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1

Performance Management and Public Sector Reform: The Norwegian Hospital Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the development of new performance management systems related to public sector reforms. One such system is Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR), based on an official OECD model. Such a system tries to establish unambiguous goals, objectivity, and incentive elements into often traditionally trust-based systems embedded in a complex political-administrative context. To analyze such performance management systems

Tom Christensen; Per Laegreid; Inger Marie Stigen

2006-01-01

2

The Public Sector Reform Movement: Mapping the Global Policy Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public sector reform in both developed and developing countries has now become a routine matter of public policy—reform is almost continuous, if not always successful. While the role of international transfer agents such as the World Bank and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in promoting reforms has often been noted, there has been no comprehensive mapping of

Leslie A. Pal; Derek Ireland

2009-01-01

3

Public sector reform in Australia and its impact on libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian public sector, like that in many other countries, has been undergoing substantial reform for more than a decade. The changes, which have been introduced as ways of improving efficiency, effectiveness and accountability, have affected all areas of government operations. The methods for achieving the improvements have involved substantial change in respect of financial management, goal setting and evaluation,

Patricia Willard

1995-01-01

4

Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH)  

PubMed Central

This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH) in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed. PMID:15560841

Lethbridge, Jane

2004-01-01

5

Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

2011-03-01

6

Public sector reform and governance for adaptation: implications of new public management for adaptive capacity in Mexico and Norway.  

PubMed

Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation--namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability--have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform. PMID:21229245

Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

2011-03-01

7

PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND CIVIL SERVICES REFORMS IN PAKISTAN: A STUDY OF PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research interest in the area of performance measurement (PM) in public sector organizations is increasing. The main purpose of the paper is to explore the research interest in the area of performance measurement (PM) in the public sector organizations. Recently, literature on this topic recognized the relevant critique of public sector organizations pivoting around its view of managers and organizations

Rehman Safdar

2012-01-01

8

Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health Sector Reform  

E-print Network

Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health, District Collector, Tiruvannamalai. #12;2 Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Rs. 18 billion to medical & public health, Rs.3.5 billion to family welfare, and Rs.0.482 billion

9

Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.  

PubMed

The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform. PMID:22069793

Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

2011-01-01

10

Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the\\u000a compatibility of “governance-for-adaptation” with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked.\\u000a Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly\\u000a called “New Public Management” (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative

Hallie EakinSiri; Siri Eriksen; Per-Ove Eikeland; Cecilie Øyen

2011-01-01

11

Implementing Montessori Education in the Public Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on implementing Montessori education in the public sector begins with a historical and social overview that reveals the usefulness of Montessori pedagogy as a means of national public school reform. The second chapter discusses equipment needed for Montessori schools, the scope and sequence of curriculum used, and minimal expectations…

Kahn, David, Ed.

12

Public Sector Transformation, Racial Inequality and Downward Occupational Mobility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…

Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.

2013-01-01

13

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece  

E-print Network

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

Feigon, Brooke

14

Trajectories of Reform: Public Management Change in Four Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is fashionable to think there is a tide, or sequence, of basically similar public management changes sweeping through Western Europe, North America and Australasia, and British ministers have proclaimed that the UK is an admired and copied leader in public sector reforms. This article argues that a uniform ‘one-track’ picture is not at all accurate. Looking at 15 years

Christopher Pollitt; Hilkka Summa

1997-01-01

15

Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

Monahan, Amy B.

2010-01-01

16

Effects of Egyptian economic reforms: the horticultural sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to analyze the impacts of the economic policy reforms on the Egyptian horticultural sector. Data were collected over a 5-year period before major economic reforms (1981–85) and over the latest 5-year period since the reforms (1990–94). Data include cultivated area, yield, production, consumption, imports, and exports for the most important Egyptian fruit and vegetable

Gregory R. Pautsch; Ali H. Abdelrahman

1998-01-01

17

Trade Liberalization, Market Reforms and Competitiveness of Indian Dairy Sector  

E-print Network

From chronic shortages of milk, India has emerged today as the largest producer of milk in the world crossing 80 million tonnes. This has been achieved largely through a smallholder economy in which Operation Flood, one of the worlds largest dairy development programme, played an important role. All this happened largely under autarkic framework and regulated public policy dictated by import-substitution strategy. Until 1991, the Indian dairy industry was highly regulated and protected through quantitative restrictions (QRs) and stringent licensing provisions. Since early 1990s, India embarked upon liberal policy framework, which got reinforced with the signing of Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) in 1994. This opening-up increasingly exposed the Indian dairy sector to the global markets, which in-turn are distorted by export subsidies, domestic support and prohibitive tariffs in developed countries. This raises several issues: negotiations, given scores of distortions that plague the world dairy markets? promote its competitiveness in a fast globalizing world? This study responds to these issues by empirically mapping the competitiveness of Indian dairy sector over the period 1975-2000 and delineating policy options for international negotiations and more importantly, domestic policy reforms, given Indias commitments to the WTO. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................... 1 II. INDIAN DAIRY SECTOR........................................................................................... 3 Characteristics of Indian Dairy Sector .................................................................... 3 Policy Environment ............

Vijay Paul Sharma; Ashok Gulati

2003-01-01

18

Health sector reform and reproductive health in Latin America and the Caribbean: strengthening the links.  

PubMed Central

Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are currently reforming their national health sectors and also implementing a comprehensive approach to reproductive health care. Three regional workshops to explore how health sector reform could improve reproductive health services have revealed the inherently complex, competing, and political nature of health sector reform and reproductive health. The objectives of reproductive health care can run parallel to those of health sector reform in that both are concerned with promoting equitable access to high quality care by means of integrated approaches to primary health care, and by the involvement of the public in setting health sector priorities. However, there is a serious risk that health reforms will be driven mainly by financial and/or political considerations and not by the need to improve the quality of health services as a basic human right. With only limited changes to the health systems in many Latin American and Caribbean countries and a handful of examples of positive progress resulting from reforms, the gap between rhetoric and practice remains wide. PMID:10859860

Langer, A.; Nigenda, G.; Catino, J.

2000-01-01

19

Fuzzy MCDM approach to R&D project evaluation in Taiwan’s public sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most industrialized countries, the role of public sectors has been undergoing massive changes in the past several decades. One of the major reformations in public sectors is the pursuit of the ability to distinguish between executive performances. Thus establishing a performance-oriented evaluation in public sectors is the key to successful administrations. However, because of lacking relative comparable measuring standards,

Wen-Hsiang Lai; Pao-Long Chang; Ying-Chyi Chou

2008-01-01

20

Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its publication in 2000, Public Management Reform has established itself as the standard text in the field, presenting a comparative analysis of recent changes in Public Management and Public Administration in a range of countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. This completely rewritten second edition radically expands, develops, and updates the original. Two countries have been added to

Christopher Pollitt; Geert Bouckaert

2000-01-01

21

The influence of health sector reform and external assistance in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Despite health reform and increasing public investment in the health sector, utilization of curative health services, immunization coverage and patient satisfaction with the public health care system are steadily decreasing in Burkina Faso. It seems that the health care system itself is "ill". This paper examines the major symptoms associated with this illness. The central thesis suggests that any further improvement of health care performance in Burkina Faso will be subject to profound central reform in the area of human resources and financial management of the sector. Such a broad reform package cannot be achieved through the current project approach, but a sector-wide approach (SWAp) does not seem to be realistic at the present time. Policy discussions at a level higher than the Ministry of Health could be beneficial for achieving better donor coordination and increasing the commitment of the Ministry of Health to a sector-wide approach. Health sector reform issues and priorities and the role of international cooperation are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11238434

Bodart, C; Servais, G; Mohamed, Y L; Schmidt-Ehry, B

2001-03-01

22

Health Reform.online: Health Sector Reform, Health Economics and Sustainable Financing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Bank's Economic Development Institute has recently developed Health Reform.online to provide distance education opportunities for those interested in "health sector reform, health economics or sustainable financing." The site will house educational modules based on EDI's Health Sector Reform and Sustainable Financing training program. The first module, "Introduction to the concepts and analytical tools of health sector reform and financing," includes lessons, case studies, interactive exercises, suggested readings, an extensive glossary, and a course outline. Future EDI training opportunities will be announced at the site. A Library section allows browsing and searching of abstracts or the full-text of over 500,000 pages of World Bank health documents on health projects in developing countries. Note, to view the full-text documents, users will need to download the Prizm plug-in, available at the site. EDI plans to add links to regional partner institute Websites and courses, in the future.

23

Development Gateway: Public Sector Transparency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This particular site casts an eye on the question of transparency in governmental transactions through interviews with leaders from a broad range of sectors, along with allowing space for individual feedback. The "Points of View" section is a good place to start, as it includes commentary from government officials from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Tanzania about the question of public sector transparency. Other sections on the site address such thorny questions as "What tools help sustain public sector transparency?" and "What practices promote public-private partnerships?" Those visual learners coming to visit the site may appreciate the gallery of charts that offer indicators of levels of governance and transparency for more than 209 countries.

24

Health sector reforms for 21st century healthcare  

PubMed Central

The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40–70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of “integrative healthcare” because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

Shankar, Darshan

2015-01-01

25

Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.  

PubMed

The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

Shankar, Darshan

2015-01-01

26

First Generation Indian External Sector Reforms in Context  

E-print Network

India's first generation external sector reforms are a fascinating case study of emergence from a post-Independence socialist-style economy to the world’s largest free market democracy. Part I of this article reviews the Indian license Raj system...

Bhala, Raj

2013-01-01

27

The Clean Development Mechanism and Power Sector Reforms in Developing  

E-print Network

in the Medium Term 19 ­ 21 May, 2003 #12;Structure of the presentation: I. Introduction II. The Kyoto Protocol facilitate the development and implementation for the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol the power sector reform experiences in Chile, the Philippines and Kenya? #12;II. The Kyoto Protocol

28

Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms: A Practitioner's Guide to Pension, Health, Labor Market, Public Sector Downsizing, Taxation, Decentralization and Macroeconomic Modeling (Volume 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the distributional impact of policy reforms on the well-being or welfare of different stakeholder groups, particularly on the poor and vulnerable, has an important role in the elaboration and implementation of poverty reduction strategies in developing countries. In recent years this type of work has been labeled as Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) and is increasingly

Aline Coudouel; Stefano Paternostro

29

Publicity as an Instrument of Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Albert Einstein and the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS) conducted a reform-based public communication campaign for the international control of atomic energy after the Second World War. The Committee raised funds and sought publicity for its proposed solution to the problem of war and the management of peace. Its solution was the…

Caudill, Susan

30

Reinventing VAT collection : industry vertical assessment, revenue increase, and public sector reliability  

E-print Network

This dissertation shows how administrative reforms of the State Tax Administration Bureaus (STABs) in Brazil between 1997 and 2005 contributed to strengthening public sector bureaucracies and institutions at the sub-national ...

Pinhanez, Monica F. (Monica Fornitani)

2008-01-01

31

The "Third Sector" and Education Reform: Some Metaphors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because their resources are inadequate, philanthropic foundations cannot bring about educational reform by themselves. Foundations are best when serving as midwives, parking garages, conversations pits, burning glasses (to focus thought), levers, and lighthouse tenders. The American people are responsible for acting voluntarily to support public

Cole, Bob

1990-01-01

32

Public Administration Reforms: Before and After Democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the micro politics, the complexity of the “public management”, polity and policies, is the same of the “private management” or the management of the others sectors of the social production reality. The science of management it is not defined by products, functions, sectors and so on, as occurs in the economic as discipline with it focus on finance or

J. Albuquerque Martins

2008-01-01

33

Financial Management Reforms in the Health Sector: A Comparative Study Between Cash-based and Accrual-based Accounting Systems  

PubMed Central

Background: Financial management and accounting reform in the public sectors was started in 2000. Moving from cash-based to accrual-based is considered as the key component of these reforms and adjustments in the public sector. Performing this reform in the health system is a part of a bigger reform under the new public management. Objectives: The current study aimed to analyze the movement from cash-based to accrual-based accounting in the health sector in Iran. Patients and Methods: This comparative study was conducted in 2013 to compare financial management and movement from cash-based to accrual-based accounting in health sector in the countries such as the United States, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Iran. Library resources and reputable databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL and SID, and Iranmedex were searched. Fish cards were used to collect the data. Data were compared and analyzed using comparative tables. Results: Developed countries have implemented accrual-based accounting and utilized the valid, reliable and practical information in accrual-based reporting in different areas such as price and tariffs setting, operational budgeting, public accounting, performance evaluation and comparison and evidence based decision making. In Iran, however, only a few public organizations such as the municipalities and the universities of medical sciences use accrual-based accounting, but despite what is required by law, the other public organizations do not use accrual-based accounting. Conclusions: There are advantages in applying accrual-based accounting in the public sector which certainly depends on how this system is implemented in the sector.

Abolhallaje, Masoud; Jafari, Mehdi; Seyedin, Hesam; Salehi, Masoud

2014-01-01

34

The aftermath of health sector reform in the Republic of Georgia: effects on people's health.  

PubMed

After the collapse of the Former Soviet Union a health reform process was undertaken in Georgia beginning in 1994. This process was intended to encompass all aspects of the health-care sector and to transform the Soviet-style health system into one that was directed towards quality of care, improved access, efficiency, and a strengthened focus on Primary Health Care (PHC). Health sector reform fundamentally changed the ways health care is financed in Georgia. There has been a transition to program-based financing, and payroll-tax-based social insurance schemes have been introduced. Despite these measures, the performance of the health system is still disappointing. All health programs are severely under-funded, and when the majority of the population is unemployed or self-employed, collection of taxes seems impossible. Overall, Georgian consumers are uninformed about the basic principles of health reforms and their entitlements and therefore do not support them. The analysis introduced in this paper of the current situation in Georgia establishes that the rush to insurance-based medicine was more a rush from the previous system than a well-thought-out policy direction. After 70 years of a Soviet rule, the country had no institutional capacity to provide insurance-based health care. To achieve universal coverage, or at least ensure that the majority of the population has access to basic health services, government intervention is essential. In addition, educating the public on reforms would allow the reform initiators to fundamentally change the nature of the reform process from a "top-down" centralized process to one that is demand-driven and collaborative. PMID:12705312

Collins, Téa

2003-04-01

35

Proposed Public Sector Bargaining Legislation for Colorado.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for a public sector collective bargaining statute in Colorado and analyzes the issues that must be addressed in effective public sector collective bargaining legislation. Available from University of Colorado Law Review, Inc., Fleming Law Building, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. (Author/IRT)

Gregory, Mary Volk

1979-01-01

36

Implementing change in public sector organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the importance of various change principles in assisting change in three public sector organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The researchers carried out interviews and used focus groups in assessing the principles and strategies which would be more useful. Findings – The interview and focus group results in three public sector organizations suggest

J. Barton Cunningham; James S. Kempling

2009-01-01

37

Accelerated reforms in healthcare financing: the need to scale up private sector participation in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government’s commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage. PMID:24596895

Ejughemre, Ufuoma John

2014-01-01

38

Private Sector Involvement in Urban School Reform. Emerging Themes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents findings on the impact of privatization to date at a meeting at the Ford Foundation co hosted by the William Penn Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, and Ford. Increasingly, the private sector (both for-profit and non-profit) is providing resources and alternative delivery models for urban public schools. Beyond…

Research for Action, 2004

2004-01-01

39

Public sector efficiency: An international comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute public sector performance (PSP) and public sector efficiency (PSE) indicators, comprising a composite and seven sub-indicators, for 23 industrialised countries. The first four sub-indicators are “opportunity” indicators that take into account administrative, education and health outcomes and the quality of public infrastructure and that support the rule of law and a level playing-field in a market economy. Three

António Afonso; Ludger Schuknecht; Vito Tanzi

2005-01-01

40

The Progressive Era: The Limits of Reform. Public Issues Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is part of a series designed to help students take and defend a position on public issues. In this unit, the progressive era, a major reform period in U.S. history that stretched from about 1900 to 1915 is discussed. The book suggests that large scale reform is difficult to achieve because reformers often assume that their interests,…

Giese, James R.

41

Public Opinion and Health Care Reform for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issue Editor's Note Public opinion will play an important role in shaping health care reform in this country. Thus polls that attempt to measure the strength and direction of public opinion have become one focus of the debate over health care reform. Until very recently, however, children were not the focus of much public opinion research. While a great deal

Susan Nall Bales

1993-01-01

42

The “MATE” model: a strategic knowledge management technique on the chessboard of public-sector modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades a variety of reforms and projects under the mantle of public-sector modernization were developed in order to achieve efficiency, effectiveness, economy and quality in service delivery. Despite the overwhelming consensus that public organizations must transform there is little evidence on how to pursue modernization successfully. This paper argues that modernization is tantamount to creating a

Tatiana Sotirakou; Mary Zeppou

2004-01-01

43

Business process management: public sector implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business process management has received much attention in the industrial engineering and management literature, and its benefits are well known. Much less has been written in the public sector management literature, and what has been written has been very general. Hence, there is confusion among public managers about how business process management concepts should be implemented. How should public organizations

Thomas R. Gulledge Jr; Rainer A. Sommer

2002-01-01

44

Human resource management in the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is said that the practice of industrial relations in the private sector has been transformed over the past decade. An approach to people management that seeks commitment from employees, and not merely their compliance, has been created. How far can this analysis be applied to the public sector?

John Storey

1989-01-01

45

Vital Voices: Building Constituencies for Public School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the insights and experiences of activists who build strong constituencies to reform public schools. It presents data from a 2-year study involving the seven primary constituency and coalition building grantees of the Ford Foundation's Constituency Building for Public School Reform Initiative. Data were collected from 14…

Hirota, Janice M.; Jacobs, Lauren E.

46

2008 Public Sector Cucumber Research Priority Survey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In December 2008, a national wide survey was conducted to identify priorities for cucumber research in the public sector. The questions in the survey were in four categories: diseases, insects, abiotic stresses and other issues. The survey was sent to cucumber-related researchers in the public insti...

47

Deregulating and regulatory reform in the U.S. electric power sector  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the evolution of wholesale and retail competition in the U.S electricity sector and associated industry restructuring and regulatory reforms. It begins with a discussion of the industry structure and ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2000-01-01

48

Urban Public School Libraries and Educational Reform: The Case of the Detroit Public Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the implications of school reform on school libraries using the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) as a case study in urban librarianship. A literature review on the role and impact of school librarians in K-12 education is included to help illustrate the role of school libraries in public school reform. Two DPS reforms are selected for closer evaluation:

Kafi D Kumasi

2010-01-01

49

Reformers and Reform: Towards Free Public Libraries in Victoria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Victorian Free Library Service Board Act" of 1946 was the culmination of a long campaign to replace the mechanics' institute model of library provision with free libraries funded by state and local government. Given that library reform required legislation by the state government, this paper is mainly concerned with the political campaign…

Barker, Donald

2007-01-01

50

Customer Orientation and Management Control in the Public Sector: A Garbage Can Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent public sector reforms have increasingly tended to re-cast citizens as ‘customers’. This paper explores the implications of such customer orientation efforts for management control based on a field study in a Swedish central government agency. We extend prior research on this topic, informed by critical and institutional theories, with insights from the garbage can literature and focus on a

Fredrika Wiesel; Sven Modell; Jodie Moll

2010-01-01

51

Customer Orientation and Management Control in the Public Sector: A Garbage Can Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent public sector reforms have increasingly tended to re-cast citizens as ‘customers’. This paper explores the implications of such customer orientation efforts for management control based on a field study in a Swedish central government agency. We extend prior research on this topic, informed by critical and institutional theories, with insights from the garbage can literature and focus on a

Fredrika Wiesel; Sven Modell; Jodie Moll

2011-01-01

52

How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

2014-01-01

53

Friends, Enemies, or Strangers? On Relationships between Public and Private Sector Service Providers in Hybrid Forms of Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid forms of governance receive special attention in literature on regulatory reforms. It is often assumed that a combination of public and private sector involvement in a regulatory regime is superior to “pure public” or “pure private” regimes. By paying close attention to such hybrids, this article finds that hybrids have two key dimensions: first, the “amount” of public and

JEROEN VAN DER HEIJDEN

2011-01-01

54

Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

Williamson, Ben

2014-01-01

55

Union\\/Nonunion Wage Gaps in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much variation in the union\\/nonunion wage gap across groups of workers within each of the two sectors, public and private. Furthermore, the variation in the public sector does not parallel, in all of its detail, that in the private sector. Thus, though the public-sector gaps typically are somewhat below their private-sector counterparts, there are important exceptions to this

H. Gregg Lewis

1990-01-01

56

Performance evaluation of employes in public sector banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Importance of PAS (Performance appraisal System) are emphasizing asBig Public sector banks, Medium Public sector banks and Small Public sector banks. It is only through proper implementation of Performance Management System, quality workforce can be retained. Usually a separate Independent Agency is appointed to evaluate the performance of the employees which is usually carried out online. The returns are

Manjula Patnaik; Balachandra Pattanaik

2012-01-01

57

Gaining perspectives: the future of TQM in public sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overwhelming body of evidence concludes that the private sectors provide better quality service than the public sectors. Such findings may well exacerbate the belief of the general public, but, as shown in this article, the progress made in many public sector organisations in many parts of the world point towards a new beginning. Notes, for example, that the application

Madhav N. Sinha

1999-01-01

58

Child Poverty, Public Policies and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the articles in this special issue on child poverty, policy, and welfare reform. Introduces and discusses the four major themes addressed by these articles: (1) poverty and economic policies affecting children; (2) consequences of poverty for child well-being; (3) qualitative research on family life and child poverty; and (4) programs…

Danziger, Sandra K.; Danziger, Sheldon

1995-01-01

59

Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments. However, the two most important reform policies – decentralization and privatization – have had a negative impact on the conditions of employment and prompted opposition from organized professionals and unions. In several countries of the region, the workforce became the most important obstacle to successful reform. This article is based on fieldwork and a review of the literature. It discusses the reasons that led health workers to oppose reform; the institutional and legal constraints to implementing reform as originally designed; the mismatch between the types of personnel needed for reform and the availability of professionals; the deficiencies of the reform implementation process; and the regulatory weaknesses of the region. The discussion presents workforce strategies that the reforms could have included to achieve the intended goals, and the need to take into account the values and political realities of the countries. The authors suggest that autochthonous solutions are more likely to succeed than solutions imported from the outside. PMID:15659241

Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

2005-01-01

60

The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health  

PubMed Central

The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms. The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways – reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action. This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them. PMID:14613523

Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

2003-01-01

61

Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments.

Núria Homedes; Antonio Ugalde

2005-01-01

62

Power sector reform and distributed generation in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore, looking at the issue of distributed generation as opposed to grid extension and the role of renewable

John Turkson; Norbert Wohlgemuth

2000-01-01

63

Sector reform impact on rural drinking water schemes -A case study from Raigad district in Maharashtra  

E-print Network

- Sector reform impact on rural drinking water schemes - A case study from Raigad district of Technology, Bombay Abstract: This paper analyses the ground level impact of the national rural drinking water policy in Maharashtra. We observe that compared to what is reflected in the national rural drinking water

Sohoni, Milind

64

Exploring the nexus between banking sector reform and performance: Evidence from newly acceded EU countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between banking sector reform and bank performance – measured in terms of efficiency, total factor productivity growth and net interest margin – accounting for the effects through competition and bank risk-taking. To this end, we develop an empirical model of bank performance, which is consistently estimated using recent econometric techniques.

Sophocles N. Brissimis; Manthos D. Delis; Nikolaos I. Papanikolaou

2008-01-01

65

A General Framework For Understanding 21 Century Public Sector Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a general framework for understanding contemporary public sector organization by examining evolution of thinking in organizational theory tracing back to the late 19 century to the 21 century. The article discusses how public sector organizations across the world are questioning the suitability of the classical bureaucratic model to a more flexible, cross-sectoral, cross-national governance model. Greater emphasis

Vidu Soni

2011-01-01

66

Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting sustainable energy options (e.g., renewable portfolio standards, energy conservation and energy efficien

Kurdgelashvili, Lado

67

French public management reform: an evaluation Gilles Jeannot, Danile Guillemot  

E-print Network

) the relative autonomy of the elite corps of French public servants ii) their very close links with elected representatives and the private sector, and iii) the marked support for public administration and public services characteristics and Chevallier (1996) outlines the role of administrative law only progressively hybridised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Zimbabwe's Public Education System Reforms: Successes and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to discuss Zimbabwe's public education system. First, the article provides a brief look at pre-independence education in Zimbabwe. Second, it discusses some of the reforms that took place in the Zimbabwe education system following independence. Third, it looks at the current structure of Zimbabwe's education system…

Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.

2005-01-01

69

New Public Management in Educational Reform in Norway  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…

Solhaug, Trond

2011-01-01

70

Integrated Governance as a Reform Strategy in the Chicago Public Schools. Publication Series No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decentralization is no longer the dominant reform strategy in the Chicago (Illinois) Public Schools. The Chicago School Reform Amendatory Act of 1995 redesigns the school governance arrangement so that power and authority are now integrated among city officials, school boards, local school councils, and a Chief Executive Officer. To examine how…

Wong, Kenneth K.; Dreeben, Robert; Lynn, Laurence E., Jr.; Sunderman, Gail L.

71

The challenge of hospitals in health sector reform: the case of Zambia.  

PubMed

Zambia underwent a period of health sector reform from 1993 to 1998. The reform attracted substantial support from the World Bank and bilateral donors. While significant achievements were made with respect to decentralization, increased accountability and donor collaboration, the reform stalled in 1998 without having achieved its objectives, largely because of the handling of hospital reform and the civil servants in the health sector. This study was an attempt to analyze this experience with the hospital issue. Service and infrastructure information was collected from all 88 hospitals in the country. Further, information was collected about the social, economic, and political context of the reform. The results show that an historical legacy from the colonial and post-colonial eras has left the country with an expensive and skewed hospital structure that is rapidly deteriorating and very difficult to reform. The referral system is not functioning: higher-level hospitals provide a higher level of care to their immediate catchment populations than is available to the population in general. The reality is thus far from the vision of equity of access to cost-effective quality care. Zambian doctors have either left the country or are concentrated at the highest referral levels in two provinces, leaving the lower levels and most of the country in the hands of expatriate doctors. There are no resources in the government or the private systems to maintain the current hospital infrastructure and things will likely deteriorate unless radical decisions are taken and implemented. The study further shows that the question of hospital reform is a political high-risk zone. If the problems are to be dealt with, the Zambian planners must, together with the politicians, work to create a broad national consensus for understanding the situation, its urgency, and the limited options for forward action. PMID:11772988

Blas, E; Limbambala, M

2001-12-01

72

Policy reform as creative destruction: political and administrative challenges in preserving the public-private mix.  

PubMed

As political pressure for affordable universal coverage intensifies, various proposals have been crafted to improve the system without sacrificing the role of the private sector. Some analysts view the preservation of a mixed public-private system as an exercise in incrementalism, avoiding disquieting departures from familiar arrangements. A review of the political and administrative challenges of several main options--market innovation, tax credits, play or pay, and Medicaid expansion--suggests that the path to true reform is a slippery slope. Over time, changes in particular sectors, such as insurance, employers, government, and providers, will very likely implicate the others too. Although redefining the public-private mix may be more incremental than (say) adoption of a Canadian model, it will also entail considerable "creative destruction" of existing patterns and cannot fail to disturb the institutional status quo substantially. PMID:1612719

Brown, L D

1992-01-01

73

The private sector and public space in Dutch city centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private sector involvement in the design and financing of urban redevelopment projects has been relatively rare in the Netherlands. The public sector has traditionally played a central role in spatial planning and development. Since the 1980s, however, local authorities have been sharing the responsibility for urban development with the private sector. This article explores the viability of claims drawn from

Rianne Van Melik; Irina Van Aalst; Jan Van Weesep

2009-01-01

74

Varieties of new public management? The reform of public service employment relations in the UK and USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses developments in public service employment relations in the UK and USA over the last two decades that are associated with the implementation of new public management (NPM) style reforms. We examine developments in performance management, patterns of wage determination and trade union responses to these reforms. Although there are some similarities in the reform agenda, there are

Stephen Bach; Rebecca Kolins Givan

2011-01-01

75

Health sector reform in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT): targeting the forest or the trees?  

PubMed

Since the signing of the Oslo Peace Accords and the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1994, reform activities have targeted various spheres, including the health sector. Several international aid and UN organizations have been involved, as well as local and international non-governmental organizations, with considerable financial and technical investments. Although important achievements have been made, it is not evident that the quality of care has improved or that the most pressing health needs have been addressed, even before the second Palestinian Uprising that began in September 2000. The crisis of the Israeli re-invasion of Palestinian-controlled towns and villages since April 2002 and the attendant collapse of state structures and services have raised the problems to critical levels. This paper attempts to analyze some of the obstacles that have faced reform efforts. In our assessment, those include: ongoing conflict, frail Palestinian quasi-state structures and institutions, multiple and at times inappropriate donor policies and practices in the health sector, and a policy vacuum characterized by the absence of internal Palestinian debate on the type and direction of reform the country needs to take. In the face of all these considerations, it is important that reform efforts be flexible and consider realistically the political and economic contexts of the health system, rather than focus on mere narrow technical, managerial and financial solutions imported from the outside. PMID:12582108

Giacaman, Rita; Abdul-Rahim, Hanan F; Wick, Laura

2003-03-01

76

Accountability for environmental performance of the Australian Commonwealth public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Takes an exploratory approach to the development of an accountability framework for environmental performance of the Australian Commonwealth public sector. Explains that the aim of the environmental performance accountability framework is for the various stakeholders to understand the actions of Commonwealth public sector organizations and consequences of those actions for ecological systems; to become familiar with the trends and changes

Roger L Burritt; Stephen Welch

1997-01-01

77

A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

Seidman, Joel

78

The Standards Programme of IFAC's Public Sector Committee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains the standard–setting programme of the Public Sector Committee (PSC) of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). It outlines the objectives of the Public Sector Standards Programme and describes the due process adopted by the PSC. It also identifies achievements to date and examines major features of the PSC's current and future work programme.

Paul Sutcliffe

2003-01-01

79

Managing the Public Sector in Hong Kong: Trends and Adjustments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public sector management in Hong Kong was initially designed to rule the territory as a British colony. A number of changes took place in the last quarter century before Hong Kong's reintegration with China and the nature of public sector management has transformed over this period. An overview of administrative principles and practices and an analysis of changes reveal trends

Ahmed Shafiqul Huque

2010-01-01

80

Queensland public sector nurse executives: professional development needs.  

PubMed

In a time of health care reform and rapid change, nurse executives need effective leadership skills to be able to respond to a challenging environment, provide quality cost-effective care and promote the professional development of nursing. This research aimed to provide an understanding of nursing executives' roles and professional development needs and obtain concise information for the development of strategies and professional development programs to enhance the effectiveness of the present and future roles of nursing executives. A descriptive cross-sectional postal survey was sent to all public sector Level 4 and 5 nursing executives in Queensland (n = 281), with a response rate of 52.3% (n = 147). Financial management, human resource management and information technologies were identified as the areas where professional development was most needed. Structured educational activities such as short courses or seminars covering information technology, financial and budget management and general business management were identified as the type of activities best suited to nurse executives' needs. The most frequently reported barriers to professional development were difficulties obtaining relief staff, inadequate time, financial cost and inadequate district manager and regional support to enable access to professional development programs. PMID:12002630

Courtney, Mary; Yacopetti, Jane; James, Catherine; Walsh, Anne; Montgomery, Mary

2002-01-01

81

The Diversity of Citizenship and Democracy in Local Public Management Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article conceptualizes the diversity of citizenship and democracy in urban settings by studying the cultural and discursive structures of local public management reform. The reform in question is founded on the ideas of new public management. It has been suggested that in these kinds of reforms, citizens are transformed into consumers. However, this discursive case study shows that this

Liisa Häikiö

2010-01-01

82

Women in the public sector: cancer mortality.  

PubMed

Very few mortality occupational studies of female workers have been published, even though the number of women in the workforce has increased dramatically to reach more than 45%. Public sector employees comprise 12% of the female workforce. This article reports the findings of a retrospective cohort mortality study of 1371 full-time female employees of the city of Buffalo, New York, who were employed between January 1, 1950, and October 1, 1979, and have worked a minimum of 5 years. The majority of women were hired in the 1940s and early 1950s and began employment after age 30. This predominantly white-collar, service-oriented female cohort demonstrated significantly lower all-cause mortality than that expected based on US mortality rates for white females. The highest observed numbers of cancer deaths were for breast, digestive, and respiratory cancers. The majority of person-years were accrued in clerical and service occupations. Higher-than-expected mortality was shown for reproductive and respiratory cancers among professional employees; digestive cancers, diseases of the nervous system, and pneumonia among clerical workers; and cancers of the lung and brain and diseases of the digestive system, especially ulcers, among service employees. Because these results are based on few observed cases, they must be interpreted cautiously. PMID:7796193

Vena, J E; Petralia, S A

1995-03-01

83

Five Things Education Supporters Should Know about Pension Reform. A Special Education Sector Guide for Legislators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a state legislator, you're well aware of the fiscal pressures that have caused many states to change their pension systems. But you should also be aware of the impact that pension reform has on public education. This brief guide shows you how and why pension programs affect your state's efforts to attract and retain the best teachers. It…

Tucker, Bill

2012-01-01

84

Good governance and budget reform in Lesotho Public Hospitals: performance, root causes and reality.  

PubMed

Lesotho has been implementing financial management reforms, including performance-based budgeting (PBB) since 2005 in an effort to increase accountability, transparency and effectiveness in governance, yet little is known about how these efforts are affecting the health sector. Supported by several development partners and $24 million in external resources, the PBB reform is intended to strengthen government capacity to manage aid funds directly and to target assistance to pressing social priorities. This study designed and tested a methodology for measuring implementation progress for PBB reform in the hospital sector in Lesotho. We found that despite some efforts on the national level to promote and support reform implementation, staff at the hospital level were largely unaware of the purpose of the reform and had made almost no progress in transforming institutions and systems to fully realize reform goals. Problems can be traced to a complex reform design, inadequate personnel and capacity to implement, professional boundaries between financial and clinical personnel and weak leadership. The Lesotho reform experience suggests that less complex designs for budget reform, better adapted to the context and realities of health sectors in developing countries, may be needed to improve governance. It also highlights the importance of measuring reform implementation at the sectoral level. PMID:23293099

Vian, Taryn; Bicknell, William J

2014-09-01

85

Packaging policies to reform the water sector: The case of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing water policies often deviate from measures suggested by economic and environmental analysis. This is particularly true in the case of drought response policies, where effective policies are rarely adopted. This study focuses on how to enhance the political feasibility of options rather than identifying the optimal water policies. It argues that a legislative policy package may be a mechanism both to unite divergent interest groups into a coalition with common policy agendas and also to fragment or realign existing and traditional alliances. This majority building approach may have a greater chance of obtaining the required political support to advance water reforms. The negotiation over the Central Valley Project Improvement Act in California is used as an example. The case study illustrates how the policy packaging strategy split the traditional power alliance between the agricultural sector and the urban sector in California and between the agricultural sector in California and their allies in other U.S. western states. At the same time, policy packaging has created new regional and sectoral advocacy coalitions in support of water reform. As a result, the Bureau of Reclamation changed its policies in the Central Valley in California relating to the establishment of water markets, water pricing, and wildlife restoration fund and allocating water for the environment.

Fischhendler, Itay; Zilberman, David

2005-07-01

86

Health sector reform in central and eastern Europe: the professional dimension.  

PubMed

The success or failure of health sector reform in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe depends, to a large extent, on their health care staff. Commentators have focused on the structures to be put in place, such as mechanisms of financing or changes in ownership of facilities, but less attention has been paid to the role and status of the different groups working in health care services. This paper draws on a study of trends in staffing and working conditions throughout the region. It identifies several key issues including the traditionally lower status and pay of health sector workers compared to the West, the credibility crisis of trade unions, and the under-developed roles of professional associations. In order to implement health sector reforms and to address the deteriorating health status of the population, the health sector workforce has to be restructured and training programmes reoriented towards primary care. Finally, the paper identifies emerging issues such as the erosion of 'workplace welfare' and its adverse effects upon a predominantly female health care workforce. PMID:10176264

Healy, J; Mckee, M

1997-12-01

87

Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community. PMID:19874613

Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

2009-01-01

88

The financial crisis and health care systems in Europe: universal care under threat? Trends in health sector reforms in Germany, the United Kingdom, and Spain.  

PubMed

The paper analyzes trends in contemporary health sector reforms in three European countries with Bismarckian and Beveridgean models of national health systems within the context of strong financial pressure resulting from the economic crisis (2008-date), and proceeds to discuss the implications for universal care. The authors examine recent health system reforms in Spain, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Health systems are described using a matrix to compare state intervention in financing, regulation, organization, and services delivery. The reforms' impacts on universal care are examined in three dimensions: breadth of population coverage, depth of the services package, and height of coverage by public financing. Models of health protection, institutionality, stakeholder constellations, and differing positions in the European economy are factors that condition the repercussions of restrictive policies that have undermined universality to different degrees in the three dimensions specified above and have extended policies for regulated competition as well as commercialization in health care systems. PMID:25493982

Giovanella, Lígia; Stegmüller, Klaus

2014-11-01

89

Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became increasingly clear that governments would keep intervening in the market-place as competition forces alone could not bring the expected economic, technical and political benefits in a vital industry which continued to have particular technical and economic attributes as well as a strong capacity to influence other policy areas.

Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

90

The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.  

PubMed

There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector. PMID:20637908

Potrykus, Ingo

2010-11-30

91

Future Directions for Public Health Education Reforms in India  

PubMed Central

Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching–learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour. PMID:25295242

Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Negandhi, Himanshu; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

2014-01-01

92

Public Policy for the Private Sector: World Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Public Policy for the Private Sector_ is a quarterly journal published by the World Bank's Finance, Private Sector, and Infrastructure Network (FPSI). Recently, new documents concerning Finance, Water, and Post-Privatization Performance have been added to this ongoing collection of policy and case study notes.

93

Interjurisdictional Competition and Innovation in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is competition good for innovation? The industrial-organisation literature has been addressing this question for a long time. This literature has been interested in the private sector of the economy. This paper in contrast poses the question with regard to the public sector. We model a rent-seeking Leviathan government which decides on taxes and on government spending. Government spending is allocated

Michael Rauscher

94

The management of performance in the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having no ‘bottom line’ is no excuse for failing to manage performance. In the private sector, where profits are not known until after the event, managers use measures and indicators of performance. In spite of the technical difficulties, measuring performance must become embedded in the management culture of the public sector if the quality of services is to improve.

Peter Jackson

1988-01-01

95

The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

Brookhart, Susan M.

2013-01-01

96

Redefining "Public" Education: Charter Schools, Common Schools, and the Rhetoric of Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines various claims made by charter-school advocates that charter schools are publicly funded, open to all, are chartered by public entities, and thus are a form of public schooling. It addresses this subject by comparing the rhetoric of Michigan's charter-school reformers with that of the common-school reformers of the 19th…

Lubienski, Chris

97

Does new public management work in reforming the state's role in agricultural marketing in developing countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research investigated the extent to which 'new public management' style reforms (in which the state confines itself to contracting, guiding, facilitating and financing in providing public services, rather than delivering them itself through civil service organizations) are successful in the institutional context of developing countries. Studies of reform of public services to agricultural marketing were conducted in Ghana, India,

Michael Hubbard; Marisol Smith

1999-01-01

98

Essays on the economics of public sector retirement programs  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the influence of retiree health and pension policies on the retirement decisions of public sector employees. Chapter one documents the central role of eligibility for subsidized retiree health ...

Leiserson, Gregory Quick

2013-01-01

99

Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans  

PubMed Central

We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee’s work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers’ need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans. PMID:21789032

BESHEARS, JOHN; CHOI, JAMES J.; LAIBSON, DAVID; MADRIAN, BRIGITTE C.

2011-01-01

100

The theory of economic regulation and public choice and the determinants of public sector bargaining legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we used the theory of economic regulation and public choice to derive a model to explain the pattern of public sector bargaining laws among the states. We find this type of legislation is influenced by the following demand factors: (1) the extent of public sector union membership, which represents the interest group hypothesis, has a positive influence

Melissa Waters; William J. Moore

1990-01-01

101

Why China's economic reforms differ: the M-form hierarchy and entry\\/expansion of the non-state sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's thirteen years of reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical structure based on the functional or specialization

Yingyi Qian; Chenggang Xu

1993-01-01

102

Public Sector Employment, Wage Inequality and the Gender Pay Ratio in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the relative contributions of the different systems of pay determination in the private sector and the public sector toward the changing level of wage inequality and the gender pay ratio in the UK. The greater centralisation of pay arrangements in the public sector compared with the private sector in the UK suggests that public sector employment may

Damian Grimshaw

2000-01-01

103

Utilizing performance measurement to modernize the Greek public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In the context of the Greek public sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors under which performance management and measurement systems (PMMS) work in a functional way and push through the modernization process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents the results of a qualitative research undertaken in the Greek public administration. The STAIR (strategy, targets,

Tatiana Sotirakou; Mary Zeppou

2006-01-01

104

Assignment 4 Information Technology for the Public and Nonprofit Sector  

E-print Network

Assignment 4 Information Technology for the Public and Nonprofit Sector "IT and Web 2.0 Mini and nonprofits over the next decade? What are some of the managerial issues you might be facing down the road of these emerging technologies in public or nonprofit settings. Here are some ideas for projects, but I'm sure you

Schweik, Charles M.

105

Empowering Public Sector Employees to Improve Performance: Does It Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a decade, public organizations have been adopting employee empowerment with the aim of improving performance and job satisfaction and promoting innovativeness. Our understanding of employee empowerment has been hindered by a dearth of empirical research on its uses and consequences in the public sector. Based on Bowen and Lawler’s conceptualization of employee empowerment, this study explores the

Sergio Fernandez; Tima Moldogaziev

2011-01-01

106

Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

Pang, Min-Seok

2011-01-01

107

How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?  

PubMed

Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not. PMID:25479891

Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

2014-12-01

108

Efficiency in Public Higher Education: Administrative Reform and Redundancy. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the state of Oregon's efforts at administrative reform in public higher education. The early stages of implementation of the Higher Education Administrative Efficiency Act initiated by Oregon during the 1995 session were analyzed. Four factors were found to be primarily responsible for the need to reform public higher education…

Arnold, James C.; And Others

109

Public Sector Agricultural Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section examines extension as an engine for innovation and reviews the numerous priorities confronting extension systems. Section two highlights the current knowledge imperative and the critical connection of extension to post-secondary higher education and training, organizational…

Rivera, William M.

2011-01-01

110

Transferring technology to the public sector.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

Alper, M. E.

1972-01-01

111

Communication management in the public sector: Consequences for public communication about policy intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public communication about policy intentions is important but delicate. Government officials are confronted with four main constraints typical of the public sector compared to the private sector: more complicated and unstable environment, additional legal and formal restrictions, more rigid procedures, and more diverse products and objectives. These constraints imply that ministers communicating about policy intentions face specific communication issues such

Dave Gelders; Geert Bouckaert; Betteke van Ruler

2007-01-01

112

Auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the second stage of the Brazilian power sector reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reform process in the electricity sector of any country has as main objective the design of a power market capable to induce a reliable and efficient energy supply, translated into adequate tariffs. Brazil started its reform process in 1996, inspired by similar schemes in the electricity sector of more developed countries. However, the existence of particularities in the country's

Luiz Augusto Barroso; José Rosenblatt; André Guimarães; Bernardo Bezerra; Mario Veiga Pereira

2006-01-01

113

Reforms in French Public Universities. How does commitment to performance match with commitment to public values?  

E-print Network

a positive effect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational performance (Kim, 2011 University. The increasing use of performance measures in the public sector has been a major issue for public management research over the past years (Rabovsky, 2012). Proponents argue that performance measures improve

Boyer, Edmond

114

Public Sector Risk Management: A Specific Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management programs for state mental health authorities are generally limited in scope and reactive in nature. Recent changes in how mental health care is provided render it necessary to redirect the risk management focus from its present institutional basis to a statewide, network-based paradigm that is integrated across public and private inpatient and community programs alike. These changes include

Ted Lawlor

2002-01-01

115

Public Employee Unions: A Study of the Crisis in Public Sector Labor Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 12 papers examines various aspects of public employee collective bargaining and unionization. Public employee unions in the United States have caused growing concern since the mid-1960s when wages in the public sector began to rise more rapidly than those of private employees. Public employee strikes became significant for the…

Chickering, A. Lawrence, Ed.

116

Gender wage gaps within a public sector: Evidence from personnel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard finding in the literature on gender wage gaps is that the public sector exhibits much lower gaps than in the private sector. This finding is generally attributed to the existence of less gender discrimination in the public sector. In this paper we show that this conclusion is flawed because the standard finding for the public sector is biased

S Bradley; Colin Green; J Mangan

2011-01-01

117

A Framework for Effective Global Marketing for Developing Country Public Sector Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public sector organizations show distinct differences in structure, management, philosophy, and performance when compared to private sector organizations. In recent years, however, public sector organizations have emerged as important income contributors and a potent technology source to developing countries through their active internalization efforts. Public sector organizations have begun to enter and operate in international markets, due to the home-country

Erdener Kaynak; Ali Kara

1996-01-01

118

Shelf stable meals for public sector uses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

Schmandt, J. (editor)

1977-01-01

119

School Reform in Chattanooga. An Independent Report on the Chattanooga Public Schools Middle Grades Reform Initiatives. 1994-1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Chattanooga (Tennessee) public schools are building a national reputation for the work they are doing to improve the city's schools. The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, which has promised substantial grants for the reform of urban middle school education in Chattanooga, asked the Southern Education Foundation, through its Focused Reporting…

Berry, Barnett; And Others

1995-01-01

120

The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

Chouinard, Jill Anne

2013-01-01

121

A Knowledge-Building Community for Public Sector Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The understanding of expert knowledge as shared, distributed and contextualised has gained ground. The case description in this article focuses on developing expert knowledge in a situation in which both knowledge needs and the definition of expertise fields changed radically in the public sector within a social crisis. The article examines an…

Heiskanen, Tuula

2004-01-01

122

Facilitating expansive learning in a public sector organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to discuss how learning opportunities can be organized to promote expansive learning in work practice. The discussion draws on results from a case study examining local development work and conditions that facilitate processes of expansive learning in a work team within a public sector organization in a Swedish municipality. An interactive research design was

Maria Gustavsson

2009-01-01

123

Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

2010-01-01

124

Facilitating Expansive Learning in a Public Sector Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to discuss how learning opportunities can be organized to promote expansive learning in work practice. The discussion draws on results from a case study examining local development work and conditions that facilitate processes of expansive learning in a work team within a public sector organization in a Swedish…

Gustavsson, Maria

2009-01-01

125

Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

2012-01-01

126

Personnel management in the public sector : Power, roles and relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of human resources in the UK public sector has been dramatically transformed in recent years. Discusses the major areas of change in relation to: generalist and specialist personnel roles; relationships between personnel professionals and line managers; and perceptions of personnel activities. Also examines the power ramifications of these changes. Posits that the changes which have occurred to personnel

Clifford Oswick; David Grant

1996-01-01

127

[Gender equity in health sector reform policies in Latin America and the Caribbean].  

PubMed

Gender equity is increasingly being acknowledged as an essential aspect of sustainable development and more specifically, of health development. The Pan American Health Organization's Program for Women, Health, and Development has been piloting for a year now a project known as Equidad de género en las políticas de reforma del sector de salud, whose objective is to promote gender equity in the health sector reform efforts in the Region. The first stage of the project is being conducted in Chile and Peru, along with some activities throughout the Region. The core of the project is the production and use of information as a tool for introducing changes geared toward achieving greater gender equity in health, particularly in connection with malefemale disparities that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision-making within the health system. We expect that in three years the project will have brought about changes in the production of information and knowledge, advocacy, and information dissemination, as well as in the development, appropriation, and identification of intersectoral mechanisms that will make it possible for key figures in government and civil society to work together in setting and surveying policy on gender equity in health. PMID:12162842

Gómez, Elsa Gómez

2002-01-01

128

A Decade of Urban School Reform: Persistence and Progress in the Boston Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, the Boston Public Schools has undergone critical reforms that have been of intense interest to school leaders and policymakers throughout the country. Under the leadership of superintendent Thomas Payzant, the Boston schools implemented extensive reform strategies that yielded notable results. Fittingly, at the end of Payzant's…

Reville, S. Paul, Ed.

2007-01-01

129

75 FR 21146 - Public Input on Reform of the Housing Finance System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Public Input on Reform of the Housing Finance System AGENCIES: Office of the Undersecretary for Domestic Finance, Department of the Treasury; Office...establishing a more stable and sound housing finance system. DATES: Comment Due Date:...

2010-04-22

130

Education in a Fix. Reformers Offer Many Cures for the Ills of Public Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Movements to restructure public education focus on the following perceived inadequacies: unequal funding, bureaucracy and control, failure to meet standards, and obsolete curriculum. Approaches to restructuring differ according to the values and educational preferences of the reformers. (SK)

Kohl, Herbert

1992-01-01

131

Organizational sense making : responsibilities to the MCAS reform in the Massachusetts public schools  

E-print Network

Educational reform has become a central concern of public policy debates at both the state and federal level. The policy trend both nationally and locally is towards uniform standards in education, with testing as the ...

Goldman, Janice J., 1953-

2005-01-01

132

Reforming Chicago Public Schools: The Intended and Unintended Consequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Chicago School Reform Act provided a rare opportunity for those who were involved in the development of the legislation to be primarily responsible for the initial implementation of the plan. The governance model of the Reform Act, which is the subject of this study, provided for an elected school counsel at each of 542 schools and maintained…

Vasquez, Rosetta

133

[Psychiatric reform, federalism, and the decentralization of the public health in Brazil].  

PubMed

This study examines the relationships between Brazilian psychiatric reform, the adoption of the Centers for Psychosocial Care (CAPS) and the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). The adherence of municipal governments was a variable determinant for the spread of reform, especially due to the continental scale and fragmentation of the Brazilian federation. The article demonstrates the institutional stability of psychiatric reform in Brazil over two decades. The institutional nature of the decision-making process in the public arena has permitted the implementation of new organizational formats through imitation and financial incentives. The psychiatric reform was successful in defending the advantages of CAPS in relation to the asylum and hospital model dominant in past decades. The inductive policies, strengthened and upheld by Law 10.216/2001, transformed the agenda of psychiatric reform, limited to pioneering cities in a national public policy. PMID:22124901

Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Siqueira, Sandra Venâncio; Uhr, Deborah; Silva, Paulo Fagundes da; Molinaro, Alex Alexandre

2011-12-01

134

The Public Manager in 2010: Managing Public Sector Networked Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors argue that we are in the age of the networked society. Lying between the governance structures of markets and hierarchies, networks have emerged as an organizational form which seeks to confront many of the ‘wicked problems’ faced by public and private organizations. While the precise architecture of networks remains vague, much is claimed for them in terms of

P. M. Jackson; L. Stainsby

2000-01-01

135

Welfare effects of public health insurance reform: The case of urban China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates Chinese public health insurance reform enforced since 1998 in terms of its welfare effects. We evaluate\\u000a China health insurance reform since 1998 using the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) data with relevant econometric\\u000a models. The results of empirical studies show that the public health insurance status has significant impact on medical service\\u000a utilization and expenditure. The

Jihong Ding; Minglai Zhu

2007-01-01

136

Changes in the Structure of Wages in the Public and Private Sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wage structure in the U.S. public sector responded sluggishly to substantial changes in private sector wages during the 1970s and 1980s. Despite a large expansion in the college\\/high school wage differential during the 1980s in the private sector, the public sector college wage premium remained fairly stable. Although wage differentials by skill, in the public sector were fairly unresponsive

Lawrence F. Katz; Alan B. Krueger

1991-01-01

137

Gordon Brown and public management reform – a project in search of a ‘big idea’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the Brown-effect ‘real’ and ‘potential’ on public services production in the UK. It is observed, rather unsurprisingly, that Gordon Brown's approach to public services reform is a logical extension of the New Labour modernisation project and represents the extension of new public management (NPM) methods articulated in the populist rhetoric of ‘choice’, ‘personalisation’ and ‘user’ engagement. It

Mark Evans

2009-01-01

138

Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

1971-01-01

139

Adopting shared services in a public-sector organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to combine translation theory with aspects of socio-technology and systems theory to study the adoption of shared services in a public-sector organization. The paper aims to involve the process of translating the shared-services idea in concert with people and policies, both in terms of inputs and outputs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An interpretive case-study

Frank Ulbrich

2010-01-01

140

[A reform proposal to strengthen public health care].  

PubMed

Currently, there is no discussion on the need to improve and strengthen the institutional health care modality of FONASA (MAI), the health care system used by the public services net and by most of the population, despite the widely known and long lasting problems such as waiting lists, hospital debt with suppliers, lack of specialists and increasing services purchase transference to the private sector, etc. In a dichotomous sectorial context, such as the one of health?s social security in Chile (the state on one side and the market on the other), points of view are polarized and stances tend to seek refuge within themselves. As a consequence, to protect the public solution is commonly associated with protecting the ?status quo?, creating an environment that is reluctant to change. The author proposes a solution based on three basic core ideas, which, if proven effective, can strengthen each other if combined properly. These are: network financing management, governance of health care services in MAI and investments and human resources in networked self-managed institutions. The proposal of these core ideas was done introducing a reality testing that minimizes the politic complexity of their implementation. PMID:25860366

Vergara I, Marcos

2015-02-01

141

Determinants of out-of-pocket expenditures on prescribed medications in Tajikistan : Implications for healthcare sector reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of socio-economic characteristics on out-of pocket expenditures for prescribed medications in Tajikistan and provide recommendations for healthcare sector reform. The research question in this paper is: what household, personal, economic, and health factors help explain expenditures on medications? From a theoretical perspective, this paper contributes to the on-going

Nazim Habibov

2009-01-01

142

Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector Energy Efficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down  

E-print Network

Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector Energy Efficiency: Bottom Up versus Top National Laboratory (LBNL) Edgar Villaseñor Franco, Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector (PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector) program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designing

143

Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs, while higher levels of government must improve efforts to support local adaptation and provide the capacity through which local adaptation can succeed. PMID:22712716

2012-01-01

144

NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND CORRUPTION: IPMN DIALOGUE AND ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores potential interrelationships between New Public Management reforms in the public sector and corrupt behavior of public servants, politicians and\\/or private providers of public services. It reflects on the impact of different reform strategies on corruption, analyzes possible unintended consequences of reform, and explores motivation and opportunity as possible stimuli of corruptive behavior. Empirical evidence to deduce clear

Patrick von Maravic; Christoph Reichard

2003-01-01

145

Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.  

PubMed

The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently. PMID:3749949

Maynard, A

1986-01-01

146

The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care.  

PubMed

Health-care and public sector institutions are high-risk settings for workplace bullying. Despite growing acknowledgement of the scale and consequence of this pervasive problem, there has been little critical examination of the institutional power dynamics that enable bullying. In the aftermath of large-scale failures in care standards in public sector healthcare institutions, which were characterised by managerial bullying, attention to the nexus between bullying, power and institutional failures is warranted. In this study, employing Foucault's framework of power, we illuminate bullying as a feature of structures of power and knowledge in public sector institutions. Our analysis draws upon the experiences of a large sample (n = 3345) of workers in Australian public sector agencies - the type with which most nurses in the public setting will be familiar. In foregrounding these power dynamics, we provide further insight into how cultures that are antithetical to institutional missions can arise and seek to broaden the debate on the dynamics of care failures within public sector institutions. Understanding the practices of power in public sector institutions, particularly in the context of ongoing reform, has important implications for nursing. PMID:25131347

Hutchinson, Marie; Jackson, Debra

2015-03-01

147

Reforming Equal Pay Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite 33 years of equal pay legislation, the gender pay gap remains stubbornly high. Multiple equal pay claims in the public sector have forcefully exposed the weaknesses, both of the Equal Pay Act and of the complaints-led model of enforcement on which it is based. This article argues that the equal pay apparatus is in need of radical reform. Single

Sandra Fredman

2008-01-01

148

Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point to the importance of critical ethnographic studies of energy, not simply as technical policy, but also as technical-political practice. It is in these grounded, institutional, and power-laden terms of how development is actually practiced that the wider outcomes of reform are revealed. Situating energy in development reveals the wider politics and relations of reforms.

Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

149

The Rhetoric of a Reform: The Construction of "Public", "Management" and the "New" in Norwegian Education Reforms of the 1990s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public management for…

Trippestad, Tom Are

2011-01-01

150

Welfare Reform Impacts on the Public Housing Program: A Preliminary Forecast: HUD USER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users may download this report and accompanying charts from the HUD USER site. The report "examines the implications of welfare reform for public housing authorities (PHAs), whose residents traditionally contribute a portion of their incomes for rent." The report focuses on a small number of diverse housing authorities and finds that the effects of welfare reform on tenant incomes and PHA rent revenues will most probably vary considerably.

151

National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.

1995-01-01

152

Learning From Rudolf Steiner: The Relevance of Waldorf Education for Urban Public School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this paper investigates the relevance of Waldorf education for public urban school reform. Based on analysis of survey data from over 500 graduates of private U.S. Waldorf schools, review of documents from the Gates Foundation, and staff-interview and student-achievement data from four public Waldorf-methods schools, she develops…

Oberman, Ida

2007-01-01

153

Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?  

PubMed

How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms. PMID:23161587

Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

2013-10-01

154

The public sector and mental health parity: time for inclusion.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In the United States, there is an uneasy division of responsibility for financing mental health care. For most illnesses, employer-sponsored health insurance and the large federal health insurance programs (Medicare, Medicaid) cover the costs of care. However, most employer-sponsored plans and Medicare provide only limited coverage for treatment of mental illness. A possible cause and result of this limited coverage in mental health is that states, and in some cases local (county) governments, finance a separate system of mental health care. This separate "public mental health system" provides a "safety net" of care for indigent individuals needing mental health care. However, there are potential negative consequences of maintaining separate systems. Continuity of treatment between systems may be impaired, and costs may be higher due to duplicate administrative costs. Maintaining a separate system managed by government may exacerbate the stigma associated with mental illness treatment. Most significantly, since eligibility for care may be linked to poverty status, and since having a serious mental illness may preclude regaining private coverage, maintaining a separate system may contribute to the poverty rate among persons with mental illnesses. AIMS OF THE PAPER: These potential problems have not been widely considered, perhaps because other problems and controversies in mental health care have captured our attention. In particular, controversies over deinstitutionalization in mental health have dominated the policy debate, especially when linked to related problems. These have included conflicts over authority and financial responsibility among federal, state and local governments, sensationalized media coverage of incidents involving people with mental illness, problems with siting community facilities, concern about mental illness among prisoners and the like. However, with the substantial reform of public mental health care in some states and localities, it is now possible to consider the implications of public and private integration. This paper considers such an approach. METHODS: This paper addresses the question of public and private integration, considering the state of Ohio as a case study. Ohio is a large state (population 11.2 million) and shares demographic, cultural and political characteristics with many other states. Ohio's successful experience implementing community mental health reform makes it a good candidate to use in evaluating issues in the potential integration of insurance-paid and public mental health care. RESULTS: The analysis indicates that the resources now used in Ohio's public system may be sufficient to support insurance financing of inpatient and ambulatory mental health treatment (the types of health care usually paid by insurance) while maintaining supportive services (e.g. housing, crisis care) as a residual safety net. DISCUSSION: At the current time, these resources are in state and local mental health budgets, and in the Medicaid program that finances health care for low income and disabled individuals. The analysis indicates that the aggregate level of resources expended on inpatient and ambulatory mental health treatment are substantially greater than expenditures for such care in an insurance plan for Ohio State employees. A substantial limitation of the analysis is that it is not possible to compare the need for care in a relatively healthy employed population versus a poor and disabled population. CONCLUSION: The paper concludes that there are substantial structural, economic and social problems associated with the "two-tiered" system of commercial/employer-paid insurance and public mental health care in the United States. Examining data from one state's public system, the paper further concludes that it might be feasible to finance a single system of acute and ambulatory mental health benefits, if public resources were redeployed and private contributions were continued. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND RESEARCH: Given the substantial pr

Hogan, Michael F.

1998-12-01

155

Reforming Chicago's Public Schools: Philanthropic Persistence, 1987-1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Private foundations are attempting to move away from educational reform approaches based on model development. The limits of the "Johnny Appleseed" (sowing seed and moving on) mode of grantmaking are coming clear. Persistence--a willingness to commit resources to an issue or institution for 5 to 10 years--will need to be an operating principle in…

McKersie, William S.

156

Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then

I. Dincer; M. M. Hussain; I. Al-Zaharnah

2004-01-01

157

Job Values in Today's Workforce: A Comparison of Public and Private Sector Employees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of 47 public- and 170 private-sector workers revealed private-sector workers value good wages most and public-sector workers value interesting work. Results suggest that employers must keep in touch with employee values to design jobs, reward systems, and human-resource policies that will result in maximum job satisfaction. (JOW)

Karl, Katherine A.; Sutton, Cynthia L.

1998-01-01

158

Competence Development in the Public Sector: Development, or Dismantling of Professionalism?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular, competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing…

Hjort, Katrin

2008-01-01

159

Organizational Risk Aversion: Comparing The Public and Non-Profit Sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wisdom of ‘sector matters’ suggests that those working in the government are more risk averse than those employed by business enterprises. However, whether public sector workers tend to be more risk averse than non-profit sector workers is unknown. Our paper examines whether the levels of organizational risk aversion as perceived by managers differ between public and non-profit organizations and

Chung-An Chen; Barry Bozeman

2012-01-01

160

Public Disorder, Private Boons? Inter-Sectoral Dynamics Illustrated by the Kenyan Case. PROPHE Working Paper Series. WP No. 9  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within and beyond Africa, it is the public sector much more than the private sector that is the scene of strikes and other forms of disorder, conflict and difficulty. Yet the private sector can be much affected by the public problems. Effects may be simultaneously positive for the private sector and deleterious for the public sector. Although a…

Otieno, Wycliffe; Levy, Daniel

2007-01-01

161

New public management and organisational commitment in the public sector: testing a mediation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the attitudes of learning professionals towards New Public Management (NPM). In a survey of the UK further education sector (n = 433), NPM beliefs were found to be positively associated with both affective and normative organisational commitment. However, as expected, NPM beliefs were not found to be related to continuance organisational commitment. The results also show that although

Helen M. Williams; Julie Rayner; Christopher W. Allinson

2012-01-01

162

New public management and organisational commitment in the public sector: testing a mediation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the attitudes of learning professionals towards New Public Management (NPM). In a survey of the UK further education sector (n = 433), NPM beliefs were found to be positively associated with both affective and normative organisational commitment. However, as expected, NPM beliefs were not found to be related to continuance organisational commitment. The results also show that although

Helen M. Williams; Julie Rayner; Christopher W. Allinson

2011-01-01

163

Alignment of inter-agency supply chains to enhance public sector performance management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore sources of political and administrative challenges which arise from an absence of alignment of supply chains linking the activities of public agencies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The performance measurement challenges created by an apparent absence of alignment within public sector supply chains are explored from a conceptual perspective, through the supply chain and public sector

Guy Callender

2011-01-01

164

Public management : Failing accountabilities and failing performance review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s there have been major reforms with regard to the mode of operation of the public sector. The pervading theme running through these reforms is that of attempting to make the management of public services more accountable for the efficient and effective deployment of public resources. Focuses on how successful the reforms have been in engendering

John J. Glynn; Michael P. Murphy

1996-01-01

165

Same reform – different practices? : How regional health enterprises adjust to management control reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the dilemma that exists between the aims of public sector reforms and the ways organisations adjust to the management control reforms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To study the research purpose, empirical data were collected from Norwegian Regional Hospital Enterprises. The aim was to describe how these institutions have chosen to implement formal

Kari Nyland; Inger Johanne Pettersen; Katarina Östergren

2009-01-01

166

Increasing the availability of vasectomy in public-sector clinics.  

PubMed

A program designed to improve the availability of vasectomy in public-sector clinics trained physicians at 43 facilities in no-scalpel vasectomy between 1993 and 1995. Among the 38 clinics that responded to a follow-up survey in 1996, the number of clinics providing vasectomies rose from 23 to 32, an increase of almost 40%, while the number of vasectomies performed rose by 18%. Seventeen of the 32 clinics performed more vasectomies after the training; 10 of the 17 had not previously provided the procedure. In-depth interviews with staff from seven sites that experienced large caseload increases and from seven that experienced decreases identified three elements for the successful establishment or expansion of vasectomy services-sufficient numbers of trained providers, funds to subsidize vasectomies for men who cannot afford them and activities to raise awareness about the availability of low-cost or free vasectomy. PMID:9258652

Haws, J M; McKenzie, M; Mehta, M; Pollack, A E

1997-01-01

167

US Health Care Reform and Transplantation. Part I: overview and impact on access and reimbursement in the private sector.  

PubMed

The Health Care Reform (HCR) legislation passed by Congress in 2010 will have significant impact on transplant centers, patients and health care professionals. The Act seeks to expand coverage, limit the growth in health care costs and reform the delivery and insurance systems. In Part I of this two part series, we provide an overview and perspective of changes in private health insurance resulting from HCR. Under the plan, all Americans will be required to purchase coverage through their employer or via an improved individual/small group market. This legislation limits abusive practices such as limitations on preexisting conditions, lifetime and annual coverage limitations and dropping of beneficiaries if they become sick. The legislation will also limit high-cost plans and regulate premium increases. Private sector reforms are likely to benefit our patients by increasing the number of patients with access to transplant services, since the use of 'preexisting' conditions will be eliminated. However without a concomitant increase in the organ supply, longer waiting times and greater use of marginal organs are likely to increase the cost of transplant. Furthermore, transplant providers will receive reduced reimbursement as a result of market consolidation and the growing power of large transplant networks. PMID:20825383

Axelrod, D A; Millman, D; Abecassis, M M

2010-10-01

168

The Accounting System and Resource Allocation Reform in a Public University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the accounting system reform practised in Greek universities since January 2000, and more particularly at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). It specifically examines the allocation of resources to faculties by university management based on certain criteria. The AUTH is the largest public university in Greece and…

Spathis, Charalambos; Ananiadis, John

2004-01-01

169

Market-Based Pay Reform for Public School Teachers. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Market-Based Pay Reform for Public School Teachers"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Michael Podgursky, professor of economics at the University of Missouri, examines the effects and unintended consequences of the current compensation system for teachers in the U.S.…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

2008-01-01

170

Public Schools in Marketized Environments: Shifting Incentives and Unintended Consequences of Competition-Based Educational Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By opening the system to competition, popular school choice reforms seek to remake public education into a more consumer-oriented endeavor. While the underlying theory holds that competitive pressures will induce change and improvement in educational processes, research indicates that organizations often respond instead by developing promotional…

Lubienski, Christopher

2005-01-01

171

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution System1  

E-print Network

Food Price Subsidies and Nutrition: Evidence from State Reforms to India's Public Distribution food price subsidies affect household nutrition using a dramatic expansion of the availability. These results differ from recent studies suggesting that food subsidies have little effect on nutrition

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

172

Public and Private in South Korea's Education Reform Vocabulary: An Evolving Statist Culture of Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statism is a political economy that prevails in many East Asian countries. This paper explores its negative role in South Korea's education reform since the restoration of civilian democracy in 1993. It takes note of South Koreans' aberrant use of the terms "public education" and "private education" and the frame of reference for policy discourses…

Kim, Ki Su

2004-01-01

173

Public Understanding to Political Voice: Action Research and Generative Curricular Practices in Issues and Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author and preservice teachers in a postbaccalaureate Issues and Reform in Secondary Education course engaged Ernest Stringer's (2004) model of action research to develop generative curricula. They adhered to Walter C. Parker's (1991, 2006) vision of public formation and essential social studies teaching and used student-centered teaching…

Agnello, Mary Frances

2007-01-01

174

Public health reform and health promotion in Canada.  

PubMed

More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds. PMID:24534261

Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita

2014-02-17

175

Literacy and Numeracy Skills and Education Sector Reform: Evidence from Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several African countries instituted education reforms in the 1980s and 1990s. Yet, there is only little evidence on the effectiveness of these programs. Additionally, most previous studies of the determinants of literacy and numeracy have considered the proficiency in only one language and, possibly, numeracy. This paper examines both of these…

Blunch, Niels-Hugo

2014-01-01

176

A Legal Guide to State Pension Reform. Education Sector Policy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just 18 minutes before the midnight signing deadline on May 15, 2010, Minnesota state legislators breathed a sigh of relief. Their bipartisan pension reform legislation, which passed both chambers by large margins and aimed to help shore up a potentially failing pension system, had just escaped a veto threat. Under pressure from his Republican…

Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

2012-01-01

177

Reforming the University Sector: Effects on Teaching Efficiency--Evidence from Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we analyse the effects of teaching reforms in Italy. These were introduced in 1999, and changed the entire organization of university courses, where the Bachelor-Master (BA-MA) structure was adopted. The first step is to define the production process of higher education (HE). This process consists of several inputs (professors,…

Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio

2009-01-01

178

Thirst for reform ? private sector participation in providing Mexico City's water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case in Mexico City offered an opportunity to observe the advantages, and disadvantages of gradualist reform. Unfortunately, the authors find that the long-term nature of an incremental approach does not match well with the generally shorter-term horizons of elected politicians. Difficult decisions in implementation are left to later years, which pushes potentially unpopular actions onto the shoulders of future

Luke Haggarty; Penelope Brook; Ana Maria Zuluaga

2001-01-01

179

Gender Balance in Leadership?: Reform and Modernization in the UK Further Education Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The further education (FE) sector employs a high proportion of women yet relatively few women progress into leadership positions. The article seeks to provide explanations for this gender imbalance and argues that despite change and modernization initiatives, the further education sector remains gendered in many aspects of leadership, governance…

McTavish, Duncan; Miller, Karen

2009-01-01

180

Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978: electric utility rate reform  

SciTech Connect

Titles I and III of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) are examined with a focus on the economic bases and implications of retail sales by electric and natural gas utilities. Title I outlines the requirements and procedures for setting retail electricity rates. Six ratemaking standards and the various arguments in favor of rate reform are examined. Rate issues are traditionally argued at the state level, but PURPA directs the states to examine federal standards and ratemaking issues in terms of cost-effectiveness. The legislative history of the Act and the major compromises made are described. The states that have been reluctant to consider rate reforms may be encouraged to adopt cost-effectiveness criteria sooner, while the more-progressive states may find the legislation has slowed the process. If state commissions fail to serve national goals in their rate reform, the Federal government can assume a retail ratemaking role for the interstate market. (DCK)

Joskow, P.L.

1979-10-01

181

Agricultural Biotechnology and Globalization: The Role of Public and Private Sector Research  

E-print Network

Agricultural Biotechnology and Globalization: The Role of Public and Private Sector Research Greg biotechnology sector as it works to sustain innovations and further propagate its benefits into the new century institutional mechanisms for public and private partnership that can help agricultural biotechnology fulfill its

Kammen, Daniel M.

182

Health workforce attrition in the public sector in Kenya: a look at the reasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Kenya, like many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has been affected by shortages of health workers in the public sector. Data on the rates and leading reasons for health workers attrition in the public sector are key in developing effective, evidence-based planning and policy on human resources for health. METHODS: This study analysed data from a human resources health

Slavea Chankova; Stephen Muchiri; Gilbert Kombe

2009-01-01

183

An action plan as a service management tool: A case study in the Thai public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to present a case study of an action plan as a service management tool in the Thai public sector. The case will show how the Thai public sector formulates, implements, evaluates, and improves its development plans. In addition, it shows how relevant organizations coordinate and cooperate with one another at national, provincial, and individual

Watana Patanapongse

2010-01-01

184

An exploratory study of service quality in the Malaysian public service sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to obtain a better understanding of the extent to which service quality permeates within the Malaysian public service sector by drawing on management and customer perceptions of service quality. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two separate surveys were distributed to managers and customers across 86 branches of a public sector department within the Malaysian Ministry. The manager survey

Arawati Agus; Sunita Barker; Jay Kandampully

2007-01-01

185

Neurodiversity, neurological disability and the public sector: notes on the autism spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurodiversity and neurological disabilities reflect rising public sector challenges. Both refer to the same set of medical conditions, but speak to different aspects of diversity affecting the public sector. Neurodiversity describes features of neurological difference associated with individual or community identity that is a more or less elective choice of those experiencing neurological difference. Neurological disability refers to impairment of

Dana Lee Baker

2006-01-01

186

The impact of web applications on decision-making process in the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify the impact of Web Applications on the decision-making process in the public sector. By citing international experiences (The Taxation System in Europe Union) and the Solid Waste Association of North America as case studies. The most important findings were firstly that the public sector has to gather complex information through using technological equipments and software.

Mohamad Al-Jedaiah; Shadi R. Masadeh; Aymen M. Abu-Errub; Ahmad Y. Areiqat

2010-01-01

187

Trade, Democracy, and the Size of the Public Sector: The Political Underpinnings of Openness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To account for the strong and positive correlation found betweentrade openness and the size of the public sector, scholars havedeveloped theoretical explanations in which politics have remainedconspicuously absent in two ways. First, why some economies are moreopen than others has been (implicitly) attributed to parametersexogenous to the political decisions of domestic actors. Second, thepresence of a sizable public sector has

Al cia Adser; Carles Boix

2002-01-01

188

Public Sector Training: A "Blind" Spot in the 1999 South African National Levy-Grant Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2000, South Africa implemented a levy-grant policy (Skills Development Levies Act, 1999) to give an incentive for workplace training across private and public sector workplaces alike, but the impact of the levy-grant scheme in the public sector was restricted by financial and management processes unique to that environment. This article shows…

Paterson, Andrew

2005-01-01

189

People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

2004-01-01

190

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL/ENERGY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT. SALARIES AND ATTENDANT PROBLEMS OF PUBLIC SECTOR ENVIRONMENTAL EMPLOYMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The monograph deals with disparities between public and private sector employment conditions and practices which affect the recruitment and retention of personnel. The emphasis is on state agencies because the disparities are most evident at that level of public sector employment...

191

In search of the common wealth: a service-profit chain for the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide public sector organizations with a development map to achieve employee and customer satisfaction and to align organizational processes for goal achievement. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper re-works the highly influential and widely validated service-profit chain and presents an analogous model, which reflects the essential differences of public sector organizations. Findings – It was found that there is

Paul J. Davis

2006-01-01

192

Accretion, reform, and crisis: a theory of public health politics in New York City.  

PubMed Central

Standard interpretations of the history of public health in New York City in the twentieth century describe either the decline or the growth of the importance accorded to public health activities. To the contrary, public health has, paradoxically, both declined in salience and attracted increasing resources. This article describes the politics of public health in New York City since the 1920s. First it describes events in the history of public health in the context of events in the economy and in city, state, and national politics. Then it proposes three descriptive models for arraying the data about public health politics: accretion, reform, and crisis. Next it describes how the politics of AIDS in New York City in the 1980s was a consequence of the history that produced these three political styles. Finally, it argues that the three political styles are generalizable to the history of public health throughout the United States in the twentieth century. PMID:1814059

Fox, D. M.

1991-01-01

193

Investigating the Effectiveness of Response Strategies for Vulnerabilities to Corruption in the Chinese Public Construction Sector.  

PubMed

Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries. PMID:24894336

Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

2014-06-01

194

Thirst for Reform? Private Sector Participation in Providing Mexico City?s Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 2001In the early 1990s Mexico City?s Federal District (the D.F.) initiated a series of service contracts with four operators in the private sector?each to be implemented in three stages over ten years. The idea was to introduce competitive pressures and to find out if a ?gradualist? approach would reduce social and political opposition to private sector involvement and would

Ana Maria Zuluaga; Luke Haggarty; Penelope Brook

1999-01-01

195

Health sector reform in the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia.  

PubMed

Health services in the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia face many challenges, not least a rising burden of disease and severe economic constraints. Each government has developed proposals for reform. This paper describes the key elements of the proposals developed in each country. They have many features in common, such as financing based on social insurance, although they also have many differences, reflecting national political, economic and historical circumstances. While most attention so far has concentrated on the design of the proposed systems, it is argued here that there has been inadequate attention to the obstacles to implementation. These stem from the many adverse factors in the context within which reforms are taking place, weaknesses in the process of reform, and failure to involve the groups whose actions will be necessary for success. It is argued that governments and those advising them must place greater emphasis on the challenges of implementation, including the development of a much better understanding of the context within which change must take place. PMID:10185505

McKee, M; Figueras, J; Chenet, L

1998-01-01

196

Reforming Public School Systems through Sustained Union-Management Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most of the past decade the policy debate over improving U.S. public education has centered on teacher quality. In this debate, teachers and their unions have often been seen as the problem, not part of the solution. Further, current discourse often assumes that conflicting interests between teacher unions and administration is inevitable.…

Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.

2011-01-01

197

Why public health services? Experiences from profit-driven health care reforms in Sweden.  

PubMed

Market-oriented health care reforms have been implemented in the tax-financed Swedish health care system from 1990 to 2013. The first phase of these reforms was the introduction of new public management systems, where public health centers and public hospitals were to act as private firms in an internal health care market. A second phase saw an increase of tax-financed private for-profit providers. A third phase can now be envisaged with increased private financing of essential health services. The main evidence-based effects of these markets and profit-driven reforms can be summarized as follows: efficiency is typically reduced but rarely increased; profit and tax evasion are a drain on resources for health care; geographical and social inequities are widened while the number of tax-financed providers increases; patients with major multi-health problems are often given lower priority than patients with minor health problems; opportunities to control the quality of care are reduced; tax-financed private for-profit providers facilitate increased private financing; and market forces and commercial interests undermine the power of democratic institutions. Policy options to promote further development of a nonprofit health care system are highlighted. PMID:25618987

Dahlgren, Göran

2014-01-01

198

New Public Management Comes to America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has had an ambiguous relationship to the New Public Management (NPM) as a global public sector reform movement. Many of the themes, concepts, and tools of governance associated with NPM's managerial ideology-\\

Laurence E. Lynn Jr.

2008-01-01

199

Trending toward Reform: Teachers Speak on Unions and the Future of the Profession. Education Sector Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, teachers have seen changes in both their conditions of employment--from pay to retirement benefits--and their practice. Far too often, these policies have been made by people who talk "about" teachers, rather than talking "to" them. Last fall, Education Sector surveyed a nationally representative random sample of more than…

Rosenberg, Sarah; Silva, Elena

2012-01-01

200

The Real Implications of "Benevolent" SEN Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consultation of the DfE's Green Paper, "Support and Aspiration: A New Approach to Special Educational Needs," provoked considerable debate among public and private sector professionals, parents and young people over the planned special educational needs reform. Since then, publication of the Children and Families Bill in 2013…

Attwood, Lynn

2013-01-01

201

Private Sector Financing for Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tax benefits that are currently available for private investors provide the impetus for private sector financing and operation of municipal water and wastewater facilities. Tax reforms now being considered by Congress may greatly affect private investment in the public sector, but whatever form privatization takes in the future, the concept will probably be of increasing importance in restructuring the financing

Ronald D

1986-01-01

202

PPA631/NRC697I INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PUBLIC AND NONPROFIT SECTORS  

E-print Network

PPA631/NRC697I INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PUBLIC AND NONPROFIT SECTORS Course Syllabus ­ Spring. It is an exciting time full of new opportunities for innovations in the way public and nonprofit organizations do or more helped to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public and nonprofit organizations

Schweik, Charles M.

203

Job satisfaction among nurses working in the private and public sectors: a qualitative study in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse. Methods A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients. Results All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system. Conclusion The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain aspects of its organization are key, including numbers (available quantity), skill mix (health team balance), distribution (urban/rural), and working conditions (compensation, nonfinancial incentives, and workplace safety). This study has identified the need to reform policies for retaining the nursing workforce. Simple measures requiring better management practices could substantially improve the working environment and hence retention of nurses. PMID:24453494

Hamid, Saima; Malik, Asmat Ullah; Kamran, Irum; Ramzan, Musarat

2014-01-01

204

Wage gaps Between the public and private sectors in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on data from the last household survey conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estad??stica in 1990–1991, we estimate separate earnings equations by sector of employment and gender, treating the choice of employment sector as endogenous. From these results we compare the wage-generating process for each subgroup and identify the returns to human capital of males and females working in

Gérard Lassibille

1998-01-01

205

Use of Mental Health Services by Youths in Public Sectors of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper examined the lifetime rates of mental health service use in a representative sample of youths identified as receiving services in at least one sector of care in a publicly funded service system of a large, metropolitan area. Service use was examined in relation to age, gender, mental health diagnostic status, and service sector involvement. Participants were 1,706

Andrea L. Hazen; Richard L. Hough; John A. Landsverk; Patricia A. Wood

2004-01-01

206

Electronic Business Invading the Public Sector: Considerations on Change and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic Business (e-Business) is a powerful guiding vision for the transformation which the commercial and governmental sector have to undergo. Compared to Commerce, obviously, Government is lagging behind. Yet, for the public sector the rampant success of e- Commerce has acted as a stimulus prompting to raise the engagement in e-Business. Change occurs far and wide and becomes a topic

Maria Wimmer; Roland Traunmüller; Klaus Lenk

2001-01-01

207

VISUALISING THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE-SECTOR INVOLVEMENT ON REDEVELOPED PUBLIC SPACES IN THE NETHERLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many squares in Dutch city centres have been redeveloped in recent years. Their design and management have often changed, resulting in places characterised by dimensions of 'fear' and 'fantasy' such as the rise of camera surveillance and sidewalk cafés. The private sector is increasingly involved in these redevelopment projects. This paper visualises to what extent private-sector involvement affects redeveloped public

RIANNE VAN MELIK

2009-01-01

208

Computer-Aided Dispatch System as a Decision Making Tool in Public and Private Sectors  

E-print Network

We describe in detail seven distinct areas in both public and private sectors in which a real-time computer-aided dispatch system is applicable to the allocation of scarce resources. Characteristics of a real-time ...

Lee, I-Jen

209

The utilization rate of antenatal care after health sector reform implementation in rural areas of Islamic Republic of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Improving the utilization rate of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving the reproductive health goals in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization rate of antenatal care (ANC) by women after health sector reform (HSR) interventions in rural areas of Islamic Republic of Iran (IR Iran). Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The data were gathered by cluster sampling from 400 motherhood records of mothers whose last pregnancies had been terminated in the first 3 months of 2013. Data were collected from 21 rural health centers of Isfahan district during the year 2013. The utilization rate of ANC by mothers was assessed by the number of visits they had, the time of the first ANC visit, the occurrence of pregnancy- or delivery-related complications, and the number of postpartum visits. Results: The mean time of the first ANC was 9 ± 5.23th week of gestational age. For 69.3% of pregnant women, the first ANC was before the 12th week. Overall, the frequency of ANC visits ranged from 2 to 21, with the average of 10.6 ± 3.23 visits. 93.8% of the utilized ANC visits were adequate. 99.8% of the deliveries took place in the hospital. 99% of mothers had at least one visit in the postpartum period. 4% of the mothers had suffered from pregnancy-related complications. Conclusion: It seems that IR Iran has achieved to one of the important objectives by its reform in health care access, that is, more ANC for pregnant women. PMID:25558259

Alikhasi, Narges; Khadivi, Reza; Kheyri, Maryam

2014-01-01

210

Effects of service quality dimensions on behavioural purchase intentions : A study in public-sector transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the relationship between service quality and behavioural purchase intentions in the public-sector transport industry in Spain. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study first identifies five distinctive research streams in service quality. An empirical analysis is then carried out in which the SERVPERF scale is adapted to the study of service quality in the public-sector transport

Manuel Sánchez Pérez; Juan Carlos Gázquez Abad; Gema María Marín Carrillo; Raquel Sánchez Fernández

2007-01-01

211

"A visitation of providence:" Public health and eugenic reform in the wake of the Halifax disaster.  

PubMed

The Halifax Explosion provided the opportunity for an "experiment in public health" that was meant not only to restore but also to improve the city and its population in the process. The restructuring that occurred during the restoration was influenced by pre-existing ideals and prejudices which were reflected in the goals of the newly formed committees in charge of the reconstruction. The primary emphasis on improvement as well as control was the result of existing regional concerns regarding the emigration of the province's most "desirable" stock, in the form of healthy, educated young men and women, to central Canada and the eastern United States. Public health reforms reflected the eugenic goal of improving the overall quality of the population through education, surveillance, and inspection, resorting finally to institutionalizing people who public health officials determined were genuinely deficient. PMID:24909020

Baker, Leslie

2014-01-01

212

Unlikely Allies: Unions and Districts in the Battle for School Reform. Education Sector Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providence, Rhode Island, is one of those gritty eastern mill towns that wears its centuries-old history on its sleeve. Like many American cities, Providence is home to a struggling public school system with chronically low-performing schools. They include Roger Williams Middle, where last year only 17 percent of eighth-graders scored at or above…

Silva, Elena; Headden, Susan

2011-01-01

213

'It makes me want to run away to Saudi Arabia': management and implementation challenges for public financing reforms from a maternity ward perspective.  

PubMed

Poor practice by health care workers has been identified as contributing to high levels of maternal mortality in South Africa. The country is undergoing substantial structural and financial reforms, yet the impact of these on health care workers performance and practice has not been studied. This study, which consisted of an ethnography of two labour wards (one rural and one urban), aimed to look at the factors that shaped everyday practice of midwives working in district hospitals in South Africa during the implementation of a public sector reform to improve financial management. The study found that the Public Financing Management Act, that aimed to improve the efficiency and accountability of public finance management, had the unintended consequence of causing the quality of maternal health services to deteriorate in the hospital wards studied. The article supports the need for increased dialogue between those working in the sexual and reproductive health and health systems policy arenas, and the importance of giving a voice to front-line health workers who implement systems changes. However, it cautions that there are no simple answers to how health systems should be organized in order to better provide sexual and reproductive health services, and suggests instead that more attention in the debate needs to be paid to the challenges of policy implementation and the socio-political context and process issues which affect the success or failure of the implementation. PMID:15452017

Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Blaauw, Duane; Schneider, Helen

2004-10-01

214

A Systems Approach to Public School Reform: Implications for the Use of Social Systems Design in a Small Rural School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can a community ensure that its public schools reflect local values and beliefs about education? The complexities involved in the reform of existing public schools, or the creation of a new system of schooling, have caused some researchers to explore new methodological avenues to change (Banathy, 1991; Duffy, Rogerson, & Blick, 2000; Jenlink,…

Rawlins, Holly

2007-01-01

215

Innovation Processes in the Public Sector - New Vistas for an Interdisciplinary Perspective on E-Government Research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public sector innovations have been comprehensively studied from a managerial (New Public Management, NPM) as well as technological (Electronic Government, eGovernment) perspective. Here, much research work took a single-organisational managerial stance while little was investigated into corresponding public-sectoral in- novation and diffusion processes. At this point, a political science view understands the embeddedness of public-sectoral innovation processes in the surrounding

Bjoern Niehaves

2007-01-01

216

Conducting Public-sector Research on Commercialized Transgenic Seed: In Search of a Paradigm that Works  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public-sector scientists have a mandate to independently evaluate agricultural products available to American farmers on the open market, whereas the companies that sell the products are concerned about protecting their intellectual property. As a consequence of the latter concern, public scientist...

217

The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

2010-01-01

218

Hoarding Cases Involving Older Adults: The Transition From a Private Matter to the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoarding interventions with older adults require significant resources from multiple public agencies, yet recidivism occurs frequently. To improve services through better coordination, some communities have formed multiagency hoarding teams (MAHT), which include aging services. MAHTs requested this mixed methods study to understand the progression of cases through the public sector. Quantitative data collected on 52 cases involving adults ages 60+

Rosemary Kennedy Chapin; Julie F. Sergeant; Sarah Terrebonne Landry; Terry Koenig; Matthew Leiste; Kim Reynolds

2010-01-01

219

Digital Broadband Content: Public Sector Information. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 112  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public bodies hold a range of information and content ranging from demographic, economic and meteorological data to art works, historical documents and books. Given the availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs) public sector information can play an important role in producing innovative value-added services and goods.…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

220

The Public-Private Sector Wage Differential: Gender, Workplaces and Family Friendliness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of individual characteristics, occupation, and workplace features accounting for differences in hourly earnings between male and female fulltime employees in the public and private sectors. Using new linked employeeemployer data for Britain in 2004, we find that the nature of the public private pay gap differs between genders and that of the gender pay gap

Monojit Chatterji; Karen Mumford; Peter N Smith

2007-01-01

221

First Annual Information Technology for the Public and Nonprofit Sector "Research Series" Assignment overview  

E-print Network

First Annual Information Technology for the Public and Nonprofit Sector "Research Series in public or nonprofit settings. Here are some ideas for projects, but I'm sure you all could come up or nonprofit work. The "deliverable" of your research project will differ depending on what you choose to do

Schweik, Charles M.

222

Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections. CEE DP 135  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance measurement in the public sector is largely based on objective metrics, which may be subject to gaming behaviour. This paper investigates a novel subjective performance evaluation system where independent inspectors visit schools at very short notice, publicly disclose their findings and sanction schools rated fail. First, I…

Hussain, Iftikhar

2012-01-01

223

Varieties of Organizational Learning: Investigating Learning in Local Level Public Sector Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the learning dynamics in the local level public organizations due to a policy intervention in collaboration with university. This study aims to identify the existence of four different types of organizational learning in different localities and to explain their implications to public sector

Pokharel, Mohan P.; Hult, Karen M.

2010-01-01

224

‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision-making, inter alia. These interventions may be more cost-effective for retention than wage increases, and imply that it is not necessarily just a matter of putting more money into the public sector to increase retention. PMID:23281664

2013-01-01

225

District health programmes and health-sector reform: case study in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed

The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% nationally. By 2003, infant and child mortality rates were less than one-third of the national rates. The maternal mortality ratio decreased by 50% despite comprehensive emergency obstetric care not being available in most district hospitals. These trends were achieved with an investment of approximately 4 million US dollars over 12 years (equivalent to US 1.00 US dollars per person per year). However, this project did not overcome weaknesses in some national disease-control programmes, especially the expanded programme on immunization, that require strong central management. In Lao PDR, which is not yet committed to using SWAps, tools developed in Sayaboury could help other district health offices assume greater planning responsibilities in the recently decentralized system. Development partners should balance their support for centrally managed disease-specific programmes with assistance to horizontally integrated primary health care at the district level. PMID:16501731

Perks, Carol; Toole, Michael J; Phouthonsy, Khamla

2006-02-01

226

District health programmes and health-sector reform: case study in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.  

PubMed Central

The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country under stress. Development partners have sought to utilize effective aid instruments to help countries classified in this way achieve the Millennium Development Goals; these aid instruments include sector-wide approaches (SWAps) that support decentralized district health systems and seek to avoid fragmentation and duplication. In Asia and the Pacific, only Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands have adopted SWAps. Since 1991, a comprehensive primary health care programme in the remote Sayaboury Province of Lao PDR has focused on strengthening district health management, improving access to health facilities and responding to the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among women and children. Between 1996 and 2003, health-facility utilization tripled, and the proportion of households that have access to a facility increased to 92% compared with only 61% nationally. By 2003, infant and child mortality rates were less than one-third of the national rates. The maternal mortality ratio decreased by 50% despite comprehensive emergency obstetric care not being available in most district hospitals. These trends were achieved with an investment of approximately 4 million US dollars over 12 years (equivalent to US 1.00 US dollars per person per year). However, this project did not overcome weaknesses in some national disease-control programmes, especially the expanded programme on immunization, that require strong central management. In Lao PDR, which is not yet committed to using SWAps, tools developed in Sayaboury could help other district health offices assume greater planning responsibilities in the recently decentralized system. Development partners should balance their support for centrally managed disease-specific programmes with assistance to horizontally integrated primary health care at the district level. PMID:16501731

Perks, Carol; Toole, Michael J.; Phouthonsy, Khamla

2006-01-01

227

International patients within the NHS: a case of public sector entrepreneurialism.  

PubMed

Many public health systems in high- and middle-income countries are under increasing financial pressures as a result of ageing populations, a rise in chronic and non-communicable diseases and shrinking public resources. At the same time the rise in patient mobility and concomitant market in medical tourism provides opportunities for additional income. This is especially the case where public sector hospitals have a reputation as global centres of excellence. Yet, this requires public sector entrepreneurship which, given the unique features of the public sector, means a change to professional culture. This paper examines how and under what conditions public sector entrepreneurship develops, drawing on the example of international patients in the UK NHS. It reports on a subset of data from a wider study of UK medical tourism, and explores inward flows and NHS responses through the lens of public entrepreneurship. Interviews in the English NHS were conducted with managers of Foundation Trusts with interest in international patient work. Data is from seven Foundation Trusts, based on indepth, semi-structured interviews with a range of NHS managers, and three other key stakeholders (n = 16). Interviews were analysed using a framework on entrepreneurship developed from academic literature. Empirical findings showed that Trust managers were actively pursuing a strategy of expanding international patient activity. Respondents emphasised that this was in the context of the current financial climate for the NHS. International patients were seen as a possible route to ameliorating pressure on stretched NHS resources. The analysis of interviews revealed that public entrepreneurial behaviour requires an organisational managerial or political context in order to develop, such as currently in the UK. Public sector workers engaged in this process develop entrepreneurship - melding political, commercial and stakeholder insights - as a coping mechanism to health system constraints. PMID:24833318

Lunt, Neil; Exworthy, Mark; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard D

2015-01-01

228

The coordination between public and private sectors: the role of partnerships in ecotourism development  

E-print Network

natural settings and/or unique cultural conditions. The Indonesian government, which administers land containing abundant wildlife and natural beauty, is seeking to improve its position as a tourism destination by developing its national parks.... Policies are being considered that would facilitate private sector participation in park resources development and service provision. The policies also require that partnerships between the public and private sectors must address both local community...

Sekartjakrarini, Soeharrtini

1993-01-01

229

The private-public literacy divide amid educational reform in Qatar: What does PISA tell us?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools. The idea was to give public schools more autonomy in terms of hiring decisions, adoption of curriculum and textbooks, and budget spending, enabling them to emulate some of the private schools' strategies for turning out successful students. This study examines evidence from the 2006-2012 administrations of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Qatar in order to evaluate whether or not recent educational reform efforts in this country have succeeded in bridging the literacy divide between private and public schools. The results, presented in a number of detailed tables and discussed in the last part of the article, indicate that there is a significant difference in key literacy skills between the two types of schools. Private schools were found to outperform their public counterparts in areas such as mathematics, reading and science, both before and after controlling for important student-level differences, and this gap has evidently persisted from 2006 to 2012.

Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

2015-03-01

230

Childhood Vaccine Purchase Costs in the Public Sector: Past Trends, Future Expectations  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined recent public-sector trends in childhood vaccine costs and estimated future costs. Methods. We used public-sector price data to calculate vaccine purchase cost per child for children aged 0 to 6 years from 1975 to 2001. We fit a linear regression model to historical data and then used it to project costs per child from 2002 to 2020, adjusted to 2001 US dollars. Results. Controlling for inflation, the cost of vaccine purchase per child climbed from $10 in 1975 to $385 in 2001. The cost of vaccine purchase in the year 2020 following recommendation of 7 additional vaccines is estimated to be $1225 per child (95% confidence interval = $891, $1559). Conclusions. The cost per child for recommended vaccines at public-sector prices may triple over the next 2 decades. These projections have implications for vaccine financing at federal and state levels. PMID:12453820

Davis, Matthew M.; Zimmerman, Jessica L.; Wheeler, John R. C.; Freed, Gary L.

2002-01-01

231

Advancing a Conceptual Model of Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Public Service Sectors  

PubMed Central

Implementation science is a quickly growing discipline. Lessons learned from business and medical settings are being applied but it is unclear how well they translate to settings with different historical origins and customs (e.g., public mental health, social service, alcohol/drug sectors). The purpose of this paper is to propose a multi-level, four phase model of the implementation process (i.e., Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment), derived from extant literature, and apply it to public sector services. We highlight features of the model likely to be particularly important in each phase, while considering the outer and inner contexts (i.e., levels) of public sector service systems. PMID:21197565

Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

2010-01-01

232

Supervision in Public Sector Behavioral Health: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supervision plays a key role in the provision of health and human services. An extensive literature exists on supervision as an element of professional development in behavioral health care. However, much less attention has been given to the practice of supervision in publicly funded systems of care for persons with mental and substance use conditions. This article provides a comprehensive

Michael A. Hoge; Scott Migdole; Melanie S. Farkas; Allison N. Ponce; Christie Hunnicutt

2011-01-01

233

Third sector involvement in public education: The Israeli case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article addresses the involvement of third se ctor organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the de cision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Method: A collective case study approach was used to inves tigate non-governmental organization (NGO) procedures for the deployment of the educational services they provide. The study was based on

Izhak Berkovich; Vincent Jonathan Foldes

2012-01-01

234

MANAGING INFORMATION PRIVACY AND INFORMATION ACCESS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government agencies collect and disseminate data that bear on the most important issues of public interest. Advances in information technology, particularly the Internet, have multiplied the tension between demands for evermore comprehensive databases and demands for the shelter of privacy. In mediating between these two conflicting demands, agencies must address a host of difficult problems. These include providing access to

George T. Duncan

235

Impact of Strike Remedies in Public Sector Collective Bargaining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some legislative strike remedies that have been enacted in various states and assesses their effectiveness in deterring strikes by public employees. Concludes that most such remedies are minimally effective at best. (For availability see EA 507 343) (Author/JG)

Gray, David A.; Dyson, B. Patricia

1976-01-01

236

Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary Estimates of Commercial and Public Sector Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina's impact on the economy and infrastructure of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama represents an immediate concern to commercial enterprises, area residents, and policymakers at all levels. Understanding the severity of the damages and the magnitude of the recovery efforts are important for both private and public decision makers deploying resources in the affected area. This paper provides initial estimates

Michael J. Hicks

237

Approved by Court, April 2013 Public Sector Equality Duty  

E-print Network

is reflected in the three strategic areas underpinning our overarching vision and mission. The Equality Act is to support public authorities in meeting the needs of the general duty of the Equality Act 2010 to 2013 and report progress every two years · publish statements on equal pay by the 30 April 2013

Guo, Zaoyang

238

Accounting Considerations in Public Sector Risk Management Pools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Government Accounting Standards Board's Insurance Issues Project has issued an invitation to comment on two issues: (1) whether governmental risk pools should follow the same accounting principles as commercial insurance companies and (2) financial statement disclosures required of entities with public accountability (MLF)

Commons, Harriet V.

1987-01-01

239

The public sector nursing workforce in Kenya: a county-level analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Kenya’s human resources for health shortage is well documented, yet in line with the new constitution, responsibility for health service delivery will be devolved to 47 new county administrations. This work describes the public sector nursing workforce likely to be inherited by the counties, and examines the relationships between nursing workforce density and key indicators. Methods National nursing deployment data linked to nursing supply data were used and analyzed using statistical and geographical analysis software. Data on nurses deployed in national referral hospitals and on nurses deployed in non-public sector facilities were excluded from main analyses. The densities and characteristics of the public sector nurses across the counties were obtained and examined against an index of county remoteness, and the nursing densities were correlated with five key indicators. Results Of the 16,371 nurses in the public non-tertiary sector, 76% are women and 53% are registered nurses, with 35% of the nurses aged 40 to 49 years. The nursing densities across counties range from 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000 population. There are statistically significant associations of the nursing densities with a measure of health spending per capita (P value?=?0.0028) and immunization rates (P value?=?0.0018). A higher county remoteness index is associated with explaining lower female to male ratio of public sector nurses across counties (P value <0.0001). Conclusions An overall shortage of nurses (range of 1.2 to 0.08 per 1,000) in the public sector countrywide is complicated by mal-distribution and varying workforce characteristics (for example, age profile) across counties. All stakeholders should support improvements in human resources information systems and help address personnel shortages and mal-distribution if equitable, quality health-care delivery in the counties is to be achieved. PMID:24467776

2014-01-01

240

Awaking the Public Sector with Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Revitalizing the Public Servant's Organizational Knowledge, Innovative Capability, and Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the perils of today's dynamic and resource-constrained environment, intellectual capital has become a source of competitive advantage for public sector organizations. Composed of three elements--organizational knowledge, innovative capability, and organizational commitment--intellectual capital is an asset that cannot simply be bought or…

Jackson, Janese Marie

2011-01-01

241

Overview of unconventional energy projects in the public power sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alternative energy programs sponsored by publically owned utilities across the country are reviewed. Biomass conversion, diesels, combustion turbines, fuel cells, solar heating units, wind power, cogeneration, and load management are discussed in the context of the individual projects. The emphasis of the programs is on providing the services required by consumers, such as water heating, space conditioning, and insulation, rather than on the marketing of electricity as a single product.

Leber, R. E.

1981-01-01

242

Trust and contract completeness in the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we identify the implications of different levels of contract completeness for the delivery of public services. While numerous factors influence the effectiveness of more or less complete contracts, achieving a win–win outcome – in which both parties to a contract achieve their goals – is in part contingent on the degree of trust between the contracting parties. We explore how varying

Trevor L. Brown; Matthew Potoski; David M. Van Slyke

2007-01-01

243

Health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe: How well are health services responding to changing patterns of health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The political and economic transition of the 1990s in the countries of central and eastern Europe has been accompanied by wide ranging health care reform. The initial Soviet model has given way to a variety of forms of health insurance. Yet, as this paper argues, reform has too often been preoccupied with ideological imperatives, such as provider autonomy and the

Martin McKee; Ellen Nolte

2004-01-01

244

Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

Garrick, C.J.; Garrick, J.M.; Rue, D.R. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)] [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)

1993-06-01

245

Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these. PMID:25581149

Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

2015-03-18

246

IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

Martin, David P.

2013-01-01

247

Lessons in Early Learning: Building an Integrated Pre-K-12 System in Montgomery County Public Schools. Education Reform Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2010 report looked at how Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) used local and federal dollars to craft, implement and improve a system-wide education reform strategy built on a foundation of providing high-quality pre-k education. School officials, state and federal policymakers alike will benefit from learning about the trail that MCPS…

Marietta, Geoff

2010-01-01

248

The public's views on health care reform in the 2008 presidential election.  

PubMed

A Commonwealth Fund survey of adults age 19 and older,conducted from June 2007 to October 2007, finds that large majorities of the public, regardless of political affiliation or income level, say that the candidates' views on health care reform will be very important or somewhat important in their voting decision. Moreover, they believe employers--long the cornerstone of the health insurance system--should retain responsibility for providing health insurance, or at least contribute financially to covering the country's working families. A majority of adults would also favor a requirement that everyone have health insurance, with the government helping those who are unable to afford it; support for such a requirement, however, is not strong and varies by political affiliation, geographic region, and income. There is overwhelming agreement that financing for health insurance coverage for all Americans should be a responsibility shared by employers, government, and individuals. PMID:18360957

Collins, Sara R; Kriss, Jennifer L

2008-01-01

249

Policy and Reform In Public Schools During the Occupation of Japan  

E-print Network

The present study deals with the educational reforms set into place by the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers (SCAP) from 1945 to 1952. Through the review of several issues within Occupation era educational reform, the ...

Parker, James Daniel

2010-12-31

250

Share-Holders in Relief: The Political Culture of the Public Sector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Gordon, a respected historian of US welfare policy, attempts to "refine the story we tell about welfare by contextualizing it in a way not yet done by historians--relating it to the New Deal relief and public works which were so visible at the time of welfare's birth." Gordon examines the promises and contradictions of New Deal relief programs to offer a valuable historical context for current debates on the public sector and the role of government.

Gordon, Linda.

1998-01-01

251

Telecom sector deregulation, business growth and economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is amongst one of the leading nations in the region where the telecom sector reforms were well conceived properly planned and skillfully executed resulting in measurable growth and its impact on all spheres of public and private lives is felt and seen. The telecommunication sector in Pakistan has shown significant growth since the promulgation of Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Act

Muhammad A. Choudhary; Nawar Khan; Aisha Abbas; Ali Salman

2008-01-01

252

The impact of subjectivity in performance evaluation practices on public sector managers’ motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct an explorative study to investigate the effect of subjectivity in performance evaluation practices on managerial motivation in public sector organisations. Increased subjectivity can enhance motivation if supervisors are able to provide better informational feedback. However, subjectivity is likely to reduce motivation if it reduces perceived mission clarity or negatively affects relations between supervisors and subordinates. Our analysis is

Marcel Van Rinsum; Frank H. M. Verbeeten

2012-01-01

253

Behavioural and Motivational Training for Senior Staff in the Portuguese Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of this research has highlighted the fact that most public sector bodies in Portugal do not have any formal specification for training requirements, nor do they have training programmes or detailed training evaluation systems. Furthermore, there is no interaction in these areas between the training body and the Departmental Customer or…

Madureira, Cesar

2006-01-01

254

The Nays Have It: When Public Sector Unions Win in California. Civic Report. No. 72  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This November, California voters must decide two policy questions of great concern to public-sector unions. One is a tax hike to stave off further cuts to state spending (there are two versions on the ballot with a chance of passing). The other is a "paycheck protection" measure that would ban the practice of unions' deducting money from member…

DiSalvo, Daniel

2012-01-01

255

Public sector efficiency: evidence for new EU member states and emerging markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we analyse public sector efficiency in the new member states of the EU compared to that in emerging markets. After a conceptual discussion of expenditure efficiency measurement, we compute efficiency scores and rankings by applying a range of measurement techniques. The study finds that expenditure efficiency across new EU member states is rather diverse especially as compared

António Afonso; Ludger Schuknecht; Vito Tanzi

2010-01-01

256

School-Based Service Use by Youth with ADHD in Public-Sector Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates rates and predictors of school-based services (SBSs) for 390 youth meeting criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and served in the San Diego public sectors. Only 60% of youth had received an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis; these youth were younger, male, Caucasian (versus Latino), and…

Leslie, Laurel K.; Lambros, Katina M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L.

2008-01-01

257

The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

Coleman, David W.

2012-01-01

258

Networking and Managers' Career Success in the Malaysian Public Sector: The Moderating Effect of Managerial Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how managerial level moderates the relationships between networking behaviours and career success (objective and subjective) in the context of a public sector organisation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised a cross-sectional design and investigated these relationships…

Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Garavan, Thomas N.; Ismail, Maimunah

2012-01-01

259

The skills gap in hospital management in the South African public health sector.  

PubMed

A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa. PMID:18708881

Pillay, Rubin

2008-01-01

260

Affective commitment in the public sector: the case of IT employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve our understanding of individual motivations to remain employed in governmental agencies this study focuses on a specific segment of a state government agency workforce. Information technology (IT) employees possess skills that transfer easily to other sectors, which make them an important group when examining factors that influence the affective commitment and job satisfaction of individuals working in public

Margaret F. Reid; Myria W. Allen; Cynthia K. Riemenschneider; Deborah J. Armstrong

2006-01-01

261

Fuzzy MCDM approach to R&D project evaluation in Taiwan's public sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Establishing a performance-oriented evaluation in public sectors is the key to successful administrations. However, because of lacking relative comparable measuring standards, it is difficult to measure the relative performance of one unit while comparing to other units with regard to the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) of performance evaluation. This paper aims to focus on the performance ranking

Wen-Hsiang Lai; Pao-Long Chang; Ying-Chyi Chou

2010-01-01

262

Coping strategies, dysfunctional attitudes and psychological well-being in white collar public sector employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings of an interviewer-supervised, self-completion questionnaire survey involving a sample of 274 white collar public sector employees are reported. The survey examined the reported use of coping strategies and perceptions measured by a version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (Beck et al. 1991). Main and interaction effects involving coping strategies and dysfunctional attitudes were then used to predict psychological

Andrew Guppy; Lorraine Weatherstone

1997-01-01

263

Servant leadership in the People's Republic of China: a case study of the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore whether the Western concept of servant leadership holds the same meaning in the public sector of the cross-cultural context of China and to identify whether there is an alternative term in the Chinese language that closely relates to the concept of servant leadership Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An inductive approach is adopted based on critical

Yong Han; Nada K. Kakabadse; Andrew Kakabadse

2010-01-01

264

Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

2012-01-01

265

The Medicaid School Program: An Effective Public School and Private Sector Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…

Mallett, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

266

Towards developing a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective career success, managers, managerial career development and social cognitive career theory.

Roziah Mohd Rasdi; Maimunah Ismail; Jegak Uli; Sidek Mohd Noah

2009-01-01

267

Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

2009-01-01

268

Undoing Men's Privilege and Advancing Gender Equality in Public Sector Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination against women in public sector organisations has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. While much of this literature acknowledges the structural basis of gender inequality, strategies for change are often focused on anti-discrimination policies, equal employment opportunities and diversity management. Discriminatory behaviour is often individualised in these interventions and the larger systems of dominance and subordination

Michael Flood; Bob Pease

2005-01-01

269

Evaluating Subsidies for Professional Sports in the United States and Europe: A Public-Sector Primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character of subsidies for the construction of professional sports stadiums is changing in Europe and the United States. The incidence of these subsidies and the manner in which they are changing offers insight into an evolving relationship between the public and private sectors in building sports facilities. The changing financial imperatives this paper identifies and analyses suggest that the

Robert A. Baade

2003-01-01

270

Money ethic, moral conduct and work related attitudes : Field study from the public sector in Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate perception of ethical and moral conduct in the public sector in Swaziland, specifically, the relationship among: money ethic, attitude towards business ethics, corruption perception, turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, and the demographic profile of respondents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Using stratified sampling technique in selected organisations,

Gbolahan Gbadamosi; Patricia Joubert

2005-01-01

271

Quality management and the work environment: an empirical investigation in a public sector organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of quality management initiatives, particularly total quality management (TQM), and ergonomics has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Above all, the question of how TQM programs relate to ergonomic aspects of organizational design and culture is at the center of this discussion. This study examines how elements of a “typical”, Deming-inspired, TQM program in the public sector

Alvaro D. Taveira; Craig A. James; Ben-Tzion Karsh; François Sainfort

2003-01-01

272

Government contracting and procurement: a critical process for both the public and private sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs and benefits of government purchases of goods and services from businesses are examined from the perspective of both public and private sector officials. Generally, governments see more benefits than costs, often because of fiscal stress. Businesses, especially newer, smaller firms are more likely to see more costs than benefits. The article concludes with ten projections for changes in

Susan A. MacManus

1992-01-01

273

Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.

Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris,Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

2006-05-10

274

Utilization and Value of Public Sector Information for Knowledge Development: The Case of South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there appears to be a broad recognition of the key role that Public Sector Information (PSI) can play in the development of societies, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of how PSI is actually being utilized and of its wider societal value, especially in developing countries. The overarching goal of this dissertation…

Sharif, Raed M.

2013-01-01

275

Ideology, Effectiveness, and Public Sector Productivity: with Illustrations from the Field of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates how one's ideology and perspective on the role of politics in implementation affects one's view of public sector productivity. Presents two approaches, a Quality Productivity Ratio (QPR) and a Service Productivity Rating (SPR). Using illustrations from the field of higher education, emphasizes the usefulness of the latter approach…

Kelly, Rita Mae

1980-01-01

276

Dues and Deep Pockets: Public-Sector Unions' Money Machine. Civic Report. No. 67  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At first glance, public-sector labor unions are just one of many types of organizations that participate in the political process. However, these unions differ significantly from other interest groups made up of individual citizens or non-labor organizations. Because their members' interests are tied to government policy, these unions are more…

DiSalvo, Daniel

2012-01-01

277

Organizational Politics, Job Attitudes, and Work Outcomes: Exploration and Implications for the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to promote understanding of employees' reactions to organizational politics. The relationship between perception of organizational politics, job attitudes, and several other work outcomes was examined among 303 public sector employees in Israel. Perception of organizational politics was found to have had a negative relationship with job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment), a positive relationship with

Eran Vigoda

2000-01-01

278

A Decade of Change: Public Education Reform in Texas 1981-1992. Special Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1981, Texas embarked on a 10-year period of educational reform. This report presents findings of a policy research project that documented and analyzed these reforms to serve as a guide for future policy developments. Following the introduction, chapter 2, entitled "Student Reforms," addresses issues of curriculum, assessment and dropout…

Clark, Catherine; And Others

279

Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?  

PubMed Central

Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a resource constrained health system where church-run health facilities are vital in the provision of health care in rural areas and where patients tend to prefer these services. In order to ensure equity in distribution of qualified health workers in Tanzania, a national regulation and legislation of the pension schemes is required. PMID:22480347

2012-01-01

280

Conducting public-sector research on commercialized transgenic seed: in search of a paradigm that works.  

PubMed

Public-sector scientists have a mandate to independently evaluate agricultural products available to American farmers on the open market, whereas the companies that sell the products must protect their intellectual property.  However, as a consequence of the latter concern, public scientists currently are prohibited by industry-imposed restrictions from conducting research on commercialized transgenic seed without permission of the company.  Industry acknowledged the seriousness of the problem after public warnings by a large group of entomologists to EPA and scientific advisory panels that the assumption of independence of public-sector studies on these products is no longer valid under current restrictions.  Both industry and public scientists are working to find an amicable, mutually-acceptable solution.  Recently, the American Seed Trade Association brokered a draft set of principles designed to protect the legitimate property rights of companies while allowing public scientists independence to conduct most types of research on their commercialized products without the need for case-by-case agreements.  While there are a number of potential pitfalls in implementation of the principles across companies, this effort represents a major step forward, and there is reason for optimism that this approach can be made to work to the benefit of industry, public scientists, and the American public. PMID:21865871

Sappington, Thomas W; Ostlie, Kenneth R; Difonzo, Christina; Hibbard, Bruce E; Krupke, Christian H; Porter, Patrick; Pueppke, Steven; Shields, Elson J; Tollefson, Jon J

2010-01-01

281

Implications of private sector Hib vaccine coverage for the introduction of public sector Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine in India: evidence from retrospective time series data  

PubMed Central

Objective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. Setting 16 of 29 states in India, 2009–2012. Design Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. Data (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. Outcome measures State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. Results The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009–2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians’ prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009–2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. Conclusions If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is undefined as yet but it should not be neglected as a useful complement to public sector services. PMID:25712822

Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P

2015-01-01

282

The process and impact of workplace change: a business unit in the NSW public hospital sector.  

PubMed

Over the last decade most of the debate regarding workplace reforms in the health sector has tended to centre on funding and activity levels and their impact on outcomes. Yet there has been little analysis of either the mechanisms by which these reforms have been introduced or their impact on the work life of employees. It is the intention of this paper to analyse the mechanism used to implement workplace change and the impact of that change on employees using a case study method. The paper will firstly identify the various mechanisms by which workplace change may be introduced and provide a brief background on the case study unit. The following sections will discuss the development and implementation of a performance management system, using an informal workplace consultation and negotiation mechanism. The final section will explore the impact of the change mechanism by analysing the objectives of the organisation. The paper, in conclusion, will argue that while the mechanism and the introduction of this instance of workplace change did not in the long term achieve the desired objectives as a specific management tool it has had an ongoing impact on managers, employees and the workplace. The paper draws on evidence from related literature, analysis of primary documents and 10 semi-structured interviews. Data collection, including the interviews with employees and managers, was conducted primarily during the second half of 2001, as part of a broader research project on bargaining structures and workplace change. PMID:12136550

White, Nadine

2002-01-01

283

Improving Public School Teachers in Pakistan: Challenges and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article tries to respond to a basic question: "can in-service teachers of public sectors in Pakistan be reformed?" The authors' response to this question is: "yes, public teachers can be reformed, if contextual possibilities are exploited efficiently". Although a straightforward and simplistic response to the question, this was felt necessary…

Hussain, Rana; Ali, Sajid

2010-01-01

284

Addressing gaps in health care sector legal preparedness for public health emergencies.  

PubMed

Health care providers and their legal counsel play pivotal roles in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies. Lawyers representing hospitals, health systems, and other health care provider components are being called upon to answer complex legal questions regarding public health preparedness issues that most providers have not previously faced. Many of these issues are legal issues with which public health officials should be familiar, and that can serve as a starting point for cross-sector legal preparedness planning involving both the public health and health care communities. This article examines legal issues that health care providers face in preparing for public health emergencies, and steps that providers, their legal counsel, and others can take to address those issues and to strengthen community preparedness. PMID:18388658

Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, Anthony D

2008-03-01

285

Progress and Problems in Reforming Public Language Examinations in Europe: Cameos from the Baltic States, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, France and Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contributions from seven European countries pinpoint major projects, problems, and prospects of reforming public language assessment procedures. Each country has faced unique problems in the reform process, yet there have also been several common themes emerging, such as a focus on multilingualism, communicative skills, standardization, reference…

Eckes, Thomas; Ellis, Melanie; Kalnberzina, Vita; Pizorn, Karmen; Springer, Claude; Szollas, Krisztina; Tsagari, Constance

2005-01-01

286

Planning law and public health at an impasse in Australia: the need for targeted law reforms to improve local food environments to reduce overweight and obesity.  

PubMed

Australia's high rates of overweight and obesity, and the associated increased population risk of non-communicable diseases, pose a challenge to policymakers across sectors beyond the health portfolio. In the last decade, strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and address non-communicable diseases have increasingly interested urban planners in Australia and internationally. However, Australian planning laws continue to operate largely without regard to public health goals, thus limiting the ability of communities to shape healthy built environments. In recent years, local governments have increasingly taken on responsibility for improving public health through community-based initiatives; however, their efforts are hindered by their limited capacity to influence planning priorities under current State-legislated planning schemes. This article considers the emerging body of research exploring the impact of urban planning on health and non-communicable diseases in Australia. It is contended that planning law in Australia is out of step with the evidence of planning's potential impact on health, and reforms are required to ensure consistency with public health priorities. PMID:25341327

Mills, Caroline

2014-09-01

287

Cancer registration, public health and the reform of the European data protection framework: Abandoning or improving European public health research?  

PubMed

The importance of cancer- and other disease registries for planning, management and evaluation of healthcare systems has been shown repeatedly during the last 50years. Complete and unbiased population-level analyses on routinely collected, individual data concerning health and personal characteristics can address significant concerns about risk factors for cancer and provide sound evidence about public health and the effectiveness of healthcare systems. The existence of quality controlled and comprehensive data in registries, allowed to be used for quality control, research and public health purposes are taken as granted by most health professionals and researchers. However, the current revision of the European Union (EU) data protection framework suggests a harmonisation of requirements for confidentiality and individual consent to data processing, likely at the expense of proper use of registry data in the health sector. Consequences of excessive confidentiality rules that may lead to missed data linkages have been simulated. The simulations provide one possible explanation for observed heterogeneity among some cancer incidence data. Further, public health, quality control and epidemiological research on large populations can no longer provide evidence for health interventions, if requirements for consent renders research impossible or where attempts to obtain consent from each data subject generates biased results. Health professionals should engage in the on-going debate on the Commission's proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation. The nature and use of registry data in public health research must be explained and known to policy-makers and the public. Use of cancer registry data and other epidemiological activity will terminate abruptly if an unnecessarily strict EU data protection regulation is adopted. Research based interventions, as well as the international recognised standing of cancer registries and register-based research institutions in Europe are at stake. PMID:24120502

Andersen, Mette Rye; Storm, Hans H

2013-10-10

288

Performance Management of the Police in the Context of Public Sector Reform in Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis investigates police performance management in Maputo, which is the capital city of Mozambique. To conduct the analysis, it applies a multiangle and multi-factor framework that enables examination of core values and indicators of governance while taking into account the influencing factors within and around the Police of the Republic of Mozambique (PRM).\\u000aThe thesis sets the stage for

F. I. Alar

2010-01-01

289

Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it comes to public-sector pensions, writes lead author Michael B. Lafferty in this report, "A major public-policy (and public-finance) problem has been defined and measured, debated and deliberated, but not yet solved. Except where it has been." As recounted in "Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century", these…

Lafferty, Michael B.

2011-01-01

290

TQM and labor-management cooperation-- a noble experiment for the public sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent initiatives by the Clinton Administration to promote labor-management cooperation and to reinvent government suggest reconsidering the efficacy of total quality management (TQM) and labor-management cooperation initiatives in the public sector. Key elements of both initiatives, for example, process improvement\\/innovation, focus on the customer, and employee empowerment, are inherent parts of the National Performance Review (NPR) and, as such, are

Timothy J. Loney DPA

1996-01-01

291

Simple Regression Models for Fully Air-conditioned Public Sector Office Buildings in Subtropical Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 20 fully air-conditioned office buildings with centralised HVAC systems in the public sector were selected for this study. Electricity use per unit gross floor area ranged from 163 to 416 kWh\\/m, with an average of 270 kWh\\/m. Monthly electricity consumption data over a five-year period from 1996 to 2000 were gathered and analysed. These data were correlated

Joseph C. Lam; Ricky Y. C. Chan; Danny H. W. Li

2002-01-01

292

Leveraging limited research and development (R&D) resources in the public sector  

SciTech Connect

Mission-directed public-sector research facilities are experiencing increasingly severe budget environments while seeing expanding missions and responsibilities. In an effort to identify research leveraging methodologies an information search was conducted in conjunction with some efforts to find the proper links to systems engineering fundamentals. The result is an initial model for use in a preconcept/phase-1 engineering design organization, with a goal of improving the organizations performance.

Senglaub, M.

1995-08-01

293

From Cash to Accrual Budgeting and Accounting in the Public Sector: The Dutch Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, governments used to deploy input-based budgeting systems and cash-based accounting systems. However, these systems do not provide the information that is necessary for a government to operate efficiently and effectively. Therefore, a growing number of countries have already shifted or are planning to shift from cash-based to some form of accrual accounting in the public sector. Usually, the implementation

M. Peter van der Hoek

2005-01-01

294

Healthcare reform in New South Wales 1986–1999: using the literature to predict the impact on senior health executives  

Microsoft Academic Search

While numerous reviews have examined the changing roles, skills, competencies, and educa- tional needs of health service managers as the result of health care reforms, no study has focused specifically on the impact of New South Wales health reforms on the roles, responsibilities and behaviours of senior health executives in the public health sector. This paper briefly illustrates the significant

Zhan Ming Liang; Stephanie D Short; Bill Lawrence

2005-01-01

295

Mental health policy and development in Egypt - integrating mental health into health sector reforms 2001-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Following a situation appraisal in 2001, a six year mental health reform programme (Egymen) 2002-7 was initiated by an Egyptian-Finnish bilateral aid project at the request of a former Egyptian minister of health, and the work was incorporated directly into the Ministry of Health and Population from 2007 onwards. This paper describes the aims, methodology and implementation of the

Rachel Jenkins; Ahmed Heshmat; Nasser Loza; Inkeri Siekkonen; Eman Sorour

2010-01-01

296

Change Theory for Accounting System Reform in Health Sector: A Case Study of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Change theories provide an opportunity for organizational managers to plan, monitor and evaluate changes using a framework which enable them, among others, to show a fast response to environmental fluctuations and to predict the changing patterns of individuals and technology. The current study aimed to explore whether the change in the public accounting system of the Iranian health sector has followed Kurt Lewin’s change theory or not. Methods: This study which adopted a mixed methodology approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, was conducted in 2012. In the first phase of the study, 41 participants using purposive sampling and in the second phase, 32 affiliated units of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) were selected as the study sample. Also, in phase one, we used face-to-face in-depth interviews (6 participants) and the quote method (35 participants) for data collection. We used a thematic framework analysis for analyzing data. In phase two, a questionnaire with a ten-point Likert scale was designed and then, data were analyzed using descriptive indicators, principal component and factorial analyses. Results: The results of phase one yielded a model consisting of four categories of superstructure, apparent infrastructure, hidden infrastructure and common factors. By linking all factors, totally, 12 components based on the quantitative results showed that the state of all components were not satisfactory at KUMS (5.06±2.16). Leadership and management; and technology components played the lowest and the greatest roles in implementing the accrual accounting system respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the unfreezing stage did not occur well and the components were immature, mainly because the emphasis was placed on superstructure components rather than the components of hidden infrastructure. The study suggests that a road map should be developed in the financial system based on Kurt Lewin’s change theory and the model presented in this paper underpins the change management in any organizations. PMID:24596885

Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Emami, Mozhgan

2013-01-01

297

Chartering Urban School Reform. Reflections on Public High Schools in the Midst of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents essays written by school reformers that discuss the reform movement and examine the partnership that inspired the creation of small, intimate school communities known as charters. They also reflect on the comprehensive changes that inform each charter and the personal and collective struggles to institutionalize these new…

Fine, Michelle, Ed.

298

Death of the Public Library: From 'People's University' to 'Public-Sector Leisure Centre'.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public libraries emerged as educational institutions during the second half of the 19th century. Their aim was the intellectual and moral improvement of individuals and societies. After several decades it became evident that public libraries had failed as "people's universities." They came to acknowledge the provision of entertainment as a…

Kruk, Miroslaw

1998-01-01

299

Private or public? An empirical analysis of the importance of work values for work sector choice among Norwegian medical specialists.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of the Norwegian hospital reform of 2002, the private supply of specialized healthcare has increased substantially. This article analyses the likelihood of medical specialists working in the private sector. Sector choice is operationalized in two ways: first, as the likelihood of medical specialists working in the private sector at all (at least 1% of the total work hours), and second, as the likelihood of working full-time (90-100%) privately. The theoretical framework is embedded in work values theory and the results suggest that work values are important predictors of sector choice. All analyses are based on a postal questionnaire survey of medical specialists working in private contract practices and for-profit hospitals and a control group of specialists selected from the Norwegian Medical Association's member register. The analyses revealed that while autonomy values impact positively on the propensity for allocating any time at all to the private sector, professional values have a negative effect. Given that the medical specialist already works in the private sector, a high valuation of professional values and payment and benefit values increases the likelihood of having a dual sector job rather than a full-time private position. However, due to the cross-sectional structure of the data and limitations in the dataset, causality questions cannot be fully settled on the basis of the analyses. The relationship between work values and sector choice should, therefore, be regarded as associations rather than causality links. Finally, the likelihood of working in the private sector varies significantly at the municipality level, suggesting that medical specialist's location is important for sector choice. PMID:17161892

Midttun, Linda

2007-03-01

300

The Effect of Funding Changes on Public Sector Non-Profit Organisations: The Case of Bushcare NSW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into non-profit organisations abounds, but public sector non-profit organisations have been neglected. Recent funding incentives have led to significant changes in the market environment for such organisations. This study describes market changes and explores the reactions of one environmental public sector non-profit organisation, Bushcare NSW, to these changes. This paper contends that, within this institutional environment, non-profit organisations more

K. Lazarevski; H. Irvine; S. Dolnicar

2007-01-01

301

Pathways and Tensions in the Family of Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper distinguishes two pathways in the various proposals for innovative reforms of public sector agricultural extension. The two "pathways" involve the participatory trends toward democratization and farmer association and, in contrast, the push toward capitalistic commercial attitudes toward agriculture as business. The introduction reviews…

Rivera, William M.

2008-01-01

302

"More Justice": The Role of Organized Labor in Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the potential role of low-wage service sector unions in engaging in equity-minded school reform. The members of many such unions are parents of children attending poorly resourced public schools. In seeking to address the interests of their members, labor unions can draw upon resources, organizing strategies, and political…

Rogers, John S.; Terriquez, Veronica

2009-01-01

303

Does hospital ownership affect patient experience? An investigation into public-private sector differences in England.  

PubMed

Using patient experience survey data, the paper investigates whether hospital ownership affects the level of quality reported by patients whose care is funded by the National Health Service in areas other than clinical quality. We estimate a switching regression model that accounts for (i) some observable characteristics of the patient and the hospital episode; (ii) selection into private hospitals; and (iii) unmeasured hospital characteristics captured by hospital fixed effects. We find that the experience reported by patients in public and private hospitals is different, i.e. most dimensions of quality are delivered differently by the two types of hospitals, with each sector offering greater quality in certain specialties or to certain groups of patients. However, the sum of all ownership effects is not statistically different from zero at sample means. In other words, hospital ownership in and of itself does not affect the level of quality of the average patient's reported experience. Differences in mean reported quality levels between the private and public sectors are entirely attributable to patient characteristics, the selection of patients into public or private hospitals and unobserved characteristics specific to individual hospitals, rather than to hospital ownership. PMID:23579025

Pérotin, Virginie; Zamora, Bernarda; Reeves, Rachel; Bartlett, Will; Allen, Pauline

2013-05-01

304

Public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: health care workers' attention to mental health problems.  

PubMed

Although there is a high prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), many patients are not screened, diagnosed or referred for mental health problems. This study aims to determine whether public sector health care workers in South Africa observe, screen, diagnose and refer ART patients that show symptoms of common mental disorders. It also aims to ascertain the extent of mental health training received by public sector health care workers working in ART. The study was cross-sectional in design. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 40 nurses and structured interviews were conducted with 23 lay workers across the five districts in the Free State between July 2009 and October 2009. STATA version 12 was used to perform statistical data analysis. The health care workers reported observing a high frequency of symptoms of common mental disorders among public sector ART patients. While 70% of nurses screened and diagnosed, only 40% of lay workers screened and diagnosed patients on ART for a mental disorder. Health care workers who had received training in mental health were more likely to screen or diagnose a mental disorder, but only 14% of the workers had received such training. We recommend that health care workers should receive task-specific training to screen and/or diagnose patients on ART for common mental disorders using the guidelines of the South African HIV Clinicians Society. A positive diagnosis should be referred to a health care practitioner for appropriate evidence-based treatment in the form of medication or psychotherapy. PMID:25317991

Pappin, Michele; Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik L R; Lund, Crick

2015-04-01

305

Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N?=?165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€?=?MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P?=?0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P?=?0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P?public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings provide basis for identifying potential cost-reducing strategies, estimating economic burden of periodontitis management and performing economic evaluation of the specialist periodontal programme. PMID:24884465

2014-01-01

306

Optimal Incentives for Public Sector Workers: The Case of Teacher-Designed Incentive Pay in Texas. Working Paper 2009-05  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay for performance is a popular public education reform, and millions of dollars are currently being targeted for pay for performance programs. These reforms are popular because economic and management theories suggest that well-designed incentive pay programs could improve teacher effectiveness. There is little evidence about the characteristics…

Taylor, Lori L.; Springer, Matthew G.

2009-01-01

307

Eliminating malaria in Malaysia: the role of partnerships between the public and commercial sectors in Sabah  

PubMed Central

Background Countries in the Asia Pacific region have made great progress in the fight against malaria; several are rapidly approaching elimination. However, malaria control programmes operating in elimination settings face substantial challenges, particularly around mobile migrant populations, access to remote areas and the diversity of vectors with varying biting and breeding behaviours. These challenges can be addressed through subnational collaborations with commercial partners, such as mining or plantation companies, that can conduct or support malaria control activities to cover employees. Such partnerships can be a useful tool for accessing high-risk populations and supporting malaria elimination goals. Methods This observational qualitative case study employed semi-structured key informant interviews to describe partnerships between the Malaysian Malaria Control Programme (MCP), and private palm oil, rubber and acacia plantations in the state of Sabah. Semi-structured interview guides were used to examine resource commitments, incentives, challenges, and successes of the collaborations. Results Interviews with workers from private plantations and the state of Sabah MCP indicated that partnerships with the commercial sector had contributed to decreases in incidence at plantation sites since 1991. Several plantations contribute financial and human resources toward malaria control efforts and all plantations frequently communicate with the MCP to help monitor the malaria situation on-site. Management of partnerships between private corporations and government entities can be challenging, as prioritization of malaria control may change with annual profits or arrival of new management. Conclusions Partnering with the commercial sector has been an essential operational strategy to support malaria elimination in Sabah. The successes of these partnerships rely on a common understanding that elimination will be a mutually beneficial outcome for employers and the general public. Best practices included consistent communication, developing government-staffed subsector offices for malaria control on-site, engaging commercial plantations to provide financial and human resources for malaria control activities, and the development of new worker screening programmes. The successes and challenges associated with partnerships between the public and commercial sector can serve as an example for other malaria-eliminating countries with large plantation sectors, and may also be applied to other sectors that employ migrant workers or have commercial enterprises in hard to reach areas. PMID:24443824

2014-01-01

308

Psychology in the Public Sector: Addressing the Psychological Effects of Combat in the U.S. Navy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The response of military psychology in times of war or other great public crises may presage the success of the profession in less perilous times. The ability of public-sector psychologists to provide assistance and improve the common welfare during conflict or turmoil is generally followed by an increased demand for psychological services. This…

Sammons, Morgan T.

2005-01-01

309

Improving employee outcomes in the public sector : The beneficial effects of social support at work and job control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the efficacy of the demand-control-support model, augmented with employee perceptions of organisational justice and degree of met expectations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected from 128 public sector employees working in a large state police force operating under many of the elements of new public management. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were

John J. Rodwell; Andrew J. Noblet; Amanda F. Allisey

2011-01-01

310

Addressing the epidemiologic transition in the former Soviet Union: strategies for health system and public health reform in Russia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This paper reviews Russia's health crisis, financing, and organization and public health reform needs. METHODS. The structure, policy, supply of services, and health status indicators of Russia's health system are examined. RESULTS. Longevity is declining; mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases and trauma are high and rising; maternal and infant mortality are high. Vaccine-preventable diseases have reappeared in epidemic form. Nutrition status is problematic. CONCLUSIONS. The crisis relates to Russia's economic transition, but it also goes deep into the former Soviet health system. The epidemiologic transition from a predominance of infectious to noninfectious diseases was addressed by increasing the quantity of services. The health system lacked mechanisms for epidemiologic or economic analysis and accountability to the public. Policy and funding favored hospitals over ambulatory care and individual routine checkups over community-oriented preventive approaches. Reform since 1991 has centered on national health insurance and decentralized management of services. A national health strategy to address fundamental public health problems is recommended. PMID:8604754

Tulchinsky, T H; Varavikova, E A

1996-01-01

311

Community Responses to School Reform in Chicago: Opportunities for Local Stakeholder Engagement. A Report by Public Agenda for the Joyce Foundation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on how community stakeholders, including parents, teachers, community leaders and advocates, think about current efforts by Chicago Public Schools (CPS) to "turn around" Chicago's lowest-performing schools, and their expectations for future school reform actions. It was prepared by Public Agenda, with support from…

Public Agenda, 2012

2012-01-01

312

! During the American park movement in the romantic era, park proponents sought to use urban parks to reform corrupted city dwellers into the good society. Public health,  

E-print Network

urban parks to reform corrupted city dwellers into the good society. Public health, the primary virtue was considered the anthesis of the urban and its corrosive influences. Public green spaces designed to mimic and related data is commonly used to assess wether regions provide ample green space to their constituents

Young, Terence

313

Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states  

PubMed Central

Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work. PMID:21108833

2010-01-01

314

Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. SUNY Series in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act declared that improving education in every school in the United States was a top national priority. However, this act did not acknowledge how state departments of education have successfully constructed reforms for the past few decades, despite the power struggle between governors, legislators, school districts, and…

Shober, Arnold F.

2010-01-01

315

New Roles for Community Services in Educational Reform. Publication Series No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rediscovery of a role in extending social organization and bringing "order" to distressed neighborhoods has become an educational reform motif in the United States. A full-service school that links education and other support services can contribute to the social capital needed to improve children's learning. While it is a laudable concept,…

Crowson, Robert L.; Boyd, William Lowe

316

Curricular Reform and the Changing Social Role of Public Higher Education in Costa Rica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dominant social, economic, and political philosophies manifested in the recent debate over the University of Costa Rica general studies curriculum reforms are discussed. It is concluded that the debate is really about the university's role in an environment that values privatization, individual (contrasted with social) benefits of higher…

Twombly, Susan B.

1997-01-01

317

Indians and Public Opinion in the Age of Reform: The Case of the Poncas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

News and editorial coverage of the Ponca controversy of 1879 was investigated in an effort to discover why and how this particular Indian story became a national crusade. The Ponca campaign helped promote reform-minded legislation which conferred new rights on the Indians and promised to speed their assimilation into mainstream society. The Dawes…

Coward, John M.

318

From private profits to public goods? A human rights assessment of health care reform plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the crisis of health care in the United States is widely acknowledged - marked by poor health outcomes, high costs, unequal access, and widening health inequities - its structural underpinnings have not been adequately addressed, and reformers have settled on promoting piecemeal measures to avoid disruption. The human right to health care offers an analytical and advocacy framework for

Anja Rudiger

319

Family Literacy Guide to Welfare Reform. Family Independence Initiative Publication #3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides the information family literacy programs, practitioners, and friends need to understand the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) and its ramifications. It also addresses how to advocate on behalf of family literacy and to adapt programs to meet welfare reform requirements, while…

National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

320

Pro-social preferences and self-selection into the public health sector: evidence from an economic experiment.  

PubMed

Motivational crowding-out theory establishes that the effectiveness of financial incentive schemes, like pay-for-performance, crucially depends on the underlying social preferences of health workers. In this paper we study the extent to which heterogeneity in the strength and structure of social preferences is related to career choices by testing whether preferences vary systematically between Tanzanian health worker students who prefer to work in the private for-profit health sector and those who prefer to work in the public health sector. Despite its important policy implications, this issue has received little attention to date. By combining data from a questionnaire and an economic experiment, we find that students who prefer to work in the public health sector have stronger pro-social preferences than those who prefer to work in the private for-profit sector. PMID:22763126

Kolstad, Julie Riise; Lindkvist, Ida

2013-05-01

321

Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ? R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year, a total of 5369 registered nurses could have been employed in lieu of nursing agency expenditure. Conclusions The study findings should inform workforce planning in South Africa. There is a need for uniform policies and improved management of commercial nursing agencies in the public health sector. PMID:25537936

Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

2014-01-01

322

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic level among public-sector workers in Angola  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. African countries are currently facing an increase in both cardiovascular and transmitted diseases. In addition, cardiovascular risk varies among different socioeconomic groups. Thus, we determined the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy public-sector workers and investigated possible relationships with socioeconomic status. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study comprising 42.2% (n = 615) of the public-sector workers at Agostinho Neto University, 48% (n = 294) male and 52% (n= 321) female, with ages between 20 and 72 years and from various socioeconomic groups. The study was conducted from February 2009 to December 2010. Personal, anthropometric, biochemical, hemodynamic, socioeconomic, and physical activity data were collected. Results The prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors were as follows: hypertension, 45.2% (men 46.3%, women 44.2%, P > 0.05); hypercholesterolemia, 11.1% (men 10.5%, women 11.5%, P > 0.05); low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 50.1% (men 36.9%, women 62.3%; P < 0.05); hypertriglyceridemia, 10.6% (men 12.6%, women 8.7%, P > 0.05); smoking, 7.2% (men 10.2%, women 4.4%; P < 0.05); diabetes, 5.7% (men 5.5%, women 5.9%, P > 0.05); overweight, 29.3% (men 27.3%, women 31.2%, P > 0.05); obesity, 19.6% (men 9.2%, women 29.0%; P < 0.05); sedentary lifestyle, 87.2% (men 83.0%, women 91,0%, P < 0.05); and left ventricular hypertrophy, 20% (men 32.0%, women 9.0%; P < 0.05). At least one risk factor was present in 27.7% of the sample; 15.2% had two risk factors, and 31.4% had three or more risk factors. Among the individuals with low socioeconomic status, 41.0% had three or more risk factors. Conclusions The results of this study suggest the existence of a high prevalence of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy public-sector workers in Angola. The workers in lower socioeconomic groups had higher incidences of hypertension, smoking, and left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:23924306

2013-01-01

323

Differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in the public and private sectors of developing countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate potential differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Data on the availability of 30 commonly-surveyed medicines – 15 for acute and 15 for chronic conditions – were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted in 40 developing countries. Results were aggregated by World Bank country income group and World Health Organization region. Findings The availability of medicines for both acute and chronic conditions was suboptimal across countries, particularly in the public sector. Generic medicines for chronic conditions were significantly less available than generic medicines for acute conditions in both the public sector (36.0% availability versus 53.5%; P?=?0.001) and the private sector (54.7% versus 66.2%; P?=?0.007). Antiasthmatics, antiepileptics and antidepressants, followed by antihypertensives, were the drivers of the observed differences. An inverse association was found between country income level and the availability gap between groups of medicines, particularly in the public sector. In low- and lower-middle income countries, drugs for acute conditions were 33.9% and 12.9% more available, respectively, in the public sector than medicines for chronic conditions. Differences in availability were smaller in the private sector than in the public sector in all country income groups. Conclusion Current disease patterns do not explain the significant gaps observed in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions. Measures are needed to better respond to the epidemiological transition towards chronic conditions in developing countries alongside current efforts to scale up treatment for communicable diseases. PMID:21673857

Roubos, Ilse; Ewen, Margaret; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubertus GM; Laing, Richard O

2011-01-01

324

Monitoring foods and beverages provided and sold in public sector settings.  

PubMed

This paper outlines a step-wise framework for monitoring foods and beverages provided or sold in publicly funded institutions. The focus is on foods in schools, but the framework can also be applied to foods provided or sold in other publicly funded institutions. Data collection and evaluation within this monitoring framework will consist of two components. In component I, information on existing food or nutrition policies and/or programmes within settings would be compiled. Currently, nutrition standards and voluntary guidelines associated with such policies/programmes vary widely globally. This paper, which provides a comprehensive review of such standards and guidelines, will facilitate institutional learnings for those jurisdictions that have not yet established them or are undergoing review of existing ones. In component II, the quality of foods provided or sold in public sector settings is evaluated relative to existing national or sub-national nutrition standards or voluntary guidelines. Where there are no (or only poor) standards or guidelines available, the nutritional quality of foods can be evaluated relative to standards of a similar jurisdiction or other appropriate standards. Measurement indicators are proposed (within 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches) that can be used to monitor progress over time in meeting policy objectives, and facilitate comparisons between countries. PMID:24074214

L'Abbé, M; Schermel, A; Minaker, L; Kelly, B; Lee, A; Vandevijvere, S; Twohig, P; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Walker, C

2013-10-01

325

Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them. PMID:21180486

Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

2009-01-01

326

Vertical and Horizontal Trust at Work as Predictors of Retirement Intentions: The Finnish Public Sector Study  

PubMed Central

This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations of trust towards the supervisor (vertical trust) and trust towards co-workers (horizontal trust) with retirement intentions. The participants were 14 840 women and men working in the municipal sector in 2000–12 (Finnish Public Sector Study). Trust (vertical trust towards the supervisor and horizontal trust towards co-workers) and retirement intentions were assessed in repeated surveys. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between baseline trust and retirement intentions at 3.7 years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, health, psychological distress, health risk behaviors, personality factors, and psychosocial factors were included as covariates. Of the participants, 67.0% trusted their supervisor and 54.9% trusted their co-workers. Employees who trusted their supervisor (odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–0.67) and employees who trusted their co-workers (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.70) at baseline were less likely to have strong retirement intentions at follow-up compared to those who did not trust. These associations largely persisted after adjusting for all covariates and taking into account baseline retirement intentions. In conclusion, trust in the supervisor and co-workers predicted retirement intentions. These observational findings suggest that increasing trust in the workplace may contribute to lengthening working careers and preventing early retirement. PMID:25191745

Muurinen, Charlotte; Laine, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula

2014-01-01

327

Which work characteristics predict employee outcomes for the public-sector employee? An examination of generic and occupation-specific characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide-ranging changes that have occurred in the public sector over recent years have placed increasing demands on public-sector employees. A survey of employees within a relatively commercially-oriented public-sector organization in Australia was used to test a demand-oriented generic model of employee well-being and a variety of situation-specific variables. The presence of support at work and the amount of control

Andrew Noblet; Stephen T. T. Teo; John McWilliams; John J. Rodwell

2005-01-01

328

Reforms: a quest for efficiency or an opportunity for vested interests’? a case study of pharmaceutical policy reforms in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Regulation of the pharmaceutical sector is a challenging task for most governments in the developing countries. In Tanzania, this task falls under the Food and Drugs Authority and the Pharmacy Council. In 2010, the Pharmacy Council spearheaded policy reforms in the pharmaceutical sector aimed at taking over the control of the regulation of the business of pharmacy from the Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority. This study provides a critical analysis of these reforms. Methods The study employed a qualitative case-study design. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and document reviews. Data was analyzed thematically using a policy triangle framework. The analysis was done manually. Results The reforms adopted an incremental model of public policy-making and the process was characterized by lobbying for political support, negotiations and bargaining between the interest groups. These negotiations were largely centred on vested interests and not on the impact of the reforms on the efficiency of pharmaceutical regulations in the country. Stakeholders from the micro and meso levels were minimally involved in the policy reforms. Conclusion Recent pharmaceutical regulation reforms in Tanzania were overshadowed by vested interests, displacing a critical analysis of optimal policy options that have the potential to increase efficiency in the regulation of the business of pharmacy. Politics influenced decision-making at different levels of the reform process. PMID:23849334

2013-01-01

329

Pharmacy benefit management contracting: an assessment from a recent public sector procurement experience.  

PubMed

In order to contain the cost of pharmaceuticals while preserving access to medically necessary drugs, Georgia state government competitively selected a single vendor in May of 2000 to manage combined pharmacy benefits under all of the state's health programs. By initiating this procedure, it intended to maximize the state's purchasing power and improve efficiency while streamlining the administrative structure. Synthesizing information from the request for proposal (RFP) and technical proposals submitted by 11 pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) in response, we describe a model of public sector PBM contracting approach and present an assessment of the industry's service capability and performance statistics. Payers who have been using PBM services may find it interesting to compare their experience with the recent Georgia experience. Those who are considering contracting with a PBM will find the assessment of the PBM industry timely and informative. PMID:12199494

Bae, Jay P; Justice, Paul G

2002-01-01

330

Leadership in Surgery for Public Sector Hospitals in Jamaica: Strategies for the Operating Room  

PubMed Central

The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

2013-01-01

331

The Reform of the European Commission: Time for Change in Europe's Public Administration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On March 1, 2000, the European Commission, the executive body that initiates and implements EU legislation, adopted a White Paper that sets out a specific Action Plan for reform and modernization of the Commission. These reforms were drawn up in the wake of scandal and the resignation en masse of the Commission one year ago. The Action Plan includes a timetable specifying target dates for each of the changes, which should be completed by the second half of 2002. At the site, users can read the full text of the White Paper in .pdf format, related press releases and speeches, and brief summaries of the proposed changes in five key areas: Ethics, Human Resources, Financial Management, Priorities and Resources, and A Culture based on service. The site will soon be available in eleven languages.

2000-01-01

332

Microeconomic Reform and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 260-page document from the Australian Productivity Commission details the proceedings of the Microeconomic Reform and the Environment, which took place on September 8, 2000 in Melbourne, Australia. The main body of the report is broken into four main sections, each dealing with a different sector of the environment: the water sector, the electricity sector, the transport sector, and the forest sector. Each section includes a short introduction to the main issues of each sector and the related workshop presentation summary. In some cases, discussions are also given. A short summary and epilogue wrap up Microeconomic Reform and the Environment.

333

Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that estimates of current climate variability and related risks, although also associated with substantial uncertainty, can be interpreted as a baseline for very uncertain future projections.

Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith

2013-04-01

334

Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225. PMID:25061250

Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

2014-01-01

335

Activities of the NASA sponsored SRI technology applications team in transferring aerospace technology to the public sector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization and functions of an interdisciplinary team for the application of aerospace generated technology to the solution of discrete technological problems within the public sector are presented. The interdisciplinary group formed at Stanford Research Institute, California is discussed. The functions of the group are to develop and conduct a program not only optimizing the match between public sector technological problems in criminalistics, transportation, and the postal services and potential solutions found in the aerospace data base, but ensuring that appropriate solutions are acutally utilized. The work accomplished during the period from July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971 is reported.

Berke, J. G.

1971-01-01

336

Patients as healthcare consumers in the public and private sectors: a qualitative study of acupuncture in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Results Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Conclusions Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS and private patients both had misconceptions about acupuncture in the other sector. Future research should evaluate whether the differences we identified in patients' experiences across private and public healthcare are common, whether they translate into significant differences in clinical outcomes, and whether similar faces of consumerism characterise patients' experiences of other interventions in the private and public sectors. PMID:21619572

2011-01-01

337

A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts to tackle the enormous burden of ill-health in low-income countries are hampered by weak health information infrastructures that do not support appropriate planning and resource allocation. For health information systems to function well, a reliable inventory of health service providers is critical. The spatial referencing of service providers to allow their representation in a geographic information system is vital if the full planning potential of such data is to be realized. Methods A disparate series of contemporary lists of health service providers were used to update a public health facility database of Kenya last compiled in 2003. These new lists were derived primarily through the national distribution of antimalarial and antiretroviral commodities since 2006. A combination of methods, including global positioning systems, was used to map service providers. These spatially-referenced data were combined with high-resolution population maps to analyze disparity in geographic access to public health care. Findings The updated 2008 database contained 5,334 public health facilities (67% ministry of health; 28% mission and nongovernmental organizations; 2% local authorities; and 3% employers and other ministries). This represented an overall increase of 1,862 facilities compared to 2003. Most of the additional facilities belonged to the ministry of health (79%) and the majority were dispensaries (91%). 93% of the health facilities were spatially referenced, 38% using global positioning systems compared to 21% in 2003. 89% of the population was within 5 km Euclidean distance to a public health facility in 2008 compared to 71% in 2003. Over 80% of the population outside 5 km of public health service providers was in the sparsely settled pastoralist areas of the country. Conclusion We have shown that, with concerted effort, a relatively complete inventory of mapped health services is possible with enormous potential for improving planning. Expansion in public health care in Kenya has resulted in significant increases in geographic access although several areas of the country need further improvements. This information is key to future planning and with this paper we have released the digital spatial database in the public domain to assist the Kenyan Government and its partners in the health sector. PMID:19267903

Noor, Abdisalan M; Alegana, Victor A; Gething, Peter W; Snow, Robert W

2009-01-01

338

An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Methods Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. Results The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher program with other services is likely to address some of the barriers. The public sector facilities were also seen as being well positioned to provide voucher services because of their countrywide reach, enhanced infrastructure, and referral networks. The voucher program also has the potential to address public sector constraints such as understaffing and supply shortages. Conclusions Accrediting public facilities has the potential to increase voucher program coverage by reaching a wider pool of poor mothers, shortening distance to service, strengthening linkages between public and private sectors through public-private partnerships and referral systems as well as ensuring the awareness and buy-in of policy makers, which is crucial for mobilization of resources to support the sustainability of the programs. Specifically, identifying policy champions and consulting with key policy sectors is key to the successful inclusion of the public sector into the voucher program. PMID:24139603

2013-01-01

339

Reforming the American Public Sphere: The Media Reform Models of Progressive Television Journalists in the Era of Internet Convergence and Neoliberalism  

E-print Network

conferences allow computer hackers to “collectively enact,hackers’ moral technical imaginaries begin with technical discussions of computers,hackers, the lifeworld of media reformers is largely a solitary practice in front of a computer,

Fish, Adam

2012-01-01

340

Environmental impacts of building integrated PV applications in the state public buildings sector  

SciTech Connect

If the US is to meet its commitments for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emission reductions, as anticipated by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change and the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990, it almost certainly must implement policies to increase the use of renewable energy. This paper evaluates the potential of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to deliver high-value electrical services while offsetting SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Their study focuses on PV applications in the public buildings sector because of its potential for speeding the commercialization of the technology in a market conducive to long-term return on investment. The study investigates the economic and environmental implications of PV meeting 2% of the energy demand of public buildings. The specific application investigated is a roof-mounted dispatchable peak-shaving system with uninterruptible power supply (UPS) capability. Several previous studies have shown that such a system is cost-effective on the basis of the energy services it provides. The present analysis indicates that this application can play an important role in helping the US meet its CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions targets.

Byrne, J.; Agbemabiese, L.; Kliesch, J.; Eiffert, P.; Hadjilambrinos, C.; Nigro, R.

1999-07-01

341

Educational Opportunity, Parental Choice and Community: The Case for Reforming Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the last 10 years, polling data have recorded a consistent decline in the American citizen's support for public education. While public schools experienced an 8 percent decline in enrollment between 1968 and 1978, private school enrollment grew by 12 percent. The decline in quality of public education over the last 50 years appears strongly…

Hawkins, Robert B., Jr.

1982-01-01

342

Self-reported musculoskeletal pain and working conditions among employees in the Swedish public sector.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal disorders constitute a considerable public health problem, often resulting in sickness absence, particularly in public sector employees. Increased knowledge on how this is related to individual and work-related factors is required. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported musculoskeletal pain and the following factors: physical and psychosocial work conditions, lifestyle, psychosomatic symptoms and sick leave. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed by a total of 2523 people, of which 87% were women and 13% men. The participants were employed in public hospitals, educational institutions, home care services for the elderly and domestic/catering services in a Swedish county. The response rate was 92%. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the high level of self-reported musculoskeletal pain was highly associated with strenuous physical and psychosocial work conditions. The physical factor with the highest odds ratio (OR) was working in a forward-bent position. High work demands was the most prominent psychosocial factor and distinctly associated with musculoskeletal pain among men. Physical work strain and other demanding working conditions, which were associated with musculoskeletal pain, were frequent among employees in home care services for the elderly and domestic/catering services. There was a strong association between long-term sick leave and high musculoskeletal pain. Furthermore, there was a strong association between a high level of musculoskeletal pain and the exhibition of psychosomatic symptoms in both women and men; this is an interaction that may intensify the total experience of illness and thus needs to be further investigated. PMID:17264418

Fjell, Ylva; Alexanderson, Kristina; Karlqvist, Lena; Bildt, Carina

2007-01-01

343

MIND YOUR ACCRUALS: PERCEIVED USEFULNESS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION IN THE AUSTRALIAN PUBLIC SECTOR UNDER DIFFERENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the usefulness of three accounting systems (cash, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) accrual, and Government Finance Statistics (GFS) accrual) for public sector decision-making. From a survey of internal users, external users, and preparers in Australia, we find that GAAP accrual information is perceived to be relatively more useful and understandable than the other two systems for most

Ralph Kober; Janet Lee; Juliana Ng

2010-01-01

344

Autochthonous minority languages in public-sector primary education: Bilingual policies and politics in Brittany and Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between policy and politics in relation to the development of public-sector primary education through Breton and Gaelic, considering closely the patterns of power through which such provision is delivered. Brittany and Scotland present many similarities as culturally distinctive territories, contained within larger state-nations, which until recently allowed very little scope for minority language education. Initiatives

Vaughan Rogers; Wilson McLeod

2006-01-01

345

Autochthonous Minority Languages in Public-Sector Primary Education: Bilingual Policies and Politics in Brittany and Scotland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship between policy and politics in relation to the development of public-sector primary education through Breton and Gaelic, considering closely the patterns of power through which such provision is delivered. Brittany and Scotland present many similarities as culturally distinctive territories, contained within…

Rogers, Vaughan; McLeod, Wilson

2006-01-01

346

Change Management and Quality of Service through Business Process Modeling: The N-VIS, a Public Sector Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outsourcing in the Public sector has become common practice in the United States and is spreading rapidly in the European Union. When Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) are involved, outsourcing becomes rather complex. In such cases, a clear definition of the processes to be implemented and a quality assurance monitoring system are crucial factors for success. In addition, globalization, world

Vassilis Loumos; George Christonakis; Girgios Mpardis; Panagiota Tziova

2010-01-01

347

Organic development: a top-down and bottom-up approach to design of public sector information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we lay out interim findings and speculate on the implications for practice and theory of integrated criminal justice systems in law enforcement. In doing this we theorize on public sector information systems and their uses of information and communication technologies as engaging in what we call \\

Michael Tyworth; Steve Sawyer

2006-01-01

348

The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

Oh, Jeong Rok

2013-01-01

349

Estimating the Effect of Leaders on Public Sector Productivity: The Case of School Principals. NBER Working Paper No. 17803  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much has been written about the importance of leadership in the determination of organizational success, there is little quantitative evidence due to the difficulty of separating the impact of leaders from other organizational components--particularly in the public sector. Schools provide an especially rich environment for studying the…

Branch, Gregory F.; Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

2012-01-01

350

The Proper Measurement of Government Budget Deficits: Comprehensive Wealth Accounting or Permanent Income Accounting for the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies budgetary, financial and monetary policy evaluationand design using a comprehensive wealth or permanent income accounting framework. A set of stylized balance sheets and permanent income accountsis constructed for the public, private and overseas sectors.These are then contrasted with the conventionally measured balance sheet and flow of funds accounts. This permits a new look at the issues of

Willem H. Buiter

1984-01-01

351

Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Private Sectors in the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

A severe earthquake in San Francisco in 1906 severed electrical and gas lines and collapsed chimneys. Fires resulted, burning for four days over 2800 acres. The commercial and residential center of the city was destroyed. Two hundred fifty thousand people of the city’s 400,000 population were left homeless, including a majority of public and private sector workers. Municipal records of

Douglas Coate

2010-01-01

352

When School Isn't Special: A Call for Reform of Special Education in Baltimore City Public Schools. A Report by Students First.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report critically examines special education in Baltimore (Maryland) public schools and proposes major reform of Baltimore's special education system. Criticisms focus on: poor instructional quality (there is little "special" about special education); segregation of special education students from regular education; special education used as…

Mintz, Mindy S.; Cuffie, Kevin L.

353

Training's Policies: Public and Private Reinforcement for the American Economy. Final Report. The Impact of Public Policy on Education and Training in the Private Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of public policy on education and training in the private sector. During the study, the following research activities were completed: a statistical examination of the scope and nature of firm-supplied training, 20 case studies of the training supplied by large firms representing a diverse set of industries across the…

Meyerson, Martin; Zemsky, Robert

354

Vertical funding, non-governmental organizations, and health system strengthening: perspectives of public sector health workers in Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background In the rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, many donors have chosen to channel their funds to non-governmental organizations and other private partners rather than public sector systems. This approach has reinforced a private sector, vertical approach to addressing the HIV epidemic. As progress on stemming the epidemic has stalled in some areas, there is a growing recognition that overall health system strengthening, including health workforce development, will be essential to meet AIDS treatment goals. Mozambique has experienced an especially dramatic increase in disease-specific support over the last eight years. We explored the perspectives and experiences of key Mozambican public sector health managers who coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad donor-driven projects and agencies. Methods Over a four-month period, we conducted 41 individual qualitative interviews with key Ministry workers at three levels in the Mozambique national health system, using open-ended semi-structured interview guides. We also reviewed planning documents. Results All respondents emphasized the value and importance of international aid and vertical funding to the health sector and each highlighted program successes that were made possible by recent increased aid flows. However, three serious concerns emerged: 1) difficulties coordinating external resources and challenges to local control over the use of resources channeled to international private organizations; 2) inequalities created within the health system produced by vertical funds channeled to specific services while other sectors remain under-resourced; and 3) the exodus of health workers from the public sector health system provoked by large disparities in salaries and work. Conclusions The Ministry of Health attempted to coordinate aid by implementing a “sector-wide approach” to bring the partners together in setting priorities, harmonizing planning, and coordinating support. Only 14% of overall health sector funding was channeled through this coordinating process by 2008, however. The vertical approach starved the Ministry of support for its administrative functions. The exodus of health workers from the public sector to international and private organizations emerged as the issue of greatest concern to the managers and health workers interviewed. Few studies have addressed the growing phenomenon of “internal brain drain” in Africa which proved to be of greater concern to Mozambique’s health managers. PMID:23768178

2013-01-01

355

Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark  

PubMed Central

Objectives A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. Setting We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Participants Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100?000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Results Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Conclusions Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. PMID:25712820

Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

2015-01-01

356

An Exploratory Analysis of Public and Private Correctional Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As prison populations soar at unprecedented rates, the need for high quality education behind bars has never been greater. Prison education programs are the vehicle for reform and may be the solution to curtailing an ever-growing prison population. Yet, as the public sector increasingly contracts with the private sector for prison management,…

Sadeghi, Leila

2009-01-01

357

District of Columbia Public Schools: While Early Reform Efforts Tackle Critical Management Issues, a District-Wide Strategic Education Plan Would Help Guide Long-Term Efforts. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. GAO-08-549T  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to long-standing problems with student academic performance, the condition of school facilities, and the overall management of the D.C. public school system, the D.C. Council approved the Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007 (Reform Act). The Reform Act made major changes to the operations and governance of the D.C. public

Ashby, Cornelia M.

2008-01-01

358

Team Characteristics and Team Member Knowledge, Skills, and Ability Relationships to the Effectiveness of Cross?Functional Teams in the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines members of cross?functional teams in the public sector for the necessary knowledge, skills, and ability (KSA) to be effective team members. It was determined that members of cross?functional teams in the public sector possess the necessary KSA to perform effectively. The following characteristics are statistically significant factors: (1) years of professional work experience; (2) frequency of team

Yvonne A. Athanasaw

2003-01-01

359

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Australian context of a shortage of skilled professionals, this article uses the Harvard model of human resources management (HRM) to conceptualise how changes in stakeholder interests coupled with changes to situational factors affect public sector HRM policy choices that in turn affect HRM outcomes for different types of public sector employees. The findings obtained using path analysis suggest

Yvonne Brunetto; Rodney Farr-Wharton; Kate Shacklock

2011-01-01

360

Flying High and Laying Low in the Public and Private Sectors: A Comparison of Pay Differentials for Full-Time Male Employees in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using new linked employee-employer data for Britain in 2004, this paper shows that, on average, full-time male public sector employees earn 11.7 log wage points more than their private sector counterparts. Decomposition analysis reveals that the majority of this pay premium is associated with public sector employees having individual characteristics associated with higher pay and to their working in higher

Monojit Chatterji; Karen Mumford

2007-01-01

361

Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector  

PubMed Central

During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

2008-01-01

362

Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in <25 years (Central Intelligence Agency 2012; Fotso et al. 2011). Over half of the population already lives in an urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas. PMID:24248622

Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

2014-02-01

363

Hospital pricing reform in the public health care system--an empirical case study from Finland.  

PubMed

Finland's 1993 state subsidy reform encouraged hospital districts to determine their services as products and change their pricing from bed-day to case-based and fee-for-service types. The economic incentive in hospital production was investigated by exploring how different price types affected the use of lumbar discectomies, and hip and knee replacements. Procedure rates, pricing, need, demand and supply variables in 1991-1998 were analysed using panel data methods. Case-based prices increased lumbar discectomies about 8%. In hip replacement the effect was opposite (-11%). Only for knee replacements (1995-1998) did mixed fee-for-service and bed-day prices significantly increase production (21%). PMID:14650080

Mikkola, Hennamari

2003-12-01

364

PERCEPTIONS OF PUBLIC SECURITY IN POST-REFORM URBAN CHINA: A ROUTINE ACTIVITY ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates perceptions of public security across 32 Chinese cities and examines the effects of personal and environmental determinants of these perceptions within the risk\\/opportunity framework of Cohen and Felson's (1979) routine activity theory. Structural path analysis reveals that public security perceptions in China are informed by similar personal and environment characteristics to those reported as important in extant

Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth

2005-01-01

365

Restoring Health to Health Reform: Integrating Medicine and Public Health to Advance the Population's Wellbeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a major achievement in improving access to health care services. However, evidence indicates that the nation could achieve greater improvements in health outcomes, at a lower cost, by shifting its focus to public health. By focusing nearly exclusively on health care, policy makers have chronically starved public health of adequate and stable

Lawrence O. Gostin; Peter D. Jacobson; Katherine L. Record; Lorian E. Hardcastle

2011-01-01

366

Hexavalent IPV-based combination vaccines for public-sector markets of low-resource countries  

PubMed Central

In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vaccines containing IPV could provide reliable and continuous immunization in the post-polio eradication period. Combination vaccines can potentially simplify complex pediatric routine immunization schedules, improve compliance, and reduce costs. Hexavalent vaccines containing Diphtheria (D), Tetanus (T), whole cell pertussis (wP), Hepatitis B (HBV), Haemophilus b (Hib) and the three IPV serotype antigens have been considered as the ultimate combination vaccine for routine immunization. This product review evaluates potential hexavalent vaccine candidates by composition, probable time to market, expected cost of goods, presentation, and technical feasibility and offers suggestions for development of low-cost hexavalent combination vaccines. Because there are significant technical challenges facing wP-based hexavalent vaccine development, this review also discusses other alternative approaches to hexavalent that could also ensure a timely and reliable supply of low-cost IPV based combination vaccines. PMID:23787559

Mahmood, Kutub; Pelkowski, Sonia; Atherly, Deborah; Sitrin, Robert; Donnelly, John J

2013-01-01

367

Unravelling the quality of HIV counselling and testing services in the private and public sectors in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the substantial investment for providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services in Zambia, there has been little effort to systematically evaluate the quality of VCT services provided by various types of health providers. This study, conducted in 2009, examines VCT in the public and private sectors including private for-profit and NGO/faith-based sectors in Copperbelt and Luapula. Methods The study used five primary data collection methods to gauge quality of VCT services: closed-ended client interviews with clients exiting VCT sites; open-ended client interviews; interviews with facility managers; review of service statistics; and an observation of the physical environment for VCT by site. Over 400 clients and 87 facility managers were interviewed from almost 90 facilities. Sites were randomly selected and results are generalizable at the provincial level. Results The study shows concerning levels of underperformance in VCT services across the sectors. It reveals serious underperformance in counselling about key risk-reduction methods. Less than one-third of clients received counselling on reducing number of sexual partners and only approximately 5% of clients received counselling about disclosing test results to partners. In terms of client profiles, the NGO sector attracts the most educated clients and less educated Zambians seek VCT services at very low rates (7%). The private for-profit performs equally or sometimes better than other sectors even though this sector is not adequately integrated into the Zambian national response to HIV. Conclusion The private for-profit sector provides VCT services on par in quality with the other sectors. Most clients did not receive counselling on partner reduction or disclosure of HIV test results to partners. In a generalized HIV epidemic where multiple concurrent sexual partners are a significant problem for transmitting the disease, risk-reduction methods and discussion should be a main focus of pre-test and post-test counselling. PMID:25012796

Ron Levey, Ilana; Wang, Wenjuan

2014-01-01

368

A Philadelphia Story: Building Civic Capacity for School Reform in a Privatizing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report was undertaken to assess the state of civic capacity for education reform in Philadelphia. It challenges community and civic sectors of the city to put aside individual interests and work together to mobilize resources to pursue the collective good of public school improvement. The report demonstrates that many of the elements…

Gold, Eva; Simon, Elaine; Cucchiara, Maia; Mitchell, Cecily; Riffer, Morgan

2007-01-01

369

Personnel management and productivity reform: Taming the civil service in Great Britain and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines recent efforts to improve public sector productivity through reform of personnel systems and processes in Great Britain and the United States. Productivity efforts in both countries have been stimulated by and implemented in highly politicized environments. They have been attempts to secure the values of not only economy and efficiency but also executive leadership and political responsiveness.

David L. Dillman

1986-01-01

370

Reform: To What End?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

Rose, Mike

2010-01-01

371

Perceptions of Public Security in Post-reform Urban China: A Routine Activity Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the personal and environmental determinants of public security perceptions across 32 Chinese cities\\u000a within the risk\\/opportunity framework of Cohen and Felson’s (American Sociological Review 44:588–608, 1979) routine activity theory. Structural path analysis reveals that public security perceptions in China are informed by similar\\u000a personal and environment characteristics to those reported as important in extant research within Western

Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth

2009-01-01

372

Reform of the EIA process in Indonesia: improving the role of public involvement  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a planning tool has been utilised for a relatively long time in Indonesia. It was introduced formally through the Act No. 4/1982. Supporting regulation was established in 1986 when Government Regulation No. 29 was enacted. After developing the EIA system for 14 years, Indonesia finally recognized the importance of emphasizing public involvement in the EIA guidelines of 2000. EIA in the previous Indonesian regulations, i.e. Regulation No. 29/1986 and No. 51/1993, did not have provisions for direct public involvement. The Indonesian Government Regulation No. 27/1999 is currently accommodating the above issue. Guidelines for public announcement and public involvement have been introduced in a decree issued by the Head of Indonesia's Environmental Impact Management Agency No. KepDal 08/2000. This was officially enacted on 7 November 2000 in response to the demand for more public involvement, an issue that was ambiguous in the previous legislation. This paper discusses: the implementation of the new guidelines; what has been achieved; and the challenges during implementation. While the paper focuses its review on the Indonesian EIA system, Indonesia's experience is relevant to many other developing countries that are starting to adopt public involvement in their decision-making processes.

Purnama, Dadang

2003-07-01

373

Window shopping: state health reform politics in the 1990s.  

PubMed

Throughout the 1990s states sought politically acceptable policies to reduce the ranks of the uninsured. Visions of comprehensive health reform and universal coverage yielded by mid-decade to more modest measures to repair private health insurance markets, and to these enactments were added several new public programs (state and federal) to expand coverage for lower-income children and, in some cases, adults. Because governments remain ill equipped to counter the power of business, insurers, and providers in conflicts fought on private turf, reform agendas have been more readily set, moved, and cleared in public-sector arenas. Although the number of uninsured rose steadily until 1999, "catalytic federalism"--the accelerating interplay between state and federal reform forces and funds--may be putting the programmatic foundations for broader coverage incrementally into place. PMID:11194860

Brown, L D; Sparer, M S

2001-01-01

374

Disseminating evidence-based practices for adults with PTSD and severe mental illness in public-sector mental health agencies.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely untreated among adults with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The treatment of psychotic symptoms usually takes precedence in the care of adults with SMI. Such oversight is problematic in that PTSD in SMI populations is common (19%-43%), contributes a significant illness burden, and hinders mental health care. Yet few public-sector mental health agencies routinely provide specialized services for PTSD. The purpose of the article is to describe strategies and efforts to disseminate trauma-focused empirically based practices in a public-sector mental health system. Identified challenges include limited resources and commitment; knowledge deficits, attitudes, and biases; and limited practice accountability at provider, facility, and system levels. Proposed strategies for overcoming these challenges are to set clear goals, nurture broad-based organizational commitment and key stakeholder involvement, implement specialty training efforts to provide information and change attitudes, provide ongoing supervision, conduct fidelity monitoring, and ensure accountability to the extent possible. PMID:18723837

Frueh, B Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Cusack, Karen J; Elhai, Jon D

2009-01-01

375

Fulfilling the Compact: Building a Breakthrough, Results-Driven Public Charter School Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the Task Force on Charter School Quality and Accountability issued "Renewing the Compact," a position statement for the charter school sector that presented recommendations for achieving the goals of growth and quality. This report evaluates the sector's progress on those goals and recommends bold actions to capitalize on its successes…

Ableidinger, Joe; Steiner, Lucy; Spong, Angie; Hassel, Bryan C.

2012-01-01

376

Quality management and the work environment: an empirical investigation in a public sector organization.  

PubMed

The integration of quality management initiatives, particularly total quality management (TQM), and ergonomics has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Above all, the question of how TQM programs relate to ergonomic aspects of organizational design and culture is at the center of this discussion. This study examines how elements of a "typical", Deming-inspired, TQM program in the public sector interact with the work environment. Elements of the TQM program were defined and measured using the Malcom Baldridge Award criteria. The specific elements examined were "Management Support of Quality", "Information and Analysis", "Human Resources", "Processes and Quality Results", and "Customer Focus and Satisfaction". The relationship between these TQM elements and the work environment were defined through five separate hypotheses. The work environment was described by the constructs "Supervisor Support", "Task Clarity", "Task Orientation", and "Innovation". Data were obtained through survey questionnaires administered to employees of four departments in a municipal government organization. Results supported three of the hypotheses, but produced some unanticipated outcomes with regard to the other two. Namely, "Management Support of Quality" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support", "Task Orientation", "Task Clarity" and "Innovation"; "Human Resources" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support"; "Processes and Quality Results" was significantly related to "Task Orientation" and "Innovation". Contrary to predicted "Information and Analysis" was negatively related to "Innovation", and "Customer Focus" was unrelated to any of the outcome variables. The relationships between these TQM elements and work environment dimensions are discussed. Implications for TQM and ergonomic practice are analyzed, and directions for future research proposed. PMID:12880738

Taveira, Alvaro D; James, Craig A; Karsh, Ben -Tzion; Sainfort, François

2003-07-01

377

Servant leadership and affective commitment in the Chinese public sector: the mediating role of perceived organizational support.  

PubMed

This study examined a possible mediating mechanism between servant leadership and the affective commitment in Chinese employees. Servant leadership, perceived organizational support, and affective commitment was assessed among 239 full-time employees in the Chinese public sector in three rounds of surveys. Servant leadership influenced affective commitment through perceived organizational support. The effect of servant leadership exists in Chinese culture as well as Western cultures. PMID:25310313

Zhou, Yingying; Miao, Qing

2014-10-01

378

Jobs and buy local programs: expected employment effects of public-sector import-substitution in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a modelling approach to project the effects of a public sector urban import-substitution program called Buy Chicago. The City of Chicago would redirect its non-local procurement back to Chicago firms to reach a 90 percent local-buying goal with the intention of creating jobs, revenue and economic growth. The employment generated from Buy Chicago was projected by a

Phillip H. Sandro

1995-01-01

379

The Rationalizing Logics of Public School Reform: How Cultural Institutions Matter for Classroom Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research herein uses a mixed methods approach to examine how organizational phenomena at the macro level of analysis translate into phenomena at the micro level. Specifically, the research attempts to explain how cultural institutions may translate into individual attitudes and actions, such as public school teachers' decisions about using…

Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.

2013-01-01

380

Education Reform and the Academic Performance of Public and Private Secondary School Students in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking advantage of newly available data on a standardized national examination for secondary school students in Thailand, this study attempts to explain the variation in the average performance of students using school and local characteristics. Special emphasis is placed on trying to understand the asymmetric success factors of public and…

Wongsurawat, Winai

2011-01-01

381

The Assault on Public Education: Confronting the Politics of Corporate School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this timely interdisciplinary volume, William Watkins has brought together leading scholars and activists to address some of the most urgent issues facing public education. What is underneath and behind the language of choice, efficiency, and improvement in current neoliberal discourse? How will urban and poor populations be affected? Will…

Watkins, William H., Ed.

2011-01-01

382

Market-Based Pay Reform for Public School Teachers. Working Paper 2008-07  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern personnel economics emphasizes the importance of strategic, integrated compensation policy in an organization. In this paper I review key features of the compensation system for public school teachers. The rigidities and inefficiencies that arise from single salary schedules and other features of the compensation regime, and their…

Podgursky, Michael

2008-01-01

383

Necessary Educational Reform for the 21st Century: The Future of Public Schools in Our Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We offer a theoretical and ecological argument for the preparation of citizens in U.S. public schools. This democratic education draws legitimacy from the concern of the nations founders for a populace educated to govern itself. We also emphasize the need for new democratic skills and knowledge in the face of today's challenges, and our…

Laguardia, Armando; Pearl, Arthur

2009-01-01

384

Public policy update. Welfare reform and teen parents: are we missing the point?  

PubMed

The aim of teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives should be to provide sexuality education that is age-appropriate, medically accurate, and available at each grade level with a positive view of sexuality and information and skills that contribute to sexual health and the ability to make decisions. Abstinence should be included as long as it is not fear-based and is part of the promotion of responsible sexuality. Contraceptive information must be available to those already sexually active. Subsidized day care for children of poor adolescent mothers must be at the top of the agenda of services integrated with job programs and school-to-work initiatives. Quality child care can provide a solid foundation in personal health, negotiation, self-esteem, and individual rights and responsibilities. Quick-fix and punitive measures are out of place in programs that rely on growth in individual responsibility. An innovative approach to social welfare programming would include comprehensive sexuality education, reproductive health services, child care, health insurance, and job training. The Clinton welfare reform drafts combine elements of teen pregnancy prevention with punitive action. What is needed is greater investment in programs enhancing sexuality education, acceptance and understanding of sexuality, and access to affordable reproductive health services. The Clinton plan focuses primarily on the National Mobilization for Youth Opportunity and Responsibility, which is a national media campaign to educate youth about responsibility and the benefits of staying in school and delaying childbearing. About 1000 middle and high schools in high-poverty areas would be targeted. Opportunities would be offered to go to college or have access to job training. Controls would be placed on adolescents by requiring minor parents to live with a responsible adult, minor mothers to stay in school, and to limit disbursements for additional children while on Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Child support would be required of fathers. These key measures do not address the root causes of teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy would decline if teenagers understood information on alternative to intercourse and sources and methods of contraception. Teenagers must be able to talk with partners about sexual limits and how to say "no" or avoid risky situations. Access to condoms or contraception must be available in the community at low or no cost. PMID:12345600

Wacker, B L; Gambrell, A E

1994-01-01

385

Policy, legal and institutional reforms for public–private partnerships needed to sustain large marine ecosystems of East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legacy of overfishing, destruction of coastal habitats, and accelerated pollution loading has dramatically reduced the biomass and diversity of marine waters in East Asia. Coasts can no longer support the numbers of people migrating to them, thus risking future economic benefits and social stability. Some countries are adopting needed reforms while, in others, less priority is given to reforms.

Alfred M. Duda

2006-01-01

386

Charter School Competition, Organization, and Achievement in Traditional Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market models of education reform predict that the growth of charter schools will infuse competition into the public school sector, forcing traditional public schools to improve the practices they engage in to educate students. Some scholars have criticized these models, arguing that competition from charter schools is unlikely to produce…

Davis, Tomeka M.

2013-01-01

387

The modernization of American public law: health care reform and popular constitutionalism.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) transformed U.S. public law in crucial ways extending far beyond health care. As important as were the doctrinal shifts wrought by National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the ACA's structural changes to public law likely will prove far more important should they become entrenched. The struggle over the ACA has triggered the kind of "constitutional moment" that has largely replaced Article V's formal amendment procedure since the Prohibition fiasco. The Court participates in this process, but the definitive and enduring character of these constitutional moments' outcomes springs from broad popular engagement. Despite the Court's ruling and the outcome of the 2012 elections, the battle over whether to implement or shelve the ACA will continue unabated, both federally and in the states, until We the People render a clear decision. Whether the ACA survives or fails will determine the basic principles that guide the development of federalism, social insurance, tax policy, and privatization for decades to come. In each of these areas, the New Deal bequeathed us a delicate accommodation between traditionalist social values and modernizing norms of economic efficiency and interest group liberalism. This balance has come under increasing stress, with individual laws rejecting tradition far more emphatically than the New Deal did. But absent broad popular engagement, no definitive new principles could be established. The ACA's entrenchment would elevate technocratic norms across public law, the first change of our fundamental law since the civil rights revolution. The ACA's failure would rejuvenate individualistic, moralistic, pre-New Deal norms and allow opponents to attempt a counterrevolution against technocracy. PMID:24834539

Super, David A

2014-04-01

388

Reforming Science: Structural Reforms  

PubMed Central

Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

2012-01-01

389

[Impact of the public health reform law on non-university hospitals].  

PubMed

The 'Gesundheitsstrukturgesetz 1993' (GSG 1993) and the following law has resp. will considerably change the hospital scene. Thus the intended cost reduction in the hospital sector ought to be reached by the following measures: abolition of covering cost prices a more sufficient connection of in- and outdoor-patient treatments fixed budgets for 1993/1994 and resp. 1995 adoption of a differentiated system of fees a growing quota of the head physicians' charges for the sick-insurances In this context the abolition of covering cost prices is a minor problem. A more significant subject in consideration of the increasing requirements of hospital management is the organizational realization of the following aspects: rising forms of operating on outdoor-patients, pre- and post-indoor treatments, the period of fixed budgets in 1993/1994, resp. to 1995, as well as the calculation of the various fees. In addition to that the reduced revenues from the charges of head physicians pose a problem for the hospitals. The adoption of the new forms of treatment causes serious changes in both the functional and the proceeding organization of hospitals. The period of fixed budgets is of disadvantage in particular for those hospitals which did not manage to agree upon 'Fallpauschalen' and 'Sonderentgelte' until 1992 under the law of 1986 (Bundespflegesatzverordnung 1986). These prices or fees are not subject of the fixed budgets. Thus only hospitals having agreed upon these prices have the chance to raise their budget in case of an increased number of patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7676748

Nierhoff, G

1995-01-01

390

University Governance Reforms: Potential Problems of More Autonomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University governance reforms are very much a reflection of the broader New Public Management reforms that are focusing on increasing efficiency in public organizations. The article deals with how university reform ideas of a generic nature, emphasizing that universities should be treated and reformed like any other public organizations, are…

Christensen, Tom

2011-01-01

391

Transformation of ministries of health in the era of health reform: the case of Colombia.  

PubMed

Ministries of health are being called upon to lead major health reforms; at the same time they must reform themselves to become more modern institutions and assume new and different functions and roles in the more dynamic reformed system. The literature on public administration and on health reform has recommended many processes of institutional reform and development, building on private sector management techniques, popularized by 'reinventing government' and 'total quality management'. More recently, thoughtful insights have emphasized improving public management through a focus on creating 'public value'; on political, as well as administrative, leadership; improving institutional performance through strengthening the 'task networks' of organizations needed to achieve strategic objectives; and creating a learning culture within the organization. This article applies these recent approaches to the specific needs of ministries of health in order to improve their capacity to lead major health reforms. This combined approach is then used to analyze and make recommendations to the Ministry of Health in Colombia where the authors were providing technical support for a major new health reform. PMID:10178186

Bossert, T; Hsiao, W; Barrera, M; Alarcon, L; Leo, M; Casares, C

1998-03-01

392

An introduction to oral health care reform.  

PubMed

Oral health care reform is made up of several components, but access to care is central. Health care reform will occur in some fashion at some point, and how it will impact the entire dental sector is unclear. In the short term, there is likely to be a dental component during the reauthorization of State Children's Health Insurance Program in early 2009, and several federal oral health bills are expected to be reintroduced as well. Additional public funding for new programs and program expansions remains questionable, as federal funding will be tight. Fiscal conservancy will be occurring in the states as well; however, various proposals to expand dental hygienists' duties are likely, as are proposals related to student grants for dental schools. Regardless of one's political stance, the profile of oral health care has been elevated, offering countless opportunities for improvement in the oral health of the nation. PMID:19482130

Hathaway, Kristen L

2009-07-01

393

The political economy of the green technology sector: A study about institutions, diffusion and efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses aspects related to the green technology sector (GT sector) in Germany. In a first step institutional\\u000a reforms enabling diffusion of green technologies are analyzed. Cost arguments are also taken into account. In a second step\\u000a a theoretical model developed by Tanguay et al. (Public Choice 120:1–27, 2004) is modified in order to evaluate the efficiency of the institutional

Leo Urban Wangler

2009-01-01

394

An Evaluation of Public-Sector-Sponsored Continuous Vocational Training Programs in East Germany.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Econometric estimates were used to determine the effects of publicly funded continuous vocational training and retraining in the former East Germany. Results suggest that, despite large public expenditures, no positive effects occurred in the first years after training. (SK)

Lechner, Michael

2000-01-01

395

Industrial reform and air transport development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the regulatory and enterprise reform in the Chinese airline industry and its impact on the industry’s tremendous growth in recent years. It starts with a brief description of China’s general economic and industrial reform, followed by a detailed description of reforms in the air transport sector. It then examines the impact of the reform on the growth

Anming Zhang

1998-01-01

396

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal  

E-print Network

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions

Kammen, Daniel M.

397

Abortion Clients of a Public-sector Clinic and a Non-governmental Organization Clinic in Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates similarities and differences between abortion clients of a public-sector clinic and a non-governmental organization (NGO) clinic in Nepal. In 2010, a survey of 1,172 women was conducted in two highly-attended abortion clinics in Kathmandu—one public-sector clinic and another operated by an NGO. Data on the sociodemographic characteristics of clients, their fertility preferences, and use of contraceptives were analyzed. Similarities and differences between the two groups of clients were examined by either chi-square or t-test. The clients of the two clinics were similar with respect to age (27.3±5.7 years), education (26.5% had no education), and number of living children (1.88±1.08). They differed with regard to contraceptive practice, the circumstances resulting in unintended pregnancy, and future fertility preferences. Just over 50% clients of the public and 35% clients of the NGO clinic reported use of contraceptives surrounding the time of unintended pregnancy. The groups also differed in the contraceptive methods used and in reasons for not using any method. The NGO clinic contributed principally to expanding the availability of and access to abortion services. PMID:24288952

Neupane, Shailes

2013-01-01

398

Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the Context of Economic Reform. Education Research Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in vocational education and training (VET) in Tanzania and Zimbabwe since the 1980s were examined in the context of economic reform. Formal VET provision in each country's public and private sectors was reviewed, and case studies of one firm in each country's manufacturing and tourism industries were conducted. The research identified…

Bennell, Paul; Bendera, Shane; Kanyenze, Godfrey; Kimambo, Emrode; Kiwia, Sixtus; Mbiriyakura, Tichafa; Mukyanuzi, Faustin; Munetsi, N.; Muzulu, Jo; Parsalaw, Willy; Temu, John

399

Effectiveness of Electronic Employee Performance Management Systems in the UAE Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is in the midst of tremendous economic development. With a rapidly changing economy, it is increasingly important for this expatriate dependent country to start equipping a modern native workforce with the skills required to enter the work place. UAE impressive economic diversification programs, including expanding commercial infrastructure, advancement in the banking sector, development in educational

Abdulaziz Al-Raisi; Saad Amin; Saad Tahir

2010-01-01

400

The Private Sector on Public Land: Policy Implications of a SWOT Analysis of Banff National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banff National Park located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains is in many ways a paradox: protected wilderness with a thriving private sector. While some argue that these are incompatible, others welcome the commercial presence within the park as a way to complement nature-based tourism and provide services for local residents in the town of Banff. The objective of this research

Shannon K. Orr

2011-01-01

401

Public-Private Partnerships: The Private Sector and Innovation in Education. Policy Insight Number 142.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Partnerships between schools and the private sector as an alternative to increased taxes and service cuts are examined in this document. The introduction provides an overview of business involvement in U.S. education. The second section describes the private provision of infrastructure and types of school-business arrangements. Examples include…

David, Anna

1992-01-01

402

The Efficacy of Private Sector Providers in Improving Public Educational Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts required under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in services. If the market does not drive out ineffective providers, students may not gain through SES participation.…

Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Nisar, Hiren

2013-01-01

403

Employee control over working times and risk of cause-specific disability pension: the Finnish Public Sector Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the association between worktime control and subsequent disability pension among employees.MethodsTwo scores of worktime control (self-assessed and co-worker assessed) were obtained from a survey in 2000–2001 (score range 1–5) among 30 700 public sector employees (78% women) aged 18–64 years. Information on cause-specific disability pension during follow-up was collected from national registers.ResultsDuring a mean follow-up of 4.4 years,

Jussi Vahtera; Sari Laine; Marianna Virtanen; Tuula Oksanen; Aki Koskinen; Jaana Pentti; Mika Kivimaki

2009-01-01

404

Financing the delivery of public-sector animal health services in Jamaica: pre- and post-privatization.  

PubMed

Lack of adequate financing was a major reason for the privatization of veterinary services in Jamaica in 1992. The belief was that, with privatization, funding of animal health services delivery would improve, since staff numbers and clinical activities undertaken by the Veterinary Division were reduced. However, analyses of data revealed that, in most cases, privatization neither improved nor stemmed the declines, that had started before privatization, in the measures or indicators used. It was concluded that privatization of veterinary services did not result in any appreciable improvement in the financing of the delivery of public-sector animal health services in Jamaica in the short term. PMID:9974206

Turkson, P K; Brownie, C F

1998-12-01

405

LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results achieved during the first eight months of a program to transfer LANDSAT technology to practicing professionals in the private and public sectors (grass roots) through community colleges and other locally available institutions are reported. The approach offers hands-on interactive analysis training and demonstrations through the use of color desktop computer terminals communicating with a host computer by telephone lines. The features of the terminals and associated training materials are reviewed together with plans for their use in training and demonstration projects.

Rogers, R. H. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

406

Adaptation to Externally Driven Change: The Impact of Political Change on Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector  

PubMed Central

This article uses a quasi-natural experiment to investigate the adaptation of job satisfaction to externally driven political change in the public sector. This is important because democratic government bureaucracies often experience changes in leadership after elections. The analyses are based on data drawn from a large longitudinal data set, the British Household Panel Survey. Findings indicate that the impact of political elections is largely weak and temporary and is only present for men. For women, the internal processes of the organization tend to be more important. These findings suggest that changes in political leadership may not be associated with fundamental changes in policy. PMID:25598554

Tabvuma, Vurain; Bui, Hong T M; Homberg, Fabian

2014-01-01

407

Abortion law in Nepal: the road to reform.  

PubMed

In 2002 Nepal's parliament passed a liberal abortion law, after nearly three decades of reform efforts. This paper reviews the history of the movement for reform and the combination of factors that contributed to its success. These include sustained advocacy for reform; the dissemination of knowledge, information and evidence; adoption of the reform agenda by the public sector and its leadership in involving other stakeholders; the existence of work for safe motherhood as the context in which the initiative could gain support; an active women's rights movement and support from international and multilateral organisations; sustained involvement of local NGOs, civil society and professional organisations; the involvement of journalists and the media; the absence of significant opposition; courageous government officials and an enabling democratic political system. The overriding rationale for reforming the abortion law in Nepal has been to ensure safe motherhood and women's rights. The first government abortion services officially began in March 2004 at the Maternity Hospital in Kathmandu; services will be expanded gradually to other public and private hospitals and private clinics in the coming years. PMID:15938161

Thapa, Shyam

2004-11-01

408

Optimal allocation of public water supply to the urban sectors of Enugu, Nigeria: a linear programming approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies in water supply in Enugu urban area have observed that there is a persistent water supply shortage relative to demand. One of the strategies for achieving a good water supply under the circumstance is through efficient water allocation to consumers. The existing allocation system by the Enugu State Water Corporation is not achieving the desired goal, because it is not based on any scientific criteria. In this study, we have employed the linear programming modelling technique to optimise the allocation of 35,000,000 L of water produced daily by the State Water Corporation and supplied to the four sectors of the town. The result shows that the model allocated 27,470,000 L to the residential sector, 3,360,000 L to commercial, 3,120,000 L to industrial and 882,000 L to public institutions sectors leaving a balance of 168,000 L to be utilised in emergency situations. This allocation pattern departs sharply from the present management technique adopted by the corporation. It is then suggested that for urban water supply to be sustainable in the town, the corporation should rely on this technique for water supply.

Ezenwaji, Emma E.; Anyadike, Raymond N. C.; Igu, Nnaemeka I.

2014-03-01

409

Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries  

E-print Network

Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

Pollitt, Michael G.

2004-01-01

410

Electricity Reform in Chile: Lessons for Developing Countries  

E-print Network

Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of itselectricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina hashad a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces...

Pollitt, Michael G.

2006-03-14

411

Comparing the impact of leader–member exchange, psychological empowerment and affective commitment upon Australian public and private sector nurses: implications for retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory to test the associations between the supervisor–subordinate relationship, psychological empowerment and affective commitment amongst 1283 nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected, analysed and presented. The findings show that the quality of LMX is more important in public sector nursing contexts than in the private

Yvonne Brunetto; Kate Shacklock; Timothy Bartram; Sandra G. Leggat; Rod Farr-Wharton; Pauline Stanton; Gian Casimir

2012-01-01

412

Comparing the impact of leader–member exchange, psychological empowerment and affective commitment upon Australian public and private sector nurses: implications for retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory to test the associations between the supervisor–subordinate relationship, psychological empowerment and affective commitment amongst 1283 nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected, analysed and presented. The findings show that the quality of LMX is more important in public sector nursing contexts than in the private

Yvonne Brunetto; Kate Shacklock; Timothy Bartram; Sandra G. Leggat; Rod Farr-Wharton; Pauline Stanton; Gian Casimir

2011-01-01

413

Challenges of multi-actor involvement in the public sector front-end innovation processes : Constructing an open innovation model for developing well-being services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Studies with a user approach in a public service context are still rare, making the contribution of this study worthwhile. This paper aims to present a case of facilitating innovativeness by involving stakeholder groups in the development of service production in the public sector. The case is related to the provision of housing and well-being services to ageing

Lea Hennala; Satu Parjanen; Tuomo Uotila

2011-01-01

414

A case study examining the impact of public-sector nurses' perception of workplace autonomy on their job satisfaction: lessons for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses mixed methods to examine the impact of New Public Management (NPM) on public sector nurses’ perceptions of workplace autonomy and, in turn, their job satisfaction. The quantitative findings of this study suggest that nurses’ perception of autonomy does moderate their job satisfaction. The qualitative findings suggest that the implementation of NPM has negatively affected nurses’ experiences of

Yvonne Brunetto; Rod Farr-Wharton

2004-01-01

415

A Process Evaluation of a Canadian Public Sector Employee Assistance Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Canadian Public Service Employee Assistance Program (EAP) was initiated in 1990, and over the course of the past two decades since its implementation great changes have occurred in the public service and in EAP. In response a comprehensive process evaluation was conducted to determine if the current mandate, objectives, services, and processes were still meeting the needs of employees

Rick Csiernik; Paul Chaulk; Steve McQuaid

2012-01-01

416

A Supervisor like Me: Race, Representation, and the Satisfaction and Turnover Decisions of Public Sector Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of race representation in public organizations illustrate the importance of bureaucrat race in determining client-level outcomes. Building "upward" from this research, this study examines how supervisor race impacts outcomes for street-level bureaucrats using data from a nationally representative sample of public schools. Employing…

Grissom, Jason A.; Keiser, Lael R.

2011-01-01

417

The Role of the Public Health Sector in Promoting Physical Activity: National, State, and Local Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Regular physical activity has been demonstrated to protect against coronary heart disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, selected cancers, hypertension, obesity, and other chronic conditions. Therefore, the public health significance of promoting physical activity and preventing inactivity has become a well-established agenda for public health agencies at all levels. Methods: A secondary search of the literature, focusing on existing evidence

Gregory W. Heath

418

Employment, Privatization, and Managerial Choice: Does Contracting out Reduce Public Sector Employment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the effects of governments' use of alternative service provision on public employment using panel data from a nationally representative sample of local governments. We model the effects of alternative service provision on the size of the public workforce and hypothesize that alternative provision jointly impacts both full- and part-time…

Fernandez, Sergio; Smith, Craig R.; Wenger, Jeffrey B.

2007-01-01

419

Firm-Level Perspectives on Public Sector Engagement with Private Healthcare Providers: Survey Evidence from Ghana and Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are in urgent need of improvement. The private health sector is a major provider of care in the region and it will remain a significant actor in the future. Any efforts by SSA governments to improve health systems performance therefore has to account for the private health sector. Regional and international actors increasingly recognize importance of effectively engaging with the private health sector, and initiatives to improve engagement are underway in several countries. However, there is little systematic analysis of private health providers' view and experience with engagement. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we surveyed private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to understand the extent to which and how governments interact and engage with these facilities. The results suggest that government engagement with private health facilities is quite limited. The primary focus of this engagement is “command-and-control” type regulations to improve the quality of care. There is little attention paid to building the capacity of health care businesses through either technical or financial assistance. The vast majority of these facilities also receive no government assistance in meeting public health and social goals. Finally, government engagement with private pharmacies is often neglected and clinics receive a disproportionate share of government assistance. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our findings suggest that there may be considerable untapped potential for greater engagement with private health facilities—particularly pharmacies. Improving engagement will likely help governments with limited resources to better take advantage of the private sector capacity to meet access and equity objectives and to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:22132092

Sood, Neeraj; Burger, Nicholas; Yoong, Joanne; Kopf, Dan; Spreng, Connor

2011-01-01

420

Use of net present value analysis to evaluate a publicly funded biomass-to-ethanol research, development, and demonstration program and valuate expected private sector participation.  

PubMed

One of the functions of government is to invest tax dollars in programs, projects, and properties that will result in greater public benefit than would have resulted from leaving the tax dollars in the private sector or using them to pay off the public debt. This paper describes the use of Net Present Value (NPV) as an approach to analyze and select investment opportunities for government money in public research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs and to evaluate potential private sector participation in the programs. This approach is then applied to a specific biomass-to-ethanol opportunity in California. PMID:18576044

Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

1998-01-01

421

The impact on photovoltaic worth of utulity rate and reform and of specific market, financial, and policy variables : a commercialindustrialinstitution sector analysis  

E-print Network

This work provides an assessment of the economic outlook for photovoltaic systems in the commercial, industrial and institutional sectors in the year 1986. We first summarize the expected cost and performance goals for ...

Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

1980-01-01

422

Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

2014-01-01

423

Risk Analysis Strategies in the Water Utility Sector: An Inventory of Applications for Better and More Credible Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial pressures, regulatory reform, and sectoral restructuring are requiring water utilities to move from technically inclined, risk-averse management approaches toward more commercial, business-oriented practices. Risk analysis strategies and techniques traditionally applied to public health protection are now seeing broader application for asset management, assessing competition risks, and potential threats to the security of supplies. Water utility managers have to consider

B. H. MacGillivray; P. D. Hamilton; J. E. Strutt; S. J. T. Pollard

2006-01-01

424

Business Angel Networks and the Development of the Informal Venture Capital Market in the U.K.: Is There Still a Role for the Public Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business angel networks (BANs) provide a channel of communication between private venture capital investors (business angels) and entrepreneurs seeking risk capital. Most operate locally on a not-for-profit basis with their costs underwritten by the public sector. However, the recent establishment of BANs by private sector organisations in the U.K. has led to a questioning of the government's continuing role in

Colin M. Mason; Richard T. Harrison

1997-01-01

425

Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion  

SciTech Connect

On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.

Diane E. Hoffmann

2003-09-12

426

University Reforms and Academic Governance Reconsidered: Report of the Six-Nation Higher Education Research Project. RIHE International Publication Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains papers from the Six Nation Higher Education Research Project, an initiative that has focused on making a comparative study of the reform of higher education at the stage of postmassification in six countries: China, Germany, Singapore, Switzerland, the United States, and Japan. The papers are: (1) The Six Nation Higher…

Arimoto, Akira, Ed.

427

New Public Management and District Reform: Managerialism and Deflection of Local Leadership in a Texas School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining work and community relations in one Texas school district, this study explores intensifying managerialism under performance accountability (PA) pressures. Reports, press releases, and media accounts are combined with ethnographic study from one elementary school to explore the enactment of school district reforms. Locating PA within a…

Maxcy, Brendan

2009-01-01

428

Reforming Local Government in Broome County 1 Center for Local Government College of Community & Public Affairs Binghamton University  

E-print Network

#12;Reforming Local Government in Broome County 1 Center for Local Government ­ College. This council created ten major committees to examine opportunities for local government change in the following, Purchasing, Schools, Solid Waste, and Government Consolidation. After an intensive 12 months of committee

Suzuki, Masatsugu

429

Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.

2011-01-01

430

Rush to Judgment: Teacher Evaluation in Public Education. Education Sector Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The state of teacher evaluation is a significantly and frequently neglected problem in public education, an enterprise that spends $400 billion annually on salaries and benefits. Because teacher evaluation is at the center of the quality of teaching in the nation's classrooms, it has the potential to be a powerful lever of teacher and school…

Toch, Thomas; Rothman, Robert

2008-01-01

431

The Direct Public-Sector Costs for Mental Health in Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to estimate the direct 2002 fiscal year costs for mental health services in Alberta. Data were collected on mental health publicly funded services and costs. Mental health services cost $573 million annually, amounting to about 8.4% of all provincial health services. The greatest share of costs was for regional inpatient services and physician services

Ray Block; Mel Slomp; Philip Jacobs; Arto Ohinmaa

2005-01-01

432

Public sector managed care for substance abuse treatment: Opportunities for health services research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of reduced utilization of alcohol and drug abuse treatment following the introduction of managed behavioral health care suggest that substance abuse services may be especially responsive to managed care restrictions and limits. In publicly funded treatment systems, patient attributes, system and provider characteristics, and financing mechanisms may heighten susceptibility to unintended effects. The State Substance Abuse and Mental Health

Dennis McCarty; Milton Argeriou; Gabrielle Denmead; Joan Dilonardo

2001-01-01

433

75 FR 39934 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...40 CFR part 63, subpart HH); and the NESHAP From Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities (40 CFR part 63, subpart HHH). As part of this process, EPA is holding public meetings in the Dallas, Texas, and Denver, Colorado, areas, both...

2010-07-13

434

Accounting Rule Targets Benefits in Public Sector. Districts, Others Must Tally Long-Term Obligations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deadlines are looming for school districts and other public employers to comply with a new financial-reporting rule on the long-term costs for health and other insurance benefits that have been promised to employees. For the first time, local, state, and federal agencies will have to disclose future benefit costs in current budgets, a requirement…

Jacobson, Linda

2006-01-01

435

Developing Sustainable Leadership Capability in the Victorian State and Public Library Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been substantial changes in the labour market over the past few years and survey results indicate 60% of staff will leave public library service over the next decade. While this creates opportunities for library staff, limited training budgets and a focus on compliance and specific library skills training have led to a gap in the formal…

McCarten, Melanie

2011-01-01

436

Public Sector Grievance Procedures, Due Process, and the Duty of Fair Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The occupational rights of state employees have traditionally been determined by statute, but more recently by collective bargaining. This note considers whether determination of the rights of public employees through informal contractual procedures will meet the requirements of the fourteenth amendment due process clause. (LBH)

Harvard Law Review, 1976

1976-01-01

437

ADHD Treatment Patterns of Youth Served in Public Sectors in San Diego and Puerto Rico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates geographic variation in stimulant medication use by youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) served by public mental health and/or drug and alcohol programs in San Diego (n = 790) during 1997-1998 and in Puerto Rico (n = 726) during 1998. Youth were stratified into four groups: (a) ADHD, (b) ADHD--not…

Leslie, Laurel K.; Canino, Glorisa; Landsverk, John; Wood, Patricia A.; Chavez, Ligia; Hough, Richard L.; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Ramirez, Rafael

2005-01-01

438

How to Develop an Open and Flexible Information Infrastructure for the Public Sector?  

E-print Network

Hornnes1 , Arild Jansen2 , Ã?ivind Langeland1 , 1 Agency for Public Management and eGovernment Post Box 8115 Dep, 0032 Oslo, Norway 2 Section for eGovernment, Department for Private Law, University of Oslo, and as the result, a silo-organization of its in- formation systems. Modern eGovernment services require IT

Boyer, Edmond

439

A Call to the Village: Retooling Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a roadmap for developing collaborative strategies that integrate the knowledge, ideas, expertise, resources, networks, and systems of the nonprofit, private, public, and religious sectors in the transformation of elementary and secondary schools. While most books on school reform focus on micro issues such as curricula,…

Duhart, Wana L.

2007-01-01

440

Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.  

PubMed

HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health care and are wary of cost shifting from the public plan to private insurers. FUTURE OF EMPLOYMENT-BASED COVERAGE: The availability of a health insurance exchange may have implications for the future of the employment-based health benefits system and raises major questions for workers. Will employers provide a fixed contribution for the purchase of insurance through an exchange? Would that be large enough to purchase coverage? Would it be flat or vary by such factors as worker health status, age, and/or marital status or the presence of children? Would it be taxed? For both employers and workers, the implications are enormous. PMID:19545086

Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

2009-06-01

441

Introducing the female condom through the public health sector: experiences from South Africa.  

PubMed

The successful implementation of new public health policy is influenced by provider preparedness and user acceptability of the new intervention. This paper describes the development and implementation of a participatory Training of Trainers (TOT) programme as a precursor to launch the South African government's female-initiated HIV prevention strategies in public health clinics. Three hundred peer-trainees from throughout South Africa were trained through a comprehensive, modular and interactive three-day workshop. The workshop content included: HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs and attitudes; values clarification regarding HIV infection and sexuality; sexual desensitization; 'hands-on' training in the use of and introduction of the female condom; and counselling, communication and programme planning skills. The TOT generated a cadre of knowledgeable health care workers for training others and provided a support structure at the service delivery level for ensuring potential users' access to the female condom within each province. Qualitative assessments of the training and trainer debriefing sessions suggest that the training was successful in increasing knowledge and promoting positive attitudes about female condoms. In addition, the expanded repertoire of problem-solving approaches left providers feeling confident about recommending this method to clients. PMID:11218545

Mantell, J E; Scheepers, E; Karim, Q A

2000-10-01

442

Lifestyle of the Employees Working in Hamadan Public Sectors: Application of the Trans-Theoretical Model  

PubMed Central

Background: A healthy lifestyle is a valuable source to reduce the prevalence of health problems, and promoteehealth. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the lifestyle and obesity status of Hamadan public employees and their status based on the trans-theoretical model (TTM). Patients and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 on 1200 public employees in Hamadan city, Iran selected through proportional stratified random sampling. Data collection was performed using a three-section questionnaire including demographic characteristics, The FANTASTIC lifestyle questionnaire, and the five-part algorithm. Data were analyzed by SPSS-20 using linear regression, Chi-square, Fisher exact test, and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of the employees was 38.12 ± 8.04 years. Most of the employees (61.7%) had favorable lifestyle. About half of the employees were at the preparation stage of TTM. Most of the employees were in a poor condition regarding the physical activity and healthy eating habits. In most of the evaluated items, females got higher scores than males. The associations between lifestyle and age, gender, work experience, income satisfaction, and marital status were significant. Moreover, the associations between obesity and work experience, marital status, number of offspring, and gender were significant (P < 0. 05). Significant predicting variables of obesity were age and work experience; they explained 31.2% variance of obesity (adjusted R2 = 0.312, R2 change = 0.01). Conclusions: Planning health education interventions for employees through effective approaches seems necessary.

Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Shojaeizade, Davod; Sadeghi, Roya

2015-01-01

443

A combined nurse-pharmacist managed pain clinic: joint venture of public and private sectors.  

PubMed

Chronic pain has become one of the most prevalent problems in primary care. The management of chronic pain is complex and often requires a multidisciplinary approach. The limited capacity of general practitioners to manage chronic pain and long waiting time for secondary care referrals further add to the complexity of chronic pain management. Restricted financial and skilled human capital make it hard for healthcare systems across the world to establish and maintain multidisciplinary pain clinics, in spite of their documented effectiveness. Affordability and accessibility to such multidisciplinary pain clinics is often problematic for patients. The purpose of this paper is to share our experience and relevant research evidence of a community based combined nurse-pharmacist managed pain clinic. The pain clinic serves as an example of public-private partnership in healthcare. PMID:22120700

Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Briggs, Michelle; Closs, S José

2012-02-01

444

Sequencing Social Security, Pension, and Insurance Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 1995The full benefits of social security reform will not be realized until social pension systems are restructured and downsized, contribution rates lowered, and the scope for private pension funds (voluntary or mandatory) increased. Reform of the insurance sector is also essential because of the close links between pensions and life, disability, and annuity insurance.For both economic and regulatory reasons,

Dimitri Vittas

1999-01-01

445

Cross-Sectoral Partnerships: A Case Study of the Best Practices Used by CVS/Pharmacy in Developing Partnerships with the Public Workforce Development System in Minnesota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation explores the private-public sector partnership between CVS/pharmacy and the federal/state workforce development system in Minnesota. The study describes how CVS creates partnerships with the federal/state system of one-stop career centers and other partners in the workforce development arena such as community or faith-based…

Jacobsen, Nancy M.

2009-01-01

446

Resource Utilisation Performance Indicators in the Public Sector of Higher Education, or Never Mind the Technique Feel the Structure. Coombe Lodge Information Bank Number 1450.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion is presented of the process of resource allocation and the use of performance indicators in public sector higher education in Britain. First, background is presented on the method of providing resources to institutions of advanced further education (AFE) and non-advanced further education (NAFE) on the basis of pooled recurrent…

Birch, Derek W.; Cuthbert, R. E.

447

Is Ministry of Health fully prepared to implement an Effective DOTS Program in Pakistan? An Operations Research on TB Control Program in the Public Health Sector in Sindh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the study: Pakistan is among the high-burden countries for tuberculosis. One of the fundamental problems in TB control is a high defaulter rate among the registered TB cases in the public sector. In 1999, a cross-sectional study was designed to identify the determinants of low compliance for the TB treatment in two rural districts in Sindh. Methods: Before

S. M. Israr

448

Public Sector Pay Bargaining and Regional Labour Markets: Regional Pay Differentials for Women Working as Nurses within the UK National Health Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoor C. and Sutherland J. (2007) Public sector pay bargaining and regional labour markets: regional pay differentials for women working as nurses within the UK National Health Service, Regional Studies41, 115–129. The policy context of this paper is the controversy over pay bargaining processes and the advantages claimed for decentralized pay bargaining as opposed to centralized bargaining for nurses, the

Christopher Spoor; John Sutherland

2007-01-01

449

Public and Private Agri-Environmental Regulation in Post-Socialist Economies: Evidence from the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using primary survey data and interview evidence this paper analyses the implementation and enforcement of public and private environmental regulation in the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV) sector. This provides a basis for engaging in a wider debate on the nature of agri-food regulation in post-socialist economies. Depictions of the…

Gorton, Matthew; Zaric, Vlade; Lowe, Philip; Quarrie, Steve

2011-01-01

450

A variety of opportunities exist for geology graduates in the private and public sectors and in education. Petroleum companies, petroleum service companies, mining companies,  

E-print Network

GEOLOGY A variety of opportunities exist for geology graduates in the private and public sectors, and research. Federal government resource agencies use geologists for geologic mapping, oil and rehabilitation programs, and research. State and local governments hire geologists for geologic and soils mapping

451

Papers on Educational Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers collected in this publication were presented for discussion at the Open Court Editorial Advisory Board Meeting in 1970. "Testing, Grades, Standards" by Jacques Barzun discusses the relationship between these three elements and the process of education and of performance evaluation. In "The Limits of Reform in Education" James…

Open Court Publishing Co., La Salle, IL.

452

Reforming Teacher Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent Google search for information regarding performance pay in education produced 6.1 million results. This number should come as no surprise given the current level of interest in incentives as a popular reform option in public education. Supporters believe pay-for-performance programs encourage less effective teachers to improve and will…

Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.

2010-01-01

453

The Stuttgart Reform Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews curriculum reform being implemented at the Library School of Stuttgart for students planning to work in public libraries. Components of the new curriculum include core courses in library science, electives in special areas of librarianship, seminars in chosen subject disciplines, and field work in libraries and government agencies. (LRW)

Bienert, F.

1987-01-01

454

Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into investment decision-making by including a cost of carbon in the budget analysis. Most existing literature uses the expected price of carbon as a proxy for this cost, where expected price is a weighted average of various scenarios, often comparing policy proposals and representing either the price of traded permits or level of carbon tax, depending on the type of policy. The literature focuses on the minimum price of carbon required to influence power plant investment decisions. In contrast, this chapter introduces expected payment as a more accurate measure of carbon cost as it is perceived by industry practitioners. The expected payment of carbon is the expected price of carbon times the probability that this cost would actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the 2005-2006 surge of activity in coal-fired power plant development and the subsequent decline in that interest. The energy industry has been slow to move away from fossil fuels and towards renewable resources. In chapter 3 I find evidence for a cognitive bias that plays a role in this momentum. Energy executives' expectations of future energy prices are strongly correlated with their own preferences, which I document for the case of natural gas prices. This is an example of wishful expectations, a form of overconfidence in which people are excessively optimistic over uncontrollable future outcomes. This implies energy executives with strong exposure to fossil fuels are excessively optimistic on future prices and so continue to invest despite the presence of superior alternatives.

Barradale, Merrill Jones

455

Primary care reform: a three country comparison of `budget holding'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments in most developed nations have been looking to organisational and financial reform of health systems over the last decade. Although the structure and problems of the health care sector in each country may differ, with countries correspondingly adopting different reform agendas, there has been some element of commonality in reforms: that of (managed) competition. Of particular importance in such

Paula Wilton; Richard D. Smith

1998-01-01

456

Factors associated with job satisfaction among public-sector physicians in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.  

PubMed

Evidence indicates an association between job satisfaction and illness among physicians. There are also negative consequences of physician dissatisfaction on the quality of medical services. With this in view, a cross-sectional study of a stratified random sample of physicians (n = 266) was conducted in the municipal public health care system in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire about job satisfaction, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, work and employment conditions, and health status. Of the 232 respondents, 150 (64.94%) declared themselves satisfied with the work, with no significant difference between male and female physicians (66.4% vs. 64.2%; p = 0.74). The number of physicians satisfied with their work was significantly higher among those who experienced a high level of social support at work (p < 0.01) and was significantly lower among those working under high-strain conditions (p = 0.01) and those who screened positive for the presence of common mental disorders (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that policies to promote social support and mental health in the workplace, as well as the implementation of strategies to increase physicians' control over their work activities, can have a positive effect on the job satisfaction of these professionals. PMID:25626228

Ribeiro, Rafael Brito Nery; Assunção, Ada Avila; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

2014-01-01

457

Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p??0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors.

2014-01-01

458

The Urgency for Change: School Reform and Quality Education for Hispanic Youth. Publication No. 90-03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the successful initiatives and unforeseen problems that have arisen in Massachusetts public education since the passage of the Public School Improvement Act of 1985, with a focus on the needs of Hispanic Americans. There is overwhelming evidence that the specific needs of Hispanic Americans are neither being identified nor met…

Negroni, Peter J.

459

Single-Gender Public Education and Federal Policy: Implications of Gender-Based School Reforms in Philadelphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parochial and private schools in the United States have maintained opportunities for students to attend same-gender settings without interference from policies governing public education. The gender composition and curriculum of public schools, however, have been influenced by societal regulations and expectations that have often utilized…

Friend, Jennifer

2007-01-01

460

Reforming process  

SciTech Connect

A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

1981-01-06

461

The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.  

PubMed

A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa. PMID:20150608

Pillay, Rubin

2010-02-01

462

The Management of Long-Term Sickness Absence in Large Public Sector Healthcare Organisations: A Realist Evaluation Using Mixed Methods.  

PubMed

Purpose The success of measures to reduce long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in public sector organisations is contingent on organisational context. This realist evaluation investigates how interventions interact with context to influence successful management of LTSA. Methods Multi-method case study in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland comprising realist literature review, semi-structured interviews (61 participants), Process-Mapping and feedback meetings (59 participants), observation of training, analysis of documents. Results Important activities included early intervention; workplace-based occupational rehabilitation; robust sickness absence policies with clear trigger points for action. Used appropriately, in a context of good interpersonal and interdepartmental communication and shared goals, these are able to increase the motivation of staff to return to work. Line managers are encouraged to take a proactive approach when senior managers provide support and accountability. Hindering factors: delayed intervention; inconsistent implementation of policy and procedure; lack of resources; organisational complexity; stakeholders misunderstanding each other's goals and motives. Conclusions Different mechanisms have the potential to encourage common motivations for earlier return from LTSA, such as employees feeling that they have the support of their line manager to return to work and having the confidence to do so. Line managers' proactively engage when they have confidence in the support of seniors and in their own ability to address LTSA. Fostering these motivations calls for a thoughtful, diagnostic process, taking into account the contextual factors (and whether they can be modified) and considering how a given intervention can be used to trigger the appropriate mechanisms. PMID:25385199

Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam

2014-11-11

463

Occurrence of Medication Errors and Comparison of Manual and Computerized Prescription Systems in Public Sector Hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%–60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21–30 years (21%–24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber’s signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%–19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and electronic prescriptions. PMID:25165851

Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid

2014-01-01

464

Occurrence of medication errors and comparison of manual and computerized prescription systems in public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The knowledge of medication errors is an essential prerequisite for better healthcare delivery. The present study investigated prescribing errors in prescriptions from outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A manual prescription system was followed in Hospital A. Hospital B was running a semi-computerised prescription system in the OPD and a fully computerised prescription system in the emergency ward. A total of 510 prescriptions from both departments of these two hospitals were evaluated for patient characteristics, demographics and medication errors. The data was analysed using a chi square test for comparison of errors between both the hospitals. The medical departments in OPDs of both hospitals were the highest prescribers at 45%-60%. The age group receiving the most treatment in emergency wards of both the hospitals was 21-30 years (21%-24%). A trend of omitting patient addresses and diagnoses was observed in almost all prescriptions from both of the hospitals. Nevertheless, patient information such as name, age, gender and legibility of the prescriber's signature were found in almost 100% of the electronic-prescriptions. In addition, no prescribing error was found pertaining to drug concentrations, quantity and rate of administration in e-prescriptions. The total prescribing errors in the OPD and emergency ward of Hospital A were found to be 44% and 60%, respectively. In hospital B, the OPD had 39% medication errors and the emergency department had 73.5% errors; this unexpected difference between the emergency ward and OPD of hospital B was mainly due to the inclusion of 69.4% omissions of route of administration in the prescriptions. The incidence of prescription overdose was approximately 7%-19% in the manual system and approximately 8% in semi and fully electronic system. The omission of information and incomplete information are contributors of prescribing errors in both manual and electronic prescriptions. PMID:25165851

Riaz, Muhammad Kashif; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Riaz, Mohammad; Hussain, Khalid

2014-01-01

465

Acquisition Reform  

E-print Network

This report reviews the six most recent major acquisition reform reports, starting in 1949 with the Hoover Commissions and including McNamara's Total Package Procurement, Fitzhugh Commission, the Commission on Government ...

Sapolsky, Harvey

466

Combined effects of uncertainty and organizational justice on employee health: Testing the uncertainty management model of fairness judgments among Finnish public sector employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether the combination of uncertainty (lack of work-time control, and negative changes at work) and organizational justice (i.e., justice of decision-making procedures and interpersonal treatment at work) contributes to sickness absence. A total of 7083 male and 24,317 female Finnish public sector employees completed questionnaires designed to assess organizational justice, workload and other factors. Hierarchical regression showed that

Marko Elovainioa; Kees van den Bosc; Anne Linnad; Mika Kivimakib; Leena Ala-Mursulaf; Jaana Penttid; Jussi Vahterad

467

The applicable scope and objects of government accounting in public finance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize the value goals of China's public finance, we have to attacth great importance to studying and reforming on the applicable scope and objects of government accounting. The applicable scope of government accounting should include: financial sector, government agencies, and the institutions which are mainly responsible for administrative functions. It is realistic that the state-owned enterprises are excluded from

Yue Cao; Xibo Zhao

2010-01-01

468

The use of private-sector contracts for primary health care: theory, evidence and lessons for low-income and middle-income countries.  

PubMed Central

Contracts for the delivery of public services are promoted as a means of harnessing the resources of the private sector and making publicly funded services more accountable, transparent and efficient. This is also argued for health reforms in many low- and middle-income countries, where reform packages often promote the use of contracts despite the comparatively weaker capacity of markets and governments to manage them. This review highlights theories and evidence relating to contracts for primary health care services and examines their implications for contractual relationships in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:10916919

Palmer, N.

2000-01-01

469

Reform: budgeting and financial management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In compliance with the commitments undertaken at the European Union and in harmony with the general restructuring of public administration, a far-reaching budget reform was approved in 1997 changing the philosophy and the structure of the existing budget system and the management of public resources. The new system is based on the linkage between budget allocation and performance, on specification

Luigi Pacifico; Maria Laura Seguiti

2000-01-01

470

Rebel with a Cause: A School Board Member Calls for Reform in Miami-Dade County Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case describes the experience of a new school board member in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, Marta Perez, as she discovers a wide range of ethical and management problems in the school district and attempts to deal with them. Layered throughout the case are challenges pertaining to the school board's roles and responsibilities,…

Manning, Tom

2011-01-01

471

Who Benefits from Public Education Spending in Malawi? Results from the Recent Education Reform. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 350.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses the Benefit Incidence Analysis to examine the distribution of public spending across different socioeconomic groups before and after the government of Malawi made great changes in educational policy in 1994. Primary education was made the top priority with increased spending on education and primary school fees abolished. The…

Castro-Leal, Florencia

472

The Changing Nature of Private Engagement in Public Education: For-Profit and Nonprofit Organizations and Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have seen a shifting landscape around private engagement in K-12 public education, one that involves a reorientation of education policy and practice around the principles of the marketplace. In this article, we examine the roles of both not-for-profit and for-profit agencies, as distinct from government agencies, in this movement.…

Bulkley, Katrina E.; Burch, Patricia

2011-01-01

473

Portfolio District Reform Meets School Turnaround: Early Implementation Findings from the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Despite the popularity of school "turnaround" and "portfolio district" management as solutions to low performance, there has been limited research on these strategies. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by exploring the strategic case of Los Angeles Unified School District's Public School Choice…

Marsh, Julie A.; Strunk, Katharine O.; Bush, Susan

2013-01-01

474

Lighting the Way for Systemic Reform: The Edison Project Launches Its Version of a Public-Private Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Edison Project, advocating a new form of public-private partnership to reinvent education, has repeatedly encountered barriers such as state regulations, professional isolation, inertia, bureaucracy, miscommunication, and a finance and governance monopoly. Four communities will open Edison Project schools this fall. Superintendent Larry Vaughn…

McGriff, Deborah M.

1995-01-01

475

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

476

Beyond the conventional wisdom: USAID projects, interorganizational linkages, and institutional reform in Peru.  

PubMed

The case study of the linkages between departmental-level and national organizations in Peru shows how linkages can play a significant role in national reform. A general overview of current articles on interorganizational linkages and decentralization pertinent to the Peruvian context of control oriented public sectors is provided. The Peruvian institutional context and the constraints faced by decentralized development agencies called departmental development corporations (CORDES) are identified. CORDES members were provincial mayors, representatives of private sector professional and economic organizations, and heads of ministerial field offices, autonomous agencies, and public enterprises. Microregional offices were established and received public funding. USAID channeled funding through the national organizations to the CORDES in the Integrated Regional Development Project (IRD) between 1979-86, and the Disaster Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (DRR) Project between 1983-87. The IRD and the DRR are described in addition to the decentralized organization support network established by the 2 projects. There is an analysis of how these interorganizational linkages contributed to conventional uses of linkages and unconventional or institutional reform. Reforms were facilitated by direct persuasion of central agencies to change their administrative regulations, policies, and operating procedures, and extensive lobbying by the support network to pass budgetary reform favoring CORDES and bureaucratic reorientation. Conclusions were reached on 1) the importance of assistance linkages for hastening implementation, building capacity, and overcoming organizational weaknesses (conventional wisdom); 2) the usefulness of vertical linkages in resolving administrative or technical weaknesses (unconventional wisdom); and 3) the usefulness of reinforcing project related units within key national level agencies which increases access to power while specific objectives maintain assistance orientations. Politically marginal agencies are not considered viable. These projects demonstrated that linkages are useful in supporting institutional reform and respecting country self-determination. PMID:12343972

Schmidt, G D

1992-07-01

477

[President Obama's health care reform: lessons to and from the Israeli health care system].  

PubMed

In March 2010 the United States enacted the most significant health care reform in several decades. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, amongst other provisions, addresses two of the main current shortcomings of the U.S. health system: the large portion of the population that are uninsured and the high percentage of hsealth expenditures (mostly private] which amounts to about 16% of the GDP. Changes to the current structure and financing of the U.S. health system will have implications for other health systems, for science (e.g., through enhanced federal funding for comparative effectiveness research), and for technological advance (e.g., through accelerated development and use of electronic health records). There are several lessons from the reform, and the factors leading to its implementation, for the Israeli health system. Firstly, the basic principles of the Israeli health system are a source of pride, and undermining its main values can have deleterious effects. Overreliance on private, out-of-pocket, spending and lack of support for public practice of medicine (in community and hospital settings) will weaken the public sector, strengthen the private sector, and could result in a tiered lower quality and less accessible public system with greater widening of gaps in health and health care utilization. This paper reviews the main provisions of the U.S. health care reform and the potential implications for the IsraeLi health system. PMID:21939111

Balicer, Ran D; Shadmi, Efrat

2011-08-01

478

Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated Work, Humiliating Position and Already Ill were associated with high sickness absence. Conclusions These findings suggest that promising areas for future research and improvement in change management could be the structured involvement of the employees in the planning of organizational changes, and the development of methods to avoid highly unregulated working conditions. PMID:21575180

2011-01-01

479

Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC) services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Methods Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY). These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. Results After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja) and 99% (ANC Adjumani) were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja). Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27) compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23) in Adjumani. Conclusions Targeted campaigns and routine ANC services can both achieve high LLIN retention and use among the target population. The comparatively higher economic cost of delivery through ANC facilities was at least partially due to the relatively short time this system had been in existence. Further studies comparing the cost of well-established ANC delivery with LLIN campaigns and other delivery channels are thus encouraged. PMID:20406448

2010-01-01

480

Public-Private Sector Collaboration in Education: Implications for Research, Policy, and the Education of Professional Educators. Proceedings of the Annual Rupert N. Evans Symposium (10th, Urbana, Illinois, May 2-3, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proceedings contain 11 papers that examine several diverse collaborative efforts designed to improve education and training programs through substantive involvement of the private sector. Authors and titles are as follows: "Public-Private Sector Collaboration in Education: Implications for Research, Policy, and the Education of Professional…

Phelps, L. Allen, Ed.; Thurston, Paul W., Ed.

481

THE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES' HEALTH REFORM PLANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 13th Commonwealth Fund\\/Modern Healthcare Health Care Opinion Leaders Survey asked a diverse group of experts for their perspective on the health care reform proposals of the 2008 the presidential candidates. Survey participants strongly support reform proposals that applied a mixed private-public market approach. Additional favored policy strategies for reform include a requirement for individuals to obtain health insurance, new

D ATA B RIEF; Katherine K. Shea; Sara R. Collins; Karen Davis

482

Retaining Teacher Talent: Convergence and Contradictions in Teachers' Perceptions of Policy Reform Ideas. A Retaining Teacher Talent Report from Learning Point Associates and Public Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a new decade dawns, teachers stand at the center of a policy vortex. They serve as the primary focus of one of the Obama administration's four pillars of educational reform--effective teachers and leaders. Educational reformers of all stripes have focused tremendous energy on thinking of ways to identify effective teachers and in turn recruit,…

Coggshall, Jane G.; Ott, Amber

2010-01-01

483

The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Education, Welfare Reform, Reducing Smoking, Workman's Compensation, Children's Health & Safety, Unintended Pregnancies/Births. Report No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A telephone survey of a random sample of over 1,650 Pennsylvania citizens solicited opinions on proposals for improvements in the areas of: (1) welfare reform; (2) smoking reduction; (3) unintended pregnancies and unwanted births; (4) education reform; (5) children's health and safety; and (6) workmen's compensation. Each section of this report…

Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

484

Slab reformer  

DOEpatents

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

1984-02-07

485

Slab reformer  

DOEpatents

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

1985-03-12

486

Slab reformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

487

Slab reformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by im