determine if and how local control has such…

Shelly, Bryan

2007-01-01

165

Crises in Public Pension Programmes in OECD: What Are the Reform Options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines projections of the fiscal liabilities of public pension programmes in a number of OECD countries. It investigates the reasons why many countries have built up such liabilities in the past and critically appraises the future projections of pension costs. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of four reform options which are currently being discussed and implemented in

Richard Disney

2000-01-01

166

The Use of Public Policy Analysis to Enhance the Nursing Home Reform Act of 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the prevalence of abuse and neglect in nursing home care delivery vis-à-vis elderly and frail residents, and despite the advent and implementation of the Nursing Home Reform Act of 1987 (a policy that sought to diminish such conduct in such institutional settings), deficiency citations in nursing home care and services remain both problematic and common. By employing public policy

Gerald-Mark Breen; Jonathan Matusitz; Thomas T. H. Wan

2009-01-01

167

Politics, public opinion and privatization: Assessing the “calculus of consent” for market reforms in transition economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article supports a growing body of comparative public policy literature on assessing citizen attitudes to privatization efforts around the world. Given the normative and political overtones associated with the privatization of state-owned enterprises, relatively little is known empirically about how citizens of different nationalities evaluate market reforms. Using the 1996 International Social Survey Programme, the method of analysis utilized

R. Paul Battaglio Jr

2007-01-01

168

Public Disorder, Private Boons? Inter-Sectoral Dynamics Illustrated by the Kenyan Case. PROPHE Working Paper Series. WP No. 9  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within and beyond Africa, it is the public sector much more than the private sector that is the scene of strikes and other forms of disorder, conflict and difficulty. Yet the private sector can be much affected by the public problems. Effects may be simultaneously positive for the private sector and deleterious for the public sector. Although a…

Otieno, Wycliffe; Levy, Daniel

2007-01-01

169

Literacy and Numeracy Skills and Education Sector Reform: Evidence from Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several African countries instituted education reforms in the 1980s and 1990s. Yet, there is only little evidence on the effectiveness of these programs. Additionally, most previous studies of the determinants of literacy and numeracy have considered the proficiency in only one language and, possibly, numeracy. This paper examines both of these…

Blunch, Niels-Hugo

2014-01-01

170

A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

2012-01-01

171

Reforming the University Sector: Effects on Teaching Efficiency--Evidence from Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we analyse the effects of teaching reforms in Italy. These were introduced in 1999, and changed the entire organization of university courses, where the Bachelor-Master (BA-MA) structure was adopted. The first step is to define the production process of higher education (HE). This process consists of several inputs (professors,…

Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio

2009-01-01

172

Thirst for reform ? private sector participation in providing Mexico City's water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case in Mexico City offered an opportunity to observe the advantages, and disadvantages of gradualist reform. Unfortunately, the authors find that the long-term nature of an incremental approach does not match well with the generally shorter-term horizons of elected politicians. Difficult decisions in implementation are left to later years, which pushes potentially unpopular actions onto the shoulders of future

Luke Haggarty; Penelope Brook; Ana Maria Zuluaga

2001-01-01

173

Accretion, reform, and crisis: a theory of public health politics in New York City.  

PubMed

Standard interpretations of the history of public health in New York City in the twentieth century describe either the decline or the growth of the importance accorded to public health activities. To the contrary, public health has, paradoxically, both declined in salience and attracted increasing resources. This article describes the politics of public health in New York City since the 1920s. First it describes events in the history of public health in the context of events in the economy and in city, state, and national politics. Then it proposes three descriptive models for arraying the data about public health politics: accretion, reform, and crisis. Next it describes how the politics of AIDS in New York City in the 1980s was a consequence of the history that produced these three political styles. Finally, it argues that the three political styles are generalizable to the history of public health throughout the United States in the twentieth century. PMID:1814059

Fox, D M

1991-01-01

174

Public healthcare in Mozambique: strategic issues in the ICT development during managerial changes and public reforms.  

PubMed

It has been predicted that major introduction of information communication technology (ICT) for health care organisations (HCO) over the next 10 years will be used to achieve the universal coverage and improve the quality of health care delivered to people. Which is the best strategy on ICT transfer, adoption and adaptation for the local Mozambican HCO? This paper argues that a sociotechnical approach of ICT development can help policy makers and health managers to address the technology transfer in a better and more appropriate way to their social context and to the public health reforms in progress. The urgency of health care demands (e.g. AIDS epidemic) and the institutional changes implemented by the Government and the local Ministry of Health (MOH), open a dynamic process of re-organisation inside the health institutions in the next years. This process needs to be monitored and initiatives planned, which places pressure on the evolution of health information system (HIS). The increase in the use of ICT can be an ally for health managers. The emergence of the open source software (OSS) and the recent ICT market trends towards networking may also enable local HCO to better face and solve the long process of health care standardisation, which usually prepares and accompanies any introduction of ICT. On the other side, the "big bang" introduction of electronic packages, devices and software applications may be an obstacle framing and anchoring local HCO to external settings, "modern" and universal models. Thus, a uniform step-by-step implementation of hospital-based health information system is desirable. PMID:16807083

Piotti, B; Macome, E

2007-06-01

175

Organizational change in the public sector: Augmenting the demand control model to predict employee outcomes under New Public Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies the environmental and personal characteristics that predict employee outcomes within an Australian public sector organization that had, under New Public Management (NPM), implemented a variety of practices traditionally found in the private sector. These are more results-oriented, and their adoption can be accompanied by increased strain for employees. The current investigation was guided by two complementary theories,

Andrew Noblet; John Rodwell; John McWilliams

2006-01-01

176

Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

2008-06-01

177

Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector  

PubMed Central

During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

2008-01-01

178

Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In addition, it links theory with practice by offering a strategy that can effectively address critical issues arising from the energy-development-policy nexus of the sustainable energy development debate.

Roy, Anish Kumar

179

Outsourcing: two case studies from the Victorian public hospital sector.  

PubMed

Outsourcing was one process of privatisation used in the Victorian public health sector in the 1990s. However it was used to varying degrees and across a variety of different services. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Why have managers outsourced? What have managers considered when they have decided to outsource? The research was carried out in a rural hospital and a metropolitan network in Victoria. The key findings highlight the factors that decision makers considered to be important and those that led to negative outcomes. Economic factors, such as frequency of exchange, length of relationships between the parties, and information availability, were often ignored. However, other factors such as outcome measurability, technology, risk, labour market characteristics and goal conflict, and political factors such as relative power of management over labour were often perceived as important in the decision-making process. Negative outcomes from outsourcing were due to the short length of relationships and accompanying difficulties with trust, commitment and loyalty; poor quality; and excessive monitoring and the measurement of outcomes. PMID:17266498

Young, Suzanne

2007-02-01

180

Thirst for Reform? Private Sector Participation in Providing Mexico City?s Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 2001In the early 1990s Mexico City?s Federal District (the D.F.) initiated a series of service contracts with four operators in the private sector?each to be implemented in three stages over ten years. The idea was to introduce competitive pressures and to find out if a ?gradualist? approach would reduce social and political opposition to private sector involvement and would

Ana Maria Zuluaga; Luke Haggarty; Penelope Brook

1999-01-01

181

After the Public Interest Prevails: The Political Sustainability of Policy Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing political science wisdom is that narrow interests regularly triumph over the general public. Yet the stunning passage of broad-based policy reforms in the face of intense clientele opposition suggests that the U.S. political system has a greater capacity to serve diffuse interests than has often been thought. Some of the most provocative policy-oriented political-science research during the 1980s

Eric Patashnik

2003-01-01

182

An exploratory study of work motivation among private and public sector hospital chefs in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the reliability and rationale of Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model among public and private sector hospital chefs in Australia. It continues by focusing on critical job elements of chefs and their motivational outcomes. The job of chef in private sector hospitals was found to be more challenging with greater motivating potential than that in the public

Darren Lee-Ross

2002-01-01

183

Growth of Factor Inputs and Total Factor Productivity in Public Sector Enterprises in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study makes an attempt to examine the trend in Total Factor Productivity in the public sector enterprises by estimating and analyzing the contributions made by major factor inputs to the growth rate of not product originating in the public enterprises. It is divided into six sectors. After introducing the problem in the first section, the next three sections deal

Dholakia Bakul H

184

Public Sector Training: A "Blind" Spot in the 1999 South African National Levy-Grant Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2000, South Africa implemented a levy-grant policy (Skills Development Levies Act, 1999) to give an incentive for workplace training across private and public sector workplaces alike, but the impact of the levy-grant scheme in the public sector was restricted by financial and management processes unique to that environment. This article shows…

Paterson, Andrew

2005-01-01

185

Problems and Countermeasures of Public Sector Human Resource Management In China  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, there is some problem, For example, human resources management concept is out in Chinese public sector, evaluation and incentive mechanism is not perfect, human resource management strategic planning. We should promote the public sector human resource management development under four main heads: focusing on modernizing human resources management concepts, creating human resource management excitation mechanism, establishing and improve

Zhang Bi-an

2009-01-01

186

Agricultural Biotechnology and Globalization: The Role of Public and Private Sector Research  

E-print Network

Agricultural Biotechnology and Globalization: The Role of Public and Private Sector Research Greg biotechnology sector as it works to sustain innovations and further propagate its benefits into the new century institutional mechanisms for public and private partnership that can help agricultural biotechnology fulfill its

Kammen, Daniel M.

187

The Use and Usefulness of Performance Measures in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the empirical evidence on the use and usefulness of performance measures in the public sector. It begins with consideration of the features of the public sector which make the use of performance measures complex: the issues of multiple principals and multiple tasks. It discusses the form that performance measures may take, the use made of these

Carol Propper; Deborah Wilson

2003-01-01

188

Reforming antiretroviral price negotiations and public procurement: the Mexican experience.  

PubMed

Since antiretroviral (ARV) medicines represent one of the most costly components of therapy for HIV in middle-income countries, ensuring their efficient procurement is highly relevant. In 2008, Mexico created a national commission for the negotiation of ARV prices to achieve price reductions for their public HIV treatment programmes. The objective of this study is to assess the immediate impact of the creation of the Mexican Commission for Price Negotiation on ARV prices and expenditures. A longitudinal retrospective analysis of procurement prices, volumes and type of the most commonly prescribed ARVs procured by the two largest providers of HIV/AIDS care in Mexico between 2004 and 2009 was carried out. These analyses were combined with 26 semi-structured key informant interviews to identify changes in the procurement process. Prices for ARVs dropped by an average of 38% after the first round of negotiations, indicating that the Commission was successful in price negotiations. However, when compared with other upper-middle-income countries, Mexico continues to pay an average of six times more for ARVs. The Commission's negotiations were successful in achieving lower ARV prices. However, price reduction in upper-middle-income countries suggests that the price decrease in Mexico cannot be entirely attributed to the Commission's first round of negotiations. In addition, key informants identified inefficiencies in the forecasting and procurement processes possibly affecting the efficiency of the negotiation process. A comprehensive approach to improving efficiency in the purchasing and delivery of ARVs is necessary, including a better clarification in the roles and responsibilities of the Commission, improving supply data collection and integration in forecasting and procurement, and the creation of a support system to monitor and provide feedback on patient ARV use. PMID:22375026

Adesina, Adebiyi; Wirtz, Veronika J; Dratler, Sandra

2013-01-01

189

Public and Private Sector Coordination for Effective Lunar Resource Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government may impose inefficiencies on the private sector to achieve social goals. By implementing a framework which creates technological obstacles and allowing affected businesses to resolve those obstacles in whatever manner they choose, government authorities may create a fair and consistent regulatory environment for the private sector while stimulating solutions for commercially unviable technologies, such as human spaceflight. HARNESSING SELF-INTEREST

Charles D. O'Dale

190

Building the Synergy between Public Sector and Research Data Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INSPIRE is a European Directive aiming to establish a EU-wide spatial data infrastructure to give cross-border access to information that can be used to support EU environmental policies, as well as other policies and activities having an impact on the environment. In order to ensure cross-border interoperability of data infrastructures operated by EU Member States, INSPIRE sets out a framework based on common specifications for metadata, data, network services, data and service sharing, monitoring and reporting. The implementation of INSPIRE has reached important milestones: the INSPIRE Geoportal was launched in 2011 providing a single access point for the discovery of INSPIRE data and services across EU Member States (currently, about 300K), while all the technical specifications for the interoperability of data across the 34 INSPIRE themes were adopted at the end of 2013. During this period a number of EU and international initiatives has been launched, concerning cross-domain interoperability and (Linked) Open Data. In particular, the EU Open Data Portal, launched in December 2012, made provisions to access government and scientific data from EU institutions and bodies, and the EU ISA Programme (Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations) promotes cross-sector interoperability by sharing and re-using EU-wide and national standards and components. Moreover, the Research Data Alliance (RDA), an initiative jointly funded by the European Commission, the US National Science Foundation and the Australian Research Council, was launched in March 2013 to promote scientific data sharing and interoperability. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), besides being the technical coordinator of the implementation of INSPIRE, is also actively involved in the initiatives promoting cross-sector re-use in INSPIRE, and sustainable approaches to address the evolution of technologies - in particular, how to support Linked Data in INSPIRE and the use of global persistent identifiers. It is evident that government and scientific data infrastructures are currently facing a number of issues that have already been addressed in INSPIRE. Sharing experiences and competencies will avoid re-inventing the wheel, and help promoting the cross-domain adoption of consistent solutions. Actually, one of the lessons learnt from INSPIRE and the initiatives in which JRC is involved, is that government and research data are not two separate worlds. Government data are commonly used as a basis to create scientific data, and vice-versa. Consequently, it is fundamental to adopt a consistent approach to address interoperability and data management issues shared by both government and scientific data. The presentation illustrates some of the lessons learnt during the implementation of INSPIRE and in work on data and service interoperability coordinated with European and international initiatives. We describe a number of critical interoperability issues and barriers affecting both scientific and government data, concerning, e.g., data terminologies, quality and licensing, and propose how these problems could be effectively addressed by a closer collaboration of the government and scientific communities, and the sharing of experiences and practices.

Craglia, Massimo; Friis-Christensen, Anders; Ostländer, Nicole; Perego, Andrea

2014-05-01

191

77 FR 76064 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Reform Act: Changes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...occupancy policies for both the public and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Public housing authorities must have on hand and available...maintained and made available by public housing authorities. DATES: Comments Due...

2012-12-26

192

FORESTRY SECTOR REFORM AND DISTRIBUTIONAL CHANGE OF NATURAL RESOURCE RENT IN INDONESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the collapse of the centralized Soeharto regime, deforestation caused by over- logging accelerated. To tackle this problem, an IMF\\/World Bank-led forestry sector re- form program adopted a market-friendly approach involving the resumption of round wood exports and raising of the resource rent fee, with the aim to stop rent accumulation by plywood companies, which had enjoyed a supply of

GAKU KATO

2010-01-01

193

Government revival and Public sector employees' agency Short paper submitted to EGOS 2014  

E-print Network

of environmental public policies, we argue that not only middle managers' agency is crucial to strategy-making of the micro activity of public sector employees can enlighten our understanding of the making of the public policy strategy making. Our research question is: how do practitioners, middle managers but also

Boyer, Edmond

194

"A visitation of providence:" Public health and eugenic reform in the wake of the Halifax disaster.  

PubMed

The Halifax Explosion provided the opportunity for an "experiment in public health" that was meant not only to restore but also to improve the city and its population in the process. The restructuring that occurred during the restoration was influenced by pre-existing ideals and prejudices which were reflected in the goals of the newly formed committees in charge of the reconstruction. The primary emphasis on improvement as well as control was the result of existing regional concerns regarding the emigration of the province's most "desirable" stock, in the form of healthy, educated young men and women, to central Canada and the eastern United States. Public health reforms reflected the eugenic goal of improving the overall quality of the population through education, surveillance, and inspection, resorting finally to institutionalizing people who public health officials determined were genuinely deficient. PMID:24909020

Baker, Leslie

2014-01-01

195

Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.  

PubMed

The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084

Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

2014-12-01

196

The Social Cohesion Role of the Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social cohesion, the "glue" that keeps a society together, is influenced by the various sectors or "pillars" of that society-educational institutions, social and religious institutions, business institutions, and government. In this article, the effect of the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) on social cohesion is…

Capshaw, N. Clark

2005-01-01

197

Lewis through a looking glass : public sector employment, rent-seeking, and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the labor transfer process outlined by the Lewis model (1954) can give rise to surplus labour - in the sense than the marginal product of labour is less that the wage - in the public part of the modern sector and that this may deprive the modern sector of its dynamism. Moreover, creating sheltered employment tends

Alan Gelb; Richard H. Sabot; John B. Knight

1988-01-01

198

The Elasticity of Cost-Effectiveness: Implications for Public Sector Decision-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public sector economic analysis differs from private sector analysis in that the former assumes continuous functions and very small departures from existing conditions while the latter is generally concerned with large discrete either-or decisions. This paper (1) defines an analytic measure that relates effectiveness and cost so that the…

Temkin, Sanford

199

Computer-Aided Dispatch System as a Decision Making Tool in Public and Private Sectors  

E-print Network

We describe in detail seven distinct areas in both public and private sectors in which a real-time computer-aided dispatch system is applicable to the allocation of scarce resources. Characteristics of a real-time ...

Lee, I-Jen

200

8 Public management reform in the United Kingdom: great leaps, small steps and policies as their own cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Kingdom (UK) is frequently referred to as the textbook case of new public management (NPM). This country was, of course, not alone in adopting a reform pro- gramme devoted to the introduction managerial techniques and economic incentives to guide the design and operation of public services and executive government since the late 1970s. It is widely claimed, however,

Kai Wegrich

201

Public Higher Education Reform Five Years after the Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land grant Universities existed between January 1996 and March 2000 in order to create an awareness among public universities of the need for higher education reform. The Commission, consisting of the presidents and chancellors of 25 major public universities, produced six reports and held numerous…

Byrne, John V.

2006-01-01

202

A comparison between antenatal care quality in public and private sector in rural Hebei, China  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the quality of antenatal care (ANC) in Hebei Province and compare it between the public and private sector and within the public sector. Methods We conducted a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Household Survey in 2010 using a two-stage sampling procedure and included 1079 mothers. The quality of ANC was assessed on the basis of the number of ANC visits, the time of the first ANC visit, 16 different ANC procedures, owning a maternal health care booklet, and the type of service provider. Results Almost all women (98%) received ANC services at least once, 80% at least four times, and 54% at least five times. About half of the women (46%) visited ANC facility within their first trimester. Neither public nor private sector provided all 16 standardized services, but significantly more women in public sector received ANC procedures. Most women received ANC in county or higher-level hospitals (75%) and very few in township hospitals (8%). Significantly fewer women were weighed and tested for HIV/AIDS in township than in county or higher-level hospitals. Conclusion The quality of ANC in Hebei was poorer than required by China’s national and World Health Organization norms. Although the public sector performed better than the private sector, the utilization and quality of care of ANC services in this sector varied and women generally visited county or higher-level health facilities. PMID:23630142

Chen, Li; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Rudan, Diana; Saftic, Vanja; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Su, Jianqiang; Tan, Zangwen; Scherpbier, Robert W.

2013-01-01

203

Compensation Levels and Quit Rates in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people feel that, despite the government's stated objective of pay comparability, government workers are paid more than their private-sector counterparts. The quit rate as a comparability measure is the subject of this paper. Since quit rates are a function of pay levels, comparable quit rates-adjusted for nonpay determinants-should mean comparable pay. The evidence presented here indicates that government quit

Kathleen Classen Utgoff

1983-01-01

204

Internal evaluation of a management-development initiative: a public-sector case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The central concern of this paper is to analyze how a management-development (MD) program can be promoted through internal evaluation. The aim of this article is, through an evaluation experience, to study the usability of internal process-oriented evaluation in the context of a public-sector professional organization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case from a public-sector professional organization is used as

Riitta Seppänen-Järvelä

2005-01-01

205

Developing the Learning Climate in Public Sector Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A psychological contract is a set of unwritten reciprocal expectations between trainee and training program. Public agency trainers must establish and manage psychological contracts through clearly defined objectives and development of a learning climate that leads to effective training. (SK)

Sims, Ronald R.

1992-01-01

206

Public sector marketing, political science and the science of public administration: the evolution of a transdisciplinary dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the evolution of the application of marketing techniques to the public sector and evaluates how political\\u000a science and public administration have responded to them. Within the framework of the new definition of marketing established\\u000a by the American Marketing Association (AMA), this article also discusses the potential of marketing in contemporary public\\u000a management and its coherence with democratic

Ramón Bouzas-Lorenzo

2010-01-01

207

District health programmes and health-sector reform: case study in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed Central

The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% nationally. By 2003, infant and child mortality rates were less than one-third of the national rates. The maternal mortality ratio decreased by 50% despite comprehensive emergency obstetric care not being available in most district hospitals. These trends were achieved with an investment of approximately 4 million US dollars over 12 years (equivalent to US 1.00 US dollars per person per year). However, this project did not overcome weaknesses in some national disease-control programmes, especially the expanded programme on immunization, that require strong central management. In Lao PDR, which is not yet committed to using SWAps, tools developed in Sayaboury could help other district health offices assume greater planning responsibilities in the recently decentralized system. Development partners should balance their support for centrally managed disease-specific programmes with assistance to horizontally integrated primary health care at the district level. PMID:16501731

Perks, Carol; Toole, Michael J.; Phouthonsy, Khamla

2006-01-01

208

'It makes me want to run away to Saudi Arabia': management and implementation challenges for public financing reforms from a maternity ward perspective.  

PubMed

Poor practice by health care workers has been identified as contributing to high levels of maternal mortality in South Africa. The country is undergoing substantial structural and financial reforms, yet the impact of these on health care workers performance and practice has not been studied. This study, which consisted of an ethnography of two labour wards (one rural and one urban), aimed to look at the factors that shaped everyday practice of midwives working in district hospitals in South Africa during the implementation of a public sector reform to improve financial management. The study found that the Public Financing Management Act, that aimed to improve the efficiency and accountability of public finance management, had the unintended consequence of causing the quality of maternal health services to deteriorate in the hospital wards studied. The article supports the need for increased dialogue between those working in the sexual and reproductive health and health systems policy arenas, and the importance of giving a voice to front-line health workers who implement systems changes. However, it cautions that there are no simple answers to how health systems should be organized in order to better provide sexual and reproductive health services, and suggests instead that more attention in the debate needs to be paid to the challenges of policy implementation and the socio-political context and process issues which affect the success or failure of the implementation. PMID:15452017

Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Blaauw, Duane; Schneider, Helen

2004-10-01

209

Education Reforms in Chile, 1980-98: A Lesson in Pragmatism. Country Studies: Education Reform and Management Publication Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the last 2 decades of basic education reform in Chile with an emphasis on institutional and political dimensions. Chapter 1 centers on how the government has reoriented the formal and informal rules and incentives governing the behavior of teachers, parents, and administrators in an effort to produce greater system efficacy and…

Delannoy, Francoise

210

Evaluation of Provider Profiling in Public Sector Substance Abuse Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few evaluations of provider profiles and performance measurement in publicly funded substance abuse treatment exist. This study examined a 7-year period in which the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services alternately implemented, suspended, and reintroduced profiling of treatment agencies. The profiles contained quarterly statistical reports indicating the agency's performance and peer comparison on percentages of clients connecting to

Marilyn Daley; Donald S. Shepard; Sharon Reif; Robert Dunigan; Christopher P. Tompkins; Jennifer Perloff; Lauren Siembab; Constance M. Horgan

2010-01-01

211

Mobile Applications for Public Sector: Balancing Usability and Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mobile software applications for use in specific domains such as Public Security must conform to stringent security requirements. While mobile devices have many known limitations, assuring complex fine-grained security policies poses an additional challenge to quality mobile services and raises usability concerns. We address these challenges by means of a novel approach to authentication and gradual multi-factor authorization

Yuri NATCHETOI; Viktor KAUFMAN; Konstantin BEZNOSOV

2008-01-01

212

Clinical Trials Offshored: On Private Sector Science and Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the offshoring of clinical trials to middle- and low-income countries, and the complicated ways in which they have become integral to public health and quality of care in these contexts. I focus on the operations of United States-based contract research organizations (CROs), which make up a specialized global industry focusing on the recruitment of human subjects and

Adriana Petryna

2007-01-01

213

The Search for Efficiency: A Growing Public Sector Trend.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As public officials become increasingly pressured to do more with less, the search for efficiency will expand. Efficiency studies are being undertaken to gauge organizational effectiveness in administration; personnel productivity; privatization options; materials management; mangagement information and control; and vehicle, equipment, and…

O'Connor, H. Bland

1989-01-01

214

Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary Estimates of Commercial and Public Sector Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina's impact on the economy and infrastructure of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama represents an immediate concern to commercial enterprises, area residents, and policymakers at all levels. Understanding the severity of the damages and the magnitude of the recovery efforts are important for both private and public decision makers deploying resources in the affected area. This paper provides initial estimates

Michael J. Hicks

215

MANAGING INFORMATION PRIVACY AND INFORMATION ACCESS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government agencies collect and disseminate data that bear on the most important issues of public interest. Advances in information technology, particularly the Internet, have multiplied the tension between demands for evermore comprehensive databases and demands for the shelter of privacy. In mediating between these two conflicting demands, agencies must address a host of difficult problems. These include providing access to

George T. Duncan

216

An institutional perspective on performance measurement and management in the ‘new public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, in what has become known as the ‘new public sector’, many services in advanced economies, such as those of the U.K. and Scandinavia, have come under pressure to become more efficient and effective, so as to reduce their demands on taxpayers, while maintaining the volume and quality of services supplied to the public. To achieve this, they

Sven Modell

2000-01-01

217

Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections. CEE DP 135  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance measurement in the public sector is largely based on objective metrics, which may be subject to gaming behaviour. This paper investigates a novel subjective performance evaluation system where independent inspectors visit schools at very short notice, publicly disclose their findings and sanction schools rated fail. First, I…

Hussain, Iftikhar

2012-01-01

218

The Maintenance of Quality in the Public Sector of UK Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of Great Britain's Council for National Academic Awards in relation to other government agencies concerned with the quality of public colleges is discussed, and the public sector's course review process is compared to that of the universities. (Author/MSE)

Barnett, R. A.

1987-01-01

219

Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 112  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) public sector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

220

Organisational Learning in a Public Sector Organisation: A Case Study in Muddled Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed two programs in a public agency: Investors in Management (a British government initiative) and employee-led development. Found that both programs exposed tensions between individual growth and traditional values constraining growth. Concluded that effective organizational learning in the public sector must be collective and aware of…

Betts, Jan; Holden, Rick

2003-01-01

221

Overview of unconventional energy projects in the public power sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternative energy programs sponsored by publically owned utilities across the country are reviewed. Biomass conversion, diesels, combustion turbines, fuel cells, solar heating units, wind power, cogeneration, and load management are discussed in the context of the individual projects. The emphasis of the programs is on providing the services required by consumers, such as water heating, space conditioning, and insulation, rather than on the marketing of electricity as a single product.

Leber, R. E.

1981-01-01

222

Focusing on quality and need. The World Bank Health, Nutrition and Population sector has been reforming itself to better meet the needs of its clients - the people and governments of the countries it serves.  

PubMed

This article summarizes reforms made in the World Bank's Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) sector. The Bank's involvement with population issues dates back to the 1970s. The Bank has been justifiably criticized for ignoring programs that deliver social services to the world's poorest and neediest groups. The criticisms and reorganization within the Bank has led to a revision of program support and development strategies. The World Bank has been influenced by at least 4 major world conferences. The new Bank strategy builds upon its own strengths, its range of ministries, and the ICPD Plan of Action at the service delivery level and through broader population policy development. Programs aim to improve the HNP outcomes of the poor, enhance the performance of health care systems, and secure sustainable health care financing. Country assistance strategies (CAS) should be sensitive to the nature of the demographic transition (Bongaarts models) underway, the government's commitment to reform, and the priorities voiced by participants in CAS. CAS is based on the principle that public sector programs must benefit the poorest, cost effectiveness, greater impact on quality of projects, and partnerships with international aid agencies, such as the North-South Partnership in Population and Reproductive Health. Every country is unique and has its own set of obstacles. A country with more rapid demographic transition offers a larger window of opportunity for intervention, but a shorter time for changing aid structures. Aid structure and demographic change are sometimes more important than population size. PMID:12294062

Merrick, T

1998-01-01

223

Public sector efficiency: leveling the playing field between OECD countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we seek a robust methodology for the measurement of the relative public sector efficiency of 19 OECD countries\\u000a over the period 1980–2000. We estimate relative efficiency scores for five disaggregated accounts of public spending as well\\u000a as for aggregate public spending. Then, we use a semi-parametric econometric method to isolate the impact of government inefficiency\\u000a from the

Antonis Adam; Manthos Delis; Pantelis Kammas

2011-01-01

224

'Going private': a qualitative comparison of medical specialists' job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision-making, inter alia. These interventions may be more cost-effective for retention than wage increases, and imply that it is not necessarily just a matter of putting more money into the public sector to increase retention. PMID:23281664

2013-01-01

225

Reform of public hospitals and the main role of medical staffs.  

PubMed

The success of reforms to the public hospital system in China depends on the motivation and mobilization of medical staffs. Several factors are known to influence the motivation of health workers, including remuneration, acquisition of power and reputation, the ability to care for others, and the level of satisfaction. Obtaining recognition turns out to be a central factor in affecting motivation, while power and reputation fuel the health workers' enthusiasm. Providing caring for others and level of satisfaction safeguards the enthusiasm of medical staffs. We found that the motivation of medical staffs was enhanced through institutionalized programs that reward, empower, and promote the reputation of individuals, and other factors. Through the implementation of these programs, the medical staffs of Xuzhou Central Hospital have been successfully mobilized, resulting in an improvement in performance securing the healthy growth of the hospital, which ultimately translated to better health care delivery for the people in the region. PMID:24908266

Zhang, Peiying

2014-11-01

226

Openness to Standard Document Formats in Swedish Public Sector Organisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong movement in Europe to promote products that support open, well-documented standards. Directives and proposals at European and national levels have been developed in this area. There is in particular an increasing recognition of the need for governmental organisations to support and promote standard document formats. This vision can stand in stark contrast with the reality of those document formats which can currently be accepted and produced by those organisations. In this paper we address the question: to what extent can and do Swedish governmental organisations respond appropriately when presented with a document in a format that conforms to an open standard? We find that a small minority of organisations can actually do so, whereas all are willing and able to accept documents in a proprietary format. The study also highlights a lack of transparency in organisations regarding formats which should be accepted and used for communication with the general public.

Lundell, Björn; Lings, Brian

227

An analysis of workers' choice between employment in the public and private sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the extent to which workers with different personal characteristics are likely to be employed in the public versus the private sector. The author develops a reduced-form two-way probit model to analyze workers' choice between the two employment sectors, together with a three-way model that breaks this decision down to a choice among private, federal, and state and

Rebecca M. Blank

1985-01-01

228

A Decade of Change: Public Education Reform in Texas 1981-1992. Special Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1981, Texas embarked on a 10-year period of educational reform. This report presents findings of a policy research project that documented and analyzed these reforms to serve as a guide for future policy developments. Following the introduction, chapter 2, entitled "Student Reforms," addresses issues of curriculum, assessment and dropout…

Clark, Catherine; And Others

229

Corporate governance of public health services: lessons from New Zealand for the state sector.  

PubMed

New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted. PMID:10947611

Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M

2000-01-01

230

Advancing a Conceptual Model of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Public Service Sectors  

PubMed Central

Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health, social service, alcohol/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation process (i.e., Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment), derived from extant literature, and apply it to public sector services. We highlight features of the model likely to be particularly important in each phase, while considering the outer and inner contexts (i.e., levels) of public sector service systems. PMID:21197565

Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

2010-01-01

231

The Practical Importance of Inherency Analysis for Public Advocates: Rhetorical Leadership in Framing a Supportive Social Climate for Education Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues that teaching rhetorical leadership, particularly the skill of inherency analysis, is crucial to preparing effective citizen leaders. Using the example of education reforms for children with disabilities, it illustrates the practical value for those interested in public concerns of understanding and using analysis of the…

Olson, Kathryn M.

2008-01-01

232

"A Potent Lever for Social Progress": The Imperial Public Library in the Era of the Great Reforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the impact of social and political reforms in Russia during the 1860s on the role of the Imperial Public Library. The discussion covers the changes in library organization and operations that reflected a willingness to adapt to changing social conditions, and the resulting perception of the library as a vital tool for progress. (80…

Stuart, Mary

1989-01-01

233

Awaking the Public Sector with Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Revitalizing the Public Servant's Organizational Knowledge, Innovative Capability, and Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for public sector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…

Jackson, Janese Marie

2011-01-01

234

The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value?=?0.0028) and immunization rates (P value?=?0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

2014-01-01

235

Do adults in contact with Australia's public sector mental health services get better?  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the outcomes of episodes of care for adults in public sector mental health services across Australia, with a view to informing the debate on service quality. Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) change scores and effect sizes were calculated for 14,659 acute inpatient episodes and 23,692 community episodes. The results showed that people in contact with public sector mental health services generally do get better, although the magnitude of improvement depends on the setting and episode type. This confirmatory finding is particularly positive, given current community concerns about the quality and effectiveness of mental health services. PMID:16942623

Burgess, Philip; Pirkis, Jane; Coombs, Tim

2006-01-01

236

Revolving drug funds: conducting business in the public sector.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals are essential for preventive and therapeutic health services. Unfortunately, significant demand, limited funds and high prices contribute to frequent shortages of drugs in many public health programs. One method for financing pharmaceutical supplies has been the establishment of revolving drug funds (RDFs) in which, after an initial capital investment, drug supplies are replenished with monies collected from the sale of drugs. All too often however, the funds actually recovered are insufficient to replenish supplies and the fund is soon depleted. In this paper we consider the potential benefits and common pitfalls of revolving drug funds and then focus on the central role of financial planning in establishing drug sales programs. Experiences from a variety of countries suggest several causes for the failure of some RDFs, including: under-estimation of capitalization costs, prices set below true replacement cost, frequent failure to collect payment, delays in cash flow which make funds unavailable for replenishment of drug stocks, rapid program expansion for which additional capital funds are not available, losses due to theft and deterioration of drugs, unanticipated price increases due to inflation or changes in parity rates and foreign exchange purchase restrictions. Common to many of these problems is the lack of a businesslike orientation to RDFs and, in particular, lack of careful financial planning and management. Financial planning for an RDF includes four analytical tasks: assessment of the potential market, estimation of the costs of an RDF, establishment of the cost-recovery objectives, definition of the role of subsidies and surcharges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515574

Cross, P N; Huff, M A; Quick, J D; Bates, J A

1986-01-01

237

WARF's stem cell patents and tensions between public and private sector approaches to research.  

PubMed

While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged public sector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other public sector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks. PMID:20579254

Golden, John M

2010-01-01

238

Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

Garrick, C.J.; Garrick, J.M.; Rue, D.R. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)] [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)

1993-06-01

239

Private Service, Public Rights: The Private Children's Residential Group Care Sector in Ontario, Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the core themes and issues of private residential service delivery for children and youth in Ontario, with a specific focus on staffed group care within this sector. Such exploration highlights the juxtaposition of the public rights of children with the private world of service provision. Based on twenty interviews with…

Gharabaghi, Kiaras

2009-01-01

240

Employment Law and Workers with Disabilities: Implications for Public Sector Managers and Human Resource Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public sector managers can ensure compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act in the following ways: (1) clear, specific job descriptions; (2) consistent selection and testing processes; (3) participative management techniques; and (4) attention to coworker attitudes toward employees with disabilities. (SK)

Mello, Jeffrey A.

1995-01-01

241

Earnings Differentials among Unionized Workers in the Public and Private Sectors. (Revised.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1971 National Longitudinal Survey of middle-aged males, this survey simultaneously examines wage differentials in unionized and nonunionized employment in both the public and private sectors. Unlike previous studies conducted by Daniel S. Hamermesh, and Walter Fogel and David Lewin, this study includes a large sample that is…

Shapiro, David

242

Undoing Men's Privilege and Advancing Gender Equality in Public Sector Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination against women in public sector organisations has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. While much of this literature acknowledges the structural basis of gender inequality, strategies for change are often focused on anti-discrimination policies, equal employment opportunities and diversity management. Discriminatory behaviour is often individualised in these interventions and the larger systems of dominance and subordination

Michael Flood; Bob Pease

2005-01-01

243

Adding Value to Census Data: Public Sector Applications of the Super Profiles Geodemographic Typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews a series of public sector applications of the Super Profiles geodemographic typology that was produced using data derived from the 1991 Census. The applications, often in combination with the use of GIS software, have emerged in work undertaken by the staff of the Urban Research and Policy Evaluation Regional Research Laboratory (URPERRL). Examples of applications are drawn

Peter J. B. Brown; Alex F. G. Hirschfield; Peter W. J. Batey

244

Clinical Decision Making About Psychopathy and Violence Risk Assessment in Public Sector Mental Health Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been extensive research on psychopathy, it is unknown how, or whether, clinicians in public sector mental health settings consider the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) for assessing violence risk. Mental health clinicians (N = 135) from 4 facilities were interviewed by using multiple methods for collecting data on decision making. Participants considered clinical information most often when assessing violence

Eric B. Elbogen; Matthew T. Huss; Alan J. Tomkins; Mario J. Scalora

2005-01-01

245

Defining Business Process Requirements for Large-Scale Public Sector ERP Implementations: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our experiences in defining and documenting business process requirements for a large-scale public sector Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation in the United States. The implementing organization, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), is investing in packaged software to integrate all aspects of its business processes. Prior to selecting implementation consultants, NAVAIR documented business process requirements to scope the

George Blick; Thomas R. Gulledge; Rainer A. Sommer

2000-01-01

246

Using social identity theory to explain the job satisfaction of public sector employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study first reports findings about what factors affect the job satisfaction of one group of public sector employees and second, uses social identity theory to explain the results. The results indicated that working with fellow employees enhances job satisfaction. In contrast, dealing with the clientele (possibly without appropriate training) and organisational management polices compromise the job satisfaction of early

Yvonne Brunetto; Rod Farr-Wharton

2002-01-01

247

The Nays Have It: When Public Sector Unions Win in California. Civic Report. No. 72  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This November, California voters must decide two policy questions of great concern to public-sector unions. One is a tax hike to stave off further cuts to state spending (there are two versions on the ballot with a chance of passing). The other is a "paycheck protection" measure that would ban the practice of unions' deducting money from member…

DiSalvo, Daniel

2012-01-01

248

Prescriptions for Public-Sector Information ManagementA Review, Analysis, and Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews, analyzes, and assesses prescriptions for public-sector management of information technology (IT). It draws on four sources of such prescriptions: (a) the best-practices literature, based primarily on expert opinion and focused on managerial processes; (b) the empirical IT research literature, based primarily on quantitative analyses of the IT function; (c) benchmarks (the attempt to develop objective measures of

Bruce Rocheleau

2000-01-01

249

Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.

Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris,Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

2006-05-10

250

WAGE GAPS BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN STARTING TO WORK IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines whether there is a gap in wa ges between women and men starting to work in the public sector, and if s o—what the reasons are for the gap and how it developed over the past 16 years . The research shows that at the start of the period a significant wage gap e xisted in favor

YUVAL MAZAR

2008-01-01

251

Across Boundaries of Influence and Accountability: The Multiple Scales of Public Sector Information Systems  

E-print Network

Across Boundaries of Influence and Accountability: The Multiple Scales of Public Sector Information here takes aim at examining ICT use that crosses these scales of influence and accountability. We is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage

Edwards, Keith

252

PPA631/NRC697I INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PUBLIC AND NONPROFIT SECTORS  

E-print Network

/ Introduction The advances in information technology (IT) and computer networking in recent years are bothPPA631/NRC697I INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PUBLIC AND NONPROFIT SECTORS Course Syllabus ­ Spring by email, and try and respond as quickly as I can. Course homepage: http://courses.umass.edu/pubp631

Schweik, Charles M.

253

Preparing for Public Life: School Sector and the Educational Context of Lasting Citizen Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School sector and educational context seem to make a difference in civic socialization. There is limited knowledge, however, of the mechanisms through which socialization may occur in public and private schools, and the extent to which they have any lasting effect. Does the private school effect on civic socialization persist into young adulthood,…

Dill, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

254

Towards developing a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective career success, managers, managerial career development and social cognitive career theory.

Roziah Mohd Rasdi; Maimunah Ismail; Jegak Uli; Sidek Mohd Noah

2009-01-01

255

Social citizenship and ethnicity around a public sector steel plant in Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about a modern public sector steel plant in the state of Orissa and its promise to set standards for post-colonial India's citizenry at large. These steel plants were to provide their workforces with superior social and economic citizenship rights, which in turn were to serve as exemplary industrial relations for the industrialising nation. The steel plants were

Christian Strümpell

2011-01-01

256

The Practice of Collective and Strategic Leadership in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, a dyadic and hierarchical vision dominates in the literature on leadership as it does in the public sector (Gronn, 2002; Hiller and Vance, 2006). The transactional and transformational perspectives present leaders in relation with their subordinates or their supporters. Yet, that is a truncated vision of the reality because it disregards the situation and the other leaders present (Gronn,

Lilly Lemay

2009-01-01

257

Affective commitment in the public sector: the case of IT employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve our understanding of individual motivations to remain employed in governmental agencies this study focuses on a specific segment of a state government agency workforce. Information technology (IT) employees possess skills that transfer easily to other sectors, which make them an important group when examining factors that influence the affective commitment and job satisfaction of individuals working in public

Margaret F. Reid; Myria W. Allen; Cynthia K. Riemenschneider; Deborah J. Armstrong

2006-01-01

258

Relating IT strategy and organizational culture: an empirical study of public sector units in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationships between selected aspects of organizational culture and IT-Strategy in public sector units (PSUs). Organization culture, which is treated as a shared set of norms and values, is analyzed with respect to IT-Strategies. Organizational culture is assessed in terms of innovative, supportive and bureaucratic cultures. IT strategy is viewed as comprising six generic strategies, namely, centrally

Shivraj Kanungo; Sanjeev Sadavarti; Yadlapati Srinivas

2001-01-01

259

CEO Pay in the Public Sector: The Case of Vice Chancellors in UK Universities1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse top management public sector pay using a panel data of university Vice Chancellors (VC) in UK. We assess how institutional performance, hierarchical effects, and personal characteristics determine VC pay. VC personal data covers personal details, qualifications and career history, which let us distinguish between internal promotions and hires from outside academia. We use the results of three Research

Peter J. Dolton

260

Being Rejected and Expelled from the Workplace: Experiences of Bullying in the Public Service Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to describe how bullying was experienced by individuals who had been exposed to bullying at their workplaces. Open interviews were conducted with 22 participants from different professional and organizational status groups in the public service sector, who had experienced bullying at their workplaces. The interviews were analyzed according to guidelines for grounded theory. The core category illuminated

M. Strandmark; LR-M. Hallberg

2007-01-01

261

Policy and Workforce Reform in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…

Gunter, Helen M.

2008-01-01

262

The process and impact of workplace change: a business unit in the NSW public hospital sector.  

PubMed

Over the last decade most of the debate regarding workplace reforms in the health sector has tended to centre on funding and activity levels and their impact on outcomes. Yet there has been little analysis of either the mechanisms by which these reforms have been introduced or their impact on the work life of employees. It is the intention of this paper to analyse the mechanism used to implement workplace change and the impact of that change on employees using a case study method. The paper will firstly identify the various mechanisms by which workplace change may be introduced and provide a brief background on the case study unit. The following sections will discuss the development and implementation of a performance management system, using an informal workplace consultation and negotiation mechanism. The final section will explore the impact of the change mechanism by analysing the objectives of the organisation. The paper, in conclusion, will argue that while the mechanism and the introduction of this instance of workplace change did not in the long term achieve the desired objectives as a specific management tool it has had an ongoing impact on managers, employees and the workplace. The paper draws on evidence from related literature, analysis of primary documents and 10 semi-structured interviews. Data collection, including the interviews with employees and managers, was conducted primarily during the second half of 2001, as part of a broader research project on bargaining structures and workplace change. PMID:12136550

White, Nadine

2002-01-01

263

A Switching Regression Model for Wage Determinants in the Public and Private Sectors of a Developing Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments in less developed countries face severe budgetary constraints. Given that public sector employment is a large part of modern sector employment, the government wage bill h as come under increased scrutiny. The central question is how do gove rnment wages compare with those in the private sector? In this paper, the authors develop and estimate a model to answer

Jacques van der Gaag; Wim Vijverberg

1988-01-01

264

Decentralisation and government provision of public goods: The public health sector in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many developing countries have devolved health care responsibilities to local governments in recent years, no study has examined whether decentralisation actually leads to greater health sector allocative efficiency. This paper approaches this question by modeling local government budgeting decisions under decentralisation. The model leads to conclusions not all favourable to decentralisation and produces several testable hypotheses concerning local government

John Akin; Paul Hutchinson; Koleman Strumpf

2005-01-01

265

An evidence-based approach to benchmarking the fairness of health-sector reform in developing countries.  

PubMed Central

The Benchmarks of Fairness instrument is an evidence-based policy tool developed in generic form in 2000 for evaluating the effects of health-system reforms on equity, efficiency and accountability. By integrating measures of these effects on the central goal of fairness, the approach fills a gap that has hampered reform efforts for more than two decades. Over the past three years, projects in developing countries on three continents have adapted the generic version of these benchmarks for use at both national and subnational levels. Interdisciplinary teams of managers, providers, academics and advocates agree on the relevant criteria for assessing components of fairness and, depending on which aspects of reform they wish to evaluate, select appropriate indicators that rely on accessible information; they also agree on scoring rules for evaluating the diverse changes in the indicators. In contrast to a comprehensive index that aggregates all measured changes into a single evaluation or rank, the pattern of changes revealed by the benchmarks is used to inform policy deliberation aboutwhich aspects of the reforms have been successfully implemented, and it also allows for improvements to be made in the reforms. This approach permits useful evidence about reform to be gathered in settings where existing information is underused and where there is a weak information infrastructure. Brief descriptions of early results from Cameroon, Ecuador, Guatemala, Thailand and Zambia demonstrate that the method can produce results that are useful for policy and reveal the variety of purposes to which the approach can be put. Collaboration across sites can yield a catalogue of indicators that will facilitate further work. PMID:16175828

Daniels, Norman; Flores, Walter; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Ndumbe, Peter N.; Bryant, John H.; Ngulube, T. J.; Wang, Yuankun

2005-01-01

266

Workplace romance in the public sector: sex differences in reactions to the Clinton-Lewinsky affair.  

PubMed

This study examined reactions of part-time MBA students (n = 199) and undergraduate business students (n = 220) to the affair involving U.S. President Bill Clinton and White House intern Monica Lewinsky prior to Clinton's impeachment by the House of Representatives. Consistent with research on attitudes toward workplace romance in the private sector, women believed that this affair occurring in the public sector represented a more serious problem for the nation and more than men were inclined to prefer that some type of action, e.g., resignation or impeachment, be taken. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11272740

Powell, G N

2000-12-01

267

Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

2011-01-01

268

Addressing gaps in health care sector legal preparedness for public health emergencies.  

PubMed

Health care providers and their legal counsel play pivotal roles in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies. Lawyers representing hospitals, health systems, and other health care provider components are being called upon to answer complex legal questions regarding public health preparedness issues that most providers have not previously faced. Many of these issues are legal issues with which public health officials should be familiar, and that can serve as a starting point for cross-sector legal preparedness planning involving both the public health and health care communities. This article examines legal issues that health care providers face in preparing for public health emergencies, and steps that providers, their legal counsel, and others can take to address those issues and to strengthen community preparedness. PMID:18388658

Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, Anthony D

2008-03-01

269

A Comparison of Public and Private Sector Worksites--An Interim Report. Youth Work Experience. Youth Knowledge Development Report 7.7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the effectiveness of public and private sector work experience programs. In five locations equal numbers of jobs were developed in the private and public/nonprofit sectors. To equalize the incentives relative to the public sector, full wage subsidies were provided on an experimental basis in the private sector. Youth were matched…

Gilsinan, James F.; Tomey, E. Allan

270

Patients as healthcare consumers in the public and private sectors: a qualitative study of acupuncture in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an\\u000a example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is\\u000a available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore

Felicity L Bishop; Fiona Barlow; Beverly Coghlan; Philippa Lee; George T Lewith

2011-01-01

271

A reforming accountability: GPs and health reform in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Over the last ten years or so, many countries have undertaken public sector reforms. As a result of these changes, accounting has come to play a more important role. However, many of the studies have only discussed the reforms at a conceptual level and have failed to study how the reforms have been implemented and operated in practice. Based on the work of Lipsky (1980) and Gorz (1989), it can be argued that those affected by the reforms have a strong incentive to subvert the reforms. This prediction is explored via a case study of general practitioner (GP) response to the New Zealand health reforms. The creation of Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) allowed the State to impose contractual-accountability and to cap their budget exposure for subsidies. From the GP's perspective, the IPAs absorbed the changes initiated by the State, and managed the contracting, accounting and budgetary administration responsibilities that were created. This allowed individual GPs to continue practising as before and provided some collective protection against the threat of state intrusion into GP autonomy. The creation of IPAs also provided a new way to manage the professional/financial tension, the contradiction between the professional motivation noted by Gorz (1989) and the need to earn a living. PMID:10175302

Jacobs, K

1997-01-01

272

Development of Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in the Chinese Water Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the transformation of urban water services in China since the late 1990s focusing on the interaction between\\u000a the government and private players in the form of public private partnership projects. A lack of fund, outdated technologies\\u000a and management skills, and underpriced water tariffs had deteriorated urban water services in China. Chinese authorities decided\\u000a to adopt private sector

Seungho Lee

2010-01-01

273

An evaluation of employee motivation in the extended public sector in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of the relationship between work motivation and organisational performance in the extended public sector, by testing empirically common elements of existing theoretical frameworks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A unique questionnaire-based survey was carried out in three organisations\\/corporations where the state is the major stakeholder. Of the 1,000 questionnaires distributed, 454

Dimitris Manolopoulos

2008-01-01

274

How economic integration affects the vertical structure of the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of economic integration on the vertical structure of the public sector within a country.\\u000a To tackle this issue we set up a model of fiscal federalism, where economic integration is assumed to affect central government\\u000a tax revenues. The main findings are that when an increase of the impact of economic integration brings about a reduction

Paolo Liberati; Antonio Sciala

2011-01-01

275

Patterns of drug use in the public sector primary health centers of Bhopal district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study drug use in public sector out-patient centers in Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh Province, India. This study was\\u000a conducted as part of the provincial health Department’s efforts to develop a state drug policy. It was intended to inform\\u000a policy elements concerned with the promotion of rational drug use. Method Health facilities studied included the functioning 9 primary health

Ayesha De Costa; Shekhawat Bhartiya; Amani Eltayb; Sunil Nandeswar; Vinod K. Diwan

2008-01-01

276

Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces) to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation. PMID:23347433

2013-01-01

277

Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.  

PubMed

Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

2007-04-01

278

Reforms are needed to increase public funding and curb demand for private care in Israel's health system.  

PubMed

Historically, the Israeli health care system has been considered a high-performance system, providing universal, affordable, high-quality care to all residents. However, a decline in the ratio of physicians to population that reached a modern low in 2006, an approximate ten-percentage-point decline in the share of publicly financed health care between 1995 and 2009, and legislative mandates that favored private insurance have altered Israel's health care system for the worse. Many Israelis now purchase private health insurance to supplement the state-sponsored universal care coverage, and they end up spending more out of pocket even for services covered by the entitlement. Additionally, many publicly paid physicians moonlight at private facilities to earn more money. In this article I recommend that Israel increase public funding for health care and adopt reforms to address the rising demand for privately funded care and the problem of publicly paid physicians who moonlight at private facilities. PMID:23569052

Chernichovsky, Dov

2013-04-01

279

Measuring Results of Health Sector Reform for System Performance: A Handbook of Indicators. Special Initiatives Report No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This handbook presents indicators for five key dimensions of health system performance: access, equity, quality, efficiency, and sustainability. These performance measures are considered within a framework that maps the linkages between health sector refo...

J. C. Knowles, C. Leighton, W. Stinson

1997-01-01

280

Working to keep reform on track. A changing industry poses challenges for healthcare leaders across all sectors.  

PubMed

Everyone on the 100 Most Influential People in Healthcare ranking for 2013 plays some part in the massive change roiling the U.S. healthcare system. Providers, payers, regulators, politicians and advocates all grapple daily with how reform is affecting their jobs and organizations. Aetna CEO Mark Bertolini, calls it necessary. "I truly believe we have a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to improve quality, and control costs and make healthcare work for everyone," says Bertolini, the No. 6 ranked official on this years list. PMID:24044293

Robeznieks, Andis

2013-08-26

281

How well can physicians manage Tuberculosis? A Public-Private sector comparison from Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Pakistan which ranks fifth amongst the twenty two countries designated to be highly burdened by TB according to the World Health Organization. However, there is paucity of data regarding the knowledge of diagnosis of TB and its management amongst public and private practitioners. In this study, we endeavor to identify this gap in knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of TB between public and private doctors and the factors affecting these knowledge scores in urban Pakistan. Methods This cross sectional survey was conducted between June and December 2011. Doctors from public hospitals, private hospitals and private clinics scattered in all eighteen towns of Karachi were included in the study. Qualified MBBS doctors working in any specialty were eligible to participate whereas doctors working in both the public and private sectors were excluded from the study. Vignette based clinical scenarios were given to assess the knowledge score regarding the diagnosis and management of TB. Results A total of 196 doctors participated in the study. There was a significant difference between private and public physicians in terms of age and years of practice (p-value <0.05). Significant differences in the proportion of knowledge scores were observed between the public and private doctors and National TB Control Program trained and untrained doctors in Karachi. Factors associated with inadequate knowledge scores were being female gender [OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.418-5.384)], private employment status [OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.258-2.439)], and not trained by NTP [OR: 2.98 (95% CI: 1.286-3.225)] on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion It is concluded that a knowledge gap exists between the public and private doctors in Karachi. Strengthening of currently implemented public private mix model along with improvement in the trainings of public and private practitioners is highly recommended to control TB in Pakistan. PMID:24156568

2013-01-01

282

Tracking Student Mobility Between the Public and Private Post-Secondary Education Sectors in British Columbia: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study will examine the feasibility of developing a student mobility tracking system that encompasses the entire post-secondary system in BC. Currently, the vast majority of the private post-secondary sector has no formal link with institutions in the public sector. As a consequence, little is known beyond anecdotal evidence about the…

Kershaw, Adrian

2007-01-01

283

Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

2008-01-01

284

FACT SHEET: Fusion Center Assessment emergency response, public health and private sector security personnel to understand local intelligence  

E-print Network

and local jurisdictions as a result of the 9/11 Commission recommendations, with assistance and cooperationFACT SHEET: Fusion Center Assessment emergency response, public health and private sector security

285

Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N?=?165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€?=?MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P?=?0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P?=?0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P?public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings provide basis for identifying potential cost-reducing strategies, estimating economic burden of periodontitis management and performing economic evaluation of the specialist periodontal programme. PMID:24884465

2014-01-01

286

Educating for Change: Changing Education. Recommendations to USAID/Macedonia for Assisting Macedonia's Reform of the Education Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improvements in education are occurring in Macedonia, but challenges remain with quality, equity, efficiency, and administration. This report presents to United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Macedonia a way to move forward in assisting the education sector. It is the result of almost four plus weeks of study by a team of…

Bonner, Cameron S.; Herschbach, Dennis R.; Rifkin, Norman

287

Competition between Public Supervision and Professional Management: An Ethnographic Study of School Governance Reforms in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…

Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana

2014-01-01

288

Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

Shober, Arnold F.

2010-01-01

289

Curricular Reform and the Changing Social Role of Public Higher Education in Costa Rica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dominant social, economic, and political philosophies manifested in the recent debate over the University of Costa Rica general studies curriculum reforms are discussed. It is concluded that the debate is really about the university's role in an environment that values privatization, individual (contrasted with social) benefits of higher…

Twombly, Susan B.

1997-01-01

290

Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it comes to public-sector pensions, writes lead author Michael B. Lafferty in this report, "A major public-policy (and public-finance) problem has been defined and measured, debated and deliberated, but not yet solved. Except where it has been." As recounted in "Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century", these…

Lafferty, Michael B.

2011-01-01

291

Adult Participation in Education in South-Eastern Europe: An Elaboration on the Study Report for the Assessment of the Impact of Ongoing Reforms in Education and Training on the Adult Learning Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on the findings of the Research voor Beleid (RvB) study for the second phase of the assessment of the "Impact of ongoing reforms in education and training on adult learning sector" (2010), with particular focus on adult participation in education in three EU Member States in south-eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Cyprus and Greece).…

Zarifis, George K.

2012-01-01

292

Clients' reports on postabortion family planning services provided in Mexico City's public sector legal abortion program  

PubMed Central

Objective First trimester abortion was decriminalized in Mexico City in 2007. We studied client views of family planning services provided during abortion care at public facilities and acceptance of postabortion contraception. Methods We surveyed 402 clients seeking first trimester abortion care in Mexico City. We used logistic regression to test whether postabortion contraception varied by abortion visit characteristics or client sociodemographics. Results Most participants (81.6%) reported being offered contraception at their visit and 89.5% selected a contraceptive method postabortion, with 58.9% selecting the IUD. Surgical abortion clients were more likely to report being offered contraception than medical abortion clients (p<.001), as were clients attended by a female physician (p<.05). Clients at the general hospital were less likely to report being offered contraception (p<.001). Conclusion Public sector facilities in Mexico City are providing a generally high level of postabortion family planning care and uptake of postabortion contraception is high. PMID:23499047

Becker, Davida; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G.; Harper, Cynthia C.

2014-01-01

293

Eliminating malaria in Malaysia: the role of partnerships between the public and commercial sectors in Sabah  

PubMed Central

Background Countries in the Asia Pacific region have made great progress in the fight against malaria; several are rapidly approaching elimination. However, malaria control programmes operating in elimination settings face substantial challenges, particularly around mobile migrant populations, access to remote areas and the diversity of vectors with varying biting and breeding behaviours. These challenges can be addressed through subnational collaborations with commercial partners, such as mining or plantation companies, that can conduct or support malaria control activities to cover employees. Such partnerships can be a useful tool for accessing high-risk populations and supporting malaria elimination goals. Methods This observational qualitative case study employed semi-structured key informant interviews to describe partnerships between the Malaysian Malaria Control Programme (MCP), and private palm oil, rubber and acacia plantations in the state of Sabah. Semi-structured interview guides were used to examine resource commitments, incentives, challenges, and successes of the collaborations. Results Interviews with workers from private plantations and the state of Sabah MCP indicated that partnerships with the commercial sector had contributed to decreases in incidence at plantation sites since 1991. Several plantations contribute financial and human resources toward malaria control efforts and all plantations frequently communicate with the MCP to help monitor the malaria situation on-site. Management of partnerships between private corporations and government entities can be challenging, as prioritization of malaria control may change with annual profits or arrival of new management. Conclusions Partnering with the commercial sector has been an essential operational strategy to support malaria elimination in Sabah. The successes of these partnerships rely on a common understanding that elimination will be a mutually beneficial outcome for employers and the general public. Best practices included consistent communication, developing government-staffed subsector offices for malaria control on-site, engaging commercial plantations to provide financial and human resources for malaria control activities, and the development of new worker screening programmes. The successes and challenges associated with partnerships between the public and commercial sector can serve as an example for other malaria-eliminating countries with large plantation sectors, and may also be applied to other sectors that employ migrant workers or have commercial enterprises in hard to reach areas. PMID:24443824

2014-01-01

294

Advancing the business creed? The framing of decisions about public sector managed care.  

PubMed

Relatively little research has clarified how executives of for-profit healthcare organisations frame their own motivations and behaviour, or how government officials frame their interactions with executives. Because managed care has provided an organisational structure for health services in many countries, we focused our study on executives and government officials who were administering public sector managed care services. Emphasising theoretically the economic versus non-economic motivations that guide economic behaviour, we extended a long-term research project on public sector Medicaid managed care (MMC) in the United States. Our method involved in-depth, structured interviews with chief executive officers of managed care organisations, as well as high-ranking officials of state government. Data analysis involved iterative interpretation of interview data. We found that the rate of profit, which proved relatively low in the MMC programme, occupied a limited place in executives' self-described motivations and in state officials' descriptions of corporation-government interactions. Non-economic motivations included a strong orientation toward corporate social responsibility and a creed in which market processes advanced human wellbeing. Such patterns contradict some of the given wisdom about how corporate executives and government officials construct their reality. PMID:21707659

Waitzkin, Howard; Yager, Joel; Santos, Richard

2012-01-01

295

Managed Behavioral Health Care: An Instrument to Characterize Critical Elements of Public Sector Programs  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and “unmanaged” care and among managed care arrangements. Study Design The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data Collection Methods Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. Principal Findings This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. Conclusions If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary. PMID:12236386

Ridgely, M Susan; Giard, Julienne; Shern, David; Mulkern, Virginia; Burnam, M Audrey

2002-01-01

296

Improving employee outcomes in the public sector : The beneficial effects of social support at work and job control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the efficacy of the demand-control-support model, augmented with employee perceptions of organisational justice and degree of met expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected from 128 public sector employees working in a large state police force operating under many of the elements of new public management. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were

John J. Rodwell; Andrew J. Noblet; Amanda F. Allisey

2011-01-01

297

Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private

David H Peters; Subrata Chakraborty; Prasanta Mahapatra; Laura Steinhardt

2010-01-01

298

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic level among public-sector workers in Angola  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. African countries are currently facing an increase in both cardiovascular and transmitted diseases. In addition, cardiovascular risk varies among different socioeconomic groups. Thus, we determined the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy public-sector workers and investigated possible relationships with socioeconomic status. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study comprising 42.2% (n = 615) of the public-sector workers at Agostinho Neto University, 48% (n = 294) male and 52% (n= 321) female, with ages between 20 and 72 years and from various socioeconomic groups. The study was conducted from February 2009 to December 2010. Personal, anthropometric, biochemical, hemodynamic, socioeconomic, and physical activity data were collected. Results The prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors were as follows: hypertension, 45.2% (men 46.3%, women 44.2%, P > 0.05); hypercholesterolemia, 11.1% (men 10.5%, women 11.5%, P > 0.05); low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 50.1% (men 36.9%, women 62.3%; P < 0.05); hypertriglyceridemia, 10.6% (men 12.6%, women 8.7%, P > 0.05); smoking, 7.2% (men 10.2%, women 4.4%; P < 0.05); diabetes, 5.7% (men 5.5%, women 5.9%, P > 0.05); overweight, 29.3% (men 27.3%, women 31.2%, P > 0.05); obesity, 19.6% (men 9.2%, women 29.0%; P < 0.05); sedentary lifestyle, 87.2% (men 83.0%, women 91,0%, P < 0.05); and left ventricular hypertrophy, 20% (men 32.0%, women 9.0%; P < 0.05). At least one risk factor was present in 27.7% of the sample; 15.2% had two risk factors, and 31.4% had three or more risk factors. Among the individuals with low socioeconomic status, 41.0% had three or more risk factors. Conclusions The results of this study suggest the existence of a high prevalence of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy public-sector workers in Angola. The workers in lower socioeconomic groups had higher incidences of hypertension, smoking, and left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:23924306

2013-01-01

299

Agrarian Reforms in Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkmenistan has implemented significant reforms in agriculture, increasing the size of the household plot sector, enabling the emergence of independent private farms, and most importantly individualizing to a certain extent the production arrangements in former collective farms through the introduction of leasehold contracts. Yet the policies underlying these reforms are not entirely consistent: state orders are retained for the main

Zvi Lerman; Ivan Stanchin

300

The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

2014-02-01

301

On to the Past: Wrong-Headed School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business should participate in school reform but has too narrow a perspective to guide it. Nationalizing education through comparative testing is a move to cut spending for social services, to increase accountability and efficiency without increasing financial responsibility or equity. Imposing private-sector rules on public education undermines…

Moffett, James

1994-01-01

302

Myth1Pensions for university staff need to be reformed  

E-print Network

Myth1Pensions for university staff need to be reformed This is not true for public sector workers. Myth2The university employers' proposals are reasonable The proposals imposed by the employers place. This means that our pensions will lose value over time. Myth3This strike is unnecessary As trade unionists

Meju, Max

303

We live here : tenants and the Massachusetts Public Housing Reform debate  

E-print Network

The embezzlement and corruption scandal surrounding the director of a local Massachusetts housing authority in late 2011 spurred a heated public debate about governance and efficiency in the state-funded public housing ...

Sappelt, Ruth

2014-01-01

304

Changing public attitudes towards corporal punishment: the effects of statutory reform in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in

Julian V Roberts

2000-01-01

305

Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.  

PubMed

Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector. PMID:22763126

Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

2013-05-01

306

A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts to tackle the enormous burden of ill-health in low-income countries are hampered by weak health information infrastructures that do not support appropriate planning and resource allocation. For health information systems to function well, a reliable inventory of health service providers is critical. The spatial referencing of service providers to allow their representation in a geographic information system is vital if the full planning potential of such data is to be realized. Methods A disparate series of contemporary lists of health service providers were used to update a public health facility database of Kenya last compiled in 2003. These new lists were derived primarily through the national distribution of antimalarial and antiretroviral commodities since 2006. A combination of methods, including global positioning systems, was used to map service providers. These spatially-referenced data were combined with high-resolution population maps to analyze disparity in geographic access to public health care. Findings The updated 2008 database contained 5,334 public health facilities (67% ministry of health; 28% mission and nongovernmental organizations; 2% local authorities; and 3% employers and other ministries). This represented an overall increase of 1,862 facilities compared to 2003. Most of the additional facilities belonged to the ministry of health (79%) and the majority were dispensaries (91%). 93% of the health facilities were spatially referenced, 38% using global positioning systems compared to 21% in 2003. 89% of the population was within 5 km Euclidean distance to a public health facility in 2008 compared to 71% in 2003. Over 80% of the population outside 5 km of public health service providers was in the sparsely settled pastoralist areas of the country. Conclusion We have shown that, with concerted effort, a relatively complete inventory of mapped health services is possible with enormous potential for improving planning. Expansion in public health care in Kenya has resulted in significant increases in geographic access although several areas of the country need further improvements. This information is key to future planning and with this paper we have released the digital spatial database in the public domain to assist the Kenyan Government and its partners in the health sector. PMID:19267903

Noor, Abdisalan M; Alegana, Victor A; Gething, Peter W; Snow, Robert W

2009-01-01

307

An applied stochastic model of the quality–quantity trade-off in the public health care sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a striking feature of the many of the developing country public service sectors that the sectors in question often overproduce\\u000a the quantity of services but underproduce the quality. This feature, which is exemplified in this paper, is rooted in a wide\\u000a spectrum of economic and sociological factors ranging from the economic and sociological profile of the service receiving

Ahmet Kara

2009-01-01

308

Health services reform and human resource management in Hong Kong public hospitals.  

PubMed

This article discusses the empirical study of reform in the human resource management function in the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. It describes the prior management of the hospitals based on the civil service administration model before looking at management reform in general. From this research, the creative tensions between the centrifugal and centripetal forces in the pursuit of 'effectiveness', 'efficiency' and 'economy' are explored in terms of decentralization. A survey of line managers, in eleven Hospital Authority hospitals, revealed the progress of decentralization: a majority of respondents felt that, over the previous five years, managers at their level had been given greater responsibility for human resource management issues. In spite of the widespread perception of increased decentralization, however, it was recognized that there are limits to decentralization. It was the routine administration rather than the policy formulation and interpretation which had been decentralized, and hospitals continued to rely on the Hospital Authority Head of Office for guidance on policy interpretation. Several barriers to the effective decentralization of responsibility for human resource management were identified, including a lack of management skill, knowledge and time, the attitudes of some managers and the tight control of budget. PMID:10351677

Thompson, D; Snape, E; Stokes, C

1999-01-01

309

Circumcision for prevention against HIV: marked seasonal variation in demand and potential public sector readiness in Soweto, South Africa.  

PubMed

The public sector delivery of male circumcision in the only public sector hospital in Soweto, South Africa was examined to gauge local capacity to deliver this procedure as an intervention for prevention of HIV acquisition. During the period from July 1998 to March 2006, approximately 360 procedures were performed per annum. Striking seasonal variations and the relatively few procedures performed may create challenges for program planning, if male circumcision is increased to a level required to have an impact on the incidence of HIV among this population. PMID:17254337

de Bruyn, Guy; Smith, Martin D; Gray, Glenda E; McIntyre, James A; Wesson, Russell; Dos Passos, Gary; Martinson, Neil A

2007-01-01

310

Circumcision for prevention against HIV: marked seasonal variation in demand and potential public sector readiness in Soweto, South Africa  

PubMed Central

The public sector delivery of male circumcision in the only public sector hospital in Soweto, South Africa was examined to gauge local capacity to deliver this procedure as an intervention for prevention of HIV acquisition. During the period from July 1998 to March 2006, approximately 360 procedures were performed per annum. Striking seasonal variations and the relatively few procedures performed may create challenges for program planning, if male circumcision is increased to a level required to have an impact on the incidence of HIV among this population. PMID:17254337

de Bruyn, Guy; Smith, Martin D; Gray, Glenda E; McIntyre, James A; Wesson, Russell; Passos, Gary Dos; Martinson, Neil A

2007-01-01

311

Activities of the NASA sponsored SRI technology applications team in transferring aerospace technology to the public sector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization and functions of an interdisciplinary team for the application of aerospace generated technology to the solution of discrete technological problems within the public sector are presented. The interdisciplinary group formed at Stanford Research Institute, California is discussed. The functions of the group are to develop and conduct a program not only optimizing the match between public sector technological problems in criminalistics, transportation, and the postal services and potential solutions found in the aerospace data base, but ensuring that appropriate solutions are acutally utilized. The work accomplished during the period from July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971 is reported.

Berke, J. G.

1971-01-01

312

Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors  

PubMed Central

Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations and values systems of nurses is more likely to increase the satisfaction of nurses and consequently have a positive effect on individual, organizational and health outcomes. PMID:19232120

Pillay, Rubin

2009-01-01

313

Is the Consociational system reformable ? The current state of public life in Lebanon is neither the proper place for esoteric debate nor  

E-print Network

1 Is the Consociational system reformable ? The current state of public life in Lebanon is neither groups and the majority of the Islamic fundamentalist movements, had already thrown in the sponge of the population by the political class and its loyalty towards a State whose authority would thus appear all

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

The Essential Profession: American Education at the Crossroads. A National Survey of Public Attitudes toward Teaching, Educational Opportunity and School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes a study of Americans' attitudes toward teaching, educational opportunity, and school reform. Surveys of 2,501 adults nationwide indicate that Americans unequivocally support the guarantee of free public education and consider improvement in fundamental areas of student behavior and academic performance essential. Greater…

Haselkorn, David; Harris, Louis

315

An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Methods Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. Results The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher program with other services is likely to address some of the barriers. The public sector facilities were also seen as being well positioned to provide voucher services because of their countrywide reach, enhanced infrastructure, and referral networks. The voucher program also has the potential to address public sector constraints such as understaffing and supply shortages. Conclusions Accrediting public facilities has the potential to increase voucher program coverage by reaching a wider pool of poor mothers, shortening distance to service, strengthening linkages between public and private sectors through public-private partnerships and referral systems as well as ensuring the awareness and buy-in of policy makers, which is crucial for mobilization of resources to support the sustainability of the programs. Specifically, identifying policy champions and consulting with key policy sectors is key to the successful inclusion of the public sector into the voucher program. PMID:24139603

2013-01-01

316

108 ASIAN REVIEW OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Reengineering Public Services Through ISO 9000 ZAKARIA AHMAD, Asian Pacific Development Centre  

E-print Network

THE PUBLIC SERVICE is obligated to deliver the best service to its customers and stakeholders at whatever cost. The words “administrative reforms ” have been commonly used by public servants such that sometimes they have very little impact on the public service performance. “Change management ” too has become a popular jargon in the public sector. Changing the

unknown authors

317

Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water sector is dependent on effective institutions and organisations, and, therefore, on strong competences at the individual level. In this paper we describe competence formation and competence needs in a case study of the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR) in the Ministry of Public Works in Indonesia. A framework is introduced for the water sector comprising three aggregate competences for technical issues, management, and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both surveys and interviews reveal a strong perceived requirement for other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. Further, a discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that can be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With low competence in these fields, it is difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in a multidisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this is partially compensated by the attention to continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is experienced as fundamentally formative.

Kaspersma, J. M.; Alaerts, G. J.; Slinger, J. H.

2012-07-01

318

Who is accessing public-sector anti-retroviral treatment in the Free State, South Africa? An exploratory study of the first three years of programme implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although South Africa has the largest public-sector anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, anti-retroviral coverage in adults was only 40.2% in 2008. However, longitudinal studies of who is accessing the South African public-sector ART programme are scarce. This study therefore had one main research question: who is accessing public-sector ART in the Free State Province, South Africa? The

Edwin Wouters; Christo Heunis; Koen Ponnet; Francis Van Loon; Frederik le Roux Booysen; Dingie van Rensburg; Herman Meulemans

2010-01-01

319

Time costs of waiting, doctor-shopping and private-public sector imbalance: Microdata evidence from Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify the disutility of waiting for a specialist consultation and to examine whether individuals' willingness-to- pay (WTP) to reduce waiting time is associated with doctor-shopping behavior in outpatient clinics of four large, public hospitals in Hong Kong. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey of 6495 outpatients on public sector waiting lists enrolled from July 2000 to October 2001.

Gabriel Matthew Leunga; Raymond Yue Ting Yeunga; Irene Oi; Ling Wong; Susana Castan-Cameoa; Janice Mary Johnston

320

The state and health care reform: the National Health Insurance and Public Health Act of 1949  

E-print Network

forces affecting policy enactment can also prevent certain policies from being enacted. This study evaluates the capacity of these three theories to explain why the National Health Insurance and Public Health Act of 1949 was not enacted. This research...

Schemmer, Ruth Ann, 1960

2012-06-07

321

Applying the Methodology of the Community College Classification Scheme to the Public Master's Colleges and Universities Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work brings forward the geographically-based classification scheme for the public Master's Colleges and Universities sector. Using the same methodology developed by Katsinas and Hardy (2005) to classify community colleges, this work classifies Master's Colleges and Universities. This work has four major findings and conclusions. First, a…

Kinkead, J. Clint.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

322

Behavioral Criteria of Mentoring Effectiveness: An Empirical Study of Formal Mentoring Relationships within a Major UK Public Sector Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an empirical study of mentor and mentee behaviors deemed critical for developing healthy mentoring relationships and effective mentoring during the "start up" and "on going" stages of a formal mentoring scheme within a major UK public sector organization. Several identified behavioral categories (criteria) of mentoring…

Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley

2008-01-01

323

Low Level of Optimism Predicts Initiation of Psychotherapy for Depression: Results from the Finnish Public Sector Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The patient’s personality may be one of the many factors that contribute to the decision to initiate a certain treatment for depression. The aim of this study was to examine whether dispositional optimism and pessimism play a role in the initiation of psychotherapy as the treatment for new-onset depression in previously nondepressed public sector employees. Methods: This prospective observational

Hasse Karlsson; Kim Kronström; Hermann Nabi; Tuula Oksanen; Paula Salo; Marianna Virtanen; Sakari Suominen; Mika Kivimäki; Jussi Vahtera

2011-01-01

324

Effectiveness of a corporate HR department in an Australian public-sector entity during commercialization and corporatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effectiveness of the strategic human resource management (HRM) function performed by the corporate human resource department of an Australian public-sector entity, before and after its corporatization. Multiple methods (including a survey of senior managers and semi-structured interviews) were used to collect the data. Despite an improvement in the overall level of strategic integration between HRM and

Stephen T. T. Teo

2002-01-01

325

Public Sector Sponsored Continuous Vocational Training in East Germany : Institutional Arrangements, Participants, and Results of Empirical Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

After unification of the East and West German economies in July 1990 the public sector devoted substantial resources to train the labour force of the former centrally planned East German economy. In this paper we describe the basic trends of the rules and regulations governing these efforts. We supplement this description with empirical stylized facts. Additionally, we report evaluations of

Martin Eichler; Michael Lechner

1996-01-01

326

A hedonic wage model-based methodology for evaluating the benefits of IT investments in public-sector organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic justification of investments in information technology (IT) is a basic issue for IT management in private and in public-sector organisations. Usually, the expenses made for any investment are compared to the cost saved. While the costs for implementing a new system are uncertain, only a small percentage of the benefits accrues as cost savings given the type of

Peter Cilek; Wolfgang Janko; Stefan Koch; Andreas Mild; Alfred Taudes

2004-01-01

327

Organic development: a top-down and bottom-up approach to design of public sector information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we lay out interim findings and speculate on the implications for practice and theory of integrated criminal justice systems in law enforcement. In doing this we theorize on public sector information systems and their uses of information and communication technologies as engaging in what we call \\

Michael Tyworth; Steve Sawyer

2006-01-01

328

Geropsychology Post-Doctoral Training in Public Sector Service Delivery: The USF/Tampa VA Fellowship Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing need for geropsychologists who are specialists in practice, research, education, and advocacy for older adults. The combined USF/Tampa VA geropsychology fellowship program focuses on the training of three post-doctoral Fellows each year in public sector service delivery across diverse long term care (LTC) and primary care…

Molinari, Victor; Chiriboga, David A.; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Haley, William E.; Schinka, John A.; Hyer, Kathy; Dupree, Larry W.

2005-01-01

329

Workplace resources for crisis management: implications for public-private sector planning, policy and response to disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface and cooperation of the public and private sector is essential in disaster planning and response at the federal, state and local level. The resources of private industry and the integration of resources from multiple corporations have been proven necessary for effective community and regional responses to large-scale disasters (natural disasters, terrorism, bioterrorism and the threat of a pandemic).

Nancy T. Vineburgh; David M. Benedek; Carol S. Fullerton; Robert K. Gifford; Robert J. Ursano

2008-01-01

330

Squaring Their Roots: Leadership Perceptions and Practices of Some U.S.-Trained African Professionals in the Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the public sector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development and…

Dant, William Patrick

2010-01-01

331

Varian and Shapiro Linux Adoption, 1 December 2003, Page 1 Linux Adoption in the Public Sector: An Economic Analysis  

E-print Network

Varian and Shapiro Linux Adoption, 1 December 2003, Page 1 Linux Adoption in the Public Sector that are at the heart of computer networks, including the Internet itself.1 Platform software adoption decisions typically have lasting implications for subsequent adoption of application software as well as additional

Varian, Hal R.

332

Autochthonous Minority Languages in Public-Sector Primary Education: Bilingual Policies and Politics in Brittany and Scotland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship between policy and politics in relation to the development of public-sector primary education through Breton and Gaelic, considering closely the patterns of power through which such provision is delivered. Brittany and Scotland present many similarities as culturally distinctive territories, contained within…

Rogers, Vaughan; McLeod, Wilson

2006-01-01

333

Why Does Unemployment Hurt the Employed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and the Private Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High unemployment rates entail substantial costs to the working population in terms of reduced subjective well-being. This paper studies the importance of individual economic security, in particular job security, by exploiting sector-specific institutional differences in the exposure to economic shocks. Public servants have stricter dismissal…

Luechinger, Simon; Meier, Stephan; Stutzer, Alois

2010-01-01

334

Training's Policies: Public and Private Reinforcement for the American Economy. Final Report. The Impact of Public Policy on Education and Training in the Private Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of public policy on education and training in the private sector. During the study, the following research activities were completed: a statistical examination of the scope and nature of firm-supplied training, 20 case studies of the training supplied by large firms representing a diverse set of industries across the…

Meyerson, Martin; Zemsky, Robert

335

Hexavalent IPV-based combination vaccines for public-sector markets of low-resource countries.  

PubMed

In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vaccines containing IPV could provide reliable and continuous immunization in the post-polio eradication period. Combination vaccines can potentially simplify complex pediatric routine immunization schedules, improve compliance, and reduce costs. Hexavalent vaccines containing Diphtheria (D), Tetanus (T), whole cell pertussis (wP), Hepatitis B (HBV), Haemophilus b (Hib) and the three IPV serotype antigens have been considered as the ultimate combination vaccine for routine immunization. This product review evaluates potential hexavalent vaccine candidates by composition, probable time to market, expected cost of goods, presentation, and technical feasibility and offers suggestions for development of low-cost hexavalent combination vaccines. Because there are significant technical challenges facing wP-based hexavalent vaccine development, this review also discusses other alternative approaches to hexavalent that could also ensure a timely and reliable supply of low-cost IPV based combination vaccines. PMID:23787559

Mahmood, Kutub; Pelkowski, Sonia; Atherly, Deborah; Sitrin, Robert D; Donnelly, John J

2013-09-01

336

Vertical funding, non-governmental organizations, and health system strengthening: perspectives of public sector health workers in Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background In the rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, many donors have chosen to channel their funds to non-governmental organizations and other private partners rather than public sector systems. This approach has reinforced a private sector, vertical approach to addressing the HIV epidemic. As progress on stemming the epidemic has stalled in some areas, there is a growing recognition that overall health system strengthening, including health workforce development, will be essential to meet AIDS treatment goals. Mozambique has experienced an especially dramatic increase in disease-specific support over the last eight years. We explored the perspectives and experiences of key Mozambican public sector health managers who coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad donor-driven projects and agencies. Methods Over a four-month period, we conducted 41 individual qualitative interviews with key Ministry workers at three levels in the Mozambique national health system, using open-ended semi-structured interview guides. We also reviewed planning documents. Results All respondents emphasized the value and importance of international aid and vertical funding to the health sector and each highlighted program successes that were made possible by recent increased aid flows. However, three serious concerns emerged: 1) difficulties coordinating external resources and challenges to local control over the use of resources channeled to international private organizations; 2) inequalities created within the health system produced by vertical funds channeled to specific services while other sectors remain under-resourced; and 3) the exodus of health workers from the public sector health system provoked by large disparities in salaries and work. Conclusions The Ministry of Health attempted to coordinate aid by implementing a “sector-wide approach” to bring the partners together in setting priorities, harmonizing planning, and coordinating support. Only 14% of overall health sector funding was channeled through this coordinating process by 2008, however. The vertical approach starved the Ministry of support for its administrative functions. The exodus of health workers from the public sector to international and private organizations emerged as the issue of greatest concern to the managers and health workers interviewed. Few studies have addressed the growing phenomenon of “internal brain drain” in Africa which proved to be of greater concern to Mozambique’s health managers. PMID:23768178

2013-01-01

337

District of Columbia Public Schools: While Early Reform Efforts Tackle Critical Management Issues, a District-Wide Strategic Education Plan Would Help Guide Long-Term Efforts. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. GAO-08-549T  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to long-standing problems with student academic performance, the condition of school facilities, and the overall management of the D.C. public school system, the D.C. Council approved the Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007 (Reform Act). The Reform Act made major changes to the operations and governance of the D.C. public

Ashby, Cornelia M.

2008-01-01

338

Public-private sector partnership in household waste management as perceived by residents in south-west Nigeria.  

PubMed

In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability. PMID:22452959

Ezebilo, Eugene E; Animasaun, Emmanuel D

2012-08-01

339

The Rationalizing Logics of Public School Reform: How Cultural Institutions Matter for Classroom Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research herein uses a mixed methods approach to examine how organizational phenomena at the macro level of analysis translate into phenomena at the micro level. Specifically, the research attempts to explain how cultural institutions may translate into individual attitudes and actions, such as public school teachers' decisions about using…

Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.

2013-01-01

340

Should Business Reform Public Education? A "Rainy Night" for Georgia Teachers and Implications for Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Into the "quality of public schools" issue step politicians with quick fixes--"proven" business practices variously rejected by experts Peter Drucker (Management by Objectives) and W. E. Deming (Quality Management). These include the following. Determine product quality by inspection--hence, compare school quality by testing teachers and students.…

Aliff, John Vincent

341

Changing Emphases in Public Health and Medical Education in Health Care Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalisation of economies, diseases and disasters with poverty, emerging infectious diseases, ageing and chronic conditions, violence and terrorism has begun to change the face of public health and medical education. Escalating costs of care and increasing poverty have brought urgency to professional training to improve efficiency, cut costs and maintain gains in life expectancy and morbidity reduction. Technology, genetics research

Walter K. Patrick; Edwin C. Cadman

2002-01-01

342

The Directions of Public Administration Reform Due to Romania's Integration in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. From the formal point of view, in Romania there is an institutional framework that has looked favourable for operation in at least satisfa ctory conditions for the authorities at the politic al level and at the level of public administration . In fact, th ings are different, and Romanians have to admit tha t the signals from EU authorities

Iulian M. Nedelcu

2003-01-01

343

Market-Based Pay Reform for Public School Teachers. Working Paper 2008-07  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern personnel economics emphasizes the importance of strategic, integrated compensation policy in an organization. In this paper I review key features of the compensation system for public school teachers. The rigidities and inefficiencies that arise from single salary schedules and other features of the compensation regime, and their…

Podgursky, Michael

2008-01-01

344

Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Reform  

E-print Network

questions in this paper: 1) In terms of state-wide scaling up of rural services in the area of primary1 Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Special Advisor to the United Nations Secretary General, Ban Ki Moon. Nirupam Bajpai presented this paper

345

Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in <25 years (Central Intelligence Agency 2012; Fotso et al. 2011). Over half of the population already lives in an urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas. PMID:24248622

Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

2014-02-01

346

Economic independence through the expansion of private sector enterprise - The \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the developing organic agriculture industry on the Pacific Island microstate of Niue. Organic agriculture is one strategy being used by Niuean people as a means of providing livelihoods and economic activity within the context of economic reforms which require reduced aid dependency and a down sizing of the public sector. Organic farming is of interest because in

Philip Cohn

347

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Australian context of a shortage of skilled professionals, this article uses the Harvard model of human resources management (HRM) to conceptualise how changes in stakeholder interests coupled with changes to situational factors affect public sector HRM policy choices that in turn affect HRM outcomes for different types of public sector employees. The findings obtained using path analysis suggest

Yvonne Brunetto; Rodney Farr-Wharton; Kate Shacklock

2011-01-01

348

Unravelling the quality of HIV counselling and testing services in the private and public sectors in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the substantial investment for providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services in Zambia, there has been little effort to systematically evaluate the quality of VCT services provided by various types of health providers. This study, conducted in 2009, examines VCT in the public and private sectors including private for-profit and NGO/faith-based sectors in Copperbelt and Luapula. Methods The study used five primary data collection methods to gauge quality of VCT services: closed-ended client interviews with clients exiting VCT sites; open-ended client interviews; interviews with facility managers; review of service statistics; and an observation of the physical environment for VCT by site. Over 400 clients and 87 facility managers were interviewed from almost 90 facilities. Sites were randomly selected and results are generalizable at the provincial level. Results The study shows concerning levels of underperformance in VCT services across the sectors. It reveals serious underperformance in counselling about key risk-reduction methods. Less than one-third of clients received counselling on reducing number of sexual partners and only approximately 5% of clients received counselling about disclosing test results to partners. In terms of client profiles, the NGO sector attracts the most educated clients and less educated Zambians seek VCT services at very low rates (7%). The private for-profit performs equally or sometimes better than other sectors even though this sector is not adequately integrated into the Zambian national response to HIV. Conclusion The private for-profit sector provides VCT services on par in quality with the other sectors. Most clients did not receive counselling on partner reduction or disclosure of HIV test results to partners. In a generalized HIV epidemic where multiple concurrent sexual partners are a significant problem for transmitting the disease, risk-reduction methods and discussion should be a main focus of pre-test and post-test counselling. PMID:25012796

Ron Levey, Ilana; Wang, Wenjuan

2014-01-01

349

The role of the public sector in the provision of housing supply in Turkey, 1950–2009.  

PubMed

This study examines the changing role of the public sector in Turkey with regard to housing provision since 1950, and particularly since 2000, and seeks to clarify how public intervention has affected housing provision and urban development dynamics in major cities. Three periods may be identified, with central government acting as a regulator in a first period characterized by a ‘housing boom’. During the second period, from 1980 to 2000, a new mass housing law spurred construction activity, although the main beneficiaries of the housing fund tended to be the middle classes. After 2000, contrary to emerging trends in both Northern and Southern European countries, the public sector in Turkey became actively involved in housing provision. During this process, new housing estates were created on greenfield sites on the outskirts of cities, instead of efforts being made to rehabilitate, restore or renew existing housing stock in the cities. Meanwhile, the concept of ‘urban regeneration’ has been opportunistically incorporated into the planning agenda of the public sector, and — under the pretext of regenerating squatter housing areas — existing residents have been moved out, while channels for community participation have been bypassed. PMID:22175087

Özdemir, Dilek

2011-01-01

350

Reform: To What End?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

Rose, Mike

2010-01-01

351

Thinking about Tax Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

Boskin, Michael J.

1985-01-01

352

Financing Social Protection in the Light of International Spending Targets: A Public Sector Spending Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the ‘affordability’ of development targets in six key sectors (health, education, water and sanitation, agriculture and infrastructure), by means of an empirical study examining sectoral expenditure in five low income case study countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Uganda) and comparing them with target levels of expenditure set out in recent international agreements to

Jessica Hagen-Zanker; Anna McCord

2010-01-01

353

Fulfilling the Compact: Building a Breakthrough, Results-Driven Public Charter School Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the Task Force on Charter School Quality and Accountability issued "Renewing the Compact," a position statement for the charter school sector that presented recommendations for achieving the goals of growth and quality. This report evaluates the sector's progress on those goals and recommends bold actions to capitalize on its successes…

Ableidinger, Joe; Steiner, Lucy; Spong, Angie; Hassel, Bryan C.

2012-01-01

354

The Uppingham typhoid outbreaks of 1875-1877: a rural case-study in public health reform.  

PubMed

Uppingham, a small market town in the East Midlands, suffered repeated typhoid outbreaks in 1875-6, centred on its famous boarding school. A fierce battle developed between the school doctor and the local medical officer of health (MoH), with the Local Government Board (LGB) struggling to satisfy the various parties, many of which had a vested interest in controlling rate increases. Faced with ruin if nothing were done, the headmaster, Edward Thring, removed the school to the Welsh coast for an entire year. The town's shopkeepers, heavily dependent on the school, forced the Rural Sanitary Authority (RSA) to implement better drainage, while Thring and others set up a private company to supply water to the town. Writers such as Hamlin, Hennock and Wohl have already pointed to the formidable obstacles to public health reform facing authorities in urban areas. Uppingham's experience, unusually well documented for a small community, suggests that in rural areas these difficulties were equally great, and that local leaders were hopelessly ill-equipped for the task they faced. PMID:18605329

Richardson, Nigel

2007-08-01

355

The welfare effects of private sector participation in Guinea's urban water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989 the government of Guinea enacted far-reaching reform of its water sector, which had been dominated by a poorly run public agency. The government signed a lease contract for operations and maintenance with a private operator, making a separate public enterprise responsible for ownershipof assets and investment. Although based on a successful model that had operated in Cote d'Ivoire

George Clarke; Claude Menard; Ana Maria Zuluaga

2000-01-01

356

Reforming Science: Structural Reforms  

PubMed Central

Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

2012-01-01

357

Global development challenges and health care reform.  

PubMed

Changes in the role of the state and private sector are seen as central to success of many health care reforms. The article argues for a more focused "stewardship" function of governments in securing equity, efficiency, and quality objectives through more effective policy making (steering), regulating, contracting, and ensuring that adequate financing arrangements are available for the whole population. At the same time, the author argues a strong case for greater private participation in providing health services (rowing). The article reviews related reform trends in health care financing, generation of inputs and service providers. It concludes that reforms often fail, not because of a flawed technical design, but because of other factors. These include a lack of political commitment to change, resistance from vested stakeholders who fear loosing some of their existing benefits, and a failure by policymakers to translate successful aspects of the reforms into something visible that ordinary people and the public can see with their own eyes when next they use the reformed services. PMID:11858008

Preker, A S

2001-01-01

358

Obesity and Occupational Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study of 69,515 Public Sector Employees  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and overweight are suggested to increase the risk of occupational injury but longitudinal evidence to confirm this is rare. We sought to evaluate obesity and overweight as risk factors for occupational injuries. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 69,515 public sector employees (80% women) responded to a survey in 2000–2002, 2004 or 2008. Body mass index (kg/m2) was derived from self-reported height and weight and was linked to records of subsequent occupational injuries obtained from national registers. Different injury types, locations and events or exposures (the manner in which the injury was produced or inflicted) were analyzed by body mass index category adjusting for baseline socio-demographic characteristics, work characteristics, health-risk behaviors, physical and mental health, insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration. During the mean follow-up of 7.8 years (SD?=?3.2), 18% of the employees (N?=?12,204) recorded at least one occupational injury. Obesity was associated with a higher overall risk of occupational injury; multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.21 (95% CI 1.14–1.27). A relationship was observed for bone fractures (HR?=?1.37; 95% CI: 1.10–1.70), dislocations, sprains and strains (HR?=?1.36; 95% CI: 1.25–1.49), concussions and internal injuries (HR?=?1.26; 95% CI: 1.11–1.44), injuries to lower extremities (HR?=?1.62; 95%: 1.46–1.79) and injuries to whole body or multiple sites (HR?=?1.37; 95%: 1.10–1.70). Furthermore, obesity was associated with a higher risk of injuries caused by slipping, tripping, stumbling and falling (HR?=?1.55; 95% CI: 1.40–1.73), sudden body movement with or without physical stress (HR?=?1.24; 95% CI: 1.10–1.41) and shock, fright, violence, aggression, threat or unexpected presence (HR?=?1.33; 95% CI: 1.03–1.72). The magnitude of the associations between overweight and injuries was smaller, but the associations were generally in the same direction as those of obesity. Conclusions/Significance Obese employees record more occupational injuries than those with recommended healthy weight. PMID:24146966

Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimaki, Mika; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; De Vogli, Roberto; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

2013-01-01

359

EX ANTE CONSTRUCTION COSTS IN THE EUROPEAN ROAD SECTOR: A COMPARISON OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AND TRADITIONAL PUBLIC PROCUREMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical literature suggests a variety of reasons why a public-private partnership (PPP)should exhibit higher costs of construction than traditionally procured public infrastructure projects. The bundling of construction and operation contracts in a PPP give the private partner greater incentives to make investments in the construction phase to lower subsequent operation and maintenance costs. Also, the transfer of the construction risk

Frederic Blanc-Brude; Hugh Goldsmith; Timo Valila

2007-01-01

360

School sector variation on non-cognitive dimensions: are non-public but publicly supported schools more effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denominational schooling makes up an important part of European educational systems. Given its specificity, denominational schooling can be expected to place a greater weight on values teaching and moral education. It also may be more successful in creating a warm and caring atmosphere, thus helping students to better emotionally connect to the school community. We compare public and publicly supported

Silvia Avram; Jaap Dronkers

2011-01-01

361

Navigating Public-Private Partnerships: Introducing the Continuum of Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many urban districts, the public education landscape is being transformed as private-sector providers such as educational management organizations, charter management organizations, and partner support organizations partner with or run district schools. While some private-sector providers' visions for school reform have remained static…

DiMartino, Catherine

2014-01-01

362

Out-of-pocket payments for public healthcare services by selected exempted groups in Serbia during the period of post-war healthcare reforms.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the exemption mechanism that accompanies patient co-payments for outpatient and inpatient hospital care in Serbia. The objective was to investigate the level and dynamics of out-of-pocket payments for this type of services by exempted groups (older than 65?years, younger than 15?years, unemployed, disabled and individuals with low family income) compared with that by other groups. For this purpose, we use empirical household data collected in the Serbian Living Standards Measurement Study carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2007. These years correspond to the start of the recent reforms in the Serbian healthcare sector and 1 and 5?years after the start of the reform. Our results show that people who belong to exempted groups were paying for healthcare in 2002, 2003 and 2007. They report different types of out-of-pocket payments for outpatient and inpatient hospital care. Thus, despite the ambition of the Ministry of Health in Serbia to promote equity in healthcare as a leading aim of the reforms, the implementation of the exemption mechanism fails to protect the targeted groups. Future exemption mechanism should be pro-poor oriented but should also exempt those whose health status requires a frequent healthcare use. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23788401

Arsenijevic, Jelena; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

2014-10-01

363

Reforming the American Public Sphere: The Media Reform Models of Progressive Television Journalists in the Era of Internet Convergence and Neoliberalism  

E-print Network

efforts on the TV property. Thus the American public sphereAmerican public sphere are resulting from top-down “solutions” such as Apple TV,TV’s goal has been to infiltrate and subvert the vapid, shrill, and corporately controlled American

Fish, Adam

2012-01-01

364

Reform fatigue: symptoms, reasons, and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a period of ambitious promarket reforms, Latin American policymakers and the public at large have entered a period of “reform fatigue.” Initial enthusiasm for policies such as liberalized markets and a level field for investors has given way more recently to the view that ambitious promarket reforms are to blame for the region’s economic crises. The process of reform

Eduardo Lora; Ugo Panizza; Myriam Quispe-Agnoli

2004-01-01

365

A Philadelphia Story: Building Civic Capacity for School Reform in a Privatizing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was undertaken to assess the state of civic capacity for education reform in Philadelphia. It challenges community and civic sectors of the city to put aside individual interests and work together to mobilize resources to pursue the collective good of public school improvement. The report demonstrates that many of the elements…

Gold, Eva; Simon, Elaine; Cucchiara, Maia; Mitchell, Cecily; Riffer, Morgan

2007-01-01

366

Does Educational Expansion Encourage Female Workforce Participation? A Study of the 1968 Reform in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1968 and 1973 the Taiwanese government undertook the most extensive expansion on record of the public junior high school system in Taiwan. This study analyzes the effects of the 1968 education reform and subsequent high school expansion on gender disparities in employment generally, as well in different sectors and classes of employment.…

Tsai, Wehn-Jyuan; Liu, Jin-Tan; Chou, Shin-Yi; Thornton, Robert

2009-01-01

367

Public R&D Investments and Private-sector Patenting: Evidence from NIH Funding Rules  

E-print Network

Joshua S. Graff Zivin MIT & NBER UCSD & NBER Danielle Li Bhaven N. Sampat Harvard University Columbia of idiosyncratic rigidities in the rules that govern peer review within NIH to generate exogenous variation in funding across re- search areas. Our results show that NIH funding generates more private-sector patents

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

368

Development of a University-Private Sector Synergy for Public Service: A First Step.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visions and ideas tend to develop in universities, while private sector corporations possess the material resources needed to convert these visions into products which improve society. However, recent collaborative activities have begun with little regard for the long-term implications of external environmental conditions or the inherent…

Hepburn, Lawrence R.; Kefalas, Asterios G.

369

Ethical behavior issues in software use: An analysis of public and private sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical issues related to information systems are important to the information technology (IT) professionals. These issues are also significant for organizations and societies. Although considerable literature on IT and related ethical issues exists, a review of this literature has found little empirical research on ethical practices within the government and private sector organizations. Therefore, the objective of this paper is

Ibrahim Akman; Alok Mishra

2009-01-01

370

Public-Private Partnerships: The Private Sector and Innovation in Education. Policy Insight Number 142.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Partnerships between schools and the private sector as an alternative to increased taxes and service cuts are examined in this document. The introduction provides an overview of business involvement in U.S. education. The second section describes the private provision of infrastructure and types of school-business arrangements. Examples include…

David, Anna

1992-01-01

371

The Efficacy of Private Sector Providers in Improving Public Educational Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts required under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in services. If the market does not drive out ineffective providers, students may not gain through SES participation.…

Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Nisar, Hiren

2013-01-01

372

The Efficacy of Private Sector Providers in Improving Public Educational Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts required under No Child Left Behind to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in service provision. If the market does not work to drive out ineffective providers, students will be less likely to gain…

Heinrich, Carolyn; Nisar, Hiren

2012-01-01

373

Private sector management of food safety: public regulation and the role of private controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private sector responses to the challenge of managing food safety are explored. This paper clarifies the objectives of this special issue, introducing the key issues in each of the following articles. The degree and manner of regulatory compliance, an important element of any strategic food safety management decision, are discussed. Separate of the response to regulations, the incentives of firms

Spencer J. Henson; Neal H. Hooker

2001-01-01

374

Lessons From the U.S. Meteorological Public-Private Sector Services Partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together, the NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC) and private sector vendors need to develop mechanisms for communicating their future development needs and for defining their evolving partnership. While the SEC does hold an annual vendors meeting and continues to foster relationships within the space weather industry, there are additional steps it can take.

Genene Fisher

2004-01-01

375

Challenges Facing the U.S. Space Weather Public-Private Sector Partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

America's reliance on technological systems that are vulnerable to space weather is growing at a rapid pace. Because such vital everyday technology as electric power grids, satellites, navigation, and communication systems are affected by space weather, it is essential to have the best possible space weather services. Although both the federal government and the private sector provide the bulk of

Genene Fisher

2004-01-01

376

Governance and Public Policy Making in the Philippines: RA 8042 and Deregulating the Overseas Employment Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to give a basic description and understanding of the legislative process involved in the crafting of provisions that deregulate the overseas employment sector in the Philippines. More popularly known by its short title, “The Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, “Republic Act 8042 intends to reorient and overhaul the conduct of the government's policy to

Jorge V. Tigno

2004-01-01

377

A new twist in nonprofit, for-profit, and public sector relationships: the community benefits district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores a new model for civic engagement which may have potential for a cooperative relationship. Examines a form of multi-sector collaboration named as community benefits district and goes on to explain this in depth. Uses tables for explanation and concludes that there is indeed potential for a bridge between social capital and that this is promising for the future.

Cheryl Hyde; Megan Meyer; Dick Cook

2002-01-01

378

Estimating the Number of Paediatric Fevers Associated with Malaria Infection Presenting to Africa's Public Health Sector in 2007  

PubMed Central

Background As international efforts to increase the coverage of artemisinin-based combination therapy in public health sectors gather pace, concerns have been raised regarding their continued indiscriminate presumptive use for treating all childhood fevers. The availability of rapid-diagnostic tests to support practical and reliable parasitological diagnosis provides an opportunity to improve the rational treatment of febrile children across Africa. However, the cost effectiveness of diagnosis-based treatment polices will depend on the presumed numbers of fevers harbouring infection. Here we compute the number of fevers likely to present to public health facilities in Africa and the estimated number of these fevers likely to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Methods and Findings We assembled first administrative-unit level data on paediatric fever prevalence, treatment-seeking rates, and child populations. These data were combined in a geographical information system model that also incorporated an adjustment procedure for urban versus rural areas to produce spatially distributed estimates of fever burden amongst African children and the subset likely to present to public sector clinics. A second data assembly was used to estimate plausible ranges for the proportion of paediatric fevers seen at clinics positive for P. falciparum in different endemicity settings. We estimated that, of the 656 million fevers in African 0–4 y olds in 2007, 182 million (28%) were likely to have sought treatment in a public sector clinic of which 78 million (43%) were likely to have been infected with P. falciparum (range 60–103 million). Conclusions Spatial estimates of childhood fevers and care-seeking rates can be combined with a relational risk model of infection prevalence in the community to estimate the degree of parasitemia in those fevers reaching public health facilities. This quantification provides an important baseline comparison of malarial and nonmalarial fevers in different endemicity settings that can contribute to ongoing scientific and policy debates about optimum clinical and financial strategies for the introduction of new diagnostics. These models are made publicly available with the publication of this paper. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20625548

Gething, Peter W.; Kirui, Viola C.; Alegana, Victor A.; Okiro, Emelda A.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Snow, Robert W.

2010-01-01

379

Abortion Clients of a Public-sector Clinic and a Non-governmental Organization Clinic in Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates similarities and differences between abortion clients of a public-sector clinic and a non-governmental organization (NGO) clinic in Nepal. In 2010, a survey of 1,172 women was conducted in two highly-attended abortion clinics in Kathmandu—one public-sector clinic and another operated by an NGO. Data on the sociodemographic characteristics of clients, their fertility preferences, and use of contraceptives were analyzed. Similarities and differences between the two groups of clients were examined by either chi-square or t-test. The clients of the two clinics were similar with respect to age (27.3±5.7 years), education (26.5% had no education), and number of living children (1.88±1.08). They differed with regard to contraceptive practice, the circumstances resulting in unintended pregnancy, and future fertility preferences. Just over 50% clients of the public and 35% clients of the NGO clinic reported use of contraceptives surrounding the time of unintended pregnancy. The groups also differed in the contraceptive methods used and in reasons for not using any method. The NGO clinic contributed principally to expanding the availability of and access to abortion services. PMID:24288952

Neupane, Shailes

2013-01-01

380

Abortion clients of a public-sector clinic and a non-governmental organization clinic in Nepal.  

PubMed

This paper investigates similarities and differences between abortion clients of a public-sector clinic and a non-governmental organization (NGO) clinic in Nepal. In 2010, a survey of 1,172 women was conducted in two highly-attended abortion clinics in Kathmandu-one public-sector clinic and another operated by an NGO. Data on the sociodemographic characteristics of clients, their fertility preferences, and use of contraceptives were analyzed. Similarities and differences between the two groups of clients were examined by either chi-square or t-test. The clients of the two clinics were similar with respect to age (27.3+/-5.7 years), education (26.5% had no education), and number of living children (1.88+/-1.08). They differed with regard to contraceptive practice, the circumstances resulting in unintended pregnancy, and future fertility preferences. Just over 50% clients of the public and 35% clients of the NGO clinic reported use of contraceptives surrounding the time of unintended pregnancy. The groups also differed in the contraceptive methods used and in reasons for not using any method. The NGO clinic contributed principally to expanding the availability of and access to abortion services. PMID:24288952

Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes

2013-09-01

381

Politics of abundance: resources allocation in the public sector in the developed and oil-rich countries  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation presents two models of resources allocation in the public sector. The first model, which assumes scarcity of resources available to the state and is suitable to the experiences of the developed Western States, is tested against the data for Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. The second model, which assumes an abundance of resources available to the state and is suitable to the experiences of oil-rich countries, is tested against the data for Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq. Findings reveal that the allocation of resources in the public sector in Western countries followed a developmental pattern. Thus, before the 1970s, Western states allocated their budgets almost exclusively to defense and administration. They emphasized economic development until the administration. They emphasized economic development until the 1920s and social welfare programs since the 1930s. The emergence of social welfare and development as major categories of expenditures were separated by a substantial period of time. In contrast to the European experiences, the availability of non tax oil revenues promoted a relatively quick consolidation of state authority in the oil-rich countries. Consequently, oil-rich states were able to allocate large amounts of public resources to economic development and social welfare programs wither simultaneously or in quick succession without much concern for trade-offs.

Ahady, A.H.

1986-01-01

382

University Governance Reforms: Potential Problems of More Autonomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University governance reforms are very much a reflection of the broader New Public Management reforms that are focusing on increasing efficiency in public organizations. The article deals with how university reform ideas of a generic nature, emphasizing that universities should be treated and reformed like any other public organizations, are…

Christensen, Tom

2011-01-01

383

Implications of ICD-9/10 CM Transition for Public Health Surveillance: Challenges, Opportunities, and Lessons Learned from Multiple Sectors of Public Health  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide a forum for local, state, federal, and international public health/health care sectors to share promising practices and lessons learned in transitioning their organizations in the use of ICD-9 to ICD-10 codes for their respective surveillance activities. Introduction This roundtable will provide forum for a diverse set of representatives from the local, state, federal and international public health care sectors to share tools, resources, experiences, and promising practices regarding the potential impact of the transition on their surveillance activities. This forum will promote the sharing of lessons learned, foster collaborations, and facilitate the reuse of existing resources without having to “reinvent the wheel”. It is hope that this roundtable will lay the ground-work for a more formal, collaborative, and sustainable venue within ISDS to aid in preparing the public health surveillance community for the coming ICD-9/10 CM transition. Methods The moderators will engage the participants in the discussion through dialogue in how their programs are currently using ICD-9 CM codes for surveillance and how the transition will impact their respective programs.

Hicks, Peter; Baer, Atar

2013-01-01

384

Media Publicity and the Voluntary Sector: The Case of Nonprofit Organizations in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media publicity is an important resource for contemporary voluntary associations, but very little is actually known about the resources and organizational characteristics that are most important for getting media attention. To address this question, we collected and analyzed data on the organizational attributes and news publicity of 739 nonprofit organizations in New York City. We find that an organization's income,

Ronald N. Jacobs; Daniel J. Glass

2002-01-01

385

Internationally Common Features of Public Old-Age Pensions, and Their Implications for Models of the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

What does the international history of old-age Social Security program design say about the forces creating and sustaining it as a public program? First, because many program features are internationally common, and\\/or explained by country characteristics, SS may emerge and grow due to systematic political and economic forces. Second, some observations suggest that political forces are important: (a) SS redistributes

Casey B. Mulligan; Xavier Sala-i-Martin

2004-01-01

386

Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment

Merrill Jones Barradale

2010-01-01

387

E-Eagerness Leverages on the Breakthrough of E-Commerce in the Public Sector: Case Study of Khuzestan Water & Power Authority of Iran 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the public sectors in the world and in developed countries specifically acknowledge the importance of e-commerce to their countries in order to survive for their businesses and creating and encouraging an atmosphere for the wide adoption and success of e-commerce in the long term. So implementing e-commerce in the public sectors is one of the areas which is

Laleh Kasraian; Alireza Faed

2010-01-01

388

Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector Energy Efficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down  

E-print Network

of cities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasing officials. Introduction In every and operations. Improving efficiency at all levels of government can result in lower energy costs to public

389

Information Infrastructure and Policy 6 (2000) 139155 139 GIS for the public sector: Experiences from  

E-print Network

areas such as education, health, sanitation, urban planning, transportation and traffic, among others. The municipalization of various public services, such as health, basic sanitation, energy, transportation, and traffic priority to social applications, including education, health, transportation, traffic, environmental

Sahay, Sundeep

390

Reform of the New Zealand healthcare system.  

PubMed

New Zealand's healthcare reform has come in two waves. In 1983, Area Health Boards assumed responsibility for purchasing and providing all secondary healthcare; but a parallel, centralized system of primary healthcare benefits persisted, frustrating attempts to integrate services. In 1991, a new government reorganized public hospitals into "Crown health enterprises," and planned to introduce user fees, competition with the private sector and a list of core benefits. Over the following few years, some of these attempts progressed slowly or were abandoned altogether. They are also attempts to shift risk and expenditure, rather than design a more fair and efficient healthcare system. PMID:10163981

Scott, C

1996-01-01

391

Optimal allocation of public water supply to the urban sectors of Enugu, Nigeria: a linear programming approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies in water supply in Enugu urban area have observed that there is a persistent water supply shortage relative to demand. One of the strategies for achieving a good water supply under the circumstance is through efficient water allocation to consumers. The existing allocation system by the Enugu State Water Corporation is not achieving the desired goal, because it is not based on any scientific criteria. In this study, we have employed the linear programming modelling technique to optimise the allocation of 35,000,000 L of water produced daily by the State Water Corporation and supplied to the four sectors of the town. The result shows that the model allocated 27,470,000 L to the residential sector, 3,360,000 L to commercial, 3,120,000 L to industrial and 882,000 L to public institutions sectors leaving a balance of 168,000 L to be utilised in emergency situations. This allocation pattern departs sharply from the present management technique adopted by the corporation. It is then suggested that for urban water supply to be sustainable in the town, the corporation should rely on this technique for water supply.

Ezenwaji, Emma E.; Anyadike, Raymond N. C.; Igu, Nnaemeka I.

2014-03-01

392

Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

Davis, Tomeka M.

2013-01-01

393

Public forestry = partnership? learning through the British experience  

E-print Network

Public forestry = partnership? learning through the British experience Anna Lawrence, Bianca and privatisation · Private sector partnerships for public service delivery (PPPs) 1997 onwards "Third Way" · Reform and accountability and equality in decision making] (Brinkerhoff 2002, 325) · `mutuality' includes mutual benefit

394

Firm-Level Perspectives on Public Sector Engagement with Private Healthcare Providers: Survey Evidence from Ghana and Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are in urgent need of improvement. The private health sector is a major provider of care in the region and it will remain a significant actor in the future. Any efforts by SSA governments to improve health systems performance therefore has to account for the private health sector. Regional and international actors increasingly recognize importance of effectively engaging with the private health sector, and initiatives to improve engagement are underway in several countries. However, there is little systematic analysis of private health providers' view and experience with engagement. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we surveyed private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to understand the extent to which and how governments interact and engage with these facilities. The results suggest that government engagement with private health facilities is quite limited. The primary focus of this engagement is “command-and-control” type regulations to improve the quality of care. There is little attention paid to building the capacity of health care businesses through either technical or financial assistance. The vast majority of these facilities also receive no government assistance in meeting public health and social goals. Finally, government engagement with private pharmacies is often neglected and clinics receive a disproportionate share of government assistance. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our findings suggest that there may be considerable untapped potential for greater engagement with private health facilities—particularly pharmacies. Improving engagement will likely help governments with limited resources to better take advantage of the private sector capacity to meet access and equity objectives and to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:22132092

Sood, Neeraj; Burger, Nicholas; Yoong, Joanne; Kopf, Dan; Spreng, Connor

2011-01-01

395

The Winners in China's Urban Housing Reform  

PubMed Central

Housing reform in China has proceeded on two tracks: privatization of public housing and development of a new private housing sector. During this period of transition, rents have remained relatively low in the remaining public housing, and purchase prices offered to occupants of public housing have been well below market prices. Although these rents and prices are partly based on known formulas, there is considerable variability in how much people pay for similar apartments. This study uses 2000 Census data to estimate the housing subsidy received by the remaining renters in the public sector and purchasers of public housing, based on private sector prices for housing of comparable quality and size. The paper also analyzes variation in the estimated discount from market prices that these people receive. The findings show that the biggest winners in China’s transition from socialist housing allocation are those who were favored in the previous system, based on such factors as residence status, education and occupation. PMID:24163494

Logan, John R.; Fang, Yiping; Zhang, Zhanxin

2013-01-01

396

[Public water supply fluoridation in Brazil according to health sector leaders].  

PubMed

Various groups have opposed water supply fluoridation in Brazil, while others have supported the measure based on scientific evidence. This article describes the perceptions of delegates to the 13th National Health Conference on mandatory fluoridation of the country's public water supply. Interviews were processed using collective subject discourse analysis. A certain degree of misinformation persists regarding basic characteristics of water fluoridation, which is frequently confused with chlorination. The delegates' discourses showed a continuing need for public awareness-raising regarding fluoridation and the delegates' desire that the National Congress not take measures impacting public health without consulting society's stakeholders. However, most of the interviewees agreed that to repeal mandatory water fluoridation or loosen the control of its implementation could increase the incidence of tooth decay in the population. PMID:25317517

Ferreira, Regina Glaucia Lucena Aguiar; Bógus, Cláudia Maria; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Menezes, Léa Maria Bezerra de; Narvai, Paulo Capel

2014-09-01

397

Industrial reform and air transport development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the regulatory and enterprise reform in the Chinese airline industry and its impact on the industry’s tremendous growth in recent years. It starts with a brief description of China’s general economic and industrial reform, followed by a detailed description of reforms in the air transport sector. It then examines the impact of the reform on the growth

Anming Zhang

1998-01-01

398

Conscientious objection and abortion: rights and duties of public sector physicians.  

PubMed

The paper analyzes conscientious objection by physicians, through the concrete situation of legal abortion in Brazil. It reviews the two main ethical frameworks about conscientious objection in public health, the incompatibility thesis and the integrity thesis, to analyze the reality of legal abortion services in the referral services of the Brazilian public health care system. From these two perspectives, a third perspective is proposed - the justification thesis, to manage the right to conscientious objection among physicians in referral services. This analysis may contribute to the organization of services for legal abortion and to the education of future physicians working in emergency obstetric care. PMID:21808831

Diniz, Debora

2011-10-01

399

Impact on Photovoltaic Worth of Utility Rate and Reform and of Specific Market, Financial, and Policy Variables: A Commercial/Industrial/Institutional Sector Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment is provided of the economic outlook for photovoltaic systems in the commercial, industrial and institutional sectors in the year 1986. The expected cost and performance goals are summarized for photovoltaic technology, and then aspects of th...

T. L. Dinwoodie, A. J. Cox

1980-01-01

400

Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

2014-01-01

401

Declaration of Education: Toward a Culture of Achievement in D.C. Public Schools. Hearing before the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (May 20, 2005) Serial No. 109-30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this hearing on the District of Columbia's public school system (DCPS), the Honorable Tom Davis, chairman of the Committee on Government Reform, says in his opening statement that the District's improved health cannot be sustained without a better public school system, and that the lack of performance improvement threatens future growth and…

US House of Representatives, 2005

2005-01-01

402

Cross-Sector Research Associated with Nutrition: Comparison of Private and Public Schools on Health Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Healthy People 2010 is the initiative that defines the U.S. health agenda and guides policy. The initiative provides direction for individuals to change personal behaviors and for organizations and communities to support good health through health promotion policies. The objective of this research was to compare public and private schools on…

Munoz, Marco A.

403

An Evaluation of Public-Sector-Sponsored Continuous Vocational Training Programs in East Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the effects of publicly funded continuous vocational training and retraining programs in the former East Germany after unification with West Germany in 1990. It presents econometric estimates of the average gains from training in terms of employment probabilities, earnings, and career prospects after the completion of training using a matching approach. The data are from the German

Michael Lechner

2000-01-01

404

Rush to Judgment: Teacher Evaluation in Public Education. Education Sector Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The state of teacher evaluation is a significantly and frequently neglected problem in public education, an enterprise that spends $400 billion annually on salaries and benefits. Because teacher evaluation is at the center of the quality of teaching in the nation's classrooms, it has the potential to be a powerful lever of teacher and school…

Toch, Thomas; Rothman, Robert

2008-01-01

405

Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.

2011-01-01

406

Accounting Rule Targets Benefits in Public Sector. Districts, Others Must Tally Long-Term Obligations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deadlines are looming for school districts and other public employers to comply with a new financial-reporting rule on the long-term costs for health and other insurance benefits that have been promised to employees. For the first time, local, state, and federal agencies will have to disclose future benefit costs in current budgets, a requirement…

Jacobson, Linda

2006-01-01

407

Collaboration with HEIs: A Key Capacity Building Block for the Uganda Water and Sanitation Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capacity of public service staff in developing countries is crucial for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Literature from developed countries shows that, working with higher education institutions (HEIs), industries have improved their human resource capacity through continuing professional development. This paper reports on research…

Kayaga, Sam

2007-01-01

408

Corruption in Public Service Delivery: Experience from South Asia’s Water and Sanitation Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical information regarding the types and magnitude of corrupt behaviors documented in water supply and sanitation service provision in several South Asian localities. It also examines the strengths and weaknesses of current strategies to reduce corruption among several public water and sanitation bureaucracies in South Asia, drawing on interviews and focus group discussions with more than 1,400

Jennifer Davis

2004-01-01

409

75 FR 39934 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...40 CFR part 63, subpart HH); and the NESHAP From Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities (40 CFR part 63, subpart HHH). As part of this process, EPA is holding public meetings in the Dallas, Texas, and Denver, Colorado, areas, both...

2010-07-13

410

ADHD Treatment Patterns of Youth Served in Public Sectors in San Diego and Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates geographic variation in stimulant medication use by youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) served by public mental health and/or drug and alcohol programs in San Diego (n = 790) during 1997-1998 and in Puerto Rico (n = 726) during 1998. Youth were stratified into four groups: (a) ADHD, (b) ADHD--not…

Leslie, Laurel K.; Canino, Glorisa; Landsverk, John; Wood, Patricia A.; Chavez, Ligia; Hough, Richard L.; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Ramirez, Rafael

2005-01-01

411

Education and Training for Public Sector Management in Developing Countries. A Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of a conference held in Bellagio, Italy, and of this follow-up volume is to assess various educational and training models and strategies for improving the effectiveness with which top- and middle-level public management functions are performed in developing countries. The volume concentrates particularly on management…

Stifel, Laurence D., Ed.; And Others

412

Sustainable development through public sector participation in developing countries: a case for South African parastatal CEOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

CEOs' of public enterprises have the task of turning around the organisations they lead to make a meaningful contribution towards sustainable development. A personal vision, the philosophy that goes beyond the written mission and vision of the organisation is what makes a difference. This study examines the visions of South African CEOs of parastatals to see how they can influence

Reinford Khumalo

2008-01-01

413

AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ABOUT THE CONTAIN OF BALANCED SCORECARD CONCEPT IN PUBLIC SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balanced Scorecard is a newly recognized concept applied in the public institutions system. The purpose of this paper is to bring forward a concise perspective over the experience of other countries regarding the implementation of this concept and, as a result, stating a conclusion about the opportunity to apply the concept in Romanian universities, starting from the global identification of

CRISTINA SILVIA NISTOR

2010-01-01

414

Bargaining Tactics: A Reference Manual for Public Sector Labor Negotiations. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a practical guide for negotiators, this manual provides step-by-step directions for techniques useful in the collective bargaining process. The suggestions are based on extensive first-hand experience and field research and apply to labor negotiations in all areas of public service. The manual is divided into nine sections, including…

Neal, Richard G.

415

Comparing the impact of leader–member exchange, psychological empowerment and affective commitment upon Australian public and private sector nurses: implications for retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory to test the associations between the supervisor–subordinate relationship, psychological empowerment and affective commitment amongst 1283 nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected, analysed and presented. The findings show that the quality of LMX is more important in public sector nursing contexts than in the private

Yvonne Brunetto; Kate Shacklock; Timothy Bartram; Sandra G. Leggat; Rod Farr-Wharton; Pauline Stanton; Gian Casimir

2012-01-01

416

Comparing the impact of leader–member exchange, psychological empowerment and affective commitment upon Australian public and private sector nurses: implications for retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory to test the associations between the supervisor–subordinate relationship, psychological empowerment and affective commitment amongst 1283 nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected, analysed and presented. The findings show that the quality of LMX is more important in public sector nursing contexts than in the private

Yvonne Brunetto; Kate Shacklock; Timothy Bartram; Sandra G. Leggat; Rod Farr-Wharton; Pauline Stanton; Gian Casimir

2011-01-01

417

Use of net present value analysis to evaluate a publicly funded biomass-to-ethanol research, development, and demonstration program and valuate expected private sector participation.  

PubMed

One of the functions of government is to invest tax dollars in programs, projects, and properties that will result in greater public benefit than would have resulted from leaving the tax dollars in the private sector or using them to pay off the public debt. This paper describes the use of Net Present Value (NPV) as an approach to analyze and select investment opportunities for government money in public research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs and to evaluate potential private sector participation in the programs. This approach is then applied to a specific biomass-to-ethanol opportunity in California. PMID:18576044

Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

1998-01-01

418

Abortion law in Nepal: the road to reform.  

PubMed

In 2002 Nepal's parliament passed a liberal abortion law, after nearly three decades of reform efforts. This paper reviews the history of the movement for reform and the combination of factors that contributed to its success. These include sustained advocacy for reform; the dissemination of knowledge, information and evidence; adoption of the reform agenda by the public sector and its leadership in involving other stakeholders; the existence of work for safe motherhood as the context in which the initiative could gain support; an active women's rights movement and support from international and multilateral organisations; sustained involvement of local NGOs, civil society and professional organisations; the involvement of journalists and the media; the absence of significant opposition; courageous government officials and an enabling democratic political system. The overriding rationale for reforming the abortion law in Nepal has been to ensure safe motherhood and women's rights. The first government abortion services officially began in March 2004 at the Maternity Hospital in Kathmandu; services will be expanded gradually to other public and private hospitals and private clinics in the coming years. PMID:15938161

Thapa, Shyam

2004-11-01

419

Variations in disaster evacuation behavior: public responses versus private sector executive decision-making processes.  

PubMed

Data obtained from 65 executives working for tourism firms in three sample communities permitted comparison with the public warning response literature regarding three topics: disaster evacuation planning, initial warning responses, and disaster evacuation behavior. Disaster evacuation planning was reported by nearly all of these business executives, although it was highly variable in content, completeness, and formality. Managerial responses to post-disaster warnings paralleled the type of complex social processes that have been documented within the public response literature, except that warning sources and confirmation behavior were significantly affected by contact with authorities. Five key areas of difference were discovered in disaster evacuation behavior pertaining to: influence of planning, firm versus family priorities, shelter selection, looting concerns, and media contacts. PMID:20958741

Drabek, T E

1992-06-01

420

Public policies for a sustainable energy sector: regulation, diversity and fostering of innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrialized countries have introduced environmental policy measures in order to reduce negative externalities linked\\u000a to economic activities. These policy actions produce different effects on the economic system depending on the regulatory\\u000a tools adopted and the specific objective of public intervention. The impact on innovation is particularly difficult to predict,\\u000a especially with regard to the direction of technological change. As

Valeria Costantini; Francesco Crespi

2009-01-01

421

Changing Public and Private Roles in the Dutch ChildCare Sector: Effects on Employee Governance and Employee Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutch child-care sector is confronted with a transition from a welfare sector to a market sector. Policy makers assume that the introduction of market forces in the child-care sector increases efficiency and improves the balance between supply and demand. In discussions regarding the introduction of market forces in welfare- oriented sectors, like the child-care sector, the possible effects for

Mirjam Plantinga; Janneke Plantenga; Jacques Siegers; Hans Knol

422

Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.

Diane E. Hoffmann

2003-09-12

423

Patterns of case management and chemoprevention for malaria-in-pregnancy by public and private sector health providers in Enugu state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria in pregnancy (MIP) is a major disease burden in Nigeria and has adverse consequences on the health of the mother, the foetus and the newborn. Information is required on how to improve its prevention and treatment from both the providers’ and consumers’ perspectives. Methods The study sites were two public and two private hospitals in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Data was collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The respondents were healthcare providers (doctors, pharmacists and nurses) providing ante-natal care (ANC) services. They consisted of 32 respondents from the public facilities and 20 from the private facilities. The questionnaire elicited information on their: knowledge about malaria, attitude, chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis using pyrimethamine, chloroquine proguanil as well as IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). The data was collected from May to June 2010. Results Not many providers recognized maternal and neonatal deaths as potential consequences of MIP. The public sector providers provided more appropriate treatment for the pregnant women, but the private sector providers found IPTp more acceptable and provided it more rationally than public sector providers (p?sector providers and 25?% of public sector providers prescribed chemoprophylaxis using pyrimethamine, chloroquine and proguanil to pregnant women. Conclusions There is sub-optimal level of knowledge about current best practices for treatment and chemoprophylaxis for MIP especially in the private sector. Also, IPTp was hardly used in the public sector. Interventions are required to improve providers’ knowledge and practices with regards to management of MIP. PMID:22551039

2012-01-01

424

Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the Context of Economic Reform. Education Research Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in vocational education and training (VET) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe since the 1980s were examined in the context of economic reform. Formal VET provision in each country's public and private sectors was reviewed, and case studies of one firm in each country's manufacturing and tourism industries were conducted. The research identified…

Bennell, Paul; Bendera, Shane; Kanyenze, Godfrey; Kimambo, Emrode; Kiwia, Sixtus; Mbiriyakura, Tichafa; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Munetsi, N.; Muzulu, Jo; Parsalaw, Willy; Temu, John

425

Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries  

E-print Network

Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

Pollitt, Michael G.

2004-01-01

426

Artificial interfaces ("AI") in surgery: historic development, current status and program implementation in the public health sector.  

PubMed

The past two decades have seen considerable advances in the application of artificial interfaces (AI) in surgery. Several have been developed including AESOP (Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning), Zeus and the Da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS). Whilst each has advantages DVSS is being used increasingly across multiple surgical specialities. These developments generate many challenges in an era where the emphasis is increasingly on safer and cost-effective surgery. Whilst the role of DVSS is firmly established in urologic and gynaecologic surgery, the role of DVSS in gastrointestinal surgery is evolving. Recent data indicate that it is at least as oncologically effective, whilst providing numerous benefits (e.g. reduced conversion and complication rates) over traditional laparoscopic approaches. The increasing adoption of AI/DVSS worldwide places institutes and health sectors under increasing pressure to adopt and develop such programs. This article provides (1) an update on the current status of AI in surgery in general and in colorectal surgery and (2) an appraisal of the cost implications of the establishment and implementation of AI/DVSS-based provisions in the public health sector. The numerous challenges faced generate many opportunities in the implementation of present and future surgical technologies. PMID:23375732

Healy, Donagh A; Murphy, Shane P; Burke, John P; Coffey, John C

2013-06-01

427

Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.  

PubMed

HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health care and are wary of cost shifting from the public plan to private insurers. FUTURE OF EMPLOYMENT-BASED COVERAGE: The availability of a health insurance exchange may have implications for the future of the employment-based health benefits system and raises major questions for workers. Will employers provide a fixed contribution for the purchase of insurance through an exchange? Would that be large enough to purchase coverage? Would it be flat or vary by such factors as worker health status, age, and/or marital status or the presence of children? Would it be taxed? For both employers and workers, the implications are enormous. PMID:19545086

Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

2009-06-01

428

A decision support system framework to improve design-construction integration and project performance on public sector underground utility projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the noted difficulties with the traditional public works project development process is the lack of integration and sharing of information between engineering and construction entities that results in a decrease in project performance. To improve project performance on public sector underground utility projects, the research develops a decision support system framework that enhances the exchange and integration of relevant information and knowledge between entities on such projects by incorporating a lessons-learned database to document, organize and disseminate lessons-learned on a project. To identify the critical activities within the project development process that could be linked to the decision support system, the Integration Definition for Functioning Modeling (IDEFO) technique was used to create a representative model of the public works project development process. The resultant model demonstrated the repeatable nature of the process both across project phases and from project-to-project and identified the decision-making activities of generating and evaluating alternatives as key opportunities for construction-related input that could be linked to a decision support system. An inspection of current industry practices was conducted through interviews with knowledgeable industry sources to determine the scope of the decision support system framework. Results revealed the type of critical decisions on underground utility projects that could benefit from construction-related input and identified the documentation of lessons-learned as a major industry weakness. A prototype decision support system incorporating a lessons-learned database was developed and the framework integrated into common project management reporting mechanisms found in the industry. The actual decision-maker can retrieve lessons-learned according to predetermined categories of critical decisions, compare and evaluated retrieved alternatives, and document the rationale behind the ultimate decision made. The framework for the decision support system was evaluated by knowledgeable industry sources and through the use of a hypothetical case study. Evaluations determined the proposed system would improve design and construction integration and project performance on public sector underground utility projects. However, additional research is required into determining both the most suitable lessons-learned database structure and ways to increase the incentive for project participants to fully participate in the methodology.

Gehrig, Gary Bruce

429

Lessons from Five States: Public Sector Use of Washington Circle Performance Measures  

PubMed Central

Five states (Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, and Oklahoma) have incorporated Washington Circle (WC) substance abuse performance measures in various ways into their quality improvement strategies. In this paper we focus on what other states and local providers might learn from these states’ experiences as they consider using WC performance measures. Using a case study approach, we report that the use of WC measures differs across these five states, although there are important common themes required for adoption and sustainability of performance measures which include: leadership, evaluation of specification and use of measures over time, state-specific adaptation of the WC measure specifications, collaboration with consultants and partners, inclusion of WC measures in the context of other initiatives, reporting to providers and the public, and data and resource requirements. As additional states adopt some of the WC measures, or adopt other performance measurement approaches, these states’ experiences could help them to develop implementations based on their particular needs. PMID:21257282

Garnick, Deborah W.; Lee, Margaret T.; Horgan, Constance; Acevedo, Andrea; Botticelli, Michael; Clark, Spencer; Davis, Steven; Gallati, Robert; Haberlin, Karin; Hanchett, Andrew; Lambert-Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Siemianowski, James; Tikoo, Minakshi

2011-01-01

430

Traffic mitigation reference guide: a review of options available to the public and private sectors  

SciTech Connect

The document is a reprint of a guide on how to reduce traffic impacts, through city, developer, and employer actions. It covers a wide variety of techniques, including carpooling and vanpooling programs, transit usage, parking management approaches, variable work hours, bicycle programs, and various kinds of brokerage activities. The document also includes material on incorporation of traffic-mitigation techniques into local plans, policies, ordinances, and development project approvals, along with specific techniques for monitoring of compliance and enforcement. Funding of traffic-mitigation activities from public or private sources is also discussed. The document should be of interest to traffic and highway planners, the transit community, staffs of elected officials, major employers, and private developers themselves.

Brittle, C.; McConnell, N.; O'Hare, S.

1984-12-01

431

Private Care and Public Health: Do Vaccination and Prenatal Care Rates Differ between Users of Private versus Public Sector Care in India?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether patients who use private sector providers for curative services have lower vaccination rates and are less likely to receive prenatal care. Data Sources/Study Setting This study uses data from the 52d round of the National Sample Survey, a nationally representative socioeconomic and health survey of 120,942 rural and urban Indian households conducted in 1995–1996. Study Design Using logistic regression, we estimate the relationship between receipt of preventive care at any time (vaccinations for children, prenatal care for pregnant women) and use of public or private care for outpatient curative services, controlling for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and state of residence. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We analyzed samples of children ages 0 to 4 and pregnant women who used medical care within a 15-day window prior to the survey. Principal Findings With the exception of measles vaccination, predicted probabilities of the receipt of vaccinations and prenatal care do not differ based on the type of provider at which children and women sought curative care. Children and pregnant women in households who use private care are almost twice as likely to receive preventive care from private sources, but the majority still obtains preventive care from public providers. Conclusions We do not find support for the hypothesis that children and pregnant women who use private care are less likely to receive public health services. Results are consistent with the notion that Indian households are able to successfully navigate the coexisting public and private systems, and obtain services selectively from each. However, because the study employed an observational, cross-sectional study design, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:15544642

Howard, David H; Roy, Kakoli

2004-01-01

432

Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into investment decision-making by including a cost of carbon in the budget analysis. Most existing literature uses the expected price of carbon as a proxy for this cost, where expected price is a weighted average of various scenarios, often comparing policy proposals and representing either the price of traded permits or level of carbon tax, depending on the type of policy. The literature focuses on the minimum price of carbon required to influence power plant investment decisions. In contrast, this chapter introduces expected payment as a more accurate measure of carbon cost as it is perceived by industry practitioners. The expected payment of carbon is the expected price of carbon times the probability that this cost would actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the 2005-2006 surge of activity in coal-fired power plant development and the subsequent decline in that interest. The energy industry has been slow to move away from fossil fuels and towards renewable resources. In chapter 3 I find evidence for a cognitive bias that plays a role in this momentum. Energy executives' expectations of future energy prices are strongly correlated with their own preferences, which I document for the case of natural gas prices. This is an example of wishful expectations, a form of overconfidence in which people are excessively optimistic over uncontrollable future outcomes. This implies energy executives with strong exposure to fossil fuels are excessively optimistic on future prices and so continue to invest despite the presence of superior alternatives.

Barradale, Merrill Jones

433

Does the Public Sector Outperform the Nonprofit and For-Profit Sectors? Evidence from a National Panel Study on Nursing Home Quality and Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are public and private organizations fundamentally different? This question has been among the most enduring inquiries in public administration. Our study explores the impact of organizational ownership on two complementary aspects of performance: service quality and access to services for impoverished clients. Derived from public management…

Amirkhanyan, Anna A.; Kim, Hyun Joon; Lambright, Kristina T.

2008-01-01

434

Socio-economic and ethnic group inequities in antenatal care quality in the public and private sector in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers. Methods Quality of care for women giving birth in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, was assessed by measuring how many of 11 procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health were performed. Information on family income, self-assessed skin colour, parity and type of provider were collected. Results Antenatal care was used by 98% of the 4244 women studied (mean number of visits 8.3), but the number of consultations was higher among better-off and white women, who were also more likely to start antenatal care in the first trimester. The quality of antenatal care score ranged from 0 to 11, with an overall mean of 8.3 (SD 1.7). Mean scores were 8.9 (SD 1.5) in the wealthiest and 7.9 (SD 1.8) in the poorest quintiles (P < 0.001), 8.4 (SD 1.6) in white and 8.1 (SD 1.9) in black women (P < 0.001). Adjusted analyses showed that these differences seemed to be due to attendance patterns rather than discrimination. Mean quality scores were higher in the private 9.3 (SD 1.3) than in the public sector 8.1 (SD 1.6) (P < 0.001); these differences were not explained by maternal characteristics or by attendance patterns. Conclusions Special efforts must be made to improve quality of care in the public sector. Poor and black women should be actively encouraged to start antenatal care early in pregnancy so that they can fully benefit from it. There is a need for regular monitoring of antenatal attendances and quality of care with an equity lens, in order to assess how different social groups are benefiting from progress in health care. PMID:20123940

Victora, CG; Matijasevich, A; Silveira, MF; Santos, IS; Barros, AJD; Barros, FC

2010-01-01

435

National mental health reform: less talk, more action.  

PubMed

The Council of Australian Governments revitalised national mental health reform in 2006. Unfortunately, evidence-based models of collaborative care have not yet been supported. Previous attempts at national reform have lacked a strategic vision. We continue to rely on arrangements that are fragmented between different levels of government, poorly resourced community services, and an embattled public hospital sector. Our persisting unwillingness to record or publicly report key measures of health, social or economic outcomes undermines community confidence in the mental health system. Six priority areas for urgent national action are proposed and linked to key measures of improved health system performance. In Australia, we recognise special groups (such as war veterans) and organise and fund services to meet their specific health needs. Such systems could be readily adapted to meet the needs of people with psychosis. PMID:19220184

Rosenberg, Sebastian; Hickie, Ian B; Mendoza, John

2009-02-16

436

Reform on the Move  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

2006-01-01

437

Educational Reform in Louisiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although education has appealed to southern governors as a catapult to historical recognition, future governors should consider Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer's ill-fated educational reform plan for Louisiana State University's College of Education, particularly its teacher evaluation and internship program. Public education seems a low-priority…

Maxcy, Spencer J.; Maxcy, Doreen O.

1993-01-01

438

Reforming Teacher Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent Google search for information regarding performance pay in education produced 6.1 million results. This number should come as no surprise given the current level of interest in incentives as a popular reform option in public education. Supporters believe pay-for-performance programs encourage less effective teachers to improve and will…

Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.

2010-01-01

439

Single-Gender Public Education and Federal Policy: Implications of Gender-Based School Reforms in Philadelphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parochial and private schools in the United States have maintained opportunities for students to attend same-gender settings without interference from policies governing public education. The gender composition and curriculum of public schools, however, have been influenced by societal regulations and expectations that have often utilized…

Friend, Jennifer

2007-01-01

440

The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Texas. School Choice Issues in the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented a crisis in Texas high school graduation rates. Only 67 percent of Texas students graduate from high school, and some large urban districts have graduation rates of 50 percent or lower. This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Texas and examines how school choice could provide large public benefits…

Gottlob, Brian J.

2008-01-01

441

The national identity as a motivational factor for better performance in the public sector : The case of the volunteers of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to concern itself with the research field of public sector performance measurement and to introduce the national identity as a performance factor, through a case study. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper attempts an innovative presentation and identification of the attitudes, motivations and beliefs of both Greek people and the volunteers regarding the organisation, the success and

Panos Karkatsoulis; Nikos Michalopoulos; Vasso Moustakatou

2005-01-01

442

Heat and health: a perspective from the public sector and the military Laurence S. Kalkstein, Department of Geography and Regional Studies, University  

E-print Network

Heat and health: a perspective from the public sector and the military Laurence S. Kalkstein, Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, Adam, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has developed extensive guidelines to lessen the negative health

Miami, University of

443

The Heart in Haart: Quality of Life of Patients Enrolled in the Public Sector Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in the Free State Province of South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the quality of life of patients enrolled in the public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State province of South Africa. Statistical analysis of cross-sectional data reveals that it is not access to treatment "per se" that enhances the quality of life of those who have come forward for ART. Rather, it is…

Booysen, F. Le R.; Van Rensburg, H. C. J.; Bachmann, M.; Louwagie, G.; Fairall, L.

2007-01-01

444

Public and Private Agri-Environmental Regulation in Post-Socialist Economies: Evidence from the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using primary survey data and interview evidence this paper analyses the implementation and enforcement of public and private environmental regulation in the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV) sector. This provides a basis for engaging in a wider debate on the nature of agri-food regulation in post-socialist economies. Depictions of the…

Gorton, Matthew; Zaric, Vlade; Lowe, Philip; Quarrie, Steve

2011-01-01

445

Indian medical students in public and private sector medical schools: are motivations and career aspirations different? - studies from Madhya Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India’s large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Methods Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. Results There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. Conclusion There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions. PMID:24034988

2013-01-01

446

75 FR 52512 - Acceptance of Public Submissions on the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...transparency in the derivatives marketplace by requiring standardized derivatives to be traded on regulated...public. Lower risk by moving standardized derivatives into central clearinghouses...Reporting, Bona Fide Hedging Definition &...

2010-08-26

447

Modelling CAP Reform: Consensus or Conflict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reform of the CAP has been analysed using a number of different sector level models such as those operated by FAPRI, the OECD, EuroCARE and the European Commission. The results of these different studies are broadly consistent in many cases, despite the radical nature of the reform in changing the relationship between payments and production. In some instances there

Julian Binfield; William Meyers; Patrick Westhoff

448

Acquisition Reform  

E-print Network

This report reviews the six most recent major acquisition reform reports, starting in 1949 with the Hoover Commissions and including McNamara's Total Package Procurement, Fitzhugh Commission, the Commission on Government ...

Sapolsky, Harvey

449

Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan

2013-01-01

450

The Changing Nature of Private Engagement in Public Education: For-Profit and Nonprofit Organizations and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have seen a shifting landscape around private engagement in K-12 public education, one that involves a reorientation of education policy and practice around the principles of the marketplace. In this article, we examine the roles of both not-for-profit and for-profit agencies, as distinct from government agencies, in this movement.…

Bulkley, Katrina E.; Burch, Patricia

2011-01-01

451

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

452

Conservation Service Reform Act of 1986: Public Law 99-412, Ninety-Ninth Congress, August 28, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Public Law 99-412 amends the National Energy Conservation Policy Act to continue the effort to control energy demand growth. The bill changes some plan requirements affecting utilities, eligibility, exemptions and waivers, alternative state plans, and reporting. Title II repeals Title VII of the NECPA dealing with commercial and multifamily buildings and demonstration projects.

Not Available

1986-01-01

453

The Politics of Service Delivery Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies the leaders, the supporters and the resisters of public service reform. It adopts a principal-agent framework, comparing reality with an 'ideal' situation in which citizens are the principals over political policy- makers as their agents, and policy-makers are the principals over public service officials as their agents. Reform in most developing countries is complicated by an additional

Richard Batley

2004-01-01

454

What have 10 years of health insurance reforms brought about in Bulgaria? Re-appraising the Health Insurance Act of 1998.  

PubMed

This article discusses the financial reforms in the Bulgarian public health care sector. Since 1998, when the Bulgarian parliament passed the Health Insurance Act, compulsory contributions for social health insurance have become the main source of health care financing. They replaced the previous tax-based health care funding mechanism. This article reviews empirical evidence and macro indicators to analyse to what extent the expectations of this reform are achieved. Two groups of sources are reviewed: (1) publications prior to the implementation of the social health insurance in Bulgaria that discuss its potential impact; (2) publications after the insurance implementation, that investigate the actual impact of this reform. The results suggest that social health insurance in Bulgaria brought about certain efficiency improvements in the public health care sector. However, the overall social benefit of the reform is doubtful. The main reasons for this are related to the ineffective organisation of the Bulgarian public health care sector, as well as to the overall lack of financial resources for health care in the country. PMID:21216021

Atanasova, Elka; Pavlova, Milena; Velickovski, Robert; Nikov, Bogomil; Moutafova, Emanuela; Groot, Wim

2011-10-01

455

Community benefits and health reform: creating new links for public health and not-for-profit hospitals.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) put new requirements on not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals to document provision of community benefits, to justify their tax-exempt status. Specific PPACA provisions include requirements that NFP hospitals conduct or participate in a community health needs assessment and work to address the needs identified. Consideration is given to these particular PPACA mandates and to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) actions to implement them. The background of concerns that have been expressed about whether the NFP hospitals' tax exemption should be continued and a brief history of that exemption is noted. Not-for-profit hospitals have resources that the federal government is requiring them to bring to public health improvement, during a time when the public health agencies at the federal and state level continue to experience reductions in funding. Linking of the NFP hospitals' compliance activities with the public health agency community health planning activities will help fulfill its PPACA requirements and the regulatory reporting requirements for the IRS. PMID:21964364

Abbott, Ann L

2011-01-01

456

Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics  

PubMed Central

The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

2009-01-01

457

78 FR 5829 - Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Secretary Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform AGENCY: Office...The Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform will hold a public...management of natural resources held in trust, and trust reform. The Commission...

2013-01-28

458

The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.  

PubMed

A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa. PMID:20150608

Pillay, Rubin

2010-02-01

459

Can Public International Boarding Schools in Ghana Be the Next Educational Reform Movement for Low-Income Urban Minority Public School Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past twenty-five years has witnessed dramatic changes in the world, including the rise of international trade, unprecedented movement of people across national borders, tremendous advances in communication technologies and new forms of knowledge. Due to the changes of this magnitude, the American public is aware of new and formidable global and international problems that did not exist before. However,

Kevin Brown

2009-01-01

460

Venture analysis case study for on-site fuel cell energy systems. Volume III. Appendix J: public sector analysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report assesses the dollar value of potential benefits likely to accrue to the public sector from commercialization of United Technologies Corporation's (UTC's) on-site 40-kW fuel cell energy system. The commercialization of this system will require Federal incentives. The nature and extent of these incentives can determine not only the initial year of market penetration but also the subsequent buildup

A. P. Sanghvi; R. Ciliano

1978-01-01

461

Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs. PMID:24149078

van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

2013-01-01

462

Audit of public sector primary diabetes care in Cape Town, South Africa: high prevalence of complications, uncontrolled hyperglycaemia, and hypertension.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of diabetes complications and level of glycaemic and blood pressure control in Black African patients at the primary care level in the public sector Cape Town, South Africa. A stratified random sample of 300 patients attending the three largest ambulatory diabetes clinics in community health centres in Black African residential areas of Cape Town (100 patients from each) during the last 6 months of 1992 was selected. Each patient had a clinical examination, interview, and 1 year retrospective record review. Eighty-one per cent of the sampled patients were reviewed, 90% were non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) and 10% were treated with insulin. The mean duration of diabetes was 8 (range 0-28) years. Acceptable glycaemic control was present in 49.4% (95% Confidence Intervals 45.6-53.5) of patients while 38.5% (CI 24.8-52.2) of hypertensive patients had acceptable blood pressure control. The prevalence of any grade of retinopathy was 55.4% (CI 48.90-62.9), proliferative and preproliferative retinopathy 15.6% (CI 8.5-22.8), cataracts 7.9% (CI 4.4-11.4), peripheral neuropathy 27.6% (CI 15.2-39.4), absent foot pulses 8.2% (CI 5.2-12.6), amputations 1.4% (CI 0.4-2.4), persistent proteinuria 5.3% (CI 2.5-8.1) and an elevated albumin-creatinine ratio 36.7% (CI 29.0-44.4). The complications were not documented in the clinic records of the preceding year with the exception of 1 patient with absent foot pulses and the 12 patients with proteinuria. The high prevalence of suboptimal glycaemic and blood pressure control as well as complications of diabetes, largely unrecorded in the preceding years' clinic notes, demonstrates the deficiency of and need for preventative diabetes care at the primary care level. The design, institution, and evaluation of effective intervention programmes are a priority to improve the quality of care provided and the health of diabetic patients. PMID:9455936

Levitt, N S; Bradshaw, D; Zwarenstein, M F; Bawa, A A; Maphumolo, S

1997-12-01

463

Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. Conclusions These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions. PMID:21575180

2011-01-01

464

CAP Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter re-examines the case for reforming the Common Agricultural Policy. The health and environmental aspects of modern agriculture have been highlighted by British experience with BSE and FMD. Historically, agricultural support has been rationalised by reference to security of supply, income maintenance, or, increasingly, environmental concerns. It is argued that production price supports, the scale of which is set

Giancarlo Corsetti; John Flemming; Seppo Honkapohja; Willi Leibfritz; Gilles Saint-Paul; Hans-Werner Sinn; Xavier Vives

2002-01-01

465

Road to reform  

SciTech Connect

The power sector is actively exploring and pursuing the myriad opportunities that exist under the concessions and independent power plant laws recently enacted by the Brazilian legislature. While Brazil has not yet finalized the necessary implementing regulations, it has taken positive steps to reform its infrastructure, develop proactive fiscal policies and address the problem of inflation. The author goes on to discuss issues unique to the situation of Brazil as they relate to the ability of foreign companies to break into the business sector, in particular the power generation field. Many rules are in the process of change, but there still remains uncertainties which cloud the question as to the economic viability of investments in the power generation field.

South, D.

1997-04-01

466

Between intent and achievement in sector-wide approaches: staking a claim for reproductive health.  

PubMed

Since 1995, sector-wide approaches (SWAps) to health development have significantly influenced health aid to developing countries. SWAps offer guidelines for new partnerships with international donors led by government, new relationships between donors and shared financing, development and implementation of agreed packages of health sector reforms. These structural and funding changes have significant implications for reproductive health. The early experience of SWAps suggests that the extent of donor commitment is constrained for administrative, philosophical and political reasons, with vertical programmes (including those relevant to reproductive health) protecting their 'core' business, and reproductive health, as an integrative concept, lacking strong advocates. Defining the sector in terms of government health systems focuses resources on building effective district health systems, but with uncertain outcomes for elements of reproductive health that depend on multi-sectoral strategies, e.g. safe motherhood. The context of the reforms remains a determining factor in their success, but despite savings available through increased efficiencies and coordinated services, the total per capita expenditure on health to ensure minimum clinical and public health services often remains beyond the budget available to least developed nations. Despite this, many of the elements of SWAps--government leadership, new donor relationships, better coordination, sectoral reform and service integration--offer the potential for more effective and efficient health services, including those for reproductive health. PMID:12557640

Hill, Peter S

2002-11-01

467

Public-Private Sector Collaboration in Education: Implications for Research, Policy, and the Education of Professional Educators. Proceedings of the Annual Rupert N. Evans Symposium (10th, Urbana, Illinois, May 2-3, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings contain 11 papers that examine several diverse collaborative efforts designed to improve education and training programs through substantive involvement of the private sector. Authors and titles are as follows: "Public-Private Sector Collaboration in Education: Implications for Research, Policy, and the Education of Professional…

Phelps, L. Allen, Ed.; Thurston, Paul W., Ed.

468

Beyond the conventional wisdom: USAID projects, interorganizational linkages, and institutional reform in Peru.  

PubMed

The case study of the linkages between departmental-level and national organizations in Peru shows how linkages can play a significant role in national reform. A general overview of current articles on interorganizational linkages and decentralization pertinent to the Peruvian context of control oriented public sectors is provided. The Peruvian institutional context and the constraints faced by decentralized development agencies called departmental development corporations (CORDES) are identified. CORDES members were provincial mayors, representatives of private sector professional and economic organizations, and heads of ministerial field offices, autonomous agencies, and public enterprises. Microregional offices were established and received public funding. USAID channeled funding through the national organizations to the CORDES in the Integrated Regional Development Project (IRD) between 1979-86, and the Disaster Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (DRR) Project between 1983-87. The IRD and the DRR are described in addition to the decentralized organization support network established by the 2 projects. There is an analysis of how these interorganizational linkages contributed to conventional uses of linkages and unconventional or institutional reform. Reforms were facilitated by direct persuasion of central agencies to change their administrative regulations, policies, and operating procedures, and extensive lobbying by the support network to pass budgetary reform favoring CORDES and bureaucratic reorientation. Conclusions were reached on 1) the importance of assistance linkages for hastening implementation, building capacity, and overcoming organizational weaknesses (conventional wisdom); 2) the usefulness of vertical linkages in resolving administrative or technical weaknesses (unconventional wisdom); and 3) the usefulness of reinforcing project related units within key national level agencies which increases access to power while specific objectives maintain assistance orientations. Politically marginal agencies are not considered viable. These projects demonstrated that linkages are useful in supporting institutional reform and respecting country self-determination. PMID:12343972

Schmidt, G D

1992-07-01

469

The WTO and the Millennium Round: What Is at Stake for Public Education? Common Concerns for Workers in Education and the Public Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the eve of the year 2000, global public spending on education tops one trillion dollars. Against the backdrop of globalization, public education is currently being subjected to attacks by proponents of privatization and deregulation. The process is already underway, as is apparent from an important agreement reached by the World Trade…

Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

470

Back to the Future? Reflections on past reforms and future prospects for health services in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991 the New Zealand health system began to experience what has been termed the `turbulent decade'. Without health sector\\u000a consultation or public mandate, an era of imposed market oriented reforms began. These changed the overall culture of health\\u000a care delivery and the expectations of New Zealanders regarding the role of the state in the provision of welfare. In retrospect

Ross Barnett; Pauline Barnett

2004-01-01

471

Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the canadian agri-food public health sector.  

PubMed

Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts. PMID:24528517

Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Raji?, A

2014-12-01

472

Toxics Release Inventory, 1996. Public data release: Ten years of right-to-know industry sector analyses  

SciTech Connect

This volume presents the data for 15 industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently required to report to TRI. These chapters set the TRI data in context of economic, regulatory, and technological developments that influence industry-wide releases and other waste management. They also analyze reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit SIC code level. Industry sectors covered are: Food and Beverage Processing; Tobacco Products; Textile Mill Products; Apparel and Fabricated Textiles; Lumber and Wood Products; Furniture; Printing and Publishing; Rubber and Plastics Products; Leather and Leather Products; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete; Fabricated Metals; Industrial Machinery; Transportation Equipment; Instruments and Photograph