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1

[Foreign international reference databases: MEDLINE and PubMed. Presentation and instructions for use].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to provide a French guide to reference retrieval using MEDLINE and the new version of PubMed, a system for retrieving references from the World Wide Web. We explain, screen-by-screen, how this reference retrieval tool works, to make its use easier for French-speaking end-users. PMID:10827364

Bloch-Mouillet, E

2000-01-01

2

[MEDLINE and PubMed 2006. Presentation and instructions for use].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to provide a practical kit in French for bibliographic retrieval using MEDLINE on PubMed new version, a World Wide Web retrieval service. We explain screen by screen how this bibliographic research tool works and try to make it easy to use to every single French-speaking end-user. PMID:16777614

Mouillet, Evelyne

2006-01-01

3

Dialysis Search Filters for PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase Databases  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Physicians frequently search bibliographic databases, such as MEDLINE via PubMed, for best evidence for patient care. The objective of this study was to develop and test search filters to help physicians efficiently retrieve literature related to dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) from all other articles indexed in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A diagnostic test assessment framework was used to develop and test robust dialysis filters. The reference standard was a manual review of the full texts of 22,992 articles from 39 journals to determine whether each article contained dialysis information. Next, 1,623,728 unique search filters were developed, and their ability to retrieve relevant articles was evaluated. Results The high-performance dialysis filters consisted of up to 65 search terms in combination. These terms included the words “dialy” (truncated), “uremic,” “catheters,” and “renal transplant wait list.” These filters reached peak sensitivities of 98.6% and specificities of 98.5%. The filters’ performance remained robust in an independent validation subset of articles. Conclusions These empirically derived and validated high-performance search filters should enable physicians to effectively retrieve dialysis information from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase. PMID:22917701

Iansavichus, Arthur V.; Haynes, R. Brian; Lee, Christopher W.C.; Wilczynski, Nancy L.; McKibbon, Ann; Shariff, Salimah Z.; Blake, Peter G.; Lindsay, Robert M.

2012-01-01

4

Do Language Fluency and Other Socioeconomic Factors Influence the Use of PubMed and MedlinePlus?  

PubMed Central

Background Increased usage of MedlinePlus by Spanish-speakers was observed after introduction of MedlinePlus in Spanish. This probably reflects increased usage of MEDLINE and PubMed by those with greater fluency in the language in which it is presented; but this has never been demonstrated in English speakers. Evidence that lack of English fluency deters international healthcare personnel from using PubMed could support the use of multi-language search tools like Babel-MeSH. Objectives This study aims to measure the effects of language fluency and other socioeconomic factors on PubMed MEDLINE and MedlinePlus access by international users. Methods We retrospectively reviewed server pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus from various periods of time, and analyzed them against country statistics on language fluency, GDP, literacy rate, Internet usage, medical schools, and physicians per capita, to determine whether they were associated. Results We found fluency in English to be positively associated with pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus in countries with high literacy rates. Spanish was generally found to be positively associated with pageviews of MedlinePlus en Español. The other parameters also showed varying degrees of association with pageviews. Conclusions After adjusting for the other factors investigated in this study, language fluency was a consistently significant predictor of the use of PubMed, MedlinePlus English and MedlinePlus en Español. This study may support the need for multi-language search tools and may increase access of health information resources from non-English speaking countries. PMID:23874356

Sheets, L.; Gavino, A.; Callaghan, F.; Fontelo, P.

2013-01-01

5

Identifying nurse staffing research in Medline: development and testing of empirically derived search strategies with the PubMed interface  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of health services research in databases such as PubMed/Medline is a cumbersome task. This task becomes even more difficult if the field of interest involves the use of diverse methods and data sources, as is the case with nurse staffing research. This type of research investigates the association between nurse staffing parameters and nursing and patient outcomes. A comprehensively developed search strategy may help identify nurse staffing research in PubMed/Medline. Methods A set of relevant references in PubMed/Medline was identified by means of three systematic reviews. This development set was used to detect candidate free-text and MeSH terms. The frequency of these terms was compared to a random sample from PubMed/Medline in order to identify terms specific to nurse staffing research, which were then used to develop a sensitive, precise and balanced search strategy. To determine their precision, the newly developed search strategies were tested against a) the pool of relevant references extracted from the systematic reviews, b) a reference set identified from an electronic journal screening, and c) a sample from PubMed/Medline. Finally, all newly developed strategies were compared to PubMed's Health Services Research Queries (PubMed's HSR Queries). Results The sensitivities of the newly developed search strategies were almost 100% in all of the three test sets applied; precision ranged from 6.1% to 32.0%. PubMed's HSR queries were less sensitive (83.3% to 88.2%) than the new search strategies. Only minor differences in precision were found (5.0% to 32.0%). Conclusions As with other literature on health services research, nurse staffing studies are difficult to identify in PubMed/Medline. Depending on the purpose of the search, researchers can choose between high sensitivity and retrieval of a large number of references or high precision, i.e. and an increased risk of missing relevant references, respectively. More standardized terminology (e.g. by consistent use of the term "nurse staffing") could improve the precision of future searches in this field. Empirically selected search terms can help to develop effective search strategies. The high consistency between all test sets confirmed the validity of our approach. PMID:20731858

2010-01-01

6

All Information Is Not Equal: Using the Literature Databases PubMed and The Cochrane Library for Identifying the Evidence on Granulocyte Transfusion Therapy  

PubMed Central

Summary To be able to take well-informed decisions or carry out sound research, clinicians and researchers alike require specific information seeking skills matching their respective information needs. Biomedical information is traditionally available via different literature databases. This article gives an introduction to two diverging sources, PubMed (23 million references) and The Cochrane Library (800,000 references), both of which offer sophisticated instruments for searching an increasing amount of medical publications of varied quality and ambition. Whereas PubMed as an unfiltered source of primary literature comprises all different kinds of publication types occurring in academic journals, The Cochrane Library is a pre-filtered source which offers access to either synthesized publication types or critically appraised and carefully selected references. A search approach has to be carried out deliberately and requires a good knowledge on the scope and features of the databases as well as on the ability to build a search strategy in a structured way. We present a specific and a sensitive search approach, making use of both databases within two application case scenarios in order to identify the evidence on granulocyte transfusions for infections in adult patients with neutropenia.

Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Schulz, Manuela; Braun, Volker

2014-01-01

7

PubMed Interact: an interactive search application for MEDLINE/PubMed.  

PubMed

Online search and retrieval systems are important resources for medical literature research. Progressive Web 2.0 technologies provide opportunities to improve search strategies and user experience. Using PHP, Document Object Model (DOM) manipulation and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (Ajax), PubMed Interact allows greater functionality so users can refine search parameters with ease and interact with the search results to retrieve and display relevant information and related articles. PMID:17238658

Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael

2006-01-01

8

OvidSP Medline-to-PubMed search filter translation: a methodology for extending search filter range to include PubMed's unique content  

PubMed Central

Background PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed’s unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms (‘textwords’), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword-only strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed’s unique heart failure literature. Methods We translated an OvidSP Medline heart failure search filter for PubMed and established version equivalence in terms of indexed literature retrieval. The PubMed version was then run within PubMed to identify citations retrieved by the filter’s MeSH terms (Heart failure, Left ventricular dysfunction, and Cardiomyopathy). It was then rerun with the same MeSH terms restricted to searching on title and abstract fields (i.e. as ‘textwords’). Citations retrieved by the MeSH search but not the textword search were isolated. Frequency analysis of their titles/abstracts identified natural language alternatives for those MeSH terms that performed less effectively as textwords. These terms were tested in combination to determine the best performing search string for reclaiming this ‘lost set’. This string, restricted to searching on PubMed’s unique content, was then combined with the validated PubMed translation to extend the filter’s performance in this database. Results The PubMed heart failure filter retrieved 6829 citations. Of these, 834 (12%) failed to be retrieved when MeSH terms were converted to textwords. Frequency analysis of the 834 citations identified five high frequency natural language alternatives that could improve retrieval of this set (cardiac failure, cardiac resynchronization, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and LV dysfunction). Together these terms reclaimed 157/834 (18.8%) of lost citations. Conclusions MeSH terms facilitate precise searching in PubMed’s indexed subset. They may, however, work less effectively as search terms prior to subject indexing. A validated PubMed search filter can be used to develop a supplementary textword-only search strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed’s unique content. A PubMed heart failure search filter is available on the CareSearch website (http://www.caresearch.com.au) providing access to both indexed and non-indexed heart failure evidence. PMID:23819658

2013-01-01

9

NCBI: PubMed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information)

2012-01-20

10

PUBMED OR NLM GATEWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, provides access to over 12 million MEDLINE citations back to the mid-1960's and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. PubMed was design...

11

PubMed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by PubMed, is a service of the National Library of Medicine. The searchable site includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources.

Medicine, National L.

12

Social Networks in Education of Health Professionals in Bosnia and Herzegovina – the Role of Pubmed/Medline in Improvement of Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Social network is a social structure made up of individuals and organizations that represent “nodes”, and they are associated with one or more types of interdependency; such as: friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige and many other interests. Beginning with the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, the Internet was a significant additional tool in the education of teenagers. Later, it takes more and more significant role in educating students and professionals. Goal: The aim of this paper is to investigate, to what extent and how effectively the Internet is used today. In addition, more specifically, this paper will research the implications of the well-known social networks in education of students and health professionals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Material and methods: We compared the ratio of using Medline, as the largest biomedical data base system for spreading medical information, as basics for health education at biomedical faculties at five universities in B&H. Results and discussion: According to data from the CRA (i.e. Communications Regulatory Agency) in B&H, in 2010, there were 522,364 internet access accounts, with about 2 million Internet users, representing about 52% of the total population. The Internet users’ preference is dominated by the users of fast broadband access (e.g. xDSL) with 42.8%, and elsewhere, still with dialup access, with 25.2%. The results showed that only 11.6% of professors use Facebook type of social network, 49.3% of them have a profile on BiomedExperts scientific social network and 79% have available articles in the largest biomedical literature database MEDLINE. Students are also frequent users of general social networks and educational clips from You Tube, which they prefer to utilize considerably more than the other types of professionals. Students rarely use the facilities of professional social networks, because they contain mainly data and information needed for further, postgraduate professional education. In our research, we analized cited published papers in the journal Medical Archives, the oldest medical journal in B&H (established in 1947) of randomly included 151 full and part time professors, authors from five medical faculties in B&H and B&H authors who currently work in the EU and USA.. ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference in the number of articles published between the Universities in Bosnia, but there was significant difference in the number of articles published on MEDLINE, between all faculties in B&H and a group of scientists who work around the world. Students’ tests showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the average number of papers published on Medline, between groups of part-time and full time professors. However, there were no statistically significant differences, between the professors for preclinical and clinical subjects. Conclusion: In B&H there are decent conditions for the use of online social networks in the education of health professionals. While students enthusiastically embraced these opportunities, this is not so much a case with health care professionals in practice; while scientific health care workers have not shown greater interest in the use of social networks, both for purposes of scientific research and in terms of self-education and training of students. There is much more use of the advantages offered by online social networks, both in education and in support of the scientific research. PMID:23408513

Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad

2011-01-01

13

PubMed Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PubMed Tutorial is a "web-based learning program that will show you how to search PubMed, the National Library of Medicine's journal literature search system." Clear, detailed explanations and helpful animations guide users in making the most of PubMed's many features. The level of detail in this tutorial is amazing, yet not overwhelming (thanks again to animations and demonstrations that replicate the PubMed user interface). A final review section offers a number of practice exercises.

2008-05-07

14

PubMed Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PubMed Tutorial is a "web-based learning program that will show you how to search PubMed, the National Library of Medicine's journal literature search system." Clear, detailed explanations and helpful animations guide users in making the most of PubMed's many features. The level of detail in this tutorial is amazing, yet not overwhelming (thanks again to animations and demonstrations that replicate the PubMed user interface). A final review section offers a number of practice exercises.

15

MEDLINE PLUS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEDLINE plus is the National Library of Medicine's web site for consumer health information. MEDLINE plus has extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other trusted sources on over 600 diseases and conditions. There are also lists of hospitals and physicia...

16

Telehealthcare for asthma: a Cochrane review  

PubMed Central

Background: Telehealthcare has the potential to provide care for long-term conditions that are increasingly prevalent, such as asthma. We conducted a systematic review of studies of telehealthcare interventions used for the treatment of asthma to determine whether such approaches to care are effective. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and PsycINFO, as well as other electronic resources. We also searched registers of ongoing and unpublished trials. We were interested in studies that measured the following outcomes: quality of life, number of visits to the emergency department and number of admissions to hospital. Two reviewers identified studies for inclusion in our meta-analysis. We extracted data and used fixedeffect modelling for the meta-analyses. Results: We identified 21 randomized controlled trials for inclusion in our analysis. The methods of telehealthcare intervention these studies investigated were the telephone and video- and Internet-based models of care. Meta-analysis did not show a clinically important improvement in patients’ quality of life, and there was no significant change in the number of visits to the emergency department over 12 months. There was a significant reduction in the number of patients admitted to hospital once or more over 12 months (risk ratio 0.25 [95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.66]). Interpretation: We found no evidence of a clinically important impact on patients’ quality of life, but telehealthcare interventions do appear to have the potential to reduce the risk of admission to hospital, particularly for patients with severe asthma. Further research is required to clarify the cost-effectiveness of models of care based on telehealthcare. PMID:21746825

McLean, Susannah; Chandler, David; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Liu, Joseph; Pagliari, Claudia; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz

2011-01-01

17

Internet Medline providers.  

PubMed

Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e-mail questions about usage. In conclusion, we would suggest you try the various services, determine which interface suits your style and budget, then perform simple searches until you learn the strengths and weaknesses of the service you select. PMID:10662266

Vine, D L; Coady, T R

1998-01-01

18

Criteria for evaluating alternative MEDLINE search engines.  

PubMed

With so many options available for searching MEDLINE on the World Wide Web or as a component of an online service, evaluation criteria are suggested as a means of assisting librarians in determining the positive and negative aspects of alternative MEDLINE sites. A set of searches was utilized to systematically compare MEDLINE sites. Sites evaluated included Avicenna, America Online, HealthGate, PubMed, Medscape, and Physicians' Online. Some features used to evaluate these sites were: default fields; operators (default); access to MeSH; subheadings; stop words protected in MeSH; truncation; and stemming. This article will describe the group process used to arrive at the evaluation criteria, as well as some general conclusions which will help librarians in directing their users to a particular MEDLINE site. PMID:10621384

Jacobs, M; Edwards, A; Graves, R S; Johnson, E D

1998-01-01

19

Lida Cochran, Matriarch of Visual Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the life and works of Lida Cochran, the matriarch of visual literacy. Lida was practicing "visual literacy" long before there was an association devoted to it. Lida has worked with the AECT, ECT Foundation (the Cochran Internship is named for her husband, Lee Cochran), and the International Visual Literacy…

Davis, Harry

2009-01-01

20

Fifteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group--focus on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

This fifteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group (CHMG) highlights recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of hemato-oncology, covering the publication period from October 2011 to May 2012. Implications for clinical practice and methodological aspects are the main principles for selecting trials for this report. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE using a broad search filter that covers all topics in hemato-oncology combined with a highly sensitive search filter for randomized trials (Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions). PMID:23852951

Rancea, Michaela; Will, Andrea; Borchmann, Peter; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Skoetz, Nicole

2013-08-01

21

MedlinePlus Connect  

MedlinePLUS

... change by: • Health IT, EHR or patient portal vendors who offer MedlinePlus Connect as a feature to ... can speak with their Health IT or EHR vendors. NLM does not charge for use of MedlinePlus ...

22

Eugene R. Cochran Senior Commercialization Manager  

E-print Network

Eugene R. Cochran Senior Commercialization Manager Eugene Cochran is a Senior Commercialization of Research Corporation Technologies (RCT). In this position Eugene was responsible for the evaluation to joining ORNL, Eugene served as a Senior Licensing Associate and the Sector Director for Physical Sciences

23

About CAM on PubMed  

MedlinePLUS

... resources. Sample Searches Background Information PubMed Help — detailed search instructions PubMed Disclaimer and Copyright Notice Home Home Page Contact Us Site Map FAQs Accessibility Web Site Policies Privacy Policy Health Info Topics ...

24

A Systematic Review of Cochrane Anticoagulation Reviews  

PubMed Central

Context I coauthored a published review of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published a review on the same topic in MedGenMed (now the Medscape Journal of Medicine). In contrast to the article in Medscape, the discussion and conclusions in the Cochrane review were altered appreciably during the review process. Consequently, I decided to critique all anticoagulation drug-related reviews and protocols in the Cochrane database with feedback letters concerning any issues of potential controversy. Evidence Acquisition Using key words in the search engine of the Cochrane Reviews, I located reviews and protocols involving anticoagulant drugs. I critiqued each anticoagulation review and protocol and sent a total of 57 feedback letters to Cochrane concerning each publication to elicit a response/rebuttal from the authors. Evidence Synthesis Cochrane anticoagulation review editors acknowledged receipt of all letters. As of 12 months after receipt of my last letter, the Cochrane authors have replied to 13 of the 57 and agreed with many of my points. Two protocols were withdrawn after my feedback letters were acknowledged. The 58 Cochrane anticoagulation drug reviews, including mine, contained 9 categories of methodological errors (207 total instances) and 4 types of biases (18 total instances). This review of those Cochrane reviews suggests that the effectiveness of anticoagulants for 30 medical indications is questionable. Conclusions The efficacy of anticoagulants for treatment and prophylaxis for 30 current medical indications should be reconsidered by the scientific community and medical regulatory agencies. At least 50,000 people per year worldwide have fatal bleeding due to anticoagulant treatment or prophylaxis for these indications. PMID:19295926

Cundiff, David Keith

2009-01-01

25

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of monotherapy with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) for patients with type 2 diabetes, with respect to mortality, morbidity, glycemic control, insulin levels, plasma lipids, body weight, and side effects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We systematically searched the Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents, LILACS, databases of ongoing trials, and reference lists, and

FLORIS A. VAN DE LAAR; PETER L. LUCASSEN; REINIER P. AKKERMANS; ELOY H. VAN DE LISDONK; G. E. H. M. Rutten; CHRIS VAN WEEL

2005-01-01

26

MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed  

MedlinePLUS

... What is the difference between MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed? To use the sharing features on this page, ... latest health professional articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature. Is ...

27

MEDLINE (MEDLARS ONLINE)  

EPA Science Inventory

MEDLINE (MEDlars onLINE) is the National Library of Medicines (NLM) premier bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences. It contains bibliographic citations (e.g., authors, ...

28

Dialogues with Marilyn Cochran-Smith  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For more than 30 years, Dr. Marilyn Cochran-Smith has developed and directed research and contributed to publications about education and "practitioner research," especially about teachers' research and learning in inquiry communities. Her primary topics are inquiry communities, teacher research, teacher education for social…

Fiorentini, Dario; Crecci, Vanessa Moreira

2015-01-01

29

Influenza vaccination: a summary of Cochrane Reviews.  

PubMed

The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted. PMID:25185860

Østerhus, S F

2015-02-01

30

Use of weaning protocols for reducing duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill adult patients: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the effects of weaning protocols on the total duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, adverse events, quality of life, weaning duration, and length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital.Design Systematic review.Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, ISI Web of Science, ISI Conference Proceedings, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, and reference lists

Bronagh Blackwood; Fiona Alderdice; Karen Burns; Chris Cardwell; Gavin Lavery; Peter O’Halloran

2011-01-01

31

MedlinePlus FAQ: Mobile Version of MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Is there a mobile version of MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Answer: Yes, there is a mobile version of MedlinePlus. You do not need a specific ...

32

Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants automatically…

Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

2012-01-01

33

Linking to MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... services. Please observe the general guidelines for NLM APIs regarding the use of NLM data and logos. ... e-mail for individual use, or via MedlinePlus APIs such as MedlinePlus Connect . You may not frame ...

34

Bibliometric and content analysis of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field specialized register of controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of eligible controlled trials for systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions can be difficult. To increase access to these difficult to locate trials, the Cochrane Collaboration Complementary Medicine Field (CAM Field) has established a specialized register of citations of CAM controlled trials. The objective of this study is to describe the sources and characteristics of citations included in the CAM Field specialized register. Methods Between 2006 and 2011, regular searches for citations of CAM trials in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were supplemented with contributions of controlled trial citations from international collaborators. The specialized register was ‘frozen’ for analysis in 2011, and frequencies were calculated for publication date, language, journal, presence in MEDLINE, type of intervention, and type of medical condition. Results The CAM Field specialized register increased in size from under 5,000 controlled trial citations in 2006 to 44,840 citations in 2011. Most citations (60%) were from 2000 or later, and the majority (71%) were reported in English; the next most common language was Chinese (23%). The journals with the greatest number of citations were CAM journals published in Chinese and non-CAM nutrition journals published in English. More than one-third of register citations (36%) were not indexed in MEDLINE. The most common CAM intervention type in the register was non-vitamin, non-mineral dietary supplements (e.g., glucosamine, fish oil) (34%), followed by Chinese herbal medicines (e.g., Astragalus membranaceus, Schisandra chinensis) (27%). Conclusions The availability of the CAM Field specialized register presents both opportunities and challenges for CAM systematic reviewers. While the register provides access to thousands of difficult to locate trial citations, many of these trials are of low quality and may overestimate treatment effects. When including these trials in systematic reviews, adequate analysis of their risk of bias is of utmost importance. PMID:23826877

2013-01-01

35

Retrieval feedback in MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a new approach for query expansion based on retrieval feedback. The first objective in this study was to examine alternative query-expansion methods within the same retrieval-feedback framework. The three alternatives proposed are: expansion on the MeSH query field alone, expansion on the free-text field alone, and expansion on both the MeSH and the free-text fields. The second objective was to gain further understanding of retrieval feedback by examining possible dependencies on relevant documents during the feedback cycle. DESIGN: Comparative study of retrieval effectiveness using the original unexpanded and the alternative expanded user queries on a MEDLINE test collection of 75 queries and 2,334 MEDLINE citations. MEASUREMENTS: Retrieval effectivenesses of the original unexpanded and the alternative expanded queries were compared using 11-point-average precision scores (11-AvgP). These are averages of precision scores obtained at 11 standard recall points. RESULTS: All three expansion strategies significantly improved the original queries in terms of retrieval effectiveness. Expansion on MeSH alone was equivalent to expansion on both MeSH and the free-text fields. Expansion on the free-text field alone improved the queries significantly less than did the other two strategies. The second part of the study indicated that retrieval-feedback-based expansion yields significant performance improvements independent of the availability of relevant documents for feedback information. CONCLUSIONS: Retrieval feedback offers a robust procedure for query expansion that is most effective for MEDLINE when applied to the MeSH field. PMID:8653452

Srinivasan, P

1996-01-01

36

Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design  

PubMed Central

Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

2012-01-01

37

Developing optimal search strategies for finding information on herbs and other medicinal plants in MEDLINE.  

PubMed

The MEDLINE database is an important resource for locating up-to-date information on herbs and other botanical therapies. However, the evolving nature of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the complexity of herbal terminology can make it difficult to identify useful citations. This paper describes optimal search strategies for finding clinical information on herbs and medicinal plants in MEDLINE using the PubMed retrieval system. Searchers will benefit from an understanding of the structure of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and PubMed's advanced search capabilities. Details for using PubMed's MeSH Database, Clinical Queries, Clipboard, and limiting features to retrieve pertinent botanical research are described. Tables containing MeSH terms for medicinal plants and useful print and electronic resources are included. PMID:16131300

Saxton, Jane D; Owen, David J

2005-08-01

38

MedlinePlus: Diets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this section of their website, Medline Plus, a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, tackles the subject of diets. The information is divided up into half a dozen labeled boxes near the top of the page, and includes "Basics", "Research", "Learn More", and "Reference Shelf". Within these sections visitors can find links to information on "Nutrition", "Specific Conditions", "Journal Articles", "Dictionaries/Glossaries", and more. Many of the topics discussed throughout the categories is the safety of certain diets, such as the link "Nutrition for Weight Loss: What You Need to Know About Fad Diets", and "Are Detox Diets Safe?" found under the Teenagers category at the bottom of the page. Visitors interested in participating in clinical trials going on throughout the United States, can check out the links "ClinicalTrials.gov: Diet" and "ClinicalTrials.gov: Diet Therapy" under the category Clinical Trials.

39

Medline Plus: Sports Injuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercising and playing sports can lead to a sound mind and body, but sports-related injuries can be frustrating for anyone. This very helpful site, offered as part of the Medline Plus series from the U.S. National Library of Medicine, contains dozens of fact sheets, media presentations, and other items regarding various sports injuries. Visitors who know exactly what they need can click on over to the "Related Topics" area on the right-hand side of the homepage, where they will find resources on everything from ankle injuries to general wellness. Their homepage also contains sections like "Basics", "Research", and "Multimedia & Cool Tools". Two items that are definitely worth checking out are the tennis elbow tutorial and the basic overview of sports injuries offered by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

40

Sharing MedlinePlus®/MEDLINE® for information literacy education (SMILE): a dental public health information project.  

PubMed

The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of "power information users" among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provided public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel. PMID:22040242

Gaines, Julie K; Levy, Linda S; Cogdill, Keith W

2011-01-01

41

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

42

Mobile MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Mobile MedlinePlus Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Trusted medical information on your mobile phone http://m.medlineplus.gov Wondering what the ...

43

Mobile MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Mobile MedlinePlus Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Trusted medical information on your mobile phone http://m.medlineplus.gov Wondering what the ...

44

Effective and evidence-based management strategies for rosacea: summary of a Cochrane systematic review.  

PubMed

Rosacea is a common chronic skin disease affecting the face. There are numerous treatment options, but it is unclear which are the most effective. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the efficacy and safety of treatments for rosacea. Searches included the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Ongoing Trials Registers (updated February 2011). Randomized controlled trials in people with moderate to severe rosacea were included. Fifty-eight trials, including 27 from the original review, comprising 6633 participants were included in this updated review. Interventions included topical metronidazole, oral antibiotics, topical azelaic cream or gel, topical benzoyl peroxide and/or combined with topical antibiotics, sulphacetamide/sulphur, and others. There was some evidence that topical metronidazole and azelaic acid were more effective than placebo. Two trials indicated that doxycycline 40mg was more effective than placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in effectiveness between doxycycline 40mg and 100mg but there were fewer adverse effects. One study reported that ciclosporin ophthalmic emulsion was significantly more effective than artificial tears for treating ocular rosacea. Although the majority of included studies were assessed as being at high or unclear risk of bias, there was some evidence to support the effectiveness of topical metronidazole, azelaic acid and doxycycline (40mg) in the treatment of moderate to severe rosacea, and ciclosporin 0·05% ophthalmic emulsion for ocular rosacea. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:21692773

van Zuuren, E J; Kramer, S F; Carter, B R; Graber, M A; Fedorowicz, Z

2011-10-01

45

Annotating patents with Medline MeSH codes via citation mapping.  

PubMed

Both patents and Medline are important document collections for discovering new relationships between chemicals and biology, searching for prior art for patent applications and retrieving background knowledge for current research activities. Finding relevance to a topic within patents is often made difficult by poor categorization, badly written descriptions, and even intentional obfuscation. Unlike patents, the Medline corpus has Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) keywords manually added to their articles, giving a medically relevant taxonomy to the 18 million article abstracts. Our work attempts to accurately recognize the citations made in patents to Medline-indexed articles, linking them to their corresponding PubMed ID and exploiting the associated MeSH to enhance patent search by annotating the referencing patents with their Medline citations' MeSH codes. The techniques, system features, and benefits are explained. PMID:20865561

Griffin, Thomas D; Boyer, Stephen K; Councill, Isaac G

2010-01-01

46

Health Topics: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Topics Read about symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention for ... illnesses, health conditions and wellness issues. MedlinePlus health topics are regularly reviewed, and links are updated daily. ...

47

Contact Us: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Contact the U.S. National Library of Medicine Thank you for visiting MedlinePlus. We ... your inquiry. For further information see the National Library of Medicine's Customer Service Policy . Please note that ...

48

Neuraminidase inhibitors: the story behind the Cochrane review  

E-print Network

Although billions have been spent on oseltamivir in the face of pandemic influenza, the team updating the Cochrane review of neuraminidase inhibitors in healthy adults found that the public evidence base for this global ...

Doshi, Peter

49

Sensitivity and Predictive Value of 15 PubMed Search Strategies to Answer Clinical Questions Rated Against Full Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians perform searches in PubMed daily, but retrieving relevant studies is challenging due to the rapid expansion of medical knowledge. Little is known about the performance of search strategies when they are applied to answer specific clinical questions. Objective To compare the performance of 15 PubMed search strategies in retrieving relevant clinical trials on therapeutic interventions. Methods We used Cochrane systematic reviews to identify relevant trials for 30 clinical questions. Search terms were extracted from the abstract using a predefined procedure based on the population, interventions, comparison, outcomes (PICO) framework and combined into queries. We tested 15 search strategies that varied in their query (PIC or PICO), use of PubMed’s Clinical Queries therapeutic filters (broad or narrow), search limits, and PubMed links to related articles. We assessed sensitivity (recall) and positive predictive value (precision) of each strategy on the first 2 PubMed pages (40 articles) and on the complete search output. Results The performance of the search strategies varied widely according to the clinical question. Unfiltered searches and those using the broad filter of Clinical Queries produced large outputs and retrieved few relevant articles within the first 2 pages, resulting in a median sensitivity of only 10%–25%. In contrast, all searches using the narrow filter performed significantly better, with a median sensitivity of about 50% (all P < .001 compared with unfiltered queries) and positive predictive values of 20%–30% (P < .001 compared with unfiltered queries). This benefit was consistent for most clinical questions. Searches based on related articles retrieved about a third of the relevant studies. Conclusions The Clinical Queries narrow filter, along with well-formulated queries based on the PICO framework, provided the greatest aid in retrieving relevant clinical trials within the 2 first PubMed pages. These results can help clinicians apply effective strategies to answer their questions at the point of care. PMID:22693047

Merglen, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Combescure, Christophe; Garin, Nicolas; Perrier, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas V

2012-01-01

50

BabelMeSH2 and PICO Linguist2: combined language search for MEDLINE/PubMed.  

PubMed

BabelMeSH2 is a transparent interface for searching MEDLINE/PubMed in one or a combination of nine currently supported languages. The search algorithm automatically detects mix language entries, finds the English equivalent, and retrieves the relevant PubMed citations. We believe this is the first search application that allows mixed language entries. PMID:18694134

Liu, Fang; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael

2007-01-01

51

Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task. PMID:23840246

Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

2013-01-01

52

Visit the MedlinePlus Search Cloud | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Visit the MedlinePlus Search Cloud Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... information Visit the new MedlinePlus Visit the MedlinePlus search cloud, featuring the top 100 search terms of ...

53

A bibliometric study of scientific literature on obesity research in PubMed (1988-2007).  

PubMed

This article describes a bibliometric review of the publications on obesity research in PubMed over the last 20 years. We used Medline via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine from 1988 to 2007. The search strategy was: ([obesity] in MesH). A total of 58,325 references were retrieved, 25.5% in 1988-1997, and 74.5% in 1998-2007. The growth in the number of publications showed an exponential increase. The references were published in 3613 different journals, with 20 journals contributing 25% of obesity literature. The two journals contributing most were the International Journal of Obesity (5.1%), Obesity-Obesity Research (2.9%). North America and Europe were the most productive world areas with 44.1% and 37.9% of the literature, respectively. The US was the predominant country in number of publications, followed by the United Kingdom, Japan and Italy. The ranking of production changed when the number of publications was normalized by population, gross domestic product and obesity prevalence by countries. The great increase of publications on obesity during the period 1988-2007 was particularly evident in the second decade of the period which is concordant with the worldwide obesity epidemic. USA and Europe were leaders in the production of scientific articles on obesity. PMID:19754632

Vioque, J; Ramos, J M; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; García-de-la-Hera, M

2010-08-01

54

Avoidable Ignorance and the Role of Cochrane and Campbell Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Campbell and Cochrane Collaborations were created to reveal the evidentiary status of claims focusing especially on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Such reviews are constrained by the population of studies available and biases that may influence this availability such as preferred framing of problems. This highlights the…

Gambrill, Eileen

2015-01-01

55

MedlinePlus Connect: Technical Information  

MedlinePLUS

... to keep you informed of updates and enhancements. Web Application The MedlinePlus Connect Web application responds to ... Connect response pages, visit the Web application demonstration . Web Service Using the MedlinePlus Connect Web service, a ...

56

MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service  

MedlinePLUS

MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus Connect is available as a ... if you implement MedlinePlus Connect by contacting us . Web Service Overview The parameters for the Web service ...

57

MedlinePlus Survey Results 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... results describe MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus en español users. Users provided this information in response to our online site surveys in 2012. Learn more about the American Customer Satisfaction Index survey used to gather MedlinePlus survey data. ...

58

Author Name Disambiguation in MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Background We recently described “Author-ity,” a model for estimating the probability that two articles in MEDLINE, sharing the same author name, were written by the same individual. Features include shared title words, journal name, coauthors, medical subject headings, language, affiliations, and author name features (middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in MEDLINE). Here we test the hypothesis that the Author-ity model will suffice to disambiguate author names for the vast majority of articles in MEDLINE. Methods Enhancements include: (a) incorporating first names and their variants, email addresses, and correlations between specific last names and affiliation words; (b) new methods of generating large unbiased training sets; (c) new methods for estimating the prior probability; (d) a weighted least squares algorithm for correcting transitivity violations; and (e) a maximum likelihood based agglomerative algorithm for computing clusters of articles that represent inferred author-individuals. Results Pairwise comparisons were computed for all author names on all 15.3 million articles in MEDLINE (2006 baseline), that share last name and first initial, to create Author-ity 2006, a database that has each name on each article assigned to one of 6.7 million inferred author-individual clusters. Recall is estimated at ~98.8%. Lumping (putting two different individuals into the same cluster) affects ~0.5% of clusters, whereas splitting (assigning articles written by the same individual to >1 cluster) affects ~2% of articles. Impact The Author-ity model can be applied generally to other bibliographic databases. Author name disambiguation allows information retrieval and data integration to become person-centered, not just document-centered, setting the stage for new data mining and social network tools that will facilitate the analysis of scholarly publishing and collaboration behavior. Availability The Author-ity 2006 database is available for nonprofit academic research, and can be freely queried via http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu. PMID:20072710

TORVIK, VETLE I.; SMALHEISER, NEIL R.

2009-01-01

59

Optimizing search strategies to identify randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Background The Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (HSSS), which contains three phases, is widely used to identify Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) in MEDLINE. Lefebvre and Clarke suggest that reviewers might consider using four revisions of the HSSS. The objective of this study is to validate these four revisions: combining the free text terms volunteer, crossover, versus, and the Medical Subject Heading CROSS-OVER STUDIES with the top two phases of the HSSS, respectively. Methods We replicated the subject search for 61 Cochrane reviews. The included studies of each review that were indexed in MEDLINE were pooled together by review and then combined with the subject search and each of the four proposed search strategies, the top two phases of the HSSS, and all three phases of the HSSS. These retrievals were used to calculate the sensitivity and precision of each of the six search strategies for each review. Results Across the 61 reviews, the search term versus combined with the top two phases of the HSSS was able to find 3 more included studies than the top two phases of the HSSS alone, or in combination with any of the other proposed search terms, but at the expense of missing 56 relevant articles that would be found if all three phases of the HSSS were used. The estimated time needed to finish a review is 1086 hours for all three phases of the HSSS, 823 hours for the strategy versus, 818 hours for the first two phases of the HSSS or any of the other three proposed strategies. Conclusion This study shows that compared to the first two phases of the HSSS, adding the term versus to the top two phases of the HSSS balances the sensitivity and precision in the reviews studied here to some extent but the differences are very small. It is well known that missing relevant studies may result in bias in systematic reviews. Reviewers need to weigh the trade-offs when selecting the search strategies for identifying RCTs in MEDLINE. PMID:16684359

Zhang, Li; Ajiferuke, Isola; Sampson, Margaret

2006-01-01

60

1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SW. David J. Kaminsky, Architectural Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

61

Accessing MEDLINE from the dental office.  

PubMed

Electronic access to on-line information is now available for dentists. One such resource is MEDLINE, a database of more than 7,500,000 biomedical references indexed by the National Library of Medicine. MEDLINE searching can be performed on-line or locally using a CD-ROM drive. Dentists should evaluate equipment requirements, availability of training, extent of the bibliographic database, ease of using the searching software and adequacy of documentation before selecting a mode of MEDLINE access. PMID:8655874

Ahluwalia, K P; Lang, W P

1996-04-01

62

Optimal search strategies for retrieving systematic reviews from Medline: analytical survey  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop optimal search strategies in Medline for retrieving systematic reviews. Design: Analytical survey. Data sources: 161 journals published in 2000 indexed in Medline. Main outcome measures: The sensitivity, specificity, and precision of retrieval of systematic reviews of 4862 unique terms in 782 485 combinations of one to five terms were determined by comparison with a hand search of all articles (the criterion standard) in 161 journals published during 2000 (49 028 articles). Results: Only 753 (1.5%) of the 49 028 articles were systematic reviews. The most sensitive strategy included five terms and had a sensitivity of 99.9% (95% confidence interval 99.6% to 100%) and a specificity of 52% (51.6% to 52.5%). The strategy that best minimised the difference between sensitivity and specificity had a sensitivity of 98% (97% to 99%) and specificity of 90.8% (90.5% to 91.1%). Highest precision for multiterm strategies, 57% (54% to 60%), was achieved at a sensitivity of 71% (68% to 74%). The term “cochrane database of systematic reviews.jn.” was the most precise single term search strategy (sensitivity of 56% (52% to 60%) and precision of 96% (94% to 98%)). These strategies are available through the “limit” screen of Ovid's search interface for Medline. Conclusions: Systematic reviews can be retrieved from Medline with close to perfect sensitivity or specificity, or with high precision, by using empirical search strategies. PMID:15619601

Montori, Victor M; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Morgan, Douglas; Haynes, R Brian

2005-01-01

63

PubMed Central: An Archive of Life Science Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has been an increased interest in open source publishing as of late, and the U.S government has gotten involved recently with the creation of PubMed Central (through the National Center for Biotechnology Information and the National Library of Medicine) in 2000. PubMed Central is a digital archive of life science journal literature which offers free and complete access to the contents of approximately 50 peer-reviewed journals, such as Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Dynamic Medicine, and the Journal of Bacteriology. The search engine is fairly straightforward, as users may elect to enter author names, journal titles in full, or by keywords. All told, PubMed currently contains many thousands of articles, many of which will be of great interest to researchers and students in these fields. Perhaps the most crucial features of PubMed are summarized in this passage from their overview section, which remarks thusly: "It also makes it possible to integrate the literature with a variety of other information resources such as sequence databases and other factual databases that are available to scientists, clinicians, and everyone else interested in the life sciences. The intentional and serendipitous discoveries that such links might foster excite us and stimulate us to move forward."

64

PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

Nariani, Rajiv

2013-01-01

65

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can you tell me how to cite MedlinePlus pages?  

MedlinePLUS

... date you saw the information online. Homepage MedlinePlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); [updated ... add information about the topic being cited : MedlinePlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); [updated ...

66

Visit the new MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Visit the new MedlinePlus Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... trusted, up-to-date medical information Visit the new MedlinePlus From the top medical experts at the ...

67

MedlinePlus FAQ: What's New on Medline Plus Page and Email Updates  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How is the What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed different from ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed include alerts ...

68

MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application  

MedlinePLUS

MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus Connect is available as a ... please see our guidelines and instructions on linking. Web Application Overview The API for the Web application ...

69

Information content in Medline record fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The authors have been conducting text mining analyses (extraction of useful information from text) of Medline records, using Abstracts as the main data source. For literature-based discovery, and other text mining applications as well, all records in a discipline need to be evaluated for determining prior art. Many Medline records do not contain Abstracts, but typically contain Titles and

Ronald N. Kostoff; Joel A. Block; Jesse A. Stump; Kirstin M. Pfeil

2004-01-01

70

A short guide to peer-reviewed, MEDLINE-indexed complementary and alternative medicine journals.  

PubMed

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) comprises a multitude of disciplines, for example, acupuncture, ayurvedic medicine, biofeedback, herbal medicine, and homeopathic medicine. While research on CAM interventions has increased and the CAM literature has proliferated since the mid-1990s, a number of our colleagues have expressed difficulties in deciding where to publish CAM articles. In response, we created a short guide to peer-reviewed MEDLINE-indexed journals that publish CAM articles. We examined numerous English-language sources to identify titles that met our criteria, whether specific to or overlapping CAM. A few of the resources in which we found the journal titles that we included are Alternative Medicine Foundation, American Holistic Nurses Association, CINAHL/Nursing Database, Journal Citation Reports database, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Research Council for Complementary Medicine. We organized the 69 selected titles for easy use by creating 2 user-friendly tables, one listing titles in alphabetical order and one listing them in topical categories. A few examples of the topical categories are Acupuncture, CAM (general), Chinese Medicine, Herbal/Plant/Phytotherapy, Neuroscience/Psychology, Nursing/Clinical Care. Our study is the first to list general CAM journals, specialty CAM journals, and overlapping mainstream journals that are peer reviewed, in English, and indexed in MEDLINE. Our goal was to assist both authors seeking publication and mainstream journal editors who receive an overabundance of publishable articles but must recommend that authors seek publication elsewhere due to space and priority issues. Publishing in journals indexed by and included in MEDLINE (or PubMed) ensures that citations to articles will be found easily. PMID:22517352

Morgan, Sherry; Littman, Lynn; Palmer, Christina; Singh, Gurneet; LaRiccia, Patrick J

2012-01-01

71

MELVYL MEDLINE: a library services perspective.  

PubMed

The MELVYL MEDLINE project resulted in the addition of a full five-year subset of MEDLINE to the University of California's (UC) MELVYL online union catalog. As one of the nation's largest MEDLINE end-user searching systems, MELVYL MEDLINE provides online bibliographic access to the biomedical journal literature for all UC personnel at over seventy library sites or by remote access. This paper summarizes the project's accomplishments, reports MELVYL MEDLINE use and its impact on library services, and provides insights for other end-user search systems. The project serves as a model for adding databases to the MELVYL catalog and demonstrates the potential for use by other disciplines of a specialized database when readily accessible. Evaluation results report high user satisfaction and high usage. However, many advanced searching features of the interface are little used by searchers. Effects on library services include marked increases in reference transactions and interlibrary loans, with significant declines in mediated search services. Future MELVYL MEDLINE enhancements include matching search retrievals to journal locations, linkage to an online document delivery system, and consideration of building a superset of databases by combining MELVYL MEDLINE with citations from another database in the MELVYL catalog. PMID:1884086

Horres, M M; Starr, S S; Renford, B L

1991-07-01

72

Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)  

PubMed Central

Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research. PMID:23497410

2013-01-01

73

Overview of Reviews The prevention of eczema in infants and children: an overview of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Eczema is the most common inflammatory skin disease of childhood, characterized by an itchy red rash that usually involves the face and skin folds. There is currently no curative treatment for eczema, so the reduction of eczema incidence through disease prevention is a desirable goal. Potential interventions for preventing eczema include exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas and soy formulas when bottle feeding, maternal antigen avoidance, omega oil supplementation, prebiotics and probiotics. OBJECTIVES: This overview of reviews aims to present the current body of data from Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews to provide the most up-to-date evidence on the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent eczema in infants and children at different risk levels for developing allergic disease. METHODS: Our pool of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews came from the 2010 United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) Evidence Skin Disorders Annual Evidence Updates Mapping Exercise on Atopic Eczema. This group used a comprehensive search strategy last conducted in August 2010 to identify all systematic reviews on eczema prevention. We identified all reviews that met our pre-specified inclusion criteria, and data were extracted, analysed, compiled into tables and synthesized using quantitative and qualitative methods. MAIN RESULTS: Seven systematic reviews containing 39 relevant trials with 11 897 participants were included in this overview. Overall, there was no clear evidence that any of the main interventions reviewed reduced eczema incidence. In subgroup analyses of infants at high risk of allergic disease, an observational study found that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months compared with introduction of solids at three to six months decreased the incidence of eczema by 60% (risk ratio (RR): 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.78), and a randomized controlled trial found that prebiotics compared with no prebiotics decreased incidence by 58% (RR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.84). However, each of these findings was based on the results of a single small trial, and no intervention reduced eczema incidence beyond the first two years of life. Although we pre-specified incidence of atopic eczema (i.e. eczema associated with immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization) as a primary outcome, data on whether participants diagnosed with eczema were truly atopic were largely lacking from systematic reviews. Similarly, data on atopy, measured using skin prick tests or specific IgE tests to allergens, were not reported in many reviews. No interventions were found to decrease atopy when reported. Adverse events data were generally lacking, but data from a trial of probiotics versus no probiotics showed significantly more spitting up in the first one (RR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.45) and two (RR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.80) months of life, but no overall increase in risk of gastrointestinal symptoms in the first year. AUTHORS#ENTITYSTARTX02019; CONCLUSIONS: Although there is currently no clear evidence showing that any of the interventions examined in this overview prevent eczema in participants not selected for risk of allergic disease, there is some evidence that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months and prebiotics might reduce eczema incidence in high-risk participants. However, these conclusions are based on limited evidence with methodological shortcomings. Future research on prevention of eczema is needed and should examine different types of hydrolysed formulas, prebiotics and probiotics, as well as enhancement of the skin barrier and other novel approaches in infants at different risk levels for developing allergic disease. PMID:22822349

Foisy, Michelle; Boyle, Robert J; Chalmers, Joanne R; Simpson, Eric L; Williams, Hywel C

2011-09-01

74

Mobile app versus Web app: a comparison using 2008-2012 "PubMed for Handhelds" server data.  

PubMed

Recent surveys show that mobile apps are more popular than Web apps. Apple's iTunes Store, now has about 800,000 apps and reported to have about 40 billion downloads. Android apps, although fewer, is available to the most number of smartphones today. About 40,000 apps are medical or health related. We developed a PubMed4Hh mobile app for iPhone/iPad users to search MEDLINE/PubMed with same features as our Web-based search tools, in use since 2002. Five-year (2008-2012) server data for PubMed4Hh and Web app were analyzed. Searches using the mobile app significantly increased compared to the same five-year time period. Month-by-month comparison showed a 3 to 5-fold increase in queries. The six-month total accesses comparison increased 280% from the previous four-year average. A review of 500 randomly selected queries revealed that the majority of queries were clinical questions ((97.8%) and 61% of these queries are searches related to therapy. PMID:24551349

Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

2013-01-01

75

MedlinePlus Milestones: 1998-present  

MedlinePLUS

... in English and Spanish from Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. MedlinePlus releases a search-based Web ... DC – Go Local launches, a free, online information database of health-related services and health-promoting programs ...

76

Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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77

Bone Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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78

Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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79

Acne - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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80

Animal Bites - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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81

Anxiety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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82

Alzheimer's Caregivers - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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83

Acne - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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84

Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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85

Back Injuries - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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86

Blood Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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87

Botulism - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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88

Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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89

Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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90

Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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91

Anesthesia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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92

Aortic Aneurysm - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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93

After Surgery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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94

Blood Thinners - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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95

Appendicitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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96

Angioplasty - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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97

Bone Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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98

Anemia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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99

Asthma - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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100

Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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101

Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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102

Aneurysms - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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103

Anthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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104

Welcome to MedlinePlus en español  

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... Web site. Don Francisco, the popular Hispanic television host, recently announced a new joint effort with the ... the MedlinePlus.gov/salud Web site by the host of what is now the longest running television ...

105

MedlinePlus XML Data Sources  

MedlinePLUS

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106

MEDLINE services to the developing countries.  

PubMed

Supplying MEDLINE services to a widely dispersed user population in the developing countries creates numerous problems not encountered by other MEDLINE centres. The inability to interact with the user complicates system promotion and makes search formulation sometimes a gamble. Nevertheless, an evaluation survey has shown high user satisfaction. Of great concern is the still inadequate solution of document delivery. Near-term objectives are the broadening of geographic coverage and the integration of search processing with supporting hard copy supply. PMID:1247707

Weitzel, R

1976-01-01

107

Analysis of the reporting of search strategies in Cochrane systematic reviews*  

PubMed Central

Background: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions provides instructions for documenting a systematic review's electronic database search strategy, listing elements that should be in the description. Complete documentation of the search strategy allows readers to evaluate the search when critically appraising a review's quality. Objective: The research analyzed recently published Cochrane reviews to determine whether instructions for describing electronic database search strategies were being followed. Methods: Eighty-three new reviews added to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in the first quarter of 2006 were selected for analysis. Eighteen were subsequently excluded because their searches were conducted only in the specialized registers of Cochrane review groups. The remaining sixty-five reviews were analyzed for the seven elements of an electronic database search strategy description listed in the Cochrane Handbook, using dual review with consensus. Results: Of the 65 reviews analyzed, none included all 7 recommended elements. Four reviews (6%) included 6 elements. Thirty-two percent (21/65) included 5 or more elements, with 68% (44/65) including 4 or fewer. Three included only 2 elements. The 65 reviews represented 41 different Cochrane review groups. Conclusion: The instructions from the Cochrane Handbook for reporting search strategies are not being consistently employed by groups producing Cochrane reviews. PMID:19158999

Yoshii, Adriana; McGraw, Kathleen A.; Anderson, Margaret J.; Wellik, Kay E.

2009-01-01

108

Archibald Leman Cochrane 1909–1988: a meaningful life in science and history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andre Breton, and the surrealist movement, called a livreobjet, a book that was a piece of art in its form and not only in its content (Picture 1). Xavier Bosch has produced a wonderful livre-objet on Archie Cochrane, entitled: “Archibald Cochrane: back to the front” (Picture 2) (Bosch 2003). It has pictures, testimonies, citations of historians and novelists. The book

Alfredo Morabia

2004-01-01

109

MedlinePlus E-mail Updates | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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110

Development and classification of an operational definition of complementary and alternative medicine for the Cochrane Collaboration  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade the Cochrane Collaboration has been an increasingly important source of information on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. From 2007 to 2008 the Cochrane CAM Field developed a topics list that allowed us to categorize all 396 Cochrane reviews related to CAM (as of The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009). This topics list is an advance in making Cochrane reviews on CAM topics accessible to the public. In this paper, we discuss challenges in developing the topics list, including developing an operational definition of CAM, deciding which reviews should be included within the CAM Field’s scope, developing the structured list of CAM Field-specific topics, and determining where in the topics list the reviews should be placed. Although aspects of our operational definition of CAM are open to revision, a standardized definition provides us with an objective, reproducible and systematic method for defining and classifying CAM therapies. PMID:21717826

Wieland, L. Susan; Manheimer, Eric; Berman, Brian M.

2011-01-01

111

The Medline/full-text research project.  

PubMed

This project was designed to test the relative efficacy of index terms and full-text for the retrieval of documents in those MEDLINE journals for which full-text searching was also available. The full-text files used were MEDIS from Mead Data Central and CCML from BRS Information Technologies. One hundred clinical medical topics were searched in these two files as well as the MEDLINE file to accumulate the necessary data. It was found that full-text identified significantly more relevant articles than did the indexed file, MEDLINE. The full-text searches, however, lacked the precision of searches done in the indexed file. Most relevant items missed in the full-text files, but identified in MEDLINE, were missed because the searcher failed to account for some aspect of natural language, used a logical or positional operator that was too restrictive, or included a concept which was implied, but not expressed in the natural language. Very few of the unique relevant full-text citations would have been retrieved by title or abstract alone. Finally, as of July, 1990 the more current issue of a journal was just as likely to appear in MEDLINE as in one of the full-text files. PMID:10111576

McKinin, E J; Sievert, M; Johnson, E D; Mitchell, J A

1991-05-01

112

Finding Translational Science Publications in MEDLINE/PubMed with Translational Science Filters  

PubMed Central

Translational Science Search (http://tscience.nlm.nih.gov) is a Web application for finding MEDLINE/PubMed journal articles that are regarded by their authors as novel, promising, or may have potential clinical application. A set of “translational” filters and related terms was created by reviewing journal articles published in clinical and translational science journals. Through E-Utilities, a user’s query and translational science (TS) filters are submitted to PubMed, and then the retrieved PubMed citations are matched with a database of MeSH terms (for disease conditions) and RxNorm (for interventions) to locate the search term, translational filters found, and associated interventions in the title and abstract. An algorithm ranks the Interventions and Conditions, and then highlights them in the results page for quick reading and evaluation. Using previously searched terms and standard formulas, the Precision and Recall of Translational Science Search (TSS) were 0.99 and 0.47, compared to 0.58 and 1.0 for PubMed Entrez, respectively. PMID:22212228

Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

2011-01-01

113

Alcohol - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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114

Age-Specific Search Strategies for Medline  

PubMed Central

Background Many clinicians and researchers are interested in patients of a specific age (childhood, geriatrics, and so on). Searching for age-specific publications in large bibliographic databases such as Medline is problematic because of inconsistencies in indexing, overlapping age categories, and the spread of the relevant literature over many journals. To our knowledge, no empirically tested age-specific search strategies exist for Medline. Objective We sought to determine the retrieval characteristics of age-specific terms in Medline for identifying studies relevant for five clinical specialties: adult medicine, geriatric medicine, pediatric medicine, neonatal medicine, and obstetrics. Methods We compared age-specific search terms and phrases for the retrieval of citations in Medline with a manual hand search of the literature for 161 core health care journals. Six experienced research assistants who were trained and intensively calibrated read all issues of 161 journals for the publishing year 2000. In addition to classifying all articles for purpose and quality, study participants' ages were also recorded. Outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of single and combination search terms. Results When maximizing sensitivity, the best sensitivity and specificity achieved with combination terms were 98% and 81.2%, respectively, for pediatric medicine, 96.4% and 55.9% for geriatric medicine, 95.3% and 83.6% for neonatal medicine, 94.9% and 64.5% for adult medicine, and 82% and 97.1% for obstetrics. When specificity was maximized, all disciplines had an expected decrease in sensitivity and an increase in precision. Highest values for optimizing best sensitivity and specificity were achieved in neonatal medicine, 92.5% and 92.6%, respectively. Conclusion Selected single terms and combinations of MeSH terms and textwords can reliably retrieve age-specific studies cited in Medline. PMID:17213044

Kastner, Monika; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Walker-Dilks, Cindy; McKibbon, Kathleen Ann

2006-01-01

115

MedlinePlus FAQ: How Often MedlinePlus is Updated  

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116

Cochrane corner: interventions to improve hearing aid use in adult auditory rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The "Cochrane Corner" is a section in the journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features the Cochrane review "Interventions to Improve Hearing Aid Use in Adult Auditory Rehabilitation," which identified 32 randomized controlled trials and concluded that there is low-quality evidence to support using self-management support and complex interventions (support plus delivery system design) in adult auditory rehabilitation. PMID:25281750

Burton, Martin J; Adams, Meredith E; Rosenfeld, Richard M

2014-12-01

117

MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How do Web sites get listed in MedlinePlus? To use the ... authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web sites. We try to ensure that the information ...

118

Microtask crowdsourcing for disease mention annotation in pubmed abstracts.  

PubMed

Identifying concepts and relationships in biomedical text enables knowledge to be applied in computational analyses. Many biological natural language processing (BioNLP) projects attempt to address this challenge, but the state of the art still leaves much room for improvement. Progress in BioNLP research depends on large, annotated corpora for evaluating information extraction systems and training machine learning models. Traditionally, such corpora are created by small numbers of expert annotators often working over extended periods of time. Recent studies have shown that workers on microtask crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) can, in aggregate, generate high-quality annotations of biomedical text. Here, we investigated the use of the AMT in capturing disease mentions in PubMed abstracts. We used the NCBI Disease corpus as a gold standard for refining and benchmarking our crowdsourcing protocol. After several iterations, we arrived at a protocol that reproduced the annotations of the 593 documents in the 'training set' of this gold standard with an overall F measure of 0.872 (precision 0.862, recall 0.883). The output can also be tuned to optimize for precision (max = 0.984 when recall = 0.269) or recall (max = 0.980 when precision = 0.436). Each document was completed by 15 workers, and their annotations were merged based on a simple voting method. In total 145 workers combined to complete all 593 documents in the span of 9 days at a cost of $.066 per abstract per worker. The quality of the annotations, as judged with the F measure, increases with the number of workers assigned to each task; however minimal performance gains were observed beyond 8 workers per task. These results add further evidence that microtask crowdsourcing can be a valuable tool for generating well-annotated corpora in BioNLP. Data produced for this analysis are available at http://figshare.com/articles/Disease_Mention_Annotation_with_Mechanical_Turk/1126402. PMID:25592589

Good, Benjamin M; Nanis, Max; Wu, Chunlei; Su, Andrew I

2015-01-01

119

MEDLINE: the options for health professionals.  

PubMed

The bibliographic database MEDLINE, produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is a computerized index to the world's biomedical literature. The database can be searched back to 1966 and contains 6.8 million records. The various means of access are divided, for the purposes of this article, into three categories: logging onto a remote host computer by telephone and modem or by the Internet; subscribing to part or all of the database on compact disc (CD-ROM); and leasing the data on a transport medium such as magnetic tape or CDs for loading on a local host computer. Decisions about which method is preferable in a given situation depend on cost, availability of hardware and software, local expertise, and the size of the intended user population. Trends include increased access to the Internet by health professionals, increased network speed, links from MEDLINE records to full-text databases or online journals, and integration of MEDLINE into wider health information systems. PMID:7850561

Wood, E H

1994-01-01

120

Automatic summarization of mouse gene information by clustering and sentence extraction from MEDLINE abstracts.  

PubMed

Tools to automatically summarize gene information from the literature have the potential to help genomics researchers better interpret gene expression data and investigate biological pathways. The task of finding information on sets of genes is common for genomic researchers, and PubMed is still the first choice because the most recent and original information can only be found in the unstructured, free text biomedical literature. However, finding information on a set of genes by manually searching and scanning the literature is a time-consuming and daunting task for scientists. We built and evaluated a query-based automatic summarizer of information on mouse genes studied in microarray experiments. The system clusters a set of genes by MeSH, GO and free text features and presents summaries for each gene by ranked sentences extracted from MEDLINE abstracts. Evaluation showed that the system seems to provide meaningful clusters and informative sentences are ranked higher by the algorithm. PMID:18693953

Yang, Jianji; Cohen, Aaron M; Hersh, William

2007-01-01

121

Serenoa repens monotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): an updated Cochrane systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the effectiveness and harms of Serenoa repens monotherapy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consistent with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and other sources through to January 2012 to identify randomised trials. Trials were eligible if they randomised men with symptomatic BPH to receive Serenoa repens extract monotherapy for at least 4 weeks in comparison with placebo, and assessed clinical outcomes and urodynamic measurements. Our primary outcome was improvement in LUTS, based on change in urological symptom-scale scores. Results In all, 17 randomised controlled trials (N = 2008) assessing Serenoa repens monotherapy (typically 320 mg/day) vs placebo met inclusion criteria, although only five reported American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) or International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS). Trial lengths ranged from 4 to 72 weeks. The mean age of all enrolees was 64.3 years and most participants were of White race. The mean baseline total score was 14 points, indicating moderately severe symptoms. In all, 16 trials were double blinded and adequate treatment allocation concealment was reported in six trials. In a meta-analysis of three high quality long-to-moderate term trials (n = 661), Serenoa repens therapy was no better than placebo in reducing LUTS based on the AUASI/IPSS (weighted mean difference [WMD] ?0.16 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?1.45 to 1.14) or maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax; WMD 0.40 mL/s, 95% CI ?0.30 to 1.09). Based on mostly short-term studies, Qmax measured at study endpoint were also not significantly different between treatment groups (WMD 1.15 mL/s, 95% CI ?0.23 to 2.53) with evidence of substantial heterogeneity (I2 58%). One long-term dose escalation trial (72 weeks) found double and triple doses of Serenoa repens extract did not improve AUASI compared with placebo and the proportions of clinical responders (? 3 point decrease in the AUASI) were nearly identical (43% vs 44% for Serenoa repens and placebo, respectively) with a corresponding risk ratio of 0.96 (95% CI 0.76–1.22). Long-term, Serenoa repens therapy was no better than placebo in improving nocturia in one high-quality study (P = 0.19). Pooled analysis of nine short-term Permixon® trials showed a reduction in the frequency of nocturia (WMD ?0.79 times/night, 95% CI?1.28 to ?0.29), although there was evidence of heterogeneity (I2 76%) Adverse events of Serenoa repens extracts were few and mild, and incidences were not statistically significantly different vs placebo. Study withdrawals occurred in ?10% and did not differ between Serenoa repens and placebo. Conclusions Serenoa repens therapy does not improve LUTS or Qmax compared with placebo in men with BPH, even at double and triple the usual dose. Adverse events were generally mild and comparable to placebo. PMID:22551330

MacDonald, Roderick; Tacklind, James W.; Rutks, Indulis; Wilt, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

122

Retrieving Clinical Evidence: A Comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar for Quick Clinical Searches  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians frequently search PubMed for information to guide patient care. More recently, Google Scholar has gained popularity as another freely accessible bibliographic database. Objective To compare the performance of searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Methods We surveyed nephrologists (kidney specialists) and provided each with a unique clinical question derived from 100 renal therapy systematic reviews. Each physician provided the search terms they would type into a bibliographic database to locate evidence to answer the clinical question. We executed each of these searches in PubMed and Google Scholar and compared results for the first 40 records retrieved (equivalent to 2 default search pages in PubMed). We evaluated the recall (proportion of relevant articles found) and precision (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. We further documented whether relevant articles were available as free full-texts. Results Compared with PubMed, the average search in Google Scholar retrieved twice as many relevant articles (PubMed: 11%; Google Scholar: 22%; P<.001). Precision was similar in both databases (PubMed: 6%; Google Scholar: 8%; P=.07). Google Scholar provided significantly greater access to free full-text publications (PubMed: 5%; Google Scholar: 14%; P<.001). Conclusions For quick clinical searches, Google Scholar returns twice as many relevant articles as PubMed and provides greater access to free full-text articles. PMID:23948488

Bejaimal, Shayna AD; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

2013-01-01

123

Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention in randomised trials. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Sources searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, C2-SPECTR, ERIC, PreMEDLINE, Cochrane Methodology Register, Current Controlled Trials metaRegister, WHO trials platform, Society for Clinical Trials (SCT) conference proceedings and a survey of all UK clinical trial research units. Review methods Included trials were randomised evaluations of strategies to improve retention embedded within host randomised trials. The primary outcome was retention of trial participants. Data from trials were pooled using the fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the heterogeneity and to determine whether there were any differences in effect by the type of strategy. Results 38 retention trials were identified. Six broad types of strategies were evaluated. Strategies that increased postal questionnaire responses were: adding, that is, giving a monetary incentive (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28) and higher valued incentives (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Offering a monetary incentive, that is, an incentive given on receipt of a completed questionnaire, also increased electronic questionnaire response (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.38). The evidence for shorter questionnaires (RR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08) and questionnaires relevant to the disease/condition (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14) is less clear. On the basis of the results of single trials, the following strategies appeared effective at increasing questionnaire response: recorded delivery of questionnaires (RR 2.08; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.87); a ‘package’ of postal communication strategies (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67) and an open trial design (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.63). There is no good evidence that the following strategies impact on trial response/retention: adding a non-monetary incentive (RR=1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02); offering a non-monetary incentive (RR=0.99; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.03); ‘enhanced’ letters (RR=1.01; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.05); monetary incentives compared with offering prize draw entry (RR=1.04; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.19); priority postal delivery (RR=1.02; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09); behavioural motivational strategies (RR=1.08; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.24); additional reminders to participants (RR=1.03; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.06) and questionnaire question order (RR=1.00, 0.97 to 1.02). Also based on single trials, these strategies do not appear effective: a telephone survey compared with a monetary incentive plus questionnaire (RR=1.08; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.24); offering a charity donation (RR=1.02, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.32); sending sites reminders (RR=0.96; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.11); sending questionnaires early (RR=1.10; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.26); longer and clearer questionnaires (RR=1.01, 0.95 to 1.07) and participant case management by trial assistants (RR=1.00; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.04). Conclusions Most of the trials evaluated questionnaire response rather than ways to improve participants return to site for follow-up. Monetary incentives and offers of monetary incentives increase postal and electronic questionnaire response. Some strategies need further evaluation. Application of these results would depend on trial context and follow-up procedures. PMID:24496696

Brueton, V C; Tierney, J F; Stenning, S; Meredith, S; Harding, S; Nazareth, I; Rait, G

2014-01-01

124

Antenatal interventions to reduce preterm birth: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Several factors are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB); therefore, various interventions might have the potential to influence it. Due to the large number of interventions that address PTB, the objective of this overview is to summarise evidence from Cochrane reviews regarding the effects and safety of these different interventions. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Included reviews should be based on randomised controlled trials comparing antenatal non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that directly or indirectly address PTB with placebo/no treatment or routine care in pregnant women at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation without signs of threatened preterm labour. We considered PTB at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation as the primary outcome. Results We included 56 Cochrane systematic reviews. Three interventions increased PTB risk significantly. Twelve interventions led to a statistically significant lower incidence of PTBs. However, this reduction was mostly observed in defined at-risk subgroups of pregnant women. The remaining antenatal interventions failed to prove a significant effect on PTB?Cochrane reviews which intended to report on PTB?Cochrane systematic reviews. Few interventions have been demonstrated to be effective and a small number have been found to be harmful. For around half of the interventions evaluated, the Cochrane review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to provide sound recommendations for clinical practice. No RCT evidence is available for a number of potentially relevant interventions. PMID:24758148

2014-01-01

125

The impact of Cochrane Systematic Reviews: a mixed method evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of Cochrane reviews published by NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007–2011. Methods We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, interviewed guideline developers and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane reviews. We used a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). Results A total of 1,502 new and updated reviews were produced by the 20 NIHR-funded CRGs between 2007 and 2011. The clearest impacts were on policy with a total of 483 systematic reviews cited in 247 sets of guidance: 62 were international, 175 national (87 from the UK) and 10 local. Review authors and CRGs provided some examples of impact on practice or services, for example, safer use of medication, the identification of new effective drugs or treatments and potential economic benefits through the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures. However, such impacts are difficult to objectively document, and the majority of reviewers were unsure if their review had produced specific impacts. Qualitative data suggested that Cochrane reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and guideline developers were barriers to their use. Conclusions Health and economic impacts of research are generally difficult to measure. We found that to be the case with this evaluation. Impacts on knowledge production and clinical guidance were easier to identify and substantiate than those on clinical practice. Questions remain about how we define and measure impact, and more work is needed to develop suitable methods for impact analysis. PMID:25348511

2014-01-01

126

Number of embryos for transfer after IVF and ICSI: a Cochrane review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The most common complication of IVF is multiple pregnancy, which occurs in 25% of pregnancies following the transfer of two embryos. Single embryo transfer can minimize twin pregnancies but could also lower live birth rates. Our aim was to perform a systematic rev iew of randomized trials to determine the effectiveness of single versus double embryo transfer. METHODS: Cochrane

Zabeena Pandian; Allan Templeton; Gamal Serour; Siladitya Bhattacharya

2005-01-01

127

Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

Furlong, John

2002-01-01

128

Metformin versus oral contraceptive pill in polycystic ovary syndrome: a Cochrane review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The object of this review was to compare metformin versus oral contraceptive pill (OCP) treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis employing the principles of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group was undertaken. RESULTS: Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (104 subjects) were included. Limited data demonstrated no evidence of a difference in effect between

Michael F. Costello; Bhushan Shrestha; John Eden; Neil P. Johnson; Peter Sjoblom

2007-01-01

129

COCHRAN, W. G. 1977. Sampling Techniques. 3rd ed. Wiley, N.Y., 428  

E-print Network

COCHRAN, W. G. 1977. Sampling Techniques. 3rd ed. Wiley, N.Y., 428 p. Fox, W. W., JR. 1978. Tuna, CA 92088 WHITE DALL'S PORPOISE SIGHTED IN THE NORTH PACIFIC Several studies on the population of the North Pacific Ocean. During that period, two white Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, were sighted

130

Fractal Volume Compression Wayne O. Cochran John C. Hart Patrick J. Flynn  

E-print Network

Fractal Volume Compression Wayne O. Cochran John C. Hart Patrick J. Flynn School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-2752 fwcochran,hart, ynng@eecs.wsu.edu October 18, 1995 Abstract This research is the rst application of fractal compression to volumetric data

131

Extracts from The Cochrane Library: Tonsillectomy for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome (PFAPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Cochrane Corner” is a quarterly section in the journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology–head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features a Cochrane Review titled “Tonsillectomy for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome (PFAPA),” which suggests beneficial effects of surgery for up to 18 months, but also

Ronald B. Kuppersmith; Scott T. Schams; Richard M. Rosenfeld

2010-01-01

132

Saving the Time of the Library User through Subject Access Innovation: Papers in Honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers in honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane on subject access issues in library and information science: (1) "Obstacles in Progress in Mechanized Subject Access and the Necessity of a Paradigm Change" (Robert Fugmann); (2) "On MARC and the Nature of Text Searching: A Review of Pauline Cochrane's Inspirational…

Wheeler, William J., Ed.

133

Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... Past Issues For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the magazine NIH MedlinePlus the magazine is published quarterly, in print and on the Web. Print subscriptions Sign up for a free subscription ...

134

MedlinePlus en español marks its 10th anniversary  

MedlinePLUS

... Anniversary To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus en español ( http://medlineplus.gov/espanol ) launched in September 2002. MedlinePlus en español is a full-featured web site that contains a wealth of authoritative, reliable ...

135

MedlinePlus Marks its 15th Anniversary  

MedlinePLUS

... MedlinePlus Connect service that allows electronic health record systems to link from patient diagnoses, medications, and lab test results to MedlinePlus information. The service won the HHS innovates Award in March 2011. You can keep up to ...

136

Posted 3/2/13 Medline Industries Industrial Engineer  

E-print Network

Posted 3/2/13 Medline Industries ­ Industrial Engineer Medline Industries, Inc. has an immediate opening for an Industrial Engineer for our SPT Division located in Waukegan, IL. We are seeking a hard-working, detail-oriented professional with experience in industrial engineering and lean manufacturing within

Heller, Barbara

137

Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach  

PubMed Central

PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users’ search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1,539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1,396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments. PMID:19162232

Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W. John

2009-01-01

138

Semantic MEDLINE for Discovery Browsing: Using Semantic Predications and the Literature-Based Discovery Paradigm to Elucidate a Mechanism for the Obesity Paradox  

PubMed Central

Applying the principles of literature-based discovery (LBD), we elucidate the paradox that obesity is beneficial in critical care despite contributing to disease generally. Our approach enhances a previous extension to LBD, called “discovery browsing,” and is implemented using Semantic MEDLINE, which summarizes the results of a PubMed search into an interactive graph of semantic predications. The methodology allows a user to construct argumentation underpinning an answer to a biomedical question by engaging the user in an iterative process between system output and user knowledge. Components of the Semantic MEDLINE output graph identified as “interesting” by the user both contribute to subsequent searches and are constructed into a logical chain of relationships constituting an explanatory network in answer to the initial question. Based on this methodology we suggest that phthalates leached from plastic in critical care interventions activate PPAR gamma, which is anti-inflammatory and abundant in obese patients. PMID:24551329

Cairelli, Michael J.; Miller, Christopher M.; Fiszman, Marcelo; Workman, T. Elizabeth; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

139

MedlinePlus 2010 User Survey Results: How did you learn of the MedlinePlus web site?  

MedlinePLUS

... ESPAÑOL To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. 2012 User Survey Results: Slide Index | Previous | Next How did you learn of the MedlinePlus web site? (MedlinePlus en español users only) Responses: Web ...

140

Evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions: the role and activities of the Cochrane Collaboration  

PubMed Central

Public health decision makers, funders, practitioners, and the public are increasingly interested in the evidence that underpins public health decision making. Decisions in public health cover a vast range of activities. With the ever increasing global volume of primary research, knowledge and changes in thinking and approaches, quality systematic reviews of all the available research that is relevant to a particular practice or policy decision are an efficient way to synthesise and utilise research efforts. The Cochrane Collaboration includes an organised entity that aims to increase the quality and quantity of public health systematic reviews, through a range of activities. This paper aims to provide a glossary of the terms and activities related to public health and the Cochrane Collaboration. PMID:16537343

Waters, Elizabeth; Doyle, Jodie; Jackson, Nicki; Howes, Faline; Brunton, Ginny; Oakley, Ann

2006-01-01

141

From asthma to Alzheimer's: Cochrane vitamin reviews cover an array of topics.  

PubMed

In the current issue of the Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2004), there are more than 25 systematic reviews addressing the use of vitamins in the prevention or treatment of disease. Vitamins have been a mainstay of health since their discovery in the early 1900s, so a question arises as to when using vitamins is considered complementary as opposed to conventional medical practice. Complementary or alternative vitamin use encompasses those uses that are outside of accepted medical practice. The use of vitamin C to prevent scurvy is accepted medical practice. The use of vitamin C as a therapeutic adjunct to asthma is not. This paper summarizes 15 Cochrane systematic reviews on the complementary use of vitamins for an array of conditions including the common cold, Alzheimer's disease, asthma, chemotherapy-induced mucositis, and depression. PMID:15750385

Ezzo, Jeanette

2005-02-01

142

Cost-Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in the United Kingdom—A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and assess all prospective, controlled, cost-effectiveness studies of complementary therapies carried out in the UK. Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Amed (Alternative and Allied Medicine Database, British Library Medical Information Centre), The Cochrane Library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (via Cochrane) and Health Technology Assessments up to

Peter H. Canter; Joanna Thompson Coon; Edzard Ernst; Exeter Devon

2006-01-01

143

Evidence for perinatal and child health care guidelines in crisis settings: can Cochrane help?  

PubMed Central

Background It is important that healthcare provided in crisis settings is based on the best available research evidence. We reviewed guidelines for child and perinatal health care in crisis situations to determine whether they were based on research evidence, whether Cochrane systematic reviews were available in the clinical areas addressed by these guidelines and whether summaries of these reviews were provided in Evidence Aid. Methods Broad internet searches were undertaken to identify relevant guidelines. Guidelines were appraised using AGREE and the clinical areas that were relevant to perinatal or child health were extracted. We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify potentially relevant reviews. For each review we determined how many trials were included, and how many were conducted in resource-limited settings. Results Six guidelines met selection criteria. None of the included guidelines were clearly based on research evidence. 198 Cochrane reviews were potentially relevant to the guidelines. These reviews predominantly addressed nutrient supplementation, breastfeeding, malaria, maternal hypertension, premature labour and prevention of HIV transmission. Most reviews included studies from developing settings. However for large portions of the guidelines, particularly health services delivery, there were no relevant reviews. Only 18 (9.1%) reviews have summaries in Evidence Aid. Conclusions We did not identify any evidence-based guidelines for perinatal and child health care in disaster settings. We found many Cochrane reviews that could contribute to the evidence-base supporting future guidelines. However there are important issues to be addressed in terms of the relevance of the available reviews and increasing the number of reviews addressing health care delivery. PMID:20350326

2010-01-01

144

Assessing bias in osteoarthritis trials included in Cochrane reviews: protocol for a meta-epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis depends on methodological quality and unbiased dissemination of trials. Our objective is to evaluate the association of estimates of treatment effects with different bias-related study characteristics in meta-analyses of interventions used for treating pain in osteoarthritis (OA). From the findings, we hope to consolidate guidance on interpreting OA trials in systematic reviews based on empirical evidence from Cochrane reviews. Methods and analysis Only systematic reviews that compare experimental interventions with sham, placebo or no intervention control will be considered eligible. Bias will be assessed with the risk of bias tool, used according to the Cochrane Collaboration’s recommendations. Furthermore, center status, trial size and funding will be assessed. The primary outcome (pain) will be abstracted from the first appearing forest plot for overall pain in the Cochrane review. Treatment effect sizes will be expressed as standardised mean differences (SMDs), where the difference in mean values available from the forest plots is divided by the pooled SD. To empirically assess the risk of bias in treatment benefits, we will perform stratified analyses of the trials from the included meta-analyses and assess the interaction between trial characteristics and treatment effect. A relevant study-level covariate is defined as one that decreases the between-study variance (?2, estimated as Tau-squared) as a consequence of inclusion in the mixed effects statistical model. Ethics and dissemination Meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials provide the most reliable basis for treatment of patients with OA, but the actual impact of bias is unclear. This study will systematically examine the methodological quality in OA Cochrane reviews and explore the effect estimates behind possible bias. Since our study does not collect primary data, no formal ethical assessment and informed consent are required. Trial registration number PROSPERO (CRD42013006924). PMID:25280805

Hansen, Julie B; Juhl, Carsten B; Boutron, Isabelle; Tugwell, Peter; Ghogomu, Elizabeth A T; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Rader, Tamara; Wells, George A; Mayhew, Alain; Maxwell, Lara; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin

2014-01-01

145

Global priority setting for Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health research  

PubMed Central

Background: Systematic reviews of health promotion and public health interventions are increasingly being conducted to assist public policy decision making. Many intra-country initiatives have been established to conduct systematic reviews in their relevant public health areas. The Cochrane Collaboration, an international organisation established to conduct and publish systematic reviews of healthcare interventions, is committed to high quality reviews that are regularly updated, published electronically, and meeting the needs of the consumers. Aims: To identify global priorities for Cochrane systematic reviews of public health topics. Methods: Systematic reviews of public health interventions were identified and mapped against global health risks. Global health organisations were engaged and nominated policy-urgent titles, evidence based selection criteria were applied to set priorities. Results: 26 priority systematic review titles were identified, addressing interventions such as community building activities, pre-natal and early infancy psychosocial outcomes, and improving the nutrition status of refugee and displaced populations. Discussion: The 26 priority titles provide an opportunity for potential reviewers and indeed, the Cochrane Collaboration as a whole, to address the previously unmet needs of global health policy and research agencies. PMID:15709077

Doyle, J; Waters, E; Yach, D; McQueen, D; De Francisco, A; Stewart, T; Reddy, P; Gulmezoglu, A; Galea, G; Portela, A

2005-01-01

146

[Analysis of the Cochrane review: Anticoagulation versus placebo for heart failure in sinus rhythm. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;3:CD003336].  

PubMed

Thrombotic and embolic events contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated to Chronic Heart Failure (HF). Differently from patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and HF, in which the benefit of anticoagulation is well documented, the use of these drugs in those with HF in sinus rhythm (without AF history) is controversial. In this systematic review from the Cochrane Collaboration, the authors evaluated the benefits and risks associated with oral anticoagulation (versus placebo) in this population. Only 2 randomized controlled trials were published (one with open-label design) enrolling a total of 324 patients. The results of the meta-analysis based on the best available evidence do not support the systematic use of oral anticoagulants in patients with HF and sinus rhythm for preventing death (overall or cardiovascular) or non-fatal cardiovascular events. Furthermore the major bleeding risk was significantly increased. PMID:25017336

Caldeira, Daniel; Vaz-Carneiro, António; Costa, João

2014-01-01

147

Bile Duct Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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148

Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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149

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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150

Asian American Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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151

Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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152

Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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153

Blood Transfusion and Donation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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154

Baby Health Checkup - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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155

Asthma in Children - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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156

Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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157

Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov  

MedlinePLUS

... Issue Past Issues Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... on. No matter where you are in the world, www.medlineplus.gov is your best global source ...

158

Treating Cataracts | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... her experience recently with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What did you notice about your vision that told you ... how long it would take to recover. Where did you go for information about cataracts and surgery? ...

159

Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer: Challenges of Conducting a Literature Search Using PubMed  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors for bladder cancer using PubMed articles from January 2000 to December 2009. The study also aimed to describe the challenges encountered in the methodology of a literature search for bladder cancer risk factors using PubMed. Twenty-six categories of risk factors for bladder cancer were identified using the National Cancer Institute Web site and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Web site. A total of 1,338 PubMed searches were run using the term “urinary bladder cancer” and a risk factor term (e.g., “cigarette smoking”) and were screened to identify 260 articles for final analysis. The search strategy had an overall precision of 3.42 percent, relative recall of 12.64 percent, and an F -measure of 5.39 percent. Although search terms derived from MeSH had the highest overall precision and recall, the differences did not reach significance, which indicates that for generalized, free-text searches of the PubMed database, the searchers' own terms are generally as effective as MeSH terms. PMID:21464862

Joshi, Ashish; Preslan, Elicia

2011-01-01

160

A SNPshot of PubMed to associate genetic variants with drugs, diseases, and adverse reactions  

E-print Network

A SNPshot of PubMed to associate genetic variants with drugs, diseases, and adverse reactions Jörg, drug efficacy, and drug responses between individuals and sub-populations. Wrong dosages of drugs can lead to severe adverse drug reac- tions in individuals whose drug metabolism drastically differs from

Baral, Chitta

161

Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE  

PubMed Central

Background Health technology assessments of surgical interventions frequently require the inclusion of non-randomised evidence. Literature search strategies employed to identify this evidence often exclude a methodological component because of uncertainty surrounding the use of appropriate search terms. This can result in the retrieval of a large number of irrelevant records. Methodological filters would help to minimise this, making literature searching more efficient. Methods An objective approach was employed to develop MEDLINE and EMBASE filters, using a reference standard derived from screening the results of an electronic literature search that contained only subject-related terms. Candidate terms for MEDLINE (N = 37) and EMBASE (N = 35) were derived from examination of the records of the reference standard. The filters were validated on two sets of studies that had been included in previous health technology assessments. Results The final filters were highly sensitive (MEDLINE 99.5%, EMBASE 100%, MEDLINE/EMBASE combined 100%) with precision ranging between 16.7% – 21.1%, specificity 35.3% – 43.5%, and a reduction in retrievals of over 30%. Against the validation standards, the individual filters retrieved 85.2% – 100% of records. In combination, however, the MEDLINE and EMBASE filters retrieved 100% against both validation standards with a reduction in retrieved records of 28.4% and 30.1% Conclusion The MEDLINE and EMBASE filters were highly sensitive and substantially reduced the number of records retrieved, indicating that they are useful tools for efficient literature searching. PMID:16919159

Fraser, Cynthia; Murray, Alison; Burr, Jennifer

2006-01-01

162

The Impact of Study Size on Meta-analyses: Examination of Underpowered Studies in Cochrane Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Most meta-analyses include data from one or more small studies that, individually, do not have power to detect an intervention effect. The relative influence of adequately powered and underpowered studies in published meta-analyses has not previously been explored. We examine the distribution of power available in studies within meta-analyses published in Cochrane reviews, and investigate the impact of underpowered studies on meta-analysis results. Methods and Findings For 14,886 meta-analyses of binary outcomes from 1,991 Cochrane reviews, we calculated power per study within each meta-analysis. We defined adequate power as ?50% power to detect a 30% relative risk reduction. In a subset of 1,107 meta-analyses including 5 or more studies with at least two adequately powered and at least one underpowered, results were compared with and without underpowered studies. In 10,492 (70%) of 14,886 meta-analyses, all included studies were underpowered; only 2,588 (17%) included at least two adequately powered studies. 34% of the meta-analyses themselves were adequately powered. The median of summary relative risks was 0.75 across all meta-analyses (inter-quartile range 0.55 to 0.89). In the subset examined, odds ratios in underpowered studies were 15% lower (95% CI 11% to 18%, P<0.0001) than in adequately powered studies, in meta-analyses of controlled pharmacological trials; and 12% lower (95% CI 7% to 17%, P<0.0001) in meta-analyses of controlled non-pharmacological trials. The standard error of the intervention effect increased by a median of 11% (inter-quartile range ?1% to 35%) when underpowered studies were omitted; and between-study heterogeneity tended to decrease. Conclusions When at least two adequately powered studies are available in meta-analyses reported by Cochrane reviews, underpowered studies often contribute little information, and could be left out if a rapid review of the evidence is required. However, underpowered studies made up the entirety of the evidence in most Cochrane reviews. PMID:23544056

Turner, Rebecca M.; Bird, Sheila M.; Higgins, Julian P. T.

2013-01-01

163

[PubMed 2009. How to work with the new "advanced search" interface].  

PubMed

PubMed/MEDLINE has recently changed the interface of its search function, especially the new web page called "Advanced Search", which combines on one page many of the functionalities and search options previous located at several different access points. We present here a tutorial to help French-speaking users work with this new interface. PMID:19810621

Mouillet, Evelyne

2008-01-01

164

Challenges in integrating international evidence relating to stroke rehabilitation: experiences from a Cochrane systematic review.  

PubMed

There are many randomized controlled trials relating to stroke rehabilitation being carried out in China, which are often published in Chinese-language journals. A recent update to our Cochrane systematic review of physical rehabilitation to improve function and mobility after stroke included 96 trials; over half (51) were conducted in China; 37 of these included studies were published in Chinese. Analyses within this Cochrane review support the conclusion that physical rehabilitation, using a mix of components from different approaches, is effective for the recovery of function and mobility after stroke. The inclusion of the Chinese studies had a substantial impact on the volume of evidence and, consequently, the conclusions. In this paper, we explore whether it is appropriate to draw implications for clinical practice throughout the world from evidence relating to a complex rehabilitation intervention delivered within one particular geographical healthcare setting. We explore the unique challenges associated with incorporating the body of evidence from China, particularly the Chinese-language publications, and identify the ongoing debate about the quality of Chinese research publications. We conclude that the growing body of evidence from China has important implications for future systematic reviews and evidence-based stroke care, but analysis and interpretation raise challenges, and improved reporting is critical. PMID:25381686

Pollock, Alex; Campbell, Pauline; Baer, Gillian; Choo, Pei Ling; Forster, Anne; Morris, Jacqui; Pomeroy, Valerie M; Langhorne, Peter

2014-12-01

165

Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses.  

PubMed

The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous medical databases on the World Wide Web, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. We compared the content coverage and practical utility of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The official Web pages of the databases were used to extract information on the range of journals covered, search facilities and restrictions, and update frequency. We used the example of a keyword search to evaluate the usefulness of these databases in biomedical information retrieval and a specific published article to evaluate their utility in performing citation analysis. All databases were practical in use and offered numerous search facilities. PubMed and Google Scholar are accessed for free. The keyword search with PubMed offers optimal update frequency and includes online early articles; other databases can rate articles by number of citations, as an index of importance. For citation analysis, Scopus offers about 20% more coverage than Web of Science, whereas Google Scholar offers results of inconsistent accuracy. PubMed remains an optimal tool in biomedical electronic research. Scopus covers a wider journal range, of help both in keyword searching and citation analysis, but it is currently limited to recent articles (published after 1995) compared with Web of Science. Google Scholar, as for the Web in general, can help in the retrieval of even the most obscure information but its use is marred by inadequate, less often updated, citation information. PMID:17884971

Falagas, Matthew E; Pitsouni, Eleni I; Malietzis, George A; Pappas, Georgios

2008-02-01

166

Increasing dominance of English in publications archived by PubMed  

Microsoft Academic Search

English is becoming the international language in numerous fields of human civilization. We sought to evaluate the extent\\u000a of use of English in the field of biomedical publications. We searched in PubMed for the number of articles written in the\\u000a 57 indexed languages, during each one of the four past 10-year periods. The extent of use of English as the

Politimi Eleni Valkimadi; Drosos E. Karageorgopoulos; Harissios Vliagoftis; Matthew E. Falagas

2009-01-01

167

Matching references with MEDLINE via TCP/IP.  

PubMed Central

Bibliographic references are an important part of databases and information resources used by clinicians and biomedical researchers. In addition to the obvious clerical advantages of standard references, bibliographic references can also be used as links to related items in different data sets. This paper describes an effort that involved matching references from a variety of disparate databases to canonical MEDLINE references. The references matched were those involved in a database unification project which is part of the Mouse Genome Informatics effort at The Jackson Laboratory. Software was developed to take advantage of a commercially available retrieval engine which accesses MEDLINE on CD-ROM disks. The software permits client programs on UNIX/C, and potentially other environments, to access unabridged MEDLINE via networks supporting the TCP/IP protocols. The matching process described can be used as a model for similar efforts with different research or clinical data sets, as well as different hardware or software environments. PMID:8130546

Guidi, J. N.

1993-01-01

168

Robustness of empirical search strategies for clinical content in MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It is important for clinical end users of MEDLINE to be able to retrieve articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. The use of methodologic search filters (such as "random allocation" for sound studies of medical interventions) has been advocated to improve the accuracy of searching for such studies. Methodologic search filters have been tested in previous MEDLINE files but indexing continues to evolve and the operating characteristics of these search filters in current MEDLINE files are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the robustness of empirical search strategies developed in 1991 for detecting clinical content in MEDLINE in the year 2000. DESIGN: A survey based on a hand search of 171 core health care journals using predetermined quality indicators for scientific merit and clinical relevance. METHODS: 6 trained, experienced research assistants read all issues of 171 journals for the publishing year 2000. Each article was rated using purpose and quality indicators and categorized into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor in the areas of therapy/quality improvement, diagnosis, prognosis, causation, economics, clinical prediction, and qualitative and review articles. Search strategies developed in 1991 were tested in the 2000 database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies. RESULTS: Search strategies developed in 1991 generally performed at least as well in 2000 for both best single terms and combinations of terms for high-sensitivity MEDLINE searches for studies of treatment, prognosis, etiology and diagnosis. For example, the accuracy of "clinical trial (pt)" rose from 91.6% to 94.4% (P<0.05) for retrieving high-quality studies of treatments. CONCLUSION: Most MEDLINE search strategies developed in 1991 are robust when searching in the publishing year 2000. PMID:12463956

Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian

2002-01-01

169

Bibliographic retrieval: a survey of individual users of MEDLINE.  

PubMed

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has been providing online access to the MEDLINE database for nearly 20 years. In recent years, there has been a shift in the composition of the user population. Nearly half the online access codes are now held by individuals who conduct their own searches of the database. The NLM has conducted a survey to identify the demographic features of this end-user population, their reasons for searching the database, their methods of access, and their satisfaction with MEDLINE as available on the NLM system. PMID:2190059

Wallingford, K T; Humphreys, B L; Selinger, N E; Siegel, E R

1990-01-01

170

NEMO: Extraction and normalization of organization names from PubMed affiliation strings  

PubMed Central

Background. We are witnessing an exponential increase in biomedical research citations in PubMed. However, translating biomedical discoveries into practical treatments is estimated to take around 17 years, according to the 2000 Yearbook of Medical Informatics, and much information is lost during this transition. Pharmaceutical companies spend huge sums to identify opinion leaders and centers of excellence. Conventional methods such as literature search, survey, observation, self-identification, expert opinion, and sociometry not only need much human effort, but are also noncomprehensive. Such huge delays and costs can be reduced by “connecting those who produce the knowledge with those who apply it”. A humble step in this direction is large scale discovery of persons and organizations involved in specific areas of research. This can be achieved by automatically extracting and disambiguating author names and affiliation strings retrieved through Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and other keywords associated with articles in PubMed. In this study, we propose NEMO (Normalization Engine for Matching Organizations), a system for extracting organization names from the affiliation strings provided in PubMed abstracts, building a thesaurus (list of synonyms) of organization names, and subsequently normalizing them to a canonical organization name using the thesaurus. Results: We used a parsing process that involves multi-layered rule matching with multiple dictionaries. The normalization process involves clustering based on weighted local sequence alignment metrics to address synonymy at word level, and local learning based on finding connected components to address synonymy. The graphical user interface and java client library of NEMO are available at http://lnxnemo.sourceforge.net . Conclusion: NEMO is developed to associate each biomedical paper and its authors with a unique organization name and the geopolitical location of that organization. This system provides more accurate information about organizations than the raw affiliation strings provided in PubMed abstracts. It can be used for : a) bimodal social network analysis that evaluates the research relationships between individual researchers and their institutions; b) improving author name disambiguation; c) augmenting National Library of Medicine (NLM)’s Medical Articles Record System (MARS) system for correcting errors due to OCR on affiliation strings that are in small fonts; and d) improving PubMed citation indexing strategies (authority control) based on normalized organization name and country. PMID:20922666

Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Topham, Philip

2010-01-01

171

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists twenty years later: what do Cochrane reviews tell us?  

PubMed

In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted regulatory approval to the first tumor necrosis factor-? antagonist, infliximab, for the treatment of moderately to severely active Crohn's disease. As of 2013, there were 3 additional tumor necrosis factor-? antagonists commercially available for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in the United States: adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and golimumab. Despite a vast literature describing both clinical trial and clinical practice experience with these agents, there remain important questions regarding the efficacy and safety of tumor necrosis factor-? antagonists for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. These questions and the best available evidence to answer them were discussed during a Cochrane Collaboration session held at the 2013 Digestive Diseases Week annual meeting. This article reviews the data from that session. PMID:25299543

Akobeng, Anthony A; Sandborn, William J; Bickston, Stephen J; Chande, Nilesh; Shackelton, Lisa M; Nelson, Sigrid; Feagan, Brian G

2014-11-01

172

Cochrane re-arranged: support for policies to vaccinate elderly people against influenza.  

PubMed

The 2010 Cochrane review on efficacy, effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination in the elderly by Jefferson et al. covering dozens of clinical studies over a period of four decades, confirmed vaccine safety, but found no convincing evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) against disease thus challenging the ongoing efforts to vaccinate the elderly. However, the Cochrane review analyzed and presented the data in a way that may itself have hampered the desired separation of real vaccine benefits from inevitable 'background noise'. The data are arranged in more than one hundred stand-alone meta-analyses, according to various vaccine types, study designs, populations, and outcome case definitions, and then further subdivided according to virus circulation and antigenic match. In this way, general vaccine effects could not be separated from an abundance of environmental and operational, non vaccine-related variation. Furthermore, expected impacts of changing virus circulation and antigenic drift on VE could not be demonstrated. We re-arranged the very same data according to a biological and conceptual framework based on the basic sequence of events throughout the 'patient journey' (exposure, infection, clinical outcome, observation) and using broad outcome definitions and simple frequency distributions of VE values. This approach produced meaningful predictions for VE against influenza-related fatal and non-fatal complications (average ~30% with large dispersion), typical influenza-like illness (~40%), disease with confirmed virus infection (~50%), and biological vaccine efficacy against infection (~60%), under conditions of virus circulation. We could also demonstrate a VE average around zero in the absence of virus circulation, and decreasing VE values with decreasing virus circulation and increasing antigenic drift. We regard these findings as substantial evidence for the ability of influenza vaccine to reduce the risk of influenza infection and influenza-related disease and death in the elderly. PMID:24095882

Beyer, Walter E P; McElhaney, Janet; Smith, Derek J; Monto, Arnold S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

2013-12-01

173

Future horizons in vitiligo research: focusing on the recommendations of the Cochrane systematic review 'Interventions for vitiligo' 2010.  

PubMed

The 'Implications for research' section of the Cochrane systematic review, 'Interventions for vitiligo', published in 2010, highlighted three main issues that impact the standard of vitiligo research: (i) lack of consensus on the classification and definition of vitiligo; (ii) lack of consensus on the methods of assessment and outcome measures for vitiligo; and (iii) heterogeneity of interventions compared. This article provides an update of the progress made to resolve these issues since the publication of the Cochrane systematic review in 2010, 'Interventions for vitiligo'. PMID:24098902

Eleftheriadou, V

2013-10-01

174

MedlinePlus FAQ: Information on Doctors or Hospitals  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Many health topic pages in MedlinePlus contain a section which lists directories of doctors and services relevant to the topic. The Directories page lists many sources of information about physicians, other ...

175

Language and country preponderance trends in MEDLINE and its causes  

PubMed Central

Objective: The authors characterized the output of MEDLINE papers by language and country of publication during a thirty-four-year time period. Methods: We classified MEDLINE's journal articles by country of publication (Anglos/Non-Anglos) and language (English/Non-English) for the years 1966 and from 1970 to 2000 at five-year intervals. Eight English-speaking countries were considered Anglos. Linear regression analysis of number of papers versus time was performed. Results: The global number of papers increased linearly at a rate of 8,142 papers per year. Anglo and English papers also increased linearly (6,740 and 9,199, respectively). Journals of Non-Anglo countries accounted for 25% of the English language increase (2,438 per year). Only Non-English papers decreased at a rate of 1,056 fewer papers per year. These trends have led to overwhelming shares of English and Anglo papers in MEDLINE. In 2000, 68% of all papers were published in the 8 Anglo countries and 90% were written in English. Conclusions: The Anglo and English preponderances appear to be a consequence of at least two phenomena: (1) editorial policy changes in MEDLINE and in some journals from Non-Anglo countries and (2) factors affecting Non-Anglo researchers in the third world (publication constraints, migration, and undersupport). These are tentative conclusions that need confirmation. PMID:16059428

Loria, Alvar; Arroyo, Pedro

2005-01-01

176

MINING MEDLINE: ABSTRACTS, SENTENCES, OR PHRASES? , D. BERLEANTa,d  

E-print Network

MINING MEDLINE: ABSTRACTS, SENTENCES, OR PHRASES? J. DINGa , D. BERLEANTa,d , D. NETTLETONb , AND E addresses automated mining for biochemical information from digital repositories of scientific literature, and effectiveness for the task of mining interactions among biochemical terms based on term co- occurrence. Results

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

177

Beyond PubMed: Searching the "Grey Literature" for Clinical Trial Results.  

PubMed

Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites. PMID:25337445

Citrome, Leslie

2014-07-01

178

Beyond PubMed: Searching the “Grey Literature” for Clinical Trial Results  

PubMed Central

Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the “grey literature.” Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites. PMID:25337445

2014-01-01

179

Qatar biomedical and cancer publications in PubMed between 2000 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this work was to analyse the past trends of biomedical and cancer publications from Qatar listed on PubMed for the years 2000–2012. These findings were then compared with the corresponding global number of publications. Methods: PubMed was searched for cancer publications, clinical trials, publications on humans or other species. Searching for “Qatar*” in the “Affiliation” field yielded the lowest number of publications; searching for “Qatar*” in the “Affiliation” or in “Title/Abstract” yielded a moderate number of results and searching for “Qatar*” in the “Affiliation” or “Title/Abstract” or “Text Word” fields yielded the highest number of publications. The annual percentage change (APC) from one year to the next was calculated for the population and each type of publication. Information on the population of Qatar was gathered from the website of Qatar Statistics Authority to determine the correlation of papers published per 1000 population. Results: The number of publications retrieved from PubMed was not particularly different for each variation of search carried out. However, the most representative number of publications was retrieved upon searching for “Qatar*” in the “Affiliation” or in “Title/Abstract” fields. Between the years 2000 and 2012, the total number of biomedical publications from Qatar increased 24 times with an average APC of 33.4%, which was found to be more than the APC of the population in Qatar which averaged at 9%. The number of biomedical publications per 1000 population increased from 0.02 in 2000 to 0.15% in 2012. Most publications retrieved were humans studies and occasionally were for other animal species. Cancer publications in Qatar represented 16.9% of the total publications and the number of cancer publications per 1000 population increased from 0% in 2000 to 0.02% in 2012. Publications classified as clinical trials represented 4.6% of Qatar biomedical publications. Publication of cancer clinical trials were very rare (0.4%). Conclusions: Despite the obvious increase in Qatar biomedical and cancer publications in PubMed, the absolute numbers were relatively small. While strategies are in place, leaders of Qatar biomedical research need to consider increasing cancer research and clinical trials to meet the country's needs. Linking research output to researchers, research facilities and research funding is needed. PMID:25320690

Zeeneldin, Ahmed A.; Taha, Fatma Mohamed

2014-01-01

180

Twelve Years of Scientific Production on Medline by Latin American Spine Surgeons  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the small contribution of LA in the Science Citation Index (SCI), a growing contribution by LA research to international literature has been observed in recent years. Study Design Systematic review. Purpose To evaluate the scientific contribution of Latin American (LA) Spine Surgeons in the last decade. Methods A literature search of publications by LA spinal surgeons on topics concerning the spine or spinal cord was performed using an online database; Pubmed.gov. The results were limited to articles published from January 2000 to December 2011. The quality of the publication was evaluated with the journal impact factor (IF), Oxford classification and number of citations. Results This study comprised 320 articles published in the Medline database by LA spine surgeons from 2000 to 2011. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of publications by LA spine surgeons. It was observed that 38.4% of LA papers were published in LA journals. 46.6% of the articles were published in journals with an IF lower than 1, and there was no statistically significant difference in the number of articles published in journals with a higher IF during the period. Linear-by-linear association analysis demonstrated an improvement in the level of evidence provided by LA articles published in recent years. Conclusions This study showed a growth in the number of publications in last 12 years by LA spinal surgeons. It is necessary to discuss a way to increase quantity and quality of scientific publications, mainly through a better education in research. PMID:24505336

Falavigna, Asdrubal; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Guarise da Silva, Pedro; Martins, Delio; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzalez, Alvaro Silva; Avila, José Maria Jiménez; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

2014-01-01

181

Outcomes in Cochrane Systematic Reviews Addressing Four Common Eye Conditions: An Evaluation of Completeness and Comparability  

PubMed Central

Introduction Choice of outcomes is critical for clinical trialists and systematic reviewers. It is currently unclear how systematic reviewers choose and pre-specify outcomes for systematic reviews. Our objective was to assess the completeness of pre-specification and comparability of outcomes in all Cochrane reviews addressing four common eye conditions. Methods We examined protocols for all Cochrane reviews as of June 2013 that addressed glaucoma, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy (DR). We assessed completeness and comparability for each outcome that was named in ?25% of protocols on those topics. We defined a completely-specified outcome as including information about five elements: domain, specific measurement, specific metric, method of aggregation, and time-points. For each domain, we assessed comparability in how individual elements were specified across protocols. Results We identified 57 protocols addressing glaucoma (22), cataract (16), AMD (15), and DR (4). We assessed completeness and comparability for five outcome domains: quality-of-life, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, disease progression, and contrast sensitivity. Overall, these five outcome domains appeared 145 times (instances). Only 15/145 instances (10.3%) were completely specified (all five elements) (median?=?three elements per outcome). Primary outcomes were more completely specified than non-primary (median?=?four versus two elements). Quality-of-life was least completely specified (median?=?one element). Due to largely incomplete outcome pre-specification, conclusive assessment of comparability in outcome usage across the various protocols per condition was not possible. Discussion Outcome pre-specification was largely incomplete; we encourage systematic reviewers to consider all five elements. This will indicate the importance of complete specification to clinical trialists, on whose work systematic reviewers depend, and will indirectly encourage comparable outcome choice to reviewers undertaking related research questions. Complete pre-specification could improve efficiency and reduce bias in data abstraction and analysis during a systematic review. Ultimately, more completely specified and comparable outcomes could make systematic reviews more useful to decision-makers. PMID:25329377

Saldanha, Ian J.; Dickersin, Kay; Wang, Xue; Li, Tianjing

2014-01-01

182

Prevention of Oral Mucositis and Oral Candidiasis for Patients with Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy: Cochrane Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine whether oral prophylactic agents are superior to placebo or no treatment on the incidence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis for patients with cancer. A Cochrane systematic review was conducted of randomized trials of oral (and topical) prophylactic agents for mucositis and oral candidiasis, anywhere in the world, among patients with cancer

H. V. Worthington; J. E. Clarkson

183

Using Cochran's Z Statistic to Test the Kernel-Smoothed Item Response Function Differences between Focal and Reference Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study combined the kernel smoothing procedure and a nonparametric differential item functioning statistic--Cochran's Z--to statistically test the difference between the kernel-smoothed item response functions for reference and focal groups. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the Type I error and power of the proposed…

Zheng, Yinggan; Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

2010-01-01

184

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I play tutorials and videos on my mobile device?  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Can I play tutorials and videos on my mobile device? To use the sharing ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus has video content in different formats. MedlinePlus also links to ...

185

Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/allergy.html MedlinePlus: ...

186

Finding Answers in a Beauty Shop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... customers the MedlinePlus website. Dexter Waiters uses the computer at MaFlo's to access the MedlinePlus consumer health ... A waiting area offers several comfortable chairs, three computers, and a printer. On a typical day, the ...

187

More to Love on MedlinePlus® Mobile: A Full Version for Your Phone  

MedlinePLUS

... on the current “desktop” site. Send us your feedback on this new version We welcome your comments. ... any page on MedlinePlus Mobile to send us feedback about the mobile site. Responsive Design for MedlinePlus: ...

188

PubMed search tips March 2013, Medical Library Nijmegen MeSH Search Medical Subject Headings  

E-print Network

or in selected fields, like title, abstract, author. Untagged terms that are entered in the search box with a MeSH term in PubMed you have 2 options: 1. Type the MeSH term in the PubMed search box adding [MeSH] 2. Find a term in the MeSH Database, click on Add to Search Builder (right of the screen

van Suijlekom, Walter

189

Performance evaluation of unified medical language system®'s synonyms expansion to query PubMed  

PubMed Central

Background PubMed is the main access to medical literature on the Internet. In order to enhance the performance of its information retrieval tools, primarily non-indexed citations, the authors propose a method: expanding users' queries using Unified Medical Language System' (UMLS) synonyms i.e. all the terms gathered under one unique Concept Unique Identifier. Methods This method was evaluated using queries constructed to emphasize the differences between this new method and the current PubMed automatic term mapping. Four experts assessed citation relevance. Results Using UMLS, we were able to retrieve new citations in 45.5% of queries, which implies a small increase in recall. The new strategy led to a heterogeneous 23.7% mean increase in non-indexed citation retrieved. Of these, 82% have been published less than 4 months earlier. The overall mean precision was 48.4% but differed according to the evaluators, ranging from 36.7% to 88.1% (Inter rater agreement was poor: kappa = 0.34). Conclusions This study highlights the need for specific search tools for each type of user and use-cases. The proposed strategy may be useful to retrieve recent scientific advancement. PMID:22376010

2012-01-01

190

The Role of The Cochrane Collaboration in Support of the WHO Nutrition Guidelines12  

PubMed Central

This article describes the background and contribution of The Cochrane Collaboration to the WHO Nutrition Guidelines program. Systematic reviews, augmented by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology for assessing the quality of a body of evidence, form the evidence basis for WHO guidelines. Our shared experience of working together has highlighted a number of issues that are challenging, such as decisions made about selecting appropriate questions for evidence synthesis and the nature of study types that are included, in particular the decision on whether or not to extend a search beyond randomized studies. Although the skills and experience required for evidence synthesis are different from those needed to determine recommendations for policy and practice, our experience suggests that some engagement between the two groups is mutually beneficial. Finally, our experience highlights the recognition that evidence of effectiveness is essential but by no means sufficient to guide decisions on recommendations. Programmatic and implementation considerations are important to guide decision making and the evidence basis for this may be limited; therefore, it is essential that groups involved in delivering interventions to populations are also engaged in the guidelines process. PMID:24425720

Tovey, David

2014-01-01

191

MEDLINE end-user survey: the University of Florida experience.  

PubMed

The University of Florida Health Science Center Library (UF-HSCL) surveyed MEDLINE end-user activities of the faculty from the six colleges which the UF-HSCL serves. A questionnaire was developed and sent to all faculty members. The Basic SAS program was used to analyze the collected data. This survey was intended to identify the users, the reasons for faculty members not being end users, the purpose for searching MEDLINE, the information retrieval methods, the level of end-user satisfaction, and the librarian's role in information retrieval activities. Many findings from this survey were in agreement with those of the 1988 study by the National Library of Medicine. PMID:10111720

Hsu, P P

1991-01-01

192

The Use of Transarterial Chemoembolization in the Treatment of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Response to the Cochrane Collaboration Review of 2011  

PubMed Central

This commentary is written in response to a recent Cochrane Collaboration review published in March 2011 (1). The authors of this commentary would like to express their concerns over the conclusions of the Cochrane review, which state, “There is no firm evidence to support or refute transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or transarterial embolization (TAE) for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).” PMID:22035882

Ray, Charles E.; Haskal, Ziv J; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.; Funaki, Brian S.

2015-01-01

193

A Search Engine to Access PubMed Monolingual Subsets: Proof of Concept and Evaluation in French  

PubMed Central

Background PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. Objective The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). Methods To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. Results More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. Conclusions It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese. PMID:25448528

Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

2014-01-01

194

Biomedicine's electronic publishing paradigm shift: copyright policy and PubMed Central.  

PubMed

Biomedical publishing stands at a crossroads. The traditional print, peer-reviewed, subscription journal has served science well but is now being called into question. Because of spiraling print journal costs and the worldwide acceptance of the Internet as a valid publication medium, there is a compelling opportunity to re-examine our current paradigm and future options. This report illustrates the conflicts and restrictions inherent in the current publishing model and examines how the single act of permitting authors to retain copyright of their scholarly manuscripts may preserve the quality-control function of the current journal system while allowing PubMed Central, the Internet archiving system recently proposed by the director of the National Institutes of Health, to simplify and liberate access to the world's biomedical literature. PMID:10833158

Markovitz, B P

2000-01-01

195

Publication Productivity of Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University Indexed in PubMed  

PubMed Central

Background: Analysis of PubMed publications as an indicator of the research productivity of individual countries, regions, or institutions has recently become a field of interest. Aim: The aim was to assess the past trends in PubMed-indexed medical publications from Mansoura Faculty of Medicine and to have an idea about the current situation in medical research. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications affiliated to Mansoura from the end of the calendar year 2012 and earlier. Results: Of 2798 papers related to Mansoura, 1756 publications were included in the analysis, and 1042 publications were excluded (false positives). The highest number of publications was in 2011 (10.6%, 187/1756) followed by 2012 (10.2%, 179/1756). There was an increase of the publication rate over 5-years period until it reaches 47.0% (826/1756) during the period from 2008 to 2012. The main high-producing department was Urology and Nephrology, which accounted for 35.9% (631/1756) of the total publications followed by Pediatrics and Parasitology. The median number of authors participated in the researches was four ranging from 1 to 23. Most of the publications were in the form of intervention/clinical trials (38.4%, 662/1756) followed by descriptive/cross-sectional study (38.3%, 659/1756). The median of the impact factor was 1.99 ranging from 0.27 to 53.3. Conclusion: The publication productivity of Mansoura Faculty of Medicine showed fluctuating pattern from the end of the calendar year 2012 and earlier. Future prospects for increasing research productivity should be considered to increase the number and quality of publications and academic staff participating in high-quality international researches. PMID:25364602

Helal, RM; Abou-ElWafa, HS; El-Gilany, AH

2014-01-01

196

Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed  

PubMed Central

Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of ‘high-quality’ SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments. PMID:20551243

Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2010-01-01

197

Literature search on risk factors for sarcoma: PubMed and Google Scholar may be complementary sources  

PubMed Central

Background Within the context of a European network dedicated to the study of sarcoma the relevant literature on sarcoma risk factors was collected by searching PubMed and Google Scholar, the two information storage and retrieval databases which can be accessed without charge. The present study aims to appraise the relative proficiency of PubMed and Google Scholar. Findings Unlike PubMed, Google Scholar does not allow a choice between "Human" and "Animal" studies, nor between "Classical" and other types of studies. As a result, searches with Google Scholar produced high numbers of citations that have to be filtered. Google Scholar resulted in a higher sensitivity (proportion of relevant articles, meeting the search criteria), while PubMed in a higher specificity (proportion of lower quality articles not meeting the criteria, that are not retrieved). Concordance between Google Scholar and PubMed was as low as 8%. Conclusions This study focused just on one topic. Although further studies are warranted, PM and GS appear to be complementary and their integration could greatly improve the search of references in medical research. PMID:20459746

2010-01-01

198

Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain. A report of a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).\\u000aAim: To evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques in chronic pain.\\u000aDesign: A Cochrane systematic

Neil E OConnell; Benedict M Wand; Louise Marston; Sally Spencer; Lorraine H DeSouza

2011-01-01

199

Factor Analytic Approach to Transitive Text Mining using Medline Descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix decomposition methods were applied to examples of noninteractive literature sets sharing implicit relations. Document-by-term matrices were created from downloaded PubMed literature sets, the terms being the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH descriptors) assigned to the documents. The loadings of the factors derived from singular value or eigenvalue matrix decomposition were sorted according to absolute values and subsequently inspected for positions of terms relevant to the discovery of hidden connections. It was found that only a small number of factors had to be screened to find key terms in close neighbourhood, being separated by a small number of terms only.

Stegmann, J.; Grohmann, G.

200

MedlinePlus 2012 User Survey Results: What is your preferred reading language on the Web? (Los usuarios de MedlinePlus ....  

MedlinePLUS

... ESPAÑOL To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. 2012 User Survey Results: Slide Index | Previous | Next What is your preferred reading language on the Web? (MedlinePlus en español users only) Responses: English MedlinePlus ...

201

Systemic wound care: a meta-review of cochrane systematic reviews.  

PubMed

Wound care is a classic example of a surgical realm with a great variation in care. The diversity in wounds and wound treatments, the limited amount of convincing evidence, and the diverging opinions among doctors and nurses involved in wound care contribute to this undesirable variation in care. For chronic wounds, such as arterial or venous ulcers, pressure sores, and diabetic foot ulcers, but also for acute wounds after surgery or trauma, international and national guidelines provide recommendations on diagnostic procedures and treatment options, but rely mostly on expert opinion. We present the available evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews for the systemic treatment (i.e., not prevention) of patients with wounds, as opposed to topical wound treatments. This evidence shows: - Venous ulcers: High-compression therapy is the classic and evidence-based treatment for treating venous ulcers. Oral pentoxifylline promotes ulcer healing with and without compression therapy. Oral zinc is not effective to heal venous ulcers. - Acute wounds: Recombinant human growth hormone accelerates healing of large burn wounds and donor sites, while high-carbohydrate feeding might reduce the risk of pneumonia. Linezolid is more effective than vancomycin for treating skin and soft tissue infections. Hyperbaric oxygen may help heal crush wounds and skin grafts. Therapeutic touch does not heal acute wounds. - Pressure sores: Air-fluidized and some low-tech devices appear effective for treating existing pressure ulcers. Oral zinc, protein, or vitamin C supplements seem ineffective. Also, evidence is lacking on the effectiveness of repositioning regimes as a treatment option. - Diabetic ulcers: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and pressure-relieving devices may improve healing rates. - Arterial ulcers: Prostanoids and spinal cord stimulation may be effective in healing ischemic ulcers. Thus, fortunately, some high-level evidence exists for various local and systemic interventions in wound care. Caregivers should be aware of, and apply, the strongest evidence available. Only when all stakeholders (patients, physicians, wound care nurses, but also manufacturers and buyers) implement this available evidence will optimum quality of care for patients with wounds be ensured. PMID:24700218

Ubbink, Dirk T; Santema, Trientje B; Stoekenbroek, Robert M

2014-03-01

202

An evaluation of statistical approaches to MEDLINE indexing.  

PubMed Central

Whether or not high accuracy classification methods can be scaled to large applications is crucial for the ultimate usefulness of such methods in text categorization. This paper applies two statistical learning algorithms, the Linear Least Squares Fit (LLSF) mapping and a Nearest Neighbor classifier named ExpNet, to a large collection of MEDLINE documents. With the use of suitable dimensionality reduction techniques and efficient algorithms, both LLSF and ExpNet successfully scaled to this very large problem with a result significantly outperforming word-matching and other automatic learning methods applied to the same corpus. PMID:8947688

Yang, Y.

1996-01-01

203

Bibliometric Perspectives on Medical Innovation using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of PubMed  

E-print Network

Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the Medline database. Focusing on three main branches-"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"-we use base maps and overlay techniques to investigate the translations and interactions and thus to gain a bibliometric perspective on the dynamics of medical innovations. To this end, we first analyze the Medline database, the MeSH index tree, and the various options for a static mapping from different perspectives and at different levels of aggregation. Following a specific innovation (RNA interference) over time, the notion of a trajectory which leaves a signature in the database is elaborated. Can the detailed index terms describing the dynamics of research be used to predict the diffusion dynamics of research results? Possibilities are specified for further integration between the Medline database, on the one hand, and the Science Citati...

Leydesdorff, Loet; Rafols, Ismael

2012-01-01

204

10/21/2014 Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses. [Phys Life Rev. 2012] -PubMed -NCBI http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925839 1/4  

E-print Network

10/21/2014 Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses. [Phys Life Rev. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.plrev.2012.07.001. Epub 2012 Jul 10. Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses. Baars BJ , Edelman DB a remarkable range of goalrelevant actions. Consciousness is "a difference that makes a difference

Memphis, University of

205

Cupping Therapy May be Harmful for Eczema: A PubMed Search  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids, and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aureus colonization is a common complication. As there is no immediate cure, many parents seek alternative therapies that claim unproven therapeutic efficacy. We report a girl with long history of treatment noncompliance. After practicing a long period of dietary avoidance and supplementation, the grandparents took her to an alternative medicine practitioner. Following cupping therapy and acupuncture, the child developed blistering and oozing over her back the next day, which rapidly evolved to two large irregular-edge deep ulcers. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics and received multidisciplinary supportive intervention. Using search words of??“cupping,” “eczema,” and “atopic dermatitis,” only two reports were found on PubMed. Therapeutic efficacy was claimed but not scientifically documented in these reports. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with serious undesirable sequelae. Physicians should be aware of various alternative treatment modalities and be prepared to offer evidence-based advice to the patients with eczema and their families. PMID:24282650

Hon, Kam Lun E.; Luk, David Chi Kong; Leong, Kin Fon; Leung, Alexander K. C.

2013-01-01

206

Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…

Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

2010-01-01

207

Identification of risk conditions for the development of adrenal disorders: how optimized PubMed search strategies makes the difference.  

PubMed

The exponential growth of scientific literature available through electronic databases (namely PubMed) has increased the chance of finding interesting articles. At the same time, search has become more complicated, time consuming, and at risk of missing important information. Therefore, optimized strategies have to be adopted to maximize searching impact. The aim of this study was to formulate efficient strings to search PubMed for etiologic associations between adrenal disorders (ADs) and other conditions. A comprehensive list of terms identifying endogenous conditions primarily affecting adrenals was compiled. An ad hoc analysis was performed to find the best way to express each term in order to find the highest number of potentially pertinent articles in PubMed. A predefined number of retrieved abstracts were read to assess their association with ADs' etiology. A more sensitive (providing the largest literature coverage) and a more specific (including only those terms retrieving >40 % of potentially pertinent articles) string were formulated. Various researches were performed to assess strings' ability to identify articles of interest in comparison with non-optimized literature searches. We formulated optimized, ready applicable tools for the identification of the literature assessing etiologic associations in the field of ADs using PubMed, and demonstrated the advantages deriving from their application. Detailed description of the methodological process is also provided, so that this work can easily be translated to other fields of practice. PMID:24858735

Guaraldi, Federica; Parasiliti-Caprino, Mirko; Goggi, Riccardo; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Ghigo, Ezio; Giordano, Roberta; Gori, Davide

2014-12-01

208

Oral health and respiratory diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sourcesRelevant studies were sourced using Ovid Medline (In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily Update and OLDMedline); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Evidence Based Medicine of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; Embase; Health and Psychosocial Instruments; HealthSTAR; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; PubMed; and Google Scholar.Study

Ian Needleman; Nicholas Hirsch

2007-01-01

209

Using Noun Phrases for Navigating Biomedical Literature on Pubmed: How Many Updates Are We Losing Track of?  

PubMed Central

Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The “related citations” on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed “related citations.” We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper – many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper. PMID:21935487

Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A.

2011-01-01

210

Methodological quality and implications for practice of systematic Cochrane reviews in pediatric oral health: a critical assessment  

PubMed Central

Background To ensure evidence-based decision-making in pediatric oral health, Cochrane systematic reviews that address topics pertinent to this field are necessary. We aimed to identify all systematic reviews of paediatric dentistry and oral health by the Cochrane Oral Health Group (COHG), summarize their characteristics and assess their methodological quality. Our second objective was to assess implications for practice in the review conclusions and provide an overview of clinical implications about the usefulness of paediatric oral health interventions in practice. Methods We conducted a methodological survey including all paediatric dentistry reviews from the COHG. We extracted data on characteristics of included reviews, then assessed the methodological quality using a validated 11-item quality assessment tool (AMSTAR). Finally, we coded each review to indicate whether its authors concluded that an intervention should be implemented in practice, was not supported or was refuted by the evidence, or should be used only in research (inconclusive evidence). Results We selected 37 reviews; most concerned the prevention of caries. The methodological quality was high, except for the assessment of reporting bias. In 7 reviews (19%), the research showed that benefits outweighed harms; in 1, the experimental intervention was found ineffective; and in 29 (78%), evidence was insufficient to assess benefits and harms. In the 7 reviews, topical fluoride treatments (with toothpaste, gel or varnish) were found effective for permanent and deciduous teeth in children and adolescents, and sealants for occlusal tooth surfaces of permanent molars. Conclusions Cochrane reviews of paediatric dentistry were of high quality. They provided strong evidence that topical fluoride treatments and sealants are effective for children and adolescents and thus should be implemented in practice. However, a substantial number of reviews yielded inconclusive evidence. PMID:24716532

2014-01-01

211

Systemic review on drug related hospital admissions – A pubmed based search  

PubMed Central

Background Drug related admissions have significantly increased over the past few decades. According to various studies on drug related hospital admissions, it was estimated that around 5–10% of hospital admissions were due to drug related problems (DRP), in which 50% of them are avoidable. Objective The objective of the study was to derive results from various studies conducted on drug related hospital admissions and have an overall view about the incidence, frequency, cost of treatment, major causative drugs, problems for drug related hospital admissions, and preventable drug related admissions and summarize the factors responsible for the occurrence of DRP. Method Relevant literatures related to ‘drug related hospital admissions’ were obtained from PubMed database. Articles that were published from October 2007 to September 2012 were collected. All the studies being shown in the search results were considered for the study irrespective of the specialty department. Results A total of 366 articles were found based on the keyword ‘drug related hospital admission’, ‘drug related problem admission’, and ‘adverse drug event admissions’ search. Out of which 49 articles were identified to be showing relevance to the study. Non-English, abstract-only articles, and out-patient adverse drug reaction (ADR) studies were filtered from 49 articles. Finally 15 articles were taken up for the study. Systemic analysis was made on these articles and the results were summarized. Conclusion Most of DRP studies were retrospective, multicenter studies conducted in general populations in Europe. The main objective of the studies was to estimate DRP frequency, incidence, risk factors and trends of DRP hospital admissions. Anti-neoplastic agents, CVS drugs and CNS drugs were related to most of the drug related problems. These studies concluded polypharmacy and older age were the major risk factors for developing drug related problems. It was found that the cost for the management of DRP was directly proportional to severity.

Nivya, Kolli; Sri Sai Kiran, Vempati; Ragoo, Nandita; Jayaprakash, B.; Sonal Sekhar, M.

2013-01-01

212

Cost sensitive hierarchical document classification to triage PubMed abstracts for manual curation  

PubMed Central

Background The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) project manually curates information from published journal articles that describe immune epitopes derived from a wide variety of organisms and associated with different diseases. In the past, abstracts of scientific articles were retrieved by broad keyword queries of PubMed, and were classified as relevant (curatable) or irrelevant (not curatable) to the scope of the database by a Naïve Bayes classifier. The curatable abstracts were subsequently manually classified into categories corresponding to different disease domains. Over the past four years, we have examined how to further improve this approach in order to enhance classification performance and to reduce the need for manual intervention. Results Utilizing 89,884 abstracts classified by a domain expert as curatable or uncuratable, we found that a SVM classifier outperformed the previously used Naïve Bayes classifier for curatability predictions with an AUC of 0.899 and 0.854, respectively. Next, using a non-hierarchical and a hierarchical application of SVM classifiers trained on 22,833 curatable abstracts manually classified into three levels of disease specific categories we demonstrated that a hierarchical application of SVM classifiers outperformed non-hierarchical SVM classifiers for categorization. Finally, to optimize the hierarchical SVM classifiers' error profile for the curation process, cost sensitivity functions were developed to avoid serious misclassifications. We tested our design on a benchmark dataset of 1,388 references and achieved an overall category prediction accuracy of 94.4%, 93.9%, and 82.1% at the three levels of categorization, respectively. Conclusions A hierarchical application of SVM algorithms with cost sensitive output weighting enabled high quality reference classification with few serious misclassifications. This enabled us to significantly reduce the manual component of abstract categorization. Our findings are relevant to other databases that are developing their own document classifier schema and the datasets we make available provide large scale real-life benchmark sets for method developers. PMID:22182279

2011-01-01

213

Mining locus tags in PubMed Central to improve microbial gene annotation  

PubMed Central

Background The scientific literature contains millions of microbial gene identifiers within the full text and tables, but these annotations rarely get incorporated into public sequence databases. We propose to utilize the Open Access (OA) subset of PubMed Central (PMC) as a gene annotation database and have developed an R package called pmcXML to automatically mine and extract locus tags from full text, tables and supplements. Results We mined locus tags from 1835 OA publications in ten microbial genomes and extracted tags mentioned in 30,891 sentences in main text and 20,489 rows in tables. We identified locus tag pairs marking the start and end of a region such as an operon or genomic island and expanded these ranges to add another 13,043 tags. We also searched for locus tags in supplementary tables and publications outside the OA subset in Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 for comparison. There were 168 publications containing 48,470 locus tags and 83% of mentions were from supplementary materials and 9% from publications outside the OA subset. Conclusions B. pseudomallei locus tags within the full text and tables of OA publications represent only a small fraction of the total mentions in the literature. For microbial genomes with very few functionally characterized proteins, the locus tags mentioned in supplementary tables and within ranges like genomic islands contain the majority of locus tags. Significantly, the functions in the R package provide access to additional resources in the OA subset that are not currently indexed or returned by searching PMC. PMID:24499370

2014-01-01

214

Teaching MEDLINE to non-urban end users.  

PubMed

The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC) Library conducted a two-year program, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), to teach Oklahoma's nonurban health professionals to perform searches of NLM's MEDLINE files using microcomputers. The training program included lectures, online demonstrations, and hands-on practice time. The initial target audience of non-urban physicians was later broadended to include other health professionals. Data collected on the 334 seminar participants included professions and specialties, previous microcomputer usage, and the size of their hospitals. On-site evaluation indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the trainers' communication skills, preparation, information imparted, and the visual aids used. The results of a follow-up survey to determine how many trainees subsequently obtained NLM codes, the amount of searching done, and the problems experienced await analysis. PMID:10303954

Wender, R W; Thompson, C M

1989-01-01

215

Comparison of search strategies on CD Plus/MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare two strategies for searching MEDLINE using the CD Plus/MEDLINE program on compact disc. DESIGN: Comparison study. INTERVENTIONS: Two search strategies were designed and executed for each of two topics (patient recruitment to clinical trials and attitudes of patients, the public and health care professionals toward clinical trials). Strategy A: searches based on key words selected from the medical subject heading (MeSH) tree structure. Strategy B: searches based on MeSH terms most frequently used to index a known set of relevant articles. Defined search restrictions were then applied. The effects of the restrictions on the absolute number of citations retrieved and on the proportion of relevant citations were assessed. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of articles retrieved, number of relevant articles, precision and recall of each search strategy and overlap between strategies. MAIN RESULTS: Strategy A produced more citations than strategy B (recruitment 147 v. 38, attitude 366 v. 57) but had more inappropriate citations (recruitment 75 v. 17, attitude 265 v. 25). Both strategies produced 73 relevant recruitment citations and 101 relevant attitude citations. In the recruitment search although the precision did not differ significantly between strategies A and B the difference in recall was significant (98.6% v. 28.8% respectively, p less than 0.0001). In the attitude search strategy A had a lower precision than strategy B (27.6% v. 56.1%, p less than 0.0001) but a much higher recall (100% v. 31.7%, p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Strategy A would be more valuable to researchers doing extensive reviews, whereas strategy B would be useful for the busy clinician who simply wants a few appropriate references quickly and is willing to sacrifice comprehensive retrieval in the interest of efficiency. PMID:1878827

Wright, L C; Sutherland, H J; Jackson, J I; Till, J E

1991-01-01

216

Systematic review of the use of honey as a wound dressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate topical honey in superficial burns and wounds though a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, reference lists and databases were used to seek randomised controlled trials. Seven randomised trials involved superficial burns, partial thickness burns, moderate to severe burns that included full thickness injury, and infected postoperative wounds. REVIEW METHODS:

Owen A Moore; Lesley A Smith; Fiona Campbell; Kate Seers; Henry J McQuay; R Andrew Moore

2001-01-01

217

The Relationship between Sugar-Containing Methadone and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To review the evidence of a relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries. Data sources: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Controlled Trials, WHO, OHRN, SIGLE and ERIC databases was conducted from January 1978 up to June 2010. Study selection: Articles were assessed…

Tripathee, Sheela; Akbar, Tahira; Richards, Derek; Themessl-Huber, Markus; Freeman, Ruth

2013-01-01

218

Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

2010-01-01

219

MedlinePlus Connect: Linking Health IT Systems to Consumer Health Information  

PubMed Central

The National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Connect service extends the reach of the consumer health website MedlinePlus.gov to deliver relevant information to patients and providers via health IT systems, electronic health records, and patient portals. PMID:23066351

Burgess, Sarena; Dennis, Stephanie; Lanka, Soma; Miller, Naomi; Potvin, Joseph

2012-01-01

220

Optimizing the txt2MEDLINE Search Portal for Low-Resource Clinical Decision Support  

PubMed Central

txt2MEDLINE provides access to high-quality medical evidence via text-messaging in settings with inadequate Internet access. We optimized the txt2MEDLINE search technique by parsing queries for MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and searching MEDLINE for articles containing these terms in their titles or abstracts. We compared our results to the existing txt2MEDLINE tool by compiling benchmark queries from low-income and low-middle-income countries, and asking doctors and nurses with practice experience in low-resource areas to evaluate them. The median scores on a 5-point Likert scale were 2.9 for the existing txt2MEDLINE vs. 3.8 for the modified version (p=0.015). This reached our predefined criterion for clinical significance, a difference of 0.5 standard deviations. Improving this technology could improve clinical information resources in the world’s most medically underserved communities. PMID:24551407

Sheets, Lincoln; Liu, Fang; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Gavino, Alex; Fontelo, Paul

2013-01-01

221

Nearly half of dental randomized controlled trials published in German are not included in Medline.  

PubMed

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the most reliable type of clinical intervention studies. However, not all reports of RCTs are accessible in Medline. This can impede the validity of the results of systematic reviews. Ten German-language dental journals were manually searched to locate reports of controlled clinical trials published between 1970 and 2000. The publication type was determined and compared with Medline. Of the 15 777 articles, 210 reports of RCTs and 410 articles of non-randomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were identified. Only 56% of the RCTs and 75% of the CCTs are available in Medline. Of the 118 reports of RCTs registered in Medline. 15 are indexed with the correct Publication Type term. Our data suggest that (a) hand-searching plays a valuable role in identifying reports of clinical dental trials, and (b) a literature search in Medline is likely to yield incomplete results. PMID:12507212

Türp, Jens C; Schulte, Jutta-Maria; Antes, Gerd

2002-12-01

222

CD-ROM MEDLINE use and users: information transfer in the clinical setting.  

PubMed

Effective delivery of biomedical information to health professionals depends on the availability of systems that are compatible with the information-seeking patterns of health professionals. MEDLINE is a major source of biomedical information, but has been available primarily through libraries via telecommunications networks. The recent availability of MEDLINE on CD-ROM has made it possible to provide MEDLINE directly to clinicians without the associated problems of telecommunications and online use charges. The MEDLINE on CD-ROM Evaluation Forum sponsored by the National Library of Medicine reported on clinicians' use of CD-ROM MEDLINE at seven different clinical settings. This article summarizes the findings from these sites and places them in the context of current understanding of information-seeking behaviors of health professionals. Key issues in the design and development of information technologies in the clinical setting are also articulated. PMID:2203497

Dalrymple, P W

1990-07-01

223

PCorral—interactive mining of protein interactions from MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

The extraction of information from the scientific literature is a complex task—for researchers doing manual curation and for automatic text processing solutions. The identification of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) requires the extraction of protein named entities and their relations. Semi-automatic interactive support is one approach to combine both solutions for efficient working processes to generate reliable database content. In principle, the extraction of PPIs can be achieved with different methods that can be combined to deliver high precision and/or high recall results in different combinations at the same time. Interactive use can be achieved, if the analytical methods are fast enough to process the retrieved documents. PCorral provides interactive mining of PPIs from the scientific literature allowing curators to skim MEDLINE for PPIs at low overheads. The keyword query to PCorral steers the selection of documents, and the subsequent text analysis generates high recall and high precision results for the curator. The underlying components of PCorral process the documents on-the-fly and are available, as well, as web service from the Whatizit infrastructure. The human interface summarizes the identified PPI results, and the involved entities are linked to relevant resources and databases. Altogether, PCorral serves curator at both the beginning and the end of the curation workflow for information retrieval and information extraction. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/pcorral. PMID:23640984

Li, Chen; Arregui, Miguel; Kirsch, Harald; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

2013-01-01

224

PCorral--interactive mining of protein interactions from MEDLINE.  

PubMed

The extraction of information from the scientific literature is a complex task-for researchers doing manual curation and for automatic text processing solutions. The identification of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) requires the extraction of protein named entities and their relations. Semi-automatic interactive support is one approach to combine both solutions for efficient working processes to generate reliable database content. In principle, the extraction of PPIs can be achieved with different methods that can be combined to deliver high precision and/or high recall results in different combinations at the same time. Interactive use can be achieved, if the analytical methods are fast enough to process the retrieved documents. PCorral provides interactive mining of PPIs from the scientific literature allowing curators to skim MEDLINE for PPIs at low overheads. The keyword query to PCorral steers the selection of documents, and the subsequent text analysis generates high recall and high precision results for the curator. The underlying components of PCorral process the documents on-the-fly and are available, as well, as web service from the Whatizit infrastructure. The human interface summarizes the identified PPI results, and the involved entities are linked to relevant resources and databases. Altogether, PCorral serves curator at both the beginning and the end of the curation workflow for information retrieval and information extraction. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/pcorral. PMID:23640984

Li, Chen; Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Arregui, Miguel; Kirsch, Harald; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

2013-01-01

225

ALICE: An Algorithm to Extract Abbreviations from MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Objective: To help biomedical researchers recognize dynamically introduced abbreviations in biomedical literature, such as gene and protein names, we have constructed a support system called ALICE (Abbreviation LIfter using Corpus-based Extraction). ALICE aims to extract all types of abbreviations with their expansions from a target paper on the fly. Methods: ALICE extracts an abbreviation and its expansion from the literature by using heuristic pattern-matching rules. This system consists of three phases and potentially identifies valid 320 abbreviation-expansion patterns as combinations of the rules. Results: It achieved 95% recall and 97% precision on randomly selected titles and abstracts from the MEDLINE database. Conclusion: ALICE extracted abbreviations and their expansions from the literature efficiently. The subtly compiled heuristics enabled it to extract abbreviations with high recall without significantly reducing precision. ALICE does not only facilitate recognition of an undefined abbreviation in a paper by constructing an abbreviation database or dictionary, but also makes biomedical literature retrieval more accurate. This system is freely available at http://uvdb3.hgc.jp/ALICE/ALICE_index.html. PMID:15905486

Ao, Hiroko; Takagi, Toshihisa

2005-01-01

226

Remarkable Growth of Open Access in the Biomedical Field: Analysis of PubMed Articles from 2006 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study clarifies the trends observed in open access (OA) in the biomedical field between 2006 and 2010, and explores the possible explanations for the differences in OA rates revealed in recent surveys. Methods The study consists of a main survey and two supplementary surveys. In the main survey, a manual Google search was performed to investigate whether full-text versions of articles from PubMed were freely available. Target samples were articles published in 2005, 2007, and 2009; the searches were performed a year after publication in 2006, 2008, and 2010, respectively. Using the search results, we classified the OA provision methods into seven categories. The supplementary surveys calculated the OA rate using two search functions on PubMed: “LinkOut” and “Limits.” Results The main survey concluded that the OA rate increased significantly between 2006 and 2010: the OA rate in 2010 (50.2%) was twice that in 2006 (26.3%). Furthermore, majority of OA articles were available from OA journal (OAJ) websites, indicating that OAJs have consistently been a significant contributor to OA throughout the period. OA availability through the PubMed Central (PMC) repository also increased significantly. OA rates obtained from two supplementary surveys were lower than those found in the main survey. “LinkOut” could find only 40% of OA articles in the main survey. Discussion OA articles in the biomedical field have more than a 50% share. OA has been achieved through OAJs. The reason why the OA rates in our surveys are different from those in recent surveys seems to be the difference in sampling methods and verification procedures. PMID:23658683

Kurata, Keiko; Morioka, Tomoko; Yokoi, Keiko; Matsubayashi, Mamiko

2013-01-01

227

Pharmacy journal abstracts published in PubMed that abide by the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research was to determine the proportion of abstracts in pharmacy journals that are prepared according to the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria for abstracts. Certain abstracts for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) indexed in PubMed were eligible for inclusion, with the primary endpoint being median overall compliance to CONSORT recommendations for abstracts. A total of 63 RCT abstracts were included in the analysis, with only 56% of the recommended CONSORT items represented in the sample. It is recommended that pharmacy journals encourage authors to follow CONSORT recommendations for abstracts when submitting RCTs for publication. PMID:24860268

Blair, Daniel A.; Woolley, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

228

Quality Guidelines for Health Information in Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools Quality Guidelines for Health Information in Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... we are selective in reviewing materials in other languages. In addition to our general MedlinePlus Quality Guidelines ...

229

The accuracy of MEDLINE and Journal contents pages for papers published in Clinical Otolaryngology.  

PubMed

MEDLINE is widely used as a source for identifying and reviewing medical journal literature. Its accuracy is generally taken for granted, as is that of the contents pages published by the journals themselves. In this study of citation accuracy we examined the articles published in Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences from 1976 to 1998. The entries in MEDLINE were compared with the entries in the Journal's contents pages, and with the actual articles. Of 1651 articles published in the journal, one was omitted from MEDLINE and 25 (1.5%) were incorrectly cited, while 88 (5.3%) were incorrectly cited in the contents pages. Twenty-one (84%) of the errors in MEDLINE involved names of authors. Apart from incomplete retrieval of information for practice and research, errors could result in an author not getting credit for publications. PMID:11298165

De, S; Jones, T; Brazier, H; Jones, A S; Fenton, J E

2001-02-01

230

For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...  

MedlinePLUS

... turn Javascript on. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past ... hearing from you. The Friends of the National Library of Medicine has a warm and mutually appreciative ...

231

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer?  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer? To use the ... JavaScript. Answer: You cannot download the interactive health tutorials from MedlinePlus. With permission from the producer, NLM ...

232

MedlinePlus Connect: Linking Patient Portals and Electronic Health Records to Health Information  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Linking Patient Portals and EHRs to Consumer Health Information MedlinePlus Connect is a free service of ... National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Department of Health and Human ...

233

Annotating Patents with Medline MeSH Codes via Citation Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Both patents and Medline are important document collections for discovering new relationships between chemicals and biology,\\u000a searching for prior art for patent applications and retrieving background knowledge for current research activities. Finding\\u000a relevance to a topic within patents is often made difficult by poor categorization, badly written descriptions, and even intentional\\u000a obfuscation. Unlike patents, the Medline corpus has Medical Subject

Thomas D. Griffin; Stephen K. Boyer; Isaac G. Councill

234

Extracting rate changes in transcriptional regulation from MEDLINE abstracts  

PubMed Central

Background Time delays are important factors that are often neglected in gene regulatory network (GRN) inference models. Validating time delays from knowledge bases is a challenge since the vast majority of biological databases do not record temporal information of gene regulations. Biological knowledge and facts on gene regulations are typically extracted from bio-literature with specialized methods that depend on the regulation task. In this paper, we mine evidences for time delays related to the transcriptional regulation of yeast from the PubMed abstracts. Results Since the vast majority of abstracts lack quantitative time information, we can only collect qualitative evidences of time delays. Specifically, the speed-up or delay in transcriptional regulation rate can provide evidences for time delays (shorter or longer) in GRN. Thus, we focus on deriving events related to rate changes in transcriptional regulation. A corpus of yeast regulation related abstracts was manually labeled with such events. In order to capture these events automatically, we create an ontology of sub-processes that are likely to result in transcription rate changes by combining textual patterns and biological knowledge. We also propose effective feature extraction methods based on the created ontology to identify the direct evidences with specific details of these events. Our ontologies outperform existing state-of-the-art gene regulation ontologies in the automatic rule learning method applied to our corpus. The proposed deterministic ontology rule-based method can achieve comparable performance to the automatic rule learning method based on decision trees. This demonstrates the effectiveness of our ontology in identifying rate-changing events. We also tested the effectiveness of the proposed feature mining methods on detecting direct evidence of events. Experimental results show that the machine learning method on these features achieves an F1-score of 71.43%. Conclusions The manually labeled corpus of events relating to rate changes in transcriptional regulation for yeast is available in https://sites.google.com/site/wentingntu/data. The created ontologies summarized both biological causes of rate changes in transcriptional regulation and corresponding positive and negative textual patterns from the corpus. They are demonstrated to be effective in identifying rate-changing events, which shows the benefits of combining textual patterns and biological knowledge on extracting complex biological events. PMID:24564647

2014-01-01

235

[A list and analysis of reproductive medicine periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].  

PubMed

MEDLINE established by National Library of Medicine (NLM), USA, is the most commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system, whose indexed literature generally represents the top of the medical world. Of the total number of 4959 journals listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by NLM, 46 are periodicals of reproductive medicine, mainly including andrology, fertility, and sterility. Researchers of reproductive medicine should be familiar with the journals indexed in MEDLINE, closely follow their published frontier researches in this field, and consciously contribute to them in English. Editors of reproductive medicine journals should endeavour to have their journals included in such internationally authoritative systems as MEDLINE, SCI, etc by publishing them in English in compliance with international standards. This article presents a list of the reproductive medicine periodicals indexed in MEDLINE (2006) together with a brief analysis, which is meant to help researchers in reproductive medicine, andrology and other relevant fields with their contribution, subscription, reading and retrieving, as well as to share some more knowledge about MEDLINE and its indexed journals with Chinese editors of reproductive medicine journals. PMID:16894949

Xia, Xin-yi; Huang, Yu-feng; Pan, Lian-jun; Shang, Xue-jun

2006-07-01

236

PESCADOR, a web-based tool to assist text-mining of biointeractions extracted from PubMed queries  

PubMed Central

Background Biological function is greatly dependent on the interactions of proteins with other proteins and genes. Abstracts from the biomedical literature stored in the NCBI's PubMed database can be used for the derivation of interactions between genes and proteins by identifying the co-occurrences of their terms. Often, the amount of interactions obtained through such an approach is large and may mix processes occurring in different contexts. Current tools do not allow studying these data with a focus on concepts of relevance to a user, for example, interactions related to a disease or to a biological mechanism such as protein aggregation. Results To help the concept-oriented exploration of such data we developed PESCADOR, a web tool that extracts a network of interactions from a set of PubMed abstracts given by a user, and allows filtering the interaction network according to user-defined concepts. We illustrate its use in exploring protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disease and in the expansion of pathways associated to colon cancer. Conclusions PESCADOR is a platform independent web resource available at: http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/tools/pescador/ PMID:22070195

2011-01-01

237

A Radio-Tracking System for Studying Movements of Deer Author(s): John R. Tester, Dwain W. Warner, William W. Cochran  

E-print Network

A Radio-Tracking System for Studying Movements of Deer Author(s): John R. Tester, Dwain W. Warner, William W. Cochran Reviewed work(s): Source: The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Jan of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not

Minnesota, University of

238

Information Literacy for Users at the National Medical Library of Cuba: Cochrane Library Course for the Search of Best Evidence for Clinical Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Medical Library of Cuba is currently developing an information literacy program to train users in the use of biomedical databases. This paper describes the experience with the course "Cochrane Library: Evidence-Based Medicine," which aims to teach users how to make the best use of this database, as well as the evidence-based medicine…

Santana Arroyo, Sonia; del Carmen Gonzalez Rivero, Maria

2012-01-01

239

Helping people make well-informed decisions about health care: old and new challenges to achieving the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration  

PubMed Central

The aim of the Cochrane Collaboration is to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions. This aim is as relevant now as it was 20 years ago, when the Cochrane Collaboration was established. Substantial progress has been made toward addressing challenges to achieving the Collaboration’s aim. At the same time, a huge amount of work remains to be done. Current challenges include improving the quality of reviews, methodological challenges, meeting the needs of contributors and users and taking on new challenges while staying focused on the Collaboration’s aim. Radical thinking and substantial change may be needed to identify and implement pragmatic strategies to ensure that reviews are up-to-date and informative. Methodological challenges include the development and application of better methods for addressing explanatory factors, incorporating non-randomized evidence and making comparisons across multiple interventions. Innovations in editorial processes and strategies to meet the needs of low- and middle-income countries and diverse users of Cochrane reviews are needed. Finally, although it is important to consider broadening the aims of the Collaboration to include types of questions other than the effects of interventions and types of products other than the Cochrane Library, we should not lose sight of the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration. Addressing that aim is still a major challenge that requires the collaboration of thousands of people around the world and continuing improvements in the methods used to achieve that aim. PMID:24050439

2013-01-01

240

PubMed search strategies for the identification of etiologic associations between hypothalamic-pituitary disorders and other medical conditions.  

PubMed

Biomedical literature has enormously grown in the last decades and become broadly available through online databases. Ad-hoc search methods, created on the basis of research field and goals, are required to enhance the quality of searching. Aim of this study was to formulate efficient, evidence-based PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles assessing etiologic associations between a condition of interest and hypothalamic-pituitary disorders (HPD). Based on expert knowledge, 17 MeSH (Medical Subjects Headings) and 79 free terms related to HPD were identified to search PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportion of articles containing pertinent information and formulated two strings (one more specific, one more sensitive) for the detection of articles focusing on the etiology of HPD, that were then applied to retrieve articles identifying possible etiologic associations between HPD and three diseases (malaria, LHON and celiac disease) considered not associated to HPD, and define the number of abstracts needed to read (NNR) to find one potentially pertinent article. We propose two strings: one sensitive string derived from the combination of articles providing the largest literature coverage in the field and one specific including combined terms retrieving ?40% of potentially pertinent articles. NNR were 2.1 and 1.6 for malaria, 3.36 and 2.29 for celiac disease, 2.8 and 2.2 for LHON, respectively. For the first time, two reliable, readily applicable strings are proposed for the retrieval of medical literature assessing putative etiologic associations between HPD and other medical conditions of interest. PMID:23196809

Guaraldi, Federica; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Mattioli, Stefano; Ghigo, Ezio; Gori, Davide

2013-12-01

241

Bibliometric Analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: Measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse Databases  

PubMed Central

The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indixes were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades. PMID:19885331

2009-01-01

242

Evaluating CD-ROM versions of the MEDLINE database: a checklist.  

PubMed Central

The emergence of CD-ROM (compact disc/read-only memory) versions of the MEDLINE database requires experienced MEDLINE searchers to examine assumptions about searching MEDLINE, since some expectations may not be fulfilled by this new technology. When applied to a particular CD-ROM MEDLINE product, the evaluation procedure involves testing assumptions concerning database contents; mechanics of searching; display, print, and download capabilities; and user-friendly features. The extent to which a CD-ROM product preserves and exploits important MEDLINE strengths should be assessed, e.g., the MeSH controlled vocabulary, the designation of major and minor MeSH emphasis, and the use of subheadings. Search software characteristics that affect ease of searching and quality of results also need to be examined, e.g., the ability to truncate search terms and the order of precedence in which Boolean operators are evaluated. A checklist to assist in the evaluation process is presented, including search examples for use in testing search functions. PMID:2676046

Hewison, N S

1989-01-01

243

Stem cell transplantation of matched sibling donors compared with immunosuppressive therapy for acquired severe aplastic anaemia: a Cochrane systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives Acquired severe aplastic anaemia is a rare and potentially fatal disease. The aim of this Cochrane review was to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse events of first-line allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors compared with first-line immunosuppressive therapy. Setting Specialised stem cell transplantations units in primary care hospitals. Participants We included 302 participants with newly diagnosed acquired severe aplastic anaemia. The age ranged from early childhood to young adulthood. We excluded studies on participants with secondary aplastic anaemia. Interventions We included allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation as the test intervention harvested from any source of matched sibling donor and serving as a first-line therapy. We included immunosuppressive therapy as comparator with either antithymocyte/antilymphocyte globulin or ciclosporin or a combination of the two. Primary and secondary outcome measures planned and finally measured The primary outcome was overall mortality. Secondary outcomes were treatment-related mortality, graft failure, graft-versus-host disease, no response to immunosuppressive therapy, relapse after initial successful treatment, secondary clonal disease or malignancies, health-related quality of life and performance scores. Results We identified three prospective non-randomised controlled trials with a study design that was consistent with the principle of ‘Mendelian randomisation’ in allocating patients to treatment groups. All studies had a high risk of bias due to the study design and were conducted more than 15?years. The pooled HR for overall mortality for the donor group versus the no donor group was 0.95 (95% CI 0.43 to 2.12, p=0.90). Conclusions There are insufficient and biased data that do not allow any firm conclusions to be made about the comparative effectiveness of first-line allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation of HLA-matched sibling donors and first-line immunosuppressive therapy of patients with acquired severe aplastic anaemia. PMID:25031191

Peinemann, Frank; Labeit, Alexander Michael

2014-01-01

244

The MedlinePlus public user interface: studies of design challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Question: What are the challenges involved in designing, modifying, and improving a major health information portal that serves over sixty million page views a month? Setting: MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) consumer health Website, is examined. Method: Challenges are presented as six “studies,” which describe selected design issues and how NLM staff resolved them. Main Result: Improving MedlinePlus is an iterative process. Changes in the public user interface are ongoing, reflecting Web design trends, usability testing recommendations, user survey results, new technical requirements, and the need to grow the site in an orderly way. Conclusion: Testing and analysis should accompany Website design modifications. New technologies may enhance a site but also introduce problems. Further modifications to MedlinePlus will be informed by the experiences described here. PMID:16404467

Marill, Jennifer L.; Miller, Naomi; Kitendaugh, Paula

2006-01-01

245

Integrating personalized health information from MedlinePlus in a patient portal.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to describe the implementation and use of context aware information in Spanish from MedlinePlus embedded in a Patient Portal. Personalized information can help patients solve problems, make treatment decisions, gain confidence in their ability to care for themselves and communicate with providers. To integrate MedlinePlus information in our institutional PHR we used the HL7 Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval Standard, also known as the Infobutton Standard. After analysing one year of use, patients accessed MedlinePlus information in Spanish in a similar rate to other personalized information generated locally. Infobuttons associated to laboratory test results were used in approximately 10% of patients portal sessions when reviewing lab results. PMID:25160204

Borbolla, Damian; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Taliercio, Vanina; Otero, Carlos; Campos, Fernando; Martinez, Marcela; Luna, Daniel; Quiros, Fernan

2014-01-01

246

MeSH Speller + askMEDLINE: auto-completes MeSH terms then searches MEDLINE/PubMed via free-text, natural language queries.  

PubMed

Medical terminology is challenging even for healthcare personnel. Spelling errors can make searching MEDLINE/PubMed ineffective. We developed a utility that provides MeSH term and Specialist Lexicon Vocabulary suggestions as it is typed on a search page. The correctly spelled term can be incorporated into a free-text, natural language search or used as a clinical queries search. PMID:16779244

Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ackerman, Michael

2005-01-01

247

Presenting Evidence to Patients Online: What Do Web Users Think of Consumer Summaries of Cochrane Musculoskeletal Reviews?  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet has the potential to be an effective medium for delivering health care knowledge to consumers. While computer usability research makes recommendations about how to present Web-based information generally, there remains no clear guidance on how to present specific forms of health care research evidence online in a way that facilitates understanding and good health care decision making. Objective The two goals of this study were to describe the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group’s (CMSG’s) process for developing online patient-focused summaries of systematic reviews and to evaluate the impressions of these summaries formed by users. Methods A process for summarizing the results of systematic reviews via consumer summaries has evolved over 15 years. An evaluation of this approach took the form of Internet surveys on the Arthritis Society of Canada website and surveys of members of the Canadian Arthritis Patient Alliance (CAPA). Respondents provided information on background, relationship to the decision, their satisfaction with and preparation for decision making, and suggestions for improvements to the summaries. Survey data were collected between August 1, 2005, and February 28, 2006. Results A total of 261 respondents completed the survey. The majority (226/261 or 87%) of respondents reported having an arthritis-related condition. The consumer summary approach was generally reviewed favorably by respondents, with most agreeing that the summary provided appropriate information (177/261 or 68%), would be useful to others (160/261 or 61%), was well laid out (159/261 or 61%), was easy to learn from (157/261 or 60%), and was useful to the reader (153/261 or 59%). Areas of potential improvement were indicated by relatively fewer respondents agreeing that they could easily find all the information they wanted (118/261 or 45%), by a substantial proportion being unable to judge whether the providers of the information are reliable (80/261 or 31%), and by a similar proportion being unable to determine whether the information presented was the best available (68/261 or 26%). Conclusions The CMSG has developed an approach to summarizing the results of often-technical systematic reviews into public-friendly consumer summaries. Our online survey showed that this approach was generally well liked but identified specific areas for improvement. Feedback from this survey will help to reshape and improve the current template for consumer summaries used by the CMSG. PMID:21247863

Santesso, Nancy; O'Connor, Annette M; Lott, Alison; Lindgaard, Gitte; Syrowatka, Ania; Graham, Ian D; Tugwell, Peter S

2011-01-01

248

Optimal search strategies for retrieving scientifically strong studies of diagnosis from Medline: analytical survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop optimal search strategies in Medline for retrieving sound clinical studies on the diagnosis of health disorders. Design Analytical survey. Setting Medline, 2000. Participants 170 journals for 2000 of which 161 were indexed in Medline. Main outcome measures The sensitivity, specificity, precision (“positive predictive value”), and accuracy of 4862 unique terms in 17 287 combinations were determined by comparison with a hand search of all articles (the “gold standard”) in 161 journals published during 2000 (49 028 articles). Results Only 147 (18.9%) of 778 articles about diagnostic tests met basic criteria for scientific merit. Combinations of search terms reached peak sensitivities of 98.6% at a specificity of 74.3%. Compared with best single terms, best multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 6.8% (absolute increase), while also increasing specificity (absolute increase 6.0%) when sensitivity was maximised. When terms were combined to maximise specificity, the single term, specificity.tw. (98.4%), outperformed combinations of terms. The strategies newly reported in this paper outperformed other validated search strategies except for one strategy that had slightly higher sensitivity (99.3% v 98.6%) but lower specificity (54.7% v 74.3%). Conclusion New empirical search strategies in Medline can optimise retrieval of articles reporting high quality clinical studies of diagnosis. PMID:15073027

Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L

2004-01-01

249

An Investigation of the Optimization of Search Logic for the MEDLINE Database.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the role of Boolean logic in the information retrieval process focuses on a study that investigated the optimization of search logic for the MEDLINE database. Measures of retrieval effectiveness are discussed, the relationship of weighting schema and the logical schema is considered, and further investigations are suggested. (17…

Heine, M. H.; Tague, J. M.

1991-01-01

250

Mining MEDLINE: Postulating a Beneficial Role for Curcumin Longa in Retinal Diseases  

E-print Network

Mining MEDLINE: Postulating a Beneficial Role for Curcumin Longa in Retinal Diseases Padmini supporting the suggested connection between curcumin and retinal diseases. In particular, curcumin influ, the evidence suggests that curcumin may have a beneficial and therapeutic role in the context of these dis

Srinivasan, Padmini

251

Study of style effects on OCR errors in the MEDLINE database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Library of Medicine has developed a system for the automatic extraction of data from scanned journal articles to populate the MEDLINE database. Although the 5-engine OCR system used in this process exhibits good performance overall, it does make errors in character recognition that must be corrected in order for the process to achieve the requisite accuracy. The correction

Penny Garrison; Diane L. Davis; Tim L. Andersen; Elisa H. Barney Smith

2004-01-01

252

Study of style effects on OCR errors in the MEDLINE database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Library of Medicine has developed a system for the automatic extraction of data from scanned journal articles to populate the MEDLINE database. Although the 5-engine OCR system used in this process exhibits good performance overall, it does make errors in character recognition that must be corrected in order for the process to achieve the requisite accuracy. The correction

Penny Garrison; Diane L. Davis; Elisa H. Barney Smith

2005-01-01

253

Automatic Term Identification by User Profile for Document Categorisation in Medline  

E-print Network

Automatic Term Identification by User Profile for Document Categorisation in Medline Angelos,euripides}@intelligence.tuc.gr http://www.intelligence.tuc.gr Abstract. We show how term extraction methods such as AMTEX and MMTX can). This is achieved by mapping document terms to external lexical resources such as WordNet, and MeSH (the medical

Petrakis, Euripides G.M.

254

Scientific publication productivity of Korean medical colleges: an analysis of 1988-1999 MEDLINE papers.  

PubMed

To identify where the quality research activity has been and is carried out in Korea, and to examine to what extents Korean medical colleges play leading roles in the production of international research papers, we investigated the publication productivity of Korean medical colleges and their medical departments as measured by the number of papers published in foreign journals indexed in MEDLINE. The 12-year period from 1988 to 1999 is covered. A total of 4,881 papers is published in MEDLINE foreign journals by the researchers in Korean medical colleges during the period. The production of MEDLINE papers are concentrated in a few universities. More than 60% of MEDLINE foreign journal papers is published by top five universities 25% by Seoul National University, and 15% by Yonsei University. The newly established medical colleges at the University of Ulsan and Sungkyunkwan University produced outstanding numbers of papers in less than ten years. Radiology has led the internationalization of Korean medical papers. It was the most productive specialty identified in this study. The productivity of Internal medicine is on the rise from the mid-1 990s, and the field began to produce the most number of papers since then. PMID:10719802

Han, M C; Lee, C S

2000-02-01

255

Biotea: RDFizing PubMed Central in support for the paper as an interface to the Web of Data  

PubMed Central

Background The World Wide Web has become a dissemination platform for scientific and non-scientific publications. However, most of the information remains locked up in discrete documents that are not always interconnected or machine-readable. The connectivity tissue provided by RDF technology has not yet been widely used to support the generation of self-describing, machine-readable documents. Results In this paper, we present our approach to the generation of self-describing machine-readable scholarly documents. We understand the scientific document as an entry point and interface to the Web of Data. We have semantically processed the full-text, open-access subset of PubMed Central. Our RDF model and resulting dataset make extensive use of existing ontologies and semantic enrichment services. We expose our model, services, prototype, and datasets at http://biotea.idiginfo.org/ Conclusions The semantic processing of biomedical literature presented in this paper embeds documents within the Web of Data and facilitates the execution of concept-based queries against the entire digital library. Our approach delivers a flexible and adaptable set of tools for metadata enrichment and semantic processing of biomedical documents. Our model delivers a semantically rich and highly interconnected dataset with self-describing content so that software can make effective use of it. PMID:23734622

2013-01-01

256

Evidence based palaeopathology: Meta-analysis of Pubmed®-listed scientific studies on pre-Columbian, South American mummies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to review all Pubmed(®)-listed palaeopathological studies performed on pre-Columbian South American mummies. A total of 61 studies were found (1977-2005). Review criteria included e.g. method of examination, method of mummification, palaeopathological diagnoses and individual age of mummies as well as dating, which ranged from 7500 to 500 years BP, mainly (if reported) originating from the Chiribaya and Chinchorro cultures. The average age of the 99 individually reported mummies was about 25 years. Only six studies included computed tomography, thirteen studies used classical radiography as an examination method. Three studies analysed parasite related diseases, especially caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Among all of the reported infectious diseases (n=9), there were seven studies presenting cases of tuberculosis. The results were also compared inter-culturally. In 61 studies (37 epidemiological and 24 case reports) more than 6400 mummified individuals were analysed. By contrast, meta-analytic data for ancient Egyptian mummies (Zweifel et al., 2009) included about 3000 analysed individuals in 131 studies (85 case reports and 46 epidemiological studies). In general, ancient Egyptian mummies were shown to be intentionally mummified, whereas the Pre-Columbian American mummies showed a great diversity of spontaneous mummification. However, ritualistic mummification methods were also practised (n=2). This study's results shall assist to improve evidence-based research in palaeopathology. PMID:24721560

Dageförde, K L; Vennemann, M; Rühli, F J

2014-06-01

257

Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound prognostic studies in MEDLINE: an analytic survey  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical end users of MEDLINE have a difficult time retrieving articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. Search filters have been developed to assist end users in increasing the success of their searches. Many filters have been developed for the literature on therapy and reviews but little has been done in the area of prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine how well various methodologic textwords, Medical Subject Headings, and their Boolean combinations retrieve methodologically sound literature on the prognosis of health disorders in MEDLINE. Methods An analytic survey was conducted, comparing hand searches of journals with retrievals from MEDLINE for candidate search terms and combinations. Six research assistants read all issues of 161 journals for the publishing year 2000. All articles were rated using purpose and quality indicators and categorized into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized as 'pass' or 'fail' for methodologic rigor in the areas of prognosis and other clinical topics. Candidate search strategies were developed for prognosis and run in MEDLINE – the retrievals being compared with the hand search data. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results 12% of studies classified as prognosis met basic criteria for scientific merit for testing clinical applications. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 90%. Compared with the best single term, multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 25.2% (absolute increase), and increased specificity, but by a much smaller amount (1.1%) when sensitivity was maximized. Combining terms to optimize both sensitivity and specificity achieved sensitivities and specificities of approximately 83% for each. Conclusion Empirically derived search strategies combining indexing terms and textwords can achieve high sensitivity and specificity for retrieving sound prognostic studies from MEDLINE. PMID:15189561

Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

2004-01-01

258

Tamm-Horsfall protein in patients with kidney dama...[Urol Res. 2004] -PubMed Result Urol Res. 2004 May;32(2):79-83. Links  

E-print Network

Tamm-Horsfall protein in patients with kidney dama...[Urol Res. 2004] - PubMed Result Urol Res. 2004 May;32(2):79-83. Links Tamm-Horsfall protein in patients with kidney damage and diabetes in diabetic and control kidney tissue specimens with or without kidney damage. Immunogold labeling

Abraham, Nader G.

259

PubstractHelper: A Web-based Text-Mining Tool for Marking Sentences in Abstracts from PubMed Using Multiple User-Defined Keywords  

PubMed Central

While a huge amount of information about biological literature can be obtained by searching the PubMed database, reading through all the titles and abstracts resulting from such a search for useful information is inefficient. Text mining makes it possible to increase this efficiency. Some websites use text mining to gather information from the PubMed database; however, they are database-oriented, using pre-defined search keywords while lacking a query interface for user-defined search inputs. We present the PubMed Abstract Reading Helper (PubstractHelper) website which combines text mining and reading assistance for an efficient PubMed search. PubstractHelper can accept a maximum of ten groups of keywords, within each group containing up to ten keywords. The principle behind the text-mining function of PubstractHelper is that keywords contained in the same sentence are likely to be related. PubstractHelper highlights sentences with co-occurring keywords in different colors. The user can download the PMID and the abstracts with color markings to be reviewed later. The PubstractHelper website can help users to identify relevant publications based on the presence of related keywords, which should be a handy tool for their research. Availability http://bio.yungyun.com.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx and http://holab.med.ncku.edu.tw/ATM/PubstractHelper.aspx PMID:25512689

Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang

2014-01-01

260

Compared with what? An analysis of control-group types in Cochrane and Campbell reviews of psychosocial treatment efficacy with substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Background and Aims A crucial, but under-appreciated, aspect in experimental research on psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders concerns what kinds of control groups are used. This paper examines how the distinction between different control-group designs have been handled by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations in their systematic reviews of psychosocial treatments of substance abuse disorders. Methods We assessed Cochrane and Campbell reviews (n?=?8) that were devoted to psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders. We noted what control groups were considered and analysed the extent to which the reviews provided a rationale for chosen comparison conditions. We also analysed whether type of control group in the primary studies influenced how the reviews framed the effects discussed and whether this was related to conclusions drawn. Results The reviews covered studies involving widely different control conditions. Overall, little attention was paid to the use of different control groups (e.g. head-to-head comparisons versus untreated controls) and what this implies when interpreting effect sizes. Seven of eight reviews did not provide a rationale for the choice of comparison conditions. Conclusions Cochrane and Campbell reviews of the efficacy of psychosocial interventions with substance use disorders seem to underappreciate that the use of different control-group types yields different effect estimates. Most reviews have not distinguished between different control-group designs and therefore have provided a confused picture regarding absolute and relative treatment efficacy. A systematic approach to treating different control-group designs in research reviews is necessary for meaningful estimates of treatment efficacy. PMID:25393504

Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders

2015-03-01

261

The comparative recall of Google Scholar versus PubMed in identical searches for biomedical systematic reviews: a review of searches used in systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background The usefulness of Google Scholar (GS) as a bibliographic database for biomedical systematic review (SR) searching is a subject of current interest and debate in research circles. Recent research has suggested GS might even be used alone in SR searching. This assertion is challenged here by testing whether GS can locate all studies included in 21 previously published SRs. Second, it examines the recall of GS, taking into account the maximum number of items that can be viewed, and tests whether more complete searches created by an information specialist will improve recall compared to the searches used in the 21 published SRs. Methods The authors identified 21 biomedical SRs that had used GS and PubMed as information sources and reported their use of identical, reproducible search strategies in both databases. These search strategies were rerun in GS and PubMed, and analyzed as to their coverage and recall. Efforts were made to improve searches that underperformed in each database. Results GS’ overall coverage was higher than PubMed (98% versus 91%) and overall recall is higher in GS: 80% of the references included in the 21 SRs were returned by the original searches in GS versus 68% in PubMed. Only 72% of the included references could be used as they were listed among the first 1,000 hits (the maximum number shown). Practical precision (the number of included references retrieved in the first 1,000, divided by 1,000) was on average 1.9%, which is only slightly lower than in other published SRs. Improving searches with the lowest recall resulted in an increase in recall from 48% to 66% in GS and, in PubMed, from 60% to 85%. Conclusions Although its coverage and precision are acceptable, GS, because of its incomplete recall, should not be used as a single source in SR searching. A specialized, curated medical database such as PubMed provides experienced searchers with tools and functionality that help improve recall, and numerous options in order to optimize precision. Searches for SRs should be performed by experienced searchers creating searches that maximize recall for as many databases as deemed necessary by the search expert. PMID:24360284

2013-01-01

262

[MEDLINE on compact disk as an information source at the Medical School Library in Novi Sad].  

PubMed

The transformation of the Library at the Medical Faculty of Novi Sad into a modern information center necessitated the introduction of an up-to-date technology and enforced the use of the latest information sources among which MEDLINE medical database is the most famous one. In the studied period, January 1993-current, 200 searches have been performed on the basis of which the following parameters were analyzed: institution, occupation, and degree of the user, purpose and accuracy of the order, relevant period, number and format of the references, assessment of the search quality and the quality of the library staff services. The analysis proved the initial belief that MEDLINE is a remarkably valuable data base necessary for medical libraries. PMID:8692082

Brki?, S; Peji?, M; Ninkovi?, S

1996-01-01

263

A Study of the Morpho-Semantic Relationship in Medline1  

PubMed Central

Morphological analysis as applied to English has generally involved the study of rules for inflections and derivations. Recent work has attempted to derive such rules from automatic analysis of corpora. Here we study similar issues, but in the context of the biological literature. We introduce a new approach which allows us to assign probabilities of the semantic relatedness of pairs of tokens that occur in text in consequence of their relatedness as character strings. Our analysis is based on over 84 million sentences from the MEDLINE database, over 2.3 million token types that occur in MEDLINE, and enables us to identify over 36 million token type pairs which have assigned probabilities of semantic relatedness of at least 0.7 based on their similarity as strings. The quality of these predictions is tested by two different manual evaluations and found to be good. PMID:24976874

Wilbur, W. John; Smith, Larry

2014-01-01

264

Optimal search strategies for identifying mental health content in MEDLINE: an analytic survey  

PubMed Central

Objective General practitioners, mental health practitioners, and researchers wishing to retrieve the best current research evidence in the content area of mental health may have a difficult time when searching large electronic databases such as MEDLINE. When MEDLINE is searched unaided, key articles are often missed while retrieving many articles that are irrelevant to the search. The objectives of this study were to develop optimal search strategies to detect articles with mental health content and to determine the effect of combining mental health content search strategies with methodologic search strategies calibrated to detect the best studies of treatment. Method An analytic survey was conducted, comparing hand searches of 29 journals with retrievals from MEDLINE for 3,395 candidate search terms and 11,317 combinations. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results 3,277 (26.8%) of the 12,233 articles classified in the 29 journals were considered to be of interest to the discipline area of mental health. Search term combinations reached peak sensitivities of 98.4% with specificity at 50.0%, whereas combinations of search terms to optimize specificity reached peak specificities of 97.1% with sensitivity at 51.7%. Combining content search strategies with methodologic search strategies for treatment led to improved precision: substantive decreases in the number of articles that needed to be sorted through in order to find target articles. Conclusion Empirically derived search strategies can achieve high sensitivity and specificity for retrieving mental health content from MEDLINE. Combining content search strategies with methodologic search strategies led to more precise searches. PMID:16556313

Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

2006-01-01

265

Developing Optimal Search Strategies for Detecting Clinically Sound Causation Studies in MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical end users of MEDLINE must be able to retrieve articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. The use of methodologic search filters has been advocated to improve the accuracy of searching for such studies. These filters are available for the literature on therapy and diagnosis, but strategies for the literature on causation have been less well studied. Objective To determine the retrieval characteristics of methodologic terms in MEDLINE for identifying methodologically sound studies on causation. Design Comparison of methodologic search terms and phrases for the retrieval of citations in MEDLINE with a manual hand search of the literature (the gold standard) for 161 core health care journals. Methods 6 trained, experienced research assistants read all issues of 161 journals for the publishing year 2000. Each article was rated using purpose and quality indicators and categorized into clinically relevant original studies, review articles, general papers, or case reports. The original and review articles were then categorized as ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ for methodologic rigor in the areas of therapy/quality improvement, diagnosis, prognosis, causation, economics, clinical prediction, and review articles. Search strategies were developed for all categories including causation. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies. Results 12% of studies classified as causation met basic criteria for scientific merit for testing clinical applications. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 93%. Compared with the best single term, multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 15.5% (absolute increase), but with some loss of specificity when sensitivity was maximized. Combining terms to optimize sensitivity and specificity achieved sensitivities and specificities both above 80%. Conclusion The retrieval of causation studies cited in MEDLINE can be substantially enhanced by selected combinations of indexing terms and textwords. PMID:14728267

Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian

2003-01-01

266

Optimal search strategies for detecting health services research studies in MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from health services research (HSR) is currently thinly spread through many journals, making it difficult for health services researchers, managers and policy-makers to find research on clinical practice guidelines and the appropriateness, process, outcomes, cost and economics of health care services. We undertook to develop and test search terms to retrieve from the MEDLINE database HSR articles meeting minimum quality standards. Methods The retrieval performance of 7445 methodologic search terms and phrases in MEDLINE (the test) were compared with a hand search of the literature (the gold standard) for each issue of 68 journal titles for the year 2000 (a total of 25 936 articles). We determined sensitivity, specificity and precision (the positive predictive value) of the MEDLINE search strategies. Results A majority of the articles that were classified as outcome assessment, but fewer than half of those in the other categories, were considered methodologically acceptable (no methodologic criteria were applied for cost studies). Combining individual search terms to maximize sensitivity, while keeping specificity at 50% or more, led to sensitivities in the range of 88.1% to 100% for several categories (specificities ranged from 52.9% to 97.4%). When terms were combined to maximize specificity while keeping sensitivity at 50% or more, specificities of 88.8% to 99.8% were achieved. When terms were combined to maximize sensitivity and specificity while minimizing the differences between the 2 measurements, most strategies for HSR categories achieved sensitivity and specificity of at least 80%. Interpretation Sensitive and specific search strategies were validated for retrieval of HSR literature from MEDLINE. These strategies have been made available for public use by the US National Library of Medicine at www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/hedges/search.html. PMID:15534310

Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian; Lavis, John N.; Ramkissoonsingh, Ravi; Arnold-Oatley, Alexandra E.

2004-01-01

267

French MeSH Browser: a cross-language tool to access MEDLINE/PubMed.  

PubMed

When searching the medical literature, health professionals and lay people strongly prefer to use their native language. Therefore, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) translations would be helpful to those who are not fluent in English to access scientific papers indexed in the MEDLINE bibliographic database. Furthermore, medical terminologies such as MeSH are challenging in any language. In this context, a French MeSH Browser was developed. PMID:18694229

Thirion, Benoit; Pereira, Susanne; Névéol, Aurélie; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan

2007-01-01

268

Optimal search strategies for retrieving scientifically strong studies of treatment from Medline: analytical survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and test optimal Medline search strategies for retrieving sound clinical studies on prevention or treatment of health disorders. Design Analytical survey. Data sources 161 clinical journals indexed in Medline for the year 2000. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of 4862 unique terms in 18 404 combinations. Results Only 1587 (24.2%) of 6568 articles on treatment met criteria for testing clinical interventions. Combinations of search terms reached peak sensitivities of 99.3% (95% confidence interval 98.7% to 99.8%) at a specificity of 70.4% (69.8% to 70.9%). Compared with best single terms, best multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by 4.1% (absolute increase), but with substantial loss of specificity (absolute difference 23.7%) when sensitivity was maximised. When terms were combined to maximise specificity, 97.4% (97.3% to 97.6%) was achieved, about the same as that achieved by the best single term (97.6%, 97.4% to 97.7%). The strategies newly reported in this paper outperformed other validated search strategies except for two strategies that had slightly higher specificity (98.1% and 97.6% v 97.4%) but lower sensitivity (42.0% and 92.8% v 93.1%). Conclusion New empirical search strategies have been validated to optimise retrieval from Medline of articles reporting high quality clinical studies on prevention or treatment of health disorders. PMID:15894554

Haynes, R Brian; McKibbon, K Ann; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Walter, Stephen D; Werre, Stephen R

2005-01-01

269

Combining MEDLINE and publisher data to create parallel corpora for the automatic translation of biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the institutional and research information in the biomedical domain is available in the form of English text. Even in countries where English is an official language, such as the United States, language can be a barrier for accessing biomedical information for non-native speakers. Recent progress in machine translation suggests that this technique could help make English texts accessible to speakers of other languages. However, the lack of adequate specialized corpora needed to train statistical models currently limits the quality of automatic translations in the biomedical domain. Results We show how a large-sized parallel corpus can automatically be obtained for the biomedical domain, using the MEDLINE database. The corpus generated in this work comprises article titles obtained from MEDLINE and abstract text automatically retrieved from journal websites, which substantially extends the corpora used in previous work. After assessing the quality of the corpus for two language pairs (English/French and English/Spanish) we use the Moses package to train a statistical machine translation model that outperforms previous models for automatic translation of biomedical text. Conclusions We have built translation data sets in the biomedical domain that can easily be extended to other languages available in MEDLINE. These sets can successfully be applied to train statistical machine translation models. While further progress should be made by incorporating out-of-domain corpora and domain-specific lexicons, we believe that this work improves the automatic translation of biomedical texts. PMID:23631733

2013-01-01

270

Evaluation of Term Ranking Algorithms for Pseudo-Relevance Feedback in MEDLINE Retrieval  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of query expansion algorithms for MEDLINE retrieval within a pseudo-relevance feedback framework. Methods A number of query expansion algorithms were tested using various term ranking formulas, focusing on query expansion based on pseudo-relevance feedback. The OHSUMED test collection, which is a subset of the MEDLINE database, was used as a test corpus. Various ranking algorithms were tested in combination with different term re-weighting algorithms. Results Our comprehensive evaluation showed that the local context analysis ranking algorithm, when used in combination with one of the reweighting algorithms - Rocchio, the probabilistic model, and our variants - significantly outperformed other algorithm combinations by up to 12% (paired t-test; p < 0.05). In a pseudo-relevance feedback framework, effective query expansion would be achieved by the careful consideration of term ranking and re-weighting algorithm pairs, at least in the context of the OHSUMED corpus. Conclusions Comparative experiments on term ranking algorithms were performed in the context of a subset of MEDLINE documents. With medical documents, local context analysis, which uses co-occurrence with all query terms, significantly outperformed various term ranking methods based on both frequency and distribution analyses. Furthermore, the results of the experiments demonstrated that the term rank-based re-weighting method contributed to a remarkable improvement in mean average precision. PMID:21886873

Yoo, Sooyoung

2011-01-01

271

Influence of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration branch on medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate whether the introduction of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and founding of The Cochrane Collaboration branch at the University of Split School of Medicine influenced students’ knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM), including the use of research literature. Methods We used a 26-item questionnaire on EBM knowledge and attitudes to survey 1232 medical students of all study years in 3 medical schools in Croatia (Split, Rijeka, Osijek) and the Croatian-speaking medical school in Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Results Students from the University of Split School of Medicine who had been exposed to the vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration at the school had better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward EBM. In general, students rarely searched for evidence; 28% of students searched for evidence more than once a month and 96% of students used only textbooks in Croatian and teachers’ handouts, even though 74% of students agreed that articles from scholarly journals were an important supplement for textbooks. Conclusion Building up an environment that fosters EBM may be beneficial for students’ knowledge and attitudes toward EBM. Teachers should encourage and require using evidence during all the courses in medical school. PMID:22911530

Balaji?, Karolina; Barac-Latas, Vesna; Drenjan?evi?, Ines; Ostoji?, Marko; Fabijani?, Damir; Puljak, Livia

2012-01-01

272

Long acting ?2 agonists for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with poor reversibility: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The long acting ?2-agonists, salmeterol and formoterol, have been recommended, by some, as first line treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We reviewed evidence of efficacy and safety when compared with placebo or anticholinergic agents in patients with poorly reversible COPD. METHODS: After searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, BIOSIS Previews, PASCAL, ToxFile, SciSearch, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed,

Don Husereau; Vijay Shukla; Michel Boucher; Shaila Mensinkai; Robert Dales

2004-01-01

273

Effect of fish oil on arrhythmias and mortality: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To synthesise the literature on the effects of fish oil—docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)—on mortality and arrhythmias and to explore dose response and formulation effects.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis.Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Academic OneFile, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine, and

Hernando León; Marcelo C Shibata; Soori Sivakumaran; Marlene Dorgan; Trish Chatterley; Ross T Tsuyuki

2008-01-01

274

Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy vs abdominal hysterectomy for benign disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess whether laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy achieves better clinical results compared with abdominal hysterectomy. Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, ProQuest, Cochrane Library and China Biological Medicine Database were searched to identify randomized controlled trials that compared laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy with abdominal hysterectomy. Twenty-three trials were studied and the analysis was performed using Review

Yue-xiong Yi; Wei Zhang; Qi Zhou; Wan-ru Guo; Yu Su

275

The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrotherapy is often used in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), however there has been limited evaluation of its\\u000a effectiveness. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to examine the effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the management\\u000a of FMS. AMED, BNI, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science were\\u000a searched (1990–July 2006). Key

Joseph G. McVeigh; Helen McGaughey; Melissa Hall; Patricia Kane

2008-01-01

276

Sedative hypnotics in older people with insomnia: meta-analysis of risks and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To quantify and compare potential benefits (subjective reports of sleep variables) and risks (adverse events and morning-after psychomotor impairment) of short term treatment with sedative hypnotics in older people with insomnia. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane clinical trials database, PubMed, and PsychLit, 1966 to 2003; bibliographies of published reviews and meta-analyses; manufacturers of newer sedative hypnotics (zaleplon, zolpidem,

Jennifer Glass; Krista L Lanctôt; Nathan Herrmann; Beth A Sproule; Usoa E Busto

2005-01-01

277

Pharmacotherapy for Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors in Dementia: A Systematic Review of Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to systematically review the published literature on pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia. Literature search of the 5 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and COCHRANE collaboration) and the analysis of the data available for the pharmacotherapeutic treatments of inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia were carried out.There are no published randomized controlled trials of

Banu Ozkan; Kirsten Wilkins; Sunanda Muralee; Rajesh R. Tampi

2008-01-01

278

Choice of fluids for resuscitation in children with severe infection and shock: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To systemically review the evidence from clinical trials comparing the use of crystalloids and colloids for fluid resuscitation in children with severe infection.Data sources Medline (1950-2008), PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase (1980-2008), and reference lists.Eligibility criteria Published studies comparing fluid resuscitation with crystalloid or colloidal solutions in severe infectious illness in children aged >1 month to ?12 years. Controlled

Samuel Akech; Hannah Ledermann; Kathryn Maitland

2010-01-01

279

The World Leader in Health Information and Innovation Celebrates 175 Years | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... to the lives of millions everywhere. NLM–designed databases and tools lead people to helpful medical literature ... 1971, for example, NLM created Medline, an online database of references to the biomedical literature. Completely free ...

280

Completeness of reporting of setting and health worker cadre among trials on antenatal iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy: an assessment based on two Cochrane reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reporting of medical trials has triggered the development of trial reporting standards within the scientific community. In addition to a description of the proposed intervention, adequate information about the trial setting and the group of health workers (cadre) delivering the intervention would allow a better understanding of the generalizability of the trial findings, facilitate replication of trial interventions and assist with assessment of trials for inclusion in systematic reviews. This study aims to determine the completeness of reporting for trial setting and cadre among trials included in two Cochrane reviews on iron and folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy. Methods From the 81 trials included in the two Cochrane reviews, we extracted data on the trial setting, including the facility type and geographic location, facility descriptors (i.e. level of care) and population descriptors (i.e. socioeconomic status); and the cadre, including professional qualifications, training and supervision. Results Almost all studies reported the facility type and location (96%). However, only 68% included this information in the “methods” section of the report. Facility descriptors and population descriptors were less commonly reported (26% and 54% respectively). For 34% of the trials, we found some account of the type of health worker that delivered the intervention. Only 4% of the trials reported any training procedures. Conclusions Currently, complete reporting of setting and health worker cadre in iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy trials remains far from ideal, limiting assessments of the applicability of the trial findings. Trialists and journals need to ensure that this information is included in trial reports by adhering to and improving current reporting standards and by not making assumptions regarding readers’ knowledge of the context and of the intervention delivery mechanism. PMID:23773404

2013-01-01

281

Generating MEDLINE search strategies using a librarian knowledge-based system.  

PubMed Central

We describe a librarian knowledge-based system that generates a search strategy from a query representation based on a user's information need. Together with the natural language parser AQUA, the system functions as a human/computer interface, which translates a user query from free text into a BRS Onsite search formulation, for searching the MEDLINE bibliographic database. In the system, conceptual graphs are used to represent the user's information need. The UMLS Metathesaurus and Semantic Net are used as the key knowledge sources in building the knowledge base. PMID:8130544

Peng, P.; Aguirre, A.; Johnson, S. B.; Cimino, J. J.

1993-01-01

282

Modular Semantic Tagging of Medline Abstracts and its Use in Inferring Regulatory Networks  

SciTech Connect

We describe MedstractPlus, a resource for mining relations from the Medline bibliographic database that is currently under construction. It was built on the remains of Medstract, a previously created resource that included a biorelation server and an acronym database. MedstractPlus uses simple and scalable natural language processing modules to structure text, is designed with reusability and extendibility in mind, and adheres to the philosophy of the Linguistic Annotation Framework. We show how MedstractPlus has been used to provide seeds for a novel approach to inferring transcriptional regulatory networks from gene expression data.

Verhagen, Marc; Pustejovsky, James; Taylor, Ronald C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

2011-09-19

283

BabelMeSH: development of a cross-language tool for MEDLINE/PubMed.  

PubMed

BabelMeSH is a cross-language tool for searching MEDLINE/PubMed. Queries can be submitted as single terms or complex phrases in French, Spanish and Portuguese. Citations will be sent to the user in English. It uses a smart parser interface with a medical terms database in MySQL. Preliminary evaluation using compound key words in foreign language medical journals showed an accuracy of 68%, 60% and 51% for French, Spanish and Portuguese, respectively. Development is continuing. PMID:17238631

Liu, Fang; Ackerman, Michael; Fontelo, Paul

2006-01-01

284

Pattern and determinants of HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa: bibliometric analysis of 1981 to 2009 PubMed papers  

PubMed Central

Background Several bibliometric studies have been published on AIDS. The findings obtained from these studies have provided a general picture of the history and growth of AIDS literature. However, factors related to variation in HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa have not been examined. Therefore, this study aims to fill some of the gap in existing research to provide insights into factors associated with HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A bibliometric analysis regarding sub-Saharan Africa HIV/AIDS research was conducted in the PubMed database for the period of 1981 to 2009. The numbers of HIV research articles indexed in PubMed was used as surrogate for total HIV research productivity. Series of univariable and multivariable negative binomial regression models were used to explore factors associated with variation in HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Results First authors from South Africa, Uganda and Kenya contributed almost half of the total number of HIV articles indexed in PubMed between 1981 and 2009. Uganda, Zimbabwe and Malawi had better records when the total production was adjusted for gross domestic product (GDP). Comoros, the Gambia and Guinea-Bissau were the most productive countries when the total products were normalized by number of people with HIV. There were strong positive and statistically significant correlation between countries number of indexed journal (Pearson correlation r = 0.77, p = .001), number of higher institutions (r = 0.60, p = .001), number of physicians (r = 0.83, p = .001) and absolute numbers of HIV articles. Conclusions HIV research productivity in Africa is highly skewed. To increase HIV research output, total expenditure on health (% of GDP), private expenditure on health, and adult literacy rate may be important factors to address. PMID:20205717

2010-01-01

285

Automatic identification of comparative effectiveness research from Medline citations to support clinicians’ treatment information needs  

PubMed Central

Online knowledge resources such as Medline can address most clinicians’ patient care information needs. Yet, significant barriers, notably lack of time, limit the use of these sources at the point of care. The most common information needs raised by clinicians are treatment-related. Comparative effectiveness studies allow clinicians to consider multiple treatment alternatives for a particular problem. Still, solutions are needed to enable efficient and effective consumption of comparative effectiveness research at the point of care. Objective Design and assess an algorithm for automatically identifying comparative effectiveness studies and extracting the interventions investigated in these studies. Methods The algorithm combines semantic natural language processing, Medline citation metadata, and machine learning techniques. We assessed the algorithm in a case study of treatment alternatives for depression. Results Both precision and recall for identifying comparative studies was 0.83. A total of 86% of the interventions extracted perfectly or partially matched the gold standard. Conclusion Overall, the algorithm achieved reasonable performance. The method provides building blocks for the automatic summarization of comparative effectiveness research to inform point of care decision-making. PMID:23920677

Zhang, Mingyuan; Fiol, Guilherme Del; Grout, Randall W.; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Medlin, Richard; Mishra, Rashmi; Weir, Charlene; Liu, Hongfang; Mostafa, Javed; Fiszman, Marcelo

2014-01-01

286

An application of Expert Network to clinical classification and MEDLINE indexing.  

PubMed Central

An effective and efficient learning method, Expert Network (ExpNet), is introduced in this paper. ExpNet predicts the related categories of an arbitrary text based on a search of its nearest neighbors in a set of training texts, and a reasoning from the expert-assigned categories of these neighbors. Evaluations in patient-record text classification and MEDLINE document indexing show a performance of ExpNet in recall and precision comparable to the Linear Least Squares Fit (LLSF) mapping method, and significantly better than other methods tested. We also observed that ExpNet is much more efficient than LLSF in computation. The total training and testing time on the patient-record text collection (6134 texts) was 4 minutes for ExpNet versus 96 minutes for LLSF; on the MEDLINE document collection (2344 documents), the total time was 15 minutes for ExpNet versus 4.6 hours for LLSF. It is evident in this study that human knowledge of text categorization can be statistically learned without expensive computation, and that ExpNet is such a solution. PMID:7949911

Yang, Y.; Chute, C. G.

1994-01-01

287

Automatically extracting sentences from Medline citations to support clinicians’ information needs  

PubMed Central

Objective Online health knowledge resources contain answers to most of the information needs raised by clinicians in the course of care. However, significant barriers limit the use of these resources for decision-making, especially clinicians’ lack of time. In this study we assessed the feasibility of automatically generating knowledge summaries for a particular clinical topic composed of relevant sentences extracted from Medline citations. Methods The proposed approach combines information retrieval and semantic information extraction techniques to identify relevant sentences from Medline abstracts. We assessed this approach in two case studies on the treatment alternatives for depression and Alzheimer's disease. Results A total of 515 of 564 (91.3%) sentences retrieved in the two case studies were relevant to the topic of interest. About one-third of the relevant sentences described factual knowledge or a study conclusion that can be used for supporting information needs at the point of care. Conclusions The high rate of relevant sentences is desirable, given that clinicians’ lack of time is one of the main barriers to using knowledge resources at the point of care. Sentence rank was not significantly associated with relevancy, possibly due to most sentences being highly relevant. Sentences located closer to the end of the abstract and sentences with treatment and comparative predications were likely to be conclusive sentences. Our proposed technical approach to helping clinicians meet their information needs is promising. The approach can be extended for other knowledge resources and information need types. PMID:23100128

Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Medlin, Richard; Weir, Charlene; Fiszman, Marcelo; Mostafa, Javed; Liu, Hongfang

2013-01-01

288

Being there: the effect of the user's presence on MEDLINE search results.  

PubMed

An evaluation was conducted at the University of Iowa Health Sciences Library to determine what effect the user's presence had on MEDLINE search results. One hundred users participated over a four-month period. Three main criteria were used: search precision, search recall, and user satisfaction. Each MEDLINE search was processed twice, once prior to the user's arrival and a second time during the scheduled appointment with the user. The two searches for each user were processed by different searchers, and four searchers alternated processing the user-absent or the user-present search. Users were asked to compare the citations on the two searchers by checking each printout for relevant citations. A short questionnaire was administered to determine general information about users and satisfaction measures for each search. The extensiveness of the interview for the user-absent search was varied in order to determine if the depth of the initial interview would affect the search results. Evaluation of the findings indicated an increase in precision, recall, and user satisfaction for the user-present search. Some difficulties in designing the experiment are discussed and implications of the evaluation results are considered. PMID:7052165

Morris, R T; Holtum, E A; Curry, D S

1982-07-01

289

A pre-search estimation algorithm for MEDLINE strategies with qualifiers.  

PubMed Central

Inexperienced users of online medical databases often have difficulty formulating their queries. Systems designed to assist them usually do not estimate how effective the initial search strategy will be before performing an actual search. Consequently, the search may find an overwhelming number of citations, or retrieve nothing at all. We have developed an estimation algorithm to predict the outcome of a MEDLINE search. The portion of the algorithm described here estimates retrieval for strategies containing qualifiers. In test searches, the estimate reduced the trial-and-error of strategy formulation. However, the accuracy of the estimate fell short of expectations. Our results show that pre-search estimation for strategies with qualifiers cannot be performed effectively with only the occurrence data that is presently available. They further imply that automated search intermediaries can benefit from medical knowledge which expresses the relationships that exist between terms. PMID:7950056

Merz, R. B.; Cimino, C.; Barnett, G. O.; Blewett, D. R.; Gnassi, J. A.; Grundmeier, R.; Hassan, L.

1994-01-01

290

Automatic Summarization of MEDLINE Citations for Evidence–Based Medical Treatment: A Topic-Oriented Evaluation  

PubMed Central

As the number of electronic biomedical textual resources increases, it becomes harder for physicians to find useful answers at the point of care. Information retrieval applications provide access to databases; however, little research has been done on using automatic summarization to help navigate the documents returned by these systems. After presenting a semantic abstraction automatic summarization system for MEDLINE citations, we concentrate on evaluating its ability to identify useful drug interventions for fifty-three diseases. The evaluation methodology uses existing sources of evidence-based medicine as surrogates for a physician-annotated reference standard. Mean average precision (MAP) and a clinical usefulness score developed for this study were computed as performance metrics. The automatic summarization system significantly outperformed the baseline in both metrics. The MAP gain was 0.17 (p < 0.01) and the increase in the overall score of clinical usefulness was 0.39 (p < 0.05). PMID:19022398

Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

291

Retrieval feedback for query design in MEDLINE. A comparison with expert network and LLSF approaches.  

PubMed

Query design is a vibrant research focus in information retrieval. The objective is to modify a user's original query into one that is more effective for retrieval. Researchers have proposed and investigated a variety of strategies to support query design in MEDLINE. This paper examines a query design method built within the framework of retrieval feedback. In particular, the effectiveness of this method is compared with the effectiveness of competing methods that utilize query mapping functions constructed in an expert network or built using the Linear Least Squares Fit approach. The comparison indicates that retrieval feedback offers an approach that is just as effective as these alternative approaches. Moreover, it has the advantage of being simpler to implement. PMID:8947687

Srinivasan, P

1996-01-01

292

Using co-occurrence network structure to extract synonymous gene and protein names from MEDLINE abstracts  

PubMed Central

Background Text-mining can assist biomedical researchers in reducing information overload by extracting useful knowledge from large collections of text. We developed a novel text-mining method based on analyzing the network structure created by symbol co-occurrences as a way to extend the capabilities of knowledge extraction. The method was applied to the task of automatic gene and protein name synonym extraction. Results Performance was measured on a test set consisting of about 50,000 abstracts from one year of MEDLINE. Synonyms retrieved from curated genomics databases were used as a gold standard. The system obtained a maximum F-score of 22.21% (23.18% precision and 21.36% recall), with high efficiency in the use of seed pairs. Conclusion The method performs comparably with other studied methods, does not rely on sophisticated named-entity recognition, and requires little initial seed knowledge. PMID:15847682

Cohen, AM; Hersh, WR; Dubay, C; Spackman, K

2005-01-01

293

Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound studies in MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To develop optimal MEDLINE search strategies for retrieving sound clinical studies of the etiology, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disorders in adult general medicine. DESIGN: Analytic survey of operating characteristics of search strategies developed by computerized combinations of terms selected to detect studies meeting basic methodologic criteria for direct clinical use in adult general medicine. MEASURES: The sensitivities, specificities, precision, and accuracy of 134,264 unique combinations of search terms were determined by comparison with a manual review of all articles (the "gold standard") in ten internal medicine and general medicine journals for 1986 and 1991. RESULTS: Less than half of the studies of the topics of interest met basic criteria for scientific merit for testing clinical applications. Combinations of search terms reached peak sensitivities of 82% for sound studies of etiology, 92% for prognosis, 92% for diagnosis, and 99% for therapy in 1991. Compared with the best single terms, multiple terms increased sensitivity for sound studies by over 30% (absolute increase), but with some loss of specificity when sensitivity was maximized. For 1986, combinations reached peak sensitivities of 72% for etiology, 95% for prognosis, 86% for diagnosis, and 98% for therapy. When search terms were combined to maximize specificity, over 93% specificity was achieved for all purpose categories in both years. Compared with individual terms, combined terms achieved near-perfect specificity that was maintained with modest increases in sensitivity in all purpose categories except therapy. Increases in accuracy were achieved by combining terms for all purpose categories, with peak accuracies reaching over 90% for therapy in 1986 and 1991. CONCLUSIONS: The retrieval of studies of important clinical topics cited in MEDLINE can be substantially enhanced by selected combinations of indexing terms and textwords. PMID:7850570

Haynes, R B; Wilczynski, N; McKibbon, K A; Walker, C J; Sinclair, J C

1994-01-01

294

Developing Optimal Search Strategies for Detecting Sound Clinical Prediction Studies in MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Background: The gaining interest in the use of clinical prediction guides as an aid for helping clinicians make effective front-line decisions, together with the increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice, underscores the need for accurate identification of sound clinical prediction studies. Despite the growing use of clinical prediction guides, little work has been done on identifying optimal literature search filters for retrieving these types of studies. The current study extends our earlier work, on developing optimal search strategies, to include clinical prediction guides. Objective: To develop optimal search strategies for detecting methodologically sound clinical prediction studies in MEDLINE in the publishing year 2000. Design : Comparison of the retrieval performance of methodologic search strategies in MEDLINE with a manual review (“gold standard”) of each article for each issue of 161 core health care journals for the year 2000. Methods: 6 experienced research assistants who had been trained and intensively calibrated reviewed all issues of 161 journals for the publishing year 2000. Each article was classified for format, interest, purpose, and methodologic rigor. Search strategies were developed for all purpose categories, including studies of clinical prediction guides. Main outcome measures: The sensitivity (recall), specificity, precision, and accuracy of single and combinations of search terms. Results: 39% of original studies classified as a clinical prediction guide were methodologically sound. Combinations of terms reached peak sensitivities of 95%. Compared with the best single term, a three-term strategy increased sensitivity for sound studies by 17% (absolute increase), but with some loss of specificity when sensitivity was maximized. When search terms were combined to optimize sensitivity and specificity, these values reached or were close to 90%. Conclusion: Several search strategies can enhance the retrieval of sound clinical prediction studies. PMID:14728269

Wong, Sharon S.-L.; Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian; Ramkissoonsingh, Ravi; Team, for the Hedges

2003-01-01

295

The effects of SNP genotyping errors on the power of the Cochran-Armitage linear trend test for case/control association studies.  

PubMed

The questions addressed in this paper are: What single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping errors are most costly, in terms of minimum sample size necessary (MSSN) to maintain constant asymptotic power and significance level, when performing case-control studies of genetic association applying the Cochran-Armitage trend test? And which trend test or chi2 test is more powerful under standard genetic models with genotyping errors? Our strategy is to expand the non-centrality parameter of the asymptotic distribution of the trend test to approximate the MSSN using a Taylor series linear in the genotyping error rates. We apply our strategy to example scenarios that assume recessive, dominant, additive, or over-dominant disease models. The most costly errors are recording the more common homozygote as the less common homozygote, and the more common homozygote as the heterozygote, with MSSN that become indefinitely large as the minor SNP allele frequency approaches zero. Misclassifying the heterozygote as the less common homozygote is costly when using the recessive trend test on data from a recessive model. The chi2 test has power close to, but less than, the optimal trend test and is never dominated over all genetic models studied by any specific trend test. PMID:17096677

Ahn, Kwangmi; Haynes, Chad; Kim, Wonkuk; Fleur, Rose St; Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J

2007-03-01

296

2 Winter 2007 NIH MedlinePlus NIH Director Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., leads the NIH's 27 Insti-  

E-print Network

2 Winter 2007 NIH MedlinePlus NIH Director Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., leads the NIH's 27 Insti- tutesMedicine FROM THE DIRECTOR N NIH Director Elias A. Zerhouni,NIH Director Elias A. Zerhouni, tutes and Centers

Bandettini, Peter A.

297

John W. Scott Health Sciences Library, 2012 Searching for Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analyses and Practice Guidelines in Ovid MEDLINE  

E-print Network

-Analyses and Practice Guidelines in Ovid MEDLINE Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses After entering subject terms the Publication Type limit. After entering subject terms, click on Additional Limits and locate the Publication Type menu. Select Meta-Analysis and click on Limit A Search. Practice Guidelines After entering subject

MacMillan, Andrew

298

John W. Scott Health Sciences Library, 2012 Searching for Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analyses and Practice Guidelines in EBSCO MEDLINE  

E-print Network

-analyses, this can be done using the Publication Type limit. After entering subject terms, browse through the Search Guidelines After entering subject terms, browse through the Search Options panel and locate the Publication-Analyses and Practice Guidelines in EBSCO MEDLINE Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses After entering subject terms

MacMillan, Andrew

299

Mining characteristics of epidemiological studies from Medline: a case study in obesity  

PubMed Central

Background The health sciences literature incorporates a relatively large subset of epidemiological studies that focus on population-level findings, including various determinants, outcomes and correlations. Extracting structured information about those characteristics would be useful for more complete understanding of diseases and for meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Results We present an information extraction approach that enables users to identify key characteristics of epidemiological studies from MEDLINE abstracts. It extracts six types of epidemiological characteristic: design of the study, population that has been studied, exposure, outcome, covariates and effect size. We have developed a generic rule-based approach that has been designed according to semantic patterns observed in text, and tested it in the domain of obesity. Identified exposure, outcome and covariate concepts are clustered into health-related groups of interest. On a manually annotated test corpus of 60 epidemiological abstracts, the system achieved precision, recall and F-score between 79-100%, 80-100% and 82-96% respectively. We report the results of applying the method to a large scale epidemiological corpus related to obesity. Conclusions The experiments suggest that the proposed approach could identify key epidemiological characteristics associated with a complex clinical problem from related abstracts. When integrated over the literature, the extracted data can be used to provide a more complete picture of epidemiological efforts, and thus support understanding via meta-analysis and systematic reviews. PMID:24949194

2014-01-01

300

Still too little qualitative research to shed light on results from reviews of effectiveness trials: A case study of a Cochrane review on the use of lay health workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Qualitative research is used increasingly alongside trials of complex interventions to explore processes, contextual factors,\\u000a or intervention characteristics that may have influenced trial outcomes. Qualitative research conducted alongside trials can\\u000a also be used to shed light on the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness by looking for factors that can help explain\\u000a heterogeneous results across trials. In a Cochrane review

Claire Glenton; Simon Lewin; Inger B Scheel

2011-01-01

301

The art and science of searching MEDLINE to answer clinical questions. Finding the right number of articles.  

PubMed

The current medical environment makes information retrieval a matter of practical importance for clinicians. Many avenues present themselves to the clinician, but here we focus on MEDLINE by summarizing the current state of the art and providing an innovative approach for skill enhancement. Because new search engines appear rapidly, we focus on generic principles that can be easily adapted to various systems, even those not yet available. We propose an idealized classification system for the results of a MEDLINE search. Type A searches produce a few articles of high quality that are directly focused on the immediate question. Type B searches yield a large number of articles, some more relevant than others. Type C searches produce few or no articles, and those that are located are not germane. Providing that relevant, high-quality articles do exist, type B and C searches may often be improved with attention to search technique. Problems stem from poor recall and poor precision. The most daunting task lies in achieving the balance between too few and too many articles. By providing a theoretical framework and several practical examples, we prepare the searcher to overcome the following barriers: a) failure to begin with a well-built question; b) failure to use the Medical Subject Headings; c) failure to leverage the relationship between recall and precision; and d) failure to apply proper limits to the search. Thought and practice will increase the utility and enjoyment of searching MEDLINE. PMID:10507188

Allison, J J; Kiefe, C I; Weissman, N W; Carter, J; Centor, R M

1999-01-01

302

Citation: Smyth, G. K., Yang, Y.-H., Speed, T. P. (2003). Statistical issues in cDNA microarray data analysis. Methods in Molecular Biology 224, 111-136. [PubMed ID 12710670  

E-print Network

data analysis. Methods in Molecular Biology 224, 111-136. [PubMed ID 12710670] Statistical Issues in cCitation: Smyth, G. K., Yang, Y.-H., Speed, T. P. (2003). Statistical issues in cDNA microarray Institute of Medical Research 2. Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley Address

Smyth, Gordon K.

303

Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) medicines for treatment of menopausal symptoms - comments on major statements of the Cochrane Collaboration report 2012 "black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (review)".  

PubMed

Menopausal symptoms management with high-quality plant extracts from Actaea (Cimicifuga. racemosa rootstock is well-established. Efficacy and safety are supported by research and clinical trials since several decades and backed up by official monographs. However, the recent published Cochrane review on black cohosh neglects major evidence for beneficial effects. The authors' negative conclusions are questionable and call for reply and clarification. Our careful reconsideration of all appropriate placebo-controlled clinical studies reveals a standardized mean difference of 0.385 in favor of black cohosh (p?

Beer, André-M; Osmers, Rüdiger; Schnitker, Jörg; Bai, Wenpei; Mueck, Alfred O; Meden, Harald

2013-12-01

304

Network-based analysis reveals distinct association patterns in a semantic MEDLINE-based drug-disease-gene network  

PubMed Central

Background A huge amount of associations among different biological entities (e.g., disease, drug, and gene) are scattered in millions of biomedical articles. Systematic analysis of such heterogeneous data can infer novel associations among different biological entities in the context of personalized medicine and translational research. Recently, network-based computational approaches have gained popularity in investigating such heterogeneous data, proposing novel therapeutic targets and deciphering disease mechanisms. However, little effort has been devoted to investigating associations among drugs, diseases, and genes in an integrative manner. Results We propose a novel network-based computational framework to identify statistically over-expressed subnetwork patterns, called network motifs, in an integrated disease-drug-gene network extracted from Semantic MEDLINE. The framework consists of two steps. The first step is to construct an association network by extracting pair-wise associations between diseases, drugs and genes in Semantic MEDLINE using a domain pattern driven strategy. A Resource Description Framework (RDF)-linked data approach is used to re-organize the data to increase the flexibility of data integration, the interoperability within domain ontologies, and the efficiency of data storage. Unique associations among drugs, diseases, and genes are extracted for downstream network-based analysis. The second step is to apply a network-based approach to mine the local network structure of this heterogeneous network. Significant network motifs are then identified as the backbone of the network. A simplified network based on those significant motifs is then constructed to facilitate discovery. We implemented our computational framework and identified five network motifs, each of which corresponds to specific biological meanings. Three case studies demonstrate that novel associations are derived from the network topology analysis of reconstructed networks of significant network motifs, further validated by expert knowledge and functional enrichment analyses. Conclusions We have developed a novel network-based computational approach to investigate the heterogeneous drug-gene-disease network extracted from Semantic MEDLINE. We demonstrate the power of this approach by prioritizing candidate disease genes, inferring potential disease relationships, and proposing novel drug targets, within the context of the entire knowledge. The results indicate that such approach will facilitate the formulization of novel research hypotheses, which is critical for translational medicine research and personalized medicine. PMID:25170419

2014-01-01

305

MEDLINE and PsycLIT on CD-ROM: a survey of users in an academic medical library.  

PubMed

A survey of users of PsycLIT and MEDLINE on CD-ROM was performed at an academic medical library. The questionnaire was designed to gather information about the user population, satisfaction of the users, the assistance needed to use the systems, and the type of searches being performed. The majority of users were graduate students in the schools of medicine, nursing, and pharmacy. In general, users were satisfied with the performance of the systems. Assistance from a librarian, printed documentation, or another patron was required by 85% of users, and they were generally satisfied with this assistance. Most searches were performed to obtain information on a subject. The results were remarkably similar for both databases. PMID:10106678

King, N S; Goldstein, S E; Williams, L A

1990-01-01

306

Development of a heart failure filter for Medline: an objective approach using evidence-based clinical practice guidelines as an alternative to hand searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a highly debilitating syndrome with a poor prognosis primarily affecting the elderly. Clinicians wanting timely access to heart failure evidence to provide optimal patient care can face many challenges in locating this evidence. This study developed and validated a search filter of high clinical utility for the retrieval of heart failure articles in OvidSP Medline. METHODS:

Raechel A Damarell; Jennifer Tieman; Ruth M Sladek; Patricia M Davidson

2011-01-01

307

CONFERENCE SPONSORS AND EXHIBITORS Mark Cochran  

E-print Network

Tonning Tetra Tech barry.tonning@tetratech.com Susan Thomas City of Fayetteville sthomas bkwagner@agfc.state.ar.us Marvin Weeks USDA Forest Service Amy Wilson Beaver Water District awilson@bwdh2o Moore Upper White River Basin Found. jmoore@uwrb.org Bob Morgan Beaver Water District rmorgan@bwdh2o

Soerens, Thomas

308

Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Comparison of 15 Databases  

PubMed Central

This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS) and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005). The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases. PMID:19468052

Cogo, Elise; Sampson, Margaret; Ajiferuke, Isola; Manheimer, Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Daniel, Raymond; Moher, David

2011-01-01

309

MedlinePlus Tour  

MedlinePLUS

... Flash, you will be prompted to download the software before you start. Mobile version Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us on Twitter Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine ...

310

About MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Director Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg, Director, National Library of Medicine View Dr. Lindberg's welcome (Quicktime video ... good health information from the world's largest medical library, the National Library of Medicine. Health professionals and ...

311

Design and validation of an automated method to detect known adverse drug reactions in MEDLINE: a contribution from the EU–ADR project  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this research was to automate the search of publications concerning adverse drug reactions (ADR) by defining the queries used to search MEDLINE and by determining the required threshold for the number of extracted publications to confirm the drug/event association in the literature. Methods We defined an approach based on the medical subject headings (MeSH) ‘descriptor records’ and ‘supplementary concept records’ thesaurus, using the subheadings ‘chemically induced’ and ‘adverse effects’ with the ‘pharmacological action’ knowledge. An expert-built validation set of true positive and true negative drug/adverse event associations (n=61) was used to validate our method. Results Using a threshold of three of more extracted publications, the automated search method presented a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. For nine different drug/event pairs selected, the recall of the automated search ranged from 24% to 64% and the precision from 93% to 48%. Conclusions This work presents a method to find previously established relationships between drugs and adverse events in the literature. Using MEDLINE, following a MeSH approach to filter the signals, is a valid option. Our contribution is available as a web service that will be integrated in the final European EU–ADR project (Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by integrative mining of clinical records and biomedical knowledge) automated system. PMID:23195749

Avillach, Paul; Dufour, Jean-Charles; Diallo, Gayo; Salvo, Francesco; Joubert, Michel; Thiessard, Frantz; Mougin, Fleur; Trifirò, Gianluca; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Pariente, Antoine; Fieschi, Marius

2013-01-01

312

Selecting CD-ROM databases for nursing students: a comparison of MEDLINE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL).  

PubMed

With the introduction of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) on CD-ROM, research was initiated to compare coverage of nursing journals by CINAHL and MEDLINE in this format, expanding on previous comparison of these databases in print and online. The study assessed search results for eight topics in 1989 and 1990 citations in both databases, each produced by SilverPlatter. Results were tallied and analyzed for number of records retrieved, unique and overlapping records, relevance, and appropriateness. An overall precision score was developed. The goal of the research was to develop quantifiable tools to help determine which database to purchase for an academic library serving an undergraduate nursing program. PMID:8136757

Okuma, E

1994-01-01

313

Chronic Pain and Complementary Health Approaches: What You Need To Know  

MedlinePLUS

... site: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews is a collection of evidence- ... invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2004;(3):CD001878 [edited 2009]. ...

314

Laparoscopic versus Open Appendectomy: Between Evidence and Common Sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laparoscopic surgery has been proposed to have diagnostic and therapeutic advantages over conventional surgery. The purpose of this article is to present a recently completed Cochrane review on laparoscopic surgery for suspected appendicitis on the background of daily surgical practice and the developments in the last decade. Methods: Within the Cochrane review, various medical databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane, SciSearch)

Ernst Eypasch; Stefan Sauerland; Rolf Lefering; Edmund A. M. Neugebauer

2002-01-01

315

Nanotechnology and its Application in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of everyday life from security to medicine. The concept of nanotechnology is that when one goes down to the bottom of things, one can discover unlimited possibilities and potential of the basic particle. In nanotechnology, analysis can be made to the level of manipulating atoms, molecules and chemical bonds between them. The growing interest in the dental applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new field called nanodentistry. An electronic database search that included PubMed, MedLine, and Cochrane library was conducted. Key words used in the search are nanotechnology dentistry and applications. Language limitation was set as articles reviewed were only those written and published in English language. We did not search the gray literature. Initially, 52 articles were retrieved from the database, and articles considered were those published from 2008 to 2013. Eight articles that met the selection criteria were eventually selected and reviewed. PMID:25364585

Abiodun-Solanke, IMF; Ajayi, DM; Arigbede, AO

2014-01-01

316

Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to describe the association between central auditory processing mechanism and the cardiac autonomic regulation. Methods It was researched papers on the topic addressed in this study considering the following data bases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The key words were: “auditory stimulation, heart rate, autonomic nervous system and P300”. Results The findings in the literature demonstrated that auditory stimulation influences the autonomic nervous system and has been used in conjunction with other methods. It is considered a promising step in the investigation of therapeutic procedures for rehabilitation and quality of life of several pathologies. Conclusion The association between auditory stimulation and the level of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has received significant contributions in relation to musical stimuli. PMID:24834128

2014-01-01

317

Nanotechnology and its application in dentistry.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of everyday life from security to medicine. The concept of nanotechnology is that when one goes down to the bottom of things, one can discover unlimited possibilities and potential of the basic particle. In nanotechnology, analysis can be made to the level of manipulating atoms, molecules and chemical bonds between them. The growing interest in the dental applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new field called nanodentistry. An electronic database search that included PubMed, MedLine, and Cochrane library was conducted. Key words used in the search are nanotechnology dentistry and applications. Language limitation was set as articles reviewed were only those written and published in English language. We did not search the gray literature. Initially, 52 articles were retrieved from the database, and articles considered were those published from 2008 to 2013. Eight articles that met the selection criteria were eventually selected and reviewed. PMID:25364585

Abiodun-Solanke, Imf; Ajayi, Dm; Arigbede, Ao

2014-09-01

318

Intra-articular injections of mesenchymal stem cells for knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) represents an enormous societal burden. This review article summarizes the knowledge on the efficacy of using intra-articular injections of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat KOA. PubMed (Medline) and the Cochrane Library were searched for literature related to MSC therapy and KOA up until January 31, 2014. The key search terms used were stem cells and knee osteoarthritis. One hundred thirty-five reports were found, but only the 25 fully focused on the topic were used for analysis. Only 3 randomized controlled trials (level II evidence) found pain relief and functional improvement over the short term. The other human studies also reported encouraging results, but their evidence level was very low (IV). Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to support these preliminary encouraging results. The relatively short duration of the studies is also a limitation for the technique at present. PMID:25490014

Rodríguez-Merchán, Emérito Carlos

2014-12-01

319

Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and their implication in clinical management  

PubMed Central

Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are one of the commonest causes of medication error in developed countries, particularly in the elderly due to poly-therapy, with a prevalence of 20-40%. In particular, poly-therapy increases the complexity of therapeutic management and thereby the risk of clinically important DDIs, which can both induce the development of adverse drug reactions or reduce the clinical efficacy. DDIs can be classify into two main groups: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. In this review, using Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and Reference lists we searched articles published until June 30 2012, and we described the mechanism of pharmacokinetic DDIs focusing the interest on their clinical implications. PMID:24516494

Palleria, Caterina; Di Paolo, Antonello; Giofrè, Chiara; Caglioti, Chiara; Leuzzi, Giacomo; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

2013-01-01

320

Tranexamic acid for the management of uterine fibroid tumors: A systematic review of the current evidence  

PubMed Central

AIM: To conduct a detailed systematic review of the current evidence on the administration and efficacy of tranexamic acid in patients with menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search on the following databases PubMed and Medline (1950-2013); (1980-2013); Cochrane library (1993-2013). RESULTS: A total of 36 articles were retrieved after the initial electronic search. Careful assessment of the retrieved studies led to the final selection of 5 articles for inclusion in the review. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid may reduce blood loss perioperatively in myomectomies. It may reduce the menorrhagia in patients with fibroids, however a stratification of fibroids by size and location is required to define the responses. It is safe in general, with mild adverse effects observed in some cases. More studies with a double-blind randomized design and larger numbers of participants are necessary to reach more precise and safe conclusions. PMID:25516866

Peitsidis, Panagiotis; Koukoulomati, Anna

2014-01-01

321

Pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia: a systematic review of literature.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to systematically review the published literature on pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia. Literature search of the 5 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and COCHRANE collaboration) and the analysis of the data available for the pharmacotherapeutic treatments of inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia were carried out. There are no published randomized controlled trials of pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia, but available data form uncontrolled trials, case series, and individual case reports suggest efficacy for antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormonal agents, cimetidine, and pindolol for the treatment of these behaviors. Although there are no controlled data for the treatment of inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia, available data suggest efficacy for some commonly used pharmacotherapeutic agents. PMID:18509106

Ozkan, Banu; Wilkins, Kirsten; Muralee, Sunanda; Tampi, Rajesh R

2008-01-01

322

Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii  

PubMed Central

Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

2012-01-01

323

Fibroids, Infertility and Laparoscopic Myomectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the literature and summarize the available evidence about the relationship of fibroids with infertility and to review the role of laparoscopic myomectomy in infertility. Materials and Methods: Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Databases were searched for articles published between 1980 and 2010. Results: Fertility outcomes are decreased in women with submucosal fibroids, and myomectomy is of value. Subserosal fibroids do not affect fertility outcomes, and removal may not confer benefit. Intramural fibroids appear to decrease fertility, but the results of therapy are unclear. Although pregnancy rates for women with leiomyomata, managed endoscopically, are similar to those after laparotomy, there is a risk of uterine rupture. The risk is essentially unknown. Finally, the risk of recurrence seems higher after laparoscopic myomectomy compared to laparotomy. Conclusions: Laparoscopic myomectomy, when performed by an experienced surgeon, can be considered a safe technique, with an extremely low failure rate and good results in terms of the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:22442534

Desai, Pankaj; Patel, Purvi

2011-01-01

324

An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.  

PubMed

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

2011-01-01

325

Neuraxial opioid-induced pruritus: An update  

PubMed Central

Pruritus is a troublesome side-effect of neuraxial (epidural and intrathecal) opioids. Sometimes it may be more unpleasant than pain itself. The prevention and treatment still remains a challenge. A variety of medications with different mechanisms of action have been used for the prevention and treatment of opioid-induced pruritus, with mixed results. The aim of this article is to review the current body of literature and summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms and the pharmacological therapies available to manage opioid-induced pruritus. The literature source of this review was obtained via PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 2012. The search results were limited to the randomized controlled trials, systemic reviews and non-systemic reviews. PMID:24106351

Kumar, Kamal; Singh, Sudha Indu

2013-01-01

326

High Burden of Protein–Energy Malnutrition in Nigeria: Beyond the Health Care Setting  

PubMed Central

There is still a high burden of protein–energy malnutrition in Nigeria. The severe forms of the disease are usually associated with high level of mortality even in the tertiary health facilities. To review the cost-effective health promotional strategies at community levels that could aid prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of protein–energy malnutrition. The strategy used for locating articles used for this review was to search databases like Google, Google scholar, relevant electronic journals from the universities’ libraries, including PubMed and Scirus, Medline, Cochrane library and WHO's Hinari. We believe that strategies beyond the health care setting have potential of significantly reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with protein–energy malnutrition in Nigeria. PMID:23209994

Ubesie, AC; Ibeziakor, NS

2012-01-01

327

High burden of protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria: beyond the health care setting.  

PubMed

There is still a high burden of protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria. The severe forms of the disease are usually associated with high level of mortality even in the tertiary health facilities. To review the cost-effective health promotional strategies at community levels that could aid prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of protein-energy malnutrition. The strategy used for locating articles used for this review was to search databases like Google, Google scholar, relevant electronic journals from the universities' libraries, including PubMed and Scirus, Medline, Cochrane library and WHO's Hinari. We believe that strategies beyond the health care setting have potential of significantly reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria. PMID:23209994

Ubesie, Ac; Ibeziakor, Ns

2012-01-01

328

An assessment of the efficacy of searching in biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE in identifying studies for a systematic review on ward closures as an infection control intervention to control outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of our study is to determine the value and efficacy of searching biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE for systematic reviews. Methods We analyzed the results from a systematic review conducted by the authors and others on ward closure as an infection control practice. Ovid MEDLINE including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, CINAHL Plus, LILACS, and IndMED were systematically searched for articles of any study type discussing ward closure, as were bibliographies of selected articles and recent infection control conference abstracts. Search results were tracked, recorded, and analyzed using a relative recall method. The sensitivity of searching in each database was calculated. Results Two thousand ninety-five unique citations were identified and screened for inclusion in the systematic review: 2,060 from database searching and 35 from hand searching and other sources. Ninety-seven citations were included in the final review. MEDLINE and Embase searches each retrieved 80 of the 97 articles included, only 4 articles from each database were unique. The CINAHL search retrieved 35 included articles, and 4 were unique. The IndMED and LILACS searches did not retrieve any included articles, although 75 of the included articles were indexed in LILACS. The true value of using regional databases, particularly LILACS, may lie with the ability to search in the language spoken in the region. Eight articles were found only through hand searching. Conclusions Identifying studies for a systematic review where the research is observational is complex. The value each individual study contributes to the review cannot be accurately measured. Consequently, we could not determine the value of results found from searching beyond MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL with accuracy. However, hand searching for serendipitous retrieval remains an important aspect due to indexing and keyword challenges inherent in this literature. PMID:25387523

2014-01-01

329

Search terms and a validated brief search filter to retrieve publications on health-related values in Medline: a word frequency analysis study  

PubMed Central

Objective Healthcare debates and policy developments are increasingly concerned with a broad range of values-related areas. These include not only ethical, moral, religious, and other types of values ‘proper’, but also beliefs, preferences, experiences, choices, satisfaction, quality of life, etc. Research on such issues may be difficult to retrieve. This study used word frequency analysis to generate a broad pool of search terms and a brief filter to facilitate relevant searches in bibliographic databases. Methods Word frequency analysis for ‘values terms’ was performed on citations on diabetes, obesity, dementia, and schizophrenia (Medline; 2004–2006; 4440 citations; 1?110?291 words). Concordance® and SPSS 14.0 were used. Text words and MeSH terms of high frequency and precision were compiled into a search filter. It was validated on datasets of citations on dentistry and food hypersensitivity. Results 144 unique text words and 124 unique MeSH terms of moderate and high frequency (?20) and very high precision (?90%) were identified. Of these, 19 text words and seven MeSH terms were compiled into a ‘brief values filter’. In the derivation dataset, it had a sensitivity of 76.8% and precision of 86.8%. In the validation datasets, its sensitivity and precision were, respectively, 70.1% and 63.6% (food hypersensitivity) and 47.1% and 82.6% (dentistry). Conclusions This study provided a varied pool of search terms and a simple and highly effective tool for retrieving publications on health-related values. Further work is required to facilitate access to such research and enhance its chances of being translated into practice, policy, and service improvements. PMID:21846778

Sutcliffe, Paul; Fulford, K W M (Bill); Dale, Jeremy

2011-01-01

330

Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Medical Encyclopedia To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia includes over 4,000 articles about diseases, ...

331

Anatomy Videos: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Anatomy Videos To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. These animated videos show the anatomy of body parts and organ systems and how ...

332

Surgery Videos: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 3/5/2009) Partial Knee with Personalized Patient Care (New Albany Surgical Hospital, New Albany, OH, 2/ ... Matched Instruments and Total Knee System (Intermountain Health Care Hospital, Park City, UT, 5/10/2011) Personalized ...

333

Articles about MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1324769 Mayer S, Smith KH, Rios G. Consumer health information services 2. ... purchase. DOI: 10.1197/jamia.M2449 Keselman A, Smith CA, Divita G, Kim H, Browne AC, Leroy ...

334

Contact Us: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo, Republic of (Congo-Kinshasa) Congo, ... Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia ...

335

Electronic search strategies to identify reports of cluster randomized trials in MEDLINE: low precision will improve with adherence to reporting standards  

PubMed Central

Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique methodological and ethical challenges. Researchers conducting systematic reviews of CRTs (e.g., addressing methodological or ethical issues) require efficient electronic search strategies (filters or hedges) to identify trials in electronic databases such as MEDLINE. According to the CONSORT statement extension to CRTs, the clustered design should be clearly identified in titles or abstracts; however, variability in terminology may make electronic identification challenging. Our objectives were to (a) evaluate sensitivity ("recall") and precision of a well-known electronic search strategy ("randomized controlled trial" as publication type) with respect to identifying CRTs, (b) evaluate the feasibility of new search strategies targeted specifically at CRTs, and (c) determine whether CRTs are appropriately identified in titles or abstracts of reports and whether there has been improvement over time. Methods We manually examined a wide range of health journals to identify a gold standard set of CRTs. Search strategies were evaluated against the gold standard set, as well as an independent set of CRTs included in previous systematic reviews. Results The existing strategy (randomized controlled trial.pt) is sensitive (93.8%) for identifying CRTs, but has relatively low precision (9%, number needed to read 11); the number needed to read can be halved to 5 (precision 18.4%) by combining with cluster design-related terms using the Boolean operator AND; combining with the Boolean operator OR maximizes sensitivity (99.4%) but would require 28.6 citations read to identify one CRT. Only about 50% of CRTs are clearly identified as cluster randomized in titles or abstracts; approximately 25% can be identified based on the reported units of randomization but are not amenable to electronic searching; the remaining 25% cannot be identified except through manual inspection of the full-text article. The proportion of trials clearly identified has increased from 28% between the years 2000-2003, to 60% between 2004-2007 (absolute increase 32%, 95% CI 17 to 47%). Conclusions CRTs should include the phrase "cluster randomized trial" in titles or abstracts; this will facilitate more accurate indexing of the publication type by reviewers at the National Library of Medicine, and efficient textword retrieval of the subset employing cluster randomization. PMID:20158899

2010-01-01

336

Curriculum Vitae D. Liane Cochran-Stafira, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

, (Cello and Music Composition) 1975-1981 University of Illinois, Chicago (Biology) 1974-1976 Undergraduate of a Habrotrocha rosa (an asexual rotifer) metapopulation across multiple spatial and temporal scales Aquatic

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

337

Library Resources  

Cancer.gov

Library Resources Literature Search via PubMed NOTE: PubMed replaces Entrez (previously limited to Molecular Biology references in Medline). Searches are now free, with no account required, either for Grateful Med or PubMed. National Library of Medicine NIH

338

A systematic review of surgical ablation versus catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly prevalent condition in the ageing population, with significantly associated morbidity and mortality. Surgical and catheter ablative strategies both aim to reduce mortality and morbidity through freedom from AF. This review consolidates all currently available comparative data to evaluate these two interventions. Methods A systematic search was conducted across MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2000 until August 2013. All studies were critically appraised and only those directly comparing surgical and catheter ablation were included. Results Seven studies were deemed suitable for analysis according to the inclusion criteria. Freedom from AF was significantly higher in the surgical ablation group versus the catheter ablation group at 6-month, 12-month and study endpoint follow-up periods. Subgroup analysis demonstrated similar trends, with higher freedom from AF in the surgical ablation group for paroxysmal AF patients. The incidence of pacemaker implantation was higher, while no difference in stroke or cardiac tamponade was demonstrated for the surgical versus catheter ablation groups. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that epicardial ablative strategies are associated with higher freedom from AF, higher pacemaker implantation rates and comparable neurological complications and cardiac tamponade incidence to catheter ablative treatment. Other complications and risks were poorly reported, which warrants further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adequate power and follow-up duration. PMID:24516794

Kearney, Katherine; Stephenson, Rowan; Phan, Kevin; Chan, Wei Yen; Huang, Min Yin

2014-01-01

339

Herbal medicines for cancer cachexia: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612. PMID:24893603

Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo

2014-01-01

340

Definitions and Outcome Measures of Clinical Trials Regarding Opioid-induced Constipation: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a frequent symptom in patients treated with opioids and impacts the patients' quality of life. However, there is no generally accepted definition for OIC. The aims of this study were to identify definitions for OIC in clinical trials and Cochrane Reviews and to compile assessment tools and outcome measures that were used in clinical trials. In a systematic review, 5 databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE) were searched to identify clinical trials assessing OIC in adult patients or healthy volunteers. Studies published between 1993 and August 2013 were included. A total of 1488 studies were retrieved and 47 publications were included in the analysis. A minority of the publications (n=16, 34%) provided a clear definition for OIC. The definitions were highly variable and the present or recent history of opioid therapy was frequently (n=6, 38%) not included in these definitions. Of 46 clinical trials, 17 (37%) relied exclusively on objective measures such as bowel movement frequency, whereas another 17 studies additionally included patient-reported outcome measures such as, "feeling of incomplete bowel evacuation." Few trials (n=7, 15%) assessed the patient-reported global burden of OIC. Standard definitions and outcome measures are necessary (i) for consistency in OIC diagnosis in clinical practice and clinical trials; and (ii) to assure comparability of trial findings (eg, in meta-analyses). An OIC definition and outcome measures are proposed. PMID:25356996

Gaertner, Jan; Siemens, Waldemar; Camilleri, Michael; Davies, Andrew; Drossman, Douglas A; Webster, Lynn R; Becker, Gerhild

2015-01-01

341

Sexual and gender-based violence in areas of armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual and other forms of gender-based violence are common in conflict settings and are known risk factors for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing. We present findings from a systematic review of the academic and grey literature focused on the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial support interventions for populations exposed to sexual and other forms of gender-based violence in the context of armed conflicts. Methods We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PubMed/ Medline, psycINFO, and PILOTS, as well as grey literature to search for evaluations of interventions, without date limitations. Results Out of 5,684 returned records 189 full text papers were assessed for eligibility. Seven studies met inclusion criteria: 1 non-randomized controlled study; 3 non-controlled pre- post-test designs; 1 retrospective cohort with a matched comparison group; and 2 case studies. Studies were conducted in West and Central Africa; Albania; UK and USA, included female participants, and focused on individual and group counseling; combined psychological, medical, social and economic interventions; and cognitive behavioral therapy (two single case studies). Conclusions The seven studies, while very limited, tentatively suggest beneficial effects of mental health and psychosocial interventions for this population, and show feasibility of evaluation and implementation of such interventions in real-life settings through partnerships with humanitarian organizations. Robust conclusions on the effectiveness of particular approaches are not possible on the basis of current evidence. More rigorous research is urgently needed. PMID:23915821

2013-01-01

342

The effectiveness of opioid substitution treatments for patients with opioid dependence: a systematic review and multiple treatment comparison protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Opioids are psychoactive analgesic drugs prescribed for pain relief and palliative care. Due to their addictive potential, effort and vigilance in controlling prescriptions is needed to avoid misuse and dependence. Despite the effort, the prevalence of opioid use disorder continues to rise. Opioid substitution therapies are commonly used to treat opioid dependence; however, there is minimal consensus as to which therapy is most effective. Available treatments include methadone, heroin, buprenorphine, as well as naltrexone. This systematic review aims to assess and compare the effect of all available opioid substitution therapies on the treatment of opioid dependence. Methods/Design The authors will search Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and the National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry. The title, abstract, and full-text screening will be completed in duplicate. When appropriate, multiple treatment comparison Bayesian meta-analytic methods will be performed to deduce summary statistics estimating the effectiveness of all opioid substitution therapies in terms of retention and response to treatment (as measured through continued opioid abuse). Discussion Using evidence gained from this systematic review, we anticipate disseminating an objective review of the current available literature on the effectiveness of all opioid substitution therapies for the treatment of opioid use disorder. The results of this systematic review are imperative to the further enhancement of clinical practice in addiction medicine. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42013006507. PMID:25239213

2014-01-01

343

The Physiological and Biochemical Outcomes Associated with a Reflexology Treatment: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Reflexology is one of the top forms of complementary and alternative medicine in the UK and is used for healthcare by a diverse range of people. However, it is offered by few healthcare providers as little scientific evidence is available explaining how it works or any health benefits it may confer. The aim of this review was to assess the current evidence available from reflexology randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated changes in physiological or biochemical outcomes. Methods. Guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed: the following databases were searched from inception to December 2013: AMED, CAM Quest, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Medline Ovid, Proquest, and Pubmed. Risk of bias was assessed independently by two members of the review team and overall strength of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation guidelines. Results. Seventeen eligible RCTs met all inclusion criteria. A total of 34 objective outcome measures were analysed. Although twelve studies showed significant changes within the reflexology group, only three studies investigating blood pressure, cardiac index, and salivary amylase resulted in significant between group changes in favour of reflexology. The overall quality of the studies was low. PMID:24883067

McCullough, J. E. M.; Liddle, S. D.; Sinclair, M.; Close, C.; Hughes, C. M.

2014-01-01

344

Prospective Head and Neck Cancer Research: A Four-Decade Bibliometric Perspective  

PubMed Central

Background. It is unknown whether changes in study sponsorship have affected the proportion of prospective research on surgery, radiotherapy, and pharmacotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) being published over time. Patients and Methods. We examined prospective studies from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Chi-squared tests were used to identify significant associations between sponsorship and authorship, treatments within study protocols, and presentation of results, whereas time-based trends were analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Results. Among 309 articles, industry (70, 22.7%) and the U.S. government (65, 21%) were the most common sponsors. There was a significant increase in the proportion of industry-sponsored research (p for trend = .013) and a decline in U.S. government-sponsored research (p for trend = .001) over time. The inclusion of surgery in treatment protocols declined over the past four decades (p for trend = .003). Protocols incorporating pharmacotherapy were more likely to have industry support than those without pharmacotherapy (p = .001), whereas protocols with radiotherapy (p = .003) or surgery (p = .002) were less likely to have industry support. Conclusion. Industry is the predominant sponsor of prospective HNSCC research, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapy. PMID:23635559

Houlton, Jeffrey J.; Moloci, Nicholas M.; MacEachern, Mark P.; Bradford, Carol R.; Prince, Mark E.; Jagsi, Reshma

2013-01-01

345

Interventions to support children’s engagement in health-related decisions: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Children often need support in health decision-making. The objective of this study was to review characteristics and effectiveness of interventions that support health decision-making of children. Methods A systematic review. Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from inception until March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened eligibility: a) intervention studies; b) involved supporting children (?18 years) considering health-related decision(s); and c) measured decision quality or decision-making process outcomes. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted by one author and verified by another using a standardized data extraction form. Quality appraisal was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results Of 4313 citations, 5 studies were eligible. Interventions focused on supporting decisions about risk behaviors (n?=?3), psycho-educational services (n?=?1), and end of life (n?=?1). Two of 5 studies had statistically significant findings: i) compared to attention placebo, decision coaching alone increased values congruence between child and parent, and child satisfaction with decision-making process (lower risk of bias); ii) compared to no intervention, a workshop with weekly assignments increased overall decision-making quality (higher risk of bias). Conclusions Few studies have focused on interventions to support children’s participation in decisions about their health. More research is needed to determine effective methods for supporting children’s health decision-making. PMID:24758566

2014-01-01

346

Is fibrin sealant effective and safe in total knee arthroplasty? A meta-analysis of randomized trials  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrin sealant in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A comprehensive literature search of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken. The evidence base was critically appraised using a tool from the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group. Eight RCTs involving 641 patients were included. The use of fibrin sealant significantly reduced postoperative drainage (weighted mean difference (WMD) ?346, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?496.29 to ?197.54, P?

2014-01-01

347

Malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenomas into hepatocellular carcinomas: a systematic review including more than 1600 adenoma cases  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) into hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) has been reported repeatedly and is considered to be one of the main reasons for surgical treatment. However, its actual risk is currently unknown. Objective To provide an estimation of the frequency of malignant transformation of HCAs and to discuss its clinical implications. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using the following databases: The Cochrane Hepatobiliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Results One hundred and fifty-seven relevant series and 17 case reports (a total of 1635 HCAs) were retrieved, reporting an overall frequency of malignant transformation of 4.2%. Only three cases (4.4%) of malignant alteration were reported in a tumour smaller than 5 cm in diameter. Discussion Malignant transformation of HCAs into HCCs remains a rare phenomenon with a reported frequency of 4.2%. A better selection of exactly those patients presenting with an HCA with an amplified risk of malignant degeneration is advocated in order to reduce the number of liver resections and thus reducing the operative risk for these predominantly young patients. The Bordeaux adenoma tumour markers are a promising method of identifying these high-risk adenomas. PMID:20887318

Stoot, Jan HMB; Coelen, Robert JS; de Jong, Mechteld C; Dejong, Cornelis HC

2010-01-01

348

The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids improves clinical outcomes and prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients: a systematic evaluation.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to systematically evaluate results of trials examining the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) consumption on body weight, lean body mass, resting energy expenditure, and overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We searched Medline, Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. We selected randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA vs. conventional nutrition in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients. We analyzed our data using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan 5.1. Eleven trials met our inclusion criteria. There was a significant increase in body weight [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.69, P < 0.00001) and lean body mass (WMD = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86-1.06, P < 0.00001), a significant decrease in resting energy expenditure (WMD = -29.74; 95% CI, -55.89-3.59, P = 0.03), and an increase in overall survival (130-259 days vs. 63-130 days) in unresectable pancreatic cancer patients who consumed an oral nutrition supplement enriched with n-3 PUFAs compared to those who consumed conventional nutrition. This preliminary study suggests that n-3 PUFAs are safe and have a positive effect on clinical outcomes and survival in pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:25425246

Ma, Ying-Jie; Yu, Jing; Xiao, Jing; Cao, Bang-Wei

2015-01-01

349

Analgesic efficacy and safety of single-dose tramadol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in operations on the third molars: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate published randomised, double-blind, clinical trials to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol with that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in operations on the third molars. We identified eligible reports from searches of PubMed, MedLine, the Cochrane Library, Oxford Pain Relief database, Imbiomed, and Google Scholar. The full text of studies that met our minimum requirements were evaluated using inclusion and exclusion criteria with the Oxford Quality Scale. Those with a Score ? 3 in this scale were included and their data were extracted and analysed. Absolute increase in risk, the number needed to harm, odds ratio and 95% CI were calculated using Risk Reduction Calculator software. Each meta-analysis was made with the help of the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model, estimates of risk (odds ratio (OR)) and 95% CI were calculated using the Review Manager 5.2. from the Cochrane Library. A significant risk was assumed when the lower limit of the 95%CI was greater than 1. Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. The results showed that tramadol had less analgesic efficacy and an increased risk of adverse effects compared with NSAID. In conclusion, a single dose of tramadol was not as effective or as safe as NSAID for the relief of pain after operations on the third molars. PMID:24930627

Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; de Jesús Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel Hugo

2014-11-01

350

Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction  

MedlinePLUS

... site: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews is a collection of evidence- ... Reporting Tools Expenditures & Results (RePORTER) RePORTER is a database of information on federally funded scientific and medical ...

351

Mapping Systematic Reviews on Atopic Eczema—An Essential Resource for Dermatology Professionals and Researchers  

PubMed Central

Background Many research studies have been published on atopic eczema and these are often summarised in systematic reviews (SRs). Identifying SRs can be time-consuming for health professionals, and researchers. In order to facilitate the identification of important research, we have compiled an on-line resource that includes all relevant eczema reviews published since 2000. Methods SRs were searched for in MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE and NHS Evidence. Selected SRs were assessed against the pre-defined eligibility criteria and relevant articles were grouped by treatment category for the included interventions. All identified systematic reviews are included in the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT) database (www.greatdatabase.org.uk) and key clinical messages are summarised here. Results A total of 128 SRs reviews were identified, including three clinical guidelines. Of these, 46 (36%) were found in the Cochrane Library. No single database contained all of the SRs found. The number of SRs published per year has increased substantially over the last thirteen years, and reviews were published in a variety of clinical journals. Of the 128 SRs, 1 (1%) was on mechanism, 37 (29%) were on epidemiology, 40 (31%) were on eczema prevention, 29 (23%) were on topical treatments, 31 (24%) were on systemic treatments, and 24 (19%) were on other treatments. All SRs included searches of MEDLINE in their search methods. One hundred six SRs (83%) searched more than one electronic database. There were no language restrictions reported in the search methods of 52 of the SRs (41%). Conclusions This mapping of atopic eczema reviews is a valuable resource. It will help healthcare practitioners, guideline writers, information specialists, and researchers to quickly identify relevant up-to-date evidence in the field for improving patient care. PMID:23505516

Futamura, Masaki; Thomas, Kim S.; Grindlay, Douglas J. C.; Doney, Elizabeth J.; Torley, Donna; Williams, Hywel C.

2013-01-01

352

Glucosamine for pain in osteoarthritis: Why do trial results differ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Investigators in trials of glucosamine report a range of estimates for efficacy, making conclu- sions difficult. We undertook this study to identify factors that explain heterogeneity in trials of glu- cosamine. Methods. We searched for reports of trial results in Ovid Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and proceedings of scientific

Steven C. Vlad; Michael P. LaValley; Timothy E. McAlindon; David T. Felson

2007-01-01

353

Association between suicide attempts and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: systematic review of randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To establish whether an association exists between use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and suicide attempts. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration's register of controlled trials (November 2004) for trials produced by the Cochrane depression, anxiety, and neurosis group. Selection of studies Studies had to be randomised controlled trials comparing

Dean Fergusson; Steve Doucette; Kathleen Cranley Glass; Stan Shapiro; David Healy; Paul Hebert; Brian Hutton

2005-01-01

354

Although leukoplakia responds to some treatments relapses and adverse effects are common  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sourcesThe Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Trials Register, Medline and Embase were searched, as well as the following journals: Cancer, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, European Journal of Oral Sciences, Journal of Dental Research, Oral Oncology, Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics. The reference lists of included studies and reviews were checked,

Shailesh Lele

2005-01-01

355

Staff training improved oral hygiene in patients following stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sourcesReports were identified using the Cochrane Stroke Group and Oral Health Group trials registers, the Cochrane CENTRAL trial register, Cochrane Library, Medline, Cinahl, Research Findings Electronic Register, National Research Register, ISI Science and Technology Proceedings, Dissertation Abstracts and Conference Papers Index, and the reference lists from relevant papers. Authors and researchers in the field were also contacted.Study selectionRandomised controlled

Maura Edwards

2008-01-01

356

The risk factors for elevated blood pressure and how to address cardiovascular risk factors: a review in paediatric populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the epidemiology of hypertension and management strategies of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in paediatric populations in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world in the 21st century. A computerized literature search was carried out using Medline, Evidence-Based Child Health (A Cochrane Review Journal), the Cochrane Library and Cochrane Child Health Field. A manual search in the African

K D Monyeki; H C G Kemper

2008-01-01

357

Use of autologous fat grafting for reconstruction postmastectomy and breast conserving surgery: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is growing interest in the potential use of autologous fat grafting (AFG) for the purposes of breast reconstruction. However, concerns have been raised regarding the technique's clinical effectiveness, safety and interference with screening mammography. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the oncological, clinical, aesthetic and functional, patient reported, process and radiological outcomes for AFG. Methods and analysis All original studies, including randomised controlled trials, cohorts studies, case–control studies, case series and case reports involving women undergoing breast reconstruction. All AFG techniques performed for the purposes of reconstruction in the postmastectomy or breast conserving surgery setting will be considered. Outcomes are defined within this protocol along; oncological, clinical, aesthetic and functional, patient reported, process and radiological domains. The search strategy has been devised to find papers about ‘fat grafting and breast reconstruction’ and is outlined within the body of this protocol. The full search strategy is outlined within the body of the protocol. The following electronic databases will be searched from 1 January 1986 to 6 June 2013: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SciELO, The Cochrane Library, including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (DARE), the Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment Database, the NHS Economic Evaluation Databases and Cochrane Groups, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials Database, the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, UpToDate.com, NHS Evidence and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Grey literature searches will also be conducted as detailed in our review protocol. Eligibility assessment occurred in two stages, title and abstract screening and then full text assessment. Data were extracted and stored in a database with standardised extraction fields to facilitate easy and consistent data entry. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. It will also be presented at national and international conferences in the fields of plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery and at more general surgical and methodological conferences. It will be disseminated electronically and in print. Brief reports of the review findings will be disseminated directly to the appropriate audiences of surgeons and societies through email and other modes of communication. Updates of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Protocol Registration PROSPERO—National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42013005254) PMID:24154518

Agha, Riaz A; Goodacre, Tim; Orgill, Dennis P

2013-01-01

358

Oncofertility | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... northwestern.edu Even if a risk factor for infertility can be assessed: How does the patient, or ... decision? What are the long-term consequences of infertility for young women diagnosed with cancer? Indeed, when ...

359

Thalassemia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thalassemia - Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (????) Thalassemia English ??????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community ...

360

HPV - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Armenian (???????) Farsi (?????) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... for Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Genital Warts/HPV English Biqiltuwwan Dhagna- ...

361

Tuberculosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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362

Scabies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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363

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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364

Pneumonia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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365

Pneumococcal Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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366

Childhood Immunization - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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367

MedlinePlus Connect in Use  

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368

Plague - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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369

Refractive Errors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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370

Dietary Sodium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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371

Tutorials for Africa - Diarrhea: MedlinePlus  

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372

Tutorials for Africa - Malaria: MedlinePlus  

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373

Coronavirus Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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374

Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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375

Health Information in Hindi (??????): MedlinePlus  

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376

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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377

Diabetes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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378

Laboratory Tests - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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379

Rehabilitation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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380

Heart Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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381

MedlinePlus FAQ: Search Cloud  

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382

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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383

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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384

Videos and Cool Tools: MedlinePlus  

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... with the interactive tutorials and games. Check your health by using the calculators and quizzes. Type 2 Diabetes and Blood ... Quiz Asthma Quiz Breast Cancer Risk Questionnaire Calcium Calculator Check Up On Your Bones ...

385

Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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386

Urinary Incontinence - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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387

Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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388

Medicines - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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389

Diabetes Medicines - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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390

Medication Errors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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391

MedlinePlus.gov (@medlineplus) | Twitter  

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392

Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  

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393

Health Information in Japanese (???): MedlinePlus  

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394

Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus magazine!  

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... on. Donald West King, M.D. FNLM Chairman Photo: NIH On behalf of the Friends of the National Library of Medicine, we wish you and your family the healthiest and happiest of New Years. Your good health is our concern. That is why NIH ...

395

Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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396

Prenatal Care - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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397

Colonoscopy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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398

Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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399

Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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400

Burns - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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401

Child Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... ???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese (kajin ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Child Safety Checklist ?????? (Hindi) ...

402

Surgery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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403

Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Traditional (????) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth ?? ...

404

Cancer Chemotherapy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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405

Ultrasound - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Echocardiogram ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual PDF ...

406

Sleep Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Common Sleep Problems ?????? (Hindi) ...

407

Lung Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Bronchoscopy ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual PDF ...

408

Circumcision - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Male Circumcision ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

409

Colorectal Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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410

Mobility Aids - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Crutch Walking ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

411

Chronic Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Bronchitis ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual PDF ...

412

Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Getting Started Breastfeeding Your Baby ?? ...

413

Cholesterol - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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414

Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Preventing Infections When Your White Blood ...

415

Patient Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Going Home ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

416

Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Bone Scan ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

417

Sleep Apnea - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) ?? ...

418

Vascular Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Angiogram ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual PDF ...

419

Vaginal Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Colposcopy ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual PDF ...

420

Cataract - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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421

Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... baryté - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (??????) Barium Enema ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

422

Radiation Emergencies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Decontamination ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual PDF ...

423

Breast Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Breast Biopsy ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

424

Alzheimer's Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... French (français) German (Deutsch) Hindi (??????) Italian (italiano) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Polish (polski) Portuguese (português) ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Italian (italiano) Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour English Dentro ...

425

Phenylketonuria - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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426

Earthquakes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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427

Title | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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428

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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429

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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... report promising results in prevention and treatment of Ebola virus disease (from left) NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins, ... have developed a promising experimental vaccine to prevent Ebola virus disease. Twenty healthy adult volunteers took part in ...

430

Healthy Aging - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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431

Pain - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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432

Newborn Screening - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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433

Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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434

Ovarian Cysts - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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435

NLM Director's Comments Podcasts: MedlinePlus  

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436

Cervical Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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437

Health Information in Arabic (???????): MedlinePlus  

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438

Effect of rapid HIV testing on HIV incidence and services in populations at high risk for HIV exposure: an equity-focused systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effects of rapid voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV on HIV incidence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services in people at high risk for HIV exposure. Design Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, EMBASE, AIDSearch, LILACS, Global Health, Medline Africa, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group Specialized Register and grey literature from 1 January 2001 to 5 June 2014 without language restriction. Data selection We included controlled studies that compared rapid VCT with conventional testing among people at risk for HIV exposure. Data extraction Two reviewers extracted data. We used Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE criteria: risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision and publication bias. For observational studies we used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We used the PRISMA-Equity reporting guideline. Results From 2441 articles, we included 8 randomised controlled trials and 5 observational studies. Rapid VCT was associated with a threefold increase in HIV-testing uptake (relative risk (RR)=2.95 95% CI 1.69 to 5.16) and a twofold increase in the receipt of test results (RR=2.14, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.24). Women accepted testing more often than men in rapid VCT arm, but no differences in effect for age or socioeconomic status. Observational studies also showed rapid VCT led to higher rates of uptake of testing. Heterogeneity was high. A cluster-randomised trial reported an 11% reduction in HIV incidence in intervention communities (RR=0.89, 95% CI=0.63 to 1.24) over 3?years trial. Conclusions Rapid VCT in health facilities and communities was associated with a large increase in HIV-testing uptake and receipt of results. This has implications for WHO guidelines. The routine use of rapid VCT may also help avoid human rights violations among marginalised populations where testing may occur without informed consent and where existing stigma may create barriers to testing. PMID:25510889

Pottie, Kevin; Medu, Olanrewaju; Welch, Vivian; Dahal, Govinda P; Tyndall, Mark; Rader, Tamara; Wells, George

2014-01-01

439

LitLinker: A System for Searching Potential Discoveries in Biomedical Literature  

E-print Network

's Disease and searches MEDLINE through PubMed. For the query Alzheimer's Disease, PubMed returns more thanMed, only provides Boolean search with limited sorting options (publication date, first author name, journal name). Suppose a medical researcher wants to learn about the history of advancements in Alzheimer

Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

440

Herbal Medications Commonly Used in the Practice of Rheumatology: Mechanisms of Action, Efficacy, and Side Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE To review the literature on herbal preparations commonly utilized in the treatment of rheumatic indications. METHODS Search of MEDLINE (PubMed) was performed using both the scientific and the common names of herbs. Relevant articles in English were collected from PubMed and reviewed. RESULTS This review summarizes the efficacy and toxicities of herbal remedies used in complementary and alternative medical

Arathi R. Setty; Leonard H. Sigal

2005-01-01

441

Laparoscopic fenestration vs open fenestration in patients with congenital hepatic cysts: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether the outcomes of laparoscopic fenestration (LF) were superior to open fenestration (OF) for congenital liver cysts. METHODS: Comparative studies published between January 1991 and May 2010 on Medline (Ovid), Emsco, PubMed, Science Direct; Cochrane Reviews; CNKI; Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP and other electronic databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective case-control studies on the management of congenital hepatic cysts were collected according to the pre-determined eligibility criteria to establish a literature database. Retrieval was ended in May 2010. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.0 software (Cochrane library). RESULTS: Nine retrospective case-control studies involving 657 patients, comparing LF with OF were included for the final pooled analysis. The meta-analysis results showed less operative time [mean difference (MD): -28.76, 95% CI: -31.03 to 26.49, P < 0.00001]; shorter hospital stay (MD: -3.35, 95% CI: -4.46 to -2.24, P < 0.00001); less intraoperative blood loss (MD: -40.18, 95% CI: -52.54 to -27.82, P < 0.00001); earlier return to regular diet (MD: -29.19, 95% CI: -30.65 to -27.72, P < 0.00001) and activities after operation (MD: -21.85, 95% CI: -31.18 to -12.51, P < 0.0001) in LF group; there was no significant difference between the two groups in postoperative complications (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.41 to 2.38, P = 0.98) and cysts recurrence rates. CONCLUSION: The short-term outcomes of LF for patients with congenital hepatic cysts were superior to open approach, but its long-term outcomes should be verified by further RCTs and extended follow-up. PMID:21876626

Qiu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Hui; Huang, Ji-Wei; Pankaj, Prasoon; Xu, Ying-Long; Wang, Jing-Zhou; Zeng, Yong

2011-01-01

442

Systematic Review of Acupuncture in Cancer Care: A Synthesis of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Purpose Many cancer centers offer acupuncture services. To date, a comprehensive systematic review of acupuncture in cancer care has not been conducted. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for symptom management in patients with cancer. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane (all databases), Scopus, and PubMed were searched from inception through December 2011 for prospective randomized clinical trials (RCT) evaluating acupuncture for symptom management in cancer care. Only studies involving needle insertion into acupuncture points were included. No language limitations were applied. Studies were assessed for risk of bias (ROB) according to Cochrane criteria. Outcomes by symptom were designated as positive, negative, or unclear. Results A total of 2,151 publications were screened. Of those, 41 RCTs involving eight symptoms (pain, nausea, hot flashes, fatigue, radiation-induced xerostomia, prolonged postoperative ileus, anxiety/mood disorders, and sleep disturbance) met all inclusion criteria. One positive trial of acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting had low ROB. Of the remaining studies, eight had unclear ROB (four positive, three negative, and one with unclear outcomes). Thirty-three studies had high ROB (19 positive, 11 negative, and three with both positive and negative outcomes depending on the symptom). Conclusion Acupuncture is an appropriate adjunctive treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, but additional studies are needed. For other symptoms, efficacy remains undetermined owing to high ROB among studies. Future research should focus on standardizing comparison groups and treatment methods, be at least single-blinded, assess biologic mechanisms, have adequate statistical power, and involve multiple acupuncturists. PMID:23341529

Garcia, M. Kay; McQuade, Jennifer; Haddad, Robin; Patel, Sonya; Lee, Richard; Yang, Peiying; Palmer, J. Lynn; Cohen, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

443

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Eccentric Strength Training in the Prevention of Hamstring Muscle Strains in Otherwise Healthy Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring strains are the most common soft-tissue injury observed in recreational and athletic activities, yet no consensus exists regarding appropriate primary and secondary strategies to prevent these strains. Eccentric exercise has been reported to reduce the incidence of ham-string strains but its role has not been clearly defined. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of eccentric exercise in preventing hamstring strains. Data Sources Online databases, including MED-LINE, PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles. Each database was searched from the earliest date to July 2007. Study Selection Selection criteria included diagnosis of hamstring strain, otherwise healthy individuals, and at least one group receiving an eccentric exercise intervention. Seven articles {three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four cohort studies} met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction Data were extracted using a customized form. Methodological rigor of included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale and Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Data Synthesis Studies were grouped by eccentric exercise intervention protocol: hamstring lowers, isokinetic strengthening, and other strengthening. A best-evidence synthesis of pooled data was qualitatively summarized. Conclusions Findings suggest that eccentric training is effective in primary and secondary prevention of hamstring strains. Study heterogeneity and poor methodological rigor limit the ability to provide clinical recommendations. Further RCTs are needed to support the use of eccentric training protocols in the prevention of hamstring strains. PMID:21509129

Cheong, Krystie; Grant, Andrew; Beers, Amanda; Moizumi, Trevor

2008-01-01

444

Is Swanson prosthesis better than Sutter prosthesis for metacarpophalangeal joint arthroplasty? A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the outcomes of the Swanson and Sutter prostheses (previously the Avanta prosthesis) used for metacarpophalangeal joint arthroplasty, and provide a powerful and rational conclusion regarding the use of prosthesis in MCP joint surgery. The literature search was based on PubMed, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Data were evaluated using a generic evaluation tool designed by the Cochrane Bone, Joint, and Muscle Trauma Group and analysed using RevMan, version 5.0. Six randomised controlled trials were contained in this review, and five of them involving 143 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggested that using the Sutter prosthesis could significantly decrease the rates of recurrence of drift when compared with the Swanson prosthesis for metacarpophalangeal joint arthroplasty (OR = 2.05, 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-3.20, p = 0.002). No significant difference in the outcomes of prosthesis fracture was found in two groups (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.41-2.79, p = 0.88). Due to the limited data, the outcomes of range of motion, correction of ulnar deviation, pain, grip strength, and radiographic osteolytic changes could not be included in the meta-analyses. Theoretically, recurrence of drift was more common with Swanson prosthesis when compared with the Sutter prosthesis. No significant difference in the outcomes of prosthesis fracture was observed in two groups. More high-quality studies are required in long-term follow-up. PMID:25166510

Zhang, Huahui; Xue, Dan; Yu, Jianxin

2015-02-01

445

A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions for Adult and Pediatric Patients with Vocal Cord Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) or paradoxical vocal-fold motion (PVFM) is a functional disorder of the vocal cords that requires multidisciplinary treatment. Besides relaxation techniques, the use of psychological interventions can help treat the underlying psychological co-morbidities. There is currently no literature that examines the effectiveness of psychological interventions for VCD/PVFM. Objectives: To review the evidence for psychological interventions used for the treatment of patients with VCD/PVFM. Data sources: We searched electronic databases for English medical literature using Pubmed (Medline), PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Clinicaltrials.gov. The date range for our search is from June 1964 to June 2014. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions: We included studies that reported the use of psychological interventions in both adults and children diagnosed with VCD/PVFM. We included randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, retrospective chart reviews, prospective case series, and individual case reports. Results: Most reported studies are small case series or individual case reports that have described the use of interventions such as psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, use of anti-anxiety and anti-depressant medications, and hypnotherapy in conjunction with breathing exercises taught by speech therapists for symptomatic relief. Among the various psychological interventions that have been reported, there is no data regarding effectiveness and/or superiority of one approach over another in either adult or pediatric patients. Conclusions: Psychological interventions have a role to play in the management of adult and pediatric patients with VCD/PVFM. Future prospective studies using uniform approaches for treatment of associated psychopathology may help address this question. PMID:25152871

Guglani, Loveleen; Atkinson, Sarah; Hosanagar, Avinash; Guglani, Lokesh

2014-01-01

446

Multiple sclerosis: current and emerging disease-modifying therapies and treatment strategies.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease that typically strikes young adults, especially women. The pathobiology of MS includes inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms that affect both white and gray matter. These mechanisms underlie the relapsing, and often eventually progressive, course of MS, which is heterogeneous; confident prediction of long-term individual prognosis is not yet possible. However, because revised MS diagnostic criteria that incorporate neuroimaging data facilitate early diagnosis, most patients are faced with making important long-term treatment decisions, most notably the use and selection of disease-modifying therapy (DMT). Currently, there are 10 approved MS DMTs with varying degrees of efficacy for reducing relapse risk and preserving neurological function, but their long-term benefits remain unclear. Moreover, available DMTs differ with respect to the route and frequency of administration, tolerability and likelihood of treatment adherence, common adverse effects, risk of major toxicity, and pregnancy-related risks. Thorough understanding of the benefit-risk profiles of these therapies is necessary to establish logical and safe treatment plans for individuals with MS. We review the available evidence supporting risk-benefit profiles for available and emerging DMTs. We also assess the place of individual DMTs within the context of several different MS management strategies, including those currently in use (sequential monotherapy, escalation therapy, and induction and maintenance therapy) and others that may soon become feasible (combination approaches and "personalized medicine"). We conducted this review using a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from January 1, 1990, to August 31, 2013. The following search terms were used: multiple sclerosis, randomized controlled trials, interferon-beta, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, BG-12, alemtuzumab, rituximab, ocrelizumab, daclizumab, neutralizing antibodies, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. PMID:24485135

Wingerchuk, Dean M; Carter, Jonathan L

2014-02-01

447

Physiotherapy Treatment in Patients with Hemophilia and Chronic Ankle Arthropathy: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle causes pain and deterioration in gait, causing disability. Although some physiotherapy modalities are effective in the management of acute bleeding, the results are unknown in chronic arthropathy. Our objective was to determine the most effective physiotherapy procedures for treating the haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle and to assess the methodological quality of the studies. A systematic review was carried out in the Cochrane Database, PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PEDro, TESEO, and specialized journals (Haemophilia and Haematologica). It included articles with at least one group undergoing any kind of physiotherapy treatment and with pretest and posttest evaluation, published before April 2013. An analysis of variables was performed and assessed the methodological quality of studies. Five studies met the criteria for inclusion. Hydrotherapy treatments, strength training and balance strength, balance training, and sports therapy, have improved range of movement, pain, balance, and subjective physical performance. The proposed methodological analysis was not possible due to the low quality of the studies. Although the results are positive, they lack rigorous evidence on the effects of treatments. Studies are needed to establish the efficacy of the various forms of physiotherapy in the haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle. PMID:23997955

Cuesta-Barriuso, Rubén; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; López-Pina, José Antonio

2013-01-01

448

Proximal femoral fractures: Principles of management and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to review the principles involved in the management of proximal femoral fractures as reported in the literature. Methods: A medical literature search in the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane database was undertaken to review strategies and principles in proximal femoral fracture treatment. Randomized control trials and meta analysis were given preference while case reports/small series were rejected. Results and conclusions: Early anatomical reduction and surgical fixation remains the best option to reduce the risk of complications like non-union and avascular necrosis in treating fracture neck femurs. Cancellous screws continue to be the preferred treatment for fixation of neck femur fractures in younger population until the benefit of using sliding hip screws is validated by large multicentric studies. In the geriatric age group, early prosthetic replacement brings down the mortality and morbidity associated with neck femur fractures. Sliding hip screw (DHS) is the best available option for stable inter trochanteric fractures. The use of intramedullary nails e.g. PFN is beneficial in treating inter trochanteric fractures with comminution and loss of lateral buttress. Intramedullary implants have been proven to have increased success rates in subtrochanteric fractures and should be preferred over extramedullary plate fixation systems.

Mittal, Ravi; Banerjee, Sumit

2012-01-01

449

Obesity and Surgical Wound Healing: A Current Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. The correlation between obesity and deficient wound healing has long been established. This review examines the current literature on the mechanisms involved in obesity-related perioperative morbidity. Methods. A literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Internet searches. Keywords used include obesity, wound healing, adipose healing, and bariatric and surgical complications. Results. Substantial evidence exists demonstrating that obesity is associated with a number of postoperative complications. Specifically in relation to wound healing, explanations include inherent anatomic features of adipose tissue, vascular insufficiencies, cellular and composition modifications, oxidative stress, alterations in immune mediators, and nutritional deficiencies. Most recently, advances made in the field of gene array have allowed researchers to determine a few plausible alterations and deficiencies in obese individuals that contribute to their increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially wound complications. Conclusion. While the literature discusses how obesity may negatively affect health on various of medical fronts, there is yet to be a comprehensive study detailing all the mechanisms involved in obesity-related morbidities in their entirety. Improved knowledge and understanding of obesity-induced physiological, cellular, molecular, and chemical changes will facilitate better assessments of surgical risks and outcomes and create efficient treatment protocols for improved patient care of the obese patient population. PMID:24701367

Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Dinh, Trish Phuong; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Wright, Terry G.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

2014-01-01

450

[Prevention and treatment of intra-uterine synechiae: Review of the literature.  

PubMed

Intra-uterine adhesions are a major cause of secondary infertility. The prevalence of adhesions is probably underestimated due to the heterogeneity of the symptoms. An exhaustive literature search using search engines MEDLINE, Pubmed, Cochrane library and Web of Science was performed to make a focus on the origins, consequences and methods of prevention of intra-uterine adhesions. Intra-uterine adhesions are likely to occur after any endo-uterine surgery via dysregulated activation of coagulation chain linked to the inflammatory process. Early and late obstetric complications are also recognized as caused by adhesions. The diagnosis is currently performed by hysteroscopy but it remains an invasive procedure even if it can be done with an ambulatory management. Several research approaches inspired by intra-abdominal surgery for the prevention of pelvic adhesions have been developed. However, no current method of prevention has proven its effectiveness in terms of improving spontaneous fertility. The improvement in surgical practices, the design of new intra-uterine medical devices and new research especially in the field of endometrial stem cells can maybe reduce the rate of adhesions end their complications after intra-uterine surgery. PMID:25479692

Warembourg, S; Huberlant, S; Garric, X; Leprince, S; de Tayrac, R; Letouzey, V

2014-12-01

451

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Recent Advances and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Introduction. This article reviews current management strategies for DCIS in the context of recent randomised trials, including the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and endocrine treatment. Methods. Literature review facilitated by Medline, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases. Results. DCIS should be managed in the context of a multidisciplinary team. Local control depends upon clear surgical margins (at least 2?mm is generally acceptable). SLNB is not routine, but can be considered in patients undergoing mastectomy (Mx) with risk factors for occult invasion. RT following BCS significantly reduces local recurrence (LR), particularly in those at high-risk. There remains a lack of level-1 evidence supporting omission of adjuvant RT in selected low-risk cases. Large, multi-centric or recurrent lesions should be treated by Mx and immediate reconstruction should be discussed. Adjuvant hormonal treatment may reduce the risk of LR in selected cases with hormone sensitive disease. Conclusion. Further research is required to determine the role of new RT regimes and endocrine therapies. Biological profiling and molecular analysis represent an opportunity to improve our understanding of tumour biology in DCIS to rationalise treatment. Reliable identification of low-risk lesions could allow treatment to be less radical. PMID:22675624

Lambert, Kelly; Patani, Neill; Mokbel, Kefah

2012-01-01

452

Complications in colorectal surgery: risk factors and preventive strategies  

PubMed Central

Backround Open or laparoscopic colorectal surgery comprises of many different types of procedures for various diseases. Depending upon the operation and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors the intra- and postoperative morbidity and mortality rate vary. In general, surgical complications can be divided into intraoperative and postoperative complications and usually occur while the patient is still in the hospital. Methods A literature search (1980-2009) was carried out, using MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane library. Results This review provides an overview how to identify and minimize intra- and postoperative complications. The improvement of different treatment strategies and technical inventions in the recent decade has been enormous. This is mainly attributable to the increase in the laparoscopic approach, which is now well accepted for many procedures. Training of the surgeon, hospital volume and learning curves are becoming increasingly more important to maximize patient safety, surgeon expertise and cost effectiveness. In addition, standardization of perioperative care is essential to minimize postoperative complications. Conclusion This review summarizes the main perioperative complications of colorectal surgery and influencable and non-influencable risk factors which are important to the general surgeon and the relevant specialist as well. In order to minimize or even avoid complications it is crucial to know these risk factors and strategies to prevent, treat or reduce intra- and postoperative complications. PMID:20338045

2010-01-01

453

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy versus nasogastric tube feeding for patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

There are two main enteral feeding strategies—namely nasogastric (NG) tube feeding and percutaneous gastrostomy—used to improve the nutritional status of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). But up till now there has been no consistent evidence about which method of enteral feeding is the optimal method for this patient group. To compare the effectiveness of percutaneous gastrostomy and NGT feeding in patients with HNC, relevant literature was identified through Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane, Wiley and manual searches. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-experimental studies comparing percutaneous gastrostomy—including percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy (PFG) —with NG for HNC patients. Data extraction recorded characteristics of intervention, type of study and factors that contributed to the methodological quality of the individual studies. Data were then compared with respect to nutritional status, duration of feeding, complications, radiotherapy delays, disease-free survival and overall survival. Methodological quality of RCTs and non-experimental studies were assessed with separate standard grading scales. It became apparent from our studies that both feeding strategies have advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24453356

Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Minjie; Liu, Chao; Ye, Yun; Huang, Guanhong

2014-01-01

454

Assessing the mental health consequences of military combat in Iraq and Afghanistan: a literature review.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to explore how a military career may affect the mental health of serving and ex-service personnel, to identify the accessibility and helpfulness of support (both during and after military service) and to make recommendations for change. A literature search was undertaken using the MetaFind meta search engine with keywords: mental health, psychological health, emotional health, soldier, British army, army, ex-army, military, military personnel, armed forces, resettlement, impact, family relationship, divorce, health, support services. The search was applied to the following databases: EBSCO Host, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Ingenta Connect, Medline, PsyArticles, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, together with the specific journals American Journal of Psychiatry, British Journal of Psychiatry and ProQuest Nursing journals. 110 relevant publications were identified and from these 61 papers were retrieved for further analysis. Poor mental health is associated with increased risk of social exclusion on leaving the services, which further exacerbates mental health problems. An increasing number of ex-service personnel are expected to develop stress-related mental health problems in the future. PMID:21040224

Walker, S

2010-11-01

455

Barriers to GPs' use of evidence-based medicine: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background GPs report various barriers to the use and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM). A review of research on these barriers may help solve problems regarding the uptake of evidence in clinical outpatient practice. Aim To determine the barriers encountered by GPs in the practice of EBM and to come up with solutions to the barriers identified. Design A systematic review of the literature. Method The following databases were searched: MEDLINE® (PubMed®), Embase, CINAHL®, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library, until February 2011. Primary studies (all methods, all languages) that explore the barriers that GPs encounter in the practice of EBM were included. Results A total of 14 700 articles were identified, of which 22 fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Of the latter, nine concerned qualitative, 12 concerned quantitative, and one concerned both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The barriers described in the articles cover the categories: evidence (including the accompanying EBM steps), the GP’s preferences (experience, expertise, education), and the patient’s preferences. The particular GP setting also has important barriers to the use of EBM. Barriers found in this review, among others, include lack of time, EBM skills, and available evidence; patient-related factors; and the attitude of the GP. Conclusion Various barriers are encountered when using EBM in GP practice. Interventions that help GPs to overcome these barriers are needed, both within EBM education and in clinical practice. PMID:22781999

Zwolsman, Sandra; te Pas, Ellen; Hooft, Lotty; Waard, Margreet Wieringa-de; van Dijk, Nynke

2012-01-01

456

Imperative Role of Dental Pulp Stem Cells in Regenerative Therapies: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are primitive cells that can differentiate and regenerate organs in different parts of the body such as heart, bones, muscles and nervous system. This has been a field of great clinical interest with immense possibilities of using the stem cells in regeneration of human organ those are damaged due to disease, developmental defects and accident. The knowledge of stem cell technology is increasing quickly in all medical specialties and in dental field too. Stem cells of dental origin appears to hold the key to various cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, but most avenues are in experimental stages and many procedures are undergoing standardization and validation. Long-term preservation of SHED cells or DPSC is becoming a popular consideration, similar to the banking of umbilical cord blood. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the adult multipotent cells that reside in the cell rich zone of the dental pulp. The multipotent nature of these DPSCs may be utilized in both dental and medical applications. A systematic review of the literature was performed using various internet based search engines (PubMed, Medline Plus, Cochrane, Medknow, Ebsco, Science Direct, Hinari, WebMD, IndMed, Embase) using keywords like “dental pulp stem cells”, “regeneration”, “medical applications”, “tissue engineering”. DPSCs appears to be a promising innovation for the re-growth of tissues however, long term clinical studies need to be carried out that could establish some authentic guidelines in this perspective. PMID:24665194

Kabir, Ramchandra; Gupta, Manish; Aggarwal, Avanti; Sharma, Deepak; Sarin, Anurag; Kola, Mohammed Zaheer

2014-01-01

457

Increasing nursing treatment for pediatric procedural pain.  

PubMed

Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines. PMID:24602440

Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami

2014-03-01

458

Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review  

PubMed Central

Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

2014-01-01

459

Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with bronchiectasis: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have emerged as critical opportunistic pathogens of lung diseases recently. Patients with preexisting bronchiectasis are susceptible to NTM. Nevertheless, patients with preexisting bronchiectasis are susceptible to NTM but the prevalence of NTM pulmonary infection in different species and geographical areas is still not fully understood. Material and methods The relevant data of the prevalence of NTM in patients with bronchiectasis were retrieved by searching the main databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE. This meta-analysis was performed using Rev. Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 software. The collected information of NTM prevalence was chosen as the effect size. Results The results of the meta-analysis showed that the overall prevalence of NTM was 9.3% in patients with bronchiectasis. The further stratification of subgroup analysis indicated that the combined prevalence of NTM was higher in studies whose “sample size” was more than or equal to 100 (p = 0.002), in studies in which “time of study” was after or equal to 2002 (p < 0.001), in studies in which “participants’ geographic location” was Asian (p < 0.001) and in studies whose “method of study” was retrospective (p = 0.002) as well, compared with corresponding groups. Conclusions Our findings suggested that the prevalence NTM infection is high in patients with bronchiectasis. A larger number of definitive randomized trials are still required to assess this research issue. PMID:25276148

Chu, Haiqing; Zhao, Lan; Zhang, Jinbo; Gui, Tao; Gong, Sugang; Xu, Liyun; Sun, Xiwen

2014-01-01

460

Prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions.  

PubMed

Adhesions are bands of tissue that connect organs together. It is frequently reported after surgery and remains a major problem for health and society. Efforts to prevent or reduce peritoneal adhesions mostly have been unsuccessful, hindered by their empirical basis, lack of good predictive animal models and complexity of adhesion pathogenesis. Although a good surgical technique is a crucial part of adhesion prevention, the technique alone cannot effectively eliminate the adhesions. Thus, there remains a room for further research. A comprehensive literature review of published experimental and clinical studies of adhesion prevention was carried out at the University of Bristol electronic library (MetaLib) with cross-search of seven different medical databases (AMED-Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, BIOSIS Previews on Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, Embase and Medline on Web of Knowledge, OvidSP and PubMed) by using key words (peritoneal adhesions, postoperative adhesions, prevention) to explore the progress in different surgical strategies and adjuvant materials used to prevent adhesions formation and reformation. By the end of the study, recommendations formulated for surgeons to be followed during the operations to prevent, as much as possible, the postoperative adhesions. PMID:20382467

Kamel, Remah M

2010-06-01

461

Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse disease states, and may be a common pathogenic mechanism underlying many major psychiatric disorders, as the brain has comparatively greater vulnerability to oxidative damage. This review aims to examine the current evidence for the role of oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders, and its academic and clinical implications. A literature search was conducted using the Medline, Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL PLUS, BIOSIS Preview, and Cochrane databases, with a time-frame extending to September 2007. The broadest data for oxidative stress mechanisms have been derived from studies conducted in schizophrenia, where evidence is available from different areas of oxidative research, including oxidative marker assays, psychopharmacology studies, and clinical trials of antioxidants. For bipolar disorder and depression, a solid foundation for oxidative stress hypotheses has been provided by biochemical, genetic, pharmacological, preclinical therapeutic studies and one clinical trial. Oxidative pathophysiology in anxiety disorders is strongly supported by animal models, and also by human biochemical data. Pilot studies have suggested efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in cocaine dependence, while early evidence is accumulating for oxidative mechanisms in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In conclusion, multi-dimensional data support the role of oxidative stress in diverse psychiatric disorders. These data not only suggest that oxidative mechanisms may form unifying common pathogenic pathways in psychiatric disorders, but also introduce new targets for the development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:18205981

Ng, Felicity; Berk, Michael; Dean, Olivia; Bush, Ashley I

2008-09-01

462

Acid suppressive drugs and gastric cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the association between acid suppressive drug use and the development of gastric cancer. METHODS: A systematic search of relevant studies that were published through June 2012 was conducted using the MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. The search included observational studies on the use of histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) or proton pump inhibitors and the associated risk of gastric cancer, which was measured using the adjusted odds ratio (OR) or the relative risk and 95%CI. An independent extraction was performed by two of the authors, and a consensus was reached. RESULTS: Of 4595 screened articles, 11 observational studies (n = 94558) with 5980 gastric cancer patients were included in the final analyses. When all the studies were pooled, acid suppressive drug use was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer risk (adjusted OR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.29-1.56, I2 = 48.9%, P = 0.034). The overall risk of gastric cancer increased among H2RA users (adjusted OR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.24-1.59, I2 = 59.5%, P = 0.008) and PPI users (adjusted OR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.19-1.64, I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.377). CONCLUSION: Acid suppressive drugs are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to test the effect of acid suppressive drugs on gastric cancer. PMID:23674860

Ahn, Jeong Soo; Eom, Chun-Sick; Jeon, Christie Y; Park, Sang Min

2013-01-01

463

Use of acid-suppressive drugs and risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Observational studies and randomized controlled trials have yielded inconsistent findings about the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs and the risk of pneumonia. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize this association. Methods We searched three electronic databases (MEDLINE [PubMed], Embase and the Cochrane Library) from inception to Aug. 28, 2009. Two evaluators independently extracted data. Because of heterogeneity, we used random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates of effect. Results We identified 31 studies: five case–control studies, three cohort studies and 23 randomized controlled trials. A meta-analysis of the eight observational studies showed that the overall risk of pneumonia was higher among people using proton pump inhibitors (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.46, I2 90.5%) and histamine2 receptor antagonists (adjusted OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09–1.36, I2 0.0%). In the randomized controlled trials, use of histamine2 receptor antagonists was associated with an elevated risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia (relative risk 1.22, 95% CI 1.01–1.48, I2 30.6%). Interpretation Use of a proton pump inhibitor or histamine2 receptor antagonist may be associated with an increased risk of both community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Given these potential adverse effects, clinicians should use caution in prescribing acid-suppressive drugs for patients at risk. PMID:21173070

Eom, Chun-Sick; Jeon, Christie Y.; Lim, Ju-Won; Cho, Eun-Geol; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kang-Sook

2011-01-01

464

Comparison of the Success Rate of Endodontic Treatment and Implant Treatment  

PubMed Central

Dentists and patients are facing a perplexity between saving a compromised tooth through endodontic treatment and restoration or by extraction and replacement with an implant. The purpose of this paper was to compare the success rates of these two treatments. Success was measured as the longevity of the tooth or implant. Studies which met strict inclusion criteria to ensure best evidence were included. Searches were performed in Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Scopus database, and the Cochrane Library. Evidence-based groups were formed following the assessment of inclusion/exclusion criteria. The overall success rates for primary endodontic, nonsurgical retreatment, and surgical treatment were (86.02%), (78.2%), and (63.4%), respectively, implants was 90.9%. In conclusion, choice between implant and endodontic therapy cannot be exclusively based on outcome as both treatments differ in the biological process, diagnostic modalities, failure patterns, and patients preferences. More research is required with improved study designs before long-term success rates can be compared. PMID:21991484

Elemam, Ranya Faraj; Pretty, Iain

2011-01-01

465

Enigma of urethral pain syndrome: why are there so many ascribed etiologies and therapeutic approaches?  

PubMed

Urethral pain syndrome has had several sobriquets, which have led to much confusion over the existence of this pathological condition and the useful options in the care of the afflicted patient. Our aim was to explore the proposed etiologies of this syndrome, and to provide a critical analysis of each proposed etiology and present a balanced argument on the plausibility of the proposed etiology and therapeutic approaches. We carried out an English language electronic search in the following databases: Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Trip Database and SUMSearch using the following search terms: urethral syndrome, urethral diseases, urethra, urologic diseases etiology/etiology, presentation, treatment, outcome, therapeutics and treatment from 1951 to 2011. In excess of 200 articles were recovered. With the clearly defined objectives of analyzing the proposed etiologies and therapeutic regimes, two author(s) (HP and IO) perused the abstracts of all the recovered articles, selecting those that addressed the etiologies and therapeutic approaches to treating the urethral pain syndrome. The number of articles was reduced to 25. The full text of all 25 articles were retrieved and reviewed. Through the present article, we hope to elucidate the most probable etiology of this condition whilst simultaneously, advance a logical explanation for the apparent success in the treatment of this condition using a range of different therapeutic modalities. We have carried out a narrative review, which we hope will reduce some of the confusion around this clinical entity by combining the known facts about the disease. PMID:24447292

Phillip, Harris; Okewole, Idris; Chilaka, Victor

2014-06-01

466

Complications associated with inferior alveolar nerve repositioning for dental implant placement: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repositioning has been used widely in recent years as an alternative approach for dental implant placement in the atrophic posterior mandible. The aim of this study was to answer the question: What are the complications associated with IAN repositioning? A systematic literature review performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement, using the PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases, identified a total of 116 articles related to this technique. Of those articles, 24 were included in the final review. Lateralization was the chosen technique in seven studies, transposition in 15 studies, and two studies reported both techniques. The longest follow-up period was 49.1 months and the shortest 6 months. Of the patients who underwent lateralization, 95.9% initially showed a neurosensory disturbance, and the condition remained at the end of the study for 3.4% of those patients. With regard to the patients who underwent transposition, neurosensory alterations were observed in 58.9% of patients initially, and the condition remained for 22.1% of those affected at the end of the study. Only one study found no neurosensory disturbance at any time. More data consolidation is necessary to determine scientifically if, which, and when the IAN repositioning technique can be recommended. PMID:25128261

Vetromilla, B M; Moura, L B; Sonego, C L; Torriani, M A; Chagas, O L

2014-11-01

467

Health care quality improvement publication trends.  

PubMed

To analyze the extent of academic interest in quality improvement (QI) initiatives in medical practice, annual publication trends for the most well-known QI methodologies being used in health care settings were analyzed. A total of 10 key medical- and business-oriented library databases were examined: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ABI/INFORM, and Business Source Complete. A total of 13 057 articles were identified that discuss at least 1 of 10 well-known QI concepts used in health care contexts, 8645 (66.2%) of which were classified as original research. "Total quality management" was the only methodology to demonstrate a significant decline in publication over time. "Continuous quality improvement" was the most common topic of study across all publication years, whereas articles discussing Lean methodology demonstrated the largest growth in publication volume over the past 2 decades. Health care QI publication volume increased substantially beginning in 1991. PMID:24101680

Sun, Gordon H; MacEachern, Mark P; Perla, Rocco J; Gaines, Jean M; Davis, Matthew M; Shrank, William H

2014-01-01

468

Cutaneous Infections in Wrestlers  

PubMed Central

Context: Cutaneous infections are common in wrestlers. Although many are simply a nuisance in the everyday population, they can be problematic to wrestlers because such infections may result in disqualification from practice or competition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are therefore important. Evidence Acquisition: Medline and PubMed databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate were searched through 2012 with the following keywords in various combinations: skin infections, cutaneous infections, wrestlers, athletes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, skin and soft tissue infections, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris, warts, scabies, and pediculosis. Relevant articles found in the primary search, and selected references from those articles were reviewed for pertinent clinical information. Results: The most commonly reported cutaneous infections in wrestlers are herpes simplex virus infections (herpes gladiatorum), bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, and dermatophyte infections (tinea gladiatorum). The clinical appearance of these infections can be different in wrestlers than in the community at large. Conclusion: For most cutaneous infections, diagnosis and management options in wrestlers are similar to those in the community at large. With atypical presentations, testing methods are recommended to confirm the diagnosis of herpes gladiatorum and tinea gladiatorum. There is evidence to support the use of prophylactic medications to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex virus and reduce the incidence of dermatophyte infections in wrestlers. PMID:24427413

Wilson, Eugene K.; deWeber, Kevin; Berry, James W.; Wilckens, John H.

2013-01-01

469

Complementary Psychosocial Interventions in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Pet Assisted Therapy  

PubMed Central

Pet assisted therapy (PAT) is a form of complementary psychosocial intervention used in the field of mental health and disability. The form of therapy has the potential to augment the other forms of psychotherapies and pharmacotherapy. This article is an overview of history and clinical origins of PAT, classification and therapy models, scientific basis, the current use in specific disorders, preventive and diagnostic role as well as the potential risks among children and adolescents with mental health needs with a special focus on the Indian needs. A systematic electronic search strategy was undertaken to identify the intervention effectiveness of PAT in MedLine (PubMed), cochrane database of systematic reviews, high-wire press and Google Scholar. We augmented our electronic search with a search of additional articles in reference lists of retrieved articles, as well as a hand search available journals that were not indexed in any electronic database in consultation with colleagues and experts. To qualify for inclusion, studies were required to meet predetermined criteria regarding study design, study population, interventions evaluated and outcome measured to reduce the publication bias. PMID:24701004

Chandramouleeswaran, Susmita; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

2014-01-01

470

Assessing the quality of study reports on spa therapy based on randomized controlled trials by the spa therapy checklist (SPAC).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of study reports on spa therapy based on randomized controlled trials by the spa therapy and balneotherapy checklist (SPAC), and to show the relationship between SPAC score and the characteristics of publication. We searched the following databases from 1990 up to September 30, 2013: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Ichushi Web, Global Health Library, the Western Pacific Region Index Medicus, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We used the SPAC to assess the quality of reports on spa therapy and balneotherapy trials (SPAC) that was developed using the Delphi consensus method. Fifty-one studies met all inclusion criteria. Forty studies (78%) were about "Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective)". The total SPAC score (full-mark; 19 pts) was 10.8 ± 2.3 pts (mean ± SD). The items for which a description was lacking (very poor; <50%) in many studies were as follows: "locations of spa facility where the data were collected"; "pH"; "scale of bathtub"; "presence of other facility and exposure than bathing (sauna, steam bath, etc.)"; "qualification and experience of care provider"; "Instructions about daily life" and "adherence". We clarified that there was no relationship between the publish period, languages, and the impact factor (IF) for the SPAC score. In order to prevent flawed description, SPAC could provide indispensable information for researchers who are going to design a research protocol according to each disease. PMID:25179406

Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Maeda, Masaharu; Hayasaka, Shinya; Okuizum, Hiroyasu; Goto, Yasuaki; Okada, Shinpei; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi

2014-11-01

471

How accurate are physicians' clinical predictions of survival and the available prognostic tools in estimating survival times in terminally ill cancer patients? A systematic review.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review was to examine the accuracy of physicians' clinical predictions of survival and the available prognostic tools in estimating survival times in terminally ill cancer patients. A MEDLINE search for English language articles published between 1966 and March 2000 was performed using the following keywords: forecasting/clinical prediction, prognosis/prognostic factors, survival and neoplasm metastasis. Searches in CancerLit, EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and reference sections of articles were performed. Studies were included if they concerned adult patients with various cancer histological diagnoses and employed clinical prediction and the readily available clinical parameters. Biochemical and molecular markers were excluded. Grading of the evidence and recommendations was performed. Twelve articles on clinical prediction and 19 on prognostic factors met the inclusion criteria. Clinical prediction tends to be incorrect in the optimistic direction but improves with repeated measurements. Performance status has been found to be most strongly correlated with the duration of survival, followed by the 'terminal syndrome', which includes anorexia, weight loss and dysphagia. Cognitive failure and confusion have also been associated with a shorter life span. Performance status combined with clinical symptoms and the clinician's estimate helps to guide an accurate prediction, as reviewed in an Italian series. There is fair evidence to support using performance status, and clinical and biochemical parameters, in addition to clinicians' judgement to aid survival prediction. However, there is weak evidence to support that clinicians' estimates alone could be specifically employed for survival prediction. PMID:11527298

Chow, E; Harth, T; Hruby, G; Finkelstein, J; Wu, J; Danjoux, C

2001-01-01

472

Assisted Reproductive Technology after the Birth of Louise Brown  

PubMed Central

Background Public interest in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has remained high since the birth of the world’s first in vitro fertilization baby, Louise Brown, in the United Kingdom. ART allows scientists to manipulate the fertilization process in order to bypass some pathological obstacles such as blocked fallopian tubes and non-functioning ovaries in the females, and blocked vas deferens and low sperm count in the males. The purpose was to provide a historical outline and identify the researches that most contributed to ART. Methods A review of published experimental and clinical studies of assisted reproduction carried out at the University of Bristol library website (MetaLib®). A cross-search of seven different medical databases (AMED-Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, BIOSIS Previews on Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Medline on Web of Knowledge, OvidSP and PubMed) was completed by using the key words to explore the major milestones and progress in the development and implementation of ART. Results A speedy advancement in the development of different assisted reproductive techniques makes infertility problem more treatable than it ever had been. Conclusion Although no other field in the medicine has integrated new knowledge into the daily practice more quickly than ART yet, there is a need for social research to counterbalance the dominance of biomedical one, in particular the people’s actual experiences and expectations of ART. PMID:24163793

Kamel, Remah Moustafa

2013-01-01

473

Meta-analysis of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Compared to Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) in the Efficacy and Safety of Anti-depression Therapy in Parkinson's Disease(PD) Patients  

PubMed Central

To assess the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants(TCAs) in treatment of Parkinsonian depression. A computer-based search was conducted in the databases of PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CochraneControlled Trails Register up to December 2011. The random controlled clinic trials about SSRIs and TCAs in treatment of Parkinsonian depression were collected. Statistical analysis was completed using Review Manager, version 5.0. Five clinic controlled trials were identified for this meta-analysis. There was no significant statistical difference in the response rate of treatment [RR 0.95, 95%CI (0.78, 1.16)] and Hamilton depression score [RR -2.54, 95%CI (-5.35, 0.26)] between two groups. In term of complications, no statistical difference was observed in the insomnia rate between two groups [RR 0.82, 95%CI (0.24, 2.84)]. Moreover, the incidence rate of xerostomia [RR 0.21, 95%CI (0.07, 0.65)] and constipation [RR 0.12, 95%CI(0.02, 0.63)] was lower in SSRIs group rather than those in TCAs group. In general, SSRIs and TCAs have comparable efficacy and equal acceptability in treatment of Parkinson’s disease-induced depression. However, SSRIs are superior to TCAs in the terms of xerostomia and constipation. PMID:25587309

Qiu, Bao-Yue; Qiao, Jun-Xiao; Yong, Jiang

2014-01-01

474

Vitamin D for Health: A Global Perspective  

PubMed Central

It is now generally accepted that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem that affects not only musculoskeletal health but also a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, there remains cynicism about the lack of randomized controlled trials to support the association studies regarding the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D. This review was obtained by searching English-language studies in PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and focuses on recent challenges regarding the definition of vitamin D deficiency and how to achieve optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations from dietary sources, supplements, and sun exposure. The effect of vitamin D on fetal programming epigenetics and gene regulation could potentially explain why vitamin D has been reported to have such wide-ranging health benefits throughout life. There is potentially a great upside to increasing the vitamin D status of children and adults worldwide for improving musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of chronic illnesses, including some cancers, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, neurocognitive disorders, and mortality. PMID:23790560

Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Holick, Michael F.

2013-01-01

475

The Effects of Baclofen for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Baclofen can relieve gastroesophageal reflux-related symptoms in healthy subjects and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients by reducing the incidence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of baclofen for the treatment of GERD. Methods. We systematically searched randomized controlled trials published prior to November 2013 from PubMed, Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Central Register of Randomized Controlled Trials. We performed a meta-analysis of all eligible trials. Results. Nine studies were identified with a total of 283 GERD patients and healthy subjects. Comparative analysis provided high quality data supporting the ability of baclofen to promote a short-term decrease in the number of reflux episodes per patient, the average length of reflux episodes, and the incidence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. No serious adverse events or death events were reported, and there were no significant differences in the overall adverse events between baclofen and placebo. All reported side effects of baclofen were of mild-to-moderate intensity, and the drug was well tolerated. Conclusion. Abundant evidence suggests that baclofen may be a useful approach for the treatment of GERD patients; however, a larger well-designed research study would further confirm this recommendation. PMID:25389436

Li, Shujie; Shi, Shengying; Chen, Feng; Lin, Jingming

2014-01-01

476

Variation of orthodontic treatment decision-making based on dental model type: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To determine in which clinical scenarios digital models are valid as replacements for plaster models during orthodontic treatment decision-making process and treatment planning. Materials and Methods: An attempt to identify all pertinent published information was made. Retained articles were those where a decision-making process leading to differential orthodontic treatment plans based on either method were compared. The search was tailored for PubMed and adapted for EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, LILACS, and Web of Science. A partial grey literature search was conducted through Google Scholar. References lists of the included articles were screened for potential relevant studies. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS). Results: Only two studies were finally selected for the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. QUADAS results scores from selected studies ranged from 61% to 83% of 11 items evaluated. In one, the overall treatment plan regarding orthognathic surgery for Class II malocclusion changed in 13% to 22% of the cases. In the other one, 6% of the orthodontic treatment plans changed. Conclusion: Digital models could be used to replace plaster models in Class II malocclusion treatment planning. PMID:25098186

Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

2014-08-01

477

Is pesticide exposure a cause of obstructive airways disease?  

PubMed

A systematic review was performed to identify any associations between pesticide exposure and the occurrence (both prevalence and incidence) of airways disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and wheezing symptoms. PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched between September 2010 and October 2010 for papers with the inclusion criteria of English language, published after 1990, peer-reviewed and nondietary exposure. From a total of 4390 papers identified, 42 were included after initial assessment of content. After evaluating the included studies for quality, those considered to be at high risk of bias were excluded, leaving a total of 23 relevant papers. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides may be associated with prevalent asthma, but methodological issues, such as cross-sectional/case-control design, measurements of exposure and limited adjustment for confounders, limit the strength of the evidence base in this area. The association between pesticide exposure and asthma appears to be more evident and consistent in children than in adults. Exposure to pesticides may be associated with COPD; however, the strength of evidence for an association with COPD is weaker than for asthma. As the exposure metrics within each health end-point varied across studies, no meta-analyses were carried out. PMID:24881073

Doust, Emma; Ayres, Jon G; Devereux, Graham; Dick, Finlay; Crawford, Joanne O; Cowie, Hilary; Dixon, Ken

2014-06-01

478

Risk of thyroid dysfunction in patients with solid tumors treated with VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a critical literature review and meta analysis.  

PubMed

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of thyroid function abnormalities associated with seven vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib, sunitinib, axitinib, cediranib, pazopanib, regorafenib and vandetanib). Eligible studies included randomized Phase II and III trials of patients with solid tumors on sorafenib OR sunitinib OR axitinib OR cediranib OR pazopanib OR regorafenib OR vandetanib; describing events of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our search strategy yielded 195 potentially relevant citations on the seven agents from Pubmed/Medline, CENTRAL Cochrane registry and ASCO meeting library. After exclusion of ineligible studies, a total of 12 clinical trials were considered eligible for the meta-analysis, including six sunitinib studies, four cediranib studies and two axitinib studies. Patients treated with these agents had a significantly increased risk of all-grade hypothyroidism and the relative risk (RR) of all-grade hypothyroidism was 3.59 (95% CI = 2.40-5.38, p ? 0.0001). Exploratory subgroup analysis showed no effect of tumor types or agent used on the RR of hypothyroidism. Our meta-analysis has demonstrated that these three agents are associated with a significantly increased risk of all-grade hypothyroidism; with no difference - on subgroup analysis - between sunitinib and cediranib. Clinicians should be aware of these risks and perform regular thyroid function monitoring. PMID:24927771

Abdel-Rahman, Omar; Fouad, Mona

2014-09-01

479

Relative efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation by network meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Much direct evidence has proved that the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are noninferior or superior to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and lead to a relevant decrease in bleeding profiles. However, no study has compared NOACs with each other head-to-head. The current study is a network meta-analysis aiming to assess the efficacy and safety of NOACs. Methods Cochrane library, Pubmed NCBI, EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy and safety profiles of NOACs compared with warfarin. The primary outcome was the rate of stroke or systemic embolism, and the secondary outcome was the rate of bleeding events. Network meta-analysis was performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Results A total of four phase III randomized controlled trials (n?=?71683) met the inclusion criteria. All NOACs except low dose of edoxaban showed noninferior efficacies to warfarin in stroke prevention. In the field of hemorrhage, apixaban was safer than edoxaban 60?mg in any bleeding events and had fewer major bleeding events compared with dabigatran 150?mg and rivaroxaban. Conclusion NOACs are promising candidates for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation due to a favorable risk–benefit profile. All NOACs other than edoxaban 30?mg had parallel efficacies with respect to stroke prevention. Apixaban had an advantage over the other NOACs in safety. PMID:25304034

Fu, Wenbin; Guo, Hongyang; Guo, Jianping; Lin, Kun; Wang, Haijun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yutang; Shan, Zhaoliang

2014-01-01

480

Treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in special populations: a summary of evidence.  

PubMed

We aimed to assess and synthesize the information available in the literature regarding the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in special populations. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Cochrane Library and mRCT databases to identify clinical trials and observational studies that assessed the pharmacological treatment of the following groups of patients: pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, the elderly, individuals with chronic diseases and individuals with suppressed immune systems. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. The available evidence suggests that the treatments of choice for each population or disease entity are as follows: nursing mothers and children (meglumine antimoniate or pentamidine), patients with renal disease (amphotericin B or miltefosine), patients with heart disease (amphotericin B, miltefosine or pentamidine), immunosuppressed patients (liposomal amphotericin), the elderly (meglumine antimoniate), pregnant women (amphotericinB) and patients with liver disease (no evidence available). The quality of evidence is low or very low for all groups. Accurate controlled studies are required to fi ll in the gaps in evidence for treatment in special populations. Post-marketing surveillance programs could also collect relevant information to guide treatment decision-making. PMID:24474006

Fontenele e Silva, Juliana Saboia; Galvao, Tais Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes; Silva, Marcus Tolentino

2013-01-01

481

Obesity and surgical wound healing: a current review.  

PubMed

Objective. The correlation between obesity and deficient wound healing has long been established. This review examines the current literature on the mechanisms involved in obesity-related perioperative morbidity. Methods. A literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Internet searches. Keywords used include obesity, wound healing, adipose healing, and bariatric and surgical complications. Results. Substantial evidence exists demonstrating that obesity is associated with a number of postoperative complications. Specifically in relation to wound healing, explanations include inherent anatomic features of adipose tissue, vascular insufficiencies, cellular and composition modifications, oxidative stress, alterations in immune mediators, and nutritional deficiencies. Most recently, advances made in the field of gene array have allowed researchers to determine a few plausible alterations and deficiencies in obese individuals that contribute to their increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially wound complications. Conclusion. While the literature discusses how obesity may negatively affect health on various of medical fronts, there is yet to be a comprehensive study detailing all the mechanisms involved in obesity-related morbidities in their entirety. Improved knowledge and understanding of obesity-induced physiological, cellular, molecular, and chemical changes will facilitate better assessments of surgical risks and outcomes and create efficient treatment protocols for improved patient care of the obese patient population. PMID:24701367

Pierpont, Yvonne N; Dinh, Trish Phuong; Salas, R Emerick; Johnson, Erika L; Wright, Terry G; Robson, Martin C; Payne, Wyatt G

2014-01-01

482

Efficacy of ilaprazole in the treatment of duodenal ulcers: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerance of ilaprazole compared with other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. METHODS: An electronic database search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane controlled trials register, Web of Science, PubMed, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (updated to July 2013), and manual searches were conducted. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and tolerance of ilaprazole and other PPIs in the treatment of duodenal ulcers was performed. RESULTS: Five articles involving 1481 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed no difference in the 4-wk healing rate between ilaprazole and other PPIs [89.7% vs 87.0%; relative risk (RR) = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.98-1.06; Z = 1.00; P = 0.32]. The results did not change in the sensitivity analyses. The meta-analysis indicated that the adverse effect rate in the ilaprazole group was lower than that in the control group, but the difference was not significant (9.7% vs 13.0%; RR = 0.81; 95%CI: 0.60-1.07; Z = 1.47; P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Ilaprazole is a highly effective and safe PPI in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Ilaprazole can be recommended as a therapy for acid-related disorders, especially in Asian populations. PMID:24803828

Ji, Xi-Qing; Du, Jun-Feng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Guang; Yu, Bo

2014-01-01

483

Benefits and risks of testosterone treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women: a critical review of studies published in the decades preceding and succeeding the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors  

PubMed Central

With advancing age, there is an increase in the complaints of a lack of a libido in women and erectile dysfunction in men. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, together with their minimal side effects and ease of administration, revolutionized the treatment of erectile dysfunction. For women, testosterone administration is the principal treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder. We sought to evaluate the use of androgens in the treatment of a lack of libido in women, comparing two periods, i.e., before and after the advent of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. We also analyzed the risks and benefits of androgen administration. We searched the Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and Medline (PubMed) databases using the search terms disfunção sexual feminina/female sexual dysfunction, desejo sexual hipoativo/female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, testosterona/testosterone, terapia androgênica em mulheres/androgen therapy in women, and sexualidade/sexuality as well as combinations thereof. We selected articles written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish. After the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, there was a significant increase in the number of studies aimed at evaluating the use of testosterone in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. However, the risks and benefits of testosterone administration have yet to be clarified. PMID:24714838

Reis, Sandra Léa Bonfim; Abdo, Carmita H. N.

2014-01-01

484

Policy expectations and reality of telemedicine - a critical analysis of health care outcomes, costs and acceptance for congestive heart failure.  

PubMed

A critical review of evidence was carried out to discover whether the actual performance of telemedicine fulfils the expectations of German policy-makers. The analysis was conducted using the example of telemedicine for congestive heart failure (CHF). It was based on both German and international evidence. The PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as public sources from the German Federal Ministry of Health. Forty-five studies reporting patient outcomes, costs or acceptance of telemedicine for CHF were included in the review, of which 28 were interventional. The policy expectations of telemedicine generally are: high technology acceptance and improved patient outcomes at lower costs. However, in the field of CHF, policy-makers underestimate the complexity of telemedicine and the technology has not yet lived up to its expectations. Although some studies show improvements in all-cause mortality and CHF-related hospitalisations, there is excessive study heterogeneity and vagueness in the areas of costs and acceptance. Methodological insufficiencies as well as the scarcity of evidence in the German context do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn. Policy-makers and other stakeholders should increase their efforts to consolidate isolated telemedicine projects, establish guidelines for clinical treatment procedures and economic evaluations, and define industry/technical device standards to enhance the comparability of interventions. Imposing the use of telemedicine on patients and physicians is not likely to be fruitful. A successful adaptation requires an analysis of needs and continuous education on both sides. PMID:24803273

Achelrod, Dmitrij

2014-05-01

485

A review of web based interventions for managing tobacco use.  

PubMed

Web based interventions (WBIs) have been developed for various health conditions. These include interventions for various psychoactive substance use disorders including tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco use has remained the single largest preventable cause of global mortality and morbidity for many years. It is responsible for around 6 million deaths annually world-wide. Ironically, most of the tobacco users reside in resource poor low and middle-income countries. The article reviews the existing literature on WBIs for management of tobacco use. The literature search was performed using MedLine, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Cochrane Review for relevant English language articles published from 1998 up to 2013. There is limited support for effectiveness of WBIs for managing tobacco use among adolescents. Although most of the trials among adults found WBIs to be more effective at short term follow-up (a few days to weeks), the benefits failed to extend beyond 3 months in most of the studies. All but one interventions studied in a randomized controlled trial is for smoking forms. PMID:25035543

Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Verma, Rohit