Science.gov

Sample records for published internal contamination

  1. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  2. [Radon and internal contamination].

    PubMed

    Stanga, A; Trenta, F

    2008-01-01

    Because of hits everywhere presence in air and in water needful mediums for life, radon is a omnipresent risk for every person. Therefore, in relation to those vital functions, lungs and gastro-enteric tract represent the principal target organs of this noble radioactive gas (and mainly of hits radioactive daughters). International organisms evaluated the effective dose coefficients for both target organs, so it is possible e quantitative assessment of the exposure risk related to this noble gas. PMID:19288807

  3. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  4. Participating in International Academic Publishing: A Taiwan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Hui-Tzu

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing concern among researchers and scholars about how nonnative-English-speaking academics in the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 2001, p. 520) cope with challenges while publishing in English in international refereed journals in the center. Most found that academics from peripheral countries where English is a foreign…

  5. The International Astronomical Union Working Group on Publishing}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, Michelle C.

    This talk introduced the IAU Working Group on Publishing (WG Publishing) and sought feedback from the LISA IV participants on which issues should be priority issues for the Working Group. Feedback was also sought on a draft of a new model for publishing the IAU Symposia and Colloquia. The IAU's mission is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy through international cooperation. The IAU currently has over 8,700 individual members and 66 adhering country members. The purpose of the WG Publishing is to look at how research results are being, and ought to be, published. Issues on which feedback was sought at the LISA IV meeting include: 1. After the termination of Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts, can the IAU support some abstracting service with an international scope, in order to encourage the wide awareness of astronomical research from all over the world? 2. The WG Publishing has been working to promote the adherence to consistent standards of nomenclature and data inclusion in refereed papers 3. A new proposed model for publishing IAU-sponsored Symposia and Colloquia, based on a journal model and not individual hardcopy conference books 4. The concentration of astronomical literature into a few core journals 5. Peer review and the possibility of astronomical journals exploring innovative peer review options such as open reviewing 6. Archiving. As the presentation was principally a request for feedback and ideas it is not suitable for submission as a formal manuscript. Participants and others who wish to make input to the WG Publishing are encouraged to contact the Chair, Michelle Storey on michelle.storey@csiro.au.

  6. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented. PMID:25832835

  7. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  8. Integration of uncertainties into internal contamination monitoring.

    PubMed

    Davesne, E; Casanova, P; Chojnacki, E; Paquet, F; Blanchardon, E

    2010-10-01

    Potential internal contaminations of workers are monitored by periodic bioassays interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose through biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring program can be defined by the choice of measurement techniques and frequency of measurements. However, the actual conditions of exposure are usually not well defined and the measurements are subject to errors. In this study we took into consideration the uncertainties associated with a routine monitoring program in order to evaluate the minimum intake and dose detectable for a given level of confidence. Major sources of uncertainty are the contamination time, the size distribution and absorption into blood of the incorporated particles, and the measurement errors. Different assumptions may be applied to model uncertain knowledge, which lead to different statistical approaches. The available information is modeled here by classical or Bayesian probability distributions. These techniques are implemented in the OPSCI software under development. This methodology was applied to the monitoring program of workers in charge of plutonium purification at the AREVA NC reprocessing facility (La Hague, France). A sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the important parameters for the minimum detectable dose. The methods presented here may be used for assessment of any other routine monitoring program through the comparison of the minimum detectable dose for a given confidence level with dose constraints. PMID:20838093

  9. Internal contamination in the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poythress, C.

    1985-01-01

    Atmosphere trace contaminant control systems used in the past (Lunar Module and Skylab) and present (nuclear submarines and Shuttle) are discussed. Recommendations are made for the future Space Station contaminant control system. The prevention and control methods used are judicious material selection, detection, and specific removal equipment. Sources and effects of contamination relating to crew and equipment are also discussed.

  10. International Service Learning: Analytical Review of Published Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an emerging area of international education. This paper summarizes academic journal articles on ISL programs and organizes the relevant publications by academic disciplines, service learning project areas, and other topics. The basis for this review is relevant literature from full-text scholarly peer…

  11. 78 FR 39784 - International Product Change-Priority Mail International Regional Rate Boxes-Non-Published Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--Priority Mail International Regional Rate Boxes--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby gives notice that it has filed a...

  12. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  13. Analytical study of spacecraft deposition contamination by internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T.

    1972-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of ten individual contaminant materials and four binary mixtures of these have been studied using the internal reflection spectroscopy technique. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on these contaminants has also been studied. It has been observed that all siloxanes, silanes, and esters are drastically affected by ultraviolet irradiation. In most cases polymerization and tar formation results.

  14. INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM IN ARCTIC EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Symposium on the Ecological Effects of Arctic Airborne Contaminants was structured to bring together researchers from throughout the world, particularly from the eight arctic countries, to share their ideas on the known and potential ecological effects of airbor...

  15. Publishing Research in a Second Language: The Case of Sudanese Contributors to International Medical Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElMalik, Abdullahi Tambul; Nesi, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares published writing produced by British and Sudanese medical researchers. Twenty research articles were examined, 10 by British and 10 by Sudanese writers. All had been published in highly regarded international journals. As expected, all 20 articles conformed to editorial requirements and followed the conventional IMRD structure…

  16. Publish (in International Indexed Journals) or Perish: Neoliberal Ideology in a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hikyoung; Lee, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, universities in South Korea have participated in an aggressive movement to globalize their institutions through the medium of English by hiring English-proficient faculty. To attain tenure, faculty must publish in international indexed journals (IIJs), which results in a de facto language policy of publishing in English because…

  17. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product -- International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: U.S. Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby gives notice of a market test...

  18. Modeling of internal contaminant deposition on a cold instrument sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, Jack B.; Millard, Jerry M.; Jenkins, Teresa; Taylor, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    A model is developed to predict the deposition of contaminants on the CCD sensors of the Wide Field Planetary Camera to determine expected performance parameters. Contaminant deposition due to internal instrument sources is considered as is the mechanism of transport to the CCDs themselves. The Contamination Analysis Program (CAP) model considers deposition and reemission kinetics, nodal containment sources, and internodal shape factors related to line-of-sight transport. Indirect transport is also accounted for in the CAP model by considering the effect of diffuse reflection at internodal exchanges. The effective total transport factors for each node-to-node exchange is precalculated to reduce the effective number of nodes and reducing run time of the CAP program. The method is applied to four distinct conditions and is found to be suitable for the analysis of internal self-contamination. Cold traps, venting, and vacuumlike design are factors which are found to be important for cold-sensitive sensors.

  19. Mir Contamination Observations and Implications to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron

    2000-01-01

    A series of external contamination measurements were made on the Russian Mir Space Station. The Mir external contamination observations summarized in this paper were essential in assessing the system level impact of Russian Segment induced contamination on the International Space Station (ISS). Mir contamination observations include results from a series of flight experiments: CNES Comes-Aragatz, retrieved NASA camera bracket, Euro-Mir '95 ICA, retrieved NASA Trek blanket, Russian Astra-II, Mir Solar Array Return Experiment (SARE), etc. Results from these experiments were studied in detail to characterize Mir induced contamination. In conjunction with Mir contamination observations, Russian materials samples were tested for condensable outgassing rates in the U.S. These test results were essential in the characterization of Mir contamination sources. Once Mir contamination sources were identified and characterized, activities to assess the implications to ISS were implemented. As a result, modifications in Russian materials selection and/or usage were implemented to control contamination and mitigate risk to ISS.

  20. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  1. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  2. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2015-02-01

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with 1 or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome to the long-term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, calcium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and zinc DTPA. PMID:25455668

  3. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2014-11-15

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA.

  4. Publishing history does not correlate with clinical performance among internal medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Detsky, Allan S

    2010-05-01

    OBJECTIVES Selection criteria for applicants to the internal medicine programme at the University of Toronto have included the number and quality of scholarly items published. We sought to determine whether previous publishing record correlated with resident performance as measured by in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) and global impressions of clinical competency by site programme directors and senior educators (global impression). METHODS Data on the total number, quality and type of items published, as well as the timing of publishing with regard to pre-MD training, were abstracted from the curricula vitae of individuals who applied for residency during 2001-2005. These were correlated with overall, Expert and Scholar role ITER scores, and with global impression, using Spearman rank correlation scores. RESULTS We gathered publishing history data on 181 residents, for 162 of whom ITER data were available. Overall, 68.5% of residents had published, but only 14.9% had published during medical school. There was a weak correlation of borderline significance (rho = 0.15, P = 0.055) between overall ITER score and number of items published. No such correlation was found with CanMEDS Medical Expert and Scholar role scores. Global impression classified 33.9% of residents as top-rated. More top-rated residents had published (76.7% versus 65.1%; P = 0.07), but the number of items published during medical school were similar between top-rated and non-top-rated residents (16.1% versus 12.3%; P = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS Our results do not support publishing record as a predictor of residents' clinical performance. Surprisingly, the correlation between publishing record and Scholar role scores was also weak, possibly indicating an inability of the ITER to capture this competency. Further research is needed to identify predictors and measures of performance in scholarly activities. PMID:20345694

  5. Anatomy of open access publishing: a study of longitudinal development and internal structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Open access (OA) is a revolutionary way of providing access to the scholarly journal literature made possible by the Internet. The primary aim of this study was to measure the volume of scientific articles published in full immediate OA journals from 2000 to 2011, while observing longitudinal internal shifts in the structure of OA publishing concerning revenue models, publisher types and relative distribution among scientific disciplines. The secondary aim was to measure the share of OA articles of all journal articles, including articles made OA by publishers with a delay and individual author-paid OA articles in subscription journals (hybrid OA), as these subsets of OA publishing have mostly been ignored in previous studies. Methods Stratified random sampling of journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (n = 787) was performed. The annual publication volumes spanning 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from major publication indexes and through manual data collection. Results An estimated 340,000 articles were published by 6,713 full immediate OA journals during 2011. OA journals requiring article-processing charges have become increasingly common, publishing 166,700 articles in 2011 (49% of all OA articles). This growth is related to the growth of commercial publishers, who, despite only a marginal presence a decade ago, have grown to become key actors on the OA scene, responsible for 120,000 of the articles published in 2011. Publication volume has grown within all major scientific disciplines, however, biomedicine has seen a particularly rapid 16-fold growth between 2000 (7,400 articles) and 2011 (120,900 articles). Over the past decade, OA journal publishing has steadily increased its relative share of all scholarly journal articles by about 1% annually. Approximately 17% of the 1.66 million articles published during 2011 and indexed in the most comprehensive article-level index of scholarly articles (Scopus) are available OA through journal

  6. Content Analysis of International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education: 18 Years of Academic Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidman, Gillian; Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the history of the "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" (IRGEE) journal in terms of its sustainable future. The development of geographical and environmental education is evaluated, as reflected from the papers published in the journal "IRGEE". A content analysis of all papers and forum sections…

  7. Review of methods to measure internal contamination in an emergency.

    PubMed

    Youngman, M J

    2015-06-01

    In the event of a radiation emergency, people close to the site of the incident may be exposed to radiation by external exposure, or as a result of intakes of radioactive material. For these incidents it may be necessary to monitor members of the public both for external and internal contamination. This work reviews currently available equipment for the assessment of internal exposure following an emergency. It concentrates on incidents involving the spread of radioactive material and on contamination by radionuclides which emit penetrating radiation. It is essential that this monitoring is carried out as soon as possible so that people who have been exposed at a level which could have an effect on health can be identified and receive prompt medical assessment. Proposed action levels to identify people who need medical attention are reviewed to determine the required sensitivity of monitoring equipment. For releases containing gamma-ray emitting radionuclides the best means of measuring internal contamination is to use detectors placed close to the body (whole body or partial body monitoring). Laboratory based whole body monitors could be used but these may well be inconveniently located and so equipment which can be deployed to the site of an incident has been developed and these are described. The need for rapid selection and prioritisation of people for monitoring, methods to deal with potentially high numbers of contaminated people and the requirement for a means of rapidly interpreting monitoring information are also discussed.It has been found that for many types of incidents and scenarios, systems based on unshielded high-resolution detectors and hand-held instruments do have the required sensitivity to identify people who require medical assessment. PMID:25884230

  8. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics include the presence of radium in drinking water and groundwater, removal techniques, bioaccumulation, natural sources of contamination, containment of contaminated waste solids, contribution to radon pollution, and radium as a pollutant in mine tailings and phosphate mining operations. Methods of radium analysis, and health hazards from radium exposure are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are described. (Contains a minimum of 93 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics include the presence of radium in drinking water and groundwater, removal techniques, bioaccumulation, natural sources of contamination, containment of contaminated waste solids, contribution to radon pollution, and radium as a pollutant in mine tailings and phosphate mining operations. Methods of radium analysis, and health hazards from radium exposure are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are described. (Contains a minimum of 95 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, drinking water, and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, drinking water, and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Considerations in screeneing/measuring children with internal/external contamination.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Gary H

    2010-11-01

    The National Internal Radiation Assessment Section, which operates the Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring, has field deployable equipment for emergency response. A substantial part of this toolkit is a set of portal monitors that can be used to quickly screen people into 'uncontaminated' and 'contaminated'. The former term refers to a person who has <60 kBq (empirical practical detection limit) of activation/fission products and the latter group is contaminated by that amount or more. Previous work has focused on how to process large numbers of people quickly and methodologies have been previously published; however, it was assumed that the group being monitored was composed of healthy adults. When applying these methods to children, a number of shortcomings have been identified. PMID:20833679

  13. Publishing in the Refereed International Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education JAESE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    Filling a needed scholarly publishing avenue for astronomy education researchers and earth science education researchers, the Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education- JAESE was first published in 2014. JAESE is a scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original discipline-based education research and evaluation, with an emphasis of significant scientific results derived from ethical observations and systematic experimentation in science education and evaluation. International in scope, JAESE aims to publish the highest quality and timely articles from discipline-based education research that advance understanding of astronomy and earth sciences education and are likely to have a significant impact on the discipline or on policy. Articles are solicited describing both (i) systematic science education research and (ii) evaluated teaching innovations across the broadly defined Earth & space sciences education, including the disciplines of astronomy, climate education, energy resource science, environmental science, geology, geography, agriculture, meteorology, planetary sciences, and oceanography education. The publishing model adopted for this new journal is open-access and articles appear online in GoogleScholar, ERIC, EBSCO, ProQuest, and NASA SAO/ADS and are searchable in catalogs of 440,000 libraries that index online journals of its type. Rather than paid for by library subscriptions or by society membership dues, the annual budget is covered by page-charges paid by individual authors, their institutions, grants or donors: This approach is common in scientific journals, but is relatively uncommon in education journals. Authors retain their own copyright. The journal is owned by the Clute Institute in the United States, which owns and operates 17 scholarly journals and currently edited by former American Astronomical Society Education Officer Tim Slater, who is an endowed professor at the University of Wyoming and a Senior Scientist at the

  14. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 167 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 155 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Skull counting in late stages after internal contamination by actinides.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Shutt, Arron; Kurihara, Osamu; Kosako, Toshiso

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring preparation for internal contamination with actinides (e.g. Pu and Am) is required to assess internal doses at nuclear fuel cycle-related facilities. In this paper, the authors focus on skull counting in case of single-incident inhalation of (241)Am and propose an effective procedure for skull counting with an existing system, taking into account the biokinetic behaviour of (241)Am in the human body. The predicted response of the system to skull counting under a certain counting geometry was found to be only ∼1.0 × 10(-5) cps Bq(-1) 1y after intake. However, this disadvantage could be remedied by repeated measurements of the skull during the late stage of the intake due to the predicted response reaching a plateau at about the 1000th day after exposure and exceeding that in the lung counting. Further studies are needed for the development of a new detection system with higher sensitivity to perform reliable internal dose estimations based on direct measurements. PMID:24920571

  19. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. Methods To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10–40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2–3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. Results A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m2 increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m2 compared to those <25 kBq/m2, RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m2 compared to those <11 kBq/m2, RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Conclusions Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual

  20. Optimisation of internal contamination monitoring programme by integration of uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Davesne, E; Casanova, P; Chojnacki, E; Paquet, F; Blanchardon, E

    2011-03-01

    Potential internal contamination of workers is monitored by periodic bioassay measurements interpreted in terms of intake and committed effective dose by the use of biokinetic and dosimetric models. After a prospective evaluation of exposure at a workplace, a suitable monitoring programme can be defined by choosing adequate measurement techniques and frequency. In this study, the sensitivity of a programme is evaluated by the minimum intake and dose, which may be detected with a given level of confidence by taking into account uncertainties on exposure conditions and measurements. This is made for programme optimisation, which is performed by comparing the sensitivities of different alternative programmes. These methods were applied at the AREVA NC reprocessing plant and support the current monitoring programme as the best compromise between the cost of the measurements and the sensitivity of the programme. PMID:21037264

  1. Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Ansoborlo, Eric; Berard, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Menetrier, Florence; Younes, Ali; Montavon, Gilles; Moisy, Phillipe

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July 1898 by P. and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which 2106 Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th 8 anniversary of Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this paper is to review several aspect of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including : i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; ii) its main sources and uses; iii) its physico-chemical properties; iv) its main analytical methods; v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion and wound contamination; vii) its dosimetry and viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination.

  2. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  3. Analytical study of spacecraft deposition contamination by internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    The in-situ vacuum chamber designed around the IRE was tested under vacuum. The contamination analyzer system was tested using two liquid contaminant materials. The analysis of the contaminants on the SL-4 rendezvous window shows that the material has methyl silicone, hydroxyl, and carbonyl radicals. The analysis of the outgassing material from Shuttle TPS shows silicone as the primary product.

  4. 76 FR 2930 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non- Published Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non- Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 2 to the Competitive Products List... Service to add Global Expedited Package Services--Non-Published Rates, to the Competitive Products...

  5. 76 FR 80987 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 3 (GEPS--NPR 3) to the Competitive... United States Postal Service to add Global Expedited Package Services--Non- Published Rates 3...

  6. 75 FR 47650 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\ ACTION... Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services Contracts--Non-Published Rates to the Competitive... Service to add Global Expedited Package Contracts--Non-Published Rates to the Competitive Products...

  7. 78 FR 1277 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 4 (GEPS-NPR 4) to the Competitive... of the United States Postal Service to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates...

  8. Patient reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions: a review of published literature and international experience

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsopp, A; Wilkie, P; Wang, M; Routledge, P A

    2007-01-01

    Aims To synthesize data from published studies and international experience to identify evidence of potential benefits and drawbacks of direct patient reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by patients. Methods Structured search of MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO supplemented by internet searches and requests for information to key contacts. Results Seven studies (eight papers) were included in the review. None of the studies concerned spontaneous reporting by patients. Information on patient reporting systems was obtained for six countries, with summary data reported by four. Patient reports identified possible new ADRs that had not previously been reported by health professionals. The quality of patient reports appears to be similar to that of health professional reports. There is some evidence that patients report an ADR when they consider their health professional has not paid attention to their concerns. Patient reports may, at least initially, be more time consuming to process. Conclusions Overall, the evidence indicates that patient reporting of suspected ADRs has more potential benefits than drawbacks. Evaluation of patient reporting systems is needed to provide further evidence. PMID:17274788

  9. An International Journal's Attempts to Address Inequalities in Academic Publishing: Developing a Writing for Publication Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, Theresa; Magyar, Anna; Robinson-Pant, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Scholars around the world are under increasing pressure to publish in English, in Anglophone centre journals. At the same time, research on professional academic writing indicates that scholars from outside Anglophone centre contexts face considerable obstacles in getting their academic work published in such journals, relating to material and…

  10. Development of techniques for advanced optical contamination measurement with internal reflection spectroscopy, phase 1, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring volatile contaminants in a large space simulation chamber using techniques of internal reflection spectroscopy was demonstrated analytically and experimentally. The infrared spectral region was selected as the operational spectral range in order to provide unique identification of the contaminants along with sufficient sensitivity to detect trace contaminant concentrations. It was determined theoretically that a monolayer of the contaminants could be detected and identified using optimized experimental procedures. This ability was verified experimentally. Procedures were developed to correct the attenuated total reflectance spectra for thick sample distortion. However, by using two different element designs the need for such correction can be avoided.

  11. The International Guide to Publishers and Distributors of Large Print. IFLA Professional Reports, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massis, Bruce E.

    This guide provides a listing and description of publishers and distributors of large print books (in 12 point type or larger) available in 15 countries. The listings are arranged alphabetically by country and an abstract for each country includes specific information. Designed to be used by librarians and reference persons in their respective…

  12. A Fresh Look at Spanish Scientific Publishing in the Framework of International Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindelan, Paz

    2009-01-01

    Research has become a key element in the knowledge-based society with its role of producing and disseminating results. In this context, scientific publishing becomes the means by which research activity and knowledge production are circulated to the scientific community and society at large. However, there are factors influencing the system of…

  13. Trend and impact of international collaboration in clinical medicine papers published in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Kabir, M A; Koh, Ai Peng; Sinnasamy, Janaki

    2014-01-01

    Research collaboration is the way forward in order to improve quality and impact of its research findings. International research collaboration has resulted in international co-authorship in scientific communications and publications. This study highlights the collaborating research and authorship trend in clinical medicine in Malaysia from 2001 to 2010. Malaysian-based author affiliation in the Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded) and clinical medicine journals (n = 999) and articles (n = 3951) as of 30th Oct 2011 were downloaded. Types of document analyzed were articles and reviews, and impact factors (IF) in the 2010 Journal Citation Report Science Edition were taken to access the quality of the articles. The number of publications in clinical medicine increased from 4.5 % (n = 178) in 2001 to 23.9 % (n = 944) in 2010. The top three contributors in the subject categories are Pharmacology and Pharmacy (13.9 %), General and Internal Medicine (13.6 %) and Tropical Medicine (7.3 %). By journal tier system: Tier 1 (18.7 %, n = 738), Tier 2 (22.5 %, n = 888), Tier 3 (29.6 %, n = 1170), Tier 4 (27.2 %, n = 1074), and journals without IF (2.1 %, n = 81). University of Malaya was the most productive. Local collaborators accounted for 60.3 % and international collaborations 39.7 %. Articles with international collaborations appeared in journals with higher journal IFs than those without international collaboration. They were also cited more significantly than articles without international collaborations. Citations, impact factor and journal tiers were significantly associated with international collaboration in Malaysia's clinical medicine publications. Malaysia has achieved a significant number of ISI publications in clinical medicine participation in international collaboration. PMID:24465065

  14. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). Results The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%) in international articles, with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. Conclusions The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states. PMID:24945515

  15. Update in Outpatient General Internal Medicine: Practice-Changing Evidence Published in 2015.

    PubMed

    Szostek, Jason H; Wieland, Mark L; Post, Jason A; Sundsted, Karna K; Mauck, Karen F

    2016-08-01

    Identifying new practice-changing articles is challenging. To determine the 2015 practice-changing articles most relevant to outpatient general internal medicine, 3 internists independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of original articles, synopses of single studies and syntheses, and databases of syntheses. For original articles, internal medicine journals with the 7 highest impact factors were reviewed: New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), British Medical Journal, Public Library of Science Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and JAMA Internal Medicine. For synopses of single studies and syntheses, collections in American College of Physicians Journal Club, Journal Watch, and Evidence-Based Medicine were reviewed. For databases of synthesis, Evidence Updates and the Cochrane Library were reviewed. More than 100 articles were identified. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: clinical relevance, potential for practice change, and strength of evidence. Clusters of important articles around one topic were considered as a single-candidate series. The 5 authors used a modified Delphi method to reach consensus on inclusion of 7 topics for in-depth appraisal. PMID:27046243

  16. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from the selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics include the presence of radium in drinking water and groundwater, removal techniques, bioaccumulation, natural sources of contamination, containment of contaminated waste solids, contribution to radon pollution, and role as a pollutant in mine tailings and phosphate mining operations. Methods of radium analysis, and health hazards from radium exposure are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are described. (Contains a minimum of 86 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Publisher's Note: Publisher's Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    IOP Publishing presents Volume 6 of the open-access IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) as the online abstract book for the IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark). This abstracts-only volume of EES is quite different to standard IOP Conference Series proceedings volumes which contain full, peer-reviewed proceedings papers. This unique volume of more than 1400 abstracts, divided into 58 different sessions, contains all the oral and poster presentations from the Congress. In view of the importance of the Climate Change Congress as a scientific basis for the COP15 conference, we are delighted to offer this collection as a permanent record of current research devoted to climate change. We hope this compilation will contribute to future world-wide dialogue on climate change in the ongoing search to address the scientific, political, social and economic challenges ahead.

  18. International Mussel Watch: A global assessment of environmental levels of chemical contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the International Mussel Watch is to ascertain and assess the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (CHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bivalves collected from coastal marine waters throughout the world. Increased use of these persistent toxic biocides may result in contamination of living coastal resources from whole ecosystems to specific food resources with consequent implication for human health and the integrity of marine communities. Another goal for the International Mussel Watch Project will be to help develop a sustainable activity for observation and monitoring chemical contamination in especially susceptible regions of the world's oceans.

  19. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  20. What Test Publishers Publish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepfner, Ralph; Doherty, William J.

    Information regarding the various publishers' priorities and data to support the supposition that the test publishers do differ in their priorities as reflected in their test characteristics, are presented. Evaluation ratings available for 1,600 published scales appropriate for grades 1, 3, 5, and 6 were from 39 publishers and distributers. A…

  1. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in ground water. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Criteria for the organization of a program to monitor internal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frittelli, L.

    1982-10-01

    Primary and secondary limits of internal radioactive contaminations are defined. Formulas for different cases are given, including exposure to a mixture of radioactive isotopes and noble gases, with various introduction paths. Metabolic process related to radionuclides metabolism are reviewed. The computations of the secondary limits and the reference levels are discussed.

  3. Helping Students Move from Coding to Publishing - Teaching Scientific Communication to Science Interns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, R.; Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    To help young scientists succeed in our field we should not only model scientific methods and inquiry, but also train them in the art of scientific writing - after all, poorly written proposals, reports or journal articles can be a show stopper for any researcher. Research internships are an effective place to provide such training, because they offer a unique opportunity to integrate writing with the process of conducting original research. This presentation will describe how scientific communication is integrated into the SOARS program. Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) is an undergraduate-to graduate bridge program that broadens participation in the geosciences. SOARS aims to foster the next generation of leaders in the atmospheric and related sciences by helping students develop investigative expertise complemented by leadership and communication skills. Each summer, interns (called protégés) attend a weekly seminar designed to help them learn scientific writing and communication skills. The workshop is organized around the sections of a scientific paper. Workshop topics include reading and citing scientific literature, writing an introduction, preparing a compelling abstract, discussing results, designing effective figures, and writing illuminating conclusions. In addition, protégés develop the skills required to communicate their research to both scientists and non-scientists through the use of posters, presentations and informal 'elevator' speeches. Writing and communication mentors guide protégés in applying the ideas from the workshop to the protégés' required summer scientific paper, poster and presentation, while a strong peer-review component of the program gives the protégés a taste of analyzing, critiquing and collaborating within a scientific forum. This presentation will provide practical tips and lessons learned from over ten years of scientific communications workshops within the SOARS program

  4. 137Cs internal contamination involving a Brazilian accident, and the efficacy of Prussian Blue treatment.

    PubMed

    Melo, D R; Lipsztein, J L; de Oliveira, C A; Bertelli, L

    1994-03-01

    In an accident involving the stealing and breaching of a radiotherapy source in Goiânia, Brazil, 39 individuals had a high level of 137Cs internal contamination. Prussian Blue was used, in doses that varied from 3-10 g d-1 for adults, to enhance the elimination of 137Cs from the body. The total internal committed doses and the effect of Prussian Blue treatment for 15 contaminated adults involved in this accident have been evaluated in this paper. Prussian Blue caused dose reductions in the range of 51-84%, with an average of 71%. This reduction was shown to be independent of the dosage of Prussian Blue. Total internal committed doses were in the range of 4.6 x 10(-3) Gy to 9.7 x 10(-1) Gy for the most-contaminated adults. Data on 137Cs biological half-lives for seven children contaminated in the accident are also presented. PMID:8106241

  5. Bacterial contamination along implant-abutment interface in external and internal-hex dental implants

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Greison Rabelo; Olate, Sergio; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; Rodrigues-Chessa, Jaime G; Albergaría-Barbosa, José Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate bacterial contamination along the implant-abutment interface in relation to the size of the interface. 80 brand name implants were used, 40 internal-hex and 40 external-hex. The implants were handled in a sterile atmosphere inside a box, where they were inoculated with 0.3 μl of the Streptococcus sanguis ATCC10556 bacterium in the interior and the abutment was immediately installed with a torque of 30 Ncm for the external-hex and 20 Ncm for the internal-hex; the system was included in an Eppendorf control for 30 seconds and then placed in an Eppendorf control for 30 days. The implants were removed and assessed under a scanning electron microscope while the Eppendorf controls were bred in blood agar to analyze the colonies formed. The data were analyzed using the Chi-squared, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, considering a value of p<0.05 to obtain statistical significance. Five implants were excluded due to probable external contamination. Microspaces of up to 86.8 μm were observed in the external-hex implants and up to 53.9 μm in the internal-hex implants with no significant differences between the different systems being observed (p>0.05). The contamination observed was produced mainly in the external-hex implants and statistically significant differences were observed between the different hex systems from the same company. No significant differences were observed between interface size and bacterial contamination. Within our limitations, there was no relation between the size of the implant-abutment interface and bacterial contamination with Streptococcus sanguis ATCC10556. PMID:24753751

  6. Application of the International Life Sciences Institute Key Events Dose-Response Framework to food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2012-12-01

    Contaminants are undesirable constituents in food. They may be formed during production of a processed food, present as a component in a source material, deliberately added to substitute for the proper substance, or the consequence of poor food-handling practices. Contaminants may be chemicals or pathogens. Chemicals generally degrade over time and become of less concern as a health threat. Pathogens have the ability to multiply, potentially resulting in an increased threat level. Formal structures have been lacking for systematically generating and evaluating hazard and exposure data for bioactive agents when problem situations arise. We need to know what the potential risk may be to determine whether intervention to reduce or eliminate contact with the contaminant is warranted. We need tools to aid us in assembling and assessing all available relevant information in an expeditious and scientifically sound manner. One such tool is the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF). Developed as an extension of the WHO's International Program on Chemical Safety/ILSI mode of action/human relevance framework, it allows risk assessors to understand not only how a contaminant exerts its toxicity but also the dose response(s) for each key event and the ultimate outcome, including whether a threshold exists. This presentation will illustrate use of the KEDRF with case studies included in its development (chloroform and Listeriaonocytogenes) after its publication in the peer-reviewed scientific literature (chromium VI) and in a work in progress (3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol). PMID:23077190

  7. Overview of the International Space Station System Level Trace Contaminant Injection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatara, James D.; Perry, Jay L.; Franks, Gerald D.

    1997-01-01

    Trace contaminant control onboard the International Space Station will be accomplished not only by the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly but also by other Environmental Control and Life Support System subassemblies. These additional removal routes include absorption by humidity condensate in the Temperature and Humidity Control Condensing Heat Exchanger and adsorption by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly. The Trace Contaminant Injection Test, which was performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, investigated the system-level removal of trace contaminants by the International Space Station Atmosphere Revitalization, and Temperature/Humidity Control Subsystems, (November-December 1997). It is a follow-on to the Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Test conducted in 1996. An estimate for the magnitude of the assisting role provided by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and the Temperature and Humidity Control unit was obtained. In addition, data on the purity of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly carbon dioxide product were obtained to support Environmental Control and Life Support System Air Revitalization Subsystem loop closure.

  8. Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose from both Immediate Releases and Continued Exposures to Contaminated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-03-26

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, is discussed based upon a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from the damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and NPP decommissioning.

  9. Estimation of internal radiation dose from both immediate releases and continued exposures to contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Napier, Bruce

    2012-03-01

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, are discussed on the basis of a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and decommissioning of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. PMID:22395282

  10. A complete sketch for fine-structure contamination by internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostiaux, L.; van Haren, H.

    2012-04-01

    Oceanic fine structure has been studied since the development of CTD and microstructure profilers allowed to resolve the vertical scales of temperature and salinity in the ocean. In the context of internal waves, it rapidly appeared that the advection of oceanic fine-structure may lead to erroneous interpretations of temperature measurements, and much theoretical work was achieved to distinguish real internal wave signal from the so-called fine-structure contamination. The pioneering work of Phillips (1971) revealed how the vertical advection of temperature steps by internal waves contaminates temperature records at fixed depths. Fine-structure contamination can be recognized in the super-buoyant part of the spectrum as a typical -2 slope, theoretically predicted for sharp stair cases in the temperature profile. However, distinguishing fine-structure contamination from other (turbulent) signals in real datasets is sometimes difficult. We will show how the use of a large number of highly accurate temperature sensors allows to completely resolve the fine-structure contamination sketch. More precisely, the coherence spectrum between vertically separated sensors shows a characteristic π-phase signature above the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N that we can reproduce using a simple kinematic model. The dataset used consists of temperature time series (1Hz during 1.5 year) obtained in the Canary Basin. Over a range of 132.5m, 54 NIOZ High Sampling Rate Thermistors (NIOZ-HST, 1mK relative accuracy) were moored around 1455m. Coherence between individual records shows a weak, but significant peak above N for all vertical separations. Instead of a dominant 0-phase difference over the range of sensors, as observed for internal waves at frequencies f < σ < N, f denoting the inertial frequency, this super-buoyancy coherence shows π-phase difference over a frequency band, that shifts to higher frequencies as the vertical separation between thermistors diminishes. In the time

  11. Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas. PMID:25437518

  12. An Assessment of the International Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Process Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry J. L.; Cole, H. E.; El-Lessy, H. N.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System includes equipment speci.cally designed to actively remove trace chemical contamination from the cabin atmosphere. In the U.S. on-orbit segment, this function is provided by the trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) located in the atmosphere revitalization subsystem rack housed in the laboratory module, Destiny. The TCCS employs expendable adsorbent beds to accomplish its function leading to a potentially signi.cant life cycle cost over the life of the ISS. Because maintaining the TCCSs proper can be logistically intensive, its performance in .ight has been studied in detail to determine where savings may be achieved. Details of these studies and recommendations for improving the TCCS s process economics without compromising its performance or crew health and safety are presented and discussed.

  13. Recovery of Salmonella from internally and externally contaminated whole tomatoes using several different sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Gill, Vikas S; Irvin, Kari A; Byrd, Mindi; Bolger, Cathryn M; Zheng, Jie; Dickey, Erin E; Duvall, Robert E; Jacobson, Andrew P; Hammack, Thomas S

    2012-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of whole soak [current Bacteriological Analytical Manual-(BAM) Salmonella method], quarter, stomach, and blend methods for the recovery of Salmonella organisms from internally and externally contaminated tomatoes. Tomatoes were subjected to three inoculation methods: surface inoculation, internal inoculation by injection, and immersion with single Salmonella serovars. The inoculation levels ranged from 1 to 100 CFU/tomato for surface and injection inoculation or 1 to 100 CFU/mL for immersion inoculation. Tomatoes were held for 3 days after inoculation at 2-6 degrees C prior to initiation of analysis. Contaminated tomatoes were soaked, quartered, stomached, and blended in appropriate portions of Universal Pre-enrichment broth, and incubated for 24 h at 35 +/- 2 degrees C. The BAM Salmonella culture method was followed thereafter, and tomatoes were treated as a low-microbial-load food. The stomaching procedure was significantly (P < 0.05) more effective than the whole soak procedure for recovery of internalized Salmonella from tomatoes (by injection). The blending procedure was arithmetically superior to the stomaching procedure for detection of internalized Salmonella from tomatoes (by immersion). The blending procedure showed the same effectiveness as the whole soak procedure for the detection of Salmonella on tomato surfaces. Comparisons between test portion-to-broth ratios (weight to volume) showed that a 1:3 test portion-to-broth ratio had a better buffering capacity for blended tomatoes than a 1:1 test portion-to-broth ratio. It is recommended that the current whole soak BAM tomato sample preparation procedure be replaced with a blending procedure and a 1:3 test portion-to-broth ratio. PMID:23175979

  14. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R C; Hertel, N E; Ansari, A; Manger, R P; Freibert, E J

    2012-08-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritising individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP-A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported. PMID:22332142

  15. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.C.; Hertel, Nolan; Ansari, A.; Manger, Ryan P; Freibert, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritizing individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  16. Twelve years of follow up of cases with old 241Am internal contamination.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Vrba, Tomás; Becková, Vera; Pospísilová, Helena

    2010-10-01

    A group of workers internally contaminated with Am have been followed for about 12 years. The source of contamination was AmO2 powder used for production of AmBe neutron sources and other applications. The production of some radionuclide sources included chemical treatment of the original material, which transformed the americium into the nitrate, but mostly powder metallurgy was used for production of sources for smoke detectors. In vivo measurement of the workers was performed with two LEGe detectors placed near the head of the measured person. Calibration was performed with four different physical skull phantoms of different origin and a voxel phantom with Monte Carlo simulation, which was developed to fit the head sizes of individual persons. Samples of urine and feces were analyzed by means of radiochemical separation followed by alpha-spectrometry. Separation of 241Am from mineralized excreta was performed by combined anion exchange and extraction chromatographic techniques. As a tracer, 243Am was used. When the measured data (83 data on skeletal activity, activity in 389 bioassay samples) were compared with International Commission on Radiological Protection's and Leggett's biokinetic models of americium, it was found that in most cases, after more than 15 y since the intake, the excretion rate was lower (or skeletal activity higher) than predicted. On the other hand, the ratio of excreted activity in urine and feces agrees well with model predictions. PMID:20838090

  17. Inactivation of internalized and surface contaminated enteric viruses in green onions.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-09-01

    With increasing outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with produce, it is important to assess interventions to reduce the risk of illness. UV, ozone and high pressure are non-thermal processing technologies that have potential to inactivate human pathogens on produce and allow the retention of fresh-like organoleptic properties. The objective of this study was to determine if UV, ozone, and high pressure are effective technologies compared to traditional chlorine spray on green onions to reduce enteric viral pathogens and to determine the effect of location of the virus (surface or internalized) on the efficacy of these processes. Mature green onion plants were inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human adenovirus type 41 (Ad41) either on the surface through spot inoculation or through inoculating contaminated hydroponic solution allowing for uptake of the virus into the internal tissues. Inoculated green onions were treated with UV (240 mJ s/cm(2)), ozone (6.25 ppm for 10 min), pressure (500 MPa, for 5 min at 20°C), or sprayed with calcium hypochlorite (150 ppm, 4°C). Viral inactivation was determined by comparing treated and untreated inoculated plants using cell culture infectivity assays. Processing treatments were observed to greatly affect viral inactivation. Viral inactivation for all three viruses was greatest after pressure treatment and the lowest inactivation was observed after chlorine and UV treatment. Both surface inoculated viruses and viruses internalized in green onions were inactivated to some extent by these post-harvest processing treatments. These results suggest that ozone and high pressure processes aimed to reduce the level of microbial contamination of produce have the ability to inactivate viruses if they become localized in the interior portions of produce. PMID:23973828

  18. Results of an analytical study of spacecraft deposition contamination by internal reflection spectroscopy. [(haze on spacecraft windows from space debris)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T.

    1976-01-01

    Outgassing, deposition, and desorption kinetics of silicone compounds, are examined as examples of optical surface contaminants of spacecraft windows. Their behavior in a space environment after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is also examined. The use of internal reflection spectroscopy is shown to provide a viable means of real-time, in-situ identification of contaminants of orbiting spacecraft. The instrumental techniques are proposed as the basis of further investigations and the development of flight hardware.

  19. An immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-11-15

    The tightly regulated expression of the PhiX174 lysis gene E from a multi-copy plasmid led to the stable production of an Salmonella Enteritidis bacterial ghost. The present study was conducted to evaluate induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced after single or double intramuscular immunization with the S. Enteritidis ghost and to assess its protective effect on colonization of the intestinal tract, visceral and reproductive organs, internal egg contamination, and egg production of laying chickens. A total of 60 chickens were equally divided into three groups (n=20); group A (non-immunized control), group B (immunized at 8 and 16 weeks of age) and group C (immunized at 16th week of age). Chickens from both immunized groups B and C demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. The population of CD3+CD4+ positive T cells in the immunized chickens was also significantly increased after immunization and virulent challenge. In addition, the immunized groups B and C showed significantly higher egg production and a lower percentage of S. Enteritidis contaminated eggs after challenge compared to those of group A. A comparison of challenge strain isolation from the immunized-challenged and non-immunized-challenged layer hens showed that the double immunization group induced excellent protection against intestinal, liver, splenic, and ovarian Salmonella colonization; however, the single immunized chickens showed lower counts only in the splenic and ovarian organs. Overall, the data give compelling evidence that vaccination with the S. Enteritidis ghost induced robust protective immunity against experimental avian salmonellosis and may contribute to the reduce incidence of egg contamination. PMID:25241048

  20. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents. PMID:24552361

  1. Publisher's Announcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scriven, Neil

    2003-12-01

    We are delighted to announce that the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General for 2004 will be Professor Carl M Bender of Washington University, St. Louis. Carl will, with the help of his world class editorial board, maintain standards of scientific rigour whilst ensuring that research published is of the highest importance. Carl attained his first degree in physics at Cornell University before studying for his PhD at Harvard. He later worked at The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and at MIT before assuming his current position at Washington University, St Louis. He has been a visiting professor at Technion, Haifa, and Imperial College, London and a scientific consultant for Los Alamos National Laboratory. His main expertise is in using classical applied mathematics to solve a broad range of problems in high-energy theoretical physics and mathematical physics. Since the publication of his book Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, written with Steven Orszag, he has been regarded as an expert on the subject of asymptotic analysis and perturbative methods. `Carl publishes his own internationally-important research in the journal and has been an invaluable, energetic member of the Editorial Board for some time' said Professor Ed Corrigan, Carl's predecessor as Editor, `he will be an excellent Editor-in-Chief'. Our grateful thanks and best wishes go to Professor Corrigan who has done a magnificent job for the journal during his five-year tenure.

  2. Papers published by members of the Croatian Academy of Medical Sciences, registered in international bibliographic data bases in the period 1986-1990.

    PubMed

    Dekaris, D; Bekavac, A; Silobrcić, V; Buneta, Z; Kurjak, A; Stulhofer, M

    1995-01-01

    Scientific productivity of the CAMS members was analyzed according to the number of papers published in periodicals covered by international Medline and Science Citation Index data bases from 1986 to 1990. Results showed the mean scientific productivity per CAMS member, and the relationship between scientific productivity and age, field of medicine or respective biomedical discipline. The pattern of scientific productivity was also found to change, when analyzed according to Medline or SCI data bases in separate. PMID:7488835

  3. GEOTRACES: An international program studying micronutrient cycles, contaminants and paleoproxy calibration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. F.; Henderson, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    GEOTRACES is an international study of the marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes. A number of trace elements are critical for marine life and therefore influence the functioning of ocean ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. Some trace elements are also of concern as anthropogenic contaminants while others, together with a diverse array of isotopes, are used to assess modern ocean processes and the role of the ocean in past climate change. Despite the recognized importance of these trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, our understanding of their marine biogeochemical cycles remains sparse. Recent advances in our ability to sample the ocean cleanly and to make rapid and precise measurements of low-concentration constituents of seawater now enable a dramatic step forward in understanding. GEOTRACES is an international program that aims to make this advance. Full details of the program are available at http://www.geotraces.org. Marine organic geochemistry shares many characteristics in common with the study of trace elements and their isotopes. Advances in analytical technologies permit the identification of a broad array of organic compounds in the ocean, as well as their concentration and, in some cases, their radiocarbon age. However, like the challenges faced by the trace element community, little is known about the distribution of these compounds in the ocean, let alone their sources, sinks and internal cycling. Therefore, some of the strategies adopted by the GEOTRACES community to study trace elements in the ocean could well be incorporated into a global study of the biogeochemical cycles of organic compounds.

  4. Desktop Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Milt

    1986-01-01

    Defines desktop publishing, describes microcomputer developments and software tools that make it possible, and discusses its use as an instructional tool to improve writing skills. Reasons why students' work should be published, examples of what to publish, and types of software and hardware to facilitate publishing are reviewed. (MBR)

  5. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen. PMID:27357046

  6. Publishers' Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EPL Management Team

    2008-12-01

    We would like to thank all our contributors, subscribers, reviewers, and readers for their interest in EPL during 2008. You each play an invaluable role in the promotion, prestige, development and success of the journal and therefore your continued support is greatly appreciated. The Directors' vision for EPL to become a leading home for global physics letters, to offer rapid publication of ground-breaking physics results from the international community, and to provide the broadest coverage of physics research, is beginning to take shape as increased submissions, reduced acceptance rates, raised scientific quality, rapid publication, and greater visibility amongst the community are achieved. The latest published articles will continue to be freely available for 30 days from their on-line publication. Those articles highlighted by the Co-Editors in 2008 will remain free-to-all for the entire of 2009. We invite you to visit the website regularly (http://www.epljournal.org) to stay up-to-date with the journal's latest developments and to read the most recent articles. Our most recent opportunity publicized on the EPL website and in the CERN SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) messages is below: Open Access Opportunity for Authors of Experimental and Theoretical HEP Articles EPL is delighted to offer open access free of charge to all authors submitting experimental and theoretical letters in PACS codes 10 and 20. This offer will remain open until the SCOAP3 agreement at CERN takes effect. Authors submitting any article to EPL will continue to be offered the opportunity to make their published letter open access for a one-off payment. However, with effect from 1 November 2008, any author who submits work related to subject areas within PACS 10 and 20 will benefit from open access at no charge, meaning their published article will be available free to all readers, forever. ``Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields'' and

  7. Internal contamination by actinides after wounding: a robust rodent model for assessment of local and distant actinide retention.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, N M; Wilk, J C; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Chau, Q; Helfer, N; Guichet, C; Van der Meeren, A

    2012-08-01

    Internal contamination by actinides following wounding may occur in nuclear fuel industry workers or subsequent to terrorist activities, causing dissemination of radioactive elements. Contamination by alpha particle emitting actinides can result in pathological effects, either local or distant from the site of entry. The objective of the present study was to develop a robust experimental approach in the rat for short- and long- term actinide contamination following wounding by incision of the skin and muscles of the hind limb. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with Mixed OXide (MOX, uranium, plutonium oxides containing 7.1% plutonium) or plutonium nitrate (Pu nitrate) following wounding by deep incision of the hind leg. Actinide excretion and tissue levels were measured as well as histological changes from 2 h to 3 mo. Humid swabs were used for rapid evaluation of contamination levels and proved to be an initial guide for contamination levels. Although the activity transferred from wound to blood is higher after contamination with a moderately soluble form of plutonium (nitrate), at 7 d most of the MOX (98%) or Pu nitrate (87%) was retained at the wound site. Rapid actinide retention in liver and bone was observed within 24 h, which increased up to 3 mo. After MOX contamination, a more rapid initial urinary excretion of americium was observed compared with plutonium. At 3 mo, around 95% of activity remained at the wound site, and excretion of Pu and Am was extremely low. This experimental approach could be applied to other situations involving contamination following wounding including rupture of the dermal, vascular, and muscle barriers. PMID:22951478

  8. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources. PMID:27002520

  9. Performance Testing of a Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Curtis, R. E.; Alexandre, K. L.; Ruggiero, L. L.; Shtessel, N.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the International Space Station (ISS) Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS) development, a performance test has been conducted to provide reference data for flight verification analyses. This test, which used the U.S. Habitation Module (U.S. Hab) TCCS as the test article, was designed to add to the existing database on TCCS performance. Included in this database are results obtained during ISS development testing; testing of functionally similar TCCS prototype units; and bench scale testing of activated charcoal, oxidation catalyst, and granular lithium hydroxide (LiOH). The present database has served as the basis for the development and validation of a computerized TCCS process simulation model. This model serves as the primary means for verifying the ISS TCCS performance. In order to mitigate risk associated with this verification approach, the U.S. Hab TCCS performance test provides an additional set of data which serve to anchor both the process model and previously-obtained development test data to flight hardware performance. The following discussion provides relevant background followed by a summary of the test hardware, objectives, requirements, and facilities. Facility and test article performance during the test is summarized, test results are presented, and the TCCS's performance relative to past test experience is discussed. Performance predictions made with the TCCS process model are compared with the U.S. Hab TCCS test results to demonstrate its validation.

  10. International Conference on Contaminated Sediments - ContaSed 2015 8-13 March 2015, Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chiaia-Hernandez, Aurea C; Giger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    About 80 participants from 22 countries from industry and academia gathered at the International Conference on Contaminated Sediments (ContaSed 2015) held at the Congressi Stefano Franscini (CSF), the conference center of ETH Zurich, located at Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland. ContaSed 2015 provided a platform for top experts as well as for junior researchers from different scientific disciplines to present recent results and novel approaches on the analysis, assessment and remediation of contaminated sediments. ContaSed 2015 served as a unique communication and discussion opportunity for environmental scientists with an emphasis on chemistry, sedimentology, ecotoxicology or remediation engineering. PMID:26507601

  11. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF{sub 6} gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF{sub 6}-handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D D, as will the other UF{sub 6}-handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF{sub 6}. These reagents include ClF{sub 3}, F{sub 2}, and other compounds. The scope of D D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Contaminant monitoring studies using marine mammals and the need for establishment of an International Environmental Specimen Bank.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, N

    1994-09-16

    Many hazardous chemicals have polluted the environment of the earth. Among them, organochlorine compounds and heavy metals have dispersed worldwide. I reviewed the results of cooperative research based on specimens shared with colleagues at Ehime University, Japan: (1) bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds (DDT, PCB, HHC, etc.) and heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) from sea water to marine mammals through the food chain, (2) placental transfer of contaminants, (3) transfer of contaminants through lactation, (4) biological impacts of contaminants to marine mammals, and (5) the global movement of contaminants. This work was based on about 1200 specimens of marine mammals obtained from scientific research over 17 years during 1976-1992. Soft tissues were banked at -20 degrees C at Ehime University while related materials and information were deposited in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. These and other materials should be preserved in good condition in an international specimen bank for future global environmental monitoring studies, the examination of hazardous chemicals which are currently unknown, the reexamination of the same samples in future using more advanced equipment by different scientists, and the reaction to unknown environmental questions, etc. The need for the establishment of an International Environmental Specimen Bank for marine mammals and other marine organisms are recommended. PMID:7973611

  13. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  14. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  15. Why Publish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    In humanities, there does not seem to be any good reason to privilege the academic journal over other venues. If the goal of humanities publishing is to spread new ideas, then it seems that creating a popular Internet blog would be the better choice. However, the goal of humanities publishing is not just to spread new ideas, but to spread "good"…

  16. Summary of the Geocarto International Special Issue on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health" to be Published in Early 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    At the 2011 Applied Science Public Health review held in Santa Fe, NM, it was announced that Dr. Dale Quattrochi from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, John Haynes, Program Manager for the Applied Sciences Public Health program at NASA Headquarters, and Sue Estes, Deputy Program Manager for the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program located at the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL, would edit a special issue of the journal Geocarto International on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health". This issue would be focused on compiling research papers that use NASA Earth Science satellite data for applications to public health. NASA's Public Health Program concentrates on advancing the realization of societal and economic benefits from NASA Earth Science in the areas of infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health (e.g., air quality). This application area as a focus of the NASA Applied Sciences program, has engaged public health institutions and officials with research scientists in exploring new applications of Earth Science satellite data as an integral part of public health decision- and policy-making at the local, state and federal levels. Of interest to this special issue are papers submitted on are topics such as epidemiologic surveillance in the areas of infectious disease, environmental health, and emergency response and preparedness, national and international activities to improve skills, share data and applications, and broaden the range of users who apply Earth Science satellite data in public health decisions, or related focus areas.. This special issue has now been completed and will be published n early 2014. This talk will present an overview of the papers that will be published in this special Geocarto International issue.

  17. Reduction of High Levels of Internal Radio-Contamination by Dietary Intervention in Residents of Areas Affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Disaster: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130–15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7–216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  18. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  19. Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-10-14

    The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

  20. Differences in Reporting of Analyses in Internal Company Documents Versus Published Trial Reports: Comparisons in Industry-Sponsored Trials in Off-Label Uses of Gabapentin

    PubMed Central

    Vedula, S. Swaroop; Li, Tianjing; Dickersin, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Background Details about the type of analysis (e.g., intent to treat [ITT]) and definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in the analysis) are necessary for interpreting a clinical trial's findings. Our objective was to compare the description of types of analyses and criteria for including participants in the publication (i.e., what was reported) with descriptions in the corresponding internal company documents (i.e., what was planned and what was done). Trials were for off-label uses of gabapentin sponsored by Pfizer and Parke-Davis, and documents were obtained through litigation. Methods and Findings For each trial, we compared internal company documents (protocols, statistical analysis plans, and research reports, all unpublished), with publications. One author extracted data and another verified, with a third person verifying discordant items and a sample of the rest. Extracted data included the number of participants randomized and analyzed for efficacy, and types of analyses for efficacy and safety and their definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in each type of analysis). We identified 21 trials, 11 of which were published randomized controlled trials, and that provided the documents needed for planned comparisons. For three trials, there was disagreement on the number of randomized participants between the research report and publication. Seven types of efficacy analyses were described in the protocols, statistical analysis plans, and publications, including ITT and six others. The protocol or publication described ITT using six different definitions, resulting in frequent disagreements between the two documents (i.e., different numbers of participants were included in the analyses). Conclusions Descriptions of analyses conducted did not agree between internal company documents and what was publicly reported. Internal company documents provide extensive documentation of methods planned and used, and trial findings, and should

  1. An Internal Reference Control Duplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detecting Bacterial Contamination in Blood Products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Tian, Jing-Jing; Wei, Shuang-Shi; Duan, Sheng-Bao; Wang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Ye-Zhou; Ding, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Chun; Meng, Qing-Lin; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) enables effective and sensitive screening for infectious risk in the field of blood safety. However, when using RT-PCR to detect bacterial contamination, several intractable points must be considered, one of which is the lack of appropriate quality control. In this study, we developed a simplified RT-PCR assay in which the same primer set and two distinct probes were used to detect both, an internal reference control and the target in a reaction. The copy number of the internal reference control represents the positive detection limit of the assay; therefore, when the threshold-cycle value of the target is less than or equal to that of the internal reference control, the result obtained for the target can be considered to be a true positive. When human gDNA was spiked with Escherichia coli gDNA and the detection limit for the internal reference control was set to five copies, the measured detection limit for E. coli gDNA was two copies. The internal reference control duplex RT-PCR assay showed high efficiency (0.91-1.02), high linearity (R2 > 0.99), and good reproducibility in intra- and inter-assay comparisons. Lastly, when human platelet-rich plasma samples were spiked with E. coli or other bacterial species, all species were detected efficiently, and the results of a two-sample pooled t test showed that the limit of detection for E. coli was 1 cfu/mL. Here, we present a synthetic internal reference control molecule and a new statistical method for improving the reliability of RT-PCR assays when screening for bacterial contamination in blood products. PMID:26230627

  2. Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

    2013-01-01

    Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2)-4.1 x 10(-2) mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure. PMID:24312602

  3. Limited Internal Radiation Exposure Associated with Resettlements to a Radiation-Contaminated Homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Nomura, Shuhei; Hayano, Ryugo; Kami, Masahiro; Watanobe, Hajime; Endo, Yukou

    2013-01-01

    Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12–30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers’ resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs) exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309–1050 Bq/kg), and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1–18.2 Bq/kg). Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10-2-4.1 x 10-2 mSv/y). Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643). The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure. PMID:24312602

  4. A whole body counter for an emergency and occupational monitoring of an internal contamination with low energy photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantínová, K.; Fojtík, P.; Pfeiferová, V.

    2015-11-01

    A whole-body counter in SÚRO (NRPI) Prague, Czech Republic has been upgraded recently with the goal to enhance its capability of a safe, smooth, accurate and reproducible positioning of detectors for whole- and partial-body counting. The counter is intended especially for counting of low energy gamma emitters in various organs and tissues of the human body. Counting efficiency calibration of a four-detector system installed in the shielded room has been performed by means of physical and voxel phantoms. The consistency of in vivo bioassay data of three internal contamination cases long-term monitored in the Institute is shown.

  5. International Space Station Alpha trace contaminant control subassembly life test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatara, J. D.; Perry, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Life Test Program (ELTP) began with Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS) Life Testing on November 9, 1992, at 0745. The purpose of the test, as stated in the NASA document 'Requirements for Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly High Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer Life Testing (Revision A)' was to 'provide for the long duration operation of the ECLSS TCCS HTCO (High Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer) at normal operating conditions... (and thus)... to determine the useful life of ECLSS hardware for use on long duration manned space missions.' Specifically, the test was designed to demonstrate thermal stability of the HTCO catalyst. The report details TCCS stability throughout the test. Graphs are included to aid in evaluating trends and subsystem anomalies. The report summarizes activities through the final day of testing, January 17, 1995 (test day 762).

  6. International evaluation of in-situ biorestoration of contaminated soil and groundwater (September 1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Staps, S.J.J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The philosophy of in-situ biorestoration is to stimulate the indigenous soil microorganisms to degrade contaminants by improving the environmental conditions in the soil using a water recirculation system. The objective of the project is to show the possibilities for application of the technique in relation with contaminants, soil conditions and other site-specific circumstances by means of integration and evaluation of results of in-situ biorestoration projects. The project is limited to the Netherlands, West Germany and the USA. Experience has especially been gained with in-situ biorestoration at hydrocarbon-contaminated petrol stations and industrial sites. The system generally consists of a water recirculation system, aboveground water treatment and conditioning of the infiltrating water with nutrients and an oxygen source. However, there is no one-and-only application method for in-situ biorestoration. The remediation, which can last from approximately six months to several years, can reach residual concentrations below the B-value of the Netherlands examination framework.

  7. Lake fish as the main contributor of internal dose to lakeshore residents in the Chernobyl contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Travnikova, I G; Bazjukin, A N; Bruk, G Ja; Shutov, V N; Balonov, M I; Skuterud, L; Mehli, H; Strand, P

    2004-01-01

    Two field expeditions in 1996 studied 137Cs intake patterns and its content in the bodies of adult residents from the village Kozhany in the Bryansk region, Russia, located on the shore of a drainless peat lake in an area subjected to significant radioactive contamination after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs contents in lake water and fish were two orders of magnitude greater than in local rivers and flow-through lakes, 10 years after Chernobyl radioactive contamination, and remain stable. The 137Cs content in lake fish and a mixture of forest mushrooms was between approximately 10-20 kBq/kg, which exceeded the temporary Russian permissible levels for these products by a factor of 20-40. Consumption of lake fish gave the main contribution to internal doses (40-50%) for Kozhany village inhabitants Simple countermeasures, such as Prussian blue doses for dairy cows and pre-boiling mushrooms and fish before cooking, halved the 137Cs internal dose to inhabitants, even 10 years after the radioactive fallout. PMID:15297041

  8. The relationship between internally deposited alpha-particle radiation and subsite-specific liver cancer and liver cirrhosis: an analysis of published data.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gerald B

    2002-12-01

    Chronic exposure to high LET radiation has been shown to cause liver cancer in humans based on studies of patients who received Thorotrast, a colloidal suspension of thorium dioxide formerly used as a radiological contrast agent, and on studies of Russian nuclear weapons workers exposed to internally ingested plutonium. Risk estimates for these exposures and specific subtypes of liver cancer have not been previously reported. Combining published data with tumor registry data pertinent to the Thorotrast cohorts in Germany, Denmark, Portugal, and Japan and to Russian workers, we generally found significantly elevated risks of three major histologic types of liver tumors: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CC), and hemangiosarcoma (HS) for Thorotrast exposures. In contrast, HS was the only liver tumor significantly associated with the lower alpha-particle doses experienced by the Russian workers. Excess cases per 1,000 persons exposed to Thorotrast were similar for the three liver cancer subtypes but lower for plutonium exposure. Odds ratios (OR) of HS and CC for Thorotrast were from 26 to 789 and from 1 to 31 times higher than those for HCC, respectively. ORs of liver cirrhosis for Thorotrast exposure ranged from 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2-3.4) to 6.7 (5.1-8.7). PMID:12674201

  9. International Mussel Watch Project. Initial implementation phase. Final report. Coastal chemical contaminant monitoring using bivalves. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, J.W.; Tripp, B.W.

    1995-05-01

    The objective International Mussel Watch is to assess the extent of chemical contamination in the equatorial and subequatorial areas of the southern hemisphere with particular attention to coastal areas of developing countries. The First Phase took place in South America, Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico with particular emphasis on PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in mollusks collected at 76 sites in 1991 to 1992. Samples from some sites were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results show that concentrations of these organic chemicals in mollusks were generally lower than in similar samples collected in the NOAA Mussel Watch Project in the United States. Relatively high levels found in urban areas were with the ranges of concentrations found in the United States. The Project included a chemical intercomparison exercise that involved analytical chemists from the Host Countries.

  10. Room-temperature semiconductor detectors for in vivo monitoring of internal contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Genicot, J L

    1997-01-01

    In vivo monitoring of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray emitters has always been a difficult task, primarily because of lack of accuracy and the high detection limits of classical techniques. Various types of PIN diodes (diodes with a large intrinsic zone) were tested in the Radiation Protection Department of the Studie Centrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d'étude de l'Energie Nucléaire (Mol, Belgium) in the measurement of radioactive body burden by direct methods. Current research is oriented toward the use of room-temperature diodes for the detection of low-energy photons escaping the body. In this paper, a new counting technique that involves a portable jacket containing the diodes is described. The system uses silicon diodes and is used out of shielding room in order to be near the contamination. With this method rapid analysis and long counting times are possible, stress is reduced, and medical treatment can be optimized. CdZnTe detectors were also evaluated for this measurement technique but this type of detector is better adapted for counting inside a shielding room. The improvement of the accuracy of the measurement, taking into account the effect of the ribs, is described here, as well the associated electronics necessary for this type of counting. Images Figure 1. PMID:9467055

  11. Room-temperature semiconductor detectors for in vivo monitoring of internal contamination.

    PubMed

    Genicot, J L

    1997-12-01

    In vivo monitoring of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray emitters has always been a difficult task, primarily because of lack of accuracy and the high detection limits of classical techniques. Various types of PIN diodes (diodes with a large intrinsic zone) were tested in the Radiation Protection Department of the Studie Centrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d'étude de l'Energie Nucléaire (Mol, Belgium) in the measurement of radioactive body burden by direct methods. Current research is oriented toward the use of room-temperature diodes for the detection of low-energy photons escaping the body. In this paper, a new counting technique that involves a portable jacket containing the diodes is described. The system uses silicon diodes and is used out of shielding room in order to be near the contamination. With this method rapid analysis and long counting times are possible, stress is reduced, and medical treatment can be optimized. CdZnTe detectors were also evaluated for this measurement technique but this type of detector is better adapted for counting inside a shielding room. The improvement of the accuracy of the measurement, taking into account the effect of the ribs, is described here, as well the associated electronics necessary for this type of counting. PMID:9467055

  12. Libraries and Electronic Publishing: Promises and Challenges for the 90's. Festschrift in Honor of Richard M. Dougherty. Proceedings of the International Essen Symposium (14th, Essen, Germany, October 14-17, 1991). Publications of Essen University Library, 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    The goal of the Essen symposium was to bring together internationally recognized librarians and library automation specialists to discuss new developments in electronic publishing. All 16 papers included in this collection were presented at the conference: (1) "Barriers to the Introduction of New Technology" (J. Andrew Braid); (2) "Nudging a…

  13. COMIS -- an international multizone air-flow and contaminant transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.

    1998-08-01

    A number of interzonal models have been developed to calculate air flows and pollutant transport mechanisms in both single and multizone buildings. A recent development in multizone air-flow modeling, the COMIS model, has a number of capabilities that go beyond previous models, much as COMIS can be used as either a stand-alone air-flow model with input and output features or as an infiltration module for thermal building simulation programs. COMIS was designed during a 12 month workshop at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in 1988-89. In 1990, the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems program created a working group on multizone air-flow modeling, which continued work on COMIS. The group`s objectives were to study physical phenomena causing air flow and pollutant (e.g., moisture) transport in multizone buildings, develop numerical modules to be integrated in the previously designed multizone air flow modeling system, and evaluate the computer code. The working group supported by nine nations, officially finished in late 1997 with the release of IISiBat/COMIS 3.0, which contains the documented simulation program COMIS, the user interface IISiBat, and reports describing the evaluation exercise.

  14. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001) and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003). In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure. PMID:26402065

  15. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001) and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003). In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure. PMID:26402065

  16. Publishers, Publishing and the Internet: How Journal Publishing Will Survive and Prosper in the Electronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John E.

    1997-01-01

    The Internet will change how publishers function. Publishers will need to acquire new skills in developing multimedia; become custodians of intellectual property rather than producers of printed artifacts; know copyright and contract law, especially international aspects; and work more closely with universities to deliver electronic information…

  17. Biokinetics of systemically distributed 60Co in the rat: an experimental model useful in evaluating medical countermeasures for internal contamination.

    PubMed

    Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Seilkop, Steven K; Guilmette, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    LBERI, a member of the Medical Countermeasures to Radiologic Threats (MCART) consortium funded by NIAID, was tasked to develop biokinetic models for the distribution of radionuclide threats using the most likely routes of incorporation in both small and large animals. In this paper, the biokinetics of systemically administered soluble (60)Co have been examined. Male and female jugular-vein-catheterized (JVC) F344 rats received intravenous (IV) doses of 11.2 kBq of (60)CoCl2. The distribution of the radiocobalt was followed for 28 d with tissue sampling done at 1 and 4 h, and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 28 d. Urine and feces were collected daily. Tissues and excreta were analyzed by gamma pulse height analysis. Within 8 d, 93% of the cobalt was eliminated from the body, primarily though urine. The highest tissue burdens were found in the liver, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and muscle shortly after administration. These tissues cleared quickly, so that by the conclusion of the 28-d study, less than 3% of the injected dose remained in the body. The results are comparable to published literature values for tissue content of (60)Co and for excretion patterns up to 30 d after injection. These results will provide the data needed to construct a biokinetic model for the unperturbed biokinetics of (60)Co in rats, which will subsequently be used to evaluate the impact of administered decorporating agents on organ radiation doses. The animal model described in this paper is representative of that used for other routes of radionuclide administration, such as inhalation, ingestion, and wound contamination, that have been studied at LBERI in support of the MCART and NIAID programs. PMID:22929473

  18. BIOKINETICS OF SYSTEMICALLY DISTRIBUTED CO-60 IN THE RAT: AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL USEFUL IN EVALUATING MEDICAL COUNTERMEASURES FOR INTERNAL CONTAMINATION

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Seilkop, Steven K.; Guilmette, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    LBERI, a member of the Medical Countermeasures to Radiologic Threats (MCART) consortium funded by NIAID, was tasked to develop biokinetic models for the distribution of radionuclide threats using the most likely routes of incorporation in both small and large animals. In the present paper, the biokinetics of systemically administered soluble cobalt-60 (60Co) have been examined. Male and female jugular-vein-catheterized (JVC) F344 rats received intravenous (IV) doses of 11.2 kBq of 60CoCl2. The distribution of the radiocobalt was followed for 28 d, with tissue sampling done at 1 and 4 h, and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 28 d. Urine and feces were collected daily. Tissues and excreta were analyzed by gamma pulse height analysis. Within 8d, 93% of the cobalt was eliminated from the body primarily though urine. The highest tissue burdens were found in liver, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and muscle shortly after administration. These tissues cleared quickly so that by the conclusion of the 28-d study, less than 3% of the recovered dose remained in the body. The results are comparable to published literature values for tissue content of 60Co and for excretion patterns up to 30 d after injection. These results will provide the data needed to construct a biokinetic model for the unperturbed biokinetics of 60Co in rats, which will subsequently be used to evaluate the impact of administered decorporating agents on organ radiation doses. The animal model described in this paper is representative of that used for other routes of radionuclide administration such as inhalation, ingestion and wound contamination that have been studied at LBERI in support of the MCART and NIAID programs. PMID:22929473

  19. Review of 'emerging' organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Smith, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    A broad spectrum of organic chemicals is essential to modern society. Once discharged from industrial, domestic and urban sources into the urban wastewater collection system they may transfer to the residual solids during wastewater treatment and assessment of their significance and implications for beneficial recycling of the treated sewage sludge biosolids is required. Research on organic contaminants (OCs) in biosolids has been undertaken for over thirty years and the increasing body of evidence demonstrates that the majority of compounds studied do not place human health at risk when biosolids are recycled to farmland. However, there are 143,000 chemicals registered in the European Union for industrial use and all could be potentially found in biosolids. Therefore, a literature review of 'emerging' OCs in biosolids has been conducted for a selection of chemicals of potential concern for land application based upon human toxicity, evidence of adverse effects on the environment and endocrine disruption. To identify monitoring and research priorities the selected chemicals were ranked using an assessment matrix approach. Compounds were evaluated based upon environmental persistence, human toxicity, evidence of bioaccumulation in humans and the environment, evidence of ecotoxicity and the number and quality of studies focussed on the contaminant internationally. The identified chemicals of concern were ranked in decreasing order of priority: perfluorinated chemicals (PFOS, PFOA); polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs); organotins (OTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC); benzothiazoles; antibiotics and pharmaceuticals; synthetic musks; bisphenol A, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), steroids; phthalate acid esters (PAEs) and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs). A number of issues were identified and recommendations for the prioritisation of further research and monitoring of 'emerging' OCs for the

  20. NATO/CCMS SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL ACTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTAMINATED LAND AND GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of contamination to land and groundwater from improper handling of hazardous materials/waste is faced by all countries. Also the need for reliable, cost-effective technologies to address this problem at contaminated sites exists throughout the world. ny countries have...

  1. Determination of volatile organic contaminants in bulk oils (edible, injectable, and other internal medicinal) by purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.W.

    1994-05-01

    Purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is evaluated for the quantitation of part-per-billion levels of volatile organic contaminants in bulk vegetable oils. Results using 2 purge techniques (direct purging of the heated oil and purging after dispersing the oil on an aluminum oxide powder) and 2 quantitative methods (standard curve and deuterium-labeled internal standard addition) are reported. Twenty volatile compounds and 8 vegetable oils were investigated. Recovery data and estimated detection limits for each compound are reported for each purge technique. Generally acceptable recoveries (70-130% for more than 90% of the analyte spikes) and acceptable detection levels (approximately 4-10 ppb) were obtained for all compounds using either the external standard curve of the deuterium-isotope-labeled internal standard. The use of a dispersant (such as alumina) for sample purging resulted in poor recoveries of the highly volatile contaminants. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Speech Communication and Communication Processes: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," April and May 1978 (Vol. 38 Nos. 10 and 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 25 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the nature of creativity in advertising communication; speech communication difficulties of international professors; rhetorical arguments regarding the…

  3. Mass Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 55 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the prime time access rule; (2) media education; (3) magazine and children's advertising; (4) Irish national and Third World cinema; (5) international radio…

  4. Mass Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 53 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) international news flow and the nonaligned nations; (2) cameras in the courtroom; (3) public service communication source influence and radio gatekeeper…

  5. The effects of contamination from silicones and a modified-tefzel® insulation on critical surfaces of the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Henry W.; Hasegawa, Mark; Jones, Cherie; Fussell, John

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the contamination resulting from extensive usage of silicone-insulated and modified Tefzel-insulated electrical cables and a silicone-based thermal control coating, S-13GP/LO-1, used on the International Space Station (ISS). The outgassing condensation rates of these materials were characterized per ASTM 1559-93 as a function of contamination source and receiver hardware temperatures. The results of MOLFLUX analyses for both the silicone-insulated cables and the silicone-based thermal control coating showed that these materials did not meet the program requirements. The silicone-insulated cables and the antenna and associated hardware painted with S-13GP/LO-1 were vacuum baked and the outgassing condensation rates remeasured. These products now met the program requirements. The condensable portion of the outgassed products from modified-Tefzel cable insulation at two temperatures was deposited onto the white, inorganic thermal control coating, Z-93P. These contaminants were exposed to various space environments that included near ultraviolet (UV) radiation, vacuum UV (VUV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). The contaminant darkened more rapidly with VUV exposure than a silicone contaminant of the same thickness. It was eroded by AO and bleached in air after VUV. It was shown that the ISS hardware provided would perform satisfactorily.

  6. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON AND HEAVY-METAL- CONTAMINATED SOIL - INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  7. US screening of international travelers for radioactive contamination after the Japanese nuclear plant disaster in March 2011.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Todd; Chang, Arthur; Berro, Andre; Still, Aaron; Brown, Clive; Demma, Andrew; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Martin, Colleen; Salame-Alfie, Adela; Fisher-Tyler, Frieda; Smith, Lee; Grady-Erickson, Onalee; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Brunette, Gary; Ansari, Armin; McAdam, David; Marano, Nina

    2012-10-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi complex in Japan, resulting in radionuclide release. In response, US officials augmented existing radiological screening at its ports of entry (POEs) to detect and decontaminate travelers contaminated with radioactive materials. During March 12 to 16, radiation screening protocols detected 3 travelers from Japan with external radioactive material contamination at 2 air POEs. Beginning March 23, federal officials collaborated with state and local public health and radiation control authorities to enhance screening and decontamination protocols at POEs. Approximately 543 000 (99%) travelers arriving directly from Japan at 25 US airports were screened for radiation contamination from March 17 to April 30, and no traveler was detected with contamination sufficient to require a large-scale public health response. The response highlighted synergistic collaboration across government levels and leveraged screening methods already in place at POEs, leading to rapid protocol implementation. Policy development, planning, training, and exercising response protocols and the establishment of federal authority to compel decontamination of travelers are needed for future radiological responses. Comparison of resource-intensive screening costs with the public health yield should guide policy decisions, given the historically low frequency of contaminated travelers arriving during radiological disasters. PMID:23077272

  8. PADB : Published Association Database

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  9. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tatiana L; Killaspy, Helen; Wright, Christine; Turton, Penny; White, Sarah; Kallert, Thomas W; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kališová, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mezzina, Roberto; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to identify the key components of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems and the effectiveness of these components. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the literature using comprehensive search terms in 11 electronic databases and identified 12,182 titles. We viewed 550 abstracts, reviewed 223 papers and included 110 of these. A "critical interpretative synthesis" of the evidence was used to identify domains of institutional care that are key to service users' recovery. Results We identified eight domains of institutional care that were key to service users' recovery: living conditions; interventions for schizophrenia; physical health; restraint and seclusion; staff training and support; therapeutic relationship; autonomy and service user involvement; and clinical governance. Evidence was strongest for specific interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia (family psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and vocational rehabilitation). Conclusion Institutions should, ideally, be community based, operate a flexible regime, maintain a low density of residents and maximise residents' privacy. For service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, specific interventions (CBT, family interventions involving psychoeducation, and supported employment) should be provided through integrated programmes. Restraint and seclusion should be avoided wherever possible and staff should have adequate training in de-escalation techniques. Regular staff supervision should be provided and this should support service user involvement in decision making and positive therapeutic relationships between staff and service users. There should be clear lines

  10. SURVEY OF OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA FROM TAMPA BAY, FLORIDA: ASSOCIATIONS OF INTERNAL DEFENSE MEASUREMENTS WITH CONTAMINANT BURDENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oysters from 16 sites in Tampa Bay, Florida, were collected during a 6-week period in winter 1993 and analyzed for both biological characteristics and tissue chemical concentrations. Using previous sediment contamination and toxicity data, oyster tissues from the selected sites w...

  11. Embracing Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Electronic publishing is the grandest revolution in the capture and dissemination of academic and professional knowledge since Caxton developed the printing press. This article examines electronic publishing, describes different electronic publishing scenarios (authors' cooperative, consolidator/retailer/agent oligopsony, publisher oligopoly), and…

  12. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  13. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  14. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  15. A bioassay experience and lessons learned on the internal contamination of (131)I during a maintenance period in a Korean nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2012-08-01

    During a maintenance period at a Korean nuclear power plant, internal exposure of radiation workers occurred by the inhalation of (131)I that was released into the reactor building from a primary system opening due to defective fuels. The internal activity in radiation workers contaminated by (131)I was immediately measured using a whole body counter (WBC). A whole body counting was performed again a few days later, considering the factors of equilibrium in the body. The intake and the committed effective dose were estimated based on the WBC results. The intake was also calculated by hand, based on both the entrance records to the reactor building, and the counted results of the air concentration for (131)I were compared with the whole body counting results. PMID:22323659

  16. Application of the Monte Carlo method to develop a model to estimate the internal contamination of pipes in a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ródenas, J.; Gallardo, S.

    2007-09-01

    The dose reduction program at a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) includes the utilization of a gamma spectrometry device for on-site measurements. The equipment uses a heavily shielded HP Germanium detector coupled with high count-rate pulse-height counting electronics. The on-site spectra acquisition is an essential tool to monitor the radionuclide concentration deposited onto the inner side of the process pipes of the reactor. The determination of this activity is very important to plan the ALARA actions that must be taken in order to decrease the collective doses received by exposed professional workers. Nevertheless, the analysis using direct measurements presents the problem of detector calibration, because they have to be done in places with difficult access and high dose rates. It is convenient to apply a computer solution, such as the Monte Carlo method, for the detector efficiency calibration. A model has been developed using the MCNP code, based on the Monte Carlo method. Results have been compared with experimental measurements in order to validate the model. Validation for point and disk sources as well as for volumetric sources has been published in previous works. In this paper, the model developed for the calibration of the detector to perform contamination measurements in a pipeline is presented. Results of simulation should be compared with experimental measurements using a portion of pipeline contaminated at its inner surface with some radionuclides covering a wide energy range. The validation of the model will permit to extend it to other situations throughout the plant.

  17. Copyright of Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Elaine; Wang, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of copyright, considers the main causes of copyright infringement in electronic publishing, discusses fair use of a copyrighted work, and suggests methods to safeguard copyrighted electronic publishing, including legislation, contracts, and technology. (Author/LRW)

  18. A PHANTOM FOR DETERMINATION OF CALIBRATION COEFFICIENTS AND MINIMUM DETECTABLE ACTIVITIES USING A DUAL-HEAD GAMMA CAMERA FOR INTERNAL CONTAMINATION MONITORING FOLLOWING RADIATION EMERGENCY SITUATIONS.

    PubMed

    Ören, Ünal; Andersson, Martin; Rääf, Christopher L; Mattsson, Sören

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive calibration coefficients (in terms of cps kBq(-1)) and minimum detectable activities, MDA, (in terms of kBq and corresponding dose rate) for the dual head gamma camera part of an SPECT/CT-instrument when used for in vivo internal contamination measurements in radiation emergency situations. A cylindrical-conical PMMA phantom with diameters in the range of 7-30 cm was developed in order to simulate different body parts and individuals of different sizes. A series of planar gamma camera investigations were conducted using an SPECT/CT modality with the collimators removed for (131)I and (137)Cs, radionuclides potentially associated with radiation emergencies. Energy windows of 337-391 and 490-690 keV were selected for (131)I and (137)Cs, respectively. The measurements show that the calibration coefficients for (137)Cs range from 10 to 19 cps kBq(-1) with MDA values in the range of 0.29-0.55 kBq for phantom diameters of 10-30 cm. The corresponding values for (131)I are 12-37 cps kBq(-1) with MDA values of 0.08-0.26 kBq. An internal dosimetry computer program was used for the estimation of minimum detectable dose rates. A thyroid uptake of 0.1 kBq (131)I (representing MDA) corresponds to an effective dose rate of 0.6 µSv d(-1) A (137)Cs source position representing the colon with an MDA of 0.55 kBq corresponds to an effective dose rate was 1 µSv y(-1) This method using a simple phantom for the determination of calibration coefficients, and MDA levels can be implemented within the emergency preparedness plans in hospitals with nuclear medicine departments. The derived data will help to quickly estimate the internal contamination of humans following radiation emergencies. PMID:26769903

  19. Darwin and his publisher.

    PubMed

    McClay, David

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's publisher John Murray played an important, if often underrated, role in bringing his theories to the public. As their letters and publishing archives show they had a friendly, business like and successful relationship. This was despite fundamental scientific and religious differences between the men. In addition to publishing Darwin, Murray also published many of the critical and supportive works and reviews which Darwin's own works excited. PMID:19960865

  20. Priorities of Test Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepfner, Ralph; Doherty, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The profiles of seven major publishers of elementary-level tests were prepared from systematic ratings of the qualities of their tests. Meaningful rating differences among the publishers' priorities were found and three types of publishers could be identified and described. (Authors)

  1. Etiquette in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Publishing a scientific article in a journal with a high impact factor and a good reputation is considered prestigious among one's peer group and an essential achievement for career progression. In the drive to get their work published, researchers can forget, either intentionally or unintentionally, the ethics that should be followed in scientific publishing. In an environment where "publish or perish" rules the day, some authors might be tempted to bend or break rules. This special article is intended to raise awareness among orthodontic journal editors, authors, and readers about the types of scientific misconduct in the current publishing scenario and to provide insight into the ways these misconducts are managed by the Committee of Publishing Ethics. Case studies are presented, and various plagiarism detection software programs used by publishing companies are briefly described. PMID:24075666

  2. Contamination, misuse and abuse of the global oceans leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Unregulated uses of the oceans may threaten the global ecological balance, alter plant and animal life and significantly impact the global climatic systems. Recent plans to locate large scale structures on the oceans and to exploit the mineral riches of the seas pose even greater risk to the ecological system. Finally, increasing use of the oceans for large scale transport greatly enhances the probability of collision, polluting spills and international conflict.

  3. Root Cause Assessment of Pressure Drop Rise of a Packed Bed of Lithium Hydroxide in the International Space Station Trace Contaminant Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Tatiana; Perry, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) located in the International Space Station s (ISS) U.S. laboratory module employs physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption to remove trace chemical contamination produced by equipment offgassing and anthropogenic sources from the cabin atmosphere. The chemical adsorption stage, consisting of a packed bed of granular lithium hydroxide (LiOH), is located after the thermal catalytic oxidation stage and is designed to remove acid gas byproducts that may be formed in the upstream oxidation stage. While in service on board the ISS, the LiOH bed exhibited a change in flow resistance that leading to flow control difficulties in the TCCS. Post flight evaluation revealed LiOH granule size attrition among other changes. An experimental program was employed to investigate mechanisms hypothesized to contribute to the change in the packed bed s flow resistance. Background on the problem is summarized, including a discussion of likely mechanisms. The experimental program is described, results are presented, and implications for the future are discussed.

  4. Publishing in English Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judy, Stephen N., Ed.

    Intended for both newcomers to writing and experienced writers, this book presents ideas that will simplify the process of submitting and getting published, cut down on the false starts and mistakes, and provide a catalyst to the educational writer. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: "Publishing in the Elementary Language…

  5. Lights, Camera, Publishing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Nina C.

    2008-01-01

    Are university presses ready for their close-up? In a nod to Hollywood, a growing number of trade publishers are producing book trailers to promote new titles. But do video teasers have a role in university-press publishing? What about longer formats? Based on an entirely unscientific poll of publicists at 25 university presses, the answer appears…

  6. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  7. Gender and Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Theresa

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes and updates an earlier descriptive survey of male-to-female publishing ratios in rhetoric and composition journals. Expands the earlier survey to see how much collaborative work is being published and how much is male coauthored, female coauthored, or mixed gender. (RS)

  8. Electronic Publishing at the End of 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettenati, Corrado

    2002-11-01

    We present the current three models: traditional, alternative, and subversive, with examples and realisations in various disciplines. We also present a short overview of the debate under way about self-publishing and the proposed methodology. We continue with a presentation of library procedures to take advantage of electronic publishing opportunities in terms of enlargement of the literature collections available to readers. In this perspective we discuss both internal library procedures and external licensing negotiation. Then we shall talk about the emergence of the E-book. We end with a presentation of the impact of electronic publishing within the new Web economy and discuss costs and benefits of the new publishing cycle.

  9. [Publishing models in medical journals].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto B

    2012-02-01

    Medical journals are published by scientific societies, universities, publishing agencies and other for-profit or non-profit organizations. The traditional way to cover the expenses in printed journals has been a "subscribers pay" model. The rise of electronic versions in the internet, either together with the printed version or replacing it entirely, plus a progressive adherence to an "open access" for electronic versions, has created financial difficulties. Therefore, the "authors pay" model has been added. Both models can be subsidized by commercial or institutional advertising, but still a main source for financing relies either in subscriptions or in authors' payments. A small source of income that helps to cover publishing costs is a "charge for manuscript reception", currently applied by several journals. Those authors whose work has institutional or external support can use their grants to cover any charges, but the situation is more difficult for those who do not have such support. Since 1872, Sociedad Médica de Santiago-Chilean Society of Internal Medicine, owner and publisher of Revista Médica de Chile, has employed the "subscribers pay" model, subsidized by commercial advertising and temporary sponsors (Chilean government and others). The printed journal is reproduced in an open access electronic version, in www.scielo.cl. The increasing cost of both publications systems demands a time for reflection. PMID:22739959

  10. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter; Hemberger, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a polyolefin tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.01 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the tube, (b) passing a solvent through the tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the tube. Further, a chromatographic apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a polyolefin tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.01 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the tube is disclosed.

  11. Data Sharing & Publishing at Nature Publishing Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDecar, J. C.; Hrynaszkiewicz, I.; Hufton, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the research community has come to recognize that upon-request data sharing has important limitations1,2. The Nature-titled journals feel that researchers have a duty to share data without undue qualifications, in a manner that allows others to replicate and build upon their published findings. Historically, the Nature journals have been strong supporters of data deposition in communities with existing data mandates, and have required data sharing upon request in all other cases. To help address some of the limitations of upon-request data sharing, the Nature titles have strengthened their existing data policies and forged a new partnership with Scientific Data, to promote wider data sharing in discoverable, citeable and reusable forms, and to ensure that scientists get appropriate credit for sharing3. Scientific Data is a new peer-reviewed journal for descriptions of research datasets, which works with a wide of range of public data repositories4. Articles at Scientific Data may either expand on research publications at other journals or may be used to publish new datasets. The Nature Publishing Group has also signed the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles5, and Scientific Data is our first journal to include formal data citations. We are currently in the process of adding data citation support to our various journals. 1 Wicherts, J. M., Borsboom, D., Kats, J. & Molenaar, D. The poor availability of psychological research data for reanalysis. Am. Psychol. 61, 726-728, doi:10.1037/0003-066x.61.7.726 (2006). 2 Vines, T. H. et al. Mandated data archiving greatly improves access to research data. FASEB J. 27, 1304-1308, doi:10.1096/fj.12-218164 (2013). 3 Data-access practices strengthened. Nature 515, 312, doi:10.1038/515312a (2014). 4 More bang for your byte. Sci. Data 1, 140010, doi:10.1038/sdata.2014.10 (2014). 5 Data Citation Synthesis Group: Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles. (FORCE11, San Diego, CA, 2014).

  12. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-02-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.

  13. Predatory publishing: what nurse executives need to know.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karen S

    2015-02-01

    Editors attending the 2014 meeting of the International Academy of Nursing Editors have coalesced to provide information to our readers regarding a recent trend in the publishing world, predatory publishing. PMID:25621744

  14. SU-E-I-78: Establishing a Protocol for Quick Estimation of Thyroid Internal Contamination with 131I in Normal and Emergency Situations

    SciTech Connect

    Naderi, S Mehdizadeh; Karimipourfard, M; Lotfalizadeh, F; Zamani, E; Molaeimanesh, Z; Sadeghi, M; Sina, S; Faghihi, R; Entezarmahdi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: I-131 is one of the most frequent radionuclides used in nuclear medicine departments. The radiation workers, who manipulate the unsealed radio-toxic iodine, should be monitored for internal contamination. In this study a protocol was established for estimating I-131 activity absorbed in the thyroid glands of the nuclear medicine staff in normal working condition and also in accidents. Methods: I-131 with the activity of 10 μCi was injected inside the thyroid gland of a home-made anthropomorphic neck phantom. The phantom is made up of PMMA as soft tissue, and Aluminium as bone. The dose rate at different distances from the surface of the neck phantom was measured using a scintillator detector for duration of two months. Then, calibration factors were obtained, for converting the dose rate at each distance to the iodine activity inside the thyroid. Results: According to the results of this study, the calibration factors for converting the dose rates (nSv/h) at distances of 0cm, 1cm, 6cm, 11cm, and 16cm to the activity (kBq) inside the thyroid were found to be 0.03, 0.04, 0.14, 0.29, and 0.49 . Conclusion: This method can be effectively used for quick estimation of the I-131 concentration inside the thyroid of the staff for daily checks in normal working conditions and also in accidents.

  15. Ethics in Scientific Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Leslie J.

    2012-08-01

    We all learn in elementary school not turn in other people's writing as if it were our own (plagiarism), and in high school science labs not to fake our data. But there are many other practices in scientific publishing that are depressingly common and almost as unethical. At about the 20 percent level authors are deliberately hiding recent work -- by themselves as well as by others -- so as to enhance the apparent novelty of their most recent paper. Some people lie about the dates the data were obtained, to cover up conflicts of interest, or inappropriate use of privileged information. Others will publish the same conference proceeding in multiple volumes, or publish the same result in multiple journals with only trivial additions of data or analysis (self-plagiarism). These shady practices should be roundly condemned and stopped. I will discuss these and other unethical actions I have seen over the years, and steps editors are taking to stop them.

  16. News & Views Seven Billion Yuan for Basic Research in 2009 Fossil Web Won World Summit Award Tsinghua Professors Publish Papers in Nature and Science Overview of Trends and Policies in International Collaboration for Science in National Natural Science Foundation of China Three China-Demark Joint Research Projects Approved in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Seven Billion Yuan for Basic Research in 2009 Fossil Web Won World Summit Award Tsinghua Professors Publish Papers in Nature and Science Overview of Trends and Policies in International Collaboration for Science in National Natural Science Foundation of China Three China-Demark Joint Research Projects Approved in 2009

  17. Scholars | Digital Representation | Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the current state of digital publishing means that writers can now do more and say more in more ways than ever before in human history. As modes, methods, media and mechanisms of expression mutate into newer and newer digital forms, writers find themselves at a moment when they can create, critique collaborate, and comment according…

  18. Publishers, Participants All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2011-01-01

    Students need opportunities throughout the curriculum to follow their passions and publish quality work for global audiences to interact with. Social media afford the opportunity for students to contribute to the world in meaningful ways, do real work for real audiences for real purposes, find great teachers and collaborators from around the…

  19. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. The new guidelines are also published in Advanced Materials, Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25329711

  20. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    PubMed

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  1. Prepare to publish.

    PubMed

    Price, P M

    2000-01-01

    "I couldn't possibly write an article." "I don't have anything worthwhile to write about." "I am not qualified to write for publication." Do any of these statements sound familiar? This article is intended to dispel these beliefs. You can write an article. You care for the most complex patients in the health care system so you do have something worthwhile to write about. Beside correct spelling and grammar there are no special skills, certificates or diplomas required for publishing. You are qualified to write for publication. The purpose of this article is to take the mystique out of the publication process. Each step of publishing an article will be explained, from idea formation to framing your first article. Practical examples and recommendations will be presented. The essential components of the APA format necessary for Dynamics: The Official Journal of the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses will be outlined and resources to assist you will be provided. PMID:11235448

  2. Internal exposure from the ingestion of foods contaminated by 137Cs after the Chernobyl accident. Report 1. General model: ingestion doses and countermeasure effectiveness for the adults of Rovno Oblast of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Likhtarev, I A; Kovgan, L N; Vavilov, S E; Gluvchinsky, R R; Perevoznikov, O N; Litvinets, L N; Anspaugh, L R; Kercher, J R; Bouville, A

    1996-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, resulted in the atmospheric release of about 70--100 PBq of 137Cs. This paper examines the doses to the adult population of the northern part of Rovno Oblast, Ukraine, from ingestion of 137Cs. Fallout of 137Cs in these regions was lower than in other regions of Ukraine. However, the transfer of 137Cs from soil to milk in the region considered is high (up to 20 Bq L-1 per kBq m-2) and results in the predominance of internal doses compared to those from external exposure. Numerous measurements of 137Cs soil deposition, 137Cs milk contamination, and 137Cs body burden have been made in the area and form the basis of a general model of internal exposure from the ingestion of foods contaminated by 137Cs. This paper has two main purposes. The first is to develop the general phenomenological description of the process leading to internal exposure from the ingestion of 137Cs contaminated foods in the situation where different countermeasures are realized. The second is to apply the model for the adult population of the northern part of the Rovno Oblast (first report) for the limited time period of up to six years after the accident. The doses actually received by the adults are estimated to be four to eight times smaller than the doses calculated for the situation without countermeasures. PMID:8609023

  3. RETRACTION: Publishers' Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    post="(Executive Editor">Graeme Watt,

    2010-06-01

    Withdrawal of the paper "Was the fine-structure constant variable over cosmological time?" by L. D. Thong, N. M. Giao, N. T. Hung and T. V. Hung (EPL, 87 (2009) 69002) This paper has been formally withdrawn on ethical grounds because the article contains extensive and repeated instances of plagiarism. EPL treats all identified evidence of plagiarism in the published articles most seriously. Such unethical behaviour will not be tolerated under any circumstance. It is unfortunate that this misconduct was not detected before going to press. My thanks to Editor colleagues from other journals for bringing this fact to my attention.

  4. Learning by Doing: Publishing Course as Publishing Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieterich, Dan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he gives students in his English 349, Editing and Publishing, at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point real-world editing and publishing experience by letting them form their own publishing company--the Cornerstone Press. In this class, students write multiple drafts of publishable articles and help…

  5. Role of curli and contamination level on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach plants grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 may be internalized into organic leafy greens via root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7 internalization into organic leafy greens is important as produce wash treatment may not remove internalized pathogens. Purpose: The internalization potential...

  6. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  7. Back contamination.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, G. B.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the concept and implications of back contamination and of the ways and means for its prevention. Back contamination is defined as contamination of the terrestrial biosphere with organisms or materials returned from outer space that are capable of potentially harmful terrestrial activity. Since the question of whether or not life exists on other planets may, in reality, not be answered until many samples are returned to earth for detailed study, requirements for the prevention of back contamination are necessary. A review of methods of microbiologic contamination control is followed by a discussion of the nature of back contamination and its risk levels, contamination sources and locations, and possible defenses against back contamination. The U.S. lunar back contamination program is described and shown to provide a valuable basis for further refining the technology for the control of planetary back contamination.

  8. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    On 1 January 2004 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General (J. Phys. A). I am flattered at the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Ed Corrigan, has worked tirelessly for the last five years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements. Before accepting the position of Editor-in-Chief, I visited the office of J. Phys. A to examine the organization and to assess its strengths and weaknesses. This office is located at the Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) headquarters in Bristol. J. Phys. A has been expanding rapidly and now publishes at the rate of nearly 1000 articles (or about 14,000 pages) per year. The entire operation of the journal is conducted in a very small space---about 15 square metres! Working in this space are six highly intelligent, talented, hard working, and dedicated people: Neil Scriven, Publisher; Mike Williams, Publishing Editor; Rose Gray and Sarah Nadin, Publishing Administrators; Laura Smith and Steve Richards, Production Editors. In this small space every day about eight submitted manuscripts are downloaded from the computer or received in the post. These papers are then processed and catalogued, referees are selected, and the papers are sent out for evaluation. In this small space the referees' reports are received, publication decisions are made, and accepted articles are then published quickly by IOPP. The whole operation is amazingly efficient. Indeed, one of the great strengths of J. Phys. A is the speed at which papers are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and an editorial decision is under sixty days. (Many distinguished journals take three to five times this amount of time.) This speed of publication is an extremely strong enticement for

  9. Mechanisms of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the major cause of the food-borne salmonellosis pandemic in humans of the last 20 years, during which contaminated eggs were the most important vehicle of the infection. Eggs can be contaminated on the outer shell surface and internally. Internal contamination can be the re...

  10. Establishing a Book Publishing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciofalo, Andrew

    Addressing the need to prepare college graduates for careers in book publishing, this report examines the necessity and structure of a book publishing curriculum at the undergraduate level at Loyola College in Maryland. A 1977 bulletin by the American Association of Publishers (AAP) cited a lack of awareness of publishing as a possible career, and…

  11. BOOK PUBLISHING IN COMMUNIST CHINA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIU, ALAN P.

    A GENERAL STUDY WAS MADE OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK PUBLISHING INDUSTRY IN COMMUNIST CHINA. FIRST THE PAPER REVIEWS BRIEFLY THE PRIVATE INDUSTRY OF PUBLISHING IN PRE-COMMUNIST CHINA. NEXT THE COMMUNIST NATIONALIZATION OF THE PUBLISHING ENTERPRISE IS DESCRIBED. THEN THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE PUBLISHING OF THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES OF…

  12. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Editorial developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    We are delighted to announce that from January 2009, Professor Murray T Batchelor of the Australian National University, Canberra will be the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Murray Batchelor has been Editor of the Mathematical Physics section of the journal since 2007. Prior to this, he served as a Board Member and an Advisory Panel member for the journal. His primary area of research is the statistical mechanics of exactly solved models. He holds a joint appointment in mathematics and physics and has held visiting positions at the Universities of Leiden, Amsterdam, Oxford and Tokyo. We very much look forward to working with Murray to continue to improve the journal's quality and interest to the readership. We would like to thank our outgoing Editor-in-Chief, Professor Carl M Bender. Carl has done a magnificent job as Editor-in-Chief and has worked tirelessly to improve the journal over the last five years. Carl has been instrumental in designing and implementing strategies that have enhanced the quality of papers published and service provided by Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Notably, under his tenure, we have introduced the Fast Track Communications (FTC) section to the journal. This section provides a venue for outstanding short papers that report new and timely developments in mathematical and theoretical physics and offers accelerated publication and high visibility for our authors. During the last five years, we have raised the quality threshold for acceptance in the journal and now reject over 60% of submissions. As a result, papers published in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical are amongst the best in the field. We have also maintained and improved on our excellent receipt-to-first-decision times, which now average less than 50 days for papers. We have recently announced another innovation; the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. These prizes will honour excellent papers

  13. Why publish with AGU?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graedel, T. E.

    The most visible activity of the American Geophysical Union is its publication of scientific journals. There are eight of these: Journal of Geophysical Research—Space Physics (JGR I), Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth (JGR II), Journal of Geophysical Research—Oceans and Atmospheres (JGR III), Radio Science (RS), Water Resources Research (WRR), Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics (RGSP), and the newest, Tectonics.AGU's journals have established solid reputations for scientific excellence over the years. Reputation is not sufficient to sustain a high quality journal, however, since other factors enter into an author's decision on where to publish his or her work. In this article the characteristics of AGU's journals are compared with those of its competitors, with the aim of furnishing guidance to prospective authors and a better understanding of the value of the products to purchasers.

  14. 3. Photocopy of photograph (published in Binghamton, Illustrated, Published in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph (published in Binghamton, Illustrated, Published in Nine Parts, H. R. Page & Co.: 1890, Part IV) FRONT AND SIDE, SHOWING TOWER - U. S. Courthouse & Post Office, Binghamton, Broome County, NY

  15. The Economics of Publishing and the Publishing of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Manna, Manfredi

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between economics and scientific journal publishing. Topics include journal pricing in economics; market power exerted by the dominant commercial publisher in economics journal publishing; academic experiments to improve scholarly communication in economics; policies of the United Kingdom Competition Commission; and…

  16. Publishing in the Next Few Years: A Commercial Publisher's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Harry J. J.

    Over the past 15 years, internet technology changed the ways of publishing tremendously. It is truly revolutionary that both fresh and historic science publications are so much easier to search and find. This revolution has not been completed and all parties involved in science publishing are continuously adjusting their activities to the new rules and opportunities. From a commercial publisher's perspective, I will extrapolate what happens today to predict what happens in the next few years with journal subscriptions, book publishing, marketing, production and other steps in the publishing process.

  17. Publishing Is For People Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worpole, Ken

    1974-01-01

    Article described a project which aims to provide publishing and distribution opportunities for people in Hackney who would never think of themselves as within the traditional framework of commercial publishing. (Author/RK)

  18. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, P.

    1993-12-28

    A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

  19. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  20. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Mar, Peter D.

    1994-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  1. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  2. Build infrastructure in publishing scientific journals to benefit medical scientists

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ni; Xu, Dingyao; Zhong, Xiyao; Li, Li; Ling, Qibo

    2014-01-01

    There is urgent need for medical journals to optimize their publishing processes and strategies to satisfy the huge need for medical scientists to publish their articles, and then obtain better prestige and impact in scientific and research community. These strategies include optimizing the process of peer-review, utilizing open-access publishing models actively, finding ways of saving costs and getting revenue, smartly dealing with research fraud or misconduct, maintaining sound relationship with pharmaceutical companies, and managing to provide relevant and useful information for clinical practitioners and researchers. Scientists, publishers, societies and organizations need to work together to publish internationally renowned medical journals. PMID:24653634

  3. Build infrastructure in publishing scientific journals to benefit medical scientists.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ni; Xu, Dingyao; Zhong, Xiyao; Li, Li; Ling, Qibo; Bu, Zhaode

    2014-02-01

    There is urgent need for medical journals to optimize their publishing processes and strategies to satisfy the huge need for medical scientists to publish their articles, and then obtain better prestige and impact in scientific and research community. These strategies include optimizing the process of peer-review, utilizing open-access publishing models actively, finding ways of saving costs and getting revenue, smartly dealing with research fraud or misconduct, maintaining sound relationship with pharmaceutical companies, and managing to provide relevant and useful information for clinical practitioners and researchers. Scientists, publishers, societies and organizations need to work together to publish internationally renowned medical journals. PMID:24653634

  4. Seven Tips for Publishing Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumashiro, Kevin K.

    2004-01-01

    The publishing industry in the field of education is undergoing several profound changes. New publishers are emerging while established publishers are merging. More book series (that is, books on a certain topic that are approved and mentored by one or more established scholars in the field) are being created. Alternative paths are becoming more…

  5. Strategic Change in AAS Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Julie

    2015-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society has embarked on a process of strategic change in its publishing program. The process has incuded authors, AAS leaders, editors, publishing experts, librarians, and data scientists. This session will outline the still ongoing process and present some both upcoming and already available new AAS Publishing features and services to the global astronomy community.

  6. EDITORIAL: Publisher's Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashan, Yasmin

    2006-12-01

    In addition to offering an excellent service to authors, referees and readers of the journal, one of the goals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) is to support the plasma community. We sponsor a number of prizes each year, usually focused on students' contributions to conferences. The poster prize winners from the 33rd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics can be found in Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 48 B1-B506 along with the invited talks from the conference. Other prizes include: A poster prize at the CCLRC-organised High Power Laser Science Christmas meeting, held in Abingdon, UK, in December 2005. The winning poster was: `Implicit Vlasov Fokker Planck simulations including hydrodynamic ion motion' Christopher Ridgers (Imperial College London). The second prize went to C Cecchitti (Queens University of Belfast), and the third prize to John Howe (University of York). For the first time in 2006 PPCF also sponsored a prize for the best poster presented at the International Workshop on Frontiers of Plasma Physics, held from 21 August-1 September 2006 at the Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy. The winner of this prize was Dr Bhaskar Chaudhury (Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, India), for his work on `Plasma stealth technology: reduction of radar cross section of plasma shrouded objects'. Thank you to everyone who participated in these prizes, and congratulations to the winners and runners-up. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank the authors and referees of PPCF for all their hard work and support in making the journal a success in 2006 and to wish you all a successful 2007.

  7. A Publisher view on the future of scholarly publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, Jose

    2015-08-01

    The journal publishing landscape is changing rapidly. With the massive move from print to online taking place at the end of the last century, we are now seeing a shift from traditional subscription based publishing model to ‘hybrid’ models and full Open Access publishing. Other major changes are taking place at the article interface level (from a static PDF to the “Article of the Future”), in data and code repository linking, in publishing data and code and hence make it citable and discoverable, and in many other subject area specific online innovations that are being introduced.Elsevier is actively involved - both in Open Access publishing, and in content innovation - in discussing, and taking the lead through many big and smaller scale initiatives. This presentation will outline Elsevier’s perspective on the future of scientific publishing with regards to these developments.

  8. Rationale and Methods for Archival Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Chemical Contaminants On Board Mir and Recommendations for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; James, J. T.; Cole, H. E.; Limero, T. F.; Beck, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Collection and analysis of spacecraft cabin air samples are necessary to assess the cabin air quality with respect to crew health. Both toxicology and engineering disciplines work together to achieve an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Toxicology is concerned with limiting the risk to crew health from chemical sources, setting exposure limits, and analyzing air samples to determine how well these limits are met. Engineering provides the means for minimizing the contribution of the various contaminant generating sources by providing active contamination control equipment on board spacecraft and adhering to a rigorous material selection and control program during the design and construction of the spacecraft. A review of the rationale and objectives for sampling spacecraft cabin atmospheres is provided. The presently-available sampling equipment and methods are reviewed along with the analytical chemistry methods employed to determine trace contaminant concentrations. These methods are compared and assessed with respect to actual cabin air quality monitoring needs. Recommendations are presented with respect to the basic sampling program necessary to ensure an acceptably clean spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Also, rationale and recommendations for expanding the scope of the basic monitoring program are discussed.

  9. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. The new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is also included on whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. They are also published in Advanced Materials, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25327898

  10. Best practice guidelines on publishing ethics: a publisher's perspective, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Deakin, Lisa; Docking, Martine; Jones, Jackie; Joshua, Sue; McKerahan, Tiffany; Ottmar, Martin; Stevens, Allen; Wates, Edward; Wyatt, Deborah

    2015-01-14

    Wiley has updated its publishing ethics guidelines, first published in 2006. These new guidelines provide guidance, resources, and practical advice on ethical concerns that arise in academic publishing for editors, authors, and researchers, among other audiences. New guidance is included about whistle blowers, animal research, clinical research, and clinical trial registration, addressing cultural differences, human rights, and confidentiality. The guidelines are uniquely interdisciplinary, and were reviewed by 24 editors and experts chosen from the wide range of communities that Wiley serves. These guidelines are also published in: Headache, International Journal of Clinical Practice, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Social Science Quarterly, and on the website http://exchanges.wiley.com/ethicsguidelines. PMID:25330311

  11. A framework for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anne M; Larson, Diane L; DalSoglio, Julie A; Harris, James A; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Skrabis, Kristin E

    2016-04-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:264-272. 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). PMID:26339869

  12. How Authorship is Defined by Multiple Publishing Organizations and STM Publishers.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Dobránszki, Judit

    2016-01-01

    The most important part of a biomedical scientific manuscript is undeniably the research data. Yet, scientists generate and validate that data, culminating, in most cases, in a scientific manuscript. Thus, authorship, specifically the contributions and attributed responsibilities of the authors, remains a central issue in science publishing. This article examines the definitions of authorship as defined by four publishing organizations--the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Council of Scientific Editors (CSE), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and World Association of Medical Editors (WAME)-and 15 science, technology, and medicine (STM) publishers. The objective is to understand whether there is consistency among definitions. Five of these STM publishers rely specifically on the ICMJE definitions of authorship, while 12/15 are COPE members. The clarity, logic, realism, feasibility, and enforceability of these definitions will be discussed. Our analysis reveals that authorship definitions are inconsistent among the 15 STM publishers. Scientists have the inherent right to determine who is an author of an article according to the ethical guidelines of their institutes, but these may differ from the guidelines indicated by publishers, while editors and publishers have the right to verify authorship. PMID:26191641

  13. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens

    PubMed Central

    Nandre, Rahul M.; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine. PMID:26130857

  14. An Update on AGU Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilst, Rob; Hanson, Brooks

    2013-07-01

    In the past year, AGU publishing has undergone substantial change, and we realize that this has caused some anxiety and concern among you, our members. As the start of a regular Eos series on issues in scientific publishing in general and AGU's content in particular, we provide here an overview and update of recent developments, with an emphasis on the partnership between AGU and Wiley. Topical entries, for instance on open access, will be published later.

  15. Publish or Perish: The Myth and Reality of Academic Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy

    2014-01-01

    While writing for scholarly publications is considered a crucial dimension of academic work, the "publish-or-perish" system in our field has increasingly caused anxiety and induced stress among not only young academics but also more established scholars. Using my own publishing experience as a point of departure, I challenge the…

  16. Research Library Publishing Services: New Options for University Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Karla L.

    2008-01-01

    A 2007 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey indicates that research libraries are rapidly developing publishing services: 65 percent of 80 responding ARL member libraries currently deliver or are in processing of planning these services. Established journal titles dominate this emerging publishing sector and are the main drivers of…

  17. Evidence-informed recommendations to reduce dissemination bias in clinical research: conclusions from the OPEN (Overcome failure to Publish nEgative fiNdings) project based on an international consensus meeting

    PubMed Central

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Schell, Lisa K; Bassler, Dirk; Gallus, Silvano; Kleijnen, Jos; Kulig, Michael; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marušić, Ana; Ravaud, Philippe; Reis, Andreas; Schmucker, Christine; Strech, Daniel; Urrútia, Gerard; Antes, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Dissemination bias in clinical research severely impedes informed decision-making not only for healthcare professionals and patients, but also for funders, research ethics committees, regulatory bodies and other stakeholder groups that make health-related decisions. Decisions based on incomplete and biased evidence cannot only harm people, but may also have huge financial implications by wasting resources on ineffective or harmful diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and unnecessary research. Owing to involvement of multiple stakeholders, it remains easy for any single group to assign responsibility for resolving the problem to others. Objective To develop evidence-informed general and targeted recommendations addressing the various stakeholders involved in knowledge generation and dissemination to help overcome the problem of dissemination bias on the basis of previously collated evidence. Methods Based on findings from systematic reviews, document analyses and surveys, we developed general and targeted draft recommendations. During a 2-day workshop in summer 2013, these draft recommendations were discussed with external experts and key stakeholders, and refined following a rigorous and transparent methodological approach. Results Four general, overarching recommendations applicable to all or most stakeholder groups were formulated, addressing (1) awareness raising, (2) implementation of targeted recommendations, (3) trial registration and results posting, and (4) systematic approaches to evidence synthesis. These general recommendations are complemented and specified by 47 targeted recommendations tailored towards funding agencies, pharmaceutical and device companies, research institutions, researchers (systematic reviewers and trialists), research ethics committees, trial registries, journal editors and publishers, regulatory agencies, benefit (health technology) assessment institutions and legislators. Conclusions Despite various recent examples of

  18. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, Winston; Bender, David R.; Haycock, Ken; Horodyski, John

    2001-01-01

    Includes three annual reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, the Special Libraries Association, and a report on innovations in Canadian libraries that discusses electronic initiatives, partnerships, books and publishing, school libraries, national issues, local challenges, and funding. (LRW)

  19. A Manifesto for Scholarly Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While university presses grapple with the economic and technological challenges now affecting how books are published--the subject of a thousand and one AAUP conference sessions, e-mail-list debates, and news articles--discussion of "what" is published seems to have taken a back seat. And understandably so. Why obsess about content if books are…

  20. Publisher Procurement for Educational Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James A.

    This monograph explores various aspects of the publisher solicitation process for commercial distribution of educational materials. A brief matrix typology for the conceptual classification of various solicitation models or strategies is developed. This is followed by a discussion of one such model: the negotiated publisher solicitation or product…

  1. Recently published protein sequences. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.; Holmquist, R.

    1972-01-01

    Some polypeptide sequences that have been published in the 1972 scientific literature are listed. Only selected sequences are included. The compilation has two objectives. Current information between periods when more comprehensive compilations are published is to be assembled and the use of data that do not include arrangements of unsequenced peptides for 'maximum homology' is to be encouraged.

  2. Proteome changes in rat serum after a chronic ingestion of enriched uranium: Toward a biological signature of internal contamination and radiological effect.

    PubMed

    Petitot, F; Frelon, S; Chambon, C; Paquet, F; Guipaud, O

    2016-08-22

    The civilian and military use of uranium results in an increased risk of human exposure. The toxicity of uranium results from both its chemical and radiological properties that vary with isotopic composition. Validated biomarkers of health effects associated with exposure to uranium are neither sensitive nor specific to uranium radiotoxicity and/or radiological effect. This study aimed at investigating if serum proteins could be useful as biomarkers of both uranium exposure and radiological effect. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically exposed through drinking water to low levels (40mg/L, corresponding to 1mg of uranium per animal per day) of either 4% (235)U-enriched uranium (EU) or 12% EU during 6 weeks. A proteomics approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS) was used to establish protein expression profiles that could be relevant for discriminating between groups, and to identify some differentially expressed proteins following uranium ingestion. It demonstrated that the expressions of 174 protein spots over 1045 quantified spots were altered after uranium exposure (p<0.05). Using both inferential and non-supervised multivariate statistics, we show sets of spots features that lead to a clear discrimination between controls and EU exposed groups on the one hand (21 spots), and between 4% EU and 12% EU on the other hand (7 spots), showing that investigation of the serum proteome may possibly be of relevance to address both uranium contamination and radiological effect. Finally, using bioinformatics tools, pathway analyses of differentially expressed MS-identified proteins find that acute phase, inflammatory and immune responses as well as oxidative stress are likely involved in the response to contamination, suggesting a physiological perturbation, but that does not necessarily lead to a toxic effect. PMID:27267564

  3. To Publish or Not to Publish: Some Faculty Choose Not to Publish while Others See Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Every year, faculty members publish hundreds of thousands of research papers in academic journals at the nation's colleges and universities. Almost none of these papers are written by tribal college and university (TCU) faculty. Is this good for TCU faculty because without the pressure to "publish or perish," they are able to focus entirely on…

  4. ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic pollutants may constitute the most widespread waste loadings into the waters of Lake Superior. There are essentially three categories of organic contaminants. The first grouping consists of those organic compounds that readily degrade biologically or chemically. The secon...

  5. Bacterial Contamination of the Internal Cavity of Dental Implants After Application of Disinfectant or Sealant Agents Under Cyclic Loading In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Podhorsky, Anke; Putzier, Sven; Rehmann, Peter; Streckbein, Philipp; Domann, Eugen; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of two sealants (Kiero Seal, Kuss Dental, and Berutemp 500, Carl-Bechem) and a disinfectant agent (Chlorhexamed gel, GlaxoSmithKline) on bacterial colonization of the implant-abutment interface. Implants were pretreated with the substances or left without sealing before standard abutments were fixed. Half the specimens were subjected to cyclic loading, and the others were not loaded. Following 7 days of incubation in a bacterial solution, bacterial counts of the internal part of the implants were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All pretreatments lowered bacterial counts, but no substance could guarantee sterility of the implants' internal portion. PMID:27611755

  6. Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

  7. Publishing Daily on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George

    1997-01-01

    Relates how a 16,000 circulation daily newspaper publishes on the Web. Discusses lessons learned about audience, content, design, interactivity, and making money. Muses about the effect new media will have on print. (PA)

  8. The art of getting published.

    PubMed

    Garner, Jeff

    2014-06-01

    Getting academic research published can be a daunting undertaking at first, and before the advent of academic junior doctor posts, was a hidden art for most. Publications remain an important milestone in academic progress in many disciplines and in some medical specialties are a prerequisite for selection to higher training grades. This article provides a brief overview of some of the issues facing those wishing to publish and how they may be overcome. PMID:24379299

  9. A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, T.L. ); Jordan, H. . Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. ); Mings, W.J. ); Reardon, P.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Assessment of the risk of salmonellosis from internally contaminated shell eggs following initial storage at 18 °C (65 °F), compared with 7 °C (45 °F).

    PubMed

    Pouillot, R; Hoelzer, K; Ramirez, G A; deGraft-Hanson, J; Dennis, S B

    2014-10-01

    In the U.S., chicken-breeder farms that supply hatcheries typically store and transport eggs intended for broiler production at a temperature of 18.3 °C (65 °F). However, in case of surplus, some of these eggs may be diverted to human consumption. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 'Egg Safety Final Rule,' shell eggs intended for human consumption are required to be held or transported at or below 7.2 °C (45 °F) ambient temperature beginning 36 h after time of lay. We adapted a risk assessment model developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety Inspection Service, to quantify human exposure to Salmonella Enteritidis and the risk of human salmonellosis if eggs are held and transported at 18.3 °C for up to 5.5 days after time of lay, as has been observed when hatchery eggs are diverted to human consumption, rather than held and transported at 7.2 °C within 36 h after time of lay. Storage at 18.3 °C leads to considerable bacterial growth in internally contaminated eggs. The model predicted that more than 10% of internally contaminated eggs would remain contaminated after in-shell pasteurization resulting in a 5-log10 reduction, and that some bacteria would survive after home-cooking. The model predicted that, alternatively, eggs stored at 7.2 °C after lay would have limited bacterial growth prior to pasteurization, and Salmonella would be very unlikely to be present after pasteurization. The predicted risk of salmonellosis from the consumption of eggs held and transported at 18.3 °C and subsequently diverted to human consumption is 25 times higher than the risk when eggs are held and transported at 7.2 °C. PMID:24929877

  11. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols. PMID:25355092

  12. Mercury Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella R.

    2013-01-01

    IN BRIEF A residential elemental mercury contamination incident in Rhode Island resulted in the evacuation of an entire apartment complex. To develop recommendations for improved response, all response-related documents were examined; personnel involved in the response were interviewed; policies and procedures were reviewed; and environmental monitoring data were compiled from specific phases of the response for analysis of effect. A significant challenge of responding to residential elemental mercury contamination lies in communicating risk to residents affected py a HazMat spill. An ongoing, open and honest dialogue is emphasized where concerns of the public are heard and addressed, particularly when establishing and/or modifying policies and procedures for responding to residential elemental mercury contamination. PMID:23436951

  13. Applied and implied semantics in crystallographic publishing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crystallography is a data-rich, software-intensive scientific discipline with a community that has undertaken direct responsibility for publishing its own scientific journals. That community has worked actively to develop information exchange standards allowing readers of structure reports to access directly, and interact with, the scientific content of the articles. Results Structure reports submitted to some journals of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) can be automatically validated and published through an efficient and cost-effective workflow. Readers can view and interact with the structures in three-dimensional visualization applications, and can access the experimental data should they wish to perform their own independent structure solution and refinement. The journals also layer on top of this facility a number of automated annotations and interpretations to add further scientific value. Conclusions The benefits of semantically rich information exchange standards have revolutionised the scholarly publishing process for crystallography, and establish a model relevant to many other physical science disciplines. PMID:22932420

  14. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  15. 10 CFR 20.1406 - Minimization of contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimization of contamination. 20.1406 Section 20.1406... License Termination § 20.1406 Minimization of contamination. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 35564... extent practicable, contamination of the facility and the environment, facilitate...

  16. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  17. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  18. Contamination control

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.C.

    1983-11-01

    An evaluation showed that fluoropolymer plastic squeeze bottles can replace polyethylene bottles when used for in-process cleaning. Fluoropolymer plastic squeeze bottles do not contaminate solvents stored in the bottles as polyethylene bottles do. In addition, a limited survey of industrial practices regarding aerosol spray container control showed containers are being controlled without inconveniencing production.

  19. The Economics of Book Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Michael J.; Olszewski, Ray

    This is one of several papers presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It provides a base for policy research on the economics of book publishing. The structure of the book production and distribution industry is described and some economic properties that distinguish it are identified. Aggregate industry trends…

  20. A Course in Desktop Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerick, Nancy M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes "Promotional Publications," a required course for public relations majors, which teaches the basics of desktop publishing. Outlines how the course covers the preparation of publications used as communication tools in public relations, advertising, and organizations, with an emphasis upon design, layout, and technology. (MM)

  1. The Future of Scholarly Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In these times of financial crisis, much of the discussion about scholarly publishing has focused on budgets, the switch to electronic formats, and the future of the monograph. Throughout, however, university presses have continued to bring out important scholarship that is the mainstay of academe. "The Chronicle Review" asked a group of editors…

  2. The Economics of Academic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweser, Carl

    1983-01-01

    A survey of authorships in the Journal of Finance supports the notion that academic researchers perceive that they are faced with diminishing marginal returns to publishing, and that academic writers act in a rational manner in relation to their perceptions by turning to multiple authorship of journal articles. (Author/AM)

  3. Teachers' Attitudes toward Publishers' Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles

    This paper reports on the results of seven questions asked to secondary level department chairmen regarding the unit tests which accompany textbook materials. Nearly 1,500 responses were received from teachers of French, German, and Spanish. The results indicate that most teachers do not use publishers tests when they are available. The…

  4. Automatic Publishing of Library Bulletins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inbal, Moshe

    1980-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer to publish library bulletins that list recent accessions of technical reports according to the subject classification scheme of NTIS/SRIM (National Technical Information Service's Scientific Reports in Microfiche). The codes file, the four computer program functions, and costs/economy are discussed. (JD)

  5. Effect of chemical sanitizers on Salmonella enterica serovar Poona on the surface of cantaloupe and pathogen contamination of internal tissues as a function of cutting procedure.

    PubMed

    Vadlamudi, Sasi; Taylor, T Matthew; Blankenburg, Charles; Castillo, Alejandro

    2012-10-01

    Survival of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Poona on surface and stem scar portions of inoculated cantaloupe following sanitizer application, transfer of pathogen from the rind to the flesh during cutting, and growth of Salmonella Poona on cantaloupe cubes over 15 days of refrigerated storage were investigated. Cantaloupes inoculated with a rifampin-resistant strain of Salmonella Poona (10(7) CFU/ml) for 3 min and dried for 12 h were washed with chlorine (200 mg free chlorine per liter, 3 min), lactic acid (2%, 2 min), or ozone (30 mg/liter, 5 min). Fresh-cut cantaloupe cubes were prepared by (i) cutting the cantaloupe and then removing the rind or by (ii) peeling the rind and then cutting the flesh into pieces. The numbers of Salmonella bacteria recovered were higher in the stem scar portion (6.3 ± 0.3 log CFU/cm(2)) than the surface (4.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/cm(2)). Surface treatment with tap water or chlorine did not reduce Salmonella numbers, while treatment with lactic acid or ozone reduced Salmonella by 2.5 or 2.3 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. The use of lactic acid to sanitize the cantaloupes resulted in less Salmonella transfer to flesh during cutting; Salmonella numbers decreased to below detectable levels over 9 days of refrigerated (4°C) storage. Cutting cantaloupes after peeling the rind was more effective at reducing transfer of Salmonella to the internal tissue than cutting of cantaloupes prior to rind removal. These data suggest that treatment of cantaloupe rinds with lactic acid or ozone may be effective at reducing Salmonella numbers, while lactic acid application resulted in reduction of Salmonella transfer to cantaloupe flesh. PMID:23043824

  6. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... contained 60 chemical and microbiological contaminants, on March 2, 1998 (63 FR 10273). EPA consulted with... potential microbiological contaminants. On July 18, 2003 (68 FR 42897), EPA announced its final regulatory... microbial) with an NPDWR. EPA published the second CCL (CCL 2) on February 24, 2005 (70 FR 9071),...

  7. 77 FR 26071 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) require that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the agency) establish criteria for a program to monitor unregulated contaminants and publish a list of up to 30 contaminants to be monitored every five years. This final rule meets the SDWA requirement by publishing the third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring......

  8. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  9. Counting efficiency of whole-body monitoring system using BOMAB and ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom due to internal contamination of 131I.

    PubMed

    Ghare, V P; Patni, H K; Akar, D K; Rao, D D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of Indian reference BOttle MAnnikin aBsorber (BOMAB) neck with axial cavity and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) thyroid phantom using pencil sources of (133)Ba ((131)I simulant) on counting efficiency (CE) is seen experimentally in static geometry for whole-body monitoring system comprising 10.16-cm diameter and 7.62-cm-thick NaI(Tl) detector. The CE estimated using the neck part of BOMAB phantom is 50.2% lower in comparison with ANSI phantom. In rest of the studies FLUKA code is used for Monte Carlo simulations using ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom. The simulation results are validated in static geometries with experimental CE and the differences are within 1.3%. It is observed that CE for pencil source distribution is 3.97% higher for (133)Ba in comparison with CE of (131)I source. Simulated CE for pencil source distribution is 4.7% lower in comparison with uniform source distribution in the volume of thyroid for (131)I. Since the radiation workers are of different physique; overlying tissue thickness (OTT) and neck-to-detector distance play an important role in the calculation of activity in thyroid. The CE decreases with increase in OTT and is found to be 5.5% lower if OTT is changed from 1.1 to 2 cm. Finally, the simulations are carried out to estimate the variation in CE due to variation in the neck-to-detector distance. The CE is 6.2% higher if the neck surface-to-detector distance is decreased from 21.4 to 20.4 cm and it goes on increasing up to 61.9% if the distance is decreased to 15.4 cm. In conclusion, the calibration of whole-body monitoring system for (131)I should be carried out with ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom, the neck-to-detector distance controlled or the CE corrected for this, and the CE should be corrected for OTT. PMID:24179144

  10. Worldwide survey of fumonisin contamination of corn and corn-based products.

    PubMed

    Shephard, G S; Thiel, P G; Stockenström, S; Sydenham, E W

    1996-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive risk assessment study for fumonisins, reliable data on exposure of populations to these dietary toxins must be obtained. To assess the extent of worldwide exposure, the published literature on the contamination of food and feed supplies has been reviewed and supplemented with unpublished material from various international sources. Fumonisin contamination of corn and corn-based products occurs in many countries. Animal mycotoxicoses such as equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary edema are caused by heavily contaminated animal feeds. For example, as much as 330 micrograms/g fumonisin B1 (FB1) has been found in swine feed. Although commercially available refined corn products for human consumption are generally contaminated at levels below 1 microgram/g FB1, individual products in certain countries can reach far higher levels. Health risks associated with consumption of these products depend on the extent to which they are consumed in a varied diet. Home-grown corn in certain rural areas, where it also constitutes the staple diet, can be contaminated at > 100 micrograms/g. Consumption of corn contaminated at these high levels has been associated with a high incidence of esophageal cancer in these areas. PMID:8634537

  11. News Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Event: UK to host Science on Stage Travel: Gaining a more global perspective on physics Event: LIYSF asks students to 'cross scientific boundaries' Competition: Young Physicists' tournament is international affair Conference: Learning in a changing world of new technologies Event: Nordic physical societies meet in Lund Conference: Tenth ESERA conference to publish ebook Meeting: Rugby meeting brings teachers together Note: Remembering John L Lewis OBE

  12. The Trend towards Self-Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Pat

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the self-publishing trend in Canada. Topics addressed include changes in the publishing industry, desktop publishing, quality control, printing, publicity, reviews, marketing, and the future of self-publishing. Two sidebars discuss vanity presses and self-publishing and libraries. (32 references) (LRW)

  13. A Writer's Guide to Book Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard

    This guide describes the publishing process, for the author with a manuscript waiting to be published. Separate chapters discuss how to approach a publisher, how a publisher evaluates a proposal or manuscript, how to understand and negotiate a book contract, how to prepare a final manuscript, how a manuscript is processed by a publisher, how a…

  14. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues and their…

  15. Biomedicine's Electronic Publishing Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Barry P.

    2000-01-01

    Biomedical publishing stands at a crossroads. The traditional print, peer-reviewed, subscription journal has served science well but is now being called into question. Because of spiraling print journal costs and the worldwide acceptance of the Internet as a valid publication medium, there is a compelling opportunity to re-examine our current paradigm and future options. This report illustrates the conflicts and restrictions inherent in the current publishing model and examines how the single act of permitting authors to retain copyright of their scholarly manuscripts may preserve the quality-control function of the current journal system while allowing PubMed Central, the Internet archiving system recently proposed by the director of the National Institutes of Health, to simplify and liberate access to the world's biomedical literature. PMID:10833158

  16. PREFACE: Scientific and Publishing Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    1.Scientific Editors Section 1: Particle physics Mikhail Skorohvatov - NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia Section 2: Nuclear physics Mikhail Danilov - ITEP NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia Section 3: Cosmic rays Arkady Galper - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Anatoly Petrukhin - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Section 4: Methods of experimental physics Valery Dmitrenko - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia 2.Publishing Editors Irene Arkhangelskaja - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia Pavel Buzhan - NRNU MEPhI, Moscow, Russia

  17. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Fast Track Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Robert; Adams, Judith

    2006-12-01

    We are very pleased to announce that Classical and Quantum Gravity will launch a new Fast Track Communications section from January 2007, after which date Letters to the Editor will no longer be published. Fast Track Communications (FTCs) are short, timely papers presenting only the most important new developments. To reflect their high significance FTCs will be published at the front of the journal and will be freely available online to ensure the widest visibility. As with all articles submitted to Classical and Quantum Gravity, there are no page charges, including online colour reproduction and multi-media attachments. Authors who wish to include colour in the print version of their article will, however, be required to cover the costs. Submissions to the new Fast Track Communications section are very welcome. For details of how to submit an FTC please visit IOP Publishing's webpages http://authors.iop.org, or contact the journal at cqg@iop.org. To facilitate refereeing, authors are asked to submit a short statement accompanying their FTC, outlining why they feel that the article merits high-priority publication. Length restrictions will also be applied such that FTCs should be a maximum of 8 journal pages (5000 words) in length. The section will aim to be a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research of interest to the Classical and Quantum Gravity community. We look forward to seeing it grow and take shape over the next year.

  18. Two recently sequenced vertebrate genomes are contaminated with apicomplexan species of the Sarcocystidae family.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Ferenc

    2015-11-01

    This paper highlights a general problem, namely that host genome sequences can easily be contaminated with parasite sequences, thus careful isolation of genetic material and careful bioinformatics analysis are needed in all cases. Two recently published genomes are shown here to be contaminated with sequences of apicomplexan parasites which belong to the Sarcocystidae family. Sequences of the characteristic apicomplexan organelle, the apicoplast, were used as queries in BLASTN searches against nucleotide sequences of various animal groups looking for possible contamination. Draft genomes of a bird, Colinus virginianus (Halley et al., 2014), and a bat, Myotis davidii (Zhang et al., 2013) were found to contain at least six and 17 contigs, respectively, originating from the apicoplast of an apicomplexan species, and other genes specific to this phylum can also be found in the published genomes. Obviously, the sources of the genetic material, the muscle and the kidney of the animals, respectively, contained the parasitic cysts. Phylogenetic analyses using 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 genes show that the parasite contaminating C. virginianus is a species of Sarcocystis related to ones known to cycle between avian and mammalian hosts. In the case of M. davidii it belongs to the Nephroisospora genus, the only member of which, Nephroisospora eptesici, has been recently identified from the kidney of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). PMID:26264549

  19. Contaminant hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeology is a rapidly evolving field in which new approaches and tools are being applied to solve problems. This new book fills an important niche. Fetter focuses primarily on chemical processes in the subsurface, avoiding duplication of materials that are covered in other, more classical texts. This book is an excellent follow-up to his earlier text, Applied Hydrogeology, and reviews only briefly the foundational concepts covered in the earlier textbook. Contaminant Hydrogeology is written at the graduate student level and assumes prerequisite courses in physics, chemistry, and hydrogeology. For the most part, each of the nine chapters covers a major area of concern common to applied contaminant studies. A thorough, theoretical treatment of solute transport through the vadose zone is presented, and a sample problem and a case study add unusually high value to this discussion of a topic that generally is not well understood in the practice. Topics covered include the Buckingham Flux Law, the Richards Equation, vapor-phase transport, equilibrium and nonequilibrium models of mass transport, and preferential flow paths. Nonaqueous-phase liquid migrations under both saturated and unsaturated conditions is covered for horizontal as well as vertical migration. Both light and dense nonaqueous phase liquids are presented, and Darcy's Law for two-phase flow is introduced. The strength of Contaminant Hydrogeology lies in the author's ability to translate concepts through practical experience. This book links the theoretical to the practical through example problems and case histories. It should be considered for use in graduate classes and would be a valuable reference in the library of any practicing hydrogeologist.

  20. Contamination Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  1. 78 FR 55694 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY... review of the draft research report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near...

  2. Trends in scientific publishing: Dark clouds loom large.

    PubMed

    Vinny, Pulikottil Wilson; Vishnu, Venugopalan Y; Lal, Vivek

    2016-04-15

    The world wide web has brought about a paradigm shift in the way medical research is published and accessed. The ease with which a new journal can be started/hosted by publishing start-ups is unprecedented. The tremendous capabilities of the world wide web and the open access revolution when combined with a highly profitable business have attracted unscrupulous fraudulent operators to the publishing industry. The intent of these fraudulent publishers is solely driven by profit with utter disregard to scientific content, peer reviews and ethics. This phenomenon has been referred to as "predatory publishing". The "international" tag of such journals often betrays their true origins. The gold open access model of publishing, where the author pays the publisher, when coupled with a non-existent peer review threatens to blur the distinction between science and pseudoscience. The average researcher needs to be made more aware of this clear and present danger to the scientific community. Prevention is better than cure. PMID:27000235

  3. 78 FR 54687 - International Mail Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... ``Express Mail International'' with ``Priority Mail Express International'' pursuant to a...

  4. Self-Published Books: An Empirical "Snapshot"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jana; Fulton, Bruce; Helm, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    The number of books published by authors using fee-based publication services, such as Lulu and AuthorHouse, is overtaking the number of books published by mainstream publishers, according to Bowker's 2009 annual data. Little empirical research exists on self-published books. This article presents the results of an investigation of a random sample…

  5. The Once and Future Publishing Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okerson, Ann; Holzman, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The report explores the revitalization of library publishing and its possible future, and examines elements that influence the success and sustainability of library publishing initiatives. The authors trace the history of library publishing and factors that have transformed the publishing landscape, and describe several significant library-press…

  6. Writing and Publishing: The Librarian's Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever considered writing or reviewing for the library community? Are you interested in publishing a book on your favorite author or hobby? Do you need to write and publish for tenure? If so, "Writing and Publishing" is for you. Practical how-to guidance covering fiction, poetry, children's books/magazines, self-publishing, literary agents,…

  7. How to Publish without Financially Perishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Rodney P.; Savage, Arline; Simkin, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Publication agreements vary by publisher and sometimes by contract as well. A number of such agreements now also include indemnity clauses. "Indemnifying a publisher" means agreeing to pay for any loss, damage, or liability incurred by the publisher, or it can mean that the publisher has the right to claim reimbursement for its loss, damage, or…

  8. The Internet and Unrefereed Scholarly Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Rob

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to the Internet and unrefereed scholarly publishing: conceptions of scholarly publishing and scholarly communication; research manuscripts and preprints; the growth of unrefereed e-script publishing; a hybrid publishing model; controversies about communication via unrefereed…

  9. 12 CFR 271.3 - Published information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Published information. 271.3 Section 271.3... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 271.3 Published information. (a) Federal Register. The Committee publishes in the... the actions, and the votes taken. (c) Other published information. From time to time,...

  10. Contaminant treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.