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Publicsectorreform (PSR) has been quite popular in African. However, the inadequate understanding of the philosophical basis of the reforms has led to many African countries to equating PSR with privatization and commercialization of public enterprises, downsizing of the public service workforce and the war on corruption. While many African countries are pursuing with the necessary vig- our these
The primary objective of the paper is to present a collection of data on public enterprises in sub-Saharan Africa. These data can be used for comparative analysis -- to identify trends in sector size, performance, financing, and evidence of reforms -- whi...
|Americans are facing a critical choice between two different systems of school control the continuance of the current system of public governance or a move to a privatized approach to schooling. The purpose of this book is to help educators and citizens better understand the issues and opportunities associated with changes in educational…
Elliott R. F., Bell D., Scott A., Ma A. and Roberts E. (2005) Devolved government and publicsector pay reform: considerations of equity and efficiency, Regional Studies 39 , 519–539. Publicsector pay is of critical concern to the governments in Westminster and Edinburgh. It accounts for the major part of these government's current expenditures and is a crucial determinant
Robert Elliott; David Bell; Anthony Scott; Ada Ma; Elizabeth Roberts
The paper assesses the efforts of the World Bank to improve management in the publicsectors of its borrower countries. It identifies the problems that created the need for Bank involvement, reviews the steps taken and the instruments used by the Bank to ...
We, in Pakistan, should be very happy that the global development community has finally accepted the centrality of publicsectorreform (also known as improved governance) in the quest for improved living standards in poor countries. Development economics is a subject that is based on the interpretation and observation of some Western academics and Western donor-based agencies. We should have
Public-sectorreform initiatives as part of development cooperation challenge many agricultural support services in developing countries of Central Asia. This article analyses the application of the results-based payment system in the Kyrgyz Rural Advisory Service (RAS) and identifies key determinants that are likely to influence its effective adaptation. The article is based on a literature review of public-sectorreforms in
Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers’ willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient
The article examines various healthcare systems reform projects in Canada and some Canadian provinces and reveals some tendencies in governance renewal. The analisis is based on the hypothesis that reform is an exercise aiming at the renewal of governance conception and practices. In renewing governance, reform leaders hope to use adequate and effective levers to attain announced reform objectives. The article shows that the conceptions and operational modalities of governance have changed over time and that they reveal tensions inherent to the transformation and legitimation process of public healthcare systems. The first section discusses the relationships between reform and change. The second section defines the conception of gouvernance used for the analisis. Based on a content analisis of the various reform reports, the third section reveals the evolution of the conception of governance in healthcare systems in Canada. In order to expose the new tendencies, ideologies and operational principles at the heart of the reform projects are analysed. Five ideologies are identified: the democratic ideology, the "population health" ideology, the business ideology, the managerial ideology and the ideology of equity and humanism. This leads to a discussion on the dominant influence of the managerial ideology in the current reform projects. PMID:20963305
Denis, Jean L; Lamothe, Lise; Langley, Ann; Stéphane, Guérard
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to explore the role of accounting in the reform process of a continuously evolving governmental agency in the Australian state of New South Wales. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Drawing on two complementary organizational change models, the paper investigates how the shifting objectives of the Department of Public Works and Services (DPWS) rendered its financial
Power sectorreforms in India were initiated in the face of mounting commercial losses due to poor fiscal health of State Utilities, endemic capacity and energy shortages and increasing subsidy burden on the states. Investment in the sector was falling far short of demand in power supply. The Government of India, in 1991 embarked upon an ambitious program for reforming
Given the growing complexities and challenges the health sector faces, reforms in this sector are inevitable. Often health sectorreforms aimed to address many of these deficiencies and ensuring effectiveness and efficiency of resource use, they focus on making the health systems responsive through strengthening financial systems, ensuring local participation and public private partnerships, and autonomy of health facilities. The
The objectives of this cross-sectional intervention study were to improve policy makers' understanding of health sectorreforms through a training workshop and to assess the perception of policy makers and the general public about health systems performance in Nigeria. Health systems performance was generally rated low by respondents (< 2.5 out of 4). Health service delivery and health workforce were the lowest rated health systems components (< 2.2 out of 4). Efforts need to be intensified to enhance competencies of policy makers to adopt an evidence-informed process in health reform programs. Inputs from the public must be given adequate consideration in addressing the challenges of health systems. PMID:23944164
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel E; Ndukwe, C D; Oyibo, P G; Onwe, F
Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the\\u000a compatibility of “governance-for-adaptation” with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked.\\u000a Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly\\u000a called “New Public Management” (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative
Hallie EakinSiri; Siri Eriksen; Per-Ove Eikeland; Cecilie Øyen
In many emerging economies pension programs of publicsector workers are more generous than pension programs of private sector workers. In this paper we investigate public pension reforms that improve efficiency and welfare by reallocating government resources from non-productive public pensions to productive public education and infrastructure investments. We argue that the opportunity costs of running generous public pension schemes
Gerhard Glomm; Juergen Jung; Changmin Lee; Chung Tran
Power sectorreform is rapidly spreading across all corners of the developing world at an alarmingly rapid pace. While the rationales for reform seem to have gained acceptance among the stakeholders, the reform model and process are contested. This paper examines the impacts of reform using the promised outcomes as a basis for analysis. The ability of reform to meet
In 2005, New Mexico began a comprehensive reform of state-funded mental health care. This paper reports on differences in\\u000a characteristics, infrastructure, financial status, and services across mental health agencies. We administered a telephone\\u000a survey to senior leadership to assess agency status prior to and during the first year of reform. Non-profit\\/public agencies\\u000a were more likely than others to report reductions
Rafael M. Semansky; Dominic Hodgkin; Cathleen E. Willging
March 1999Competition, rather than privatization, is the key to transforming the electricity sector in Latin America's Southern Cone-and not just head-to-head competition. Competition for the market and against yardsticks are also important instruments for regulators.Estache and Martin Rodriguez-Pardina provide an overview of recent privatization experiences in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.They focus on both achievements and outstanding problems in the electricity
Purpose – The paper aims to explore the consequences of new public management (NPM) inspired reforms in general and outsourcing of traditional publicsector responsibilities in Sweden to private organizations in particular. At centre stage are the roles of entrepreneurs, women-owned small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and socially constructed paradigms of gender in this process. The paper's aim is to
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of publicsector accounting in implementing neoliberal reforms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The proposition that the adoption and development of accrual accounting in the publicsector is a technical development intended to improve transparency and accountability is investigated. The paper compares the development and use of accrual accounting in public
Background The Australian federal government introduced private health insurance incentive policy reforms in 2000 that increased the uptake of private health insurance in Australia. There is currently a lack of evidence on the effect of the policy reforms on access to cardiovascular interventions in public and private hospitals in Australia. The aim was to investigate whether the increased private health insurance uptake influenced trends in emergency and elective coronary artery revascularisation procedures (CARPs) for private and public patients. Methods We included 34,423 incident CARPs from Western Australia during 1995-2008 in this study. Rates of emergency and elective CARPs were stratified for publicly and privately funded patients. The average annual percent change (AAPC) in trend was calculated before and after 2000 using joinpoint regression. Results The rate of emergency CARPs, which were predominantly percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) with stenting, increased throughout the study period for both public and private patients (AAPC=12.9%, 95% CI=5.0,22.0 and 14.1%, 95% CI=9.8,18.6, respectively) with no significant difference in trends before and after policy implementation. The rate of elective PCIs with stenting from 2000 onwards remained relatively stable for public patients (AAPC=?6.0, 95% C= ?16.9,6.4), but increased by 4.1% on average annually (95% CI=1.8,6.3) for private patients (pdifference=0.04 between groups). This rate increase for private patients was only seen in people aged over 65 years and people residing in high socioeconomic areas. Conclusions The private health insurance incentive policy reforms are a likely contributing factor in the shift in 2000 from public to privately-funded elective PCIs with stenting. These reforms as well as the increasing number of private hospitals may have been successful in increasing the availability of publicly-funded beds since 2000.
The functioning of the publicsector gives rise to considerable debate. Not only the efficiency and efficacy of the sector are at stake, but also its legitimacy. At the same time we see that in the publicsector all kinds of innovations are taking place. These innovations are not only technological, which enable the redesign of all kinds of processes,
The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to publicsector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Publicsector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code. PMID:23865250
Many externally motivated publicsectorreforms produce less change than expected. This article argues that we should expect limited reform results in respect of certain organizational attributes. Applying institutional theory on isomorphism, the argument is simply that reforms are harder where they influence organizational characteristics that (i) are difficult to observe externally, (ii) are core to the organization, and (iii)
The allocation of production across firms is a potentially important explanation of the productivity gap between rich and poor economies. Reforms to trade policy and the domestic financial sector are often both key elements of policy packages aimed at reducing productive distortions. However, the impact of each reform in reallocating production within an economy is usually analyzed independently. This paper
This particular site casts an eye on the question of transparency in governmental transactions through interviews with leaders from a broad range of sectors, along with allowing space for individual feedback. The "Points of View" section is a good place to start, as it includes commentary from government officials from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Tanzania about the question of publicsector transparency. Other sections on the site address such thorny questions as "What tools help sustain publicsector transparency?" and "What practices promote public-private partnerships?" Those visual learners coming to visit the site may appreciate the gallery of charts that offer indicators of levels of governance and transparency for more than 209 countries.
In most industrialized countries, the role of publicsectors has been undergoing massive changes in the past several decades. One of the major reformations in publicsectors is the pursuit of the ability to distinguish between executive performances. Thus establishing a performance-oriented evaluation in publicsectors is the key to successful administrations. However, because of lacking relative comparable measuring standards,
This paper considers the roles of actual and potential competition in private government formation. Higher publicsector costs encourage formation. Publicsector rent seeking discourages formation. Although aggregate welfare always rises, nonmembers may be harmed by private government, and this effect is larger the greater is the publicsector cost disadvantage. The publicsector may strategically choose to deter the
In a prospective cohort study of Finnish publicsector employees, the authors examined the association between workplace social capital and depression. Data were obtained from 33,577 employees, who had no recent history of antidepressant treatment and who reported no history of physician-diagnosed depression at baseline in 2000- 2002. Their risk of depression was measured with two indicators: recorded purchases of
Anne Kouvonen; Tuula Oksanen; Jussi Vahtera; Mai Stafford; Richard Wilkinson; Justine Schneider; Ari Vaananen; Marianna Virtanen; Sara J. Cox; Jaana Pentti; Marko Elovainio; Mika Kivimaki
Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sectorreform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sectorreform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sectorreform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide.
Over the past 10 years the poorest countries, especially in Africa, have struggled with worsening economic conditions and reduced public finance for health services. Some governments have responded in a piecemeal fashion, reacting to internal and external pressures. Others have embarked on major reforms of various aspects of their health systems. This paper reviews two specific types of strategy that have been initiated by governments: reform of financing strategies, and reform of publicsector organization and procedures. Particular attention is paid to the experience of introducing user fees, community financing and decentralization since these have been some of the most popular strategies. The paper describes the nature, objectives and extent of reforms. It then presents an evaluation framework related to the criteria of efficiency and equity, and evaluates current reform experience using this framework. It concludes that assessment of the potential impact of reforms on efficiency and equity is undermined by the limited duration of many reforms and the limited nature of existing evaluations. It is clear, however, that a policy package is required rather than implementation of isolated reform strategies, and that in order to design an effective policy package, more needs to be known about the implementation and operation of reforms--particularly with respect to the influence of context, actors and processes. PMID:10156640
Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sectorreforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sectorreforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sectorreform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies. PMID:17002735
De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick
The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America. First, state reform and state policies in Latin America are considered, where present concerns, state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalization, internationalization), and state
Examines the move towards a commercialized, economically driven, health sector in New Zealand. Reforms involve extensive organizational rearrangements and the creation of profit-driven businesses in place of public hospitals. These institutional rearrangements involve the fabrication of new ways of accounting. Attempts to understand the processes involved in the development of information technologies before they become accepted “facts” of organizational life.
In the early 1990s, Yemen suffered from low service coverage and national tariffs that were too low to cover public expenditure, as well as an inadequate level of service provided by the centralized National Water and Sanitation Authority. In 1996, a reform study recommended that the UWSS sector should embrace a policy of decentralization, corporatization, commercialization, the separation of service
Bali is the first tourist destination in Indonesia. Unfortunately, the urban public transport network in Bali is poor. Therefore, traffic congestion has existed in many areas, especially in tourist destination objects and city centre. Public transport reform is, therefore, very important to increase the use of public transport mode and to maintain the sustainability. Traffic surveys were carried out in
This article analyses the reform of public service employment relations inspired by the New Public Management (NPM) approach, which has challenged both the traditional `sovereign employer' and `model employer' approaches to public service employment regulation. It envisages a double process of convergence: between public and private sector employment relations within each country, and in public service employment relations between different
The World Bank's Economic Development Institute has recently developed Health Reform.online to provide distance education opportunities for those interested in "health sectorreform, health economics or sustainable financing." The site will house educational modules based on EDI's Health SectorReform and Sustainable Financing training program. The first module, "Introduction to the concepts and analytical tools of health sectorreform and financing," includes lessons, case studies, interactive exercises, suggested readings, an extensive glossary, and a course outline. Future EDI training opportunities will be announced at the site. A Library section allows browsing and searching of abstracts or the full-text of over 500,000 pages of World Bank health documents on health projects in developing countries. Note, to view the full-text documents, users will need to download the Prizm plug-in, available at the site. EDI plans to add links to regional partner institute Websites and courses, in the future.
Despite health reform and increasing public investment in the health sector, utilization of curative health services, immunization coverage and patient satisfaction with the public health care system are steadily decreasing in Burkina Faso. It seems that the health care system itself is "ill". This paper examines the major symptoms associated with this illness. The central thesis suggests that any further improvement of health care performance in Burkina Faso will be subject to profound central reform in the area of human resources and financial management of the sector. Such a broad reform package cannot be achieved through the current project approach, but a sector-wide approach (SWAp) does not seem to be realistic at the present time. Policy discussions at a level higher than the Ministry of Health could be beneficial for achieving better donor coordination and increasing the commitment of the Ministry of Health to a sector-wide approach. Health sectorreform issues and priorities and the role of international cooperation are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11238434
Bodart, C; Servais, G; Mohamed, Y L; Schmidt-Ehry, B
|Albert Einstein and the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS) conducted a reform-based public communication campaign for the international control of atomic energy after the Second World War. The Committee raised funds and sought publicity for its proposed solution to the problem of war and the management of peace. Its solution was the…
Transitional justice and security sectorreform are critical in post-conflict settings, particularly regarding the reform of judicial systems, intelligence services, police, correctional systems, the military, and addressing systemic massive human rights abuses committed by individuals representing these institutions. Accordingly, the relationship between security sectorreform and transitional justice mechanisms, such as vetting, the representation of ethnic minorities in key institutions,
There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sectorreform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine the largely ignored executive development needs of the reformed twenty-first century publicsector by executive education providers in business schools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is predominantly conceptual exploring the current debates on the effectiveness of publicsector management and the requirements for more relevant management and executive education through a
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether disciplinary background and work experience significantly influence university students' views on working and preferences for organisations and work attributes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data were collected by a questionnaire. This paper briefly reviews the literature of Australian publicsectorreforms and the impact on the publicsector as a potential
This paper surveys recent trends in publicsector labor practices in a group of seven Arab countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco and Tunisia) in order to identify their implications for the operation of labor markets and publicsectorreform efforts. The evidence presented highlight that Arab economies are characterized by labor markets that are highly segmented along various
The article discusses the relationship between New Public Management reforms and professional roles in European countries. The author presents the traditional autonomous role of professionals and argues that this role is challenged in New Public Management reforms. Then the author looks more closely into the comparative European literature on New Public Management reforms to find general messages about the specific
This article1 deals with the fuzzy concept of organizational innovation in publicsector domains. While it is not the first attempt to bring organizational innovation into the realm of public administration, the article provides a broader understanding of innovation in modern bureaucracies and points to some empirical efforts that may accel- erate post-public managerial reforms. This understanding builds on a
ERAN VIGODA-GADOT; AVIV SHOHAM; NITZA SCHWABSKY; AYALLA RUVIO
Australia has a complex history of providing public dental services to its communities. From the early days of Colonial settlement, the provision of dental care to the Australian public has largely been driven and influenced by organized groups and associations of dentists. The Constitution of Australia, under Section 51 xxiii A, allows for the Commonwealth to provide for medical and dental services. Unlike the United Kingdom, however, dental services have not been embedded into a universal national health service agenda. In 1974, that the Australian Government through the Australian School Dental Program provided the first funding and national direction for public dental services - and that, limited to children. The Commonwealth Dental Health Program 1993-1997 was the second national endeavor to provide public dental services, this time to financially disadvantaged adults. Since that time, public dental service responsibility has been shuttled between States/Territories and the Commonwealth. A new paradigm for public dental services in Australia requires strong Commonwealth leadership, as well as the commitment of State and Territories and the organized dental profession. The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission provided the most recent scenario for a radical change in mission. This paper canvases the competing roles of strategic, functional, and structural issues in relationship to social network and policy issues, which must be recognized if Australians truly seek to reformpublic dental services. PMID:22998313
|A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for publicsector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the publicsector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)|
Social media has been widely adopted by organizations in the recent past, and publicsector organizations are also showing an increased interest in using this tool to meet their goals. In this paper, we describe three cases of social media adoption by publicsector organizations, and the struggles faced in that implementation. We argue through the experience of implementing these
Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the publicsector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the publicsector. Orley…
The paper addresses the incentives of the publicsector to implement new technologies in public service provision. The focus\\u000a is on the role of local governments under decentralization. Exploiting variation in the level of innovation in a large sample\\u000a of US school districts, the impact of yardstick competition on the choice of publicsector technologies is identified. It\\u000a is shown
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of new public management (NPM) as a major strategy for democratic police reform in transitioning, developing and post-conflict nations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews the literature and history of the use of NPM in the publicsector and policing in Western nations and considers its use in programs
Following earlier reforms in the power sectors of industrialized countries and emerging markets (e.g. Chile), developing countries were encouraged to unbundle their electricity industries and to introduce competition and private sector participation. This paper highlights the developments that led to how power sectorreform came to be defined as a standard model and theoretical framework in its own right, and
Business process management has received much attention in the industrial engineering and management literature, and its benefits are well known. Much less has been written in the publicsector management literature, and what has been written has been very general. Hence, there is confusion among public managers about how business process management concepts should be implemented. How should public organizations
In Argentina, health sectorreforms put particular emphasis on decentralization and self-management of the tax-funded health sector, and the restructuring of the social health insurance during the 1990s. Unlike other countries in the region, there was no comprehensive plan to reform and unify the sector. In order to assess the effects of the reforms on the performance of the health
After the collapse of the Former Soviet Union a health reform process was undertaken in Georgia beginning in 1994. This process was intended to encompass all aspects of the health-care sector and to transform the Soviet-style health system into one that was directed towards quality of care, improved access, efficiency, and a strengthened focus on Primary Health Care (PHC). Health sectorreform fundamentally changed the ways health care is financed in Georgia. There has been a transition to program-based financing, and payroll-tax-based social insurance schemes have been introduced. Despite these measures, the performance of the health system is still disappointing. All health programs are severely under-funded, and when the majority of the population is unemployed or self-employed, collection of taxes seems impossible. Overall, Georgian consumers are uninformed about the basic principles of health reforms and their entitlements and therefore do not support them. The analysis introduced in this paper of the current situation in Georgia establishes that the rush to insurance-based medicine was more a rush from the previous system than a well-thought-out policy direction. After 70 years of a Soviet rule, the country had no institutional capacity to provide insurance-based health care. To achieve universal coverage, or at least ensure that the majority of the population has access to basic health services, government intervention is essential. In addition, educating the public on reforms would allow the reform initiators to fundamentally change the nature of the reform process from a "top-down" centralized process to one that is demand-driven and collaborative. PMID:12705312
Introducing reforms for the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) has been an integral part of the reform process initiated in India since 1990s. While reforming, the concerns about ownership, competition and regulation, which have a direct bearing on the issue of the relative performance of publicly owned and privately owned firms have been adequately looked into. This paper focuses on the
‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the publicsector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in publicsector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.
Publicsector enterprises account for a very substantial proportion of the manufacturing activity in India. Public enterprises (PEs) in India are rapidly diversifying their businesses as a response to environmental changes as well as to achieve their growth, profitability and other strategic objectives. Hence, management of diversification has emerged as a major task of PEs. Most PEs are diversifying into
The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program.
\\u000a Although business intelligence (BI) solutions have been a long-standing topic of major interest in private sector, public\\u000a administrations (PA), however, took only first steps towards strategic management. While PA are obliged to implement new public\\u000a management (NPM) approaches, such as new accounting systems or an output-oriented management, to collect management-relevant\\u000a data, there is little support regarding how to employ these
Jörg Becker; Björn Niehaves; Felix Müller-Wienbergen; Martin Matzner
This article explores the implications of school reform on school libraries using the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) as a case study in urban librarianship. A literature review on the role and impact of school librarians in K-12 education is included to help illustrate the role of school libraries in public school reform. Two DPS reforms are selected for closer evaluation:
|A study examined the patterns of employment in the publicsector as compared to the private, possible changes in that pattern in the last decade, and implications for educational policy. By using the human capital concept (employment patterns depend on productivity differences in individuals) and labor market segmentation analysis, the following…
The task of a comparative approach should be to seek commonalities and principles that would be apposite to a wide range of nations and their organizations. Citizen participation is one com monality in maintaining and\\/or enhancing ethics in the publicsector. In the Japanese case, the study focuses on the national police system and the ethics and values integral to
|The "Victorian Free Library Service Board Act" of 1946 was the culmination of a long campaign to replace the mechanics' institute model of library provision with free libraries funded by state and local government. Given that library reform required legislation by the state government, this paper is mainly concerned with the political campaign…
Pressures to reform or replace public schools have flowed from a variety of social trends interacting with a growing perception that the schools are performing poorly or are inadequate for the demands of the new global economy they now face. Since the 1980s, many reforms have been attempted, but with little evidence of real improvement, especially in the education of
The aim of this paper is to show how messy and slow paths to reform can have useful lessons for public-sector water utilities in developing countries, most of which continue to operate in a climate of muddling through. Using the case of the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB), this paper analyzes the shifts in policy and operations behind
This paper explores the role of large private sector consulting firms in the promotion and implementation of publicsector accrual accounting. By focusing on an early adopter of accrual accounting for its entire publicsector, this research presents an analysis of the activities of large consulting firms in the process of a significant publicsector accounting change. The role of
Purpose – Human resources information systems (HRIS) are becoming increasingly important in helping modern organizations manage their human assets effectively. Yet, HRIS adoption remains an under-researched phenomenon. The purpose of this paper to isolate the factors that influence the organizational adoption of HRIS in publicsector organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Adopting the technology-organization-environment model as an analytical framework, the paper draws
Kazakhstan has been at the forefront of power sectorreform in EBRD's countries of operations. Starting in 1996, a regulator was set up, the industry was partially unbundled, some distribution and generation companies were privatised, and the large user market was liberalised. A number of reform challenges remain however in the area of privatisation, regulation and competition. The paper proposes
Current agriculture faces the challenge of doubling food production to meet the food needs of a population expected to reach 9 billion by mid-century whilst maintaining soil and water quality and conserving biodiversity. These challenges are more overwhelming for the rural poor, who are the custodians of environmental resources and at the same time particularly vulnerable to environmental degradation. Solutions have to come from concerted actions by different segments of society in which publicsector science plays a fundamental role. Publicsector scientists are at the root of all the present generation of GM crop traits under cultivation and more will come with the new knowledge that is being generated by systems biology. To speed up innovation, molecular biologists must interact with scientists from the different fields as well as with stakeholders outside the academic world in order to create an environment capable of capturing value from publicsector knowledge. I highlight here the measures that have to be taken urgently to guarantee that science and technology can tackle the problems of subsistence farmers. PMID:20800704
We consider a two-sector economy, where public infrastructure unevenly affects the productivity of the sectors. Private and public capital are produced with different technologies, and the sector producing the infrastructure is not benefiting from its services. The government provides both infrastructure investment and a flow of intermediate goods, enhancing the productivity of the sector producing the infrastructure. We show that
In Southeast Asia, the recent two decades have witnessed major theoretical, structural, functional, and ethical reforms in the administrative system. In the region, the state-centric mode of public administration that emerged during the colonial and postcolonial periods, has recently been transformed into a businesslike public management in line with the current global movement for such a transition. This article examines
Public opinion is relevant to entitlement reform because it bears upon issues of political feasibility. Proposals that go against the strongly held views of ordinary citizens are not likely to be politically feasible. In addition, we may consider public opinion especially well-informed, deliberative opinion relevant to what policy makers ought to do in a democracy. The available data
Professional accounting standards have been applied to the publicsector in Australia as part of the process of adopting accrual accounting. However, the reason given for their application to the publicsector is questionable. The modes of operation of governments and of the business sector are very different, and accounting standards must be tailored to suit the specific information needs
As a new member state of the EU, Slovenia has been required to adopt EU legislation in full. The Slovenian electricity market has been partially opened since 2001. From 1 July 2007, when households became eligible customers, the electricity market opened fully. The electricity reforms carried out so far comprise of market liberalization, unbundling of activities, allowing regulated TPA, formation
The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study
Community development associated with energy resource development is, in theory, highly amenable to rational planning processes. Theoretical opportunities depend on the application by both the public and private sectors of community-scale planning and development techniques. The paper examines the risks which discourage participation in this process by the private sector and possible remedies by the publicsector designed to mitigate
This paper reports an empirical investigation into the welfare impacts of the introduction of private sector participation into the Philippines electricity generation sector, by liberalizing the market for independent power producers (IPPs) during the power crisis of 1990–1993. This study uses a social cost and benefit analysis. The main benefits came from IPPs, who contributed to resolving the crisis, and
Concerns exist within the publicsector about the ability of organizations to communicate issues of risk. These concerns include: the nature and magnitude of risks; the vulnerability of those who may bear the consequences associated with an event; and the sense of helplessness felt by victim groups. Apart from the publicsector’s role as risk generator, regulator and communicator, it
What is the economic rationale for the existence of pay premia or penalties associated with working in the publicsector? And is there any evidence that such premia or penalties exist in the long run? In the context of tight controls on public spending, especially on the pay levels of publicsector workers, it matters that we understand the economic
The success of information system development involving multi-organizational collaboration can depend heavily on effective\\u000a knowledge sharing across boundaries. This paper reports on a comparative examination of knowledge sharing in two separate\\u000a networks of publicsector organizations participating in information technology innovation projects in New York State. As\\u000a is typical of innovations resulting from recent government reforms, the knowledge sharing in
Theresa A. Pardo; Anthony M. Cresswell; Fiona Thompson; Jing Zhang
Since 1980 many developed countries have planned and implemented health sectorreforms of different scales and ambitions. Norway has been no exception, and the main political aspirations have been to increase efficiency and improve consumer choice and responsiveness. The major financial reform was the introduction of an activity based financing based on diagnostic related groups (DRG). Other central reforms include
Relations between professionals and managers in public domains are the subject of\\u000asharp controversies, especially in domains like education. According to public opinion,\\u000athe rise of Managerialism has fuelled clashes between managers and professionals. In\\u000athe past few years, academic research has mainly studied how management reforms\\u000aaffect professionals and their work. How managers, such as school managers, are\\u000aaffected
Public finance principles, though usually treated as a minor consideration, lie at the heart of effective national health care reform. Four principles are discussed: charge for a service where its cost is created; distinguish rents, resources, and transfers; know what services cost and pay accordingly; balance distributional and equity concerns. The principles' implications include: since employment does not much affect
|The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…
|The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…
Recent polling data suggest that there is a growing consensus to pay special attention to children's needs in the health care reform debate. The public generally desires children to have greater access to health care services, even if this would mean higher taxes, but is unsure that government is the best vehicle to provide such services. (MDM)
Public administration reform in Slovenia is regarded as an ongo- ing process with intertwining political, legal, sociological, economic, information-based, and other dimensions of the efforts and activities involved. The main sociological-political aspects include the guide- lines of social and economic development directed by Slovenia's membership in the EU. These comprise particularly the programme for reducing the administrative burden, the use
Using the micro data of Urban Household Survey made by the National Bureau of Statistics of China(NBS) in 2002, this paper\\u000a studies quantitatively the distributional effects of Public Pension Reform in urban China, from intragenerational and intergenerational\\u000a perspectives, by measuring lifetime net benefits that urban employees obtain under the public pension system in 1997 and the\\u000a newest one announced in
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union increasing evidence is emerging of informal payments by patients for health care services that are officially free. There is little information, however, on the characteristics of these payments and the effect that they have on health care reform initiatives. This paper examines these issues and concludes that the endemic and complex nature of such payments suggests that a range of policy tools are necessary to address the negative features of informal payments in those countries undergoing transition. PMID:11184652
The relationship between health sectorreform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms. The impact of health sectorreform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways – reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action. This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them.
Paper Originally Presented at the 65th Annual Conference of the Southern Economic Association , Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America, November 18-20, 1995. Bureaucratic service organisations in the publicsector are increasingly loosing their previous comfortable monopoly positions in providing services to the public, due to radical structural changes in modern society. The public finance of their
Paper Originally Presented at the 65th Annual Conference of the Southern Economic Association , Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America, November 18-20, 1995. Bureaucratic service organisations in the publicsector are increasingly loosing their previous comfortable monopoly positions in providing services to the public, due to radical structural changes in modern society. The public finance of their
Banking sectorreforms, which is a major component of Macroeconomic Adjustment Programme in India, has changed the trends and patterns of banking over the last six to seven years. This paper seeks to analyse the trends in credit deployment by industry, by bank group, by rural and urban areas, and by states over the recent period. The argument of the
The UK has for the past decade been a leader in the field of Security SectorReform. However little effort appears, to have been directed towards explaining UK's presence at the forefront of SSR, and how SSR emerged on the UK's development agenda. The paper hypothesizes that a network of experts has contributed to the advancement of SSR on the
|This report examines current knowledge about the nature, development, and consequences of competition and market reform in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector. In the process, the policy context and key aspects of the theory and practice of a competitive training market are analyzed. These other topics related to the…
The decline in perceived happiness within economic prosperity in Chinese society calls for further examination. In this research, we investigate the effect of employment in publicsector work units on perceived happiness through the mediation of economic and social status relative deprivations. In the reform era of China, work unit is still an important mechanism maintaining social inequality, and those working in government/Communist Party agencies and public institutions have advantages of getting access to high wage, comprehensive welfare and the manipulation of administrative public power. Such economic and social status advantages are expected to reduce their relative deprivation and further promote their perceived happiness. Using a nationwide survey data conducted in 2006, we find working in publicsector can significantly reduce the odds of experiencing economic relative deprivation, which is further contributive to the improvement of subjective wellbeing. PMID:22717616
Takes an exploratory approach to the development of an accountability framework for environmental performance of the Australian Commonwealth publicsector. Explains that the aim of the environmental performance accountability framework is for the various stakeholders to understand the actions of Commonwealth publicsector organizations and consequences of those actions for ecological systems; to become familiar with the trends and changes
This paper uses microeconomic data from the British Household Panel and General Household Surveys to describe how the distribution of pay differs between the public and private sectors in 1983 and in the early 1990s. Separate analyses by gender and education group reveal that it is women and those with intermediate-level qualifications who do best in the publicsector. The
Education supply in universities of most European countries has for the last ten years become a strategic matter. At present, French universities consider education supply as an investment. But they do not utilize all incentive mechanisms in order to drive their strategies. At the beginning of the year 2006, the publicsectorreform will tend to impose performance measurements of
Although dominated by publicsector banks, India already had a significant presence of private domestic banks and foreign banks. What the banking reforms have done is to create a more level playing field where banks of different ownership types compete within a new set of broad (and far more relaxed) regulations. Data on the performance of the three different categories
America's health care system is characterized by rising costs, increasing numbers of Americans who lack health insurance coverage, and poor quality of health care delivery. The convergence of these factors is adversely affecting not only the health of Americans but also the ability of businesses to compete successfully in a global marketplace. AARP and other nonprofit organizations are collaborating with the private sector to have more people covered by health insurance and to educate them to make behavioral choices that prevent chronic disease and ultimately lower costs. PMID:19289017
Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries . Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals . Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community.
Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M
Background Despite the expanding literature on how reforms may affect health workers and which reactions they may provoke, little research has been conducted on the mechanisms of effect through which health sectorreforms either promote or discourage health worker performance. This paper seeks to trace these mechanisms and examines the contextual framework of reform objectives in Uganda and Bangladesh, and health workers' responses to the changes in their working environments by taking a 'realistic evaluation' approach. Methods The study findings were generated by triangulating both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis among policy technocrats, health managers and groups of health providers. Quantitative surveys were conducted with over 700 individual health workers in both Bangladesh and Uganda and supplemented with qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions and key interviews with professional cadres, health managers and key institutions involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of the reforms of interest. Results The reforms in both countries affected the workforce through various mechanisms. In Bangladesh, the effects of the unification efforts resulted in a power struggle and general mistrust between the two former workforce tracts, family planning and health. However positive effects of the reforms were felt regarding the changes in payment schemes. Ugandan findings show how the workforce responded to a strong and rapidly implemented system of decentralisation where the power of new local authorities was influenced by resource constraints and nepotism in recruitment. On the other hand, closer ties to local authorities provided the opportunity to gain insight into the operational constraints originating from higher levels that health staff were dealing with. Conclusion Findings from the study suggest that a) reform planners should use the proposed dynamic responses model to help design reform objectives that encourage positive responses among health workers b) the role of context has been underestimated and it is necessary to address broader systemic problems before initiating reform processes, c) reform programs need to incorporate active implementation research systems to learn the contextual dynamics and responses as well as have inbuilt program capacity for corrective measures d) health workers are key stakeholders in any reform process and should participate at all stages and e) some effects of reforms on the health workforce operate indirectly through levels of satisfaction voiced by communities utilising the services.
This article conceptualizes the diversity of citizenship and democracy in urban settings by studying the cultural and discursive structures of local public management reform. The reform in question is founded on the ideas of new public management. It has been suggested that in these kinds of reforms, citizens are transformed into consumers. However, this discursive case study shows that this
For the time being, public management reform represents the concern of most states, no matter their development level, geographical and strategic position, membership to various supranational structures or political and social organisation systems. This process represents the topic of several papers and publications of outstanding international scientists or specialized structures of international organizations, such as OECD. In the EU Member
Electronic government (or e-Government) is the use of information technology, in particular the Internet, to improve the delivery of public services. By providing public services online Governments can make them more convenient to the citizen, reduce costs and attract investment to their country. Electronic government will transform not only the way in which most public services are delivered, but also
This paper analyzes the relation between public wage bills and public deficits in the OECD countries from 1995 to 2009. The paper shows that fiscal drift episodes, characterized by simultaneous increases in the GDP shares of public wage bills and budget deficits, are more frequent during booms and election years, but not during recessions, except for the 2009 exceptionally strong
The publicsector plays an important function of providing public goods and public services, maintaining public order. The publicsector human resources as the executer of duties and the critical factor in publicsector. Whether can take the effective management of human resources not only determine the efficiency and service quality of publicsector, but also impact on the economic
There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the publicsector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the publicsector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the publicsector. PMID:20637908
This paper employs a world society theoretical framework to examine the recent trend among foreign aid donors to focus on\\u000a security sectorreform as an aid priority. Through a comparative qualitative case study based on interview data collected\\u000a from aid officials and development workers in Canada, Sweden, and the United States (n?=?41) in 2006–2007, this paper finds that the extent
BackgroundPatients' and healthcare providers' satisfactions are important outcomes for any healthcare programmes. In Egypt, the Health SectorReform Program (HSRP) has been implemented since 1999 in primary healthcare (PHC) centres adopting the family health approach.ObjectivesTo assess the clients' satisfaction towards the overall health services provided by health centres affiliated to HSRP and to evaluate the satisfaction of healthcare providers, physicians,
M A Gadallah; M F Allam; A M A Ahmed; E M El-Shabrawy
ABSTRACT Controversies surrounding the behaviour of ministers and high profile leaders seem,to be commonplace,in public life. That there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of ethics is not surprising. The spotlight on ethics in the public domain,has been due in part to the crisis in confidence about government,and a lack of public trust in organisations. Furthermore, a
This work is a part of a project, which aims at studying the utilisation of dental care by young adults and the effects of subsidisation reform (SR) on it. SR was introduced in 1986 for the Finnish population born after 1960 and comprised a decrease of about 50% in the out-of-pocket price for dental care both in the public and
We develop a model of public-private hospital competition under regulated prices, recognizing that hospitals are multi-service firms and that equilibria depend on the interactions of patients, hospital administrators, and physicians. We then use data from China to calibrate a simulation model of the impact of China's recent payment and organizational reforms on cost, quality and access. Both the analytic and
It is important that a strategic planning approach be chosen that is compatible with the culture of Botswana. This choice will enhance the managerial effectiveness, productivity, and performance of publicsector organizations in Botswana. Western manageme...
Contents: The national programs; (The dominant model: The National Research Institutes, Evolution of resources allocated to agricultural research); Reflections on new contextual conditions of research in the publicsector; (Agricultural modernization and ...
Customer Relationship Management has been well discussed as a holistic concept for the private sector to start, maintain and optimize relationships to make customers more loyal\\/profitable - in sum to improve the relationship with the consumers. Many companies have invested into the customer driven CRM concept but research indicates varying outcomes. Recent publications, mainly driven by the private sector rather
We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the publicsector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee's work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers' need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that publicsector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of publicsector plans. PMID:21789032
Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C
The future of nonpublic safety, non-teacher, non-federal publicsector unions is bright. As a result of past success, the\\u000a unions, led by AFSCME, have an organizing culture and sufficient power within the sector to maintain and increase density.\\u000a However, the challenges that lie ahead in the 21st century will surely test the strength of AFSCME and the other public service
Lesotho has been implementing financial management reforms, including performance-based budgeting (PBB) since 2005 in an effort to increase accountability, transparency and effectiveness in governance, yet little is known about how these efforts are affecting the health sector. Supported by several development partners and $24 million in external resources, the PBB reform is intended to strengthen government capacity to manage aid funds directly and to target assistance to pressing social priorities. This study designed and tested a methodology for measuring implementation progress for PBB reform in the hospital sector in Lesotho. We found that despite some efforts on the national level to promote and support reform implementation, staff at the hospital level were largely unaware of the purpose of the reform and had made almost no progress in transforming institutions and systems to fully realize reform goals. Problems can be traced to a complex reform design, inadequate personnel and capacity to implement, professional boundaries between financial and clinical personnel and weak leadership. The Lesotho reform experience suggests that less complex designs for budget reform, better adapted to the context and realities of health sectors in developing countries, may be needed to improve governance. It also highlights the importance of measuring reform implementation at the sectoral level. PMID:23293099
It is not clear how policy-making in the field of reproductive health relates to changes associated with programmes for the reform of the health sector in developing countries. There has been little communication between these two areas, yet policy on reproductive health has to be implemented in the context of structural change. This paper examines factors that limit dialogue between the two areas and proposes the following framework for encouraging it: the identification of policy groups and the development of bases for collaborative links between them; the introduction of a common understanding around relevant policy contexts; reaching agreement on compatible aims relating to reproductive health and health sector change; developing causal links between policy content in reproductive health and health sector change as a basis for evidence-based policy-making; and strengthening policy-making structures, systems, skills, and values.
Lubben, Marianne; Mayhew, Susannah H.; Collins, Charles; Green, Andrew
This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became increasingly clear that governments would keep intervening in the market-place as competition forces alone could not bring the expected economic, technical and political benefits in a vital industry which continued to have particular technical and economic attributes as well as a strong capacity to influence other policy areas.
Purpose – The aim of this study is to investigate whether performance management practices affect performance in publicsector organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Theoretically, the research project is based on economic as well as behavioral theories. The study distinguishes amongst quantitative performance (efficiency, quantities produced) and qualitative performance (accuracy, quality, innovation and employee morale) and uses survey data from 93 public
|A model for monitoring the Web site development process in the publicsector is proposed and tested empirically with a sample of local government Web sites. Four factors in the matrix of the framework--publicity, local service, differentiation and participation--together with two dimensions of attracting and delivering were proved to be important…
|In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the publicsector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value…
Since New Labour came to power in the UK in 1997, there has been a drive to improve the effectiveness of public services through the use of private sector principles. From, the Modernising Government White Paper to the development of the Public Services Productivity Panel who, produced a raft of White Papers tackling health, social services, welfare and criminal justice.
The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in
In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the publicsector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…
Organizations need to establish effective IT governance practices in order to stay competitive. The aim of this research is to determine the extent of IT governance practices in Malaysian publicsector and to determine factors contributes towards IT governance practices. Questionnaire was constructed and distributed to IT management level personnel in public agencies in Klang Valley and Putrajaya. From the
IT as a part of the government's information technology plays an important role in order to improve the day-to-day operations as well as improving the quality of services provided to the public. In other words, government has recognized the importance of IT, therefore, several steps to adopt IT in the publicsector has been organized by government such as; provide
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to report the finding of an exploratory research project that considered how public service organizations may conquer the debilitating effects of enterprise dementia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Building on the seminal research of Michael Earl, this project sought to solicit the view from the front, which in this case are the middle managers of
Risk management programs for state mental health authorities are generally limited in scope and reactive in nature. Recent changes in how mental health care is provided render it necessary to redirect the risk management focus from its present institutional basis to a statewide, network-based paradigm that is integrated across public and private inpatient and community programs alike. These changes include
|Purpose: This paper aims to document women's reflections on their careers over a ten-year period to provide quantitative baseline data on which to frame follow-up in-depth interviews. The participants work in the public service in Queensland (Australia) and had been recommended for, and participated in, women in management (WIM) courses conducted…
In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in publicsector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the publicsector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the publicsector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among publicsector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems. PMID:20146770
van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian
|This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section examines extension as an engine for innovation and reviews the numerous priorities confronting extension systems. Section two highlights the current knowledge imperative and the critical connection of extension to post-secondary higher education and training, organizational…
The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated\\u000a markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state\\u000a and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border\\u000a contracts, financing challenges for generation
The Internships in Public Policy program, funded by the National Science Foundation and administered by the Massachusetts Internship Office, was a pilot project designed to test whether the emerging professional talents or graduate students in the social ...
\\u000a Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention\\u000a and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed\\u000a to policy areas with continuous online citizen-public interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised\\u000a version of
Helle Zinner Henriksen; Kim Normann Andersen; Rony Medaglia
There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This paper presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Several states have legal protections that effectively prevent a state…
|There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This paper presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Several states have legal protections that effectively prevent a state…
Contemporary public management reform takes place in a social and political context usually characterized as comprising falling trust in government, institutionally accentuated negativity bias and increased emphasis on fault-finding. Against that backdrop, some of the recurring themes of public management reform over recent decades, notably the doctrine of delegated management and arms- length regulation, arguably go with the political grain
Purpose – The paper discusses the balance between values and economic efficiency in the publicsector in comparison with the private sector. The argument is that the publicsector, hence the public welfare service institutions, can learn much from the private service sector, hence the private service firms with regard to the relation to values, ethics, corporate social responsibility (CSR)
China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization
Purpose – The purpose of the study is to identify factors impacting the effectiveness of internal audit services. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based upon a case study of a large publicsector higher educational institution in Ethiopia, the paper examines how internal audit quality, management support, organizational setting, auditee attributes, and the interplay among these factors, influence internal audit effectiveness. Findings –
This paper analysis the link between political strength and publicsector wages using a unique matched individual-employer data set for Norwegian local governments during the period 1990-1998. The results indicate that political strength, measured in several ways, has a positive effect on wages, while administrative strength, measured by the tenure of the chief executive, has a negative effect. The positive
|We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the publicsector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…
The management of human resources in the UK publicsector has been dramatically transformed in recent years. Discusses the major areas of change in relation to: generalist and specialist personnel roles; relationships between personnel professionals and line managers; and perceptions of personnel activities. Also examines the power ramifications of these changes. Posits that the changes which have occurred to personnel
In China and some other developing countries' public health sectors, many patients give their doctors a payment outside the official channel before a major treatment. This secret payment has been documented as informal payment in the literature. We argue that the fundamental cause for informal payments is that patients have more information about doctors' skill than the government does. The
We analyze several statistical assumptions used in empirical models on public–private sector wage structures. Based on data for Germany, which contain a large range of background variables usually not available in other studies, we investigate the sensitivity of results to various specification and identification assumptions. The standard switching regression model is extended to allow for endogeneity of education level, experience,
|In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in publicsector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…
|Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the publicsector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…
The authors use the government-commissioned Lyons review proposals for the relocation of approximately 20 000 publicsector jobs from London and the South East of England as a springboard for a historical analysis of civil service dispersal in Britain. Though civil service dispersal has helped ameliorate regional disparities, this has been a secondary objective of relocation programmes. The authors highlight
J Neill Marshall; Catherine Hodgson; David Bradley
The paper estimates publicsector wage differentials and their changes over time for men and women in the United Kingdom using panel data from the New Earnings Survey\\/Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings for the period 1975 to 2006. It presents estimates that are robust to unobserved workforce characteristics and that also show the impact of policy changes and cyclical
The problem and the solution. Learning culture is seen as a prerequisite for successful organizational change and innovation. Also, the individual is seen as the factor that differentiates profound innovation implementation from “busy work.” This study in the Malaysian publicsector found that although the learning culture of the organization has more to do with whether the innovation will be
Concerns exist that practical relevance is becoming devalued as accounting scholars respond to signals about what sort of research ‘counts’. We categorize publicsector management accounting papers in six leading journals according to two criteria: the practical orientation of the research objective(s), and whether the conclusions communicate issues of practical relevance. The findings reveal that most of the papers are
Presents, from a systemic perspective, an examination and discussion of performance measurement, performance indicators and associated improvement initiatives, as typically applied in publicsector organisations. Such mechanisms are usually implemented as a causal loop which is established between perceived performance and resulting actions, thereby constituting a form of feedback control. Within this context a two-dimensional matrix model is postulated in
Publicsector organisations worldwide are under pressure to increase efficiency while delivering improved and integrated services. Governments are promoting adoption of project-based management and use of formal project management methodologies developed in the context of essentially hard projects in industries where goals and methods are well defined. Problems in applying hard project management practice to the business of government and,
Lynn H Crawford; Kerry Costello; Julien Pollack; Lesley H Bentley
The 2008–2009 recession created major budgetary problems in US cities and states. Conservative Republicans who had triumphed in many state elections in 2010 introduced laws to weaken or eliminate publicsector bargaining on the grounds that it contributed to the deficits and hampered government responses to the crisis. Unions and their allies fought back in an effort to preserve collective
BACKGROUND: The lack of human resources for health (HRH) is increasingly being recognized as a major bottleneck to scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART), particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, whose societies and health systems are hardest hit by HIV\\/AIDS. In this case study of Swaziland, we describe the current HRH situation in the publicsector. We identify major factors that contribute to
The possible applicability of business process reengineering (BPR) to organisations in the publicsector is explored through analysis of the central issues in BPR and the emerging experience of organisations which have recently implemented it. In particular, the paper suggests that success of reengineering may depend critically on the strategic capability of the organisation prior to undertaking the effort. For
|According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring publicsector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…
Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.
Background Rates of suicidal ideation and behaviours as well as associated risk factors are examined among youth recruited from five publicsectors of care (i.e. child welfare, juvenile justice, special education services, alcohol and drug services, and county mental health). Method 1057 youth (ages 11–18) completed a diagnostic interview and questionnaires assessing relevant suicide risk factors at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Results While past year thoughts about death (28%) and talking about killing oneself (7.1%) were comparable to community norms, rates of lifetime suicide attempts (20.1%) were considerably higher in this sample. However, youth in the special education sector reported significantly more suicidal thoughts and behaviours relative to the other sectors. In multivariate analyses, longitudinal predictors of suicidality included major depression, female gender, and involvement in the special education sector. Conclusions Efforts to implement screening and evidence based interventions for depression and suicide in the publicsector, particularly special education services, are necessary.
We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance. The setting for the study is upper tier English local governments, and data
|We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…
China's healthcare system is experiencing significant growth from expanded government-backed insurance, greater public-sector spending on hospitals, and the introduction of private insurance and for-profit clinics. An incremental reform process has sought to develop market incentives for medical innovation and liberalize physician compensation and hospital finance while continuing to keep basic care affordable to a large population that pays for many components of care out-of-pocket. Additional changes presently under consideration by policymakers are likely to further restructure insurance and the delivery of care and will alter competitive dynamics in major healthcare industries, notably pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and diagnostic testing. This article describes the institutional history of China's healthcare system and identifies dilemmas emerging as the country negotiates divisions between public and private in healthcare. Building on this analysis, the article considers opportunities for public-private partnerships and greater systems integration to reconcile otherwise incommensurable approaches to rewarding innovation and improving access. The article concludes with observations on the public function of health insurance and its significance to further development of China's healthcare system. PMID:24052932
Publicsector organizations show distinct differences in structure, management, philosophy, and performance when compared to private sector organizations. In recent years, however, publicsector organizations have emerged as important income contributors and a potent technology source to developing countries through their active internalization efforts. Publicsector organizations have begun to enter and operate in international markets, due to the home-country
Resource-based views of the firm and in particular Kay's (Why Firms Succeed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995) model of sustainable competitive advantage have been used to advance an understanding of differences in the competitive advantage of private-sector firms. We extend the analysis to a public-sector firm where its major purpose includes engaging in public good by giving away its knowledge
The report discusses Kenya's recent growth and stabilization performance, how it was affected by the Central Government and the parastatal sector, and why comprehensive civil service and parastatal reforms are urgently needed. Although economic growth has...
In both Switzerland and Germany, necessary reforms in vocational education have been taking place for the past few years. By taking a closer look at the commerce sectors of both countries and their reforms, one can better compare their systems of apprenticeship. While the necessity for change in the commercial sector was similar in both countries,…
Publicsector spending on health care clearly has a positive economic impact on local communities. Not only does such spending provide residents with better health care, but it is widely recognized as an investment that returns continual dividends in the form of better jobs, higher incomes, and additional state and local tax revenues. The results of a static input/output model shows that publicsector spending on health care of approximately $46 billion (in 2009 dollars) in the state of Texas yields over 588,000 jobs, $74.2 billion in total output, $26.3 billion in personal income, $22 billion in employee compensation, and $1.8 billion in state and local taxes; it clearly has a considerable positive economic impact on local economies and their quest for economic development. PMID:22106548
This paper aims at presenting a comparative study of the impact of different national and institutional contexts on the diverging development of accounting reforms in Belgian local governments. On the one hand, the objectives and the framework of current governmental accounting reforms aiming at improving New Public Management are currently converging. On the other hand, a conceptual examination reveals that
This study reports on the results of an intensive year-long training pro - gram that was designed to help an American publicsector organization become a learning organization. The program required managers to attend a day-long seminar each month for a year , par ticipate actively in class, complete out-of-class assign- ments, interact with colleagues (acr oss functions and levels)
Prashanth Nagendra Bharadwaj; A. Amin Mohamed; Thomas W. Falcone
Entrepreneurship has been conceptualized as a process that can occur in organizations of all sizes and types (Burgelman, Academy of Management Review, 8, 32–47, 1983; Miller, Management Science, 29, 770–791, 1983; Gartner, Academy of Management Review, 10, 696–706, 1985; Kao, Entrepreneurship, creativity and organization, 1989). This paper develops a conceptual model of publicsector corporate entrepreneurship. The proposed model is
Even if they are confident that prosperity lies just over the horizon, politicians who embark on promarket reforms know they are in for some stormy weather. How will they fare in voters' eyes once the pain is felt? Will voters inevitably turn against politicians who impose painful measures without an electoral mandate to do so? The story of economic reform
The Chicago School Reform Act provided a rare opportunity for those who were involved in the development of the legislation to be primarily responsible for the initial implementation of the plan. The governance model of the Reform Act, which is the subject of this study, provided for an elected school counsel at each of 542 schools and maintained…
Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed.
This article analyzes if, and to what extent, the public service motivation (PSM) construct has an added value to explain work motivation in the publicsector. In order to address the specificity of PSM when studying work motivation, the theoretical model underlying this empirical study compares PSM with two other explanatory factors: material incentives, such as performance-related pay, and team
Simon Anderfuhren-Biget; Frédéric Varone; David Giauque; Adrian Ritz
The clients of publicsector works have an obligation to ensure that the large scale investment in public works is effective and can achieve improvement in social and economic performance. However, construction activity is usually subject to more risk than other business activities because of its complexity particularly in coordinating a wide range of disparate and interrelated skills and activities.
Because the subject involves both politics and money, campaign finance reform can be contentious as well as complex. Congress has considered legislation for public financing of congressional elections nearly every session since 1956, although no law has b...
This article examines the reasons that it is likely that the 102nd Congress will pass legislation that will reform the Public Utilities Holding Company Act of 1935. The impetus provided by the Persian Gulf War, public opinion, the National Energy Plan and the National Independent Energy Producers (NIEP) is examined. Several proposals of the NIEP to guard against market abuses in the reforms are presented.
Welford, W.H. (Olwine, Connelly, Chase, O'Donnell and Weyher, Washington, DC (United States)); Elston, P.J. (Long Lake Energy Corp., New York, NY (United States))
This paper evaluates Chinese public health insurance reform enforced since 1998 in terms of its welfare effects. We evaluate\\u000a China health insurance reform since 1998 using the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) data with relevant econometric\\u000a models. The results of empirical studies show that the public health insurance status has significant impact on medical service\\u000a utilization and expenditure. The
|In 1992, Congress enacted the HOPE VI program to overhaul the nation's public housing policy. The reform legislation was prompted by a report commissioned by Congress that deemed two-thirds of all public housing "severely distressed." Since the landmark public housing policy was enacted in 1992, the Department of Housing and Urban Development…
This article evaluates the Brown-effect ‘real’ and ‘potential’ on public services production in the UK. It is observed, rather unsurprisingly, that Gordon Brown's approach to public services reform is a logical extension of the New Labour modernisation project and represents the extension of new public management (NPM) methods articulated in the populist rhetoric of ‘choice’, ‘personalisation’ and ‘user’ engagement. It
In response to the perceived failure of both the state and market models of service delivery, governments have embarked on a reform program that draws on the community sector to expand the suite of available policy and service delivery arrangements. This paper explores and identifies the nature of changed relationships between government and the community sector. It uses a case
BACKGROUND: In the United States, there is an uneasy division of responsibility for financing mental health care. For most illnesses, employer-sponsored health insurance and the large federal health insurance programs (Medicare, Medicaid) cover the costs of care. However, most employer-sponsored plans and Medicare provide only limited coverage for treatment of mental illness. A possible cause and result of this limited coverage in mental health is that states, and in some cases local (county) governments, finance a separate system of mental health care. This separate "public mental health system" provides a "safety net" of care for indigent individuals needing mental health care. However, there are potential negative consequences of maintaining separate systems. Continuity of treatment between systems may be impaired, and costs may be higher due to duplicate administrative costs. Maintaining a separate system managed by government may exacerbate the stigma associated with mental illness treatment. Most significantly, since eligibility for care may be linked to poverty status, and since having a serious mental illness may preclude regaining private coverage, maintaining a separate system may contribute to the poverty rate among persons with mental illnesses. AIMS OF THE PAPER: These potential problems have not been widely considered, perhaps because other problems and controversies in mental health care have captured our attention. In particular, controversies over deinstitutionalization in mental health have dominated the policy debate, especially when linked to related problems. These have included conflicts over authority and financial responsibility among federal, state and local governments, sensationalized media coverage of incidents involving people with mental illness, problems with siting community facilities, concern about mental illness among prisoners and the like. However, with the substantial reform of public mental health care in some states and localities, it is now possible to consider the implications of public and private integration. This paper considers such an approach. METHODS: This paper addresses the question of public and private integration, considering the state of Ohio as a case study. Ohio is a large state (population 11.2 million) and shares demographic, cultural and political characteristics with many other states. Ohio's successful experience implementing community mental health reform makes it a good candidate to use in evaluating issues in the potential integration of insurance-paid and public mental health care. RESULTS: The analysis indicates that the resources now used in Ohio's public system may be sufficient to support insurance financing of inpatient and ambulatory mental health treatment (the types of health care usually paid by insurance) while maintaining supportive services (e.g. housing, crisis care) as a residual safety net. DISCUSSION: At the current time, these resources are in state and local mental health budgets, and in the Medicaid program that finances health care for low income and disabled individuals. The analysis indicates that the aggregate level of resources expended on inpatient and ambulatory mental health treatment are substantially greater than expenditures for such care in an insurance plan for Ohio State employees. A substantial limitation of the analysis is that it is not possible to compare the need for care in a relatively healthy employed population versus a poor and disabled population. CONCLUSION: The paper concludes that there are substantial structural, economic and social problems associated with the "two-tiered" system of commercial/employer-paid insurance and public mental health care in the United States. Examining data from one state's public system, the paper further concludes that it might be feasible to finance a single system of acute and ambulatory mental health benefits, if public resources were redeployed and private contributions were continued. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND RESEARCH: Given the substantial pr
This research article discusses quality of faculty in publicsector universities of Pakistan. All the teachers of publicsector universities of Pakistan constituted the population. From the cluster of twelve publicsector universities, 300 teachers were selected as a sample. A questionnaire for faculty members was administered at 5-point rating scale in order to collect their views about the quality
Sajid Rehman; Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar; Shafqat Ali Khan; Javed Iqbal
In many emerging economies such as Brazil, pension programs of publicsector workers are more generous than pension programs of private sector workers. The opportunity costs of running generous public pension schemes for civil servants are potentially large in emerging economies that often suffer from low public investments in education and infrastructure. In this paper, we develop a two-sector dynamic
Gerhard Glomm; Juergen Jung; Changmin Lee; Chung Tran
Abstract The current Labour Government has embarked on radical publicsectorreform in England. A so-called ‘Modernisation Agenda’ has been developed that is encapsulated in the NHS Plan—a document that details a long-term vision for health care. This plan involves a five-fold strategy: investment through greater public funding; quality assurance; improving access; service integration and inter-professional working; and providing a public health focus. The principles of Labour's vision have been broadly supported. However, achieving its aims appears reliant on two key factors. First, appropriate resources are required to create capacity, particularly management capacity, to enable new functions to develop. Second, promoting access and service integration requires the development of significant co-ordination, collaboration and networking between agencies and individuals. This is particularly important for health and social care professionals. Their historically separate professions suggest that a significant period of change management is required to allow new roles and partnerships to evolve. In an attempt to secure delivery of its goals, however, the Government has placed the emphasis on further organisational restructuring. In doing so, the Government may have missed the key challenges faced in delivering its NHS Plan. As this paper argues, cultural and behavioural change is probably a far more appropriate and important requirement for success than a centrally directed approach that emphasises the rearrangement of structural furniture.
Public opinion played a prominent role during the recent health care reform debate. Critics of reform pointed to poll results as evidence that a majority of Americans opposed sweeping changes. Supporters cited polls showing that people favored many specific aspects of the legislation. A closer examination of past and present polling shows that opinion tracked with historic patterns and was relatively stable, even if the contentious public debate suggested a volatile public mood in 2009 and 2010. Going forward, the public will begin reacting to reform implementation, primarily by judging it in terms of their perceptions of and experiences with what the new law does and does not do for people. These opinions could in turn influence implementation or future legislation. PMID:20530341
Brodie, Mollyann; Altman, Drew; Deane, Claudia; Buscho, Sasha; Hamel, Elizabeth
This study compared health-seeking behaviour between poor and better-off people after health sectorreform in Cambodia. The survey was conducted in the Prek Dach Health Centre coverage area, which is located in South-east Cambodia. The study population consisted of 257 housewives of reproductive age, selected at random. Data were collected through household surveys with a structured questionnaire. Data collected included
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of socio-economic characteristics on out-of pocket expenditures for prescribed medications in Tajikistan and provide recommendations for healthcare sectorreform. The research question in this paper is: what household, personal, economic, and health factors help explain expenditures on medications? From a theoretical perspective, this paper contributes to the on-going
For the time being, public management reform represents the concern of most states, no matter their development level, geographical and strategic position, membership to various supranational structures or political and social organisation systems. This process represents the topic of several papers and publications of outstanding international scientists or specialized structures of international organizations, such as OECD. In the EU Member
This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…
How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the publicsector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms. PMID:23161587
Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M
Purpose – Practice demonstrates and research validates that entrepreneurship is moving from the individual to the organization and from the private sector to the social and not-for-profit sectors. The present study endeavors to complement the emerging public entrepreneurship literature by aiming to identify which of those factors that stimulate corporate entrepreneurship in the publicsector are preferred by entrepreneurial civil
In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then
This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public management for…
|This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public management for…
We attempt to quantify economic reforms process in India during the period 1960 – 2006 in seven key areas viz., international finance, domestic finance, fiscal, trade and commerce, business regulations, publicsector and social sector. Apart from aggregate measure of economic reforms, we also present the reforms index in these seven areas for the period 1960 – 2006. We begin
The Swedish central government has implemented a radical market-oriented reform of its real estate management. Authorities are free to rent premises from private firms, and stateowned properties have been allocated to a number of entities that lease their properties to authorities on conditions similar to those on the open market. The background and experience from these reforms are described in
The publicsectors in many developing countries have undergone major restructuring over the past decades. Earlier research suggests that such restructuring is inherently linked to feelings of ambiguity and insecurity among employees, undermining behavioral support for change, and thus, chances of change success. Using survey data from a restructured publicsector organization in Pakistan, this study investigated the mediating role
Stephan Baraldi; Hina Jawaid Kalyal; Erik Berntson; Katharina Näswall; Magnus Sverke
Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at publicsector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market-type mechanisms, to be effective in the publicsector context, the required cultural changes and appropriate implementing mechanisms must be provided for in the policy design.
|Within and beyond Africa, it is the publicsector much more than the private sector that is the scene of strikes and other forms of disorder, conflict and difficulty. Yet the private sector can be much affected by the public problems. Effects may be simultaneously positive for the private sector and deleterious for the publicsector. Although a…
Public policy students were surveyed four times from 1998- 2000 (n=126, 104, 95, 92). Results reveal that many begin with uncertain goals and ambivalence about publicsector work. Interest declined and the curriculum did little to promote the publicsector. Many anticipated fluid careers and chose positions that offer growth more commonly…
Purpose – This paper seeks to explore sources of political and administrative challenges which arise from an absence of alignment of supply chains linking the activities of public agencies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The performance measurement challenges created by an apparent absence of alignment within publicsector supply chains are explored from a conceptual perspective, through the supply chain and publicsector
In the Netherlands, as in many other western countries, the growth of the welfare state has led to a considerable expansion of the publicsector. The present economic crisis, however, puts publicsector organizations in a problematic situation. The crisis, though, is not only a financial one. Publicsector organizations also constantly demonstrate signs of uncontrollability. The publicsector seems
In this paper, we investigate pay structures in the private and publicsectors for West Germany. We commence by describing some basic features of the publicsector. We use micro-data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the years 1984-93 to analyse developments and differences in public and private sector wage distributions for both males and females. We break wages down
This paper presents a study of customer-oriented service in the publicsector. In response to the increasing demands of customers, many public agencies have taken up specific approaches from the private sector—such as total quality management—to enhance service quality and performance in the publicsector. Although these approaches have been popular in manufacturing industry for several decades, the suitability of
A cooperation programme launched in 1999 by the Chilean Health Department and the French National College of Public Health (ENSP France) has now been running for four years. Its aim was to create and validate a national scheme for manager and executive training within the Chilean public hospital systems. Developed in partnership with the Public Health National College of Rio de Janeiro (Fondation Oswaldo Cruz) with whom ENSP France has teamed up for 10 years, this cooperation was designed by the Chilean partner as a contribution to the definition and implementation of a national policy on Human Resources which might follow the vast reform of the health system currently underway in the country. The scheme which gained international support is backed by a network of 5 universities (7 in 2004) associated with the Chilean Health Department, in a joint national development project for in-house management training for the management teams already in office. More than 100 manager and senior executives et 150 intermediate executives were thus trained between 2000 and 2003. The present scheme est presently being modified to meet new challenges arising from the need to support important changes occurring in the management of Chilean public hospitals, to give them more independence, while encouraging a network of all carers. The ENSP input concerns a line of transfer of competence in training and teaching engineering for all the Chilean partners involved. A module on know-how development support in 'remote control' open training engineering was added in 2002, resulting in the French ENSP concluding a collaboration agreement with the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (France). Moreover, support for implementing an accreditation scheme for management training for the Chilean health sector is under way, linking both French and Brazilian ENSP. Designed from the start on a regional South Cone/Brazil basis, a new expansion phase will be added to this international programme in 2004 (as regards principles and methods) through a Chilean/French cooperation towards Paraguay. PMID:14963889
AbstractDuring the last few decades significant changes have affected Chinese public finance. In 1994, a major tax reform was undertaken and centrallocal sharing arrangements were deeply modified; the evolutions of regional public expenditure in the years following the reform deserve to be analysed. The issue is relevant for two additional reasons. First, income inequality is becoming a relevant issue and
Under New Zealand's radical state sectorreforms, 'empowered' managers are held accountable in an arm's length way by politicians and control agencies through the use of clearly stated objectives and the availability of quality information about progress towards those objectives. However, empirical research indicates that this thermostatic metaphor embodies a number of paradoxes. A great deal of international attention has
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This study identifies the environmental and personal characteristics that predict employee outcomes within an Australian publicsector organization that had, under New Public Management (NPM), implemented a variety of practices traditionally found in the private sector. These are more results-oriented, and their adoption can be accompanied by increased strain for employees. The current investigation was guided by two complementary theories,
Reform of the oil sector is long overdue. The problems in the sector emanate from the structure of central taxes and the system of subsidisation through prices. Solutions to the problems necessarily have to address both tax and subsidy simultaneously. The social losses include, misuse \\/ wasteful use of scarce petroleum resources, diversion, adulteration, other avoidable negative externalities, improper substitution
Sebastian Morris; Jayanth R. Varma; Samir K. Barua
Despite 33 years of equal pay legislation, the gender pay gap remains stubbornly high. Multiple equal pay claims in the publicsector have forcefully exposed the weaknesses, both of the Equal Pay Act and of the complaints-led model of enforcement on which it is based. This article argues that the equal pay apparatus is in need of radical reform. Single
This article focuses on the ways in which opinion polls in Iran were conducted during the ‘reform’ in Iran (1997–2005). Instead of highlighting the various ways in which polls strategically manipulate, persuade or represent ‘the people’, the article shows how the specific modes of interpretation of polls enable different kinds of publics. Drawing on the case of the Ayandeh Polling
Given the prevalence of abuse and neglect in nursing home care delivery vis-à-vis elderly and frail residents, and despite the advent and implementation of the Nursing Home Reform Act of 1987 (a policy that sought to diminish such conduct in such institutional settings), deficiency citations in nursing home care and services remain both problematic and common. By employing public policy
Gerald-Mark Breen; Jonathan Matusitz; Thomas T. H. Wan
|This paper studies the accounting system reform practised in Greek universities since January 2000, and more particularly at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). It specifically examines the allocation of resources to faculties by university management based on certain criteria. The AUTH is the largest public university in Greece and…
The papers presented at a conference sponsored by the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research are published in this volume. An analysis of proposals for industry reform and reorganization of the pipeline industry is presented. Topics covered include: the case for divestiture; the pipeline undersizing argument and the record of access and expansion in the oil pipeline industry; the
Purpose – In an attempt to promote efficiency, effectiveness and economy in health service production, the Greek government imposed in 2003 an accrual basis financial and cost accounting system in all public hospitals of the National Health System (NHS). The purpose of this study is not to investigate thoroughly the accounting reform implementation and adoption in specific organizations, but rather
This paper addresses the role of serving the public interest and how that relates to education. The document provides specific examples of how education reform efforts in Massachusetts often were couched in such vague terms as to be ineffective in establishing educational standards. The paper discusses how politics influences educational policy…
The Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993 created a number of important changes in public education. In the area of local governance, the act was guided by a corporate model in which authority and responsibilities were reallocated among school committees, superintendents, principals, and newly created school councils. School committees in particular assumed a policymaking role, and superintendents became the chief
The Francis W. Parker Charter Essential School was formed in response to the Massachusetts Education Reform Act of 1993, which established 25 charter schools that were fully public in both funding and access. Its goals are influenced by Theodore Sizer's Coalition of Essential Schools. Initially, 120 students, 12 to 14 years old, attended. Five…
Recent concerns over the efficacy of vouchers arise largely from a failure to distinguish between different types of school choice efforts: targeted vouchers, aimed at rescuing children from failing schools, and universal vouchers, aimed at systemic reform of the public school system. It is unreasonable to expect a targeted voucher program to produce the results expected from large universal vouchers.
The top down public agricultural extension system in China and its early reforms during the 1990’s has left millions of farmers without access to extension services. An inclusive agricultural extension system was introduced in 2005 to better meet the diverse technology needs of small farmers. Three key features of the experiment are 1) inclusion of all farmers as target beneficiaries,
Ruifa Hu; Yaqing Cai; Kevin Z. Chen; Ynogwei Cui; Jikun Huang
This paper uses county-level data from California to test whether ethnic fragmentation and other measures of diversity and social capital are systematically related to spending on productive local public goods that affect rural quality of life. The specific focus of this paper is the impact of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986, which brought about 400,000 new
This paper draws on the experience of China to show that improved enterprise performance can be achieved without privatization. Export expansion is used as an indicator of increased economic efficiency. China has reformed its traditional state?owned enterprises by the use of management contract systems, expanding enterprise autonomy and increasing retained profits. Township and village enterprises, which are public enterprises under
The paper argues that a comprehensive evaluation of education reform in particular in developing countries needs considering the triangle’ quality-quantity-equity of educational policies in the short, medium and long term in a broader context than the education system itself. There is no simple “recipe” for improving quality and internal and external efficiency in the public education system but some general
During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.
Objective To examine the extent to which the justice of decision?making procedures and interpersonal relationships is associated with smoking. Setting 10 municipalities and 21 hospitals in Finland. Design and participants Cross?sectional data derived from the Finnish PublicSector Study were analysed with logistic regression analysis models with generalised estimating equations. Analyses of smoking status were based on data provided by 34?021 employees. Separate models for heavy smoking (?20 cigarettes/day) were calculated for 6295 current smokers. Results After adjustment for age, education, socioeconomic position, marital status, job contract and negative affectivity, smokers who reported low procedural justice were about 1.4 times more likely to smoke ?20 cigarettes/day compared with their counterparts who reported high levels of justice. In a similar way, after adjustments, low levels of justice in interpersonal treatment was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of heavy smoking (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.77 for men and OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.83 for women). Further adjustment for job strain and effort–reward imbalance had little effect on these results. No associations were observed between justice components and smoking status or ex?smoking. Conclusions The extent to which employees are treated with justice in the workplace seems to be associated with smoking intensity independently of established stressors at work.
Kouvonen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Cox, Sara J; Cox, Tom; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimaki, Mika
This contribution is highlighted the quite striking paradox between the dominant discourse over the last twenty years or so, calling on the State to reduce its role, and the stability or even inertia of the major macroeconomic aggregates (public spending to GDP, tax burden), the permanent budget deficits and the increase in public debt. Globalisation has not neutralised French budget
Structure of power sector all-round the world is changing from regulated to deregulated environment to enhance the technical efficiency and financial viability through private sector participation thereby increasing competition. Asian developing countries are also motivated by the restructuring process and India is no exception to it. The Indian power sector has undergone significant changes since 1990 by opening gateway for
In 2000, South Africa implemented a levy-grant policy (Skills Development Levies Act, 1999) to give an incentive for workplace training across private and publicsector workplaces alike, but the impact of the levy-grant scheme in the publicsector was restricted by financial and management processes unique to that environment. This article shows…
At present, there is some problem, For example, human resources management concept is out in Chinese publicsector, evaluation and incentive mechanism is not perfect, human resource management strategic planning. We should promote the publicsector human resource management development under four main heads: focusing on modernizing human resources management concepts, creating human resource management excitation mechanism, establishing and improve
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how negotiations between the constituencies affect the processes and outcomes of lean projects in Danish publicsector organisations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative analysis of interviews with managers and employees who have participated in lean projects in the Danish publicsector. Negotiated order theory serves as
The paper compares private and publicsector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public information effo...
This handbook is intended to assist trainers, design specialists, training managers, technical trainers, and other members of the publicsector who conduct training on an occasional basis. The following topics are covered: understanding human resource development (HRD) and its role in the publicsector--expanding the scope and significance of HRD…
The literature on coproduction in the publicsector generally pays as much attention to clients as it does to other types of coproducers, such as citizens or volunteers. But the question of what influences clients to coproduce attracts relatively less attention. This article offers a conceptualization of the factors inducing client coproduction, drawing on evidence from four Australian public-sector case
Following four decades of economic growth the publicsector, Oman is experiencing an emerging problem of labor turnover to the private sector. We examine this phenomenon through semi-structured interviews with 26 current and former public employees. The rate of turnover is low but this masks the impact of losses on key technical and management roles. The main reasons for turnover
In the past two decades, the publicsector both in Australia and overseas has undergone a period of intense change. The focus has been on efficiency, effectiveness and value for money of publicsector operations. The methods by which governments account and report on their operations has received scrutiny. While Treasuries and Departments of Finance in each Australian jurisdiction have
The publicsector provides rewarding career opportunities for professional toxicologists. Publicsector toxicologists evaluate diverse data on chemicals, assess the risks for exposed populations and assist in the articulation of policies for management of those risks. The latter aspects require extensive experience in the regulatory field, awareness of national\\/international policies and developments, and ability to communicate risk to politicians and
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the outsourcing process in the publicsector, determine the effective factors involved in this process and their priorities. The aim is to develop a generic conceptual model for the outsourcing process in publicsectors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is based on the results of literature review and conducting binominal and
Ali Rajabzadeh; Ali Asghar Anvary Rostamy; Ali Hosseini
|This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…
Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond
This paper discusses the extent to which civil society contributes to strengthening publicsector accountability in Morocco. The main argument in this paper is that despite a few recent encouraging examples, civil society's role in strengthening publicsector accountability remains limited at both the national and local levels. This is due to three main reasons. The first relates to certain
The use of ICTs in the publicsector has long been touted for its potential to transformthe institutionsthat governand pro- vide social services. The focus, however,haslargelybeen on systems that are used within particular scales of the publicsector, such as at the scale of state or national government, the scale of regional or municipal entity, or at the scale of
BACKGROUND: Kenya, like many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has been affected by shortages of health workers in the publicsector. Data on the rates and leading reasons for health workers attrition in the publicsector are key in developing effective, evidence-based planning and policy on human resources for health. METHODS: This study analysed data from a human resources health
In a time of health care reform and rapid change, nurse executives need effective leadership skills to be able to respond to a challenging environment, provide quality cost-effective care and promote the professional development of nursing. This research aimed to provide an understanding of nursing executives' roles and professional development needs and obtain concise information for the development of strategies
Mary Courtney; Jane Yacopetti; Catherine James; Anne Walsh
It is common wisdom that publicsector wages are not determined in the same way as private sector wages. At the same time,\\u000a the empirical evidence available for OECD countries finds a strong positive correlation between public and private sector\\u000a wages. In this paper, we develop a model that is consistent with a political economy view of the determination of
Gonzalo Fernández-de-Córdoba; Javier J. Pérez; José L. Torres
Private sector lays a strong emphasis on acquiring knowledge, because in today’s world, it is knowledge that is the primary\\u000a source of sustained profitability. Publicsector organizations also need to be learning organizations. However, they are constrained\\u000a by a number of factors. This paper discusses different models for knowledge sharing, but finds them inadequate for the public\\u000a sector. It then
Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) are examined with a focus on the economic bases and implications of retail sales by electric and natural gas utilities. Title I outlines the requirements and procedures for setting retail electricity rates. Six ratemaking standards and the various arguments in favor of rate reform are examined. Rate issues are traditionally argued at the state level, but PURPA directs the states to examine federal standards and ratemaking issues in terms of cost-effectiveness. The legislative history of the Act and the major compromises made are described. The states that have been reluctant to consider rate reforms may be encouraged to adopt cost-effectiveness criteria sooner, while the more-progressive states may find the legislation has slowed the process. If state commissions fail to serve national goals in their rate reform, the Federal government can assume a retail ratemaking role for the interstate market. (DCK)
Pension systems are an essential feature of all developed countries. Most citizens either contribute to finance them or draw benefits from them: individuals' plans and decisions are influenced by social security rules over a large part of their lifetime. Pension systems absorb sizeable public resources, influence the labour and capital market, and largely affect income distribution both within and across
Social democratic governments in Australia and New Zealand adopted policies of radical free-market reform, including financial deregulation, privatization, and public-sectorreform in the 1980s. Because of the absence of institutional obstacles to government action, reform was faster and more comprehensive in New Zealand than in Australia. The New Zealand reforms were associated with increasing inequality and generally poor economic outcomes.
The objectives of the evaluation, specified in the Statement of Work are the following: (1) Evaluate recent progress in the design and implementation of the reforms and point out the key problems of the Dominican health system, placing special emphasis on...
|In this article, we analyse the effects of teaching reforms in Italy. These were introduced in 1999, and changed the entire organization of university courses, where the Bachelor-Master (BA-MA) structure was adopted. The first step is to define the production process of higher education (HE). This process consists of several inputs (professors,…
This article examines the experiences of private, nonprofit social service agencies and their role in the “social safety net” following the 1996 welfare reforms. Among other concerns, the research suggests that declining welfare rolls are not indicative of widespread poverty reduction and increased self-sufficiency, as many nonprofits, especially those providing emergency food and shelter services, have experienced increasing demands during
The case in Mexico City offered an opportunity to observe the advantages, and disadvantages of gradualist reform. Unfortunately, the authors find that the long-term nature of an incremental approach does not match well with the generally shorter-term horizons of elected politicians. Difficult decisions in implementation are left to later years, which pushes potentially unpopular actions onto the shoulders of future
This paper attempts to analyze the impacts of the ‘fast track’ land reform policy on maize production in Zimbabwe through the construction of a partial equilibrium model that depicts what could have happened if no further policy shifts had taken place after 2000. The resimulated baseline model was used to make projections based on the various trends of exogenous variables
|Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…
Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill
It has become common place for governments to initiate electronic-government projects in order to reformpublic administration. This paper seeks to explore the ways in which an e-government project, as a potential mode of reformation, is established and made to work, and then, further, to account for some of its consequences for conventional public administration. To do so we draw
The environmental performance evaluation (EPE) of organizations is becoming an autonomous management tool. The main goal of this research was to assess the state of EPE practice in the Portuguese defence sector, as a particular part of public services. A questionnaire survey was conducted involving all Portuguese military units that have a person in charge of environmental issues. The questionnaire
Tomás B. Ramos; Inês Alves; Rui Subtil; João Joanaz de Melo
|The further education (FE) sector employs a high proportion of women yet relatively few women progress into leadership positions. The article seeks to provide explanations for this gender imbalance and argues that despite change and modernization initiatives, the further education sector remains gendered in many aspects of leadership, governance…
The implementation of welfare reform in the United States provides another opportunity to assess the relationship between nonprofits and public social service agencies. The pri- mary goal of this analysis is to identify the major forces affecting the county social ser- vices agencies as they sought to implement welfare reform and how these forces can affect the agency's relationship with
This paper uses a difference-in-difference style estimation strategy to test separately the impact of competition from publicsector and private sector hospitals on the efficiency of public hospitals. Our identification strategy takes advantage of the phased introduction of a recent set of substantive reforms introduced in the English NHS from 2006 onwards. These reforms forced publicsector health care providers
Zack Cooper; Stephen Gibbons; Simon Jones; Alistair McGuire
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the dilemma that exists between the aims of publicsectorreforms and the ways organisations adjust to the management control reforms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To study the research purpose, empirical data were collected from Norwegian Regional Hospital Enterprises. The aim was to describe how these institutions have chosen to implement formal
Kari Nyland; Inger Johanne Pettersen; Katarina Östergren
This article seeks to discuss who the policy entrepreneurs are and who participates in the policy-making process of public management reforms at the local level. In order to answer the research questions, a multi-unit and multi-case research study was carried out in three municipal governments: Barcelona, Boston and Turin. The subjects of the study were 15 innovations in management implemented
The top-down public agricultural extension system in China and its early commercialization reforms during the 1990s have left millions of farmers without access to extension services. A pilot inclusive agricultural extension system was introduced in 2005 to better meet the diverse needs of small-scale farmers. Three key features of the experiment are (1) inclusion of all farmers as target beneficiaries,
Ruifa Hu; Yaqing Cai; Kevin Z. Chen; Yongwei Cui; Jikun Huang
August 2001In the early 1990s Mexico City?s Federal District (the D.F.) initiated a series of service contracts with four operators in the private sector?each to be implemented in three stages over ten years. The idea was to introduce competitive pressures and to find out if a ?gradualist? approach would reduce social and political opposition to private sector involvement and would
Traces the history of discrimination against Hispanics in the publicsector work force, drawing examples from large public agencies of Los Angeles (California) and other state and national public work forces. Hispanics must overturn the destructive strategies and policies so effectively used by the power elite. (SLD)
Recently, well-publicized reports by Public Citizen and the Joint Economic Committee (JEC) of the US Congress questioned the role of the drug industry in the discovery and development of therapeutically important drugs. To gain a better understanding of the relative roles of the public and private sectors in pharmaceutic innovation, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development evaluated the underlying National Institutes of Health (NIH) and academic research cited in the Public Citizen and JEC reports and performed its own assessment of the relationship between the private and publicsectors in drug discovery and development of 21 "impact" drugs. We found that, ultimately, any attempt to measure the relative contribution of the public and private sectors to the research and development (R&D) of therapeutically important drugs by output alone, such as counting publications or even product approvals, is flawed. Several key factors (eg, degree of uncertainty, expected market value, potential social benefit) affect investment decisions and determine whether public or private sector funds, or both, are most appropriate. Because of the competitiveness and complexity of today's R&D environment, both sectors are increasingly challenged to show returns on their investment and the traditional boundaries separating the roles of the private and public research spheres have become increasingly blurred. What remains clear, however, is that the process still starts with good science and ends with good medicine. PMID:12424516
The last years have experienced a dramatic increase in oil prices together with growing concern about the consequences of carbon emissions from fossil fuels in the transport sector. Interest in producing biofuels from agricultural crops has arisen at worldwide level because they are an inexhaustible energy source and they could have a positive impact on reducing CO2 emissions. While biofuels
Valeria Costantini; Francesco Crespi; Annalisa Zezza
PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HEALTH REFORM: Findings from the 2009 Health Confidence Survey--the 12th annual HCS--indicate that Americans have already formed strong opinions regarding various aspects of health reform, even before details have been released regarding various key factors. These issues include health insurance market reform, the availability of a public plan option, mandates on employers and individuals, subsidized coverage for the low-income population, changes to the tax treatment of job-based health benefits, and regulatory oversight of health care. These opinions may change as details surface, especially as they concern financing options. In the absence of such details, the 2009 HCS finds generally strong support for the concepts of health reform options that are currently on the table. U.S. HEALTH SYSTEM GETS POOR MARKS, BUT SO DOES A MAJOR OVERHAUL: A majority rate the nation's health care system as fair (30 percent) or poor (29 percent). Only a small minority rate it excellent (6 percent) or very good (10 percent). While 14 percent of Americans think the health care system needs a major overhaul, 51 percent agree with the statement "there are some good things about our health care system, but major changes are needed." NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN ELEMENTS RATED HIGHLY: Between 68 percent and 88 percent of Americans either strongly or somewhat support health reform ideas such as national health plans, a public plan option, guaranteed issue, expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, and employer and individual mandates. MIXED REACTION TO HEALTH BENEFITS TAX CAP: Reaction to capping the current tax exclusion of employment-based health benefits is mixed. Nearly one-half of Americans (47 percent) would switch to a lower-cost plan if the tax exclusion were capped, 38 percent would stay on their current plan and pay the additional taxes, and 9 percent don't know. CONTINUED FAITH IN EMPLOYMENT-BASED BENEFITS, BUT DOUBTS ON AFFORDABILITY: Individuals with employment-based health benefits are confident that employers will continue to offer such benefits. They are much less confident that they would be able to afford coverage on their own, even if employers gave them the money they currently spend on health benefits. However, were employers to stop offering coverage, respondents report that they are likely to purchase it on their own. RISING HEALTH COSTS HURTING FAMILY FINANCES: Those experiencing health cost increases tend to say these increases have negatively affected their household finances. In particular, they indicate that increased health care costs have resulted in a decrease in contributions to a retirement plan (32 percent) and other savings (53 percent) and in difficulty paying for basic necessities (29 percent) and other bills (37 percent). COSTS ALSO AFFECTING HEALTH CARE USE: Many consumers report they are changing the way they use the health care system in response to rising health care costs. Roughly 80 percent of those with higher out-of-pocket expenses say these increased costs have led them to try to take better care of themselves and choose generic drugs more often. One-quarter also say they did not fill or skipped does of their prescribed medications in response to increased costs. PMID:19580218
In attempting to reformpublic services, governments worldwide have sought to effect change through policies aimed at both transforming structures of public-service provision and facilitating the agency of public servants working within these. Various obstacles have been found, however, to impede the effectiveness of such efforts. In this article, the authors examine the role of organizational networks and distributed leadership—two
The excessive focus of news organizations on "horse race" public opinion polls during the debate about health reform in 2010 left the impression that the public was fickle, as well as sharply divided on whether the government's role in health care should expand. We examined polling data and found that public support for health reform depended very much on how individual policies were described. For example, support for the public insurance option, which was not included in the final version of the Affordable Care Act, ranged from 46.5 percent to 64.6 percent depending on how pollsters worded their questions. Our findings indicate that public support for health reform was broader and more consistent than portrayed at the time. Going forward, policy makers should strive to communicate how health care policy choices are consistent with existing public preferences or should make changes to policy that reflect those preferences. PMID:21734196
This descriptive state-of-the-art report presents a survey of recent distance learning developments in Britain, mainly by local colleges in the public education sector, and discusses the motivation and experience of adult learners. Distance learning in ge...
The provision of livestock services has often been in the domain of the publicsector. In most developing nations, livestock services still remain a government responsibility, while in the more developed countries, some support service functions of the go...
This thesis evaluates a variety of documented cases of customer- focused business practice initiatives to discern common principles of implementation within the private and publicsectors. The business practices Quality, Activity-Based Costing (ABC), Cust...
This paper explores similarities and differences between publicsector internal auditing and its counterpart in the private sector. Features examined include organizational status, outsourcing, using internal audit as a “tour of duty” function, activities and relationships with the external auditor. The study is based on a survey of chief internal auditors in organizations in Australia and New Zealand. Results suggest
The present paper examined the lifetime rates of mental health service use in a representative sample of youths identified as receiving services in at least one sector of care in a publicly funded service system of a large, metropolitan area. Service use was examined in relation to age, gender, mental health diagnostic status, and service sector involvement. Participants were 1,706
Andrea L. Hazen; Richard L. Hough; John A. Landsverk; Patricia A. Wood
After the private sector the publicsector also tries to benefit from the advantages of electronic service delivery, in particular from lower costs and higher accessibility. While more and more services are available electronically, citizens’ usage rates lag behind. The e-government research community identified this issue and increasingly analyzes the demand side: Researchers investigated the acceptance of existing electronic services
This paper employs four conceptual frameworks to assess IT outsourcing arrangements, i.e. core competencies, agency theory, transaction cost economics and partnerships. The frameworks are related to an empirical comparison of the public and private sectors within the United Kingdom, utilizing data from thirteen interviews conducted with IT managers from both sectors. The study suggest that each theoretical approach has its
Two conflicting pressures face agriculture-related PSREs (public-sector research establishments) in Western Europe. Governments expect them to contribute to national economic performance and build links with industry, thus assisting particularly the major private-sector innovation trajectory involving biotechnology. PSREs are also expected to use their knowledge and expertise in the public interest, in at least two ways: by developing new techniques and
This article considers whether publicsector organizations regard Lean merely as a set of tools and techniques without considering either the underlying conditions and principles or regard Lean as a philosophy. The authors analyse a series of case studies of Lean in the publicsector around four themes—process-based view, focus on value, elimination of waste and employee-driven change—before considering the
The impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on publicsector service delivery is immense as evidenced in Kazakhstan, a post-Soviet republic, and beyond. This article critically examines the trajectories of e-government implementation for publicsector service delivery in Kazakhstan. Available evidence suggests that even the partial implementation of e-government accrues benefits, while the operational challenges, such as the lack
In this paper we attempt to critically explore the changing technology education curriculum of Scotland's compulsory sector in the preceding twenty years. The first section of the paper sets out a framework for analysing such change drawing on the insights of policy studies. This analytical frame is developed with respect to such dimensions as historical antecedents, sociological perspectives, structural contexts
After years of strong performance, Korea's economy entered a crisis in 1997, owing largely to structural problems in its financial and corporate sectors. These problems emerged in the second half of that year, when the capital inflows that had helped finance Korea's growth were reversed, as foreign investors—reeling from losses in other Southeast Asian economies—decided to reduce their exposure to
The article considers the issues of development of state (public) private partnership in public health of particular foreign countries in the late XX-early Xxi centuries. It is demonstrated that the implementation of partnership in practice unduly leave behind its studying and evaluation of results. PMID:23350101
This document reports on an in-depth study of the implementation of systemic reform in the state of Victoria. Called Schools of the Future, the reform was significant in its scale and complexity. Within 4 years in Victoria achieved the lowest per-pupil expenditure of any state of Australia. Data on academic achievements have been fragmentary and…
A most promising recent international development has been the harnessing of commercial marketing techniques to promote family planning. Although most projects of this type are government approved and subsidized by international funding organizations, they are a striking departure from traditional government-operated, medically oriented programs. Results have often been dramatic because of certain attributes of the commercial sector, such as 1) marketing, management, finance, distribution, and logistics skills; 2) awareness of and sensitivity to consumers' needs; and 3) the consistent and self-sustaining motivation of profit. PMID:12334218
Purpose – To define and test an approach for the evaluation of the quality of e-service provided in the LPS sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study hypothesises a correlation among e-service content quality, technological complexity of web sites, and the application of criteria for assessing efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency through organisational re-engineering induced by e-service. A model for describing the e-service
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the learning dynamics in the local level public organizations due to a policy intervention in collaboration with university. This study aims to identify the existence of four different types of organizational learning in different localities and to explain their implications to publicsector…
|With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…
The Gender wage gap in Denmark has virtually stagnated since the early 1970's. This study examines whether this stagnation is mainly due to a changing wage dispersion or to changing prices on observed and unobserved skills. Since about half of the female labour force is employed in the publicsector, the impact of the changing wage structure between the public
In the context of the global transmission of organizational forms and public values, the traditional boundaries of governance that have relied on legal and organizational measures of answerability are no longer adequate for the meaning of public accountability. With the growing involvement of third sector organizations in governance (through contracting, mobilizing, advocacy, and developmental activities), the traditional meaning of accountability
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the learning dynamics in the local level public organizations due to a policy intervention in collaboration with university. This study aims to identify the existence of four different types of organizational learning in different localities and to explain their implications to publicsector…
Purpose – There is a growing awareness within organisations of the significance of “green” issues. This paper aims to examine the impact of a publicsector organisation's sustainable transport policies on the sickness absence levels of its employees. It focuses on those policies (such as workplace travel plans) which include methods of increasing the use of public transport for the
Summary One of the main challenges for the publicsector in the developed world is to deliver improved services through a motivated workforce in an age of austerity. This age of austerity has been brought on by the financial crisis that has left governments running enormous budget deficits, but facing electorates still expecting increased standards in public services, especially as
|Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) publicsector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…
During the 1990s, in what has become known as the ‘new publicsector’, many services in advanced economies, such as those of the U.K. and Scandinavia, have come under pressure to become more efficient and effective, so as to reduce their demands on taxpayers, while maintaining the volume and quality of services supplied to the public. To achieve this, they
The purpose of this article is to analyze the process of restructuring the Egyptian public health sector according to the new mode of governance principles and the concomitant dilemmas in the process. Based on an interpretative methodology, the findings of this research indicate that (a) despite some positive changes, serious doubts remain over the commercialization of basic public services; (b)
The use of preferred contractors through a partnering arrangement is a prominent method of relationship-based procurement. The approach is frequently applied to managing the small works portfolio of public authorities. While the apparent benefits to client organizations of employing preferred contractors are widely known, questions surrounding the timeliness, duration, risk, disruption, quality and cost of works in the publicsector
Through a case study of Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), a Non-Departmental Public Body in Scotland, this article considers the arguments associated with changes in publicsector location in the UK in the wider context of devolution and decentralization. The policy issues of location and relocation are discussed in light of the wider government interest in modernization, spatial planning and regional
The development of transport networks requires public investments, in terms of government expenditure, on several types of (road, rail, port, airport, and urban public transport) infrastructure, including their operational and maintenance services. This paper develops and implements a system-wide spatioeconomic model to analyze the expenditure competition among different types of investment in the Greek transport sector. The suggested approach can
Development of mobile software applications for use in specific domains such as Public Security must conform to stringent security requirements. While mobile devices have many known limitations, assuring complex fine-grained security policies poses an additional challenge to quality mobile services and raises usability concerns. We address these challenges by means of a novel approach to authentication and gradual multi-factor authorization
Yuri NATCHETOI; Viktor KAUFMAN; Konstantin BEZNOSOV
Hurricane Katrina's impact on the economy and infrastructure of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama represents an immediate concern to commercial enterprises, area residents, and policymakers at all levels. Understanding the severity of the damages and the magnitude of the recovery efforts are important for both private and public decision makers deploying resources in the affected area. This paper provides initial estimates
Pharmaceuticals are essential for preventive and therapeutic health services. Unfortunately, significant demand, limited funds and high prices contribute to frequent shortages of drugs in many public health programs. One method for financing pharmaceutical supplies has been the establishment of revolving drug funds (RDFs) in which, after an initial capital investment, drug supplies are replenished with monies collected from the sale
Peter N. Cross; Maggie A. Huff; Jonathan D. Quick; James A. Bates
By employing an endogenous growth model, this paper investigates China's urban public pension system. We examine the effects of the firm contribution rate, individual contribution rate and population growth rate on the economic growth rate, saving rate and education expense ratio. Raising the firm contribution rate decreases the economic growth rate and saving rate, whereas increases the education expense ratio.
|The sixth annual survey conducted by the Rural Services Institute examined the opinions of Pennsylvania residents on crime control, welfare reform, smoking, and education reform proposals. Sixty percent of respondents believed that the most urgent issue facing Pennsylvania was violent crime and strongly supported measures to reduce the…
Abstract The Internet has ,been ,used ,as a ,channel ,for public service delivery since the mid 1990’s. During the first years of its existence,it was believed,to be the service channel ofthe future, making all other channels obsolete. But until now, the telephone and face-to-face contact ,remain ,being ,used ,more ,frequently ,and ,are rated ,higher. By comparing,various ,studies ,that ,have ,recently
Health care financing and delivery reform seems to be under way. Reform will in all likelihood originate with Congress but may also come from the states or even the private sector. Federal law, however, limits states' options for reform, while state law constrains federal reform, and both state and federal law impede private innovation. Congressional action could facilitate state reform. Alternatively, federal preemption of state law may be necessary for federal reform. If neither Congress nor the states act, action by federal agencies could support private innovation. In any event, law reform is a necessary condition for health reform. PMID:19608564
|This article examines heterosexist assumptions and the role of homophobia in students' experiences in California's public "Single Gender Academies," in an effort to include issues of sexuality in current discourses on adolescent gender identity and public school reform. Interviews with students, conducted as part of the most comprehensive…
The paper approaches the social perception of the reform in the public health system through statistic modelling and analyses. Based upon the general framework of the European and international activities on improving the public health policies, the structure of the first part of the paper comprises the description of the health security models, analyses for Central and Eastern European countries,
The paper approaches the social perception of the reform in the public health system through statistic modelling and analyses. Based upon the general framework of the European and international activities on improving the public health policies, the structure of the first part of the paper comprises the description of the health security models, analyses for Central and Eastern European countries,
|While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the publicsector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…
|At a 2-day meeting in October 1982, the Library of Congress Network Advisory Committee (NAC) members discussed the complex issues involved in public and private sector interactions and their relationship to networking activities. The report, "PublicSector/Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services," prepared by the National…
This study uses Dyer and Shafer's organizational agility framework to analyze and compare the contribution of human resource strategies and practices to organizational capability in twelve private sector and three publicsector organizations. Similarities are found in public and private sector HR practices and priorities, particularly with regard to some aspects of work design, performance management and remuneration, and communication.
Investigates the perceptions of staff in regard to critical success factors (CSFs) for successful BPR implementation in the publicsector. The research methodology involved semi-structured interviews and staff surveys within a large publicsector organisation. The results of the study show that many of the key CSFs identified for BPR in the private sector are equally relevant to the success
At a 2-day meeting in October 1982, the Library of Congress Network Advisory Committee (NAC) members discussed the complex issues involved in public and private sector interactions and their relationship to networking activities. The report, "PublicSector/Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services," prepared by the National…
Providence, Rhode Island, is one of those gritty eastern mill towns that wears its centuries-old history on its sleeve. Like many American cities, Providence is home to a struggling public school system with chronically low-performing schools. They include Roger Williams Middle, where last year only 17 percent of eighth-graders scored at or above…
|Providence, Rhode Island, is one of those gritty eastern mill towns that wears its centuries-old history on its sleeve. Like many American cities, Providence is home to a struggling public school system with chronically low-performing schools. They include Roger Williams Middle, where last year only 17 percent of eighth-graders scored at or above…
Public health and human rights are complementary approaches to promoting and protecting human dignity and well-being. The aim of this paper is to examine international provisions and national policies on health and human rights that regulate the health system in Nigeria, along with the institutional arrangements created for the design and implementation of health services. The paper reviews the framework
This paper synthesizes a six year collaboration between a natural family planning (NFP) non-governmental organization (NGO) and the National Health Service of the Emilia Romagna region in Italy. It also compares the public program experience with NFP services provided in the private sector in the adjacent region of Veneto. Midwives provided NFP services in government family health clinics while in the private sector NFP was taught by non-health laypersons in a church-based facility. The populations served by these two programs were different. Women in the publicsector were slightly older and two-thirds were married. Forty percent of the clients had chosen to use NFP to achieve a pregnancy. The private sector client, recruited in part through premarriage counseling programs, was equally divided between married and single women, though the majority came for advice on avoiding or spacing pregnancies. In both regions NFP users were more highly educated than the general population. PMID:9288343
Poor practice by health care workers has been identified as contributing to high levels of maternal mortality in South Africa. The country is undergoing substantial structural and financial reforms, yet the impact of these on health care workers performance and practice has not been studied. This study, which consisted of an ethnography of two labour wards (one rural and one urban), aimed to look at the factors that shaped everyday practice of midwives working in district hospitals in South Africa during the implementation of a publicsectorreform to improve financial management. The study found that the Public Financing Management Act, that aimed to improve the efficiency and accountability of public finance management, had the unintended consequence of causing the quality of maternal health services to deteriorate in the hospital wards studied. The article supports the need for increased dialogue between those working in the sexual and reproductive health and health systems policy arenas, and the importance of giving a voice to front-line health workers who implement systems changes. However, it cautions that there are no simple answers to how health systems should be organized in order to better provide sexual and reproductive health services, and suggests instead that more attention in the debate needs to be paid to the challenges of policy implementation and the socio-political context and process issues which affect the success or failure of the implementation. PMID:15452017
Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Blaauw, Duane; Schneider, Helen
New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted. PMID:10947611
Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health, social service, alcohol/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation process (i.e., Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment), derived from extant literature, and apply it to publicsector services. We highlight features of the model likely to be particularly important in each phase, while considering the outer and inner contexts (i.e., levels) of publicsector service systems. PMID:21197565
Aarons, Gregory A; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health, social service, alcohol/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation process (i.e., Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment), derived from extant literature, and apply it to publicsector services. We highlight features of the model likely to be particularly important in each phase, while considering the outer and inner contexts (i.e., levels) of publicsector service systems.
|Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for publicsector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…
The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% nationally. By 2003, infant and child mortality rates were less than one-third of the national rates. The maternal mortality ratio decreased by 50% despite comprehensive emergency obstetric care not being available in most district hospitals. These trends were achieved with an investment of approximately 4 million US dollars over 12 years (equivalent to US 1.00 US dollars per person per year). However, this project did not overcome weaknesses in some national disease-control programmes, especially the expanded programme on immunization, that require strong central management. In Lao PDR, which is not yet committed to using SWAps, tools developed in Sayaboury could help other district health offices assume greater planning responsibilities in the recently decentralized system. Development partners should balance their support for centrally managed disease-specific programmes with assistance to horizontally integrated primary health care at the district level.
Perks, Carol; Toole, Michael J.; Phouthonsy, Khamla
Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.
While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged publicsector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other publicsector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks. PMID:20579254
Intergenerational transfers transmit goods (money, time, education) from a member of one to another generation. These transfers\\u000a can be split into two main categories: publicsector transfers, where the state reallocates, e.g. money via taxes and benefits\\u000a between different generations; and intra-family transfers where, e.g. a grandfather is supporting his grandson by financing\\u000a part of the grandson’s university education, or
Government agencies rely on public records for public service provision, public consultation, tracking and monitoring public management performance, and maintaining consistency and continuity in government. In New Zealand, several government agencies have used new wiki-supported public consultation environments, leading to the creation of public records. So far however, there is no empirical knowledge available on how individual public servants have
The U.S. Congress enacted expansive (and expensive) health care reforms amid the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression. Public acquiescence provided crucial political cover; elites on both sides struggled mightily to sway popular opinion. Were reformers' efforts made easier or more difficult by the tough economic times? Using newly available data on Americans' perceptions of economic insecurity and attitudes toward public policy, this article explores the relationship between economic circumstances and political attitudes. The findings suggest that the Great Recession both facilitated and impeded efforts to rally the public in favor of reform: perceptions of past declines in the U.S. economy bolstered government intervention, but household economic insecurity both distracted attention from large medical expenses (which otherwise legitimized collective action) and undermined Americans' support for additional government spending. Equally consequential, reformers' efforts to adapt to economic stringency by portraying reform as exclusively about affordability missed opportunities for broadening popular support for these interventions; in the longer run this may, unless corrected, prove a decisive misstep in shepherding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act through its long time line of implementation. PMID:21948821
Between 1970 and 2009, US public institutions participated in the research and development of 153 drugs, including 15 vaccines. Between 1990 and 2007, nearly 10% of all the new drugs and vaccines marketed in the US and about 20% of those representing a therapeutic advance originated in public institutions. The proportion of these drugs that represented a substantial therapeutic advance was over twice that of those produced exclusively by the private sector. PMID:23444514
During the past few decades, many governments around the globe have orchestrated e-government projects in order to improve\\u000a the way they operate and provide public services to citizens. Apart from the opportunities they open up, e-government projects\\u000a bring about changes in the well-established practices of the publicsector. This paper illustrates some of these changes by\\u000a exploring a Greek e-government
|Describes the partnership between the public and private sectors in developing and marketing the ERIC database in CD-ROM format. Particular emphasis is given to the marketing research and protocols of partnership that were developed. (Author/CLB)|
The paper examines the impact of the Science and Technology Basic Law (STBL) enactment of 1999 on the transformation of publicsector research (PSR) in Taiwan. The paper proposes a research framework to assess the changes on PSR mainly through four dimensions: (1) new infrastructure build-up, (2) industrial research links, (3) patenting and licensing, and (4) industrial education\\/training. Nine research
This paper reports on a project which analyzed the processes carried out by a unit within a publicsector organization. The method used a combination of strategic and operational analysis tools. This combination proved to be complementary and effective in practice. This outcome of the study suggests that where a process analysis project has strategic considerations, as many do, then
Much of the research effort on leadership in the publicsector has been expended from the leaders' perspective and comparatively less attention has been given to examining tendency of followers to have a romantic view of leadership in so far as all responsibility for the performance is attributed to administrators. This study examines Romance of Leadership (ROL) among academics in
Publicsector salaries, including those that apply to rural teachers in Pakistan, are rigidly determined by educational qualifications and experience. If it can be determined that educational qualifications and experience enhance teacher cognitive skills, which in turn enhance student cognitive skills, one can infer that there is some rationality to such a salary structure and that teacher incentives are compatible
Organizational use of Internet recruiting has dramatically increased in the last five years. However, there has been little research to guide the development of organizational employment Web pages. This paper first outlines the reasons why publicsector organizations should consider focusing more energy on developing their own employment Web sites to supplement other recruiting activities. We then present a model
Richard T. Cober; Douglas J. Brown; Alana J. Blumental; Dennis Doverspike; Paul E. Levy
|Using data from the 1971 National Longitudinal Survey of middle-aged males, this survey simultaneously examines wage differentials in unionized and nonunionized employment in both the public and private sectors. Unlike previous studies conducted by Daniel S. Hamermesh, and Walter Fogel and David Lewin, this study includes a large sample that is…
We present our experiences in defining and documenting business process requirements for a large-scale publicsector Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation in the United States. The implementing organization, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), is investing in packaged software to integrate all aspects of its business processes. Prior to selecting implementation consultants, NAVAIR documented business process requirements to scope the
George Blick; Thomas R. Gulledge; Rainer A. Sommer
Purpose – Establishing a performance-oriented evaluation in publicsectors is the key to successful administrations. However, because of lacking relative comparable measuring standards, it is difficult to measure the relative performance of one unit while comparing to other units with regard to the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) of performance evaluation. This paper aims to focus on the performance ranking
This paper draws on the earlier works of (Cobb, Helliar, & Innes, 1995; Ter Bogt & Jan van Helden, 2000) and empirically examines the management accounting systems (MAS) change in a large publicsector organisation in Australia. A case study approach has been used to explore the research problem. Data were collected from archival sources, semi-structured interviews and press clippings
The study examines the impact of public infrastructure capital on the productivity of the manufacturing sector for a sample of over 1500 counties and the 50 U.S. states using a translog production function approach. The study also examines productivity co...
|At first glance, public-sector labor unions are just one of many types of organizations that participate in the political process. However, these unions differ significantly from other interest groups made up of individual citizens or non-labor organizations. Because their members' interests are tied to government policy, these unions are more…
Publicsector healthcare services are both large users and innovators of health technologies. In the UK's National Health Service (NHS) initiatives have been developed to manage the process of technological innovation more effectively. This has two main aims, to maximize potential commercial returns from innovations developed within the NHS; and to improve levels of patient care through appropriate diffusion of
To improve our understanding of individual motivations to remain employed in governmental agencies this study focuses on a specific segment of a state government agency workforce. Information technology (IT) employees possess skills that transfer easily to other sectors, which make them an important group when examining factors that influence the affective commitment and job satisfaction of individuals working in public
Margaret F. Reid; Myria W. Allen; Cynthia K. Riemenschneider; Deborah J. Armstrong
Between 1991 and 1997 West Germany spent on average about 3.6bn euro per year on publicsector sponsored training programmes for the unemployed. We base our empirical analysis on a new administrative database that plausibly allows for selectivity correction by microeconometric matching methods. We identify the effects of different types of training programmes over a horizon of more than seven
Data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey provide new information comparing public- and private-sector employee health benefits. The federal government is ahead of other employers in adopting managed competition principles using financial incentives and consumer information to promote choosing efficient plans. Fed- eral employees experience a $200 annual compensation gap relative to those in the
For more than two decades it has been widely acknowledged within the management literature that the evaluation of change rarely takes place within organizations, yet little coherent explanation has been offered as to why this should be so. This article reports on research undertaken in two UK publicsector organizations, to explore the reality of evaluation in the context of
Purpose – This paper seeks to explore whether the Western concept of servant leadership holds the same meaning in the publicsector of the cross-cultural context of China and to identify whether there is an alternative term in the Chinese language that closely relates to the concept of servant leadership Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An inductive approach is adopted based on critical
Publicsector restructuring, including labor downsizing, has been one of the main areas of policy activism in developing countries and transition economies. But little is known about its actual effects. Rama and Newman use panel data on Colombian enterprises spanning more than one decade to assess the impact on several productivity indicators. The results suggest that the productivity gains from
|School sector and educational context seem to make a difference in civic socialization. There is limited knowledge, however, of the mechanisms through which socialization may occur in public and private schools, and the extent to which they have any lasting effect. Does the private school effect on civic socialization persist into young…
This study investigates rates and predictors of school-based services (SBSs) for 390 youth meeting criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and served in the San Diego publicsectors. Only 60% of youth had received an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis; these youth were younger, male, Caucasian (versus Latino), and…
Leslie, Laurel K.; Lambros, Katina M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L.
The paper stems from the research effort to examine the life cycle cost behavior (actual and committed categories) two systems used in the publicsector. The objective of this research is to study the life cycle costing behavior from the perspective of a buyer. In addition, it is also the research's objective that there be a comparison between this life
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to outline and analyse the limitations and opportunities of decentralised human resource management (HRM) in the publicsector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a case study of the Estonian Central Government. Findings – It is demonstrated that the absence of a central human resource strategy, combined with fragmentation, insufficient coordination
It is well known that the fiscal performance of a country is actually determined by the interaction of may fiscal authorities within the publicsector. The purpose of this paper is to present a simple model that adopts a game-theoretic point of view to investigate the consequences of different modes of interaction between federal and provincial jurisdictions for the determination
|Introduces two articles that (1) supply the union and management perspectives of the Supreme Court decision in "Ellis vs. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks" and (2) discuss how this decision affects the publicsector in the area of education. (MLF)|
Currently, a dyadic and hierarchical vision dominates in the literature on leadership as it does in the publicsector (Gronn, 2002; Hiller and Vance, 2006). The transactional and transformational perspectives present leaders in relation with their subordinates or their supporters. Yet, that is a truncated vision of the reality because it disregards the situation and the other leaders present (Gronn,
Governance is an emerging theme that has been associated in the publicsector with a real political need to satisfy stakeholders by demonstrating accountability and transparency while effectively implementing policy. Many initiatives relating to governance are generated by a need for improvement of organizational performance and ability to implement and adapt to change. These generally take the form of projects
My intention, in this (rather unambitiously titled) paper, is to present a brief overview of work on the rationale and evidence for the existence of pay premia or penalties associated with working in the publicsector. Many studies have found evidence of such premia or penalties (and mostly the former, especially for women) using econometric methods that are not dissimilar
The success of individual firms can illustrate lessons learned from economy-wide research on how public policy and private company policy affect the development of the services sector. This review of some 14 case studies of large international services firms shows that three factors are common to their success: (1) Many successful services companies examined owe their existence and success to
Governments around the world are the largest producers of spatial information. Publicsector spatial information is a major, but so far under-exploited asset, which could and should be a fundamental building block of the new economy and the information society. United States federal information policy is based on the premise that government information is a valuable national resource and that
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring publicsector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…
Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd
Employees in the public and private sectors experience different working conditions and employment relationships. Therefore, it can be assumed that their attitudes toward their job and organizations, and relationships between them, are different. The existing literature has identified the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction as interesting in this context. The present field study examines the satisfaction–commitment link with
Yannis Markovits; Ann J. Davis; Doris Fay; Rolf van Dick
The aim was to describe how bullying was experienced by individuals who had been exposed to bullying at their workplaces. Open interviews were conducted with 22 participants from different professional and organizational status groups in the public service sector, who had experienced bullying at their workplaces. The interviews were analyzed according to guidelines for grounded theory. The core category illuminated
Procurement is one of major business operations in public service sector. The advance of information and communication technology (ICT) pushes this business operation to increase its efficiency and foster collaborations between the organization and its suppliers. This leads to a shift from the traditional procurement transactions to an e-procurement paradigm. Such change impacts on business process, information management and decision
Although outsourcing of IT services has become a standard business practice in both the private and publicsector, little is known how clients manage the change over from an incumbent, or prior vendor, to a new vendor. The current literature touts how the risks of knowledge loss and disruption in operations prevent many client firms from switching to a new
This paper examines the moderating effects of market orientation's intelligence generation and dissemination components on the response–performance relationship. We offer valuable insight into the application of, and subsequent returns to, market orientation in the public leisure sector, thereby helping to broaden the appeal, relevance, and usefulness of this important marketing theory to other contexts. The research involved a national survey
We describe results from historical analysis of a large-scale, publicsector effort: the IRS Modernization Project that has already spanned a decade and consumed more than 3 billion dollars. The results focus on analysis of Sentiments and Confidence expressed by different stakeholders, as found in various documents. We explore how such analyses may provide a window on project progress and
In this global era, IT investment is rapidly increasing. IT governance practices must be emphasized in order to retrieve competitive advantage from IT investment. The aim of this research is to develop IT governance practices model for Malaysian publicsector. Interview sessions with IT personnel at management level at Putrajaya were conducted. Based on the interviews, a theoretical model of
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a publicsector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…
Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring publicsector managers' career success. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective career success, managers, managerial career development and social cognitive career theory.
Roziah Mohd Rasdi; Maimunah Ismail; Jegak Uli; Sidek Mohd Noah
:This article investigates issues of identity construction and public memorialization in postapartheid South Africa. It focuses on the Sunday Times Heritage Project, a unique private-sector initiative that involved the installation of thirty memorials throughout the country between 2006 and 2008. The article discusses the conceptualization and implementation of the project, pointing out important differences between this private initiative and the
With the annotation of the human genome approaching completion, public-sector researchers — spurred in part by various National Institutes of Health Roadmap Initiatives — have become increasingly engaged in drug discovery and development efforts. Although large and diverse chemical libraries of 'drug-like' compounds can be readily screened to yield chemically novel scaffolds, transforming these 'chemical probes' into drugs is a
In the last two decades Italy implemented a number of reforms of the public pay-as-you-go (PAYG) scheme that curtailed future pensions. Governments therefore felt the need to increase the number of workers contributing to fully funded (FF) schemes to offset the expected fall in public pensions. In the private sector an existing saving fund, the severance pay scheme (Trattamento di
|Five public higher-education officials, including a former lawmaker, discuss how "citizen boards" of public colleges and universities deal with the inherent conflicts and ambiguities between the interests and ambitions of their institution and the financial, strategic, and public-policy demands of their state. They describe how they handle the…
Beyond the existing SERVQUAL-based research, the authors develop an alternative model of public service quality. The various sources of public service quality are explored and a new classification scheme formulated by using critical incidents technique. Four main qualities of public service are identified: process quality, outcome quality, design quality, and relationship quality. The findings suggest that the critical attributes of
The government of Morocco approved two reforms in 2005 to expand health insurance coverage. The first is a payroll-based mandatory health insurance plan for public-and formal private–sector employees to extend coverage from the current 16 percent of the population to 30 percent. The second creates a publicly financed fund to cover services for the poor. Both reforms aim to improve access to high-quality care and reduce disparities in access and financing between income groups and between rural and urban dwellers. In this paper we analyze these reforms: the pre-reform debate, benefits covered, financing, administration, and oversight. We also examine prospects and future challenges for implementing the reforms.
This 2010 report looked at how Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) used local and federal dollars to craft, implement and improve a system-wide education reform strategy built on a foundation of providing high-quality pre-k education. School officials, state and federal policymakers alike will benefit from learning about the trail that MCPS…
|This 2010 report looked at how Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) used local and federal dollars to craft, implement and improve a system-wide education reform strategy built on a foundation of providing high-quality pre-k education. School officials, state and federal policymakers alike will benefit from learning about the trail that MCPS…
The Studies of Education Reform project was initiated by the Office of Education Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, to examine the implementation and effects of twelve significant education reform strategies, including student assessm...
The political and economic transition of the 1990s in the countries of central and eastern Europe has been accompanied by wide ranging health care reform. The initial Soviet model has given way to a variety of forms of health insurance. Yet, as this paper argues, reform has too often been preoccupied with ideological imperatives, such as provider autonomy and the
Public health agencies are facing a convergence of forces that require a reexamination of the existing paradigm. The need to replace an aging workforce with a new generation that possesses a different worldview, in the context of budget austerity, will be challenging. In addition, the uncertainty of health care reform poses a challenge for public health leadership. This "perfect storm" provides the opportunity for the social work paradigm to come in and fill the void. PMID:24074132
One of the dangers in policy debates, especially those involving many complex and interrelated subjects, is that the debate will plunge into the depths of details to the exclusion of firmly establishing overarching logic and principles. Sometimes this is because it is extremely difficult for the human brain simultaneously to think of many things at many levels. Sometimes it is because that central logic is forgotten along the way or, worse, never in place to begin with. The policy debate on electricity industry restructuring is no exception. This danger of concentrating on the details and obscuring the central principles permeates the wide-ranging restructuring debates, and certainly has contaminated questions about the subissue of the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA).
The article describes the organization of monitoring and evaluation (M\\/E) of publicsector programs in South Asia and discusses how the information from the studies is actually used. While considerable resources are invested in monitoring the efficiency of project implementa tion, very little attention has been given to evaluating the performance and sustainability of publicsector programs. The article considers
OBJECTIVES: To identify the predictors of obesity among post graduate trainee doctors working in a tertiary care hospital of publicsector at Karachi, Pakistan.METHODS: A cross sectional analytical study was conducted at one of the tertiary care hospitals of publicsector in Karachi. Information was collected from 117 post graduate trainee doctors via pre-tested self administered questionnaire and standard tools
Sajid Mahmood; Muhammad Kazim Rahim Najjad; Nasir Ali; Naeem Yousuf; Yasir Hamid
The construction industry is known to be an important contributor towards the gross domestic product of many countries. Moreover, the health of the construction industry is positively correlated to the economic growth of a country and in many economies publicsector clients account for a major share of construction works. Given this strength, it is important for publicsector clients
Background The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an\\u000a example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is\\u000a available in both the private sector and the publicsector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore
Felicity L Bishop; Fiona Barlow; Beverly Coghlan; Philippa Lee; George T Lewith
|This book examines case studies of eight public and eight private schools that investigated different identifiable and transferable private school practices that public schools could adopt to improve student outcomes. Data came from interviews with administrators, teachers, parents, and students from diverse schools. Chapter 1, "Accountability to…
Rothstein, Richard; Carnoy, Martin; Benveniste, Luis
The paper reports on one component of the research of RPO 296 (The Distributive Effects of Public Spending). The bulk of the paper estimates the unit costs of outputs of Malsysia's public medical care services. Chief among these are various kinds of clini...
Fiscal reform is central to the process of transforming a Soviet-type economy to a market economy, for with the emergence of a significant private sector, the boundaries between the public and private sectors needs to be more sharply drawn. The paper draws lessons from the experience of the Visegrád countries (Hungary, Poland, the Czech and Slovak Republics) in tax and
Since the late 1990s, as sudden increase in government debt and expansion of the fiscal deficit have been addressed as serious issues, administrative and financial reforms have been pursued to improve the government sector's inefficiency. These reforms also involve diminishing public investments. With regard to discussions on the efficiency of public investments in the macroeconomic level, there are numerous studies
OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended.
Several empirical studies have analyzed the factors that influence local privatization. We examine the influence of transaction costs and political factors on local governments’ choices through new variables. We consider two relevant services accounting for different amounts of transaction costs: water and solid waste delivery. Our results show that privatization is less common for water, which has higher transaction costs.
It has been predicted that the number of lawsuits filed for workplace privacy violations will increase over the next few years\\u000a primarily because of advances in technological innovations and a change in how workplace privacy is defined. This could have\\u000a implications for law enforcement agencies as well as other public and private sector agencies. This article examines current\\u000a interpretations of
Mission-directed public-sector research facilities are experiencing increasingly severe budget environments while seeing expanding missions and responsibilities. In an effort to identify research leveraging methodologies an information search was conducted in conjunction with some efforts to find the proper links to systems engineering fundamentals. The result is an initial model for use in a preconcept/phase-1 engineering design organization, with a goal of improving the organizations performance.
This study analyzes the transformation of urban water services in China since the late 1990s focusing on the interaction between\\u000a the government and private players in the form of public private partnership projects. A lack of fund, outdated technologies\\u000a and management skills, and underpriced water tariffs had deteriorated urban water services in China. Chinese authorities decided\\u000a to adopt private sector
The main objective of the study was to compare the formally and non-formally trained in-service publicsector teachers' Self-efficacy. Five hypotheses were developed describing no difference in the self-efficacy of formally and non-formally trained teachers to influence decision making, influence school resources, instructional self-efficacy, disciplinary self-efficacy and create positive school climate. Teacher Efficacy Instrument (TSES) developed by Bandura (2001) consisting
Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied\\u000a but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health,\\u000a social service, alcohol\\/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation\\u000a process (i.e., Exploration,
Gregory A. Aarons; Michael Hurlburt; Sarah McCue Horwitz
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of the relationship between work motivation and organisational performance in the extended publicsector, by testing empirically common elements of existing theoretical frameworks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A unique questionnaire-based survey was carried out in three organisations\\/corporations where the state is the major stakeholder. Of the 1,000 questionnaires distributed, 454
\\u000a Due to limited resources, organizations are constantly facing challenges. To take advantage of new opportunities and mitigate\\u000a possible risks they look for new ways to collaborate with each other, sharing knowledge and competencies. Hence, coordination\\u000a among partners is critical to achieve success. The segmented South African publicsector is no different. Driven by the desire\\u000a to ensure proper service delivery
The ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it, assimilate it, transform, and\\u000a exploit it, namely its absorptive capacity (AC), has been much researched in the context of commercial organisations and even\\u000a applied to national innovation. This paper considers four key AC-related concepts and their relevance to publicsector organisations\\u000a with mandates to manage
K. Murray; D. J. Roux; J. L. Nel; A. Driver; W. Freimund
Anti-immigrant feeling (xenophobia) among voters was a key factor in the second-place victory of Jean Le Pen's National Front Party in the 2002 French national election. Here, we study the effect of anti-immigrant sentiment on the equilibrium position of political parties on the economic issue, which we take to be the size of the publicsector. We model political competition
Background There is growing recognition that mental health is an important public health issue in South Africa. Yet mental health services\\u000a remain chronically under-resourced. The aim of this study was to document levels of current publicsector mental health service\\u000a provision in South Africa and compare services across provinces, in relation to current national policy and legislation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A survey was conducted
Crick Lund; Sharon Kleintjes; Ritsuko Kakuma; Alan J. Flisher
The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of newborn/infant hearing screening programs in publicsector hospitals in South Africa by means of a descriptive survey. Data was gathered using a self-administered postal questionnaire, which included questions on screening resources and protocols, follow-up, diagnostic, and information management procedures as well as timing of intervention. The questionnaire was sent to 86 speech therapy and audiology departments within publicsector hospitals throughout South Africa and 44 questionnaires were returned. The findings indicated that 27% (n=12) of respondents were conducting some form of hearing screening. The most frequently reported reasons for the absence of a screening program were a lack of appropriate equipment and a shortage of staff. Institutions with active screening programs face many challenges and programs are mostly unsystematic. Reported findings make a valuable contribution to the field of early hearing detection and intervention by providing a baseline for the development and structuring of early hearing detection and intervention services as a priority in the public healthcare sector of South Africa. PMID:18781510
Neo-liberalism refers to a public policy mix that is market oriented, pro-trade liberalization and advocates minimal state intervention in the economy. Japanese governance has arguably not been based on neo-liberal principles, and some see this as contributing to Japan's long-running recession. In 2001 Prime Minister Koizumi came to power promising neo-liberal reform. This paper presents a history of government involvement
Purpose – This paper draws on a recent case study in Ghana that explored the human resource development (HRD) challenges facing local government in a reformingpublicsector. It aims to investigate how publicsectorreform (PSR) has affected worker motivation and effectiveness among civil servants (bureaucrats) serving local government at all levels of operation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on an
During the past four decades, public trust in governments has continued to diminish due to various administrative, political, socio-cultural, economic, and mass media causes. Focusing on the administrative dimension, this study explores selected administrative factors to the declining of public trust, including public perception of administrative corruption (lack of transparency), inefficiency (wastefulness), ineffectiveness, and policy alienation. We argue that information
|Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…
An effort has been made in this publication to focus on how practitioners as well as others view the prevailing wage in a collective bargaining environment; on understanding the differences in prevailing wage laws; on the meaning and complexity of wage an...
|Discusses accountability in U.S. K-12 public education today, describing three ideas of accountability: trust the experts (within the system reform), trust but verify (standards based reform), and trust the customers (free market reform). Examines political obstacles, mixed results of the various reform strategies, lessons learned about…
|Background: The Education Commission (EC) of Hong Kong, the advisory body set up by the government on the overall development of education in Hong Kong, began developing a policy of education reform in 1998 and published its blueprint in 2000. In 2006, the EC published its fourth official report on the progress of the reform--"Progress Report on…
|This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…
|This book presents essays written by school reformers that discuss the reform movement and examine the partnership that inspired the creation of small, intimate school communities known as charters. They also reflect on the comprehensive changes that inform each charter and the personal and collective struggles to institutionalize these new…
What is evaluated as central government decentralization to improve rural development may also be local government reform for improved district development. The challenge in analyzing such efforts is not to be preoccupied with an always-present politics of decentralization. This article examines a local government reform in Zimbabwe that has been equated with central government decentralization: the Amalgamation of the countryside's
Following a 2000 moratorium on executions, the Governor’s Commission on Capital Punishment was created to study the use of the death penalty in Illinois. As a result of this effort, comprehensive legislation was enacted to reform the Illinois death penalty system. The Illinois legislature also created a Capital Punishment Reform Study Committee (CPRSC) to gauge the implementation and impact of
The National Environmental Health Science and Protection Accreditation Council (EHAC) accredits undergraduate academic environmental health science programs in the United States. The guidelines used by EHAC include core and technical courses that students should take in order to graduate with a bachelor of science degree in environmental health science. As part of a review of the accreditation guidelines, the research reported in this paper was undertaken with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the skills and abilities needed by entry-level environmental health professionals in the publicsector, the research 1) examined existing environmental health priorities in public-health agencies, 2) reviewed entry-level job postings, and 3) surveyed more than 120 public-health professionals across the country. The results suggest that students who graduate from accredited programs must be skilled interpersonal communicators with a broad base of technical knowledge. PMID:12575636
The paper traces the People's Republic of China's (PRC) efforts to modernize its publicsector through economic reforms, and explores the effects of these on the country's sport structures. More specifically the research reported here investigates the nature of the sport management reforms and how these were linked to efforts to attract the Olympic games. The research draws on the
Reshaping the states of Western Europe has direct implications for their respective publicsectors. Broad convergent pressures have led to largely similar reform programmes. However, differences remain across Western Europe in the nature, style, timing and pace of the reforms. These differences may be explained by analysing the nature of the pressures, the size and scope of the traditional public
Several governments around the world have made significant endeavours and allegiances to deliver new National Reforms Agenda (NRA) in order to drive sustained prosperity for their citizens e.g. the cases of Australian, Georgia, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) governments etc. In general, the rationale for transformation in NRA has been manifold such as: (a) healthier and more active the population,
Using data collected from household interviews in a 1965 San Francisco Bay Area Transportation Study, a probabilistic model is developed to explain the relationship between population movement and the capitalization of changes in the publicsector in the price of housing. This model is constructed to compare 2 competing explanations for the flight of higher income households to the suburbs: 1) the accessibility model and 2) the flight from blight model. The accessibility model explains the decay of cities as a natural outgrowth of decreasing transportation costs, whereas the flight from blight model suggests that the wealthy leave the central city for the suburbs because of urban decay. An analysis of the San Francisco data demonstrates that high income households are more sensitive than the rest of the population to changes in the median income of the neighborhood and in expenditures and general government and education, but less sensitive to changes in property tax rate and expenditures on public safety, parks, and recreation. It is unlikely that undesirable changes in the publicsector will result in a mass exodus of higher income households; capitalization in the price of housing appears sufficient to prevent this. The 2 models combined help explain the flight from the central cities, while the combined variables increase the logit estimation's prediction of bids for housing. PMID:12267416
Background To expand its public-sector treatment capacity, Baltimore City made buprenorphine treatment accessible to low-income, largely African American residents. This study compares the characteristics of patients entering methadone treatment v. buprenorphine treatment to determine whether BT was attracting different types of patients. Methods Participants consisted of two samples of adult heroin-dependent African Americans. The first sample was newly-admitted to a health center or a mental health center providing buprenorphine (N=200), and the second sample was newly-admitted to one of two hospital-based methadone programs (N=178). The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Friends Supplemental Questionnaire were administered at treatment entry and data were analyzed with logistic regression. Results BT participants were more likely to be female (p=.017) and less likely to inject (p=.001). Participants with only prior buprenorphine treatment experience were nearly five time more likely to enter buprenorphine than methadone treatment (p<.001). Those with experience with both treatments were more than twice as likely to enter BT (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.11–6.62; p=.028). In the 30 days prior to treatment entry, BT participants reported more days of medical problems (p=.002) and depression (p=.044), and were more likely to endorse a lifetime history of depression (p<.001). Conclusion Methadone and buprenorphine treatment provided in the publicsector may attract different patient subpopulations. Providing buprenorphine treatment through drug treatment programs co-located with a health and mental health center may have accounted for their higher rates of medical and psychiatric problems and appears to be useful in attracting a diverse group of patients into public-sector funded treatment.
Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kelly, Sharon M.; Gryczynski, Jan; Myers, C. Patrick; Jaffe, Jerome H.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Olsen, Yngvild K.; Schwartz, Robert P.
The Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale (Inps) is one of the biggest PublicSector organizations in Italy; about 30.000 people work in his structures. Fifteen years ago, Inps launched a long term project with the objective to create a complex and efficient safety and health at work organization. Italian law contemplates a specific kind of physician working on safety and health at work, called "Medico competente", and 85 Inps's physicians work also as "Medico competente". This work describes how IT improved coordination and efficiency in this occupational health's management system. PMID:21086694
In Bosnia and Herzegovina citizens receive health care from both public and private providers. The current situation calls for a clear government policy and strategy to ensure better position and services from both parts. This article examines how health care services are delivered, particularly with respect to relationship between public and private providers. The paper notes that the publicsector is plagued by a number of weaknesses in terms of inefficiency of services provision, poorly motivated staff, prevalent dual practice of public employees, poor working conditions and geographical imbalances. Private sector is not developing in ways that address the weaknesses of the publicsector. Poorly regulated, it operates as an isolated entity, strongly profit-driven. The increasing burdens on public health care system calls for government to abandon its passive role and take action to direct growth and use potential of private sector. The paper proposes a number of mechanisms that can be used to influence private as well as publicsector, since actions directed toward one part of the system will inevitable influence the other.
Pay for performance is a popular public education reform, and millions of dollars are currently being targeted for pay for performance programs. These reforms are popular because economic and management theories suggest that well-designed incentive pay programs could improve teacher effectiveness. There is little evidence about the characteristics…
Objective To develop an instrument to characterize publicsector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and “unmanaged” care and among managed care arrangements. Study Design The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data Collection Methods Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. Principal Findings This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of publicsector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. Conclusions If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary.
Ridgely, M Susan; Giard, Julienne; Shern, David; Mulkern, Virginia; Burnam, M Audrey
Objective: When asked about substance use, youths typically endorse higher levels of use than parents, suggesting that parents are often unaware of their child's drug and alcohol use. This study sought to examine the level of concordance between reports of youths enrolled in publicsectors of care and their parents, and identify potential predictors of parental awareness of substance use and related problems. Method: Youths receiving services in one or more publicsectors of care (N = 985; 67% male) and their parents were interviewed about the youths' substance use and substance use problems, as well as associated demographic, parental, and youth factors. Results: As has been found in other studies, youths generally reported higher rates of substance use and substance use problems compared with parents. Rates of agreement ranged from ? = .24 (sedatives) to ? = .67 (marijuana) and were higher for drug problems (? = .47) than for alcohol problems (? = .34). Predictors of parental awareness of drug problems included youth gender (male), race (White compared with Hispanic), and higher ratings of youth's functional impairment. Predictors of parental awareness of alcohol problems included race (White compared with Hispanic), lower levels of youth-reported parental monitoring, lower levels of parental depression, and higher ratings of youth functional impairment. Conclusions: In this high-risk population, a significant proportion of parents are unaware of their child's alcohol (30%) and substance use (50%) problems. Services geared toward enhancing parental awareness, especially for parents of Hispanic and female youths, may increase communication and treatment seeking.
Green, Amy E.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Perrott, Jennifer A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Aarons, Gregory A.
The Chinese government announced a new medical reform plan in April 2009, which reinstates the public nature of Chinese healthcare system and emphasizes the importance of performance evaluation and service management. Mark Moore's Public Value Scorecard model provides the most comprehensive framework for management in the public and nonprofit sectors. This paper discusses the use of Public Value Scorecard as
A great deal of attention has been focused on the human capital crisis in the publicsector since the mid-1990s. Experts and practitioners give many reasons why the current crisis emerged. This article examines the important factors that led to the crisis, what is being done about them through presidential agendas, legislators, oversight agencies, professional societies, and public policy think
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the efficacy of the demand-control-support model, augmented with employee perceptions of organisational justice and degree of met expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected from 128 publicsector employees working in a large state police force operating under many of the elements of new public management. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were
John J. Rodwell; Andrew J. Noblet; Amanda F. Allisey
Purpose – Literature on “gender and organisation” in developing countries is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to unveil the way in which gender construction is understood and operates within public organisational settings in the Dominican Republic. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 women and 13 men from three organisations in the publicsector in the Dominican
New Visions for Public Schools is the largest education reform organization dedicated to improving the quality of education children receive in New York City's public schools. For 16 years, New Visions has worked with the public and private sectors to develop programs and policies that energize teaching and learning and increase student…
BACKGROUND: During 2008, the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital became the first public hospital in Australia to have a da Vinci Surgical Robot purchased by government funding. The cost of performing robotic surgery in the publicsector is a contentious issue. This study is a single centre, cost analysis comparing open radical prostatectomy (RRP) and robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) based on the newly introduced pure case-mix funding model. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for the first 100 RALPs and the previous 100 RRPs. Estimates of tangible costing and funding were generated for each admission and readmission, using the Royal Brisbane Hospital Transition II database, based on pure case-mix funding. RESULTS: The average cost for admission for RRP was A$13?605, compared to A$17?582 for the RALP. The average funding received for a RRP was A$11?781 compared to A$5496 for a RALP based on the newly introduced case-mix model. The average length of stay for RRP was 4.4 days (2-14) and for RALP, 1.2 days (1-4). The total cost of readmissions for RRP patients was A$70?487, compared to that of the RALP patients, A$7160. These were funded at A$55?639 and A$7624, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RALP has shown a significant advantage with respect to length of stay and readmission rate. Based on the case-mix funding model RALP is poorly funded compared to its open equivalent. Queensland Health needs to plan on how robotic surgery is implemented and assess whether this technology is truly affordable in the publicsector. PMID:23387477
The health sector is pivotal to any national development initiative; hence, Botswana has taken seriously the principle of primary health care as contained in the the Alma-Ata declaration of 1978. As a demonstration of their commitment, the government of Botswana has passed a number of National Development Plans, health policies, and numerous reforms with a view of enhancing service quality
Housing reform in China has proceeded on two tracks: privatization of public housing and development of a new private housing sector. During this period of transition, rents have remained relatively low in the remaining public housing, and purchase prices offered to occupants of public housing have been well below market prices. Although these rents and prices are partly based on known formulas, there is considerable variability in how much people pay for similar apartments. This study uses 2000 Census data to estimate the housing subsidy received by the remaining renters in the publicsector and purchasers of public housing, based on private sector prices for housing of comparable quality and size. The paper also analyzes variation in the estimated discount from market prices that these people receive. The findings show that the biggest winners in China’s transition from socialist housing allocation are those who were favored in the previous system, based on such factors as residence status, education and occupation.
Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, publicsector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the publicsector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the publicsector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for publicsector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work.
The U.S. farm sector experienced the worst financial stress during the 1980's since the 1930's. When adjustments are made in farm numbers because of the 1974 change in the definition of a farm, the average annual decrease in farm numbers for 1980-90 was a...
This paper outlines a step-wise framework for monitoring foods and beverages provided or sold in publicly funded institutions. The focus is on foods in schools, but the framework can also be applied to foods provided or sold in other publicly funded institutions. Data collection and evaluation within this monitoring framework will consist of two components. In component I, information on existing food or nutrition policies and/or programmes within settings would be compiled. Currently, nutrition standards and voluntary guidelines associated with such policies/programmes vary widely globally. This paper, which provides a comprehensive review of such standards and guidelines, will facilitate institutional learnings for those jurisdictions that have not yet established them or are undergoing review of existing ones. In component II, the quality of foods provided or sold in publicsector settings is evaluated relative to existing national or sub-national nutrition standards or voluntary guidelines. Where there are no (or only poor) standards or guidelines available, the nutritional quality of foods can be evaluated relative to standards of a similar jurisdiction or other appropriate standards. Measurement indicators are proposed (within 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches) that can be used to monitor progress over time in meeting policy objectives, and facilitate comparisons between countries. PMID:24074214
The National Advisory Council on Educational Research and Improvement sponsored a conference to take a close look at the practical ways in which education is being reformed, and perhaps transformed, with the assistance of private-sector advice and innovations and with certain business disciplines. Following are the titles and authors of the papers…
Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
|This article reflects on the findings of the Research voor Beleid (RvB) study for the second phase of the assessment of the "Impact of ongoing reforms in education and training on adult learning sector" (2010), with particular focus on adult participation in education in three EU Member States in south-eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Cyprus and…
Improvements in education are occurring in Macedonia, but challenges remain with quality, equity, efficiency, and administration. This report presents to United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Macedonia a way to move forward in assisting the education sector. It is the result of almost four plus weeks of study by a team of…
Bonner, Cameron S.; Herschbach, Dennis R.; Rifkin, Norman
Corporate governance is now a key concern in China's banking sector. Its importance is related to the important policy questions of how to foster economic growth without increasing inflation in an environment where monetary guidance does not function in a conventional manner and there exist few constraints on bank lending. Under such an environment top-down best practice models offer considerable
The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in publicsector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys.
Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector. PMID:22763126
The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…
Criminologists bemoan their lack of influence on U.S. crime policy, believing that the justice system would be improved if their research findings were more central in decision making. I had an opportunity to test that notion as I participated in California's historic attempt to reform its prisons over the past 4 years. I became an embedded criminologist, where I was
|Examines data on same-sex relations in girls' reform schools, noting the invisibility of gay and lesbian lives in most educational research. Discusses difficulties with terminology, institutional efforts to curb girls' relationships and sexual behavior, the girls' creation of an alternative family structure, love letters, and interracial…
Dominant social, economic, and political philosophies manifested in the recent debate over the University of Costa Rica general studies curriculum reforms are discussed. It is concluded that the debate is really about the university's role in an environment that values privatization, individual (contrasted with social) benefits of higher…
|The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…
|This article uses the consolidated school system of the city of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County (North Carolina) as a strategic case study to theorize more fully the corporate role in contemporary school reform. It provides an integrative analysis of corporate participation in educational policy formation and implementation. After providing…
Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them.
In the early 1830s, the Philadelphia publisher Henry H. Porter rapidly published five journals, six books, and an almanac, works having a particular emphasis on health and personal hygiene. Porter's health publications linked the traditional message about the importance of personal hygiene to health to the messages conveyed by the flourishing American reform movements at the time, and his Journal of Health was among the first American medically oriented periodicals published for the layperson. Yet Porter did not survive in the intensely competitive and financially unstable book trade. This study examines Porter's health publications, attempting to explain why he chose to publish what he did, the message(s) his works contained, the audience(s) he tried to reach, and the failure of his business. PMID:11609080
Features comments from Robert L. Hampel, William R. Johnson, Diane Ravitch, and David N. Plank on David Tyack and Larry Cuban's book, "Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform." The book argues that educational reformers in the 20th century have attempted large-scale systemic reforms instituted from the top down. (MJP)
The tensions between the administrative reform plans and their impact on effectiveness and legitimation of the politico-administrative system have both theoretically and practically been important and interesting questions in administrative sciences. The aim of this article is firstly to give a comprehensive evaluation summary of the profile and success or failure of the administrative reforms in the 1990's in Finland.
On March 1, 2000, the European Commission, the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation, adopted a White Paper that sets out a specific Action Plan for reform and modernization of the Commission. These reforms were drawn up in the wake of scandal and the resignation en masse of the Commission one year ago. The Action Plan includes a timetable specifying target dates for each of the changes, which should be completed by the second half of 2002. At the site, users can read the full text of the White Paper in .pdf format, related press releases and speeches, and brief summaries of the proposed changes in five key areas: Ethics, Human Resources, Financial Management, Priorities and Resources, and A Culture based on service. The site will soon be available in eleven languages.
Background The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the publicsector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Results Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Conclusions Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS and private patients both had misconceptions about acupuncture in the other sector. Future research should evaluate whether the differences we identified in patients' experiences across private and public healthcare are common, whether they translate into significant differences in clinical outcomes, and whether similar faces of consumerism characterise patients' experiences of other interventions in the private and publicsectors.
Criminologists bemoan their lack of influence on U.S. crime policy, believing that the justice system would be improved if\\u000a their research findings were more central in decision making. I had an opportunity to test that notion as I participated in\\u000a California’s historic attempt to reform its prisons over the past 4 years. I became an embedded criminologist, where I was able
Musculoskeletal disorders constitute a considerable public health problem, often resulting in sickness absence, particularly in publicsector employees. Increased knowledge on how this is related to individual and work-related factors is required. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported musculoskeletal pain and the following factors: physical and psychosocial work conditions, lifestyle, psychosomatic symptoms and sick leave. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed by a total of 2523 people, of which 87% were women and 13% men. The participants were employed in public hospitals, educational institutions, home care services for the elderly and domestic/catering services in a Swedish county. The response rate was 92%. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the high level of self-reported musculoskeletal pain was highly associated with strenuous physical and psychosocial work conditions. The physical factor with the highest odds ratio (OR) was working in a forward-bent position. High work demands was the most prominent psychosocial factor and distinctly associated with musculoskeletal pain among men. Physical work strain and other demanding working conditions, which were associated with musculoskeletal pain, were frequent among employees in home care services for the elderly and domestic/catering services. There was a strong association between long-term sick leave and high musculoskeletal pain. Furthermore, there was a strong association between a high level of musculoskeletal pain and the exhibition of psychosomatic symptoms in both women and men; this is an interaction that may intensify the total experience of illness and thus needs to be further investigated. PMID:17264418
This article examines the major political challenges associated with the adoption of health reform proposals, through the experience of one country, the Dominican Republic. The article briefly presents the problems of the health sector in the Dominican Republic, and the health reform efforts that were initiated in 1995. The PolicyMaker method of applied political analysis is described, and the results of its application in the Dominican Republic are presented, including analysis of the policy content of the health reform, and assessment of five key groups of players (publicsector, private sector, unions, political parties, and other non-governmental organizations). The PolicyMaker exercise was conducted in collaboration with the national Office of Technical Coordination (OCT) for health reform, and produced a set of 11 political strategies to promote the health reform effort in the Dominican Republic. These strategies were partially implemented by the OCT, but were insufficient to overcome political obstacles to the reform by late 1997. The conclusion presents six factors that affect the pace and political feasibility of health reform proposals, with examples from the case of the Dominican Republic. PMID:10538715
This article explores the potential role of low-wage service sector unions in engaging in equity-minded school reform. The members of many such unions are parents of children attending poorly resourced public schools. In seeking to address the interests of their members, labor unions can draw upon resources, organizing strategies, and political…
|This paper distinguishes two pathways in the various proposals for innovative reforms of publicsector agricultural extension. The two "pathways" involve the participatory trends toward democratization and farmer association and, in contrast, the push toward capitalistic commercial attitudes toward agriculture as business. The introduction…
The water sector is dependent on effective institutions and organisations, and, therefore, on strong competences at the individual level. In this paper we describe competence formation and competence needs in a case study of the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR) in the Ministry of Public Works in Indonesia. A framework is introduced for the water sector comprising three aggregate competences for technical issues, management, and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both surveys and interviews reveal a strong perceived requirement for other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. Further, a discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that can be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With low competence in these fields, it is difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in a multidisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this is partially compensated by the attention to continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is experienced as fundamentally formative.
India embarked on a strategy of economic reforms in the wake of a serious balance-ofpayments crisis in 1991. A central plank of the reforms was reform in the financial sector and, with banks being the mainstay of financial intermediation, the banking sector. The objective of the banking sectorreforms was to promote a diversified, efficient and competitive financial system with
|As a school reform effort, the New York City Public Broadcasting Station Thirteen/WNET, Texaco Inc., and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting's National Teacher Training Institute for Math, Science and Technology has completed five years of operation, during which thousands of teachers received training at sites across the country. Follow-up…
The paper discusses the first experience with the operationalization of the Governance Approach to Civil Service Reform in the Gambia. It describes how to undertake the upstream diagnostic work required by the governance approach to civil service reform; ...
This paper investigates the existence and character of technological growth diffusionin form of learning spillovers at the sector level of the economy. Based on panel datafor 47 countries during the postwar period the evidence suggests robust statisticalregularities of inter-sectoral learning resulting from a changing structure of demand.The findings further show differences in the magnitude of productivity spilloversacross sectors. In particular,
|Objective: This study uses administrative data to track the first rereports of maltreatment in a low-income, urban child welfare population (n = 4957) while controlling for other public service involvement. Service system involvement is explored across the following sectors: Child Welfare, Income Maintenance, Special Education, Juvenile Court,…
The interface and cooperation of the public and private sector is essential in disaster planning and response at the federal, state and local level. The resources of private industry and the integration of resources from multiple corporations have been proven necessary for effective community and regional responses to large-scale disasters (natural disasters, terrorism, bioterrorism and the threat of a pandemic).
Nancy T. Vineburgh; David M. Benedek; Carol S. Fullerton; Robert K. Gifford; Robert J. Ursano
In an effort to understand how proximal work environment shapes publicsector employees' work attitudes, this study examined how perceptions of psychological climate were related to the extent of affective commitment in three occupational groups: clerical, professional, and managerial\\/executive. Data were gathered from 267 employees in 11 New York State agencies. Results indicated that the strength of association between measures
Innovations in supply chain (SC) management are rapidly spreading in public healthcare sectors across developed countries. In particular, healthcare managers and policymakers view SC innovation as a way to lower costs and improve quality. However, although the related rhetoric is strong, the literature provides little evidence of the benefits and performance of such SC initiatives. Above all, the literature lacks
How have employment relationships changed as government experiences greater and greater exposure to market ebb and flows? How have publicsector managers responded to increasingly dynamic product and labor markets, and to what extent are these responses dictated by regulations and practices surrounding the employer-employee relationship? In this paper, we contrast the institutional contexts of the US and UK, and
In this paper we lay out interim findings and speculate on the implications for practice and theory of integrated criminal justice systems in law enforcement. In doing this we theorize on publicsector information systems and their uses of information and communication technologies as engaging in what we call \\
Outsourcing in the Publicsector has become common practice in the United States and is spreading rapidly in the European Union. When Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) are involved, outsourcing becomes rather complex. In such cases, a clear definition of the processes to be implemented and a quality assurance monitoring system are crucial factors for success. In addition, globalization, world
Vassilis Loumos; George Christonakis; Girgios Mpardis; Panagiota Tziova
The paper studies budgetary, financial and monetary policy evaluationand design using a comprehensive wealth or permanent income accounting framework. A set of stylized balance sheets and permanent income accountsis constructed for the public, private and overseas sectors.These are then contrasted with the conventionally measured balance sheet and flow of funds accounts. This permits a new look at the issues of
Within the literature on decision -making, information and communication technologies (ICT) and associated theories such as the Information Richness Theory (Daft and Lengel, 1986), there is little focus on the urgent decision-making process, particularly the role of ICT in these situations. This paper examines how members of a senior management team in the New Zealand publicsector make decisions in
Research Question: What are the key factors that shape the decision-making frameworks of Australian publicsector organizations in developing risk management strategies to address possible disasters arising from Information System (IS) failures? Subsidiary questions arising from this, and which will help further focus the study, are: Do these factors vary across organizational and industry contexts? How is preparedness to deal
Naveen Sharma; Paul Couchman; Zoe Wong; Luke Houghton
Background: As international efforts to increase the coverage of artemisinin-based combination therapy in public health sectors gather pace, concerns have been raised regarding their continued indiscriminate presumptive use for treating all childhood fevers. The availability of rapid-diagnostic tests to support practical and reliable parasitological diagnosis provides an opportunity to improve the rational treatment of febrile children across Africa. However, the
Peter W. Gething; Viola C. Kirui; Victor A. Alegana; Emelda A. Okiro; Abdisalan M. Noor; Robert W. Snow
Software systems are evolving all the time. Important decisions are needed to make whether to modernize a system or totally replace it. Group decisions have become popular also in this kind of decision-making. In this study we are interested why groups are used. We also want to find out are there any differences in public and private sector decisions. Our
This article presents research findings into the effectiveness of an innovative equity fund approach to improving access to publicsector health services for the poor in Kirivong Operational Health District in Cambodia. The operational health district is the lowest organizational level in the Cambodian health system, providing services through health centres and a single referral hospital. An equity fund involves
|This qualitative study looks at the leadership perceptions and practices of career professionals in the publicsector across three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Ghana and Madagascar). All participants were alumni of the Humphrey Fellowship program, a year-long mid-career fellowship in the United States for professional development…
Objective: One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in
The ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it, assimilate it, transform, and exploit it, namely its absorptive capacity (AC), has been much researched in the context of commercial organisations and even applied to national innovation. This paper considers four key AC-related concepts and their relevance to publicsector organisations with mandates to manage and conserve freshwater ecosystems for the common good. The concepts are the importance of in-house prior related knowledge, the importance of informal knowledge transfer, the need for motivation and intensity of effort, and the importance of gatekeepers. These concepts are used to synthesise guidance for a way forward in respect of such freshwater management and conservation, using the imminent release of a specific scientific conservation planning and management tool in South Africa as a case study. The tool comprises a comprehensive series of maps that depict national freshwater ecosystem priority areas for South Africa. Insights for implementing agencies relate to maintaining an internal science, rather than research capacity; making unpublished and especially tacit knowledge available through informal knowledge transfer; not underestimating the importance of intensity of effort required to create AC, driven by focussed motivation; and the potential use of a gatekeeper at national level (external to the implementing organisations), possibly playing a more general 'bridging' role, and multiple internal (organisational) gatekeepers playing the more limited role of 'knowledge translators'. The role of AC as a unifying framework is also proposed. PMID:21431779
Murray, K; Roux, D J; Nel, J L; Driver, A; Freimund, W
Turkmenistan has implemented significant reforms in agriculture, increasing the size of the household plot sector, enabling the emergence of independent private farms, and most importantly individualizing to a certain extent the production arrangements in former collective farms through the introduction of leasehold contracts. Yet the policies underlying these reforms are not entirely consistent: state orders are retained for the main
Abstract We investigated reasons for clinical follow-up and treatment discontinuation among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a public-sector clinic and in a workplace clinic in South Africa. Participants in a larger cohort study who had discontinued clinical care by the seventh month of treatment were traced using previously provided locator information. Those located were administered a semistructured questionnaire regarding reasons for discontinuing clinical follow-up. Participants who had discontinued antiretroviral therapy were invited to participate in further in-depth qualitative interviews. Fifty-one of 144 (35.4%) in the workplace cohort had discontinued clinical follow-up by the seventh month of treatment. The median age of those who discontinued follow-up was 46 years and median educational level was five years. By contrast, only 16.5% (44/267) of the public-sector cohort had discontinued follow-up. Among them the median age was 37.5 years and median education was 11 years. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 workplace participants and 10 public-sector participants. The main reasons for attrition in the workplace were uncertainty about own HIV status and above the value of ART, poor patient–provider relationships and workplace discrimination. In the publicsector, these were moving away and having no money for clinic transport. In the workplace, efforts to minimize the time between testing and treatment initiation should be balanced with the need to provide adequate baseline counseling taking into account existing concepts about HIV and ART. In the publicsector, earlier diagnosis and ART initiation may help to reduce early mortality, while links to government grants may reduce attrition.
Kielmann, Karina; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan S.; Hamilton, Robin; La Grange, Lettie; Fielding, Katherine L.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.
Background In the rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, many donors have chosen to channel their funds to non-governmental organizations and other private partners rather than publicsector systems. This approach has reinforced a private sector, vertical approach to addressing the HIV epidemic. As progress on stemming the epidemic has stalled in some areas, there is a growing recognition that overall health system strengthening, including health workforce development, will be essential to meet AIDS treatment goals. Mozambique has experienced an especially dramatic increase in disease-specific support over the last eight years. We explored the perspectives and experiences of key Mozambican publicsector health managers who coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad donor-driven projects and agencies. Methods Over a four-month period, we conducted 41 individual qualitative interviews with key Ministry workers at three levels in the Mozambique national health system, using open-ended semi-structured interview guides. We also reviewed planning documents. Results All respondents emphasized the value and importance of international aid and vertical funding to the health sector and each highlighted program successes that were made possible by recent increased aid flows. However, three serious concerns emerged: 1) difficulties coordinating external resources and challenges to local control over the use of resources channeled to international private organizations; 2) inequalities created within the health system produced by vertical funds channeled to specific services while other sectors remain under-resourced; and 3) the exodus of health workers from the publicsector health system provoked by large disparities in salaries and work. Conclusions The Ministry of Health attempted to coordinate aid by implementing a “sector-wide approach” to bring the partners together in setting priorities, harmonizing planning, and coordinating support. Only 14% of overall health sector funding was channeled through this coordinating process by 2008, however. The vertical approach starved the Ministry of support for its administrative functions. The exodus of health workers from the publicsector to international and private organizations emerged as the issue of greatest concern to the managers and health workers interviewed. Few studies have addressed the growing phenomenon of “internal brain drain” in Africa which proved to be of greater concern to Mozambique’s health managers.
In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the publicsector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability. PMID:22452959
Managed behavioral health care is increasingly being used in public mental health systems. While supporters cite potential benefits, critics describe dire consequences for individuals with serious, long-term mental illness. The situation has parallels with the major changes resulting from deinstitutionalization some four decades ago. Believing that analyzing history may prevent repeating some of its mistakes, the authors compare the antecedents, benefits, and negative effects of deinstitutionalization with those of the public-sector managed behavioral health care systems being developed today. Lessons learned from the earlier era include the need for careful general and technical planning; for assignment of responsibility, including monitoring, to the publicsector; and for a focus on clients and the special needs generated by severe mental illnesses. PMID:11821546
The purpose of the study was to investigate perceptions of 109 elementary school principals and 103 assistant principals regarding seven reform initiatives that occurred in Detroit Public Schools from 1998 to 2000 in terms of whether they had met their intended purpose of improving student achievement and if they were effective. The focus of the study was on: establishment of
|"Between Public and Private" examines an innovative approach to school district management that has been adopted by a number of urban districts in recent years: a portfolio management model, in which "a central office oversees a portfolio of schools offering diverse organizational and curricular themes, including traditional public schools,…
Bulkley, Katrina E., Ed.; Henig, Jeffrey R., Ed.; Levin, Henry M., Ed.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a major achievement in improving access to health care services. However, evidence indicates that the nation could achieve greater improvements in health outcomes, at a lower cost, by shifting its focus to public health. By focusing nearly exclusively on health care, policy makers have chronically starved public health of adequate and stable
Lawrence O. Gostin; Peter D. Jacobson; Katherine L. Record; Lorian E. Hardcastle
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 greatly restricts the provision of many federal, state, and local public services to undocumented immigrants. These restrictions have prompted intense debates about the provision of free and discounted primary and preventive health care-services and have placed significant burdens on institutions that serve large undocumented immigrant populations. Intended to serve as a tool for reducing illegal immigration and protecting public resources, federal restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to publicly financed health services unduly burden health care providers and threaten the public's health. These deleterious effects warrant the public health community's support of strategies designed to sustain provision of health services irrespective of immigration status. PMID:14534212
Background: Associations between traffic noise and sleep problems have been detected in experimental studies, but population-level evidence is scarce. Objectives: We studied the relationship between the levels of nighttime traffic noise and sleep disturbances and identified vulnerable population groups. Methods: Noise levels of nighttime–outdoor traffic were modeled based on the traffic intensities in the cities of Helsinki and Vantaa, Finland. In these cities, 7,019 publicsector employees (81% women) responded to postal surveys on sleep and health. We linked modeled outdoor noise levels to the residences of the employees who responded to the postal survey. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of noise levels with subjectively assessed duration of sleep and symptoms of insomnia (i.e., difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night, waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep). We also used stratified models to investigate the possibility of vulnerable subgroups. Results: For the total study population, exposure to levels of nighttime–outside (Lnight, outside) traffic noise > 55 dB was associated with any insomnia symptom ? 2 nights per week [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.65]. Among participants with higher trait anxiety scores, which we hypothesized were a proxy for noise sensitivity, the ORs for any insomnia symptom at exposures to Lnight, outside traffic noises 50.1–55 dB and > 55 dB versus ? 45 dB were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.80) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.42), respectively. Conclusions: Nighttime traffic noise levels > 50 dB Lnight, outside was associated with insomnia symptoms among persons with higher scores for trait anxiety. For the total study population, Lnight, outside > 55 dB was positively associated with any symptoms.
The integration of quality management initiatives, particularly total quality management (TQM), and ergonomics has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Above all, the question of how TQM programs relate to ergonomic aspects of organizational design and culture is at the center of this discussion. This study examines how elements of a "typical", Deming-inspired, TQM program in the publicsector interact with the work environment. Elements of the TQM program were defined and measured using the Malcom Baldridge Award criteria. The specific elements examined were "Management Support of Quality", "Information and Analysis", "Human Resources", "Processes and Quality Results", and "Customer Focus and Satisfaction". The relationship between these TQM elements and the work environment were defined through five separate hypotheses. The work environment was described by the constructs "Supervisor Support", "Task Clarity", "Task Orientation", and "Innovation". Data were obtained through survey questionnaires administered to employees of four departments in a municipal government organization. Results supported three of the hypotheses, but produced some unanticipated outcomes with regard to the other two. Namely, "Management Support of Quality" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support", "Task Orientation", "Task Clarity" and "Innovation"; "Human Resources" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support"; "Processes and Quality Results" was significantly related to "Task Orientation" and "Innovation". Contrary to predicted "Information and Analysis" was negatively related to "Innovation", and "Customer Focus" was unrelated to any of the outcome variables. The relationships between these TQM elements and work environment dimensions are discussed. Implications for TQM and ergonomic practice are analyzed, and directions for future research proposed. PMID:12880738
Taveira, Alvaro D; James, Craig A; Karsh, Ben -Tzion; Sainfort, François
To frame the larger research agenda requires an intimate blending of knowledge of the situations of foreign research universities and those of public research universities in the United States. The first step was to bring together for a two-day symposium a group of scholars and practitioners, some with deep and varied knowledge of United States…
|In 2005, the Task Force on Charter School Quality and Accountability issued "Renewing the Compact," a position statement for the charter school sector that presented recommendations for achieving the goals of growth and quality. This report evaluates the sector's progress on those goals and recommends bold actions to capitalize on its successes…
Ableidinger, Joe; Steiner, Lucy; Spong, Angie; Hassel, Bryan C.