Science.gov

Sample records for public water systems

  1. FINANCING ASSISTANCE FOR SMALL PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    If it is determined that a small system is viable and capable of long-term operation, what financial mechanisms are available to help them improve their system? This article presents the major potential funding sources (e.g. Rural Development Administration) as well as less well ...

  2. 78 FR 14791 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Indiana AGENCY: Environmental... has tentatively approved three revisions to the State of Indiana's public water system supervision... the State of Indiana's public water system supervision program, thereby giving IDEM...

  3. Drought management and its impact on public water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume represents the report on a colloquium sponsored by the National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board, 5 September 1985. It includes five background papers on drought, drought management, risks for public systems, and legal and institutional aspects, plus appendices on conservation and rationing plans for Los Angeles and Salt Lake County. The conclusions of the volume include: (1) there is substantial need for continued research on drought and its impact on the management of public water systems; (2) sizing of the physical facilities of a system should not be based solely on full-service requirements during the drought of record, nor should such facilities be sized by the arbitrary specification of hydrologic risk; and (3) the key to adequate drought management of public water systems lies in predrought preparation.

  4. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which size public water systems can... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System General Provisions § 142.303 Which size public water systems...

  5. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance? 142.303 Section 142.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System...

  6. 75 FR 23264 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY: Environmental... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the..., EPA is tentatively approving this revision to the State of Alabama's Public Water System...

  7. 78 FR 57378 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Annual Public Water System Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Annual Public Water System Compliance... Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Annual Public Water System... Public Water Systems Compliance Report; ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 1812.05, OMB Control Number...

  8. 77 FR 13125 - Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water System... CFR part 142, that the Commonwealth of Virginia is revising its approved Public Water System... protection by reducing potential cancer and reproductive and developmental health risks from...

  9. 75 FR 69662 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado AGENCY: Environmental... Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given that the State of Colorado has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  10. 40 CFR 141.853 - General monitoring requirements for all public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... all public water systems. 141.853 Section 141.853 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Revised Total Coliform Rule § 141.853 General monitoring requirements for all public water systems. (a) Sample...

  11. 40 CFR 141.853 - General monitoring requirements for all public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... all public water systems. 141.853 Section 141.853 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Revised Total Coliform Rule § 141.853 General monitoring requirements for all public water systems. (a) Sample...

  12. 77 FR 36274 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the following rules: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY:...

  13. 78 FR 15973 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... would consist of surface water diversion and water treatment facilities within the boundaries of San... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System... Water System. As part of that process, Reclamation will host five public scoping meetings to...

  14. 78 FR 9047 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... that the State of Texas is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Texas has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas AGENCY: United...

  15. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  16. 78 FR 18336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Lead and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions, and... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Michigan AGENCY: Environmental... has tentatively approved five revisions to the State of Michigan's public water system...

  17. 77 FR 23246 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Lead and Copper Rule Short-Term Revisions, Stage 1... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky AGENCY... that the Commonwealth of Kentucky is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  18. 78 FR 67361 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Surface Water Treatment. The EPA has determined that Kentucky's rules are no less stringent than the... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the Commonwealth of Kentucky AGENCY: U.S... that the Commonwealth of Kentucky is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  19. 78 FR 73858 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Oklahoma AGENCY: United States... that the State of Oklahoma is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Oklahoma has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface...

  20. 78 FR 47697 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana AGENCY: United States... that the State of Louisiana is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Louisiana has adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: 1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface...

  1. FINANCING ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE FOR SMALL PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many small and very small drinking water systems require repair and upgrading if they are to comply with the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and its amendments. Often, dispersed population makes infracstructure expensive on a per-capita basis. Funding shortages at the federal, ...

  2. 76 FR 7845 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Quality, Division of Drinking Water, Utah State Office Park--Building One, 195 North 1950 West, Salt Lake... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah AGENCY: Environmental... Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given...

  3. 76 FR 1431 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Mexico has adopted the Ground Water Rule (GWR), the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... the Ground Water Rule (GWR), the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), and the... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico AGENCY: United...

  4. Performance of constructed wetland system for public water supply.

    PubMed

    Elias, J M; Salati Filho, E; Salati, E

    2001-01-01

    The project is being conducted in the town of Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. The constructed wetlands system for water supply consists of a channel with floating aquatic macrophytes, HDS system (Water Decontamination with Soil-Patent PI 850.3030), chlorinating system, filtering system and distribution. The project objectives include investigating the process variables to further optimize design and operation factors, evaluating the relation of nutrients and plants development, biomass production, shoot development, nutrient cycling and total and fecal coliforms removal, comparing the treatment efficiency among the seasons of the year; and moreover to compare the average values obtained between February and June 1998 (Salati et al., 1998) with the average obtained for the same parameters between March and June 2000. Studies have been developed in order to verify during one year the drinking quality of the water for the following parameters: turbidity, color, pH, dissolved oxygen, total of dissolved solids, COD, chloride, among others, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation 36. This system of water supply projected to treat 15 L s(-1) has been in continuous operation for 2 years, it was implemented with support of the National Environment Fund (FNMA), administered by the Center of Environmental Studies (CEA-UNESP), while the technical supervision and design were performed by the Institute of Applied Ecology. The actual research project is being supported by FAPESP. PMID:11804153

  5. 77 FR 15367 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...Notice is hereby given that the State of Minnesota is revising its approved public water system supervision program for four major rules. EPA has determined that these revisions are no less stringent than the corresponding Federal regulations. Therefore, EPA intends to approve these revisions. This approval action does not extend to public water systems in Indian Country, as the term is......

  6. 40 CFR 142.34 - Entry and inspection of public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entry and inspection of public water systems. 142.34 Section 142.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Federal Enforcement §...

  7. 40 CFR 142.34 - Entry and inspection of public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entry and inspection of public water systems. 142.34 Section 142.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Federal Enforcement §...

  8. 40 CFR 142.34 - Entry and inspection of public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entry and inspection of public water systems. 142.34 Section 142.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Federal Enforcement §...

  9. 40 CFR 142.34 - Entry and inspection of public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entry and inspection of public water systems. 142.34 Section 142.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Federal Enforcement §...

  10. 40 CFR 142.34 - Entry and inspection of public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entry and inspection of public water systems. 142.34 Section 142.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Federal Enforcement § 142.34 Entry and inspection of...

  11. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. 141.29 Section 141.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.29 Monitoring of...

  12. 77 FR 58132 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... and Copper Short Term Revisions, Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule that... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Utah AGENCY:...

  13. 77 FR 58132 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection... revision for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Stage 2 Disinfectants and... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado AGENCY:...

  14. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. 141.29 Section 141.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.29 Monitoring of...

  15. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  16. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  17. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  18. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...

  19. 78 FR 38714 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Rule, the Arsenic Rule and the ] new Public Water System Definition. EPA has determined that these... Rule became effective on July 27, 2007 and the revised Arsenic Rule was adopted on February 21,...

  20. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  1. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water... responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point-of-entry treatment system. (c) The... provide health protection equivalent to central water treatment. “Equivalent” means that the water...

  2. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water... responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point-of-entry treatment system. (c) The... provide health protection equivalent to central water treatment. “Equivalent” means that the water...

  3. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water... responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point-of-entry treatment system. (c) The... provide health protection equivalent to central water treatment. “Equivalent” means that the water...

  4. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices. (a) Public water systems may use point-of-entry devices to comply... water systems using point-of-entry devices. 141.100 Section 141.100......

  5. 40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices § 141.100 Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices. (a) Public water systems may use point-of-entry devices to comply... water systems using point-of-entry devices. 141.100 Section 141.100......

  6. 40 CFR 141.857 - Routine monitoring requirements for public water systems serving more than 1,000 people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... public water systems serving more than 1,000 people. 141.857 Section 141.857 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Revised Total Coliform Rule § 141.857 Routine monitoring requirements for public water...

  7. 40 CFR 141.857 - Routine monitoring requirements for public water systems serving more than 1,000 people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public water systems serving more than 1,000 people. 141.857 Section 141.857 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Revised Total Coliform Rule § 141.857 Routine monitoring requirements for public water...

  8. 78 FR 2993 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Ohio Correction In notice document 2012-30953, appearing on pages 76034-76035 in the issue of Wednesday, December 26, 2012, make...

  9. 77 FR 39182 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AF10 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems Correction In rule document 2012-9978 appearing on pages...

  10. 77 FR 43523 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AF10 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems Correction In rule document 2012-9978 appearing on pages...

  11. 77 FR 35676 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...Notice is hereby given that the State of Texas is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Texas has adopted the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) Short-Term Revisions. EPA has determined that the proposed LCR Short-Term Revision submitted by Texas is no less stringent than the corresponding federal regulation. Therefore, EPA intends to approve the program...

  12. Occurrence of PCBs in raw and finished drinking water at seven public water systems along the Hudson River.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Patrick M; Wilson, Lloyd R; Casey, Ann C; Wagner, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in raw and finished drinking water at seven Public Water Systems (PWSs) along the Hudson River as part of a baseline monitoring program prior to the extensive sediment dredging of the Upper Hudson River. Water samples were either analyzed using an Aroclor method (based on USEPA Method 508) or a congener method (Modified Green Bay Mass Balance Method). Using the congener-based method, raw water concentrations ranged from <9.3 to 164.3 ng/L and finished water concentrations ranged from <9.3 to 186.6 ng/L. Using the Aroclor method, finished water concentrations ranged from <5.0 to 200.9 ng/L. Most finished water samples above 73.0 ng/L were from a PWS with wells drilled near the river. Excluding the well data, total PCB concentrations in raw water at systems in the Upper River were similar to concentrations at systems in the Lower River, though the congener patterns differed. Paired comparison of total PCB concentrations using the two analytical methods showed good agreement, although raw water showed a different relationship than finished water. PMID:20556645

  13. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water regulation for which a small system variance is sought, including by: (i) Treatment; (ii... public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring that sufficient information is available and... WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System Review of Small System Variance...

  14. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meets the source water quality requirements for installing the small system variance technology... through compliance with § 142.307, ensure adequate protection of human health, considering the following: (i) The quality of the source water for the public water system; and (ii) Removal efficiencies...

  15. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meets the source water quality requirements for installing the small system variance technology... through compliance with § 142.307, ensure adequate protection of human health, considering the following: (i) The quality of the source water for the public water system; and (ii) Removal efficiencies...

  16. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meets the source water quality requirements for installing the small system variance technology... through compliance with § 142.307, ensure adequate protection of human health, considering the following: (i) The quality of the source water for the public water system; and (ii) Removal efficiencies...

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA SEROGROUPS ISOLATED FROM WATER SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC FACILITIES IN BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Yeong; Park, Eun-Hee; Park, Yon-Koung; Park, Sun-Hee; Sung, Gyung-Hye; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15). L. pneumophila sg 1 was predominated among isolates from fountains (75%), hotels (60%), buildings (44%), hospitals (38%), and public baths (37%), whereas sg 3 and sg 7 was the most prevalent from ships (46%) and factories (40%), respectively. The predominated serogroup of L. pneumophila isolates from hot and cooling tower water was sg 1 (35% and 46%, respectively), while from cold water was sg 3 (29%). These results should be useful for epidemiological surveys to identify sources of outbreaks of legionellosis in Busan, South Korea. PMID:27405130

  18. Identification of potential public water-supply areas of the Cape Cod aquifer, Massachusetts, using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, S.L.; Steeves, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Potential public water-supply areas of the Cape Cod aquifer, Massachusetts, were identified using a geographic information system (GIS) to aid regional and local ground-water resource management efforts. Criteria were selected to identify potential areas on the basis of data restrictions in addition to State requirements for siting new public water- supply wells, Federal or local restrictions on land use, and general hydrogeologic or water-quality concerns. Data layers were created for each criterion and overliad to eliminate areas from consideration as potential public water supplies. Remaining areas, those not included within the applied criteria, are the primary areas to consider for potential public water supplies. The areas identified in this analysis as potential public water supplies range from 0.5 to 7.9 percent of the individual flow cells, or 5.6 percent of the total flow cell area. The criteria were ranked so that criteria more limiting to potential public water supplies were given a higher rank than other criteria. The ranking scheme allows for the inclusion of areas with lower ranked criteria as potential public water supplies. Results can be viewed on a plat in this report, or accessed using the map-based, menu-driven GIS application, which provides interactive display and query of investigation results.

  19. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ..., Denver, CO 80202-1129. ] All documents relating to this determination are available for inspection at the...-1129, (2) Montana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Public Water Supply, 1520 East 6th...

  20. 76 FR 45794 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ..., promulgated and published in the Federal Register at 72 FR 57782 on October 10, 2007. Louisiana has adopted the Public Notification Rule, Filter Backwash Recycling Rule, Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water... new regulations for the Public Notification Rule, Filter Backwash Recycling Rule, Long Term 1...

  1. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

  2. 40 CFR 142.306 - What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the responsibilities of the public water system, State and the Administrator in ensuring that sufficient information is available and for evaluation of a small system variance application? 142.306 Section 142.306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  3. 76 FR 57740 - Program Requirement Revisions Related to the Public Water System Supervision Programs for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ..., 2002, the Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (66 FR 31085) promulgated on June 8, 2001, the Arsenic Rule... drinking water regulations for the Arsenic Rule (66 FR 6976) promulgated on January 22, 2001, and the revised Public Notice Rule (65 FR 26035) promulgated on May 4, 2000. After review of the...

  4. Water systems, sanitation, and public health risks in remote communities: Inuit resident perspectives from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2015-06-01

    Safe drinking water and wastewater sanitation are universally recognized as critical components of public health. It is well documented that a lack of access to these basic services results in millions of preventable deaths each year among vulnerable populations. Water and wastewater technologies and management practices are frequently tailored to local environmental conditions. Also important, but often overlooked in water management planning, are the social, cultural and economic contexts in which services are provided. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and understand residents' perceptions of the functionality of current water and wastewater sanitation systems in one vulnerable context, that of a remote Arctic Aboriginal community (Coral Harbour, Nunavut), and to identify potential future water related health risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 Inuit residents and 9 key informants in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate that the population's rapid transition from a semi-nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to permanent settlements with municipally provided utilities is influencing present-day water usage patterns, public health perceptions, and the level of priority decision-makers place on water and wastewater management issues. Simultaneously environmental, social and cultural conditions conducive to increased human exposure to waterborne health risks were also found to exist and may be increasing in the settlements. While water and wastewater system design decisions are often based on best practices proven suitable in similar environmental conditions, this study reinforces the argument for inclusion of social, cultural, and economic variables in such decisions, particularly in remote and economically challenged contexts in Canada or elsewhere around the world. The results also indicate that the addition of qualitative data about water and wastewater systems users' behaviours to technical knowledge of systems and

  5. 78 FR 4144 - Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Supervision Program to adopt EPA's National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for one major rule and one... 12237. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--Region 2, 24th Floor Drinking Water Ground Water Protection..., Drinking Water Ground Water Protection Section, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency--Region 2, (212)...

  6. Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure via Public Drinking Water Pipes Using Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for assessing exposure in epidemiologic studies. We used GIS to determine the geographic extent of contamination by perfluorooctanoic acid, C8 (PFOA) that was released into the environment from the DuPont Washington Works Facility located in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Methods Paper maps of pipe distribution networks were provided by six local public water districts participating in the community cross-sectional survey, the C8 Health Project. Residential histories were also collected in the survey and geocoded. We integrated the pipe networks and geocoded addresses to determine which addresses were serviced by one of the participating water districts. The GIS-based water district assignment was then compared to the participants' self-reported source of public drinking water. Results There were a total of 151,871 addresses provided by the 48,800 participants of the C8 Health Project that consented to geocoding. We were able to successfully geocode 139,067 (91.6%) addresses, and of these, 118,209 (85.0%) self-reported water sources were confirmed using the GIS-based method of water district assignment. Furthermore, the GIS-based method corrected 20,858 (15.0%) self-reported public drinking water sources. Over half (54%) the participants in the lowest GIS-based exposure group self-reported being in a higher exposed water district. Conclusions Not only were we able to correct erroneous self-reported water sources, we were also able to assign water districts to participants with unknown sources. Without the GIS-based method, the reliance on only self-reported data would have resulted in exposure misclassification. PMID:24010064

  7. CONTROLLING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN SMALL PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS (PWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chaper is to describe the in-house and field research activities specifically designed to evaluate alternative treatment technologies for small community and non-community water systems. The discussion is comprised of four major sections: (1) Particulate Remo...

  8. 40 CFR 142.310 - How can a person served by the public water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small system variance? 142.310 Section 142.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System Public Participation §...

  9. 76 FR 2374 - Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... (74 FR 30953), National Primary ] Drinking Water Regulations: Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Final Rule, promulgated by EPA January 5, 2006 (71 FR 654), with the following Technical... Byproducts Rule; Final Rule, promulgated by EPA January 4, 2006 (71 FR 388), with the following...

  10. 40 CFR 142.310 - How can a person served by the public water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How can a person served by the public water system obtain EPA review of a State proposed small system variance? 142.310 Section 142.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER...

  11. A Collection of Ideas and Materials for Public Participation. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System. Monograph Series: Public Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukco, Bernard J.; Ellis, Richard A.

    This 11-part monograph is designed to assist individuals in selecting appropriate citizen participation methods and in developing a better understanding of the decision-making process. The first section offers an historical perspective of public participation and defines its current status. The next seven sections present several…

  12. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jonatas Campos; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Ferreira Neto, José Maurício; Santos, Maíra Moreira Dos; Garcia, João Luis; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Kuroda, Emília Kiyomi; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR) and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies. PMID:26291147

  13. 75 FR 80493 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    .... Wisconsin is applying its Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Regulations to all Wisconsin water... satisfying the requirements of the Long-Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. EPA has determined that... Long-Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule implementation. This approval action does not...

  14. CUAHSI-HIS: an Internet based system to facilitate public discovery, access, and exploration of different water science data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Whiteaker, T.

    2011-12-01

    "Water is everywhere." This sentiment underscores the importance of instilling hydrologic and earth science literacy in educators, students, and the general public, but also presents challenges for water scientists and educators. Scientific data about water is collected and distributed by several different sources, from federal agencies to scientific investigators to citizen scientists. As competition for limited water resources increase, increasing access to and understanding of the wealth of information about the nation's and the world's water will be critical. The CUAHSI-HIS system is a web based system for sharing hydrologic data that can help address this need. HydroDesktop is a free, open source application for finding, getting, analyzing and using hydrologic data from the CUAHSI-HIS system. It works with HydroCatalog which indexes the data to find out what data exists and where it is, and then it retrieves the data from HydroServers where it is stored communicating using WaterOneFlow web services. Currently, there are over 65 services registered in HydroCatalog providing central discovery of water data from several federal and state agencies, university projects, and other sources. HydroDesktop provides a simplified GIS that allows users to incorporate spatial data, and simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization. HydroDesktop is designed to be useful for a number of different groups of users with a wide variety of needs and skill levels including university faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, K-12 students, engineering and scientific consultants, and others. This presentation will highlight some of the features of HydroDesktop and the CUAHSI-HIS system that make it particularly appropriate for use in educational and public outreach settings, and will present examples of educational use. The incorporation of "real data," localization to an area of interest, and problem-based learning are all recognized as effective strategies for

  15. 40 CFR 141.856 - Routine monitoring requirements for subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people. 141.856 Section 141.856 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Revised Total Coliform Rule § 141.856 Routine monitoring requirements for subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 141.856 - Routine monitoring requirements for subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart H public water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people. 141.856 Section 141.856 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Revised Total Coliform Rule § 141.856 Routine monitoring requirements for subpart...

  17. 77 FR 8865 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Program. Illinois is applying its Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Regulations to all Illinois..., thereby satisfying the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Illinois is.... Therefore, EPA intends to award primacy to Illinois for Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment...

  18. 77 FR 12580 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ..., Drinking Water Unit (8P-W-DW), U.S. EPA, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129. All.... EPA, Region 8, Drinking Water Unit (7th floor), 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129; (2...), U.S. EPA, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202- 1129, 303-312-6653....

  19. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ..., Drinking Water Unit (8P-W-DW), U.S. EPA, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129. All.... EPA, Region 8, Drinking Water Unit (7th floor), 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129, (2... 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202- 1129, 303-312-6653. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  20. 77 FR 12582 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Copeland, Drinking Water Unit (8P-W-DW), U.S. EPA, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129...: (1) U.S. EPA, Region 8, Drinking Water Unit (7th floor), 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129... (8P-W-DW), U.S. EPA, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202- 1129,...

  1. 76 FR 69734 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... adopted the Lead and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions. The purpose of this rule is to improve control and reduce the risk of lead and copper in drinking water. EPA has determined that this rule...

  2. 77 FR 64336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... determination are available for inspection between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday... effective on November 19, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Larry Meyer, EPA, Region 4, Safe Drinking Water Branch, at the address given above, or by telephone at (404) 562-9449, or via email at...

  3. 77 FR 26071 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) require that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the agency) establish criteria for a program to monitor unregulated contaminants and publish a list of up to 30 contaminants to be monitored every five years. This final rule meets the SDWA requirement by publishing the third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring......

  4. 75 FR 69435 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Administrator, c/o Karen Shirley (8P-W-DW), U.S. EPA, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129. All.... EPA, Region 8, Drinking Water Program, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202-1129, (2) North...

  5. Public health and pipe breaks in water distribution systems: analysis with internet search volume as a proxy.

    PubMed

    Shortridge, Julie E; Guikema, Seth D

    2014-04-15

    Drinking water distribution infrastructure has been identified as a factor in waterborne disease outbreaks and improved understanding of the public health risks associated with distribution system failures has been identified as a priority area for research. Pipe breaks may pose a risk, as their occurrence and repair can result in low or negative pressure, potentially allowing contamination of drinking water from adjacent soils. However, measuring this phenomenon is challenging because the most likely health impact is mild gastrointestinal (GI) illness, which is unlikely to result in a doctor or hospital visit. Here we present a novel method that uses data mining techniques and internet search volume to assess the relationship between pipe breaks and symptoms of GI illness in two U.S. cities. Weekly search volume for the terms diarrhea and vomiting was used as the response variable with the number of pipe breaks in each city as a covariate as well as additional covariates to control for seasonal patterns, search volume persistence, and other sources of GI illness. The fit and predictive accuracy of multiple regression and data mining techniques were compared, with the best performance obtained using random forest and bagged regression tree models. Pipe breaks were found to be an important and positively correlated predictor of internet search volume in multiple models in both cities, supporting previous investigations that indicated an increased risk of GI illness from distribution system disturbances. PMID:24495984

  6. Cancer incidence and trihalomethane concentrations in a public drinking water system

    SciTech Connect

    Carlo, G.L.; Mettlin, C.L.

    1980-05-01

    Four thousand two hundred fifty-five cases of esophageal, stomach, colon, rectal, bladder, and pancreatic cancer reported from Erie County, NY between 1973 and 1976 were analyzed in terms of their relationship to type of water source, level of trihalomethane (THM) and various social and economic parameters. Among white males, a significant positive correlation existed between pancreatic cancer incidence rates and THM level. No other significant correlations were observed. This research lends little or no support to the hypothesis that THM levels which meet present standards are related to the incidence of human cancer.

  7. Simulating Water-Quality Trends in Public-Supply Wells in Transient Flow Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey Starn, J; Green, Christopher T; Hinkle, Stephen R; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Stolp, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Models need not be complex to be useful. An existing groundwater-flow model of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was adapted for use with convolution-based advective particle tracking to explain broad spatial trends in dissolved solids. This model supports the hypothesis that water produced from wells is increasingly younger with higher proportions of surface sources as pumping changes in the basin over time. At individual wells, however, predicting specific water-quality changes remains challenging. The influence of pumping-induced transient groundwater flow on changes in mean age and source areas is significant. Mean age and source areas were mapped across the model domain to extend the results from observation wells to the entire aquifer to see where changes in concentrations of dissolved solids are expected to occur. The timing of these changes depends on accurate estimates of groundwater velocity. Calibration to tritium concentrations was used to estimate effective porosity and improve correlation between source area changes, age changes, and measured dissolved solids trends. Uncertainty in the model is due in part to spatial and temporal variations in tracer inputs, estimated tracer transport parameters, and in pumping stresses at sampling points. For tracers such as tritium, the presence of two-limbed input curves can be problematic because a single concentration can be associated with multiple disparate travel times. These shortcomings can be ameliorated by adding hydrologic and geologic detail to the model and by adding additional calibration data. However, the Salt Lake Valley model is useful even without such small-scale detail. PMID:25039912

  8. 76 FR 11713 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... EPTDS Entry point to the distribution system FR Federal Register GC/MS Gas Chromatography/Mass... September 17, 1999 (64 FR 50556), and the second list (i.e., UCMR 2) on January 4, 2007 (72 FR 367). The..., chemicals used in commerce, and waterborne pathogens (74 FR 51850, October 8, 2009 (USEPA, 2009c)). EPA...

  9. Delineation of water sources for public-supply wells in three fractured-bedrock aquifer systems in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, Forest P.; Carlson, Carl S.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2003-01-01

    Fractured-bedrock aquifer systems in West Newbury, Maynard, and Paxton, Massachusetts, were studied to advance methods of data collection and analysis for delineating contributing areas to public-supply wells completed in fractured rock and for determining the effects of pumping on streams and wetlands. Contributing areas, as defined for this study, include all areas through which ground water flows from recharge areas to wells. In West Newbury, exploratory public-supply wells at two locations were completed in phyllite of the Eliot Formation. Aquifer testing indicated that subhorizontal and steeply dipping fractures that parallel two sets of foliation form elongated transmissive zones in the bedrock aquifer near the two well locations and also form a vertical hydraulic connection to surficial materials consisting of till at one location and marine clay at the other location. Recharge to bedrock is largely through a thin veneer of till over bedrock, but leakage through thick drumlin tills also recharges bedrock. Simulated contributing areas for the three supply wells pumped at a combined rate of 251 gallons per minute encompass about 1.3 square miles and extend to ground-water divides within most of a subbasin of the Artichoke River. Pumping likely would reduce streamflow in the Artichoke River subbasin by approximately the pumping rate. Pumping is likely to affect wetland areas underlain by till near the wells because of the vertical hydraulic connection to surficial materials. In Maynard, three exploratory public-supply wells were completed in coarse-grained schist of the Nashoba Formation. Aquifer testing indicated that a dense network of fractures in bedrock forms a laterally extensive transmissive zone in bedrock that is well connected vertically to surficial materials consisting of sandy till, lacustrine silts, sand and gravel, and wetland deposits. The simulated contributing area for the three supply wells pumped at a combined rate of 780 gallons per minute

  10. Indian primacy procedures handbook for the public water system supervision (PWSS) program and the underground injection control (UIC) program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The handbook defines primacy, the responsibilities of primacy, primacy's advantages and limitations, and how to seek primacy. Primacy is a provision in the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). It allows Indian Tribes the opportunity to assume principal responsibility in the enforcement of public drinking water and/or underground injection control (UIC) regulations within the Indian Tribe's jurisdiction. To attain primacy a Tribe must have drinking water and underground injection control regulations which are at least as strict as EPA regulations, and must have an independent agency or organization within the Tribal government that has the power to enforce its regulations.

  11. Water cleaning systems improves the water quality in dental unit water lines (DUWL). A report from the Public Dental Health of Västra Götaland region, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Hjort, Gunilla; Spencer, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are formed in the dental unit waterlines, which leads to unacceptable high levels of bacteria in the water used for dental treatment. Public Dental Health in Västra Götaland, Sweden, decided in 2010 to install water cleaning systems in all dental units. This report shows the effect of this water-cleaning program comprising 841 dental units. The 841 dental units in 111 clinics in the Public Dental Health Service of Västra Götaland region participated in the study. 50 ml water was sampled from the air-water syringe after 2-3 hrs of use and were analyzed for the number of fast-growing (2 days incubation) and slow-growing (7 days incubation) bacteria calculated as colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Approved water quality was set to <100 CFU/ml accordingto the recommendations from the Board of Health and Wellfare (Socialstyrelsen). Altogether 77.3% of the dental units reached approved levels, which was considerable higher than the 25.2% that were approved in a similar study at FTV in the city of Göteborg 4 years earlier when no water cleaning systems were installed. Further, 474 dental units using the Alpron/ Bilpron weekend system 83.4% were approved, 136 units using Unit Clean system 87.5% were approved and 15 using the Sterilox system all reached below 100 CFU/ml. The 199 dental units with inbuilt cleanings systems by the manufacturers based on hydrogen peroxide only 56.3% were approved. A number of 45 (22.6%) showed very high levels (> 10 000 CFU/ml) indicating serious problems with the practical procedures or installation of the systems that needs further attention. The study showed generally improved conditions of the water in the dental units after the introduction of water cleaning systems in the clinics of Public Dental Health Service of Västra Götaland Region, Sweden although the problem still remains in many units. PMID:24620507

  12. The First Association of a Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Death with Culturable Naegleria fowleri in Tap Water from a U.S. Treated Public Drinking Water System

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Jennifer R.; Ratard, Raoult C.; Hill, Vincent R.; Sokol, Theresa; Causey, Jonathan Jake; Yoder, Jonathan S.; Mirani, Gayatri; Mull, Bonnie; Mukerjee, Kimberly A.; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Doucet, Meggie; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Poole, Charla N.; Akingbola, Olugbenga A.; Ritter, Jana; Xiong, Zhenggang; da Silva, Alexandre; Roellig, Dawn; Van Dyke, Russell; Stern, Harlan; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Naegleria fowleri is a climate-sensitive, thermophilic ameba found in warm, freshwater lakes and rivers. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is almost universally fatal, occurs when N. fowleri–containing water enters the nose, typically during swimming, and N. fowleri migrates to the brain via the olfactory nerve. In August 2013, a 4-year-old child died of meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology in a Louisiana hospital. Methods Clinical and environmental testing and a case investigation were initiated to determine the cause of death and to identify potential exposures. Results Based on testing of CSF and brain specimens, the child was diagnosed with PAM. His only reported water exposure was tap water; in particular, tap water that was used to supply water to a lawn water slide on which the child had played extensively prior to becoming ill. Water samples were collected from both the home and the water distribution system that supplied the home and tested; N. fowleri were identified in water samples from both the home and the water distribution system. Conclusions This case is the first reported PAM death associated with culturable N. fowleri in tap water from a U.S. treated drinking water system. This case occurred in the context of an expanding geographic range for PAM beyond southern tier states with recent case reports from Minnesota, Kansas, and Indiana. This case also highlights the role of adequate disinfection throughout drinking water distribution systems and the importance of maintaining vigilance when operating drinking water systems using source waters with elevated temperatures. PMID:25595746

  13. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  14. High temperature hot water distribution system study, Directorate of Public Works, Fort Drum, New York; executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA01-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: (1) Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. (2) Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

  15. Pesticides and their metabolites in three small public water-supply reservoir systems, western New York, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Eckhardt, David A.; Rosenmann, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Twenty five pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in samples collected from May, 1998 through January, 1999 in three small public- supply reservoirs in western New York.Samples were collected at tributaries and reservoir outlets for comparison with samples from the water-supply intakes. No samples from public-water-supply intakes exceeded any Federal or State water-quality standards, although some samples from tributaries did exceed a few standards. The maximum concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides in water-supply intake samples were between 10 and 50 percent of the lowest applicable water quality standard. Pesticides that exceeded water-quality standards at the tributary sites were the herbicides atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine, and the insecticide p,p?-DDE. Land use in the watersheds that surround these reservoirs is largely agricultural; thus, the results do not necessarily represent conditions in other water-supply reservoirs in New York State. The most frequently detected pesticides or pesticide metabolites were the corn herbicides atrazine and metolachlor, and two metabolites of metolachlor -metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)and metolachlor oxanilic acid (OA). More than half of the samples from the three water-supply intake sites contained at least one of these compounds at concentrations greater than 0.2 ?g/L (micrograms per liter); the concentrations ranged from 0.01 to nearly 10 ?g/L. Many samples contained metabolites of other commonly used herbicides at concentrations greater than those of their parent compounds. Only two insecticides or insecticide metabolites were detected (carbofuran and p,p?-DDE and concentrations of these compounds were less than 0.1 ?g/L. The total concentration of pesticides and metabolites at the three water-supply intake sites are correlated with land use. The highest concentrations were in the watershed with the greatest percentage of row-crop land use,and the lowest concentrations were in

  16. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  17. [Public health and public health systems sustainability].

    PubMed

    Repullo Labrador, José R; Segura Benedicto, Andreu

    2006-01-01

    Public health and healthcare originally started out separately from one another in the past, having later further developed taking different paths in modern times. The major development the health systems underwent in the last half of the 20th century entailed a heightening of the individual standpoint and a division of these two approaches despite the attempts made to bring them together as of the WHO Alma-Ata Conference in 1978. The waning of rationalism and other social phenomena had a hand the collective or population-oriented focus being focused on to a lesser degree in Public Health, but these trends also gave rise to a growing problem of rationality in individual healthcare and sustainability in the public health systems. The debate on the current scene stands to set out the sustainability-related problems mediated by internal and external agents and to revise Public Health's possible contribution to the improvement thereof by advocating yet a further attempt at bringing together and integrating these two diverging standpoints. PMID:17193811

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  19. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: CONTROL OF LEAD AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication presents subjects relating to the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems. t is of interest to system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment te...

  20. ``Water Drops'' Essays Available for Public Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Peter E.

    2007-11-01

    ``Water Drops'' are 90-second essays on water science, hydrology, culture, history, organizations, law, and policy that have aired weekly on radio station WRVO-FM in Oswego, N.Y., since January 2006. Created for the lay public with a basic understanding of Earth science, the 133 essays now are available on Public Radio Exchange (http://www.prx.org) for free use by public radio stations, according to terms set forth at the Exchange Web site that include citing appropriate credits. If aired weekly, there are enough essays for 2.5 years of radio programming.

  1. PROTECTION OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES FROM GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION. SEMINAR PUBLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication contains material from technology transfer seminars presented for the water supply community. The document provides utility managers and operators, regulators and technical specialists with guidance for preventing contamination and alternatives for treating public...

  2. Public eye security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviv, David G.

    1999-01-01

    The recently patented system is a software engine that is connected to a television camera that is used for security applications. It will detect in near real time any physical criminal acts occurring within the field of view of the camera. It then instantaneously transmits an alarm to law enforcement and turns on a VCR and other crime deterrent systems, without human involvement.

  3. Effect of bromide in a surface water intake on the formation of brominated trihalomethanes at a public water system treatment plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a collaborative drinking water research study. EPA is evaluating water samples collected by PWS operators in order to investigate relationships between bromide in source water and the formation of brominated DBPs in finished drinking water. This study will includ...

  4. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  5. Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, C. R., (compiler)

    1978-01-01

    This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  7. Incorporating public preferences in planning urban water supply reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Charles W.; Smith, Mark Griffin

    1993-10-01

    This study has two objectives: (1) to compare the attitudes of the water-using public, water officials, and elected officials toward the risk of water supply shortage; and (2) to develop a methodology for incorporating water users' valuation of reliability in system design. Using contingent valuation techniques, we have measured the benefits and costs of different reliability levels in terms of water users' willingness to pay (WTP) for increases in reliability and in terms of their willingness to accept (WTA) compensation in the form of lower water bills for lower levels of reliability. Three cities in northern Colorado with diverse baseline levels of water supply reliability (Aurora, Boulder, and Longmont) are the study sites. Contrary to our hypothesis that water managers are unjustifiably risk averse, we find that water managers' preferences are consistent with customer WTP (WTA) values associated with the risk of water shortages and the system costs associated with reliability. Water managers in Boulder (high reliability) were willing to consider reductions in the level of system reliability while water managers in Aurora and Longmont (low reliability) favored the status quo or increased reliability. While these attitudes were sometimes contrary to a majority of customers' expressed interests in change, they were shown to be justified by comparison of supply system costs (savings) with aggregate WTP for additional reliability (WTA for less reliability).

  8. Public water supply and distribution at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, C.

    1997-10-01

    On February 17th, 1996, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a former Department of Energy uranium processing facility near the rural town of Fernald, Ohio, became a ``user`` instead of a ``producer``, of potable water by tying into the Cincinnati Water Works new Public Water Supply System. This satisfied the future site needs of potable water and nullified the need to follow the sampling requirements set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Safe Drinking Water Act for potable water producers. This transformation into a customer also reduced the long water transmission time from the Cincinnati Water Works station to the small community that would have occurred without a large user such as the FEMP being on line.

  9. Publication search and retrieval system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winget, Elizabeth A.

    1981-01-01

    The publication search and retrieval system of the Branch of Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Geology, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Mass., is a procedure for listing and describing branch-sponsored publications. It is designed for maintenance and retrieval by those having limited knowledge of computer languages and programs. Because this branch currently utilizes the Hewlett-Packard HP-1000 computer with RTE-IVB operating system, database entry and maintenance is performed in accordance with the TE-IVB Terminal User’s Reference Manual (Hewlett-Packard Company, 1980) and within the constraints of GRASP (Bowen and Botbol, 1975) and WOLF (Evenden, 1978).

  10. Rate of Decline in Serum PFOA Concentrations after Granular Activated Carbon Filtration at Two Public Water Systems in Ohio and West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Bartell, Scott M.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Lyu, Christopher; Kato, Kayoko; Ryan, P. Barry; Steenland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Background Drinking water in multiple water districts in the Mid-Ohio Valley has been contaminated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which was released by a nearby DuPont chemical plant. Two highly contaminated water districts began granular activated carbon filtration in 2007. Objectives To determine the rate of decline in serum PFOA, and its corresponding half-life, during the first year after filtration. Methods Up to six blood samples were collected from each of 200 participants from May 2007 until August 2008. The primary source of drinking water varied over time for some participants; our analyses were grouped according to water source at baseline in May–June 2007. Results For Lubeck Public Service District customers, the average decrease in serum PFOA concentrations between May–June 2007 and May–August 2008 was 32 ng/mL (26%) for those primarily consuming public water at home (n = 130), and 16 ng/mL (28%) for those primarily consuming bottled water at home (n = 17). For Little Hocking Water Association customers, the average decrease in serum PFOA concentrations between November–December 2007 and May–June 2008 was 39 ng/mL (11%) for consumers of public water (n = 39) and 28 ng/mL (20%) for consumers of bottled water (n = 11). The covariate-adjusted average rate of decrease in serum PFOA concentration after water filtration was 26% per year (95% confidence interval, 25–28% per year). Conclusions The observed data are consistent with first-order elimination and a median serum PFOA half-life of 2.3 years. Ongoing follow-up will lead to improved half-life estimation. PMID:20123620

  11. Planning Istanbul's Public Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dokmeci, Vedia; Korca, Perver

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the role of public libraries in socioeconomic development focuses on an evaluation of the existing library system in Istanbul (Turkey) and proposes a plan for its balanced development with respect to population distribution and technological advances. Highlights include building design, library automation, and financial…

  12. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

  13. [National public health information system].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Stevanović, Ranko; Babić-Erceg, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Information production and its communication being a key public health activity, developing modern information systems is a precondition for its fulfilling these assignments. A national public health information system (NPHIS) is a set of human resources combined with computing and communication technologies. It enables data linkage and data coverage as well as undertaking information production and dissemination in an effective, standardized and safe way. The Croatian Institute of Public Health LAN/WAN modules are under development. Health Safety System, Health Workers Registry, and Digital Library are among the Institute's developmental priorities. Communication between NPHIS participants would unfold over the Internet by using every relevant data protection method. Web technology-based applications would be run on special servers. Between individual applications, use would be made of the transaction module of communication through an exchange of the HL7 standard-based xml messages. In the conditions of transition, the health system must make an optimal use of the resources, which is not feasible without applying modern information and communication technologies. PMID:16095199

  14. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  15. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  16. Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Haamer, Kadri; Marandi, Andres

    2006-06-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in tap water, to a great extent, ranged from 0.01 to 6.95 mg/l. Drinking water in southern Estonia, where terrigenous Middle-Devonian aquifer system is exploited, has a fluoride concentration lower than recommended level (0.5 mg/l), thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. The western part of the country is supplied by water with excess fluoride content (1.5-6.9 mg/l). Groundwater abstracted for drinking purposes originates from Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks. The content of fluoride in Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is associated with the groundwater abstraction depth and the main controlling factors of dissolved fluoride are the pH value and the chemical type of water.

  17. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  18. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  19. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  20. Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andria Q; Dewey, Catherine E; Doré, Kathryn; Majowicz, Shannon E; McEwen, Scott A; David, Waltner-Toews; Eric, Mathews; Carr, Deborah J; Henson, Spencer J

    2006-01-01

    Background In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, including private wells and cisterns, rests with their owners. However, there are reports that Canadians test these water supplies intermittently and that treatment of such water is uncommon. An estimated 45% of all waterborne outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems. An understanding of the perceptions and needs of Canadians served by private water supplies is essential, as it would enable public health professionals to better target public education and drinking water policy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the public perceptions of private water supplies in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada), with the intent of informing public education and outreach strategies within the population. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information. Results Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two media reported most likely to

  1. PREVENTING CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY WELLS USING COMPUTERIZED MODELING AND MAPPING TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Research and Development and the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water have collaborated since 1998 on the development of a public domain ground-water flow modeling system designed to facilitate capture zone delineation and protection area mapping for public...

  2. Descriptions of anisotropy and heterogeneity and their effect on ground-water flow and areas of contribution to public supply wells in a karst carbonate aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Robinson, James L.

    1996-01-01

    MODFLOW and MODPATH numerical models were used to generate areas of contribution to public supply wells for simulated hypothetical anisotropy and heterogeneous carbonate aquifer systems. The simulations incorporated, to varying degrees, the anisotropy and heterogeneity observed in a karst carbonate aquifer system. These include: isotropic and homogeneous single-layer system, doubly-porous single-layer system, and interconnected vertically and horizontally heterogeneous system. The study indicated that the distribution and nature of aquifer anisotropy and heterogeneity will affect the simulated size, shape, and orientation of areas of contribution in karst carbonate aquifer systems.

  3. Assessing the susceptibility to contamination of two aquifer systems used for public water supply in the Modesto and Fresno metropolitan areas, California, 2001 and 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 90 active public supply wells in the Fresno and Modesto metropolitan areas as part of the California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) program. The CAS program was formed to examine the susceptibility to contamination of aquifers that are tapped by public supply wells to serve the citizens of California. The objectives of the program are twofold: (1) to evaluate the quality of ground water used for public supply using volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in ground-water samples and (2) to determine if the occurrence and distribution of low level VOCs in ground water and characteristics, such as land use, can be used to predict aquifer susceptibility to contamination from anthropogenic activities occurring at, or near, land surface. An evaluation was made of the relation between VOC occurrence and the explanatory variables: depth to the top of the uppermost well perforation, land use, relative ground-water age, high nitrate concentrations, density of leaking underground fuel tanks (LUFT), and source of recharge water. VOCs were detected in 92 percent of the wells sampled in Modesto and in 72 percent of the wells sampled in Fresno. Trihalomethanes (THM) and solvents were frequently detected in both study areas. Conversely, the gasoline components?benzene, toluene ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)?were rarely, if at all, detected, even though LUFTs were scattered throughout both study areas. The rare occurrence of BTEX compounds may be the result of their low solubility and labile nature in the subsurface environment. Samples were analyzed for 85 VOCs; 25 were detected in at least one sample. The concentrations of nearly all VOCs detected were at least an order of magnitude below action levels set by drinking water standards. Concentrations of four VOCs exceeded federal and state maximum contaminant levels (MCL): the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) and the fumigant 1, 2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in Fresno, and the

  4. 78 FR 52561 - Public Land Order No. 7820; Partial Modification, Public Water Reserve No. 107; Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7820; Partial Modification, Public Water Reserve No. 107... waterholes and designated as Public Water Reserve No. 107. This order opens the lands only to exchange under... Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1716) and applicable law, Public Law 111-53 (123 Stat. 1982) directs...

  5. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  6. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  7. Local public health system partnerships.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interorganizational collaboration aimed at community health improvement is an expectation of local public health systems. This study assessed the extent to which such collaboration occurred within one state (Wisconsin), described the characteristics of existing partnerships, and identified factors associated with partnership effectiveness. METHODS: In Stage 1, local health department (LHD) directors in Wisconsin were surveyed (93% response rate). In Stage 2, LHDs completed self-administered mailed surveys for each partnership identified in Stage 1 (85% response rate). Two-level hierarchical logit regression methods were used to model relationships between partnership and LHD variables and partnership outcomes. Data from 924 partnerships associated with 74 LHDs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Partnerships most frequently addressed tobacco prevention and control, maternal and child health, emergency planning, community assessment and planning, and immunizations. Partnering was most frequent with other government agencies, hospitals, medical practices or clinics, community-based organizations, and schools. Partnership effectiveness was predicted by having a budget, having more partners contributing financially, having a broader array of organizations involved, and having been in existence for a longer period of time. A government mandate to start the partnership was inversely related to successful outcomes. Characteristics of LHDs did not predict partnership effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support, having a broader array of partners, and allowing sufficient time for partnerships to succeed contribute to partnership effectiveness. Further study-using objective outcome measures-is needed to examine the effects of organizational and community characteristics on the effectiveness of local public health system partnerships. PMID:15736335

  8. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  9. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): a database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the PSDB and explain the methods used to populate and update the data from the SDWIS, State datasets, and map and geospatial imagery. This report describes 3 data tables and 11 domain tables, including field contents, data sources, and relations between tables. Although the PSDB database is not available to the general public, this information should be useful for others who are developing other database systems to store and analyze public-supply system and facility data.

  10. Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andria Q; Dewey, Catherine E; Doré, Kathryn; Majowicz, Shannon E; McEwen, Scott A; Waltner-Toews, David; Henson, Spencer J; Mathews, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private systems will enable public health professionals to better target education and outreach activities, and to address the needs and concerns of residents in their jurisdictions. The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking water perceptions and self-described behaviours and needs of participants served by private water systems in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Methods In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age. Results Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed. Conclusion While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in the concerns expressed by

  11. Prototype water reuse system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    A small-scale water reuse system (150 L/min) was developed to create an environment for observing fish under a variety of temperature regimes. Key concerns of disease control, water quality, temperature control, and efficiency and case of operation were addressed. Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were held at loading densities ranging from 0.11 to 0.97 kg/L per minute and at temperatures from 10 to 20°C for 6 months with no disease problems or degradation ofwater quality in the system. The system required little maintenance during 2 years of operation.

  12. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  13. Public Management Information Systems: Theory and Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozeman, Barry; Bretschneider, Stuart

    1986-01-01

    The existing theoretical framework for research in management information systems (MIS) is criticized for its lack of attention to the external environment of organizations, and a new framework is developed which better accommodates MIS in public organizations: public management information systems. Four models of publicness that reflect external…

  14. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  15. Private well water in Colorado: collaboration, data use, and public health outreach.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric M; Van Dyke, Mike; Kuhn, Stephanie; Mitchell, Jane; Dalton, Hope

    2015-01-01

    As a result of participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Private Well Initiative and Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking), the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment was able to inventory private well water quality data, prioritize potential health concerns associated with drinking water from these wells, and create a Web portal for sharing public health information regarding private well water. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment collaborated with a local health department to pilot the project prior to a public implementation. Approximately 18 data sets were identified and inventoried. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment also participated in development and pilot testing of best practices for display of well water quality data with other Tracking states. Available data sets were compiled and summarized, and the data made available on the Colorado Tracking portal using geographic information system technology to support public health outreach regarding private wells. PMID:25621452

  16. Water resource systems group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedinger, Jery R.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    The 11th meeting of the Water Resource Systems Group was held at the University of Washington (Seattle), August 7-8, 1987. These systems group meetings, which are informal gatherings of professionals who have an interest in the educational and research aspects of water resources systems analysis, have usually been held on university campuses. The 30 attendees of the 1987 meeting represented a cross section of university faculty and graduate students, government managers and researchers, and engineering consultants.The meeting opened with short discussions by Steve Burges (University of Washington), Chuck Howard (CDD Howard and Associates, Victoria, Canada), David Dawdy (consultant, San Francisco, Calif.), and Jon Liebman (University of Illinois, Urbana) outlining their views of current issues in the water resources area. Burges emphasized the limitations and inadequacies of many of the models currently used in hydrology: rainfall runoff models may not adequately capture the physical characteristics of the movement of water into channels, vadose and saturated zone pollutant transport models are incapable of reproducing many of the features observed in the field, and many streamflow forecasting models used for reservoir operations have been constructed to reproduce average conditions but break down under the extreme conditions (floods and droughts) where they are most needed.

  17. Systems Science Methods in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Douglas A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies where these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. PMID:22224885

  18. Remote water monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Haynes, D. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A remote water monitoring system is described that integrates the functions of sampling, sample preservation, sample analysis, data transmission and remote operation. The system employs a floating buoy carrying an antenna connected by lines to one or more sampling units containing several sample chambers. Receipt of a command signal actuates a solenoid to open an intake valve outward from the sampling unit and communicates the water sample to an identifiable sample chamber. Such response to each signal receipt is repeated until all sample chambers are filled in a sample unit. Each sample taken is analyzed by an electrochemical sensor for a specific property and the data obtained is transmitted to a remote sending and receiving station. Thereafter, the samples remain isolated in the sample chambers until the sampling unit is recovered and the samples removed for further laboratory analysis.

  19. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can preve...

  20. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  1. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

  2. First Public Library Satellite Receiver System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Marion F.

    1982-01-01

    Description of video services at Lake County Public Library, Indiana, highlights the installation of a satellite receiver system and notes funding and justification, components of a satellite system, decisions and sources of assistance, programming available, and future considerations. (EJS)

  3. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  4. What affects public acceptance of recycled and desalinated water?

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that are associated with higher levels of public acceptance for recycled and desalinated water. For the first time, a wide range of hypothesized factors, both of socio-demographic and psychographic nature, are included simultaneously. The key results, based on a survey study of about 3000 respondents are that: (1) drivers of the stated likelihood of using desalinated water differ somewhat from drivers of the stated likelihood of using recycled water; (2) positive perceptions of, and knowledge about, the respective water source are key drivers for the stated likelihood of usage; and (3) awareness of water scarcity, as well as prior experience with using water from alternative sources, increases the stated likelihood of use. Practical recommendations for public policy makers, such as key messages to be communicated to the public, are derived. PMID:20950834

  5. Water, water quality and health (Chapter 3 in Book entitled: Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter identifies the role environmental tracking plays in identifying public health water hazard and water quality issues. It outlines public health issues to be examined and provides an integrated overview of water and diseases by combining knowledge of the hydrological ...

  6. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public..., concerning information that may inform the regulatory review of the uncovered finished water...

  7. SOURCE WATER PROTECTION OF PUBLIC DRINKING WATER WELLS: COMPUTER MODELING OF ZONES CONTRIBUTING RECHARGE TO PUMPING WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer technology to assist states, tribes, and clients in the design of wellhead and source water protection areas for public water supply wells is being developed through two distinct SubTasks: (Sub task 1) developing a web-based wellhead decision support system, WellHEDSS, t...

  8. [Public awareness assessment of water reuse in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Ling; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Reusing reclaimed municipal wastewater to mitigate urban water shortage is gaining widespread attentions. Beijing has led the nation in implementation and close to 60% of the treated municipal wastewater effluent is being reused. We evaluated the public's awareness of water reuse practices throughout the city. Based on questionnaire and the SPSS software, we analyzed the people's knowledge on water, wastewater and reclaimed issues and willingness to use reclaimed water along with their socio-economical background. While the public was keenly aware of the severe water shortage and the need to treat wastewater, they did not have clear ideas on sources of water supply, the biggest users of water, and the largest contributor of municipal wastewater. Results show that the majority of the Beijing residents we surveyed were not cognizant of water reuses taken places throughout the city. Greater than 80% of the residents would accept reclaimed wastewater for reuses even for domestic usages as long as not related to drinking and food preparation. However, 63% of them would reject reusing it to supplement the public water supply. In general, subjects at a higher education level, with higher personal income, and between ages of 35 to 55 tended to be more supportive of the water reuses. The gender did not significantly affect the outcome of the survey. To enhance the awareness of the city residents, it suggests forwarding the propaganda and management, strengthening the policy-oriented and facility support from the public, community and government. PMID:23379134

  9. Characterizing public health and microbial risks due to water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research track evaluates risks associated with the occurrence of waterborne disease in the population. A clear understanding of the health burden associated with exposure to contaminated drinking water is critical to developing regulations that are protective of public healt...

  10. [The protection of drinking water in a public health department].

    PubMed

    Monari, R; Petrolo, A; Mascelli, M; Vannucchi, G

    2008-01-01

    The protection of drinking water is a key issue in a Public Health Department's activity. A substantial amount of planning and monitoring work is involved in the development and implementation of a water safety plan, aimed not only at the enforcement of public health regulations, but also at the improvement of the quality water. We provide an overview of the quality monitoring program of the municipality of Prato, a highly populated and industrialized area, where ground water is contaminated by anthropogenic pollutants such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and nitrate. We show how, in spite of the intrinsically poor quality of the basic water resource, the careful application of an appropriate prevention plan, with the cooperation of the local water authority, allows the delivery of drinking water of increasing safety and quality. PMID:19238879

  11. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  12. A Public Education Program in Water Resources Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, John R.; Armold, Anita A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a program designed to improve public awareness/understanding of major factors in managing water resources. Use is made of an interactive computer simulator to place lay people and teachers in decision-making situations involving real variables and alternatives and to project for them the probable consequences of their water management…

  13. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  14. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  15. Tying California's Water System Together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, M. S.; Singh, K.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents updates to a relatively integrated hydro-economic model of California's water supply system (CALVIN), showing how future sustainable groundwater management and climate change are likely to affect the operation of California's statewide water supply system, and particularly the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. California's water system connects most parts of the state, so that water policy changes in one part of the state can affect water management and deliveries in distant parts of California. This provides a high level of robustness in this system, and geographically disperses the impacts of local actions.

  16. Automated Water-Purification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, Harlow G.; Hames, Peter S.; Menninger, Fredrick J.

    1988-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis system operates and maintains itself with minimal human attention, using programmable controller. In purifier, membranes surround hollow cores through which clean product water flows out of reverse-osmosis unit. No chemical reactions or phase changes involved. Reject water, in which dissolved solids concentrated, emerges from outer membrane material on same side water entered. Flow controls maintain ratio of 50 percent product water and 50 percent reject water. Membranes expected to last from 3 to 15 years.

  17. Quantum walk public-key cryptographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachou, C.; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public-key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that the protocol is secure and analyze the complexity of public key generation and encryption/decryption procedures.

  18. Systemic Action and Learning in Public Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Complex, systemic issues continue to challenge public services without respect for organisational and professional boundaries. In practice, collaborative working with others who have differing professional cultural norms and systems confront members with the need to learn about each other's values, priorities and practices. This paper explores the…

  19. Water preheater system

    SciTech Connect

    Dunstan, Ph.E.

    1985-03-12

    A heat transfer liquid collects heat in a solar collector and transfers the heat to water in a preheater heat exchanger. Use of a negative-pressure collector by means of an ejector and pressure relief valve allows inexpensive and readily available materials to be used in the collector. Preferably, the preheat heat exchanger is a converted gas hot water heater in which the heat transfer liquid is sprayed onto a portion of the storage tank and is collected in a reservoir. The negative-pressure solar collector can also be used to heat swimming pool water.

  20. Satellite Power System (SPS) public outreach experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneal, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    An outreach experiment was conducted to improve the results of the satellite power system (SPS) concept development and evaluation program. The objectives of the outreach were to: (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. The response to the outreach effort was positive, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS project division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The responses were analyzed and from them some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented.

  1. COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEM SURVEY (CWSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The CWSS is a national random sample of approximately 2,000 community water systems. The primary purpose of the CWSS is to provide OGWDW with data on the financial and operating characteristics of water systems. This information is used to support the o...

  2. Solar hot-water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design data brochure describes domestic solar water system that uses direct-feed system designed to produce 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day to meet needs of single family dwelling. Brochure also reviews annual movements of sun relative to earth and explains geographic considerations in collector orientation and sizing.

  3. The Public Benefits of Cleaned Water: Emerging Greenway Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Howard

    Highlighted are opportunities for greenway development and protection. It encourages careful management in the use of waterfront land, early planning for public access and enjoyment of cleaned rivers, streams, and harbors, and efforts to ensure that these bodies of water are not repolluted by new, indiscriminate development attracted to their…

  4. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  5. Assessing Global Water System Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braimoh, Ademola K.; Craswell, Eric T.

    2006-04-01

    Rapid growth of global change science has led to improved knowledge about interdependencies in the global water cycle and recognition that the global water system consists of physical, human, and biogeochemical components [Vörösmarty et al., 2004]. Traditionally, water research is spread over a number of scientific disciplines. However, for water science to effectively inform policy for sustainable water management, research about the dynamics of water in the context of global change needs to be holistic, must integrate the existing knowledge base, and should synthesize knowledge about how the interactions between nature and society at various scales are affecting the global water system. This article assesses the level of interdisciplinarity in water science programs by comparing the activities of international waterrelated projects with the Global Water System Project (GWSP) activity profile (http://www.gwsp.org). The GWSP is a project of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) comprising the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (http:// www.igbp.kva.se/cgi-bin/php/frameset.php), the International Human Dimension Programme on Global Environmental Change (www.ihdp.org), the World Climate Research Programme (http://www.wmo.ch/web/wcrp/wcrp-home.html), and the DIVERSITAS international program on biodiversity science (http://www.diversitasinternational.org/). GWSP's attributes include its scientific and policy-informing orientation, global perspective, integrative and interdisciplinary approach, and multitemporal investigation of human impacts on water resources.

  6. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  7. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute. (USGS)

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN A PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEINHOFF, CARL R.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DESCRIBE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT OF AN URBAN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM USING THE MURRAY NEEDS-PRESS MODEL. A BROAD MEASURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRESS WAS ADAPTED FROM AN EXISTING MODEL AND USED TO--(1) DESCRIBE THE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESS PERCEIVED BY TEACHERS, (2) FACTOR ANALYZE THESE DATA, (3) DESCRIBE THE PERSONALITY (NEEDS)…

  9. Wake County Public School System Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, Raleigh, NC.

    The Wake County Public School System has published its guidelines for planning and design of functional, cost effective, and durable educational facilities that are attractive and enhance the students' educational experience. The guidelines present basic planning requirement and design criteria for the entire construction process, including: codes…

  10. 36 CFR 1192.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.61 Public information system. (a)(1) Requirements. Each vehicle shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.87 Public information system. (a) Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded...

  12. 36 CFR 1192.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public information system... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public information system... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized...

  16. Water-Play Parks on Public Land: A Revenue Source and a Public Benefit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedlock, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Water-play parks, a relatively new recreational concept, represent an excellent and highly lucrative development opportunity for public parks and recreation departments. Location, site requirements, construction costs, expected revenue return, and activities and facilities appropriate for these parks are discussed. (PP)

  17. Geographic information system applications to public warning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of a geographic information system (GIS), the Integrated Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS), for planning a siren-based public warning system. The Outdoor Sound Propagation Model (OSPM) in IEMIS models warning sirens in a given area and reports the results graphically as sound pressure level contours. As implemented in IEMIS, OSPM includes graphic functions for the preparation and display of input data, display of the model's results, and management of data files. These graphic functions enable public safety personnel to plan more effectively for warning of the public.

  18. Public Document Room file classification system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This listing contains detailed descriptions of the file classification system for documents available from the Public Document Room (PDR) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a public service branch of the agency, the PDR maintains facilities for receiving, processing, storing, and retrieving documents which NRC generates or receives in performing its regulatory function. Unlike a library, the PDR does not maintain collections of formally published materials, such as books, monographs, serials, periodicals, or general indexes. The documents on file at the PDR can be reports, written records of meetings (transcripts), existing or proposed regulations, the text of licenses or their amendments, and correspondence.

  19. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  20. Quality of water from public-supply wells in Massachusetts, 1975-86. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Trombley, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of the report are (1) to describe the water quality of the public ground-water supplies in Massachusetts; (2) to evaluate the areal and temporal trends in water quality; and (3) to relate the water-quality trends to general causative factors, such as geology, population density, highway deicing salts, and others. The scope of the study was to evaluate statistically water quality and water-quality trends from a data set consisting of 8,300 annual inorganic analyses of samples from public-supply wells in 233 municipalities throughout the Commonwealth for the period 1975-86. The data were grouped for analysis into 31 Commonwealth water-resources planning basins and major subbasins.

  1. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  2. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  3. CASE FOR DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to present a tool useful to water utilities that not only could analyze historical distribution system reliability data, but also provide a flexible and expandable mechanism for record-keeping enabling overall management of water work's facilities and...

  4. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information system... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.35 Public information system. (a) Vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, used in multiple-stop, fixed-route service, shall be equipped with a public address system...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public information system... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.35 Public information system. (a) Vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, used in multiple-stop, fixed-route service, shall be equipped with a public address system...

  7. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  9. Hydrogeologic characteristics of four public drinking-water supply springs in northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2004-01-01

    In October 2000, a study was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Health to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics, including the extent of the recharge areas, for Hughes Spring, Stark Spring, Evening Shade Spring, and Roaring Spring, which are used for public-water supply in northern Arkansas. Information pertaining to each spring can be used to enable development of effective management plans to protect these water resources and public health. An integrated approach to determine the ground-water characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of the four springs incorporated tools and methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, geophysics, and geochemistry. Analyses of discharge, temperature, and water quality were completed to describe ground-water flow characteristics, source-water characteristics, and connectivity of the ground-water system with surface runoff. Water-level contour maps were constructed to determine ground-water flow directions and ground-water tracer tests were conducted to determine the extent of the recharge areas and ground-water flow velocities. Hughes Spring supplies water for the city of Marshall, Arkansas, and the surrounding area. The mean annual discharge for Hughes Spring was 2.9 and 5.2 cubic feet per second for water years 2001 and 2002, respectively. Recharge to the spring occurs mainly from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). Ground-water tracer tests indicate the recharge area for Hughes Spring generally coincides with the surface drainage area (15.8 square miles) and that Hughes Spring is connected directly to the surface flow in Brush Creek. The geochemistry of Hughes Spring demonstrated variations with flow conditions and the influence of surface-runoff in the recharge area. Calcite saturation indices, total dissolved solids concentrations, and hardness demonstrate noticeable differences with flow conditions reflecting the

  10. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUNDSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as "Superfund" sites. eview of Superfund Reco...

  11. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  12. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  13. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Source, (2) Treatment, (3) Distribution system, (4) Finished water storage, (5) Pumps, pump... Sanitary surveys for ground water systems. (a) Ground water systems must provide the State, at the State's..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system,...

  14. Kentucky Public Water-Supply Withdrawals During 1995, 2000, and 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downs, Aimee C.; Caldwell, William E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Division of Water, has compiled the reported permitted public water-supply-withdrawal data for Kentucky for 2005. Water-withdrawal data for 1995 and 2000 were previously published in Solley and others (1998) and Hutson and others (2004), respectively. This report is a graphical representation of permitted withdrawals for 1995, 2000, and 2005. Public suppliers that are regulated through the Kentucky Division of Water, Water-Withdrawal Permitting Program, withdrew a total of 496, 525, and 558 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 1995, 2000, and 2005, respectively. In 2005, 489 Mgal/d (88 percent) came from surface-water sources, and 69 Mgal/d (12 percent) came from ground-water sources. Small increases and decreases in permitted public water-supply withdrawals can be attributed to population changes. Large increases and decreases can be attributed to merging of supply systems, change(s) in source, or purchases from other counties.

  15. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  16. Satellite power system (SPS) public outreach experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McNeal, S.R.

    1980-12-01

    To improve the results of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program, an outreach experiment was conducted. Three public interest groups participated: the L-5 Society (L-5), Citizen's Energy Project (CEP), and the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST). Each group disseminated summary information about SPS to approximately 3000 constituents with a request for feedback on the SPS concept. The objectives of the outreach were to (1) determine the areas of major concern relative to the SPS concept, and (2) gain experience with an outreach process for use in future public involvement. Due to the combined efforts of all three groups, 9200 individuals/organizations received information about the SPS concept. Over 1500 receipients of this information provided feedback. The response to the outreach effort was positive for all three groups, suggesting that the effort extended by the SPS Project Division to encourage an information exchange with the public was well received. The general response to the SPS differed with each group. The L-5 position is very much in favor of SPS; CEP is very much opposed and FASST is relatively neutral. The responses are analyzed, and from the responses some questions and answers about the satellite power system are presented in the appendix. (WHK)

  17. 49 CFR 38.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.121 Section 38.121... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel,...

  18. 49 CFR 38.121 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information system. 38.121 Section 38.121... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.121 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system permitting transportation system personnel,...

  19. Politics and Public Health: The Flint Drinking Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2016-07-01

    The Flint, Michigan, lead drinking water crisis is perhaps the most vivid current illustration of health inequalities in the United States. Since 2014, Flint citizens-among the poorest in America, mostly African American-had complained that their tap water was foul and discolored. But city, state, and federal officials took no heed. In March 2016, an independent task force found fault at every level of government and also highlighted what may amount to criminal negligence for workers who seemingly falsified water-quality results, allowing the people of Flint to continue to be exposed to water well above the federally allowed lead levels. It would have been possible to prevent lead seeping into the drinking water by treating the pipes with federally approved anticorrosives for around $100 per day. But today the cost of repairing the Flint water system is estimated at $1.5 billion, and fixing the ageing and lead-laden system across the United States would cost at least $1.3 trillion. How will Flint residents get justice and fair compensation for the wrongs caused by individual and systemic failures? And how will governments rebuild a water infrastructure that is causing and will continue to cause toxic conditions, particularly in economically marginalized cities and towns across America? PMID:27417861

  20. Ultrapure Water System for Hemodialysis Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-21

    The Change of Biomarkers CRP, CBC With the Use of Ultra Pure Water System for; Hemodialysis.; The Rate of Adverse Events Such as Hypotension During Hemodialysis Therapy With Ultra Pure Water; System as Compared to Conventional Water System.

  1. Epidemic giardiasis caused by a contaminated public water supply.

    PubMed

    Kent, G P; Greenspan, J R; Herndon, J L; Mofenson, L M; Harris, J A; Eng, T R; Waskin, H A

    1988-02-01

    In the period November 1, 1985 to January 31, 1986, 703 cases of giardiasis were reported in Pittsfield, Massachusetts (population 50,265). The community obtained its water from two main reservoirs (A and B) and an auxiliary reservoir (C). Potable water was chlorinated but not filtered. The incidence of illness peaked approximately two weeks after the city began obtaining a major portion of its water from reservoir C, which had not been used for three years. The attack rate of giardiasis for residents of areas supplied by reservoir C was 14.3/1000, compared with 7.0/1000 in areas that received no water from reservoir C. A case-control study showed that persons with giardiasis were more likely to be older and to have drunk more municipal water than household controls. A community telephone survey indicated that over 3,800 people could have had diarrhea that might have been caused by Giardia, and 95 per cent of households were either using alternate sources of drinking water or boiling municipal water. Environmental studies identified Giardia cysts in the water of reservoir C. Cysts were also detected in the two other reservoirs supplying the city, but at lower concentrations. This investigation highlights the risk of giardiasis associated with unfiltered surface water systems. PMID:3276234

  2. Prototype spectral analysis of water samples for monitoring and treatment of public water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Lee, M.; Yapijakis, C.; Ramsey, L. S.; Huang, L.; Shabaev, A.; Massa, L.

    2014-06-01

    Experimental measurements conducted in the laboratory, involving hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources in the New York City metro area, have motivated a reevaluation of issues concerning the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. One issue concerns hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations. This implies a need for better understanding the statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. This issue also implies the need for establishing correlations between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Another issue concerns the use of absorption spectra for determining changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants after application of water treatments in order to determine levels of toxicity with respect to the environment.

  3. Transboundary water resources and public health in the U.S.-Mexico border region

    SciTech Connect

    Varady, R.G.; Mack, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Ambos Nogales Water Project`` represents an interdisciplinary study of water management policy in a community straddling the US-Mexico border. The project was a joint effort undertaken from 1989 through 1993 by the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy at the University of Arizona and El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF) in Nogales, Sonor. Funding was provided by the Ford Foundation. Three key water management issues were the research focus: quantity (water supply), sewerage (water and waste removal), and quality. All three have inseparable linkages with public health. Regarding quantity, the study revealed that entire neighborhoods, especially in Nogales, Sonora, are unsupplied or undersupplied with running water, suggesting negative implications for the health of residents on both sides of the border. Sewerage systems do not reach many neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Even sewered areas are problematic due to breaks in poorly maintained systems, resulting in leaks to the aquifer and threats to groundwater quality. A pilot, water sample survey to assess water quality of area wells revealed significant bacteriologic contamination due to wastewater, elevated nitrate levels, and detectable concentrations of volatile organic compounds, all of which have potentially deleterious health effects. The project database offers an opportunity to analyze environment-related health problems in Ambos Nogales.

  4. Public policy for the use of reclaimed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruvold, William H.; Olson, Betty H.; Rigby, Martin

    1981-03-01

    This article documents the general need to reuse water reclaimed from sewage effluents for beneficial purposes and then considers in detail which specific uses will be most beneficial. The analysis begins by describing five levels of wastewater treatment: primary, secondary, tertiary, advanced, and advanced plus complete treatment. Next, five major uses for reclaimed water are identified: groundwater recharge, industrial use, irrigation, recreational lakes, and direct municipal reuse. Subcategories of reuse falling under each of the five major reuse categories are also identified and discussed. The analysis then proceeds to review significant literature available on health and environmental effects, treatment and distribution costs, and public opinion concerns in relation to each of the five major uses and their related subcategories. The paper concludes with a cumulative numerical analysis of the disbenefits associated with each specific type of reuse summed over the health effects, environmental effects, treatment costs, distribution costs, and public opinion concerns. Uses of reclaimed water for industrial purposes and for irrigation of fodder and fiber crops are found to be most beneficial by the analysis here employed, and use for aquifer recharge and direct municipal reuse are found to be least beneficial.

  5. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech messages, to announce stations and provide... public address system to permit transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human...

  6. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech messages, to announce stations and provide... public address system to permit transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human...

  7. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech messages, to announce stations and provide... public address system to permit transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human...

  8. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech messages, to announce stations and provide... public address system to permit transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized human...

  9. Metal-Microbial Interactions in Toronto Sunnyside Beach: Impact on Water Quality and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, J. M.; Elliott, A.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public beaches. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably contaminated aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside Beach (May 13 and August 20), an urban public beach on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal contaminant concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.

  10. Thousands of Public Pools, Hot Tubs Closed for Dirty Water: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158927.html Thousands of Public Pools, Hot Tubs Closed for Dirty Water: CDC Inspections in ... force the closure of thousands of public pools, hot tubs and water playgrounds every year, according to ...

  11. 49 CFR 38.87 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.87 Section 38.87... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.87 Public information system. (a) Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation...

  12. 49 CFR 38.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.35 Section 38.35... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.35 Public information system. (a... a public address system permitting the driver, or recorded or digitized human speech messages,...

  13. 49 CFR 38.61 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.61 Section 38.61... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.61 Public information system. (a)(1) Requirements. Each vehicle shall be equipped with a public address system...

  14. 49 CFR 38.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public information system. 38.103 Section 38.103... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation...

  15. 49 CFR 38.103 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information system. 38.103 Section 38.103... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.103 Public information system. (a) Each car shall be equipped with an interior public address system permitting transportation...

  16. 49 CFR 38.35 - Public information system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information system. 38.35 Section 38.35... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.35 Public information system. (a... a public address system permitting the driver, or recorded or digitized human speech messages,...

  17. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of...

  18. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of...

  19. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of...

  20. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of...

  1. 40 CFR 142.312 - What EPA action is necessary when a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of more... water system serving a population of more than 3,300 and fewer than 10,000 persons? (a) At the time a State proposes to grant a small system variance to a public water system serving a population of...

  2. VIRAL PATHOGENS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN GROUND WATER FROM SMALL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-eight public ground-water-supply wells serving less than 3,300 people were sampled from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan to determine (1) occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicators, (2) whether indicators are adequate predictors of the...

  3. Quality of Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007Overview of Major Findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings and Implications About 105 million people in the United States-more than one-third of the Nation's population-receive their drinking water from about 140,000 public water systems that use groundwater as their source. Although the quality of finished drinking water (after treatment and before distribution) from these public water systems is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), long-term protection and management of groundwater, a vital source of drinking water, requires an understanding of the occurrence of contaminants in untreated source water. Sources of drinking water are potentially vulnerable to a wide range of man-made and naturally occurring contaminants, including many that are not regulated in drinking water under the SDWA. In this study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), chemical water-quality conditions were assessed in source (untreated) groundwater from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, and in source and finished water from a subset of 94 wells. The public wells are located in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive water-supply aquifers, which constitute about one-half of the principal aquifers in the United States. Although the wells sampled in this study represent less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States, they are widely distributed nationally and were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. All source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations. As a result, the sampled groundwater represents the quality of the source water and not necessarily the quality of finished water ingested by the people served by these public wells. A greater number

  4. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water. PMID:26882113

  5. Water Resources Council Proposed Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources. Notice of Public Review and Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Services (GSA), Washington, DC. Office of the Federal Register.

    Presented in this notice of a public review and hearing are the proposed Principles and Standards for planning water and related land resources of the United States. Developed by the Water Resources Council pursuant to the Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-80), the purpose is to achieve objectives, determined cooperatively,…

  6. A public health evaluation of recreational water impairment.

    PubMed

    Soller, Jeffrey A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; DeGeorge, John F; Cooper, Robert C; Tchobanoglous, George; Olivieri, Adam W

    2006-03-01

    Water quality objectives for body contact recreation (REC-1) in Newport Bay, CA are not being attained. To evaluate the health implications of this non-attainment, a comprehensive health-based investigation was designed and implemented. Bacterial indicator data indicate that exceedances of the water quality objectives are temporally sporadic, geographically limited and most commonly occur during the time of the year and/or in areas of the bay where the REC-1 use is low or non-existent. A disease transmission model produced simulated risk estimates for recreation in the Bay that were below levels considered tolerable by the US EPA (median estimate 0.9 illnesses per 1,000 recreation events). Control measures to reduce pathogen loading to Newport Bay are predicted to reduce risk by an additional 16% to 50%. The results of this study indicate that interpreting the public health implications of fecal indicator data in recreational water may require a more rigorous approach than is currently used. PMID:16604834

  7. Energy and Environmental Systems Division's publications publications 1968-1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Books, journal articles, conference papers, and technical reports produced by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne National Laboratory are listed in this bibliography. Subjects covered are energy resources (recovery and use); energy-efficient technology; electric utilities, and environments. (MCW)

  8. Water monitor system: Phase 1 test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic water monitor system was tested with the objectives of assuring high-quality effluent standards and accelerating the practice of reclamation and reuse of water. The NASA water monitor system is described. Various components of the system, including the necessary sensors, the sample collection system, and the data acquisition and display system, are discussed. The test facility and the analysis methods are described. Test results are reviewed, and recommendations for water monitor system design improvement are presented.

  9. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  10. Moving from Intersection to Integration: Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the

  11. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Ma Jose; Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Palau, Margarita; Damian, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-07-15

    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  12. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  13. Lead Concentration Levels In Public Water Sources in the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A.; Edel, M.; Tril, E.; Crockett, R.; Moreno, K.; Telles, C.; Rodriguez, F.; Folgar, E.; Ramirez-Tril, J.; Torres, J.; Navarro, J.; Nguyen, R.; Moqadam, S.

    2010-12-01

    To assess the possible risk of lead contamination in drinking water in the Fruitvale neighborhood in Oakland, California we collected samples from different fresh water sources and used an EPA approved method to analyze these samples for lead using a spectrophotometer. Our sample locations included drinking fountains at a school, library and train station, as well as an ornamental fountain in a plaza area. Our preliminary results revealed that 8 out of 11, or about 73% of water samples collected contained lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action level of 15μg/l. Given these preliminary results, there is an urgent need for us to continue further testing to confirm these concentrations, so that we can quickly notify the public and city officials of the risks associated with these drinking water sources within this community. Future sampling will follow a more rigorous collection strategy, which will help determine whether or not initial high lead values detected result from waters having had long residence times in local plumbing systems. If this is in fact the case, we intend to produce information that instructs the public on procedures that can be used to reduce the risk of lead exposure, such as only using water after it has been issuing from sources for specified amounts of time, or using filtration devices.

  14. Reestablishing Public Health and Land Use Planning to Protect Public Water Supplies

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael; Mayer, Henry; Miller, K. Tyler; Hordon, Robert; Knee, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study measured the extent to which land use, design, and engineering practices could reduce contamination of major public water supplies. Methods. Key parcels of land were identified in New Jersey, and the potential uncontrolled loading of contaminants was estimated with the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment model for a variety of land use, design, and engineering scenarios. Results. High-density per-acre development and engineering controls, along with housing and light commercial activity near main railroads, would substantially reduce runoff. Conclusions. In New Jersey, government and purveyor action is being taken as a result of, and in support of, these findings. PMID:12948974

  15. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  16. 75 FR 62388 - Notice of Tentative Approval and Solicitation of Request for a Public Hearing for Public Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Water Act, as amended, and the requirements governing the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations... monitoring compliance for new systems or sources of drinking water. EPA has determined that these revisions... offices: Drinking Water Branch, Water Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region...

  17. 77 FR 34382 - Meetings of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Water Act (SDWA) of 1974, Public Law 93-523, 42 U.S.C. 300j-5, and is operated in accordance with the... AGENCY Meetings of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meetings AGENCY.../conference call and one in-person meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or...

  18. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that...

  19. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00...

  20. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy...

  1. Water Security and Farming Systems: Implications for Advisory Practice and Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Ruth; Paine, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Water issues are a feature of public debate in Australia. The increasing privatisation of water and changes to water allocation systems are resulting in change, often referred to as water "wars" (de Villiers, 1999). The Australian dairy industry uses 25% of the surface irrigation water in Australia. How does a rural industry like dairying…

  2. Disinfectant Penetration into Nitrifying Drinking Water Distribution System Biofilm Using Microelectrodes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification within drinking water distribution systems reduces water quality, causes difficulties maintaining adequate disinfectant residual, and poses public health concerns including exposure to nitrite, nitrate, and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms. Monochloramine is...

  3. Aquatic vegetation and water pollution control: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Dinges, R

    1978-12-01

    Results obtained from pilot studies and the operation of a plant scale treatment facility located at the Williamson Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant at Austin, Texas, demonstrate that culture of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in shallow earthen basins is effective in the removal of algae, fecal coliform bacteria dn deleterious impurities from wastewater stabilization pond effluent. Stabilization ponds followed by hyacinth culture constitute an economical, low energy treatment system which reduces significantly those potential health hazards associated with wastewaters. Harvested hyacinths represent a useful product which could be converted into compost, or used directly as a soil amendment. PMID:736183

  4. Aquatic vegetation and water pollution control: public health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, R

    1978-01-01

    Results obtained from pilot studies and the operation of a plant scale treatment facility located at the Williamson Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant at Austin, Texas, demonstrate that culture of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in shallow earthen basins is effective in the removal of algae, fecal coliform bacteria dn deleterious impurities from wastewater stabilization pond effluent. Stabilization ponds followed by hyacinth culture constitute an economical, low energy treatment system which reduces significantly those potential health hazards associated with wastewaters. Harvested hyacinths represent a useful product which could be converted into compost, or used directly as a soil amendment. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:736183

  5. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  6. Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

  7. A Trend of Systems Development Technologies toward Smart Public Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hirasawa, Shigeki

    Driven by increasing urbanization and serious economic and environmental challenges, what is called smart grid and smart cities, the transformation to smart public infrastructure system will require technological progress. This paper presents an emerging trend of the systems development and a framework of systems technologies to achieve the smart public infrastructure of the future.

  8. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  9. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  10. Successful water reuse in open recirculating cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaska, M.; Lee, B.

    1994-12-31

    Water reuse in open recirculating cooling water systems is becoming increasingly prevalent in industry. Reuse can incorporate a number of varied approaches with the primary goal being water conservation. Market forces driving this trend include scarcity of fresh water makeup sources and higher costs associated with pretreatment of natural waters. Utilization of reuse water for cooling tower makeup has especially detrimental effects on corrosion and deposit rates. Additionally, once the reuse water is cycled and treated with inhibitors, dispersants and microbiocides, acceptability for discharge to a public waterway can be a concern. The task for water treatment suppliers is to guide industry in the feasibility and procedures for successfully achieving these goals. This paper focuses particularly on reuse of municipal wastewater for cooling tower makeup and explores techniques which have been found especially effective. Case histories are described where these concepts have been successfully applied in practice.