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Sample records for pubmed medline cochrane

  1. Searching MEDLINE via PubMed.

    PubMed

    Delwiche, Frances A

    2008-01-01

    As the volume of biomedical literature has increased, so have the number and complexity of databases that index it. Learning to conduct an efficient literature search in an online database is an essential skill for today's clinical laboratory scientist. This article describes basic and advanced strategies for searching PubMed and the use of specialized features including MyNCBI. PMID:18335860

  2. [Bibliography search in biology and medicine: a tutorial for Medline PubMed use].

    PubMed

    Boudry, Christophe; Bozet, Gérard

    2004-01-01

    To be informed about the last publications recently published or to produce a bibliography in a given thematic field is essential for researchers in the biomedical field. If the use of Internet information searching tools such as "Google" or "Alltheweb" makes possible to discover a great part of the grey literature, bibliographic databases like Embase, Current Contents, Biosis or Medline via PubMed are essential tools to locate scientific articles. Among these bibliographic databases, Medline PubMed, thanks to its free access, is the most used. However, a correct utilization of the various functionalities proposed (thesaurus MeSH, systematization of bibliographic searches...), and consequently the quality of bibliographic researches carried out in this database, requires to master elementary knowledge which are exposed in this article. PMID:15361349

  3. All Information Is Not Equal: Using the Literature Databases PubMed and The Cochrane Library for Identifying the Evidence on Granulocyte Transfusion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Schulz, Manuela; Braun, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Summary To be able to take well-informed decisions or carry out sound research, clinicians and researchers alike require specific information seeking skills matching their respective information needs. Biomedical information is traditionally available via different literature databases. This article gives an introduction to two diverging sources, PubMed (23 million references) and The Cochrane Library (800,000 references), both of which offer sophisticated instruments for searching an increasing amount of medical publications of varied quality and ambition. Whereas PubMed as an unfiltered source of primary literature comprises all different kinds of publication types occurring in academic journals, The Cochrane Library is a pre-filtered source which offers access to either synthesized publication types or critically appraised and carefully selected references. A search approach has to be carried out deliberately and requires a good knowledge on the scope and features of the databases as well as on the ability to build a search strategy in a structured way. We present a specific and a sensitive search approach, making use of both databases within two application case scenarios in order to identify the evidence on granulocyte transfusions for infections in adult patients with neutropenia. PMID:25538539

  4. PUBMED OR NLM GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, provides access to over 12 million MEDLINE citations back to the mid-1960's and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. PubMed was design...

  5. Social Networks in Education of Health Professionals in Bosnia and Herzegovina – the Role of Pubmed/Medline in Improvement of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Social network is a social structure made up of individuals and organizations that represent “nodes”, and they are associated with one or more types of interdependency; such as: friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige and many other interests. Beginning with the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, the Internet was a significant additional tool in the education of teenagers. Later, it takes more and more significant role in educating students and professionals. Goal: The aim of this paper is to investigate, to what extent and how effectively the Internet is used today. In addition, more specifically, this paper will research the implications of the well-known social networks in education of students and health professionals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Material and methods: We compared the ratio of using Medline, as the largest biomedical data base system for spreading medical information, as basics for health education at biomedical faculties at five universities in B&H. Results and discussion: According to data from the CRA (i.e. Communications Regulatory Agency) in B&H, in 2010, there were 522,364 internet access accounts, with about 2 million Internet users, representing about 52% of the total population. The Internet users’ preference is dominated by the users of fast broadband access (e.g. xDSL) with 42.8%, and elsewhere, still with dialup access, with 25.2%. The results showed that only 11.6% of professors use Facebook type of social network, 49.3% of them have a profile on BiomedExperts scientific social network and 79% have available articles in the largest biomedical literature database MEDLINE. Students are also frequent users of general social networks and educational clips from You Tube, which they prefer to utilize considerably more than the other types of professionals. Students rarely use the facilities of professional social networks, because they contain mainly data and information needed for further, postgraduate professional education. In our research, we analized cited published papers in the journal Medical Archives, the oldest medical journal in B&H (established in 1947) of randomly included 151 full and part time professors, authors from five medical faculties in B&H and B&H authors who currently work in the EU and USA.. ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference in the number of articles published between the Universities in Bosnia, but there was significant difference in the number of articles published on MEDLINE, between all faculties in B&H and a group of scientists who work around the world. Students’ tests showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the average number of papers published on Medline, between groups of part-time and full time professors. However, there were no statistically significant differences, between the professors for preclinical and clinical subjects. Conclusion: In B&H there are decent conditions for the use of online social networks in the education of health professionals. While students enthusiastically embraced these opportunities, this is not so much a case with health care professionals in practice; while scientific health care workers have not shown greater interest in the use of social networks, both for purposes of scientific research and in terms of self-education and training of students. There is much more use of the advantages offered by online social networks, both in education and in support of the scientific research. PMID:23408513

  6. The Cochrane tobacco addiction group.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Monaz

    2013-11-01

    The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group produces up-to-date systematic reviews of interventions for the cessation and prevention of tobacco use. Many of our Cochrane Reviews have also been published in scientific journals. Our review prioritization schedule is informed by our group's experience and expertise as well as identifying topics for reviews via regular searches of current scientific literature and from other news sources, such as the Action on Smoking and Health updates. The Cochrane Register of Studies allows identification of new trials, which might be eligible for review updates. Everyday challenges include timely publishing and updating of our reviews, and ensuring compliance to Cochrane methodological expectations of Cochrane intervention review standards. We are grateful for the contributions of our authors and peer reviewers, with whom we aim to have close working and productive relationships. We look forward to continuing our contribution toward a reliable evidence base on interventions to combat tobacco addiction. PMID:24325412

  7. MEDLINE PLUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEDLINE plus is the National Library of Medicine's web site for consumer health information. MEDLINE plus has extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other trusted sources on over 600 diseases and conditions. There are also lists of hospitals and physicia...

  8. Automatic Export of PubMed Citations to EndNote.

    PubMed

    London, Sue; Gurdal, Osman; Gall, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The export of MEDLINE references to EndNote can be accomplished in various ways. Unlike Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed does not have a direct export feature to EndNote. Until recently, PubMed references had to be saved as a text file to import into EndNote. Now, the automatic export of PubMed references can be done using Internet Explorer (IE) or Mozilla Firefox Web browsers. The development and teaching of seamless citation management is a value-added service to health professionals. PMID:20432138

  9. FIRST BH COCHRANE SYMPOSIUM HELD

    PubMed Central

    Mahmic-Kaknjo, Mersiha; Novo, Ahmed; Krleza-Jeric, Karmela

    2016-01-01

    The first BH Cochrane Symposium was held on 12 October 2015 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH), organized by the Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Healthcare in Federation of BH (AKAZ) and Medical Faculty University of Sarajevo. A group of ten national and international experts presented the Cochrane organization and systematic reviews, as well as the IMPACT Observatory, development of guidelines in BH, and the role of AKAZ. Examples of the development and use of Cochrane reviews in evidence informed decision making in health as well as research integrity were presented and discussed. Major BH decision makers and interested professionals from all over BH participated in a symposium and its lively discussion, especially from the perspective of Cochrane and its activities in BH, and the collaboration with the Croatian Cochrane. It can be expected that this symposium will inspire further growth of participation and use of Cochrane in BH and increase the awareness of various aspects of evidence informed medicine and research integrity. PMID:27047274

  10. Telehealthcare for asthma: a Cochrane review

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Susannah; Chandler, David; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Liu, Joseph; Pagliari, Claudia; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Background: Telehealthcare has the potential to provide care for long-term conditions that are increasingly prevalent, such as asthma. We conducted a systematic review of studies of telehealthcare interventions used for the treatment of asthma to determine whether such approaches to care are effective. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and PsycINFO, as well as other electronic resources. We also searched registers of ongoing and unpublished trials. We were interested in studies that measured the following outcomes: quality of life, number of visits to the emergency department and number of admissions to hospital. Two reviewers identified studies for inclusion in our meta-analysis. We extracted data and used fixedeffect modelling for the meta-analyses. Results: We identified 21 randomized controlled trials for inclusion in our analysis. The methods of telehealthcare intervention these studies investigated were the telephone and video- and Internet-based models of care. Meta-analysis did not show a clinically important improvement in patients’ quality of life, and there was no significant change in the number of visits to the emergency department over 12 months. There was a significant reduction in the number of patients admitted to hospital once or more over 12 months (risk ratio 0.25 [95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.66]). Interpretation: We found no evidence of a clinically important impact on patients’ quality of life, but telehealthcare interventions do appear to have the potential to reduce the risk of admission to hospital, particularly for patients with severe asthma. Further research is required to clarify the cost-effectiveness of models of care based on telehealthcare. PMID:21746825

  11. A Study on Pubmed Search Tag Usage Pattern: Association Rule Mining of a Full-day Pubmed Query Log

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The practice of evidence-based medicine requires efficient biomedical literature search such as PubMed/MEDLINE. Retrieval performance relies highly on the efficient use of search field tags. The purpose of this study was to analyze PubMed log data in order to understand the usage pattern of search tags by the end user in PubMed/MEDLINE search. Methods A PubMed query log file was obtained from the National Library of Medicine containing anonymous user identification, timestamp, and query text. Inconsistent records were removed from the dataset and the search tags were extracted from the query texts. A total of 2,917,159 queries were selected for this study issued by a total of 613,061 users. The analysis of frequent co-occurrences and usage patterns of the search tags was conducted using an association mining algorithm. Results The percentage of search tag usage was low (11.38% of the total queries) and only 2.95% of queries contained two or more tags. Three out of four users used no search tag and about two-third of them issued less than four queries. Among the queries containing at least one tagged search term, the average number of search tags was almost half of the number of total search terms. Navigational search tags are more frequently used than informational search tags. While no strong association was observed between informational and navigational tags, six (out of 19) informational tags and six (out of 29) navigational tags showed strong associations in PubMed searches. Conclusions The low percentage of search tag usage implies that PubMed/MEDLINE users do not utilize the features of PubMed/MEDLINE widely or they are not aware of such features or solely depend on the high recall focused query translation by the PubMed’s Automatic Term Mapping. The users need further education and interactive search application for effective use of the search tags in order to fulfill their biomedical information needs from PubMed/MEDLINE. PMID:23302604

  12. Understanding PubMed user search behavior through log analysis.

    PubMed

    Islamaj Dogan, Rezarta; Murray, G Craig; Névéol, Aurélie; Lu, Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a detailed investigation of PubMed users' needs and behavior as a step toward improving biomedical information retrieval. PubMed is providing free service to researchers with access to more than 19 million citations for biomedical articles from MEDLINE and life science journals. It is accessed by millions of users each day. Efficient search tools are crucial for biomedical researchers to keep abreast of the biomedical literature relating to their own research. This study provides insight into PubMed users' needs and their behavior. This investigation was conducted through the analysis of one month of log data, consisting of more than 23 million user sessions and more than 58 million user queries. Multiple aspects of users' interactions with PubMed are characterized in detail with evidence from these logs. Despite having many features in common with general Web searches, biomedical information searches have unique characteristics that are made evident in this study. PubMed users are more persistent in seeking information and they reformulate queries often. The three most frequent types of search are search by author name, search by gene/protein, and search by disease. Use of abbreviation in queries is very frequent. Factors such as result set size influence users' decisions. Analysis of characteristics such as these plays a critical role in identifying users' information needs and their search habits. In turn, such an analysis also provides useful insight for improving biomedical information retrieval.Database URL:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed. PMID:20157491

  13. Criteria for evaluating alternative MEDLINE search engines.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Edwards, A; Graves, R S; Johnson, E D

    1998-01-01

    With so many options available for searching MEDLINE on the World Wide Web or as a component of an online service, evaluation criteria are suggested as a means of assisting librarians in determining the positive and negative aspects of alternative MEDLINE sites. A set of searches was utilized to systematically compare MEDLINE sites. Sites evaluated included Avicenna, America Online, HealthGate, PubMed, Medscape, and Physicians' Online. Some features used to evaluate these sites were: default fields; operators (default); access to MeSH; subheadings; stop words protected in MeSH; truncation; and stemming. This article will describe the group process used to arrive at the evaluation criteria, as well as some general conclusions which will help librarians in directing their users to a particular MEDLINE site. PMID:10621384

  14. Finding query suggestions for PubMed.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John; McEntyre, Johanna R; Iskhakov, Alexey; Szilagyi, Lee

    2009-01-01

    It is common for PubMed users to repeatedly modify their queries (search terms) before retrieving documents relevant to their information needs. To assist users in reformulating their queries, we report the implementation and usage analysis of a new component in PubMed called Related Queries, which automatically produces query suggestions in response to the original user's input. The proposed method is based on query log analysis and focuses on finding popular queries that contain the initial user search term with a goal of helping users describe their information needs in a more precise manner. This work has been integrated into PubMed since January 2009. Automatic assessment using clickthrough data show that each day, the new feature is used consistently between 6% and 10% of the time when it is shown, suggesting that it has quickly become a popular new feature in PubMed. PMID:20351887

  15. Teaching PubMed in cyberspace: the development of a self-learning package.

    PubMed

    King, Samuel; Kaplan, Richard; MacDonald, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a series of online modules for learning the PubMed version of MEDLINE. Funded by a National Library of Medicine grant and targeted initially to physician assistants practicing in New Hampshire, the project is approved for CE credit nationally by the American Association of Physician Assistants. The development of the project is described, the tutorial modules are reviewed, and issues encountered with technology and human factors are discussed and evaluated. PMID:19042708

  16. Acta Informatica Medica Is Indexed In Pubmed And Archived In Pubmed Central

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Acta Informatica Medica journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011 onward. The journal started in 1993 as the official journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the last 3 years, Acta Informatica Medica has een included in almost all prestigious online databases, including PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE. The 20th volume of the journal is fully international, with papers from 18 countries. PMID:23572852

  17. Dialogues with Marilyn Cochran-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentini, Dario; Crecci, Vanessa Moreira

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Dr. Marilyn Cochran-Smith has developed and directed research and contributed to publications about education and "practitioner research," especially about teachers' research and learning in inquiry communities. Her primary topics are inquiry communities, teacher research, teacher education for social…

  18. Cochran Q test with Turbo BASIC.

    PubMed

    Seuc, A H

    1995-01-01

    A microcomputer program written in Turbo BASIC for the sequential application of the Cochran Q test is given. A clinical application where the test is used in order to explore the structure of the agreement between observers is also presented. A program listing is available on request. PMID:7743778

  19. Dialogues with Marilyn Cochran-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentini, Dario; Crecci, Vanessa Moreira

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30years, Dr. Marilyn Cochran-Smith has developed and directed research and contributed to publications about education and "practitioner research," especially about teachers' research and learning in inquiry communities. Her primary topics are inquiry communities, teacher research, teacher education for social

  20. MedlinePlus Tour

    MedlinePlus

    ... videos on health topics, watch surgical procedures, explore health check tools and play games. Still looking for more? You can always search MedlinePlus using the search box. Or from the homepage, you'll find ... also find the latest health news, browse the MedlinePlus Magazine, or sign up ...

  1. A MEDLINE feasibility study.

    PubMed

    McGee, J L

    1980-07-01

    A MEDLINE feasibility study was conducted with the Northeastern Consortium for Health Information (NECHI) and sponsored by the New England Regional Medical Library Service. It is based on the theory that most potential users and supporters of MEDLINE within hospitals are unaware of its usefulness and applications, and that there exists a need for expanding MEDLINE services to more hospital libraries. The purpose of the study was to provide NECHI with an evaluation of MEDLINE as a feasible service by ascertaining the need and by evaluating the usefulness, satisfaction, and costs of the system. The study demonstrated sufficient use of MEDLINE to justify implementation within NECHI and it provided useful data to determine the future of MEDLINE in each institution. It documented that utilization improved rapidly with publicity and the presence of the system within an institution, that MEDLINE can be an effective and economical complement to the traditional reference services used to support information needs in hospitals, and that more hospital libraries should be able to implement MEDLINE to their advantage once potential users and supporters have been exposed to the system. PMID:6998531

  2. Research, practice and the Cochrane Collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A

    1995-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration coordinates the efforts of health care professionals and researchers around the world to prepare, maintain and disseminate systematic reviews of health care research. In carrying out the first two tasks the collaboration employs a rigorous method for analysing the findings of randomized controlled trials; this method was developed in the 1980s and has undergone continual improvement since then. The collaborators believe their work will consolidate and make available the accumulated results of sound research assessing the effectiveness of health care interventions and thus steer health care professionals and consumers toward the right treatments and help guide research into new therapies. Since the collaboration began, in 1993, Cochrane centres have been set up in the British Isles, Canada, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and the United States, and many new Cochrane review groups have been registered. Canadian scientists have played an important role in the collaboration. They have prepared and maintained systematic reviews, hosted the collaboration's second annual colloquium and are currently in the vanguard of efforts to facilitate the dissemination of collaboration documents. Although the collaboration uses new modes of communication it has not abandoned traditional ones. Nor has it underestimated the work that remains to be done to bring review findings to the attention of health care providers. Early indications suggest, however, that the collaboration's basic message about the importance of evidence-based practice is getting through. Images p885-a PMID:7697581

  3. A Cochrane systematic review finds tongue scrapers have short-term efficacy in controlling halitosis.

    PubMed

    Outhouse, Trent L; Fedorowicz, Zbigniew; Keenan, James V; Al-Alawi, Rashad

    2006-01-01

    The Cochrane systematic review promotes evidence-based outcome studies. This review was conducted to determine reliable evidence concerning the effectiveness of tongue scraping or cleaning, compared with other interventions for controlling halitosis. A competent search strategy was developed and used across several databases--including the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar--to identify randomized controlled trials that compared different methods of tongue cleaning to reduce mouth odor in adults with halitosis. Methodological quality of studies was assessed based on criteria defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. Clinical outcome (expressed in terms of a reduction in mouth odor in adults with halitosis) was examined. The review included two trials involving a total of 40 participants. Based on the independent data from these two trials, the tongue cleaner or the tongue scraper demonstrated a statistically significant difference in reducing levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) when compared with the toothbrush. The findings indicate a small but statistically significant difference in reduction of VSC levels when tongue scrapers or cleaners, rather than toothbrushes, are used to reduce halitosis in adults. PMID:17004573

  4. Finding related sentence pairs in MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, W. John

    2010-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of automatically identifying sentences in different MEDLINE abstracts that are related in meaning. We compared traditional vector space models with machine learning methods for detecting relatedness, and found that machine learning was superior. The Huber method, a variant of Support Vector Machines which minimizes the modified Huber loss function, achieves 73% precision when the score cutoff is set high enough to identify about one related sentence per abstract on average. We illustrate how an abstract viewed in PubMed might be modified to present the related sentences found in other abstracts by this automatic procedure. PMID:21170415

  5. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design.

    PubMed

    Mirel, Barbara; Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2013-05-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists' behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists' problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  6. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2012-01-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  7. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the difference between MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed? To use the sharing features on this page, ... latest health professional articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature Is ...

  8. MEDLINE (MEDLARS ONLINE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEDLINE (MEDlars onLINE) is the National Library of Medicines (NLM) premier bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences. It contains bibliographic citations (e.g., authors, ...

  9. Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants automatically…

  10. Analysis of PubMed User Sessions Using a Full-Day PubMed Query Log: A Comparison of Experienced and Nonexperienced PubMed Users

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest biomedical bibliographic information source on the Internet. PubMed has been considered one of the most important and reliable sources of up-to-date health care evidence. Previous studies examined the effects of domain expertise/knowledge on search performance using PubMed. However, very little is known about PubMed users’ knowledge of information retrieval (IR) functions and their usage in query formulation. Objective The purpose of this study was to shed light on how experienced/nonexperienced PubMed users perform their search queries by analyzing a full-day query log. Our hypotheses were that (1) experienced PubMed users who use system functions quickly retrieve relevant documents and (2) nonexperienced PubMed users who do not use them have longer search sessions than experienced users. Methods To test these hypotheses, we analyzed PubMed query log data containing nearly 3 million queries. User sessions were divided into two categories: experienced and nonexperienced. We compared experienced and nonexperienced users per number of sessions, and experienced and nonexperienced user sessions per session length, with a focus on how fast they completed their sessions. Results To test our hypotheses, we measured how successful information retrieval was (at retrieving relevant documents), represented as the decrease rates of experienced and nonexperienced users from a session length of 1 to 2, 3, 4, and 5. The decrease rate (from a session length of 1 to 2) of the experienced users was significantly larger than that of the nonexperienced groups. Conclusions Experienced PubMed users retrieve relevant documents more quickly than nonexperienced PubMed users in terms of session length. PMID:26139516

  11. pubmed2ensembl: A Resource for Mining the Biological Literature on Genes

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Joachim; Gerner, Martin; Haeussler, Maximilian; Nenadic, Goran; Bergman, Casey M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The last two decades have witnessed a dramatic acceleration in the production of genomic sequence information and publication of biomedical articles. Despite the fact that genome sequence data and publications are two of the most heavily relied-upon sources of information for many biologists, very little effort has been made to systematically integrate data from genomic sequences directly with the biological literature. For a limited number of model organisms dedicated teams manually curate publications about genes; however for species with no such dedicated staff many thousands of articles are never mapped to genes or genomic regions. Methodology/Principal Findings To overcome the lack of integration between genomic data and biological literature, we have developed pubmed2ensembl (http://www.pubmed2ensembl.org), an extension to the BioMart system that links over 2,000,000 articles in PubMed to nearly 150,000 genes in Ensembl from 50 species. We use several sources of curated (e.g., Entrez Gene) and automatically generated (e.g., gene names extracted through text-mining on MEDLINE records) sources of gene-publication links, allowing users to filter and combine different data sources to suit their individual needs for information extraction and biological discovery. In addition to extending the Ensembl BioMart database to include published information on genes, we also implemented a scripting language for automated BioMart construction and a novel BioMart interface that allows text-based queries to be performed against PubMed and PubMed Central documents in conjunction with constraints on genomic features. Finally, we illustrate the potential of pubmed2ensembl through typical use cases that involve integrated queries across the biomedical literature and genomic data. Conclusion/Significance By allowing biologists to find the relevant literature on specific genomic regions or sets of functionally related genes more easily, pubmed2ensembl offers a much-needed genome informatics inspired solution to accessing the ever-increasing biomedical literature. PMID:21980353

  12. MedlinePlus Connect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Web application provide responses in different formats. The Web application returns a link to a formatted MedlinePlus Connect response page. This page will include links to information relevant to the problem/diagnosis, medication, or lab test. For a diagnosis/problem code, the response page ...

  13. Bibliometric and content analysis of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field specialized register of controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of eligible controlled trials for systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions can be difficult. To increase access to these difficult to locate trials, the Cochrane Collaboration Complementary Medicine Field (CAM Field) has established a specialized register of citations of CAM controlled trials. The objective of this study is to describe the sources and characteristics of citations included in the CAM Field specialized register. Methods Between 2006 and 2011, regular searches for citations of CAM trials in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were supplemented with contributions of controlled trial citations from international collaborators. The specialized register was ‘frozen’ for analysis in 2011, and frequencies were calculated for publication date, language, journal, presence in MEDLINE, type of intervention, and type of medical condition. Results The CAM Field specialized register increased in size from under 5,000 controlled trial citations in 2006 to 44,840 citations in 2011. Most citations (60%) were from 2000 or later, and the majority (71%) were reported in English; the next most common language was Chinese (23%). The journals with the greatest number of citations were CAM journals published in Chinese and non-CAM nutrition journals published in English. More than one-third of register citations (36%) were not indexed in MEDLINE. The most common CAM intervention type in the register was non-vitamin, non-mineral dietary supplements (e.g., glucosamine, fish oil) (34%), followed by Chinese herbal medicines (e.g., Astragalus membranaceus, Schisandra chinensis) (27%). Conclusions The availability of the CAM Field specialized register presents both opportunities and challenges for CAM systematic reviewers. While the register provides access to thousands of difficult to locate trial citations, many of these trials are of low quality and may overestimate treatment effects. When including these trials in systematic reviews, adequate analysis of their risk of bias is of utmost importance. PMID:23826877

  14. MedlinePlus FAQ: Statistics about MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... faq/stats.html Can you give me some statistics about MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features on ... For page requests and unique visitors, see MedlinePlus statistics . Return to the list of MedlinePlus FAQs About ...

  15. Bosnian and Herzegovinian medical scientists in PubMed database.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is shortly presented PubMed as one of the most important on-line databases of the scientific biomedical literature. Also, the author has analyzed the most cited authors, professors of the medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the published papers in the biomedical journals abstracted and indexed in PubMed. PMID:24341067

  16. Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people: a Cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Janine A; Cadogan, Cathal A; Patterson, Susan M; Bradley, Marie C; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarise the findings of an updated Cochrane review of interventions aimed at improving the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people. Design Cochrane systematic review. Multiple electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from inception to November 2013). Hand searching of references was also performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series analyses reporting on interventions targeting appropriate polypharmacy in older people in any healthcare setting were included if they used a validated measure of prescribing appropriateness. Evidence quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Setting All healthcare settings. Participants Older people (≥65 years) with ≥1 long-term condition who were receiving polypharmacy (≥4 regular medicines). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were the change in prevalence of appropriate polypharmacy and hospital admissions. Medication-related problems (eg, adverse drug reactions), medication adherence and quality of life were included as secondary outcomes. Results 12 studies were included: 8 RCTs, 2 cluster RCTs and 2 controlled before-and-after studies. 1 study involved computerised decision support and 11 comprised pharmaceutical care approaches across various settings. Appropriateness was measured using validated tools, including the Medication Appropriateness Index, Beers’ criteria and Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP)/ Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START). The interventions demonstrated a reduction in inappropriate prescribing. Evidence of effect on hospital admissions and medication-related problems was conflicting. No differences in health-related quality of life were reported. Conclusions The included interventions demonstrated improvements in appropriate polypharmacy based on reductions in inappropriate prescribing. However, it remains unclear if interventions resulted in clinically significant improvements (eg, in terms of hospital admissions). Future intervention studies would benefit from available guidance on intervention development, evaluation and reporting to facilitate replication in clinical practice. PMID:26656020

  17. Medical Questions? Medline has Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modlin, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the electronic version of "Index Medicus," Medline is the world's largest collection of published medical knowledge. Discussion includes accessing Medline (cost-free) with a Web browser, librarians as links between patients and physicians; and examples of Medline searches. (AEF)

  18. Systematic Differences between Cochrane and Non-Cochrane Meta-Analyses on the Same Topic: A Matched Pair Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Useem, Johanna; Brennan, Alana; LaValley, Michael; Vickery, Michelle; Ameli, Omid; Reinen, Nichole; Gill, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses conducted via the Cochrane Collaboration adhere to strict methodological and reporting standards aiming to minimize bias, maximize transparency/reproducibility, and improve the accuracy of summarized data. Whether this results in differences in the results reported by meta-analyses on the same topic conducted outside the Cochrane Collaboration is an open question. Methods We conducted a matched-pair analysis with individual meta-analyses as the unit of analysis, comparing Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews. Using meta-analyses from the cardiovascular literature, we identified pairs that matched on intervention and outcome. The pairs were contrasted in terms of how frequently results disagreed between the Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews, whether effect sizes and statistical precision differed systematically, and how these differences related to the frequency of secondary citations of those reviews. Results Our search yielded 40 matched pairs of reviews. The two sets were similar in terms of which was first to publication, how many studies were included, and average sample sizes. The paired reviews included a total of 344 individual clinical trials: 111 (32.3%) studies were included only in a Cochrane review, 104 (30.2%) only in a non-Cochrane review, and 129 (37.5%) in both. Stated another way, 62.5% of studies were only included in one or the other meta-analytic literature. Overall, 37.5% of pairs had discrepant results. The most common involved shifts in the width of 95% confidence intervals that would yield a different statistical interpretation of the significance of results (7 pairs). Additionally, 20% differed in the direction of the summary effect size (5 pairs) or reported greater than a 2-fold difference in its magnitude (3 pairs). Non-Cochrane reviews reported significantly higher effect sizes (P< 0.001) and lower precision (P<0.001) than matched Cochrane reviews. Reviews reporting an effect size at least 2-fold greater than their matched pair were cited more frequently. Conclusion Though results between topic-matched Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were quite similar, discrepant results were frequent, and the overlap of included studies was surprisingly low. Non-Cochrane reviews report larger effect sizes with lower precision than Cochrane reviews, indicating systematic differences, likely reflective of methodology, between the two types of reviews that could generate different interpretations of the interventions under question. PMID:26671213

  19. Physical rehabilitation for critical illness myopathy and neuropathy: an abridged version of Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehrholz, J; Pohl, M; Kugler, J; Burridge, J; Mückel, S; Elsner, B

    2015-10-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) acquired or generalised weakness due to critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are major causes of chronically impaired motor function that can affect activities of daily living and quality of life. Physical rehabilitation of those affected might help to improve activities of daily living. Our primary objective was to assess the effects of physical rehabilitation therapies and interventions for people with CIP and CIM in improving activities of daily living such as walking, bathing, dressing and eating. Secondary objectives were to assess effects on muscle strength and quality of life, and to assess adverse effects of physical rehabilitation. On 16 July 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register and on 14 July 2014 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus. In July 2014, we searched the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and three trials registries for ongoing trials and further data about included studies with no language restrictions. We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings and screened reference lists to identify further trials. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and randomised controlled cross-over trials of any rehabilitation intervention in people with acquired weakness syndrome due to CIP/CIM. We would have extracted data, assessed the risk of bias and classified the quality of evidence for outcomes in duplicate, according to the standard procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. Outcome data collection would have been for activities of daily living (for example, mobility, walking, transfers and self care). Secondary outcomes included muscle strength, quality of life and adverse events. The search strategy retrieved 3587 references. After examination of titles and abstracts, we retrieved the full text of 24 potentially relevant studies. None of these studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. No data were suitable to be included in a meta-analysis. There are no published RCTs or quasi-RCTs that examine whether physical rehabilitation interventions improve activities of daily living for people with CIP and CIM. Large RCTs, which are feasible, need to be conducted to explore the role of physical rehabilitation interventions for people with CIP and CIM. This paper is based on a Cochrane Review published in in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) 2015, Issue 3, DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010942.pub2. (see www.thecochranelibrary.com for information). Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to feedback, and the CDSR should be consulted for the most recent version of the review. PMID:26158919

  20. A bibliometric study of scientific literature on obesity research in PubMed (1988-2007).

    PubMed

    Vioque, J; Ramos, J M; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; García-de-la-Hera, M

    2010-08-01

    This article describes a bibliometric review of the publications on obesity research in PubMed over the last 20 years. We used Medline via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine from 1988 to 2007. The search strategy was: ([obesity] in MesH). A total of 58,325 references were retrieved, 25.5% in 1988-1997, and 74.5% in 1998-2007. The growth in the number of publications showed an exponential increase. The references were published in 3613 different journals, with 20 journals contributing 25% of obesity literature. The two journals contributing most were the International Journal of Obesity (5.1%), Obesity-Obesity Research (2.9%). North America and Europe were the most productive world areas with 44.1% and 37.9% of the literature, respectively. The US was the predominant country in number of publications, followed by the United Kingdom, Japan and Italy. The ranking of production changed when the number of publications was normalized by population, gross domestic product and obesity prevalence by countries. The great increase of publications on obesity during the period 1988-2007 was particularly evident in the second decade of the period which is concordant with the worldwide obesity epidemic. USA and Europe were leaders in the production of scientific articles on obesity. PMID:19754632

  1. Review of Cochrane Reviews on Acupuncture: How Chinese Resources Contribute to Cochrane Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Shuang; Tsutani, Kiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cochrane Systematic Reviews (CSRs) are frequently referenced by acupuncture efficacy studies currently. In this study, the CSRs on acupuncture are reviewed, and the disease fields they covered and the conclusions they reached are analyzed. In order to explore the potential contribution to CSRs by Chinese resources, the authors analyzed whether the participation of Chinese reviewers, the utilization of Chinese databases, and the inclusion of Chinese clinical trials would affect the positive conclusion ratios of the CSRs. Methods Acupuncture-related CSRs in the Cochrane Library were searched and classified based on the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10). The CSRs were further designated as positive or negative according to the conclusion statements. CSRs with the participation of Chinese reviewers, the utilization of Chinese databases, or the inclusion of Chinese clinical trials were extracted, and the positive ratios of conclusions were compared separately with corresponding CSRs without those three Chinese resources. Results Thirty-two (32) CSRs were identified, 9 (28.1%) of which reached positive conclusions. The CSRs with positive conclusions were mainly about multifarious pains, nausea and vomiting, and functional disorders. Seventeen (17; 53.1%) included the participation of Chinese reviewers, 18 (56.3%) involved the utilization of Chinese databases, and 20 (62.5%) included Chinese clinical trials. No differences on the positive conclusion ratios were observed between CSRs with reviewers from Chinese institutions and those that did not (odds ratio [OR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 1.62), the utilization of Chinese databases and those that did not (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.11, 2.44), or the inclusion of Chinese clinical trials and those that did not (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.26, 6.49). Conclusions Most CSRs on acupuncture are inconclusive. No significant differences regarding the positive conclusion ratios were found between the CSRs with or without the utilization of Chinese resources. PMID:23410528

  2. MEDLINE in the UK: pioneering the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Steve J; Weightman, Alison L

    2005-09-01

    This article provides a brief history of the development of the MEDLINE database and its huge impact within the UK, from its inception to the present time. The origins of MEDLINE can be traced back to a collection of books in the US Surgeon General's Office during the American Civil War and John Shaw Billings' decision, during 1867, to make this Library as complete as possible. From these beginnings, Index Medicus was developed in the early years of the 20th century, and electronic versions of the database began with the computerized on-demand search service MEDLARS in 1964 and then via CD-ROM and Internet Grateful Med to the web-based and free-to-all service, PubMed, in 1997. The response to PubMed was immediate and startling with usage increasing from 7 million searches per annum in 1996 to 400 million searches per annum in 2001 and the service continues to improve. MEDLINE providers are now offering mapping of natural language queries to the sophisticated indexing vocabulary (Medical Subject Headings, MeSH) and the provision of specific filters for different types of publication to improve searching efficiency, as well as links to full-text versions of the papers where available. The next steps are likely to involve an increased blurring of database and full-text boundaries, incorporating seamless access to the best available evidence within MEDLINE and a wide range of other information resources within a single search and to an increasing amount of full-text via various open-archive initiatives. As ever, the US National Library of Medicine is in the vanguard of research and further applications of its MEDLINE database for users within the UK will be awaited with great interest. PMID:16109026

  3. Effective and evidence-based management strategies for rosacea: summary of a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, E J; Kramer, S F; Carter, B R; Graber, M A; Fedorowicz, Z

    2011-10-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic skin disease affecting the face. There are numerous treatment options, but it is unclear which are the most effective. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the efficacy and safety of treatments for rosacea. Searches included the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Ongoing Trials Registers (updated February 2011). Randomized controlled trials in people with moderate to severe rosacea were included. Fifty-eight trials, including 27 from the original review, comprising 6633 participants were included in this updated review. Interventions included topical metronidazole, oral antibiotics, topical azelaic cream or gel, topical benzoyl peroxide and/or combined with topical antibiotics, sulphacetamide/sulphur, and others. There was some evidence that topical metronidazole and azelaic acid were more effective than placebo. Two trials indicated that doxycycline 40mg was more effective than placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in effectiveness between doxycycline 40mg and 100mg but there were fewer adverse effects. One study reported that ciclosporin ophthalmic emulsion was significantly more effective than artificial tears for treating ocular rosacea. Although the majority of included studies were assessed as being at high or unclear risk of bias, there was some evidence to support the effectiveness of topical metronidazole, azelaic acid and doxycycline (40mg) in the treatment of moderate to severe rosacea, and ciclosporin 0·05% ophthalmic emulsion for ocular rosacea. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:21692773

  4. Interventions for rosacea: abridged updated Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic facial dermatosis. This update of our Cochrane review on interventions for rosacea summarizes the evidence, including Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group assessments, of the effects of the currently available treatments. Searches included the following: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Science Citation Index, and ongoing trials registries (July 2014). We included 106 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 13631 participants, a more than 80% increase since the last update in 2011. Pooling of data was feasible for a few outcomes, for topical metronidazole and azelaic acid and both appeared to be more effective than placebo (moderate and high-quality evidence, respectively). Topical ivermectin was more effective than placebo based on two studies (high-quality evidence), and slightly more effective than metronidazole in one study. Brimonidine was more effective than vehicle in reducing erythema in rosacea (high-quality evidence). Ciclosporin ophthalmic emulsion was effective for ocular rosacea (low-quality evidence). For oral treatments there was moderate-quality evidence for the effectiveness of tetracycline based on two old studies, and high-quality evidence for doxycycline 40mg compared with placebo according to physician assessments. One study at high risk of bias demonstrated equivalent effectiveness for azithromycin and doxycycline 100mg. Minocycline 45mg may be effective for papulopustular rosacea (low-quality evidence). Low-dose isotretinoin appeared to be slightly more effective than doxycycline 50-100mg (high-quality evidence). Laser and light-based therapies for erythema in rosacea were effective (low-quality evidence). Further RCTs are required for ocular rosacea. PMID:26099423

  5. Archie Cochrane and his vision for evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hriday M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Archibald (Archie) Cochrane's most influential mark on healthcare was his 1971 publication, “Effectiveness and Efficiency.” This book strongly criticized the lack of reliable evidence behind many of the commonly accepted healthcare interventions at the time. His criticisms spurred rigorous evaluations of healthcare interventions and highlighted the need for evidence in medicine. His call for a collection of systematic reviews led to the creation of The Cochrane Collaboration. Archie Cochrane was a visionary person who helped lay down much of the foundation for evidence-based medicine. This paper will introduce evidence-based medicine to Plastic Surgery by tracing its history to the seminal efforts by Archie Cochrane. PMID:19730323

  6. Gaps in affiliation indexing in Scopus and PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Cynthia M.; Cox, Roxanne; Fial, Alissa V.; Hartman, Teresa L.; Magee, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to determine whether unexpected gaps existed in Scopus's author affiliation indexing of publications written by the University of Nebraska Medical Center or Nebraska Medicine (UNMC/NM) authors during 2014. Methods First, we compared Scopus affiliation identifier search results to PubMed affiliation keyword search results. Then, we searched Scopus using affiliation keywords (UNMC, etc.) and compared the results to PubMed affiliation keyword and Scopus affiliation identifier searches. Results We found that Scopus's records for approximately 7% of UNMC/NM authors' publications lacked appropriate UNMC/NM author affiliation identifiers, and many journals' publishers were supplying incomplete author affiliation information to PubMed. Conclusions Institutions relying on Scopus to track their impact should determine whether Scopus's affiliation identifiers will, in fact, identify all articles published by their authors and investigators. PMID:27076801

  7. pubmed.mineR: an R package with text-mining algorithms to analyse PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Rani, Jyoti; Shah, A B Rauf; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2015-10-01

    The PubMed literature database is a valuable source of information for scientific research. It is rich in biomedical literature with more than 24 million citations. Data-mining of voluminous literature is a challenging task. Although several text-mining algorithms have been developed in recent years with focus on data visualization, they have limitations such as speed, are rigid and are not available in the open source. We have developed an R package, pubmed.mineR, wherein we have combined the advantages of existing algorithms, overcome their limitations, and offer user flexibility and link with other packages in Bioconductor and the Comprehensive R Network (CRAN) in order to expand the user capabilities for executing multifaceted approaches. Three case studies are presented, namely, 'Evolving role of diabetes educators', 'Cancer risk assessment' and 'Dynamic concepts on disease and comorbidity' to illustrate the use of pubmed.mineR. The package generally runs fast with small elapsed times in regular workstations even on large corpus sizes and with compute intensive functions. The pubmed.mineR is available at http://cran.rproject. org/web/packages/pubmed.mineR. PMID:26564970

  8. Videos & Tools: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Search ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are ...

  9. Developing optimal search strategies for finding information on herbs and other medicinal plants in MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Jane D; Owen, David J

    2005-08-01

    The MEDLINE database is an important resource for locating up-to-date information on herbs and other botanical therapies. However, the evolving nature of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the complexity of herbal terminology can make it difficult to identify useful citations. This paper describes optimal search strategies for finding clinical information on herbs and medicinal plants in MEDLINE using the PubMed retrieval system. Searchers will benefit from an understanding of the structure of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and PubMed's advanced search capabilities. Details for using PubMed's MeSH Database, Clinical Queries, Clipboard, and limiting features to retrieve pertinent botanical research are described. Tables containing MeSH terms for medicinal plants and useful print and electronic resources are included. PMID:16131300

  10. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  11. How Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners Use PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2007-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were felt to be necessary in selecting literature to read but entirely inadequate for both evaluating and learning from the research. Thus, the restrictions and fees the participants faced in accessing full-text articles were points of frustration. Conclusions The study found strong indications of PubMed’s potential value in the professional development of these complementary and alternative medicine practitioners in terms of engaging with and understanding research. It provides support for the various initiatives intended to increase access, including a recommendation that the National Library of Medicine tap into the published research that is being archived by authors in institutional archives and through other websites. PMID:17613489

  12. Mobile MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Table of Contents Trusted medical information on your mobile phone http://m.medlineplus.gov Wondering what the side effects are for your new prescription? Go to Mobile MedlinePlus while you're waiting for the pharmacist ...

  13. Mobile MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Table of Contents Trusted medical information on your mobile phone http://m.medlineplus.gov Wondering what the side effects are for your new prescription? Go to Mobile MedlinePlus ( http://m.medlineplus.gov ) while you're ...

  14. Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-01-01

    Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task. PMID:23840246

  15. Information management and complementary alternative medicine: the anatomy of information about CAMs through PubMed.

    PubMed

    Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Colomba, Daniela; Ippolito, Calogero; Gargano, Vincenzo; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Licata, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and the use of CAM interventions has become more common among people. For these reasons, health professionals must be able to effectively manage information in this field of knowledge according to an evidence-based point of view. This study assessed the anatomy of the available information about CAMs using PubMed, to give practical instructions to manage information in this field. We also analyzed the anatomy of information according to each alternative medicine branch, narrow and broad search methods, subset filters for indexed-for-Medline and non-indexed citations, and different publication types including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAMs subset (supplied by PubMed search engine) leads to a great number of citations determining an information overload. Our data reveal that it would be more useful to search for the CAM separately, identifying specific items and study design. Moreover, we found the largest number of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses related to herbal medicine and acupuncture, neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for bach and flower remedies, auriculoacupuncture, iridology, and pranotherapy. For the first time, our study gives a comprehensive view of the anatomy of information regarding CAMs and each branch of them. We suggest a methodological approach to face with searching information about this emerging issue from an evidence-based point of view. Finally, our data pointed out some "grey zones" since neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for some CAMs. PMID:23999987

  16. Avoidable Ignorance and the Role of Cochrane and Campbell Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The Campbell and Cochrane Collaborations were created to reveal the evidentiary status of claims focusing especially on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Such reviews are constrained by the population of studies available and biases that may influence this availability such as preferred framing of problems. This highlights the

  17. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control

  18. Avoidable Ignorance and the Role of Cochrane and Campbell Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The Campbell and Cochrane Collaborations were created to reveal the evidentiary status of claims focusing especially on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Such reviews are constrained by the population of studies available and biases that may influence this availability such as preferred framing of problems. This highlights the…

  19. Visit the MedlinePlus Search Cloud | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Visit the MedlinePlus Search Cloud Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... information Visit the new MedlinePlus Visit the MedlinePlus search cloud, featuring the top 100 search terms of ...

  20. MedlinePlus.gov Turns 10!

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Photo courtesy of Michael Spencer, NIH NIH MedlinePlus Advisory Group celebrates 10 years of success. Photo courtesy of Michael Spencer, NIH NIH's MedlinePlus.gov , the popular, consumer- ...

  1. MedlinePlus Connect: Technical Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Technical Information Page MedlinePlus Connect Implementation Options Web Application How does it work? Responds to requests ... examples of MedlinePlus Connect Web Application response pages. Web Service How does it work? Responds to requests ...

  2. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/connect/service.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service To use the sharing features on this ... if you implement MedlinePlus Connect by contacting us . Web Service Overview The parameters for the Web service ...

  3. [Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].

    PubMed

    Pan, Lian-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Lai

    2006-08-01

    For the first time, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology published an analysis report of Chinese papers indexed in MEDLINE, which indicates that the Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the role of MEDLINE in the evaluation of scientific research. A total of 4 959 journals are listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by National Library of Medicine, USA (NLM), of which 95 are published in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and 2 another Chinese periodicals are published abroad. To familiarize MEDLINE to more medical researchers and to help them contribute to the journals indexed in MEDLINE, this article lists the top 10 Chinese medical institution whose published papers were indexed in MEDLINE in 2004 along with the Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006. And the status of MEDLINE in China is briefly analyzed as well. PMID:16970171

  4. MedlinePlus FAQ: RSS Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Question: Do you have a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed for MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus offers a variety of RSS feeds to suit your particular interests. You can ...

  5. MedlinePlus Milestones: 1998-present

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. 2016 MedlinePlus launches a Facebook page in English and Spanish to extend its social media reach ... medications. MedlinePlus adds herb and supplement information in English and Spanish from Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer ...

  6. Development of a PubMed Based Search Tool for Identifying Sex and Gender Specific Health Literature

    PubMed Central

    Song, Michael M.; Simonsen, Cheryl K.; Wilson, Joanna D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An effective literature search strategy is critical to achieving the aims of Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH): to understand sex and gender differences through research and to effectively incorporate the new knowledge into the clinical decision making process to benefit both male and female patients. The goal of this project was to develop and validate an SGSH literature search tool that is readily and freely available to clinical researchers and practitioners. Methods: PubMed, a freely available search engine for the Medline database, was selected as the platform to build the SGSH literature search tool. Combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms, text words, and title words were evaluated for optimal specificity and sensitivity. The search tool was then validated against reference bases compiled for two disease states, diabetes and stroke. Results: Key sex and gender terms and limits were bundled to create a search tool to facilitate PubMed SGSH literature searches. During validation, the search tool retrieved 50 of 94 (53.2%) stroke and 62 of 95 (65.3%) diabetes reference articles selected for validation. A general keyword search of stroke or diabetes combined with sex difference retrieved 33 of 94 (35.1%) stroke and 22 of 95 (23.2%) diabetes reference base articles, with lower sensitivity and specificity for SGSH content. Conclusions: The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center SGSH PubMed Search Tool provides higher sensitivity and specificity to sex and gender specific health literature. The tool will facilitate research, clinical decision-making, and guideline development relevant to SGSH. PMID:26555409

  7. 5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., after bridge collapsed in 1973. Shows broken turn span and overturned center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  8. 4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Western half of collapsed Alabama, Tenn. & Northern RR. Bridge Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., photographer, 1973. Copy by Sarcone Photography, Columbs, Ms Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  9. 3. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE AND FERRY 1.5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE AND FERRY 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 1927. West ferry landing ferry barge, andcar in foreground. Alabama, Tennessee & Northern (later Frisco) RR bridge in background. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  10. 6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 192. Shows center turn span and part of one fixed span. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  11. 2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SE. David J. Kaminsky, Architecturl Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  12. 1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SW. David J. Kaminsky, Architectural Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  13. Connecting the Dots between PubMed Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Shahriar; Gresock, Joseph; Edmonds, Yvette; Helm, Richard; Potts, Malcolm; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2012-01-01

    Background There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and diseases. Each article investigates subsets of a biological process, but to gain insight into the functioning of a system as a whole, we must integrate information from multiple publications. Particularly, unraveling relationships between extra-cellular inputs and downstream molecular response mechanisms requires integrating conclusions from diverse publications. Methodology We present an automated approach to biological knowledge discovery from PubMed abstracts, suitable for “connecting the dots” across the literature. We describe a storytelling algorithm that, given a start and end publication, typically with little or no overlap in content, identifies a chain of intermediate publications from one to the other, such that neighboring publications have significant content similarity. The quality of discovered stories is measured using local criteria such as the size of supporting neighborhoods for each link and the strength of individual links connecting publications, as well as global metrics of dispersion. To ensure that the story stays coherent as it meanders from one publication to another, we demonstrate the design of novel coherence and overlap filters for use as post-processing steps. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of our storytelling algorithm to three case studies: i) a many-one study exploring relationships between multiple cellular inputs and a molecule responsible for cell-fate decisions, ii) a many-many study exploring the relationships between multiple cytokines and multiple downstream transcription factors, and iii) a one-to-one study to showcase the ability to recover a cancer related association, viz. the Warburg effect, from past literature. The storytelling pipeline helps narrow down a scientist's focus from several hundreds of thousands of relevant documents to only around a hundred stories. We argue that our approach can serve as a valuable discovery aid for hypothesis generation and connection exploration in large unstructured biological knowledge bases. PMID:22235301

  14. Selenium Supplementation for Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Summary of a Cochrane Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2014-03-01

    Selenium supplementation in people with Hashimoto's thyroiditis might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of levothyroxine (LT4) and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). The aim of our systematic review was to assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. Four studies rated at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium selenite 200 μg plus titrated LT4 compared with placebo plus titrated LT4 (RR 4.67, 95% CI 1.61-13.50). Selenomethionine 200 μg as a single treatment or combined with LT4 reduced the serum levels of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies compared with placebo (or placebo plus LT4) in three studies (p < 0.001). Although the changes from baseline were statistically significant in these three studies, their clinical relevance is unclear. In conclusion, the results of these four studies, assessed at unclear to high risk of bias, show that evidence to support or refute the efficacy of selenium supplementation in people with Hashimoto's thyroiditis is incomplete and not reliable to help inform clinical decision making. PMID:24847462

  15. Development of biomedical publications on ametropia research in PubMed from 1845 to 2010: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chang-Tai; Li, Shan-Qu; Lü, Yong-Gang; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2011-01-01

    AIM We have carried out a bibliometric analysis on the development of ametropia literature to determine its growth rule and tendency, and to provide the basis for the problems related to ametropia research. METHODS Literatures that contained the descriptors of ametropia in title or paper published before Nov. 10, 2010 in PubMed databases (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Pubmed) were selected. As bibliometric indicators of ametropia, biomedical journals referring to ophthalmology by ISSN were calculated. The principal bibliometric indicators: Price's and Bradford's laws were applied on the increase or dispersion of scientific literature, the participation index of languages and the journals. By means of manual coding, literatures were classified according to documents study and statistical analysis. RESULTS The literatures cited in ametropia, astigmatism, myopia and hypermetropia had accumulated to 26475, which consists of Review (n=1560), Randomized Controlled Trial (n=776), Practice Guideline (n=10), Meta-Analysis (n=23), Letter (n=1222), Editorial (n=328), Clinical Trial (n=1726) and Others (n=20830), and Humans (n=23073), Animals(n=1434) and others (n=1968). 1136 literatures were included in PubMed Central, 22384 in MEDLINE and 2955 in others. The ametropia literatures rose every 5 years which of the ametropia-year cumulated amount of the literatures had three periods: before 1900, slowly increasing from 1901 to 1950, rapidly rising from 1951 to 2010 (increased approximate exponentiation exponent). Sixty kinds of languages listed in PubMed databases, of which English is dominant for aborting to ametropia research documents before 2010 (77.32%, 20471/26475). The document languages of top eight account for 95.58% (English, German, French, Japanese, Russian, Italian, Spanish, Chinese), and others for 4.42% (1171/26475). The SCI database includes 48 ophthalmologic journals and the impact factor of 39 journals is ≥1 on Thomson-Reuters in 2010. Of 48 ophthalmologic journals, there were 14785 documents (55.85%) of ametropia, astigmatism, myopia, and hypermetropia. Others were without exception. CONCLUSION The bibliometric analysis results show that ametropia literature are increased progressively, approximate exponentiation exponent during 1951-2010. In addition, ametropia research has become more popular since nearly half century. PMID:22553598

  16. Overview of Reviews The prevention of eczema in infants and children: an overview of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    Foisy, Michelle; Boyle, Robert J.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Simpson, Eric L.; Williams, Hywel C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Eczema is the most common inflammatory skin disease of childhood, characterized by an itchy red rash that usually involves the face and skin folds. There is currently no curative treatment for eczema, so the reduction of eczema incidence through disease prevention is a desirable goal. Potential interventions for preventing eczema include exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas and soy formulas when bottle feeding, maternal antigen avoidance, omega oil supplementation, prebiotics and probiotics. Objectives This overview of reviews aims to present the current body of data from Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews to provide the most up-to-date evidence on the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent eczema in infants and children at different risk levels for developing allergic disease. Methods Our pool of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews came from the 2010 United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) Evidence Skin Disorders Annual Evidence Updates Mapping Exercise on Atopic Eczema. This group used a comprehensive search strategy last conducted in August 2010 to identify all systematic reviews on eczema prevention. We identified all reviews that met our pre-specified inclusion criteria, and data were extracted, analysed, compiled into tables and synthesized using quantitative and qualitative methods. Main results Seven systematic reviews containing 39 relevant trials with 11 897 participants were included in this overview. Overall, there was no clear evidence that any of the main interventions reviewed reduced eczema incidence. In subgroup analyses of infants at high risk of allergic disease, an observational study found that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months compared with introduction of solids at three to six months decreased the incidence of eczema by 60% (risk ratio (RR): 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.78), and a randomized controlled trial found that prebiotics compared with no prebiotics decreased incidence by 58% (RR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.84). However, each of these findings was based on the results of a single small trial, and no intervention reduced eczema incidence beyond the first two years of life. Although we pre-specified incidence of atopic eczema (i.e. eczema associated with immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization) as a primary outcome, data on whether participants diagnosed with eczema were truly atopic were largely lacking from systematic reviews. Similarly, data on atopy, measured using skin prick tests or specific IgE tests to allergens, were not reported in many reviews. No interventions were found to decrease atopy when reported. Adverse events data were generally lacking, but data from a trial of probiotics versus no probiotics showed significantly more spitting up in the first one (RR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.45) and two (RR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.80) months of life, but no overall increase in risk of gastrointestinal symptoms in the first year. Authors conclusions Although there is currently no clear evidence showing that any of the interventions examined in this overview prevent eczema in participants not selected for risk of allergic disease, there is some evidence that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months and prebiotics might reduce eczema incidence in high-risk participants. However, these conclusions are based on limited evidence with methodological shortcomings. Future research on prevention of eczema is needed and should examine different types of hydrolysed formulas, prebiotics and probiotics, as well as enhancement of the skin barrier and other novel approaches in infants at different risk levels for developing allergic disease. PMID:22822349

  17. Visit the new MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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  18. Cochrane reviews on the benefits/risks of fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Wong, M C M; Clarkson, J; Glenny, A-M; Lo, E C M; Marinho, V C C; Tsang, B W K; Walsh, T; Worthington, H V

    2011-05-01

    This concise review presents two Cochrane Reviews undertaken to determine: (1) the relative effectiveness of fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents; and (2) the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and their risk of developing dental fluorosis. To determine the relative effectiveness of fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations, we undertook a network meta-analysis utilizing both direct and indirect comparisons from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The review examining fluorosis included evidence from experimental and observational studies. The findings of the reviews confirm the benefits of using fluoride toothpaste, when compared with placebo, in preventing caries in children and adolescents, but only significantly for fluoride concentrations of 1000 ppm and above. The relative caries-preventive effects of fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations increase with higher fluoride concentration. However, there is weak, unreliable evidence that starting the use of fluoride toothpaste in children under 12 months of age may be associated with an increased risk of fluorosis. The decision of what fluoride levels to use for children under 6 years should be balanced between the risk of developing dental caries and that of mild fluorosis. PMID:21248357

  19. MedlinePlus FAQ: News Coverage

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  20. Crohn's Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  1. MedlinePlus.gov on Twitter

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  2. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E; Claveau, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI), a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI. PMID:19025687

  3. Awareness and Use of Evidence-based Medicine Databases and Cochrane Library Among Physicians in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Katarina; Mirić, Dino; Jurin, Ana; Vukojević, Katarina; Aljinović, Jure; Čarić, Ana; Marinović Guić, Maja; Poljičanin, Ana; Košta, Vana; Rako, Dalibora; Marušić, Ana; Marušić, Matko; Puljak, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess awareness and use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) databases and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia. Methods A cross-sectional study with a telephone survey was performed among 573 physicians (88.6% response rate from 647 contacted physicians) from family practice and 4 major university hospital centers in Croatia. The main outcome measures were physicians' awareness of The Cochrane Collaboration, awareness and use of The Cochrane Library, access to EBM databases, and access to internet at work. Results Overall, 54% of respondents said they had access to EBM databases, but when asked which databases they used, they named mostly non-EBM databases. The question on the highest level of evidence in EBM was correctly answered by 53% respondents, 30% heard of The Cochrane Collaboration, and 34% heard about The Cochrane Library. They obtained information about The Cochrane Library mostly from colleagues and research articles, whereas the information about EBM was gained mainly during continuous medical education. There were more respondents who thought The Cochrane Library could help them in practice (58%) than those who heard about The Cochrane Library (30%). Only 20% of the respondents heard about the initiative for the establishment of the Croatian branch of The Cochrane Collaboration. Family physicians had significantly lower level of awareness, knowledge, and use of EBM and The Cochrane Library than physicians from university hospitals. Conclusion There is low awareness about EBM and The Cochrane Library among physicians in Croatia, which creates a need for educational interventions about EBM for the benefit of health care in Croatia. PMID:20401959

  4. Retrieving Clinical Evidence: A Comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar for Quick Clinical Searches

    PubMed Central

    Bejaimal, Shayna AD; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Background Physicians frequently search PubMed for information to guide patient care. More recently, Google Scholar has gained popularity as another freely accessible bibliographic database. Objective To compare the performance of searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Methods We surveyed nephrologists (kidney specialists) and provided each with a unique clinical question derived from 100 renal therapy systematic reviews. Each physician provided the search terms they would type into a bibliographic database to locate evidence to answer the clinical question. We executed each of these searches in PubMed and Google Scholar and compared results for the first 40 records retrieved (equivalent to 2 default search pages in PubMed). We evaluated the recall (proportion of relevant articles found) and precision (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. We further documented whether relevant articles were available as free full-texts. Results Compared with PubMed, the average search in Google Scholar retrieved twice as many relevant articles (PubMed: 11%; Google Scholar: 22%; P<.001). Precision was similar in both databases (PubMed: 6%; Google Scholar: 8%; P=.07). Google Scholar provided significantly greater access to free full-text publications (PubMed: 5%; Google Scholar: 14%; P<.001). Conclusions For quick clinical searches, Google Scholar returns twice as many relevant articles as PubMed and provides greater access to free full-text articles. PMID:23948488

  5. The role of the Cochrane collaboration and nursing in evidence-based health care.

    PubMed

    New, Karen

    2013-10-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration has been instrumental in guiding evidence-based practice in health care over the last 20 years. There are many ways nurses can get involved with the Cochrane Collaboration and support the application of research evidence into best practices in health care. PMID:24138655

  6. Analysis of the reporting of search strategies in Cochrane systematic reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Adriana; McGraw, Kathleen A.; Anderson, Margaret J.; Wellik, Kay E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions provides instructions for documenting a systematic review's electronic database search strategy, listing elements that should be in the description. Complete documentation of the search strategy allows readers to evaluate the search when critically appraising a review's quality. Objective: The research analyzed recently published Cochrane reviews to determine whether instructions for describing electronic database search strategies were being followed. Methods: Eighty-three new reviews added to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in the first quarter of 2006 were selected for analysis. Eighteen were subsequently excluded because their searches were conducted only in the specialized registers of Cochrane review groups. The remaining sixty-five reviews were analyzed for the seven elements of an electronic database search strategy description listed in the Cochrane Handbook, using dual review with consensus. Results: Of the 65 reviews analyzed, none included all 7 recommended elements. Four reviews (6%) included 6 elements. Thirty-two percent (21/65) included 5 or more elements, with 68% (44/65) including 4 or fewer. Three included only 2 elements. The 65 reviews represented 41 different Cochrane review groups. Conclusion: The instructions from the Cochrane Handbook for reporting search strategies are not being consistently employed by groups producing Cochrane reviews. PMID:19158999

  7. Classification of Clinically Useful Sentences in MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Morid, Mohammad Amin; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Fiszman, Marcelo; Raja, Kalpana; Fiol, Guilherme Del

    2015-01-01

    Objective In a previous study, we investigated a sentence classification model that uses semantic features to extract clinically useful sentences from UpToDate, a synthesized clinical evidence resource. In the present study, we assess the generalizability of the sentence classifier to Medline abstracts. Methods We applied the classification model to an independent gold standard of high quality clinical studies from Medline. Then, the classifier trained on UpToDate sentences was optimized by re-retraining the classifier with Medline abstracts and adding a sentence location feature. Results The previous classifier yielded an F-measure of 58% on Medline versus 67% on UpToDate. Re-training the classifier on Medline improved F-measure to 68%; and to 76% (p<0.01) after adding the sentence location feature. Conclusions The classifier’s model and input features generalized to Medline abstracts, but the classifier needed to be retrained on Medline to achieve equivalent performance. Sentence location provided additional contribution to the overall classification performance. PMID:26958301

  8. MELVYL MEDLINE: a library services perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Horres, M M; Starr, S S; Renford, B L

    1991-01-01

    The MELVYL MEDLINE project resulted in the addition of a full five-year subset of MEDLINE to the University of California's (UC) MELVYL online union catalog. As one of the nation's largest MEDLINE end-user searching systems, MELVYL MEDLINE provides online bibliographic access to the biomedical journal literature for all UC personnel at over seventy library sites or by remote access. This paper summarizes the project's accomplishments, reports MELVYL MEDLINE use and its impact on library services, and provides insights for other end-user search systems. The project serves as a model for adding databases to the MELVYL catalog and demonstrates the potential for use by other disciplines of a specialized database when readily accessible. Evaluation results report high user satisfaction and high usage. However, many advanced searching features of the interface are little used by searchers. Effects on library services include marked increases in reference transactions and interlibrary loans, with significant declines in mediated search services. Future MELVYL MEDLINE enhancements include matching search retrievals to journal locations, linkage to an online document delivery system, and consideration of building a superset of databases by combining MELVYL MEDLINE with citations from another database in the MELVYL catalog. PMID:1884086

  9. Telerehabilitation for persons with multiple sclerosis. A Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Khan, F; Amatya, B; Kesselring, J; Galea, M P

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of telerehabilitation interventions are trialled in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). However, the evidence for their effectiveness is unclear. Aim of the review was to systematically assess the effectiveness and safety of telerehabilitation intervention in pwMS, the types of approaches that are effective (setting, type, intensity) and the outcomes (impairment, activity limitation and participation) that are affected. The search strategy comprised: Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the Central Nervous System Review Group Specialised Register (up to 9 July, 2014). Relevant journals and reference lists of identified studies were screened for additional data. Selected studies included randomized and controlled clinical trials that compared telerehabilitation intervention/s in pwMS with a control intervention (such as lower level or different types of intervention, minimal intervention; waiting-list controls, no treatment or usual care; interventions given in different settings). Best evidence synthesis was based on methodological quality using the GRADEpro software. Nine RCTs (N.=531 participants, 469 included in analyses) investigated a variety of telerehabilitation interventions in adults with MS. The interventions evaluated were complex, with more than one rehabilitation component and included physical activity, educational, behavioural and symptom management programmes. All studies scored "low" on the methodological quality assessment. Evidence from included studies provides 'low-level' evidence for reduction in short-term disability (and symptoms) such as fatigue. There was also "low-level" evidence supporting telerehabilitation in the longer term for improved functional activities, impairments (such as fatigue, pain, insomnia); and participation. There were limited data on process evaluation (participants'/therapists' satisfaction) and no data available for cost effectiveness. There were no adverse events reported as a result of telerehabilitation intervention. There is limited evidence to date, on the efficacy of telerehabilitation in improving functional activities, fatigue and quality of life in adults with MS. There is also insufficient evidence to support what types of telerehabilitation interventions are effective, and in which setting. More robust trials are needed to build evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:25943744

  10. Development and classification of an operational definition of complementary and alternative medicine for the Cochrane Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, L. Susan; Manheimer, Eric; Berman, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade the Cochrane Collaboration has been an increasingly important source of information on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. From 2007 to 2008 the Cochrane CAM Field developed a topics list that allowed us to categorize all 396 Cochrane reviews related to CAM (as of The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009). This topics list is an advance in making Cochrane reviews on CAM topics accessible to the public. In this paper, we discuss challenges in developing the topics list, including developing an operational definition of CAM, deciding which reviews should be included within the CAM Field’s scope, developing the structured list of CAM Field-specific topics, and determining where in the topics list the reviews should be placed. Although aspects of our operational definition of CAM are open to revision, a standardized definition provides us with an objective, reproducible and systematic method for defining and classifying CAM therapies. PMID:21717826

  11. Cochrane methods--twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jackie; Hopewell, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discuss the impact of Cochrane Review methods, and acknowledge the breadth and depth of methods development within The Cochrane Collaboration as part of the wider context of evidence synthesis. We conclude by considering the future development of methods for Cochrane Reviews. PMID:24050381

  12. Research synthesis and dissemination as a bridge to knowledge management: the Cochrane Collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Volmink, Jimmy; Siegfried, Nandi; Robertson, Katharine; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2004-01-01

    In the current information age, research synthesis is a particularly useful tool for keeping track of scientific research and making sense of the large volumes of frequently conflicting data derived from primary studies. The Cochrane Collaboration is a global initiative "to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions". In this paper we set the work of the Cochrane Collaboration in historical perspective, explain what a Cochrane review is, and describe initiatives for promoting worldwide dissemination of synthesized information. We also consider emerging evidence of the Cochrane Collaboration's impact on health-care practice, policy, research and education. Finally, we highlight the need for increased investment in the preparation and maintenance of Cochrane reviews, particularly those that address health issues that are relevant to people living in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:15643800

  13. A short guide to peer-reviewed, MEDLINE-indexed complementary and alternative medicine journals.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sherry; Littman, Lynn; Palmer, Christina; Singh, Gurneet; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) comprises a multitude of disciplines, for example, acupuncture, ayurvedic medicine, biofeedback, herbal medicine, and homeopathic medicine. While research on CAM interventions has increased and the CAM literature has proliferated since the mid-1990s, a number of our colleagues have expressed difficulties in deciding where to publish CAM articles. In response, we created a short guide to peer-reviewed MEDLINE-indexed journals that publish CAM articles. We examined numerous English-language sources to identify titles that met our criteria, whether specific to or overlapping CAM. A few of the resources in which we found the journal titles that we included are Alternative Medicine Foundation, American Holistic Nurses Association, CINAHL/Nursing Database, Journal Citation Reports database, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Research Council for Complementary Medicine. We organized the 69 selected titles for easy use by creating 2 user-friendly tables, one listing titles in alphabetical order and one listing them in topical categories. A few examples of the topical categories are Acupuncture, CAM (general), Chinese Medicine, Herbal/Plant/Phytotherapy, Neuroscience/Psychology, Nursing/Clinical Care. Our study is the first to list general CAM journals, specialty CAM journals, and overlapping mainstream journals that are peer reviewed, in English, and indexed in MEDLINE. Our goal was to assist both authors seeking publication and mainstream journal editors who receive an overabundance of publishable articles but must recommend that authors seek publication elsewhere due to space and priority issues. Publishing in journals indexed by and included in MEDLINE (or PubMed) ensures that citations to articles will be found easily. PMID:22517352

  14. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research. PMID:23497410

  15. Quertle and KNALIJ: searching PubMed has never been so easy and effective.

    PubMed

    Giglia, E

    2011-12-01

    Quertle and KNALIJ are two innovative tools created to search PubMed in a easier and more effective way. They dramatically reduce time to discover meaningful results. Quertle allows a semantic search in multiple biomedical databases (PubMed included) and runs a query via relationships between concepts, so that you retrieve at ease more pertinent results and can navigate them by "key concepts". KNALIJ is a visualization tool which searches PubMed and presents the results in the form of visual, interactive maps you can zoom, scale, and explore according to new paths. PMID:22222966

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  6. Foodborne Illness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Foodborne Illness URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ...

  7. Cochrane Corner: Extracts from The Cochrane Library: Tonsillectomy or Adenotonsillectomy versus Non-Surgical Management for Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children.

    PubMed

    Burton, Martin J; Goldstein, Nira A; Rosenfeld, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    The "Cochrane Corner" is a section in the journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features a Cochrane Review on tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB) in children, which finds moderate-quality evidence that surgery improves symptoms, behavior, and quality of life compared to nonsurgical management. The results apply to nonsyndromic children with SDB confirmed by polysomnography and must be balanced against a favorable natural history in many cases. PMID:26908548

  8. The impact of Cochrane Reviews: a mixed-methods evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the National Institute for Health Research.

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha; Alderson, Phil; Hamilton, Laura; Martin, Alice; Pinkney, Emma; Iliffe, Steve

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The last few decades have seen a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by Cochrane, have been a key component of this movement. The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs) in the UK and it is important that this funding represents value for money. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The overall aim was to identify the impacts and likely impacts on health care, patient outcomes and value for money of Cochrane Reviews published by 20 NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007-11. DESIGN We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, undertook interviews with guideline developers (GDs) and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane Reviews. The evaluation was guided by a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). RESULTS A total of 3187 new and updated reviews were published on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews between 2007 and 2011, 1502 (47%) of which were produced by the 20 CRGs funded by the NIHR. We found 40 examples where reviews appeared to have influenced primary research and reviews had contributed to the creation of new knowledge and stimulated debate. Twenty-seven of the 60 reviews had 100 or more citations in Google Scholar™ (Google, CA, USA). Overall, 483 systematic reviews had been cited in 247 sets of guidance. This included 62 sets of international guidance, 175 sets of national guidance (87 from the UK) and 10 examples of local guidance. Evidence from the interviews suggested that Cochrane Reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although reviews being a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and GDs were barriers to their use. Cochrane Reviews appeared to have led to a number of benefits to the health service including safer or more appropriate use of medication or other health technologies or the identification of new effective drugs or treatments. However, whether or not these changes were directly as a result of the Cochrane Review and not the result of subsequent clinical guidance was difficult to judge. Potential benefits of Cochrane Reviews included economic benefits through budget savings or the release of funds, improvements in clinical quality, the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures and improvements in patient and carer experiences. CONCLUSIONS This study identified a number of impacts and likely impacts of Cochrane Reviews. The clearest impacts of Cochrane Reviews are on research targeting and health-care policy, with less evidence of a direct impact on clinical practice and the organisation and delivery of NHS services. Although it is important for researchers to consider how they might increase the influence of their work, such impacts are difficult to measure. More work is required to develop suitable methods for defining and quantifying the impact of research. FUNDING The NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme. PMID:25875129

  9. Impact of Including Korean Randomized Controlled Trials in Cochrane Reviews of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kong, Jae Cheol; Choi, Jun-Yong; Choi, Tae-Young; Shin, Byung-Cheul; McDonald, Steve; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture is commonly practiced in Korea and is regularly evaluated in clinical trials. Although many Cochrane reviews of acupuncture include searches of both English and Chinese databases, there is no information on the value of searching Korean databases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of searching Korean databasesand journals for trials eligible for inclusion in existing Cochrane acupuncture reviews. Methods We searched 12 Korean databases and seven Korean journals to identify randomised trials meeting the inclusion criteria for acupuncture reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We compared risk of bias assessments of the Korean trials with the trials included in the Cochrane acupuncture reviews. Where possible, we added data from the Korean trials to the existing meta-analyses in the relevant Cochrane review and conducted sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the results. Results Sixteen Korean trials (742 participants) met the inclusion criteria for eight Cochrane acupuncture reviews (125 trials; 13,041 participants). Inclusion of the Korean trials provided data for 20% of existing meta-analyses (24 out of 120). Inclusion of the Korean trials did not change the direction of effect in any of the existing meta-analyses. The effect size and heterogeneity remained mostly unchanged. In only one meta-analysis did the significance change. Compared to the studies included in the Cochrane acupuncture reviews, the risk of bias in the Korean trials was higher in terms of outcome assessor blinding and allocation concealment. Conclusions Many Korean studies contributed additional data to the existing meta-analyses in Cochrane acupuncture reviews. Although inclusion of these studies did not alter the results of the meta-analyses, comprehensive searches of the literature are important to avoid potential language bias. The identification and inclusion of eligible Korean trials should be considered for reviews of acupuncture. PMID:23071826

  10. Challenges and strategies of increasing the production and use of Cochrane reviews: the Argentinean experience.

    PubMed

    Ciapponi, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration (CC), established in 1993, is an internationally renowned initiative dedicated to improving health care for the world's population. In the late 1990 s, the Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre (IbCC) was created to promote the CC in Latin America. Because the production and use of Cochrane reviews were still low in 2002, Argentina implemented specific strategies and a model to expand the IbCC. The objective of this article was to describe strategies to increase the production and use of Cochrane reviews in Argentina. Methods used included surveys delivered to primary health care workers to provide data about their knowledge and use of the CC, and about the production of titles, protocols, and systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Library. Our survey showed that only 51% of a selected population of primary healthcare workers knew about the CC and only 23% knew about the Argentine Cochrane centre. In the previous year, 60% had never used the CC. To overcome these challenges, we used seven types of complementary strategies: (1) networking, (2) dissemination, (3) training, (4) support to Cochrane members, (5) strategic alliances, (6) research, and (7) fund-raising. An improvement in the production and use of Cochrane reviews was seen in Argentina, and the set of aforementioned strategies could be partly responsible for this increase. Multi-level networking, training and an appropriate centre's mother institution could be the most important interventions. More research is needed to explore this hypothesis. Lessons learned on this first evaluation will help us to continue with the development of the CC in Argentina. PMID:18237346

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  13. Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2009-10-01

    PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users' search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments. PMID:19162232

  14. Considerations from the risk of bias perspective for updating Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Alain D; Kabir, Monisha; Ansari, Mohammed T

    2015-01-01

    Authors of Cochrane reviews are expected to update their reviews every 2 years. The updating process helps to ensure that reviews are current and include recent evidence. However, the updating process is time-consuming for authors, particularly when Cochrane methods evolve and authors are required to revisit some of the originally included studies.The Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool is a mandatory component of Cochrane reviews, providing an assessment of the potential biases of included studies. The tool has been modified most recently in 2011, and the expectation is that new versions will continue to be produced and utilised in all Cochrane reviews. In this commentary we discuss, in the context of updating scenarios that are likely to be encountered, the potential options systematic review authors may have recourse to when the Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool has been modified between the original review and its update. We recommend that authors who are updating reviews should revise their original assessments of included studies using the most recent version of the risk of bias tool. Despite the increased workload, use of the most recent version of the tool facilitates consistency of methods and reporting both across and within reviews, and ensures currency to the methodological rigour. PMID:26445323

  15. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET. Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway

  16. Evaluating relevance ranking strategies for MEDLINE retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyong; Kim, Won; Wilbur, W John

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of relevance ranking strategies on a collection of 55 queries and about 160,000 MEDLINE((R)) citations used in the 2006 and 2007 Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) Genomics Tracks. The authors study two relevance ranking strategies: term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) weighting and sentence-level co-occurrence, and examine their ability to rank retrieved MEDLINE documents given user queries. Furthermore, the authors use the reverse chronological order-PubMed's default display option-as a baseline for comparison. Retrieval effectiveness is assessed using both mean average precision and mean rank precision. Experimental results show that retrievals based on the two strategies had improved performance over the baseline performance, and that TF-IDF weighting is more effective in retrieving relevant documents based on the comparison between the two strategies. PMID:18952932

  17. CoPub Mapper: mining MEDLINE based on search term co-publication

    PubMed Central

    Alako, Blaise TF; Veldhoven, Antoine; van Baal, Sjozef; Jelier, Rob; Verhoeven, Stefan; Rullmann, Ton; Polman, Jan; Jenster, Guido

    2005-01-01

    Background High throughput microarray analyses result in many differentially expressed genes that are potentially responsible for the biological process of interest. In order to identify biological similarities between genes, publications from MEDLINE were identified in which pairs of gene names and combinations of gene name with specific keywords were co-mentioned. Results MEDLINE search strings for 15,621 known genes and 3,731 keywords were generated and validated. PubMed IDs were retrieved from MEDLINE and relative probability of co-occurrences of all gene-gene and gene-keyword pairs determined. To assess gene clustering according to literature co-publication, 150 genes consisting of 8 sets with known connections (same pathway, same protein complex, or same cellular localization, etc.) were run through the program. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analyses showed that most gene sets were clustered much better than expected by random chance. To test grouping of genes from real microarray data, 221 differentially expressed genes from a microarray experiment were analyzed with CoPub Mapper, which resulted in several relevant clusters of genes with biological process and disease keywords. In addition, all genes versus keywords were hierarchical clustered to reveal a complete grouping of published genes based on co-occurrence. Conclusion The CoPub Mapper program allows for quick and versatile querying of co-published genes and keywords and can be successfully used to cluster predefined groups of genes and microarray data. PMID:15760478

  18. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

    2007-01-01

    Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a web-based prototype capable of creating domain-specific investigator networks based on an application that accurately generates detailed investigator profiles from PubMed abstracts combined with robust standard vocabularies. This approach could be used for other biomedical fields to efficiently establish domain-specific investigator networks. PMID:17584920

  19. Gum Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  20. Parkinson's Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Parkinson's Disease - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... PDF Health Information Translations Somali (af Soomaali) ... correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  1. End User Searching of Medline. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.; Moore, Margaret E.

    One hundred sixty-one MEDLINE searches conducted by third year medical students were analyzed and evaluated to determine which search behaviors were used, whether those individual moves are effective, and whether there is a relationship between specific search behaviors and the effectiveness of the search strategy as a whole. The typical search…

  2. Literature in MEDLINE. . . A Bibliographic Anomaly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Simone B.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of citations to literary articles that have appeared in medical journals in National Library of Medicine's database, MEDLINE. Highlights include search aids, search strategies, sample references, and five publications that serve as orientations to current status of movement toward interdisciplinary study of medicine and…

  3. Open Biomedical Ontology-based Medline exploration

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Weijian; Dai, Manhong; Mirel, Barbara; Song, Jean; Athey, Brian; Watson, Stanley J; Meng, Fan

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective Medline database exploration is critical for the understanding of high throughput experimental results and the development of novel hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying the targeted biological processes. While existing solutions enhance Medline exploration through different approaches such as document clustering, network presentations of underlying conceptual relationships and the mapping of search results to MeSH and Gene Ontology trees, we believe the use of multiple ontologies from the Open Biomedical Ontology can greatly help researchers to explore literature from different perspectives as well as to quickly locate the most relevant Medline records for further investigation. Results We developed an ontology-based interactive Medline exploration solution called PubOnto to enable the interactive exploration and filtering of search results through the use of multiple ontologies from the OBO foundry. The PubOnto program is a rich internet application based on the FLEX platform. It contains a number of interactive tools, visualization capabilities, an open service architecture, and a customizable user interface. It is freely accessible at: . PMID:19426463

  4. MedlinePlus Connect in Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Humetrix iBlueButton ICANotes EHR iChartsMD EHR iChartsMD Hospital Information System InteliChart Patient Portal Intivia InSync EMR and Practice ... Portal Procentive QuicDoc EHR Resource and Patient Management System (RPMS) EHR Rise ... How MedlinePlus Connect works Demonstrations — Web application and ...

  5. Misunderstandings about Q and 'Cochran's Q test' in meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoaglin, David C

    2016-02-20

    Many meta-analyses report using 'Cochran's Q test' to assess heterogeneity of effect-size estimates from the individual studies. Some authors cite work by W. G. Cochran, without realizing that Cochran deliberately did not use Q itself to test for heterogeneity. Further, when heterogeneity is absent, the actual null distribution of Q is not the chi-squared distribution assumed for 'Cochran's Q test'. This paper reviews work by Cochran related to Q. It then discusses derivations of the asymptotic approximation for the null distribution of Q, as well as work that has derived finite-sample moments and corresponding approximations for the cases of specific measures of effect size. Those results complicate implementation and interpretation of the popular heterogeneity index I(2) . Also, it turns out that the test-based confidence intervals used with I(2) are based on a fallacious approach. Software that outputs Q and I(2) should use the appropriate reference value of Q for the particular measure of effect size and the current meta-analysis. Q is a key element of the popular DerSimonian-Laird procedure for random-effects meta-analysis, but the assumptions of that procedure and related procedures do not reflect the actual behavior of Q and may introduce bias. The DerSimonian-Laird procedure should be regarded as unreliable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26303773

  6. Cochrane summary of findings: horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Underland, Vigdis; Sæterdal, Ingvil; Nilsen, Elin Strømme

    2012-03-01

    As part of its efforts to disseminate the results of Cochrane reviews to a wider audience, the Cochrane Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Field develops Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and then uses these tables as a basis for its Plain Language Summaries. In each SoF table, the most important outcomes of the review, the effect of the intervention on each outcome, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome are presented. The process of developing the SoF table involves deciding which outcomes to present for which time points and evaluating the strength and quality of the evidence for the outcomes. The Cochrane CAM Field contacted the authors of this review to request clarification on any points that are not understood in the Cochrane review and also to request their review of the SoF. In this article, review authors in the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the effects of horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:24278808

  7. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, V C; Tierney, J F; Stenning, S; Meredith, S; Harding, S; Nazareth, I; Rait, G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention in randomised trials. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Sources searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, C2-SPECTR, ERIC, PreMEDLINE, Cochrane Methodology Register, Current Controlled Trials metaRegister, WHO trials platform, Society for Clinical Trials (SCT) conference proceedings and a survey of all UK clinical trial research units. Review methods Included trials were randomised evaluations of strategies to improve retention embedded within host randomised trials. The primary outcome was retention of trial participants. Data from trials were pooled using the fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the heterogeneity and to determine whether there were any differences in effect by the type of strategy. Results 38 retention trials were identified. Six broad types of strategies were evaluated. Strategies that increased postal questionnaire responses were: adding, that is, giving a monetary incentive (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.28) and higher valued incentives (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Offering a monetary incentive, that is, an incentive given on receipt of a completed questionnaire, also increased electronic questionnaire response (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.38). The evidence for shorter questionnaires (RR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08) and questionnaires relevant to the disease/condition (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14) is less clear. On the basis of the results of single trials, the following strategies appeared effective at increasing questionnaire response: recorded delivery of questionnaires (RR 2.08; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.87); a ‘package’ of postal communication strategies (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.67) and an open trial design (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.63). There is no good evidence that the following strategies impact on trial response/retention: adding a non-monetary incentive (RR=1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02); offering a non-monetary incentive (RR=0.99; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.03); ‘enhanced’ letters (RR=1.01; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.05); monetary incentives compared with offering prize draw entry (RR=1.04; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.19); priority postal delivery (RR=1.02; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09); behavioural motivational strategies (RR=1.08; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.24); additional reminders to participants (RR=1.03; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.06) and questionnaire question order (RR=1.00, 0.97 to 1.02). Also based on single trials, these strategies do not appear effective: a telephone survey compared with a monetary incentive plus questionnaire (RR=1.08; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.24); offering a charity donation (RR=1.02, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.32); sending sites reminders (RR=0.96; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.11); sending questionnaires early (RR=1.10; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.26); longer and clearer questionnaires (RR=1.01, 0.95 to 1.07) and participant case management by trial assistants (RR=1.00; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.04). Conclusions Most of the trials evaluated questionnaire response rather than ways to improve participants return to site for follow-up. Monetary incentives and offers of monetary incentives increase postal and electronic questionnaire response. Some strategies need further evaluation. Application of these results would depend on trial context and follow-up procedures. PMID:24496696

  8. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese. PMID:23920740

  9. Risk factors for bladder cancer: challenges of conducting a literature search using PubMed.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ashish; Preslan, Elicia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors for bladder cancer using PubMed articles from January 2000 to December 2009. The study also aimed to describe the challenges encountered in the methodology of a literature search for bladder cancer risk factors using PubMed. Twenty-six categories of risk factors for bladder cancer were identified using the National Cancer Institute Web site and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Web site. A total of 1,338 PubMed searches were run using the term "urinary bladder cancer" and a risk factor term (e.g., "cigarette smoking") and were screened to identify 260 articles for final analysis. The search strategy had an overall precision of 3.42 percent, relative recall of 12.64 percent, and an F-measure of 5.39 percent. Although search terms derived from MeSH had the highest overall precision and recall, the differences did not reach significance, which indicates that for generalized, free-text searches of the PubMed database, the searchers' own terms are generally as effective as MeSH terms. PMID:21464862

  10. MedlinePlus FAQ: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device?

    MedlinePlus

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  11. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

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  12. MedlinePlus FAQ: How Often MedlinePlus is Updated

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  13. The impact of Cochrane Systematic Reviews: a mixed method evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of Cochrane reviews published by NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007–2011. Methods We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, interviewed guideline developers and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane reviews. We used a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). Results A total of 1,502 new and updated reviews were produced by the 20 NIHR-funded CRGs between 2007 and 2011. The clearest impacts were on policy with a total of 483 systematic reviews cited in 247 sets of guidance: 62 were international, 175 national (87 from the UK) and 10 local. Review authors and CRGs provided some examples of impact on practice or services, for example, safer use of medication, the identification of new effective drugs or treatments and potential economic benefits through the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures. However, such impacts are difficult to objectively document, and the majority of reviewers were unsure if their review had produced specific impacts. Qualitative data suggested that Cochrane reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and guideline developers were barriers to their use. Conclusions Health and economic impacts of research are generally difficult to measure. We found that to be the case with this evaluation. Impacts on knowledge production and clinical guidance were easier to identify and substantiate than those on clinical practice. Questions remain about how we define and measure impact, and more work is needed to develop suitable methods for impact analysis. PMID:25348511

  14. Systematic Reviews Published in the October 2015 Issue of the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online (http://www.thecochranelibrary.com). The October 2015 issue (fourth DVD for 2015) contains 6622 complete reviews, 2429 protocols for reviews in production, and 36,600 short summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature (this short summary database is no longer being updated). In addition, there are citations of 848,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 15,000 citations. One hundred and nine new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months, of which six have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 5.939. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest as only a brief commentary is provided. PMID:27007584

  15. Systematic Reviews Published in the July 2015 Issue of the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The July 2015 issue (third DVD for 2015) contains 6506 complete reviews, 2431 protocols for reviews in production, and 36,600 short summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 871,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 15,000 citations. One hundred and seven new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months, of which seven have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 5.939. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest as only a brief commentary is provided. PMID:26654419

  16. Antenatal interventions to reduce preterm birth: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several factors are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB); therefore, various interventions might have the potential to influence it. Due to the large number of interventions that address PTB, the objective of this overview is to summarise evidence from Cochrane reviews regarding the effects and safety of these different interventions. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Included reviews should be based on randomised controlled trials comparing antenatal non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that directly or indirectly address PTB with placebo/no treatment or routine care in pregnant women at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation without signs of threatened preterm labour. We considered PTB at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation as the primary outcome. Results We included 56 Cochrane systematic reviews. Three interventions increased PTB risk significantly. Twelve interventions led to a statistically significant lower incidence of PTBs. However, this reduction was mostly observed in defined at-risk subgroups of pregnant women. The remaining antenatal interventions failed to prove a significant effect on PTB < 37 weeks, but some of them at least showed a positive effect in secondary outcomes (e.g., reduction in early PTBs). As an unintended result of this review, we identified 28 additional Cochrane reviews which intended to report on PTB < 37 weeks, but were not able to find any RCTs reporting appropriate data. Conclusions The possible effects of a diverse range of interventions on PTB have been evaluated in Cochrane systematic reviews. Few interventions have been demonstrated to be effective and a small number have been found to be harmful. For around half of the interventions evaluated, the Cochrane review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to provide sound recommendations for clinical practice. No RCT evidence is available for a number of potentially relevant interventions. PMID:24758148

  17. MedlinePlus FAQ: Copyrighted and Non-Copyrighted Material

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/faq/copyrightfaq.html Question: Is the material on MedlinePlus copyrighted? To use the sharing features ... Answer: MedlinePlus contains both copyrighted and non-copyrighted material. Please see our copyright information page . Restrictions may ...

  18. MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents

    MedlinePlus

    ... faq/easytoread.html Question: How can I locate materials on MedlinePlus that are easy to read and ... public, not for health professionals. But, not all materials on MedlinePlus are at the same reading level. ...

  19. MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/faq/criteria.html Question: How do Web sites get listed in MedlinePlus? To use the ... authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web sites. We try to ensure that the information ...

  20. MedlinePlus Connect: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Library of Medicine's ( NLM ) consumer health Web site. MedlinePlus Connect provides information on diseases and conditions, prescription and over-the-counter medications, and laboratory tests. In some cases, MedlinePlus Connect returns information from ...

  1. Using medline queries to generate image retrieval tasks for benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Hersh, William; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    Medical visual information retrieval has been a very active research area over the past ten years as an increasing amount of images is produced digitally and made available in the electronic patient record. Tools are required to give access to the images and exploit the information inherently stored in medical cases including images. To compare image retrieval techniques of research prototypes based on the same data and tasks, ImageCLEF was started in 2003 and a medical task was added in 2004. Since then, every year a database was distributed, tasks developed, and systems compared based on realistic search tasks and large databases. For the year 2007 a set of almost 68,000 images was distributed among 38 research groups registered for the medical retrieval task. Realistic query topics were developed based on a log file of Medline. This log file contains the queries performed on Pubmed during 24 hours. Most queries could not be used as search topics directly as they do not contain image-related themes, but a few thousand do. Other types of queries had to be filtered out as well, as many stated information needs are very vague; for evaluation on the other hand clear and focused topics are necessary to obtain a limited number of relevant documents and limit ambiguity in the evaluation process. In the end, 30 queries were developed and 13 research groups submitted a total of 149 runs using a large variety of techniques, from textual to purely visual retrieval and multi-modal approaches. PMID:18487784

  2. Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the magazine NIH MedlinePlus the magazine is published quarterly, in print and on the ... up for a free subscription to NIH MedlinePlus Magazine. Librarians may order this magazine in bulk . Please ...

  3. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  4. MEDLINE: the options for health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, E H

    1994-01-01

    The bibliographic database MEDLINE, produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is a computerized index to the world's biomedical literature. The database can be searched back to 1966 and contains 6.8 million records. The various means of access are divided, for the purposes of this article, into three categories: logging onto a remote host computer by telephone and modem or by the Internet; subscribing to part or all of the database on compact disc (CD-ROM); and leasing the data on a transport medium such as magnetic tape or CDs for loading on a local host computer. Decisions about which method is preferable in a given situation depend on cost, availability of hardware and software, local expertise, and the size of the intended user population. Trends include increased access to the Internet by health professionals, increased network speed, links from MEDLINE records to full-text databases or online journals, and integration of MEDLINE into wider health information systems. PMID:7850561

  5. Small Sample Comparisons of the Cochran Q and the Minimum X sub one squared Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter Paul

    The Cochran Q and the Minimum X sub one squared statistics are two ways to test a hypothesis of equivalent correlated proportions. This study investigated the small sample properties of Q and X sub one squared by Monte Carlo methods. The observed distributions were compared for their rates of covergence to the limiting theoretical X sub one…

  6. Assessing Diagnostic Expertise of Counselors Using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witteman, Cilia L. M.; Weiss, David J.; Metzmacher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Counseling studies have shown that increasing experience is not always associated with better judgments. However, in such studies performance is assessed against external criteria, which may lack validity. The authors applied the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index, which assesses the ability to consistently discriminate. Results showed that novice…

  7. Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2002-01-01

    Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

  8. 78 FR 62678 - Morris W. Cochran, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... action.'' R.D. at 11 (citing Kamal Tiwari, 76 FR 76 FR 71604, 71605 (2011)). This is an... finding that the practitioner's federal registration had been suspended. See 76 FR at 71606 (discussing... Morris W. Cochran, 77 FR 17505 (2012). Following the hearing, which lasted three days, the ALJ issued...

  9. What time-lag for a retraction search on PubMed?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate fraud and errors, scientists have studied cohorts of retraction notices. These researches have been performed using a PubMed search on publication type “retraction of publication” which retrieves the notices of the retractions. We assessed the stability of the indexation of retraction notices over a 15-month period and what was the time-lag to get stability. Findings A search on notices of retraction issued in 2008 was repeated every 3 months during 15 months from February 2011. The first search resulted in 237 notices of retraction. Throughout the study period, 14 discrepancies with the initial search were observed (6%). We found that the number of retraction notices became stable 35 months after the retraction. Conclusions The time-lag observed in this study has to be taken into account when performing a PubMed search. PMID:24965905

  10. GO2PUB: Querying PubMed with semantic expansion of gene ontology terms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the development of high throughput methods of gene analyses, there is a growing need for mining tools to retrieve relevant articles in PubMed. As PubMed grows, literature searches become more complex and time-consuming. Automated search tools with good precision and recall are necessary. We developed GO2PUB to automatically enrich PubMed queries with gene names, symbols and synonyms annotated by a GO term of interest or one of its descendants. Results GO2PUB enriches PubMed queries based on selected GO terms and keywords. It processes the result and displays the PMID, title, authors, abstract and bibliographic references of the articles. Gene names, symbols and synonyms that have been generated as extra keywords from the GO terms are also highlighted. GO2PUB is based on a semantic expansion of PubMed queries using the semantic inheritance between terms through the GO graph. Two experts manually assessed the relevance of GO2PUB, GoPubMed and PubMed on three queries about lipid metabolism. Experts’ agreement was high (kappa = 0.88). GO2PUB returned 69% of the relevant articles, GoPubMed: 40% and PubMed: 29%. GO2PUB and GoPubMed have 17% of their results in common, corresponding to 24% of the total number of relevant results. 70% of the articles returned by more than one tool were relevant. 36% of the relevant articles were returned only by GO2PUB, 17% only by GoPubMed and 14% only by PubMed. For determining whether these results can be generalized, we generated twenty queries based on random GO terms with a granularity similar to those of the first three queries and compared the proportions of GO2PUB and GoPubMed results. These were respectively of 77% and 40% for the first queries, and of 70% and 38% for the random queries. The two experts also assessed the relevance of seven of the twenty queries (the three related to lipid metabolism and four related to other domains). Expert agreement was high (0.93 and 0.8). GO2PUB and GoPubMed performances were similar to those of the first queries. Conclusions We demonstrated that the use of genes annotated by either GO terms of interest or a descendant of these GO terms yields some relevant articles ignored by other tools. The comparison of GO2PUB, based on semantic expansion, with GoPubMed, based on text mining techniques, showed that both tools are complementary. The analysis of the randomly-generated queries suggests that the results obtained about lipid metabolism can be generalized to other biological processes. GO2PUB is available at http://go2pub.genouest.org. PMID:22958570

  11. Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Pitsouni, Eleni I; Malietzis, George A; Pappas, Georgios

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous medical databases on the World Wide Web, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. We compared the content coverage and practical utility of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The official Web pages of the databases were used to extract information on the range of journals covered, search facilities and restrictions, and update frequency. We used the example of a keyword search to evaluate the usefulness of these databases in biomedical information retrieval and a specific published article to evaluate their utility in performing citation analysis. All databases were practical in use and offered numerous search facilities. PubMed and Google Scholar are accessed for free. The keyword search with PubMed offers optimal update frequency and includes online early articles; other databases can rate articles by number of citations, as an index of importance. For citation analysis, Scopus offers about 20% more coverage than Web of Science, whereas Google Scholar offers results of inconsistent accuracy. PubMed remains an optimal tool in biomedical electronic research. Scopus covers a wider journal range, of help both in keyword searching and citation analysis, but it is currently limited to recent articles (published after 1995) compared with Web of Science. Google Scholar, as for the Web in general, can help in the retrieval of even the most obscure information but its use is marred by inadequate, less often updated, citation information. PMID:17884971

  12. PubMed and beyond: a survey of web tools for searching biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the modern advances of high-throughput technology and rapid growth of research capacity in producing large-scale biological data, both of which were concomitant with an exponential growth of biomedical literature. This wealth of scholarly knowledge is of significant importance for researchers in making scientific discoveries and healthcare professionals in managing health-related matters. However, the acquisition of such information is becoming increasingly difficult due to its large volume and rapid growth. In response, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is continuously making changes to its PubMed Web service for improvement. Meanwhile, different entities have devoted themselves to developing Web tools for helping users quickly and efficiently search and retrieve relevant publications. These practices, together with maturity in the field of text mining, have led to an increase in the number and quality of various Web tools that provide comparable literature search service to PubMed. In this study, we review 28 such tools, highlight their respective innovations, compare them to the PubMed system and one another, and discuss directions for future development. Furthermore, we have built a website dedicated to tracking existing systems and future advances in the field of biomedical literature search. Taken together, our work serves information seekers in choosing tools for their needs and service providers and developers in keeping current in the field. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/search. PMID:21245076

  13. Issues in the incorporation of economic perspectives and evidence into Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methods for systematic reviews of the effects of health interventions have focused mainly on addressing the question of 'What works?’ or 'Is this intervention effective in achieving one or more specific outcomes?’ Addressing the question 'Is it worth it given the resources available?’ has received less attention. This latter question can be addressed by applying an economic lens to the systematic review process. This paper reflects on the value and desire for the consideration by end users for coverage of an economic perspective in a Cochrane review and outlines two potential approaches and future directions. Methods Two frameworks to guide review authors who are seeking to include an economic perspective are outlined. The first involves conducting a full systematic review of economic evaluations that is integrated into a review of intervention effects. The second involves developing a brief economic commentary. The two approaches share a set of common stages but allow the tailoring of the economic component of the Cochrane review to the skills and resources available to the review team. Results The number of studies using the methods outlined in the paper is limited, and further examples are needed both to explore the value of these approaches and to further develop them. The rate of progress will hinge on the organisational leadership, capacity and resources available to the CCEMG, author teams and other Cochrane entities. Particular methodological challenges to overcome relate to understanding the key economic trade-offs and casual relationships for a given decision problem and informing the development of evaluations designed to support local decision-makers. Conclusions Methods for incorporating economic perspectives and evidence into Cochrane intervention reviews are established. Their role is not to provide a precise estimate of 'cost-effectiveness’ but rather to help end-users of Cochrane reviews to determine the implications of the economic components of reviews for their own specific decisions. PMID:24050504

  14. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as ‘CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2.’ With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical–disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order covering diverse bio-entity relations. To assess the potential utility of our automated top-ranked patterns of a given relation in semantic search, we performed a pilot study on frequently sought semantic relations in PubMed and observed improved literature retrieval effectiveness based on post-hoc human relevance evaluation. Further investigation in larger tests and in real-world scenarios is warranted. PMID:27016698

  15. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as 'CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2' With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical-disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for theCCandCD taskwhen compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order covering diverse bio-entity relations. To assess the potential utility of our automated top-ranked patterns of a given relation in semantic search, we performed a pilot study on frequently sought semantic relations in PubMed and observed improved literature retrieval effectiveness based on post-hoc human relevance evaluation. Further investigation in larger tests and in real-world scenarios is warranted. PMID:27016698

  16. Txt2MEDLINE: Text-Messaging Access to MEDLINE/PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Muin, Michael; Tolentino, Herman; Ackerman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We developed a text messaging system for processing incoming Short Message Service (SMS) queries, retrieving medical journal citations from MEDLINE/PubMed and sending them back to the user in the text message format. A database of medical terminology abbreviations and acronyms was developed to reduce the size of text in journal citations and abstracts because of the 160-character per message limit of text messages. Queries may be sent as full-length terms or abbreviations. An algorithm transforms the citations into the SMS format. An abbreviated TBL (the bottom-line) summary instead of the full abstract is sent to the mobile device to shorten the resulting text. The system decreases citation size by 77.57.9%. Txt2MEDLINE provides physicians and healthcare personnel another rapid and convenient method for searching MEDLINE/PubMed through wireless mobile devices. It is accessible from any location worldwide where GSM wireless service is available. PMID:17238343

  17. Psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Parahoo, Kader; McDonough, Suzanne; McCaughan, Eilis; Noyes, Jane; Semple, Cherith; Halstead, Elizabeth J; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer in improving quality of life (QoL), self-efficacy and knowledge and in reducing distress, uncertainty and depression. We searched for trials using a range of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO to October 2013, together with hand searching of journals and reference lists. Randomised controlled trials were eligible if they included psychosocial interventions that explicitly used one or a combination of the following approaches: cognitive behavioural, psycho-educational, supportive and counselling. Interventions had to be delivered or facilitated by trained or lay personnel. Our outcomes were an improvement in QoL, self-efficacy and knowledge and a reduction in distress, uncertainty and depression. Pairs of review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed data using standardised mean differences (SMDs), random-effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In all, 19 studies with a total of 3 204 men, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer, comparing psychosocial interventions vs usual care were included in this review. Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a small, statistically significant improvement in the physical component of general health-related QoL (GHQoL) at end of intervention (SMD 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.22) based on low quality evidence. There was no clear evidence of benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for the mental component of GHQoL at end of intervention (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.06) based on moderate quality evidence. At end of intervention, cancer-related QoL showed a small improvement after psychosocial interventions (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). For prostate cancer-specific and symptom-related QoL, the differences between intervention and control groups were not significant. There was no clear evidence that psychosocial interventions were beneficial in improving self-efficacy at end of intervention (SMD 0.16, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.38) based on very low quality evidence. Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a moderate increase in prostate cancer knowledge at end of intervention (SMD 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.71) based on very low quality evidence. A small increase in knowledge with psychosocial interventions was noted at 3 months after intervention (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.04-0.58). The results for uncertainty (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.26) and distress (SMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.15) at end of intervention were compatible with both benefit and harm based on very low quality evidence. Finally, there was no clear evidence of benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for depression at end of intervention (SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.51 to 0.15) based on very low quality evidence. The overall risk of bias in the included studies was unclear or high, primarily as the result of performance bias. No data about stage of disease or treatment with androgen-deprivation therapy were extractable for subgroup analysis. Only one study addressed adverse effects. Overall, this review shows that psychosocial interventions may have small, short-term beneficial effects on certain domains of wellbeing, as measured by the physical component of GHQoL and cancer-related QoL when compared with usual care. Prostate cancer knowledge was also increased. However, this review failed to show a statistically significant effect on other domains such as symptom-related QoL, self-efficacy, uncertainty, distress or depression. Moreover, when beneficial effects were seen, it remained uncertain whether the magnitude of effect was large enough to be considered clinically important. The quality of evidence for most outcomes was rated as very low according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system, reflecting study limitations, loss to follow-up, study heterogeneity and small sample sizes. We were unable to perform meaningful subgroup analyses based on disease stage or treatment method. Although some findings of this review are encouraging, they do not provide sufficiently strong evidence to permit meaningful conclusions about the effects of these interventions in men with prostate cancer. Additional well executed and transparently reported research studies are necessary to establish the role of psychosocial interventions in men with prostate cancer. PMID:25429987

  18. Saving the Time of the Library User through Subject Access Innovation: Papers in Honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, William J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers in honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane on subject access issues in library and information science: (1) "Obstacles in Progress in Mechanized Subject Access and the Necessity of a Paradigm Change" (Robert Fugmann); (2) "On MARC and the Nature of Text Searching: A Review of Pauline Cochrane's Inspirational

  19. Saving the Time of the Library User through Subject Access Innovation: Papers in Honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, William J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers in honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane on subject access issues in library and information science: (1) "Obstacles in Progress in Mechanized Subject Access and the Necessity of a Paradigm Change" (Robert Fugmann); (2) "On MARC and the Nature of Text Searching: A Review of Pauline Cochrane's Inspirational…

  20. Archibald Cochrane (1909–1988): the father of evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Antonio; Challoumas, Dimitrios; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Professor Archibald Cochrane (1909–1988) is considered to be the originator of the idea of evidence-based medicine in our era. With his landmark book ‘Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health services’ he managed to inspire and positively influence the medical society with respect to the proper assessment of reliable evidence for the provision of the best medical care. His vision combined with his scientific achievements can be considered as the foundation of the Cochrane Collaboration; named after him in recognition of and gratitude for his pioneering work. We present the highlights of his adventurous and vibrant personal and academic life in an attempt to honour his contribution to shaping modern medical research. PMID:24140816

  1. Beyond PubMed: Searching the “Grey Literature” for Clinical Trial Results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the “grey literature.” Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites. PMID:25337445

  2. PubMed, The New York Times and The Chicago Tribune as Tools for Teaching Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Bernard S.

    2005-01-01

    An elementary course in human heredity for students not planning to major in the sciences can be based on current scientific literature and on the popular media. Examinations are constructed from questions on recent abstracts obtained from PubMed. The course is designed to promote writing skills in the sciences, and students write two papers in the course of a quarter. In the first paper, students trace the primary source of media reports on genetics and attempt to evaluate the reporter's translation. In a second paper, students write popular articles on the basis of current primary sources. PMID:16143615

  3. Cluster Randomised Trials in Cochrane Reviews: Evaluation of Methodological and Reporting Practice

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marty; Garner, Paul; Donegan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systematic reviews can include cluster-randomised controlled trials (C-RCTs), which require different analysis compared with standard individual-randomised controlled trials. However, it is not known whether review authors follow the methodological and reporting guidance when including these trials. The aim of this study was to assess the methodological and reporting practice of Cochrane reviews that included C-RCTs against criteria developed from existing guidance. Methods Criteria were developed, based on methodological literature and personal experience supervising review production and quality. Criteria were grouped into four themes: identifying, reporting, assessing risk of bias, and analysing C-RCTs. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched (2nd December 2013), and the 50 most recent reviews that included C-RCTs were retrieved. Each review was then assessed using the criteria. Results The 50 reviews we identified were published by 26 Cochrane Review Groups between June 2013 and November 2013. For identifying C-RCTs, only 56% identified that C-RCTs were eligible for inclusion in the review in the eligibility criteria. For reporting C-RCTs, only eight (24%) of the 33 reviews reported the method of cluster adjustment for their included C-RCTs. For assessing risk of bias, only one review assessed all five C-RCT-specific risk-of-bias criteria. For analysing C-RCTs, of the 27 reviews that presented unadjusted data, only nine (33%) provided a warning that confidence intervals may be artificially narrow. Of the 34 reviews that reported data from unadjusted C-RCTs, only 13 (38%) excluded the unadjusted results from the meta-analyses. Conclusions The methodological and reporting practices in Cochrane reviews incorporating C-RCTs could be greatly improved, particularly with regard to analyses. Criteria developed as part of the current study could be used by review authors or editors to identify errors and improve the quality of published systematic reviews incorporating C-RCTs. PMID:26982697

  4. Updated method guidelines for cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews and metaanalyses.

    PubMed

    Ghogomu, Elizabeth A T; Maxwell, Lara J; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Johnston, Renea V; Christensen, Robin D K; Rutjes, Anne W S; Winzenberg, Tania M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Zanoli, Gustavo; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit, international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. It is important that authors conducting CMSG reviews and the readers of our reviews be aware of and use updated, state-of-the-art systematic review methodology. One hundred sixty reviews have been published. Previous method guidelines for systematic reviews of interventions in the musculoskeletal field published in 2006 have been substantially updated to incorporate methodological advances that are mandatory or highly desirable in Cochrane reviews and knowledge translation advances. The methodological advances include new guidance on searching, new risk-of-bias assessment, grading the quality of the evidence, the new Summary of Findings table, and comparative effectiveness using network metaanalysis. Method guidelines specific to musculoskeletal disorders are provided by CMSG editors for various aspects of undertaking a systematic review. These method guidelines will help improve the quality of reporting and ensure high standards of conduct as well as consistency across CMSG reviews. PMID:24293581

  5. Relemed: sentence-level search engine with relevance score for the MEDLINE database of biomedical articles

    PubMed Central

    Siadaty, Mir S; Shu, Jianfen; Knaus, William A

    2007-01-01

    Background Receiving extraneous articles in response to a query submitted to MEDLINE/PubMed is common. When submitting a multi-word query (which is the majority of queries submitted), the presence of all query words within each article may be a necessary condition for retrieving relevant articles, but not sufficient. Ideally a relationship between the query words in the article is also required. We propose that if two words occur within an article, the probability that a relation between them is explained is higher when the words occur within adjacent sentences versus remote sentences. Therefore, sentence-level concurrence can be used as a surrogate for existence of the relationship between the words. In order to avoid the irrelevant articles, one solution would be to increase the search specificity. Another solution is to estimate a relevance score to sort the retrieved articles. However among the >30 retrieval services available for MEDLINE, only a few estimate a relevance score, and none detects and incorporates the relation between the query words as part of the relevance score. Results We have developed "Relemed", a search engine for MEDLINE. Relemed increases specificity and precision of retrieval by searching for query words within sentences rather than the whole article. It uses sentence-level concurrence as a statistical surrogate for the existence of relationship between the words. It also estimates a relevance score and sorts the results on this basis, thus shifting irrelevant articles lower down the list. In two case studies, we demonstrate that the most relevant articles appear at the top of the Relemed results, while this is not necessarily the case with a PubMed search. We have also shown that a Relemed search includes not only all the articles retrieved by PubMed, but potentially additional relevant articles, due to the extended 'automatic term mapping' and text-word searching features implemented in Relemed. Conclusion By using sentence-level matching, Relemed can deliver higher specificity, thus eliminating more false-positive articles. By introducing an appropriate relevance metric, the most relevant articles on which the user wishes to focus are listed first. Relemed also shrinks the displayed text, and hence the time spent scanning the articles. PMID:17214888

  6. History and Trends of "Personal Health Record" Research in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongeun; Bates, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review history and trends of personal health record research in PubMed and to provide accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions. Methods For the search strategy, PubMed was queried for 'personal health record, personal record, and PHR' in the title and abstract fields. Those containing different definitions of the word were removed by one-by-one analysis from the results, 695 articles. In the end, total of 229 articles were analyzed in this research. Results The results show that the changes in terms over the years and the shift to patient centeredness and mixed usage. And we identified history and trend of PHR research in some category that the number of publications by year, topic, methodologies and target diseases. Also from analysis of MeSH terms, we can show the focal interest in regards the PHR boundaries and related subjects. Conclusions For PHRs to be efficiently used by general public, initial understanding of the history and trends of PHR research may be helpful. Simultaneously, accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions that can lead to the development and growth of PHRs will be valuable to their adoption and expansion. PMID:21818452

  7. PSE: A tool for browsing a large amount of MEDLINE/PubMed abstracts with gene names and common words as the keywords

    PubMed Central

    Yoneya, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Background MEDLINE/PubMed (hereinafter called PubMed) is one of the most important literature databases for the biological and medical sciences, but it is impossible to read all related records due to the sheer size of the repository. We usually have to repeatedly enter keywords in a trial-and-error manner to extract useful records. Software which can reduce such a laborious task is therefore required. Results We developed a web-based software, the PubMed Sentence Extractor (PSE), which parses large number of PubMed abstracts, extracts and displays the co-occurrence sentences of gene names and other keywords, and some information from EntrezGene records. The result links to whole abstracts and other resources such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Men and Reference Sequence. While PSE executes at the sentence-level when evaluating the existence of keywords, the popular PubMed operates at the record-level. Therefore, the relationship between the two keywords, a gene name and a common word, is more accurately captured by PSE than PubMed. In addition, PSE shows the list of keywords and considers the synonyms and variations on gene names. Through these functions, PSE would reduce the task of searching through records for gene information. Conclusion We developed PSE in order to extract useful records efficiently from PubMed. This system has four advantages over a simple PubMed search; the reduction in the amount of collected literatures, the showing of keyword lists, the consideration for synonyms and variations on gene names, and the links to external databases. We believe PSE is helpful in collecting necessary literatures efficiently in order to find research targets. PSE is freely available under the GPL licence as additional files to this manuscript. PMID:16336692

  8. Scientometric Analysis of Nanotechnology in MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Asgharzadeh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nanotechnology is the study and application of extremely small materials and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. An alternative method for considering the trend of research activities in countries is quantitative analysis of scientific output. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of scientific output in the field of nanotechnology in MEDLINE during a period of 10 years 2001-2010. Methods The extraction of data was restricted to the data set that was indexed under the major heading of “nanotechnology” in MEDLINE through years 2001 – 2010. Data on patent applications was obtained from WIPO Statistics Database. Database of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) was selected from Web of Science to obtain publications indexed under the topic of nanotechnology. Results Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanotechnology have been increased steadily through the period of study. The number of publications in 2010 was ~ 84 times greater than those in 2001. English language consisting of 98% of total publications was the most dominant language of publications. Based on Bradford’s scattering’s law the journal of “Nanoscience and Nanotechnology” distributing 12.8% of total publications was the most prolific journal. Conclusion The USA contributing 39% of world’s publications in the field was the most productive country followed by China (10%), Germany (6%), Japan (6%), Korea (5%) and UK (4%). The majority of world’s publications (70%) were produced by these six countries. The tremendous growth of publications was simultaneously with the rapid growth of patent application in the field of Micro-structural and nano-technology in WIPO. PMID:23678427

  9. Celebrating 20 years of evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration: what has been the impact of systematic reviews on nephrology?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Craig, Jonathan C; Jones, Ann; Higgins, Gail; Willis, Narelle; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2015-06-01

    It has been 20 years since the Cochrane Collaboration started the global effort to synthesize evidence to improve healthcare. Since 1997, the Cochrane Renal Group has produced over 100 systematic reviews that have collectively had an important impact on nephrology care, guidelines and policy. In this article, we reflect on the ongoing need for randomized trials and systematic reviews in contemporary nephrology and the achievements of the Cochrane Collaboration so far. We also describe some of the challenges in clinical research still faced by the nephrology community today. PMID:25016606

  10. Identifying Clinical Study Types from PubMed Metadata: The Active (Machine) Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Adam G; Arachi, Diana; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2015-01-01

    We examined a process for automating the classification of articles in MEDLINE aimed at minimising manual effort without sacrificing accuracy. From 22,808 articles pertaining to 19 antidepressants, 1000 were randomly selected and manually labelled according to article type (including, randomised controlled trials, editorials, etc.). We applied a machine learning approach termed 'active learning', where the learner (machine) selects the order in which the user (human) labels examples. Via simulation, we determined the number of articles a user needed to label to produce a classifier with at least 95% recall and 90% precision in three scenarios related to evidence synthesis. We found that the active learning process reduced the number of training instances required by 70%, 19%, and 14% in the three scenarios. The results show that the active learning method may be used in some scenarios to produce accurate classifiers that meet the needs of evidence synthesis tasks and reduce manual effort. PMID:26262175

  11. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R – PubMedMiner – was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner’s functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  12. Biomedicine's electronic publishing paradigm shift: copyright policy and PubMed Central.

    PubMed

    Markovitz, B P

    2000-01-01

    Biomedical publishing stands at a crossroads. The traditional print, peer-reviewed, subscription journal has served science well but is now being called into question. Because of spiraling print journal costs and the worldwide acceptance of the Internet as a valid publication medium, there is a compelling opportunity to re-examine our current paradigm and future options. This report illustrates the conflicts and restrictions inherent in the current publishing model and examines how the single act of permitting authors to retain copyright of their scholarly manuscripts may preserve the quality-control function of the current journal system while allowing PubMed Central, the Internet archiving system recently proposed by the director of the National Institutes of Health, to simplify and liberate access to the world's biomedical literature. PMID:10833158

  13. Books for free? How can this be? - A PubMed resource you may be overlooking.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Ann K

    2006-07-01

    The NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) at the National Institutes of Health collects a wide range of molecular biological data, and develops tools and databases to analyse and disseminate this information. Many life scientists are familiar with the website maintained by the NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), because they use it to search GenBank for homologues of their genes of interest or to search the PubMed database for scientific literature of interest. There is also a database called the Bookshelf that includes searchable popular life science textbooks, medical and research reference books and NCBI reference materials. The Bookshelf can be useful for researchers and educators to find basic biological information. This article includes a representative list of the resources currently available on the Bookshelf, as well as instructions on how to access the information in these resources. PMID:16776646

  14. PubMed vs. HighWire Press: a head-to-head comparison of two medical literature search engines.

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, Thomas E; Barnes, Michael A; Zimmerman, Janet; Shoichet, Sandor

    2007-09-01

    PubMed and HighWire Press are both useful medical literature search engines available for free to anyone on the internet. We measured retrieval accuracy, number of results generated, retrieval speed, features and search tools on HighWire Press and PubMed using the quick search features of each. We found that using HighWire Press resulted in a higher likelihood of retrieving the desired article and higher number of search results than the same search on PubMed. PubMed was faster than HighWire Press in delivering search results regardless of search settings. There are considerable differences in search features between these two search engines. PMID:17184763

  15. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Interventions for Improving Upper Limb Function after Stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,11:CD010820].

    PubMed

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Torres Cardoso, André; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of the upper limbs is quite frequent after stroke, making rehabilitation an essential step towards clinical recovery and patient empowerment. This review aimed to synthetize existing evidence regarding interventions for upper limb function improvement after Stroke and to assess which would bring some benefit. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Reviews of Effects and PROSPERO databases were searched until June 2013 and 40 reviews have been included, covering 503 studies, 18 078 participants and 18 interventions, as well as different doses and settings of interventions. The main results were: 1- Information currently available is insufficient to assess effectiveness of each intervention and to enable comparison of interventions; 2- Transcranial direct current stimulation brings no benefit for outcomes of activities of daily living; 3- Moderate-quality evidence showed a beneficial effect of constraint-induced movement therapy, mental practice, mirror therapy, interventions for sensory impairment, virtual reality and repetitive task practice; 4- Unilateral arm training may be more effective than bilateral arm training; 5- Moderate-quality evidence showed a beneficial effect of robotics on measures of impairment and ADLs; 6- There is no evidence of benefit or harm for technics such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, music therapy, pharmacological interventions, electrical stimulation and other therapies. Currently available evidence is insufficient and of low quality, not supporting clear clinical decisions. High-quality studies are still needed. PMID:26667856

  16. Challenges in integrating international evidence relating to stroke rehabilitation: experiences from a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Alex; Campbell, Pauline; Baer, Gillian; Choo, Pei Ling; Forster, Anne; Morris, Jacqui; Pomeroy, Valerie M; Langhorne, Peter

    2014-12-01

    There are many randomized controlled trials relating to stroke rehabilitation being carried out in China, which are often published in Chinese-language journals. A recent update to our Cochrane systematic review of physical rehabilitation to improve function and mobility after stroke included 96 trials; over half (51) were conducted in China; 37 of these included studies were published in Chinese. Analyses within this Cochrane review support the conclusion that physical rehabilitation, using a mix of components from different approaches, is effective for the recovery of function and mobility after stroke. The inclusion of the Chinese studies had a substantial impact on the volume of evidence and, consequently, the conclusions. In this paper, we explore whether it is appropriate to draw implications for clinical practice throughout the world from evidence relating to a complex rehabilitation intervention delivered within one particular geographical healthcare setting. We explore the unique challenges associated with incorporating the body of evidence from China, particularly the Chinese-language publications, and identify the ongoing debate about the quality of Chinese research publications. We conclude that the growing body of evidence from China has important implications for future systematic reviews and evidence-based stroke care, but analysis and interpretation raise challenges, and improved reporting is critical. PMID:25381686

  17. Intervention for replacing missing teeth: Different types of implants - evidence summary of updated Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balendra Pratap; Jivanani, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Around 1300 different types of dental implants are available worldwide and the implant manufacturers are resorting to aggressive marketing strategies; claiming their implants to provide a superior outcome. The clinician is left with a constant dilemma on which implant to choose for better clinical outcome and welfare of the patient. Moreover, in India, economical consideration is a concern too. The dentist has to select an implant that provides a good result and is economical. Cochrane systematic reviews provide the gold standard evidence for intervention, diagnosis, etc., and follow a strict quality control. A Cochrane systematic review was done to shed light on whether the different implant surface modifications, shapes or materials significantly influence clinical outcomes. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) till January 17, 2014 were searched and out of the 81 trials, only 27 met the inclusion criteria. This evidence summary from the review concludes that based on the available literature; there is no evidence of any one type of implant being superior to another. There is weak evidence showing roughened dental implants are more prone to bone loss due to periimplantitis. This review indicated that there is a need for well-designed RCTs, with long-term follow-up and low bias. Moreover, none of the included studies was from India, which also points out the need for improving the quality of RCTs conducted in India. PMID:26929524

  18. Clinical trials of investigational agents for IPF: a review of a Cochrane report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of treatment effect can be assessed by a number of methods. One reliable method of collectively analysing data from randomised clinical trials is that used in Cochrane reviews. These systematic reviews identify and analyse the available evidence using the reliable method of meta-analysis. These often combine data from studies to provide robust evaluations of overall treatment effects. In 2003, a review of data from studies of corticosteroid use in IPF patients found no evidence of a treatment effect. Similarly, very little evidence was found to support the use of immunomodulatory agents. A recent update of these Cochrane reviews failed to identify any new evidence supporting the use of corticosteroids in IPF. However, a review of non-steroid agents for the treatment of IPF identified data from 15 RCTs that was suitable for analysis. Two trials of interferon gamma-1b were pooled and analysed, but no treatment effect was observed in terms of survival. Meta-analysis of three Phase III studies of pirfenidone treatment in IPF patients suggested that progression-free survival was significantly increased by 30%, demonstrating a reduction in the decline of lung function in IPF patients. In addition, there are numerous ongoing trials investigating potential therapeutic agents which provides hope for IPF patients and their doctors. PMID:23734867

  19. A Search Engine to Access PubMed Monolingual Subsets: Proof of Concept and Evaluation in French

    PubMed Central

    Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. Objective The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). Methods To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. Results More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. Conclusions It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese. PMID:25448528

  20. Finding Good Health Information on the Internet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: MedlinePlus Advantage The MedlinePlus Advantage Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents MedlinePlus is the National Institutes of Health's website for patients and ...

  1. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Winter 2016

    MedlinePlus

    ... The new edition of NIH MedlinePlus magazine covers dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, as well as Crohn's disease. The ... MedlinePlus magazine also provides a special section about dyslexia, a common learning disability. NIH MedlinePlus magazine reports ...

  2. Evaluating the impact of MEDLINE using the Critical Incident Technique.

    PubMed

    Siegel, E R; Rapp, B A; Lindberg, D A

    1991-01-01

    An adaptation of the Critical Incident Technique for the evaluation of an online information system is described. 552 users of the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, interviewed by telephone and responding to a highly structured set of open-ended questions, reported 1,158 incidents in which the results of a MEDLINE search was especially helpful (or not helpful) in carrying out professional activities. Systematic analysis of these "critical incidents" produced three comprehensive and detailed views of the purposes and outcomes of MEDLINE searches: (1) why information is sought from MEDLINE; (2) the impact of MEDLINE-derived information on medical decision-making; and (3) the ultimate outcome of having (or not having) the desired information on medical situations prompting a MEDLINE search. Results revealed that MEDLINE is used to satisfy a diversity of medical needs concerning patient care, the progress of biomedical research, the quality of education received by health professionals in training, the safety and effectiveness of health care institutions, the operation of the system of third-party reimbursement, for legal decisions, and for the knowledge of the public. PMID:1807723

  3. Literature search on risk factors for sarcoma: PubMed and Google Scholar may be complementary sources

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Within the context of a European network dedicated to the study of sarcoma the relevant literature on sarcoma risk factors was collected by searching PubMed and Google Scholar, the two information storage and retrieval databases which can be accessed without charge. The present study aims to appraise the relative proficiency of PubMed and Google Scholar. Findings Unlike PubMed, Google Scholar does not allow a choice between "Human" and "Animal" studies, nor between "Classical" and other types of studies. As a result, searches with Google Scholar produced high numbers of citations that have to be filtered. Google Scholar resulted in a higher sensitivity (proportion of relevant articles, meeting the search criteria), while PubMed in a higher specificity (proportion of lower quality articles not meeting the criteria, that are not retrieved). Concordance between Google Scholar and PubMed was as low as 8%. Conclusions This study focused just on one topic. Although further studies are warranted, PM and GS appear to be complementary and their integration could greatly improve the search of references in medical research. PMID:20459746

  4. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed.

    PubMed

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2010-07-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of 'high-quality' SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments. PMID:20551243

  5. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership—retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Does PubMed Central—a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles—compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers.—Davis, P. M. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership—retrospective cohort analysis. PMID:23554455

  6. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of ‘high-quality’ SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments. PMID:20551243

  7. "Is Cybermedicine Killing You?"--The story of a Cochrane disaster.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Kummervold, Per Egil

    2005-01-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the series of unfortunate events that led to the publication, dissemination, and eventual retraction of a flawed Cochrane systematic review on interactive health communication applications (IHCAs), which was widely reported in the media with headlines such as "Internet Makes Us Sick," "Knowledge May Be Hazardous to Web Consumers' Health," "Too Much Advice Can Be Bad for Your Health," "Click to Get Sick?," and even "Is Cybermedicine Killing You?". While the media attention helped to speed up the identification of errors, leading to a retraction of the review after only 13 days, a paper published in this issue of JMIR by Rada shows that the retraction, in contrast to the original review, remained largely unnoticed by the public. We discuss the three flaws of the review, which include (1) data extraction and coding errors, (2) the pooling of heterogeneous studies, and (3) a problematic and ambiguous scope and, possibly, some overlooked studies. We then discuss "retraction ethics" for researchers, editors/publishers, and journalists. Researchers and editors should, in the case of retractions, match the aggressiveness of the original dissemination campaign if errors are detected. It is argued that researchers and their organizations may have an ethical obligation to track down journalists who reported stories on the basis of a flawed study and to specifically ask them to publish an article indicating the error. Journalists should respond to errors or retractions with reports that have the same prominence as the original story. Finally, we look at some of the lessons for the Cochrane Collaboration, which include (1) improving the peer-review system by routinely sending out pre-prints to authors of the original studies, (2) avoiding downplay of the magnitude of errors if they occur, (3) addressing the usability issues of RevMan, and (4) making critical articles such as retraction notices open access. PMID:15998612

  8. Evidence-based management of vitiligo: summary of a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Whitton, M; Pinart, M; Batchelor, J M; Leonardi-Bee, J; Gonzalez, U; Jiyad, Z; Eleftheriadou, V; Ezzedine, K

    2016-05-01

    Vitiligo affects around 1% of the world's population. Despite it being relatively common, there is still no effective treatment. The objective of this study was to update the Cochrane systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy of treatments for vitiligo. We carried out searches of a range of databases to October 2013 for RCTs of interventions for vitiligo regardless of language or publication status. At least two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and methodological quality and extracted data using data extraction forms approved by the Cochrane Skin Group. Our primary outcomes of interest were quality of life, > 75% repigmentation and adverse effects. We retrieved 96 studies, of which 39 were new studies, with an overall total of 4512 participants. Repigmentation was assessed in all studies, although only five reported on all three of our primary outcomes. Regarding our two secondary outcomes, six studies measured cessation of spread but none assessed long-term permanence of repigmentation at 2 years' follow-up. Most of the studies evaluated combination treatments, which generally showed better repigmentation than monotherapies. Of the new studies, seven were surgical interventions. The majority of the studies had fewer than 50 participants. The quality of the studies was poor to moderate at best. Very few studies specifically included children or participants with segmental vitiligo. Five years after the last update of this review, there are still important variations in study design and outcome measures in clinical trials for vitiligo, limiting the evidence for the efficacy of different therapeutic options. The best evidence from individual trials showed short-term benefit from topical corticosteroids and various forms of ultraviolet radiation combined with topical preparations. Long-term follow-up and patient-rated outcomes should be incorporated into study design, and more studies should assess psychological interventions. PMID:26686510

  9. To Your Health: NLM update—MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/toyourhealth.html To Your Health: NLM update To use the sharing features on ... presents a weekly audio update that highlights consumer health news and accompanying information from MedlinePlus. Title Date ...

  10. MedlinePlus Marks its 15th Anniversary

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    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/anniversary.html MedlinePlus Marks its 15 th Anniversary To use the sharing features ... people across the country and around the world. It now includes: Over 950 pages providing links to ...

  11. Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

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    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Winter 2007 ... and tireless diabetes research advocate Mary Tyler Moore help launch the first official issue of the magazine ...

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    ... her experience recently with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What did you notice about your vision that told you ... how long it would take to recover. Where did you go for information about cataracts and surgery? ...

  14. Health Information in Tongan (Lea Fakatonga): MedlinePlus

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    ... Reasons I Find Time to Prevent Diabetes: My Future and Theirs - English Lea Fakatonga (Tongan) PDF National Diabetes Education Program Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  15. Kids Create Healthy Comics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: High School Students Using Medline Plus Kids Create Healthy Comics ... To that end, students from three South Carolina high schools are experimenting with imaginative ways to engage and ...

  16. Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov

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    ... Issue Past Issues Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... on. No matter where you are in the world, www.medlineplus.gov is your best global source ...

  17. Microtask crowdsourcing for disease mention annotation in PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Good, Benjamin M; Nanis, Max; Wu, Chunlei; Su, Andrew I

    2015-01-01

    Identifying concepts and relationships in biomedical text enables knowledge to be applied in computational analyses. Many biological natural language processing (BioNLP) projects attempt to address this challenge, but the state of the art still leaves much room for improvement. Progress in BioNLP research depends on large, annotated corpora for evaluating information extraction systems and training machine learning models. Traditionally, such corpora are created by small numbers of expert annotators often working over extended periods of time. Recent studies have shown that workers on microtask crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) can, in aggregate, generate high-quality annotations of biomedical text. Here, we investigated the use of the AMT in capturing disease mentions in PubMed abstracts. We used the NCBI Disease corpus as a gold standard for refining and benchmarking our crowdsourcing protocol. After several iterations, we arrived at a protocol that reproduced the annotations of the 593 documents in the 'training set' of this gold standard with an overall F measure of 0.872 (precision 0.862, recall 0.883). The output can also be tuned to optimize for precision (max = 0.984 when recall = 0.269) or recall (max = 0.980 when precision = 0.436). Each document was completed by 15 workers, and their annotations were merged based on a simple voting method. In total 145 workers combined to complete all 593 documents in the span of 9 days at a cost of $.066 per abstract per worker. The quality of the annotations, as judged with the F measure, increases with the number of workers assigned to each task; however minimal performance gains were observed beyond 8 workers per task. These results add further evidence that microtask crowdsourcing can be a valuable tool for generating well-annotated corpora in BioNLP. Data produced for this analysis are available at http://figshare.com/articles/Disease_Mention_Annotation_with_Mechanical_Turk/1126402. PMID:25592589

  18. Trends and topics in eye disease research in PubMed from 2010 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Denion, Eric; Mortemousque, Bruno; Mouriaux, Fréderic

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to provide a report on scientific production during the period 2010–2014 in order to identify the major topics as well as the predominant actors (journals, countries, continents) involved in the field of eye disease. Methods: A PubMed search was carried out to extract articles related to eye diseases during the period 2010–2014. Data were downloaded and processed through developed PHP scripts for further analysis. Results: A total of 62,123 articles were retrieved. A total of 3,368 different journals were found, and 19 journals were identified as “core journals” according to Braford’s law. English was by far the predominant language. A total of 853,182 MeSH terms were found, representing an average of 13.73 (SD = 4.98) MeSH terms per article. Among these 853,182 MeSH terms, 14,689 different MeSH terms were identified. Vision Disorders, Glaucoma, Diabetic Retinopathy, Macular Degeneration, and Cataract were the most frequent five MeSH terms related to eye diseases. The analysis of the total number of publications showed that Europe and Asia were the most productive continents, and the USA and China the most productive countries. Interestingly, using the mean Five-Year Impact Factor, the two most productive continents were North America and Oceania. After adjustment for population, the overall ranking positions changed in favor of smaller countries (i.e. Iceland, Switzerland, Denmark, and New Zealand), while after adjustment for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the overall ranking positions changed in favor of some developing countries (Malawi, Guatemala, Singapore). Conclusions: Due to the large number of articles included and the numerous parameters analyzed, this study provides a wide view of scientific productivity related to eye diseases during the period 2010–2014 and allows us to better understand this field. PMID:26819840

  19. Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Cynthia; Murray, Alison; Burr, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Background Health technology assessments of surgical interventions frequently require the inclusion of non-randomised evidence. Literature search strategies employed to identify this evidence often exclude a methodological component because of uncertainty surrounding the use of appropriate search terms. This can result in the retrieval of a large number of irrelevant records. Methodological filters would help to minimise this, making literature searching more efficient. Methods An objective approach was employed to develop MEDLINE and EMBASE filters, using a reference standard derived from screening the results of an electronic literature search that contained only subject-related terms. Candidate terms for MEDLINE (N = 37) and EMBASE (N = 35) were derived from examination of the records of the reference standard. The filters were validated on two sets of studies that had been included in previous health technology assessments. Results The final filters were highly sensitive (MEDLINE 99.5%, EMBASE 100%, MEDLINE/EMBASE combined 100%) with precision ranging between 16.7% – 21.1%, specificity 35.3% – 43.5%, and a reduction in retrievals of over 30%. Against the validation standards, the individual filters retrieved 85.2% – 100% of records. In combination, however, the MEDLINE and EMBASE filters retrieved 100% against both validation standards with a reduction in retrieved records of 28.4% and 30.1% Conclusion The MEDLINE and EMBASE filters were highly sensitive and substantially reduced the number of records retrieved, indicating that they are useful tools for efficient literature searching. PMID:16919159

  20. Celebrating methodological challenges and changes: reflecting on the emergence and importance of the role of qualitative evidence in Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cochrane systematic reviews have proven to be beneficial for decision making processes, both on a practitioner and a policy level, and there are current initiatives to extend the types of evidence used by them, including qualitative research. In this article we outline the major achievements of the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group. Although the Group has encountered numerous challenges in dealing with the evolution of qualitative evidence synthesis, both outside and within the Cochrane Collaboration, it has successfully responded to the challenges posed in terms of incorporating qualitative evidence in systematic reviews. The Methods Group will continue to advocate for more flexible and inclusive approaches to evidence synthesis in order to meet the exciting challenges and opportunities presented by mixed methods systematic reviews and reviews of complex interventions. PMID:24135194

  1. Do trialists endorse clinical trial registration? Survey of a Pubmed sample

    PubMed Central

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Krleža-Jerić, Karmela; Chan, An-Wen; De Aguiar, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Despite intense interest in trial registration, there is a wide gap between theoretical postulates on trial registration and its implementation worldwide. Objective We aimed to evaluate trialists views about current international guidelines on trial registration, including the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) policies and the Ottawa Statement, as well as their intention to register any future clinical trials they conduct. Methods We identified all 40,158 PUBMED-indexed clinical trials published from May 2005 to May 2006 using an advanced search strategy. From a random sample of 500 confirmed clinical trials, corresponding authors with e-mail contact addresses were surveyed. Results A total of 275 (60%) questionnaires from 45 countries were completed. 31% of the respondents had received only nonindustry funding during the past ten years, while 5% and 61% had received only industry or mixed funding respectively. Approximately two third of participants supported registration of all 20 WHO Data Set items, and endorsed the Ottawa Statement part 1 and part 2. Delayed public disclosure of some essential data in instances where they may be considered sensitive for competitive commercial reasons was supported by 30% of the participants, whereas immediate disclosure was supported by 53%. Only 21% of participants had registered all of their ongoing trials since 2005, while 47% stated that they would provide the 20 WHO Data Set items to a publicly accessible register for all their future clinical trials; a significantly higher proportion of participants who received only nonindustry funding (62%) was found among those who would always provide the 20 WHO items for future trials, compared to 42% of participants who received mixed or only industry funding. Among those who were undecided about endorsing registration. One third of participants expressed a lack of sufficient knowledge as the primary reason. Conclusion Although disagreement was apparent on certain issues, our findings illustrate that trial registration is gradually becoming part of the current research paradigm internationally. Our results also suggest that researchers require more knowledge to inform their decision to comply with the International standards at this early stage of voluntary trial registration. PMID:17956618

  2. Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most

  3. Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…

  4. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership--retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M

    2013-07-01

    Does PubMed Central--a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles--compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers. PMID:23554455

  5. Improving links between literature and biological data with text mining: a case study with GEO, PDB and MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Névéol, Aurélie; Wilbur, W John; Lu, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput experiments and bioinformatics techniques are creating an exploding volume of data that are becoming overwhelming to keep track of for biologists and researchers who need to access, analyze and process existing data. Much of the available data are being deposited in specialized databases, such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for microarrays or the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for protein structures and coordinates. Data sets are also being described by their authors in publications archived in literature databases such as MEDLINE and PubMed Central. Currently, the curation of links between biological databases and the literature mainly relies on manual labour, which makes it a time-consuming and daunting task. Herein, we analysed the current state of link curation between GEO, PDB and MEDLINE. We found that the link curation is heterogeneous depending on the sources and databases involved, and that overlap between sources is low, <50% for PDB and GEO. Furthermore, we showed that text-mining tools can automatically provide valuable evidence to help curators broaden the scope of articles and database entries that they review. As a result, we made recommendations to improve the coverage of curated links, as well as the consistency of information available from different databases while maintaining high-quality curation. Database URLs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/, http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ PMID:22685160

  6. Tweeting links to Cochrane Schizophrenia Group reviews: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Adams, C E; Bodart, A Y M; Sampson, S; Zhao, S; Montgomery, A A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of using health social media on web activity. Design Individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. Setting Twitter and Weibo. Participants 170 Cochrane Schizophrenia Group full reviews with an abstract and plain language summary web page. Interventions Three randomly ordered slightly different 140 character or less messages, each containing a short URL to the freely accessible summary page sent on specific times on one single day. This was compared with no messaging. Outcome The primary outcome was web page visits at 1 week. Secondary outcomes were other metrics of web activity at 1 week. Results 85 reviews were randomised to each of the intervention and control arms. Google Analytics allowed 100% follow-up within 1 week of completion. Intervention and control reviews received a total of 1162 and 449 visits, respectively (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2 to 3.3). Fewer intervention reviews had single page only visits (16% vs 31%, OR 0.41, 0.19 to 0.88) and users spent more time viewing intervention reviews (geometric mean 76 vs 31 s, ratio 2.5, 1.3 to 4.6). Other secondary metrics of web activity all showed strong evidence in favour of the intervention. Conclusions Tweeting in this limited area of healthcare increases ‘product placement’ of evidence with the potential for that to influence care. Trial registration number ISRCTN84658943. PMID:26956164

  7. Interventions for the treatment of trachoma: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Craig; Stern, Cindy

    2014-12-01

    Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Infection with C.?trachomatis produces characteristic changes to the inner surface of the eyelids, resulting in sequela that when left untreated, leads to vision impairment and blindness. Repeated trachoma infections can cause severe scarring of the inside of the eyelid and can cause the eyelashes to scratch the cornea (trichiasis). The objective of this overview was to synthesize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews regarding the treatment of trachoma, and to provide a brief and user-friendly front end for health professionals, researchers and policy makers. Face washing plus topical tetracycline eye ointment gave no additional protective benefit against active trachoma when compared with topical tetracycline eye ointment alone. Nor was any benefit conferred in the presence of severe trachoma. Primary health-care education was found to be effective in reducing the odds of active trachoma. Evidence of benefit from insecticide spray or provision of latrines away from living areas was inconclusive for active trachoma. Surgical interventions that involve full-thickness incision with tarsal rotation are more effective than alternate surgical procedures. PMID:25532886

  8. The reporting characteristics and methodological quality of Cochrane reviews about health policy research.

    PubMed

    Xiu-xia, Li; Ya, Zheng; Yao-long, Chen; Ke-hu, Yang; Zong-jiu, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    The systematic review has increasingly become a popular tool for researching health policy. However, due to the complexity and diversity in the health policy research, it has also encountered more challenges. We set out the Cochrane reviews on health policy research as a representative to provide the first examination of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics as well as the compliance of methodological quality with the AMSTAR. 99 reviews were included by inclusion criteria, 73% of which were Implementation Strategies, 15% were Financial Arrangements and 12% were Governance Arrangements; involved Public Health (34%), Theoretical Exploration (18%), Hospital Management (17%), Medical Insurance (12%), Pharmaceutical Policy (9%), Community Health (7%) and Rural Health (2%). Only 39% conducted meta-analysis, and 49% reported being updates, and none was rated low methodological quality. Our research reveals that the quantity and quality of the evidence should be improved, especially Financial Arrangements and Governance Arrangements involved Rural Health, Health Care Reform and Health Equity, etc. And the reliability of AMSTAR needs to be tested in larger range in this field. PMID:25260911

  9. The role of The Cochrane Collaboration in support of the WHO Nutrition Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tovey, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the background and contribution of The Cochrane Collaboration to the WHO Nutrition Guidelines program. Systematic reviews, augmented by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology for assessing the quality of a body of evidence, form the evidence basis for WHO guidelines. Our shared experience of working together has highlighted a number of issues that are challenging, such as decisions made about selecting appropriate questions for evidence synthesis and the nature of study types that are included, in particular the decision on whether or not to extend a search beyond randomized studies. Although the skills and experience required for evidence synthesis are different from those needed to determine recommendations for policy and practice, our experience suggests that some engagement between the two groups is mutually beneficial. Finally, our experience highlights the recognition that evidence of effectiveness is essential but by no means sufficient to guide decisions on recommendations. Programmatic and implementation considerations are important to guide decision making and the evidence basis for this may be limited; therefore, it is essential that groups involved in delivering interventions to populations are also engaged in the guidelines process. PMID:24425720

  10. Matching references with MEDLINE via TCP/IP.

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Bibliographic references are an important part of databases and information resources used by clinicians and biomedical researchers. In addition to the obvious clerical advantages of standard references, bibliographic references can also be used as links to related items in different data sets. This paper describes an effort that involved matching references from a variety of disparate databases to canonical MEDLINE references. The references matched were those involved in a database unification project which is part of the Mouse Genome Informatics effort at The Jackson Laboratory. Software was developed to take advantage of a commercially available retrieval engine which accesses MEDLINE on CD-ROM disks. The software permits client programs on UNIX/C, and potentially other environments, to access unabridged MEDLINE via networks supporting the TCP/IP protocols. The matching process described can be used as a model for similar efforts with different research or clinical data sets, as well as different hardware or software environments. PMID:8130546

  11. Latin American biomedical publications: the case of Colombia in Medline.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, D

    1998-05-01

    Latin America generates a low proportion of the references quoted in Medline, the most popular health-related literature search database in the world. This paper explores references from and about Colombia in Medline during the period 1987-1996. Topics addressed, patterns of authorship and research locations are established. The number of Latin American journals indexed in Medline has been progressively reduced during this 10-year period, with Colombian journals completely excluded since 1991. During this 10-year period, the total output of Colombian research institutions in foreign journals consisted of 531 articles, 41% (219) of which come from the four leading universities. These figures are substantially lower than those from other countries of the region such as Venezuela or Chile. Despite some governmental efforts, Colombia continues to have a low scientific output and has yet to attract the interest of foreign researchers. Alternatives for development of Latin American research and publications are offered. PMID:9743781

  12. Getting evidence into practice: the work of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of care Group (EPOC).

    PubMed

    Mowatt, G; Grimshaw, J M; Davis, D A; Mazmanian, P E

    2001-01-01

    Policy makers and continuing educators often face difficult decisions about which educational and quality assurance interventions to provide. Where possible, such decisions are best informed by rigorous evidence, such as that provided by systematic reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration is an international organization that aims to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining, and ensuring the accessibility of systematic reviews of the benefits and risks of health care interventions. International collaborative review groups prepare Cochrane reviews for publication in The Cochrane Library, a collection of databases available on CD-ROM and the World Wide Web and updated quarterly. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC) aims to prepare and maintain systematic reviews of professional, financial, organizational, and regulatory interventions that are designed to improve professional practice and the delivery of effective health services. EPOC has 17 reviews and 20 protocols published in Issue 3, 2000, of the Cochrane Library, with further protocols in development. We also have undertaken an overview of previously published systematic reviews of professional behavior change strategies. Our specialized register contains details of over 1,800 studies that fall within the group's scope. Systematic reviews provide a valuable source of information for policy makers and educators involved in planning continuing education and quality assurance initiatives and organizational change. EPOC will attempt to keep the Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions informed on an ongoing basis about new systematic reviews that it produces in the area of continuing medical education and quality assurance. PMID:11291587

  13. ω-3 Fatty acids for major depressive disorder in adults: an abridged Cochrane review

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Katherine M; Sallis, Hannah M; Perry, Rachel; Ness, Andrew R; Churchill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs; also known as ω-3 fatty acids) compared with comparator for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. Data sources The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Registers (CCDANCTR) and International Trial Registries searched to May 2015. CINAHL searched to September 2013. Trial selection Inclusion criteria: a randomised controlled trial (RCT); that provided n-3PUFAs as an intervention; used a comparator; measured depressive symptomology as an outcome; and was conducted in adults with MDD. Outcomes Primary outcomes were depressive symptomology and adverse events. Results 20 trials encompassing 26 relevant studies were found. For n-3PUFAs versus placebo, n-3PUFA supplementation resulted in a small-to-modest benefit for depressive symptomology: SMD=−0.32 (95% CI −0.52 to −0.12; 25 studies, 1373 participants, very low-quality evidence), but this effect is unlikely to be clinically meaningful, is very imprecise and, based on funnel plot inspection, sensitivity analyses and comparison with large well-conducted trials, is likely to be biased. Considerable evidence of heterogeneity between studies was also found, and was not explained by subgroup or sensitivity analyses. Numbers of individuals experiencing adverse events were similar in intervention and placebo groups (OR=1.24, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.62; 19 studies, 1207 participants; very low-quality evidence). For n-3PUFAs versus antidepressants, no differences were found between treatments in depressive symptomology (MD=−0.70 (95% CI −5.88 to 4.48); 1 study, 40 participants, very low-quality evidence). Conclusions At present, we do not have sufficient evidence to determine the effects of n-3PUFAs as a treatment for MDD. Further research in the form of adequately powered RCTs is needed. PMID:26936905

  14. Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care: executive summary of a Cochrane Collaboration systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mochamat; Cuhls, Henning; Peuckmann‐Post, Vera; Minton, Ollie; Stone, Patrick; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In palliative care patients, fatigue can be severely debilitating and is often not counteracted with rest, thereby impacting daily activity and quality of life. Further complicating issues are the multidimensionality, subjective nature and lack of a consensus definition of fatigue. The review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for fatigue in palliative care, with a focus on patients at an advanced stage of disease, including patients with cancer and other chronic diseases. Methods We considered randomized controlled trials concerning adult palliative care with a focus on pharmacological treatment of fatigue compared with placebo, application of two drugs, usual care or a non‐pharmacological intervention. The primary outcome had to be non‐specific fatigue (or related terms such as asthenia). We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE, and a selection of cancer journals up to 28 April 2014. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Results We screened 1645 publications of which 45 met the inclusion criteria. In total, we analysed data from 18 drugs and 4696 participants. There was a very high degree of statistical and clinical heterogeneity in the trials. Meta‐analysis of data was possible for modafinil, pemoline, and methylphenidate. Conclusions Due to the limited evidence, we cannot recommend a specific drug for the treatment of fatigue in palliative care patients. Some drugs, which may be beneficial for the treatment of fatigue associated with palliative care such as amantadine, methylphenidate, and modafinil, should be further researched. PMID:27066315

  15. Using Noun Phrases for Navigating Biomedical Literature on Pubmed: How Many Updates Are We Losing Track of?

    PubMed Central

    Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The “related citations” on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed “related citations.” We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper – many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper. PMID:21935487

  16. Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases ... page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  17. Language and country preponderance trends in MEDLINE and its causes

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Alvar; Arroyo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors characterized the output of MEDLINE papers by language and country of publication during a thirty-four-year time period. Methods: We classified MEDLINE's journal articles by country of publication (Anglos/Non-Anglos) and language (English/Non-English) for the years 1966 and from 1970 to 2000 at five-year intervals. Eight English-speaking countries were considered Anglos. Linear regression analysis of number of papers versus time was performed. Results: The global number of papers increased linearly at a rate of 8,142 papers per year. Anglo and English papers also increased linearly (6,740 and 9,199, respectively). Journals of Non-Anglo countries accounted for 25% of the English language increase (2,438 per year). Only Non-English papers decreased at a rate of 1,056 fewer papers per year. These trends have led to overwhelming shares of English and Anglo papers in MEDLINE. In 2000, 68% of all papers were published in the 8 Anglo countries and 90% were written in English. Conclusions: The Anglo and English preponderances appear to be a consequence of at least two phenomena: (1) editorial policy changes in MEDLINE and in some journals from Non-Anglo countries and (2) factors affecting Non-Anglo researchers in the third world (publication constraints, migration, and undersupport). These are tentative conclusions that need confirmation. PMID:16059428

  18. Currency of Information Found in SilverPlatter's Medline CDROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the currency of the information found on SilverPlatter's Medline CD-ROM. Results show that the currency of information can vary tremendously. Priority level, periodicity, and prior database were found to have a low but highly significant influence on currency. Six tables and nine figures show results. (Author/AEF)

  19. Health Information in Italian (italiano): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/italian.html Health Information in Italian (italiano) To use the sharing features on this ... Polio Syndrome Polio Vaccine - English Vaccino Antipoliomelite - italiano (Italian) ... Health Information in Multiple Languages page. About MedlinePlus Site ...

  20. MedlinePlus FAQ: Information on Doctors or Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Many health topic pages in MedlinePlus contain a section which lists directories of doctors and services relevant to the topic. The Directories page lists many sources of information about physicians, other ...

  1. Welcome to MedlinePlus en español

    MedlinePlus

    ... para el público de la Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina, la biblioteca médica más grande del mundo. Los ... B. Lindberg, M.D. Director, Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina MedlinePlus.gov/salud Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 ...

  2. NIH Quickfinder | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1770 NIH MedlinePlus Advisory Group Marin P. Allen, Ph.D., Office of Communications and Public Liaison, NIH ... of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Richard E. Manrow, Ph.D., National Cancer Institute John McGrath, Ph.D., ...

  3. Interventions for hidradenitis suppurativa: a Cochrane systematic review incorporating GRADE assessment of evidence quality.

    PubMed

    Ingram, J R; Woo, P N; Chua, S L; Ormerod, A D; Desai, N; Kai, A C; Hood, K; Burton, T; Kerdel, F; Garner, S E; Piguet, V

    2016-05-01

    More than 50 interventions have been used to treat hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), and so therapy decisions can be challenging. Our objective was to summarize and appraise randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for HS interventions in adults. Searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, LILACS, five trials registers and abstracts from eight dermatology conferences until 13 August 2015. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Primary outcomes were quality of life and adverse effects of the interventions. Twelve trials, from 1983 to 2015, investigating 15 different interventions met our inclusion criteria. The median trial duration was 16 weeks and the median number of participants was 27. Adalimumab 40 mg weekly improved the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) by 4·0 points, which equates to the minimal clinically important difference for the scale, compared with placebo (95% confidence interval -6·5 to -1·5 points). Evidence quality was reduced to 'moderate' because the results are based on only a single study. Adalimumab 40 mg every other week was ineffective in a meta-analysis of two studies comprising 124 participants. Infliximab 5 mg kg(-1) improved the DLQI score by 8·4 points after 8 weeks in a moderate-quality study completed by 33 of 38 participants. Etanercept 50 mg twice weekly was ineffective. Inclusion of a gentamicin sponge prior to primary closure did not improve outcomes. Other interventions, including topical and oral antibiotics, were investigated by relatively small studies, preventing treatment recommendations due to imprecision. More, larger RCTs are required to investigate most HS interventions, particularly oral treatments and surgical therapy. Moderate-quality evidence suggests that adalimumab given weekly and infliximab are effective, whereas adalimumab every other week is ineffective. PMID:26801356

  4. Methotrexate monotherapy and methotrexate combination therapy with traditional and biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis: abridged Cochrane systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barnabe, Cheryl; Tomlinson, George; Marshall, Deborah; Devoe, Dan; Bombardier, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare methotrexate based disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) treatments for rheumatoid arthritis in patients naive to or with an inadequate response to methotrexate. Design Systematic review and Bayesian random effects network meta-analysis of trials assessing methotrexate used alone or in combination with other conventional synthetic DMARDs, biologic drugs, or tofacitinib in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Data sources Trials were identified from Medline, Embase, and Central databases from inception to 19 January 2016; abstracts from two major rheumatology meetings from 2009 to 2015; two trial registers; and hand searches of Cochrane reviews. Study selection criteria Randomized or quasi-randomized trials that compared methotrexate with any other DMARD or combination of DMARDs and contributed to the network of evidence between the treatments of interest. Main outcomes American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50 response (major clinical improvement), radiographic progression, and withdrawals due to adverse events. A comparison between two treatments was considered statistically significant if its credible interval excluded the null effect, indicating >97.5% probability that one treatment was superior. Results 158 trials were included, with between 10 and 53 trials available for each outcome. In methotrexate naive patients, several treatments were statistically superior to oral methotrexate for ACR50 response: sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine (“triple therapy”), several biologics (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, rituximab, tocilizumab), and tofacitinib. The estimated probability of ACR50 response was similar between these treatments (range 56-67%), compared with 41% with methotrexate. Methotrexate combined with adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, or infliximab was statistically superior to oral methotrexate for inhibiting radiographic progression, but the estimated mean change over one year with all treatments was less than the minimal clinically important difference of 5 units on the Sharp-van der Heijde scale. Triple therapy had statistically fewer withdrawals due to adverse events than methotrexate plus infliximab. After an inadequate response to methotrexate, several treatments were statistically superior to oral methotrexate for ACR50 response: triple therapy, methotrexate plus hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate plus leflunomide, methotrexate plus intramuscular gold, methotrexate plus most biologics, and methotrexate plus tofacitinib. The probability of response was 61% with triple therapy and ranged widely (27-70%) with other treatments. No treatment was statistically superior to oral methotrexate for inhibiting radiographic progression. Methotrexate plus abatacept had a statistically lower rate of withdrawals due to adverse events than several treatments. Conclusions Triple therapy (methotrexate plus sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine) and most regimens combining biologic DMARDs with methotrexate were effective in controlling disease activity, and all were generally well tolerated in both methotrexate naive and methotrexate exposed patients. PMID:27102806

  5. Systemic wound care: a meta-review of cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Ubbink, Dirk T; Santema, Trientje B; Stoekenbroek, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    Wound care is a classic example of a surgical realm with a great variation in care. The diversity in wounds and wound treatments, the limited amount of convincing evidence, and the diverging opinions among doctors and nurses involved in wound care contribute to this undesirable variation in care. For chronic wounds, such as arterial or venous ulcers, pressure sores, and diabetic foot ulcers, but also for acute wounds after surgery or trauma, international and national guidelines provide recommendations on diagnostic procedures and treatment options, but rely mostly on expert opinion. We present the available evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews for the systemic treatment (i.e., not prevention) of patients with wounds, as opposed to topical wound treatments. This evidence shows: - Venous ulcers: High-compression therapy is the classic and evidence-based treatment for treating venous ulcers. Oral pentoxifylline promotes ulcer healing with and without compression therapy. Oral zinc is not effective to heal venous ulcers. - Acute wounds: Recombinant human growth hormone accelerates healing of large burn wounds and donor sites, while high-carbohydrate feeding might reduce the risk of pneumonia. Linezolid is more effective than vancomycin for treating skin and soft tissue infections. Hyperbaric oxygen may help heal crush wounds and skin grafts. Therapeutic touch does not heal acute wounds. - Pressure sores: Air-fluidized and some low-tech devices appear effective for treating existing pressure ulcers. Oral zinc, protein, or vitamin C supplements seem ineffective. Also, evidence is lacking on the effectiveness of repositioning regimes as a treatment option. - Diabetic ulcers: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and pressure-relieving devices may improve healing rates. - Arterial ulcers: Prostanoids and spinal cord stimulation may be effective in healing ischemic ulcers. Thus, fortunately, some high-level evidence exists for various local and systemic interventions in wound care. Caregivers should be aware of, and apply, the strongest evidence available. Only when all stakeholders (patients, physicians, wound care nurses, but also manufacturers and buyers) implement this available evidence will optimum quality of care for patients with wounds be ensured. PMID:24700218

  6. Evidence-based pain management and palliative care in Issue One for 2006 of The Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. It now contains 2608 complete reviews, 1592 protocols of reviews and 5859 one page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of over 470,000 randomised controlled trials, 20 methodology reviews and 7615 cited papers in the Cochrane methodology register. The health technology assessment database contains 5378 citations. This edition of the Library contains 83 new reviews of which the three have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. These address opioids for the management of breakthrough (episodic) pain in cancer patients, perioperative ketamine for acute postoperative pain, and superficial heat or cold for low back pain. PMID:16931486

  7. Update of strategies to translate evidence from cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews for use by various audiences.

    PubMed

    Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Stacey, Dawn; Ghogomu, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Lara J; Welch, Vivian A; Singh, Jasvinder A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Légaré, France; Santesso, Nancy; Toupin April, Karine; O'Connor, Annette M; Wells, George A; Winzenberg, Tania M; Johnston, Renea; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    For rheumatology research to have a real influence on health and well-being, evidence must be tailored to inform the decisions of various audiences. The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. While systematic reviews provided by the CMSG fill a major gap in meeting the need for high-quality evidence syntheses, our work does not end at the completion of a review. The term "knowledge translation" (KT) refers to the activities involved in bringing research evidence to various audiences in a useful form so it can be used to support decision making and improve practices. Systematic reviews give careful consideration to research methods and analysis. Because the review is often long and detailed, the clinically relevant results may not be apparent or in the optimal form for use by patients and their healthcare practitioners. This paper describes 10 formats, many of them new, for ways that evidence from Cochrane Reviews can be translated with the intention of meeting the needs of various audiences, including patients and their families, practitioners, policy makers, the press, and members of the public (the "5 Ps"). Current and future knowledge tools include summary of findings tables, patient decision aids, plain language summaries, press releases, clinical scenarios in general medical journals, frequently asked questions (Cochrane Clinical Answers), podcasts, Twitter messages, Journal Club materials, and the use of storytelling and narratives to support continuing medical education. Future plans are outlined to explore ways of improving the influence and usefulness of systematic reviews by providing results in formats suitable to our varied audiences. PMID:24293571

  8. Red blood cell transfusion to treat or prevent complications in sickle cell disease: an overview of Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To summarize the evidence in Cochrane reviews of the effectiveness and safety of red cell transfusions versus no transfusion, or restrictive (to increase the total haemoglobin) versus liberal (to decrease the haemoglobin S level below a specified percentage) transfusion, for treatment or prevention of complications experienced by people with SCD. PMID:27069421

  9. [Cochrane EPOC group: closing the gap between quality assurance and organization of care research and front line professionals].

    PubMed

    Moja, P L; Castelli, B; McCauley, L; Grilli, R; Auxilia, F

    2005-01-01

    Keeping physicians informed on an ongoing basis is a new challenge for continuing medical education and quality assurance. In Italy over the last 5 years interest in evidence based literature is growing. This is demonstrated by the launch of an Italian edition of Clinical Evidence and by the growing number of guidelines and systematic reviews produced by Italian authors and institutions. However, there is some uncertainty concerning the familiarity of Italian policy makers and public health physicians with the evidence-based resources, including also how to access them. This article attempts to close this gap, by describing the activities of the Cochrane Collaboration and, within it, of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC), both aim to prepare and maintaining SR of health care interventions. Specifically, the EPOC group develops systematic reviews of professional, financial, organisational and regulatory interventions that are designed to improve professional practice and the delivery of effective health services. EPOC has 31 reviews and 24 protocols published in Issue 4, 2004 of the Cochrane Library and has developed standard methods to assist people, such as quality criteria for study design specific to health services research. The EPOC specialized register contains details of over 2200 studies that fall within the group's scope. Systematic reviews provide a valuable and efficient source of information for policy makers and health care professionals aimed at implementing effective and efficient strategies to encourage medical behavioural change and deliver of high quality services. PMID:16523717

  10. Remarkable Growth of Open Access in the Biomedical Field: Analysis of PubMed Articles from 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Keiko; Morioka, Tomoko; Yokoi, Keiko; Matsubayashi, Mamiko

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study clarifies the trends observed in open access (OA) in the biomedical field between 2006 and 2010, and explores the possible explanations for the differences in OA rates revealed in recent surveys. Methods The study consists of a main survey and two supplementary surveys. In the main survey, a manual Google search was performed to investigate whether full-text versions of articles from PubMed were freely available. Target samples were articles published in 2005, 2007, and 2009; the searches were performed a year after publication in 2006, 2008, and 2010, respectively. Using the search results, we classified the OA provision methods into seven categories. The supplementary surveys calculated the OA rate using two search functions on PubMed: “LinkOut” and “Limits.” Results The main survey concluded that the OA rate increased significantly between 2006 and 2010: the OA rate in 2010 (50.2%) was twice that in 2006 (26.3%). Furthermore, majority of OA articles were available from OA journal (OAJ) websites, indicating that OAJs have consistently been a significant contributor to OA throughout the period. OA availability through the PubMed Central (PMC) repository also increased significantly. OA rates obtained from two supplementary surveys were lower than those found in the main survey. “LinkOut” could find only 40% of OA articles in the main survey. Discussion OA articles in the biomedical field have more than a 50% share. OA has been achieved through OAJs. The reason why the OA rates in our surveys are different from those in recent surveys seems to be the difference in sampling methods and verification procedures. PMID:23658683

  11. Automated Patent Categorization and Guided Patent Search using IPC as Inspired by MeSH and PubMed

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Document search on PubMed, the pre-eminent database for biomedical literature, relies on the annotation of its documents with relevant terms from the Medical Subject Headings ontology (MeSH) for improving recall through query expansion. Patent documents are another important information source, though they are considerably less accessible. One option to expand patent search beyond pure keywords is the inclusion of classification information: Since every patent is assigned at least one class code, it should be possible for these assignments to be automatically used in a similar way as the MeSH annotations in PubMed. In order to develop a system for this task, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the properties of both classification systems. This report describes our comparative analysis of MeSH and the main patent classification system, the International Patent Classification (IPC). We investigate the hierarchical structures as well as the properties of the terms/classes respectively, and we compare the assignment of IPC codes to patents with the annotation of PubMed documents with MeSH terms. Our analysis shows a strong structural similarity of the hierarchies, but significant differences of terms and annotations. The low number of IPC class assignments and the lack of occurrences of class labels in patent texts imply that current patent search is severely limited. To overcome these limits, we evaluate a method for the automated assignment of additional classes to patent documents, and we propose a system for guided patent search based on the use of class co-occurrence information and external resources. PMID:23734562

  12. Finding Answers in a Beauty Shop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... customers the MedlinePlus website. Dexter Waiters uses the computer at MaFlo's to access the MedlinePlus consumer health ... A waiting area offers several comfortable chairs, three computers, and a printer. On a typical day, the ...

  13. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/allergy.html MedlinePlus: ...

  14. MedlinePlus Connect: Linking Patient Portals and Electronic Health Records to Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Search ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: ...

  15. MedlinePlus® Everywhere: Access from Your Phone, Tablet or Desktop

    MedlinePlus

    ... and links that are spaced for easy tapping Send us your feedback on the new version We ... Contact Us link on any MedlinePlus page to send us feedback about the redesigned site. About MedlinePlus ...

  16. Trusted Health Information for the Public | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: NLM 175th Anniversary Trusted Health Information for the Public Past Issues / Spring 2011 ... a computer database called MEDLINE. In the 1990s, health professionals were able to search MEDLINE using a ...

  17. Pharmacy journal abstracts published in PubMed that abide by the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Daniel A.; Woolley, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the proportion of abstracts in pharmacy journals that are prepared according to the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria for abstracts. Certain abstracts for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) indexed in PubMed were eligible for inclusion, with the primary endpoint being median overall compliance to CONSORT recommendations for abstracts. A total of 63 RCT abstracts were included in the analysis, with only 56% of the recommended CONSORT items represented in the sample. It is recommended that pharmacy journals encourage authors to follow CONSORT recommendations for abstracts when submitting RCTs for publication. PMID:24860268

  18. A qualitative study into the difficulties experienced by healthcare decision makers when reading a Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cochrane reviews are one of the best known and most trusted sources of evidence-based information in health care. While steps have been taken to make Cochrane intervention reviews accessible to a diverse readership, little is known about the accessibility of the newcomer to the Cochrane library: diagnostic test accuracy reviews (DTARs). The current qualitative study explored how healthcare decision makers, who varied in their knowledge and experience with test accuracy research and systematic reviews, read and made sense of DTARs. Methods A purposive sample of clinicians, researchers and policy makers (n = 21) took part in a series of think-aloud interviews, using as interview material the first three DTARs published in the Cochrane library. Thematic qualitative analysis of the transcripts was carried out to identify patterns in participants’ ‘reading’ and interpretation of the reviews and the difficulties they encountered. Results Participants unfamiliar with the design and methodology of DTARs found the reviews largely inaccessible and experienced a range of difficulties stemming mainly from the mismatch between background knowledge and level of explanation provided in the text. Experience with systematic reviews of interventions did not guarantee better understanding and, in some cases, led to confusion and misinterpretation. These difficulties were further exacerbated by poor layout and presentation, which affected even those with relatively good knowledge of DTARs and had a negative impact not only on their understanding of the reviews but also on their motivation to engage with the text. Comparison between the readings of the three reviews showed that more accessible presentation, such as presenting the results as natural frequencies, significantly increased participants’ understanding. Conclusions The study demonstrates that authors and editors should pay more attention to the presentation as well as the content of Cochrane DTARs, especially if the reports are aimed at readers with various levels of background knowledge and experience. It also raises the question as to the anticipated target audience of the reports and suggests that different groups of healthcare decision-makers may require different modes of presentation. PMID:23680077

  19. Twelve Years of Scientific Production on Medline by Latin American Spine Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Guarise da Silva, Pedro; Martins, Delio; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzalez, Alvaro Silva; Avila, José Maria Jiménez; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the small contribution of LA in the Science Citation Index (SCI), a growing contribution by LA research to international literature has been observed in recent years. Study Design Systematic review. Purpose To evaluate the scientific contribution of Latin American (LA) Spine Surgeons in the last decade. Methods A literature search of publications by LA spinal surgeons on topics concerning the spine or spinal cord was performed using an online database; Pubmed.gov. The results were limited to articles published from January 2000 to December 2011. The quality of the publication was evaluated with the journal impact factor (IF), Oxford classification and number of citations. Results This study comprised 320 articles published in the Medline database by LA spine surgeons from 2000 to 2011. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of publications by LA spine surgeons. It was observed that 38.4% of LA papers were published in LA journals. 46.6% of the articles were published in journals with an IF lower than 1, and there was no statistically significant difference in the number of articles published in journals with a higher IF during the period. Linear-by-linear association analysis demonstrated an improvement in the level of evidence provided by LA articles published in recent years. Conclusions This study showed a growth in the number of publications in last 12 years by LA spinal surgeons. It is necessary to discuss a way to increase quantity and quality of scientific publications, mainly through a better education in research. PMID:24505336

  20. How Twitter Is Studied in the Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. Objective This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Methods Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper’s title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. Results As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that researchers are starting to use knowledge discovery methods and data mining techniques to understand vast quantities of tweets: the study of Twitter is becoming quantitative research. Conclusions This work is to the best of our knowledge the first overview study of medical related research based on Twitter and related microblogging. We have used 5 dimensions to categorize published medical related research on Twitter. This classification provides a framework within which researchers studying development and use of Twitter within medical related research, and those undertaking comparative studies of research, relating to Twitter in the area of medicine and beyond, can position and ground their work. PMID:25075237

  1. Evidence for non-communicable diseases: analysis of Cochrane reviews and randomised trials by World Bank classification

    PubMed Central

    Heneghan, C; Blacklock, C; Perera, R; Davis, R; Banerjee, A; Gill, P; Liew, S; Chamas, L; Hernandez, J; Mahtani, K; Hayward, G; Harrison, S; Lasserson, D; Mickan, S; Sellers, C; Carnes, D; Homer, K; Steed, L; Ross, J; Denny, N; Goyder, C; Thompson, M; Ward, A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing globally, with the greatest projected increases in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the proportion of Cochrane evidence relating to NCDs derived from such countries. Methods We searched the Cochrane database of systematic reviews for reviews relating to NCDs highlighted in the WHO NCD action plan (cardiovascular, cancers, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases). We excluded reviews at the protocol stage and those that were repeated or had been withdrawn. For each review, two independent researchers extracted data relating to the country of the corresponding author and the number of trials and participants from countries, using the World Bank classification of gross national income per capita. Results 797 reviews were analysed, with a reported total number of 12?340 trials and 10?937?306 participants. Of the corresponding authors 90% were from high-income countries (41% from the UK). Of the 746 reviews in which at least one trial had met the inclusion criteria, only 55% provided a summary of the country of included trials. Analysis of the 633 reviews in which country of trials could be established revealed that almost 90% of trials and over 80% of participants were from high-income countries. 438 (5%) trials including 1?145?013 (11.7%) participants were undertaken in low-middle income countries. We found that only 13 (0.15%) trials with 982 (0.01%) participants were undertaken in low-income countries. Other than the five Cochrane NCD corresponding authors from South Africa, only one other corresponding author was from Africa (Gambia). Discussion The overwhelming body of evidence for NCDs pertains to high-income countries, with only a small number of review authors based in low-income settings. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for research infrastructure and funding for the undertaking of high-quality trials in this area. PMID:23833146

  2. Report from the kick-off meeting of the Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcome Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J; Deckert, S; Alam, M; Apfelbacher, C; Barbaric, J; Bauer, A; Chalmers, J; Chosidow, O; Delamere, F; Doney, E; Eleftheriadou, V; Grainge, M; Johannsen, L; Kottner, J; Le Cleach, L; Mayer, A; Pinart, M; Prescott, L; Prinsen, C A C; Ratib, S; Schlager, J G; Sharma, M; Thomas, K S; Weberschock, T; Weller, K; Werner, R N; Wild, T; Wilkes, S R; Williams, H C

    2016-02-01

    A major obstacle of evidence-based clinical decision making is the use of nonstandardized, partly untested outcome measurement instruments. Core Outcome Sets (COSs) are currently developed in different medical fields to standardize and improve the selection of outcomes and outcome measurement instruments in clinical trials, in order to pool results of trials or to allow indirect comparison between interventions. A COS is an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials of a specific disease or trial population. The international, multidisciplinary Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcome Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN) aims to develop and implement COSs in dermatology, thus making trial evidence comparable and, herewith, more useful for clinical decision making. The inaugural meeting of CSG-COUSIN was held on 17-18 March 2015 in Dresden, Germany, as the exclusive theme of the Annual Cochrane Skin Group Meeting. In total, 29 individuals representing a broad mix of different stakeholder groups, professions, skills and perspectives attended. This report provides a description of existing COS initiatives in dermatology, highlights current methodological challenges in COS development, and presents the concept, aims and structure of CSG-COUSIN. PMID:26779929

  3. Using Topic Models to Interpret MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, David; Karimi, Sarvnaz; Cavedon, Lawrence

    We consider the task of interpreting and understanding a taxonomy of classification terms applied to documents in a collection. In particular, we show how unsupervised topic models are useful for interpreting and understanding MeSH, the Medical Subject Headings applied to articles in MEDLINE. We introduce the resampled author model, which captures some of the advantages of both the topic model and the author-topic model. We demonstrate how topic models complement and add to the information conveyed in a traditional listing and description of a subject heading hierarchy.

  4. Factor Analytic Approach to Transitive Text Mining using Medline Descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, J.; Grohmann, G.

    Matrix decomposition methods were applied to examples of noninteractive literature sets sharing implicit relations. Document-by-term matrices were created from downloaded PubMed literature sets, the terms being the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH descriptors) assigned to the documents. The loadings of the factors derived from singular value or eigenvalue matrix decomposition were sorted according to absolute values and subsequently inspected for positions of terms relevant to the discovery of hidden connections. It was found that only a small number of factors had to be screened to find key terms in close neighbourhood, being separated by a small number of terms only.

  5. Scientific authorships and collaboration network analysis on Chagas disease: papers indexed in PubMed (1940-2009).

    PubMed

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Gascón, Joaquín; Ramos, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic, tropical, parasitic disease, endemic throughout Latin America. The large-scale migration of populations has increased the geographic distribution of the disease and cases have been observed in many other countries around the world. To strengthen the critical mass of knowledge generated in different countries, it is essential to promote cooperative and translational research initiatives. We analyzed authorship of scientific documents on Chagas disease indexed in the Medline database from 1940 to 2009. Bibliometrics was used to analyze the evolution of collaboration patterns. A Social Network Analysis was carried out to identify the main research groups in the area by applying clustering methods. We then analyzed 13,989 papers produced by 21,350 authors. Collaboration among authors dramatically increased over the study period, reaching an average of 6.2 authors per paper in the last five-year period. Applying a threshold of collaboration of five or more papers signed in co-authorship, we identified 148 consolidated research groups made up of 1,750 authors. The Chagas disease network identified constitutes a "small world," characterized by a high degree of clustering and a notably high number of Brazilian researchers. PMID:22850995

  6. PageRank without hyperlinks: Reranking with PubMed related article networks for biomedical text retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Background Graph analysis algorithms such as PageRank and HITS have been successful in Web environments because they are able to extract important inter-document relationships from manually-created hyperlinks. We consider the application of these techniques to biomedical text retrieval. In the current PubMed® search interface, a MEDLINE® citation is connected to a number of related citations, which are in turn connected to other citations. Thus, a MEDLINE record represents a node in a vast content-similarity network. This article explores the hypothesis that these networks can be exploited for text retrieval, in the same manner as hyperlink graphs on the Web. Results We conducted a number of reranking experiments using the TREC 2005 genomics track test collection in which scores extracted from PageRank and HITS analysis were combined with scores returned by an off-the-shelf retrieval engine. Experiments demonstrate that incorporating PageRank scores yields significant improvements in terms of standard ranked-retrieval metrics. Conclusion The link structure of content-similarity networks can be exploited to improve the effectiveness of information retrieval systems. These results generalize the applicability of graph analysis algorithms to text retrieval in the biomedical domain. PMID:18538027

  7. Biotea: RDFizing PubMed Central in support for the paper as an interface to the Web of Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Wide Web has become a dissemination platform for scientific and non-scientific publications. However, most of the information remains locked up in discrete documents that are not always interconnected or machine-readable. The connectivity tissue provided by RDF technology has not yet been widely used to support the generation of self-describing, machine-readable documents. Results In this paper, we present our approach to the generation of self-describing machine-readable scholarly documents. We understand the scientific document as an entry point and interface to the Web of Data. We have semantically processed the full-text, open-access subset of PubMed Central. Our RDF model and resulting dataset make extensive use of existing ontologies and semantic enrichment services. We expose our model, services, prototype, and datasets at http://biotea.idiginfo.org/ Conclusions The semantic processing of biomedical literature presented in this paper embeds documents within the Web of Data and facilitates the execution of concept-based queries against the entire digital library. Our approach delivers a flexible and adaptable set of tools for metadata enrichment and semantic processing of biomedical documents. Our model delivers a semantically rich and highly interconnected dataset with self-describing content so that software can make effective use of it. PMID:23734622

  8. Evidence based palaeopathology: meta-analysis of Pubmed-listed scientific studies on pre-Columbian, South American mummies.

    PubMed

    Dageförde, K L; Vennemann, M; Rühli, F J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review all Pubmed(®)-listed palaeopathological studies performed on pre-Columbian South American mummies. A total of 61 studies were found (1977-2005). Review criteria included e.g. method of examination, method of mummification, palaeopathological diagnoses and individual age of mummies as well as dating, which ranged from 7500 to 500 years BP, mainly (if reported) originating from the Chiribaya and Chinchorro cultures. The average age of the 99 individually reported mummies was about 25 years. Only six studies included computed tomography, thirteen studies used classical radiography as an examination method. Three studies analysed parasite related diseases, especially caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Among all of the reported infectious diseases (n=9), there were seven studies presenting cases of tuberculosis. The results were also compared inter-culturally. In 61 studies (37 epidemiological and 24 case reports) more than 6400 mummified individuals were analysed. By contrast, meta-analytic data for ancient Egyptian mummies (Zweifel et al., 2009) included about 3000 analysed individuals in 131 studies (85 case reports and 46 epidemiological studies). In general, ancient Egyptian mummies were shown to be intentionally mummified, whereas the Pre-Columbian American mummies showed a great diversity of spontaneous mummification. However, ritualistic mummification methods were also practised (n=2). This study's results shall assist to improve evidence-based research in palaeopathology. PMID:24721560

  9. An experimental search strategy retrieves more precise results than PubMed and Google for questions about medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dylla, Daniel P.; Megison, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We compared the precision of a search strategy designed specifically to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs with search strategies designed for broader purposes. Methods. We designed an experimental search strategy that automatically revised searches up to five times by using increasingly restrictive queries as long at least 50 citations were retrieved. We compared the ability of the experimental and alternative strategies to retrieve studies relevant to 312 test questions. The primary outcome, search precision, was defined for each strategy as the proportion of relevant, high quality citations among the first 50 citations retrieved. Results. The experimental strategy had the highest median precision (5.5%; interquartile range [IQR]: 0%–12%) followed by the narrow strategy of the PubMed Clinical Queries (4.0%; IQR: 0%–10%). The experimental strategy found the most high quality citations (median 2; IQR: 0–6) and was the strategy most likely to find at least one high quality citation (73% of searches; 95% confidence interval 68%–78%). All comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusions. The experimental strategy performed the best in all outcomes although all strategies had low precision. PMID:25922798

  10. Building disease-specific drug-protein connectivity maps from molecular interaction networks and PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jake Yue

    2009-07-01

    The recently proposed concept of molecular connectivity maps enables researchers to integrate experimental measurements of genes, proteins, metabolites, and drug compounds under similar biological conditions. The study of these maps provides opportunities for future toxicogenomics and drug discovery applications. We developed a computational framework to build disease-specific drug-protein connectivity maps. We integrated gene/protein and drug connectivity information based on protein interaction networks and literature mining, without requiring gene expression profile information derived from drug perturbation experiments on disease samples. We described the development and application of this computational framework using Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as a primary example in three steps. First, molecular interaction networks were incorporated to reduce bias and improve relevance of AD seed proteins. Second, PubMed abstracts were used to retrieve enriched drug terms that are indirectly associated with AD through molecular mechanistic studies. Third and lastly, a comprehensive AD connectivity map was created by relating enriched drugs and related proteins in literature. We showed that this molecular connectivity map development approach outperformed both curated drug target databases and conventional information retrieval systems. Our initial explorations of the AD connectivity map yielded a new hypothesis that diltiazem and quinidine may be investigated as candidate drugs for AD treatment. Molecular connectivity maps derived computationally can help study molecular signature differences between different classes of drugs in specific disease contexts. To achieve overall good data coverage and quality, a series of statistical methods have been developed to overcome high levels of data noise in biological networks and literature mining results. Further development of computational molecular connectivity maps to cover major disease areas will likely set up a new model for drug development, in which therapeutic/toxicological profiles of candidate drugs can be checked computationally before costly clinical trials begin. PMID:19649302

  11. Sharing MedlinePlus®/MEDLINE for Information Literacy Education (SMILE): A Dental Public Health Information Project

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Julie K.; Levy, Linda S.; Cogdill, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of “power information users” among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provide public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel. PMID:22040242

  12. MedlinePlus en español marks its 10th anniversary

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/spanishanniversary.html MedlinePlus en español Marks its 10 th Anniversary To use the sharing features ... Spanish greatly expands NIH's ability to carry out its mission to communicate with the public.” MedlinePlus en ...

  13. MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I play videos on my phone or tablet?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/faq/mobilevideo.html Question: Can I play videos on my phone or tablet? To use the ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus has video content in different formats. MedlinePlus also links to ...

  14. Use of positive and negative words in scientific PubMed abstracts between 1974 and 2014: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. Design Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. Methods The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and neutral words (25 preselected words in each category), plus 100 randomly selected words were normalised for the total number of abstracts. Subanalyses included pattern quantification of individual words, specificity for selected high impact journals, and comparison between author affiliations within or outside countries with English as the official majority language. Frequency patterns were compared with 4% of all books ever printed and digitised by use of Google Books Ngram Viewer. Main outcome measures Frequencies of positive and negative words in abstracts compared with frequencies of words with a neutral and random connotation, expressed as relative change since 1980. Results The absolute frequency of positive words increased from 2.0% (1974-80) to 17.5% (2014), a relative increase of 880% over four decades. All 25 individual positive words contributed to the increase, particularly the words “robust,” “novel,” “innovative,” and “unprecedented,” which increased in relative frequency up to 15 000%. Comparable but less pronounced results were obtained when restricting the analysis to selected journals with high impact factors. Authors affiliated to an institute in a non-English speaking country used significantly more positive words. Negative word frequencies increased from 1.3% (1974-80) to 3.2% (2014), a relative increase of 257%. Over the same time period, no apparent increase was found in neutral or random word use, or in the frequency of positive word use in published books. Conclusions Our lexicographic analysis indicates that scientific abstracts are currently written with more positive and negative words, and provides an insight into the evolution of scientific writing. Apparently scientists look on the bright side of research results. But whether this perception fits reality should be questioned. PMID:26668206

  15. Preliminary comparison of the Essie and PubMed search engines for answering clinical questions using MD on Tap, a PDA-based program for accessing biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Victoria R; Hauser, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    MD on Tap, a PDA application that searches and retrieves biomedical literature, is specifically designed for use by mobile healthcare professionals. With the goal of improving the usability of the application, a preliminary comparison was made of two search engines (PubMed and Essie) to determine which provided most efficient path to the desired clinically-relevant information. PMID:16779415

  16. Preliminary comparison of the Essie and PubMed search engines for answering clinical questions using MD on Tap, a PDA-based program for accessing biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Victoria R.; Hauser, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    MD on Tap, a PDA application that searches and retrieves biomedical literature, is specifically designed for use by mobile healthcare professionals. With the goal of improving the usability of the application, a preliminary comparison was made of two search engines (PubMed and Essie) to determine which provided most efficient path to the desired clinically-relevant information. PMID:16779415

  17. The Relationship between Sugar-Containing Methadone and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathee, Sheela; Akbar, Tahira; Richards, Derek; Themessl-Huber, Markus; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of a relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries. Data sources: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Controlled Trials, WHO, OHRN, SIGLE and ERIC databases was conducted from January 1978 up to June 2010. Study selection: Articles were assessed…

  18. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  19. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  20. The Relationship between Sugar-Containing Methadone and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathee, Sheela; Akbar, Tahira; Richards, Derek; Themessl-Huber, Markus; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of a relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries. Data sources: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Controlled Trials, WHO, OHRN, SIGLE and ERIC databases was conducted from January 1978 up to June 2010. Study selection: Articles were assessed

  1. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms

  2. Critique of the review of 'Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries' published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Spencer, A J; Whelton, H P; Jones, C; Beal, J F; Castle, P; Cooney, P V; Johnson, J; Kelly, M P; Lennon, M A; McGinley, J; O'Mullane, D; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Sharma, P P; Thomson, W M; Woodward, S M; Zusman, S P

    2016-04-01

    The Cochrane Review on water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries was published in 2015 and attracted considerable interest and comment, especially in countries with extensive water fluoridation programmes. The Review had two objectives: (i) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. The authors concluded, inter alia, that there was very little contemporary evidence, meeting the Review's inclusion criteria, that evaluated the effectiveness of water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. The purpose of this critique is to examine the conduct of the above Review, and to put it into context in the wider body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation. While the overall conclusion that water fluoridation is effective in caries prevention agrees with previous reviews, many important public health questions could not be answered by the Review because of the restrictive criteria used to judge adequacy of study design and risk of bias. The potential benefits of using wider criteria in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the effectiveness of water fluoridation are discussed. PMID:27056513

  3. Service Engagement in Interventions for Street-Connected Children and Young People: A Summary of Evidence Supplementing a Recent Cochrane-Campbell Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Rosa; Coren, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper builds on a Cochrane-Campbell systematic review of interventions that reduce harms and promote reintegration in street-connected children and young people focusing on intervention outcomes. The aim of the present analysis is to explore questions raised in the systematic review over the potential role of service engagement in

  4. Service Engagement in Interventions for Street-Connected Children and Young People: A Summary of Evidence Supplementing a Recent Cochrane-Campbell Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Rosa; Coren, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper builds on a Cochrane-Campbell systematic review of interventions that reduce harms and promote reintegration in street-connected children and young people focusing on intervention outcomes. The aim of the present analysis is to explore questions raised in the systematic review over the potential role of service engagement in…

  5. Information Literacy for Users at the National Medical Library of Cuba: Cochrane Library Course for the Search of Best Evidence for Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana Arroyo, Sonia; del Carmen Gonzalez Rivero, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The National Medical Library of Cuba is currently developing an information literacy program to train users in the use of biomedical databases. This paper describes the experience with the course "Cochrane Library: Evidence-Based Medicine," which aims to teach users how to make the best use of this database, as well as the evidence-based medicine…

  6. ALICE: An Algorithm to Extract Abbreviations from MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Hiroko; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To help biomedical researchers recognize dynamically introduced abbreviations in biomedical literature, such as gene and protein names, we have constructed a support system called ALICE (Abbreviation LIfter using Corpus-based Extraction). ALICE aims to extract all types of abbreviations with their expansions from a target paper on the fly. Methods: ALICE extracts an abbreviation and its expansion from the literature by using heuristic pattern-matching rules. This system consists of three phases and potentially identifies valid 320 abbreviation-expansion patterns as combinations of the rules. Results: It achieved 95% recall and 97% precision on randomly selected titles and abstracts from the MEDLINE database. Conclusion: ALICE extracted abbreviations and their expansions from the literature efficiently. The subtly compiled heuristics enabled it to extract abbreviations with high recall without significantly reducing precision. ALICE does not only facilitate recognition of an undefined abbreviation in a paper by constructing an abbreviation database or dictionary, but also makes biomedical literature retrieval more accurate. This system is freely available at http://uvdb3.hgc.jp/ALICE/ALICE_index.html. PMID:15905486

  7. PCorral—interactive mining of protein interactions from MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Arregui, Miguel; Kirsch, Harald; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of information from the scientific literature is a complex task—for researchers doing manual curation and for automatic text processing solutions. The identification of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) requires the extraction of protein named entities and their relations. Semi-automatic interactive support is one approach to combine both solutions for efficient working processes to generate reliable database content. In principle, the extraction of PPIs can be achieved with different methods that can be combined to deliver high precision and/or high recall results in different combinations at the same time. Interactive use can be achieved, if the analytical methods are fast enough to process the retrieved documents. PCorral provides interactive mining of PPIs from the scientific literature allowing curators to skim MEDLINE for PPIs at low overheads. The keyword query to PCorral steers the selection of documents, and the subsequent text analysis generates high recall and high precision results for the curator. The underlying components of PCorral process the documents on-the-fly and are available, as well, as web service from the Whatizit infrastructure. The human interface summarizes the identified PPI results, and the involved entities are linked to relevant resources and databases. Altogether, PCorral serves curator at both the beginning and the end of the curation workflow for information retrieval and information extraction. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/pcorral. PMID:23640984

  8. An evolution of experts: MEDLINE in the library school

    PubMed Central

    Arnott Smith, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Question: What is the real value that medical librarians bring to the health care environment? How have library science educators, frequently former practitioners themselves, responded to the challenge of expert searching? Methods: In this paper, I give an historical introduction to the landscape of medical information retrieval through the development of MEDLINE. I then look at the evolution of training in online searching and its place in the context of library school education and particularly the effect of generalist education on future specialists. Finally, I acknowledge the new role of the informationist as another assertion of our professional expertise. Conclusions: The three interdependent subsystems of our professional machine—our schools, our association, and our professional peers— must all respond to this challenge by asserting our expertise in our curricula, in our continuing education, and in our dialogues with each other. Only by acknowledging the interaction of these subsystems will real and positive changes be effected to benefit our profession and our constituencies. PMID:15685275

  9. Helping people make well-informed decisions about health care: old and new challenges to achieving the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the Cochrane Collaboration is to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions. This aim is as relevant now as it was 20 years ago, when the Cochrane Collaboration was established. Substantial progress has been made toward addressing challenges to achieving the Collaboration's aim. At the same time, a huge amount of work remains to be done. Current challenges include improving the quality of reviews, methodological challenges, meeting the needs of contributors and users and taking on new challenges while staying focused on the Collaboration's aim. Radical thinking and substantial change may be needed to identify and implement pragmatic strategies to ensure that reviews are up-to-date and informative. Methodological challenges include the development and application of better methods for addressing explanatory factors, incorporating non-randomized evidence and making comparisons across multiple interventions. Innovations in editorial processes and strategies to meet the needs of low- and middle-income countries and diverse users of Cochrane reviews are needed. Finally, although it is important to consider broadening the aims of the Collaboration to include types of questions other than the effects of interventions and types of products other than the Cochrane Library, we should not lose sight of the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration. Addressing that aim is still a major challenge that requires the collaboration of thousands of people around the world and continuing improvements in the methods used to achieve that aim. PMID:24050439

  10. Helping people make well-informed decisions about health care: old and new challenges to achieving the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the Cochrane Collaboration is to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions. This aim is as relevant now as it was 20 years ago, when the Cochrane Collaboration was established. Substantial progress has been made toward addressing challenges to achieving the Collaboration’s aim. At the same time, a huge amount of work remains to be done. Current challenges include improving the quality of reviews, methodological challenges, meeting the needs of contributors and users and taking on new challenges while staying focused on the Collaboration’s aim. Radical thinking and substantial change may be needed to identify and implement pragmatic strategies to ensure that reviews are up-to-date and informative. Methodological challenges include the development and application of better methods for addressing explanatory factors, incorporating non-randomized evidence and making comparisons across multiple interventions. Innovations in editorial processes and strategies to meet the needs of low- and middle-income countries and diverse users of Cochrane reviews are needed. Finally, although it is important to consider broadening the aims of the Collaboration to include types of questions other than the effects of interventions and types of products other than the Cochrane Library, we should not lose sight of the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration. Addressing that aim is still a major challenge that requires the collaboration of thousands of people around the world and continuing improvements in the methods used to achieve that aim. PMID:24050439

  11. The comparative recall of Google Scholar versus PubMed in identical searches for biomedical systematic reviews: a review of searches used in systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The usefulness of Google Scholar (GS) as a bibliographic database for biomedical systematic review (SR) searching is a subject of current interest and debate in research circles. Recent research has suggested GS might even be used alone in SR searching. This assertion is challenged here by testing whether GS can locate all studies included in 21 previously published SRs. Second, it examines the recall of GS, taking into account the maximum number of items that can be viewed, and tests whether more complete searches created by an information specialist will improve recall compared to the searches used in the 21 published SRs. Methods The authors identified 21 biomedical SRs that had used GS and PubMed as information sources and reported their use of identical, reproducible search strategies in both databases. These search strategies were rerun in GS and PubMed, and analyzed as to their coverage and recall. Efforts were made to improve searches that underperformed in each database. Results GS’ overall coverage was higher than PubMed (98% versus 91%) and overall recall is higher in GS: 80% of the references included in the 21 SRs were returned by the original searches in GS versus 68% in PubMed. Only 72% of the included references could be used as they were listed among the first 1,000 hits (the maximum number shown). Practical precision (the number of included references retrieved in the first 1,000, divided by 1,000) was on average 1.9%, which is only slightly lower than in other published SRs. Improving searches with the lowest recall resulted in an increase in recall from 48% to 66% in GS and, in PubMed, from 60% to 85%. Conclusions Although its coverage and precision are acceptable, GS, because of its incomplete recall, should not be used as a single source in SR searching. A specialized, curated medical database such as PubMed provides experienced searchers with tools and functionality that help improve recall, and numerous options in order to optimize precision. Searches for SRs should be performed by experienced searchers creating searches that maximize recall for as many databases as deemed necessary by the search expert. PMID:24360284

  12. Evidence-based dentistry: Part II. Searching for answers to clinical questions: how to use MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, S E

    2001-05-01

    The ability to conduct efficient literature searches is fundamental to the practice of evidence-based dentistry. In the second part of this series on evidence-based dentistry, strategic literature search techniques are discussed. MEDLINE, because of its breadth, depth and continuous maintenance by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), is the best source of evidence for health care. Although there are many gateways to MEDLINE, this paper highlights the user-friendly versions of MEDLINE offered free on the Internet by the NLM. The use of well-established search tactics and the unique features of the NLM sites facilitate rapid, effective literature searches. PMID:11398391

  13. Pharmacological interventions for self-injurious behaviour in adults with intellectual disabilities: Abridged republication of a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gormez, A; Rana, F; Varghese, S

    2014-04-30

    We aimed to determine clinical effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for self-injurious behaviour in adults with intellectual disability. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL; MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsycINFO; CINAHL; SCI; SSCI; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science and Humanities; ZETOC; World Cat .We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov,ICTRP and the reference lists of included trials. We included randomised controlled trials that examined drug interventions versus placebo for self-injurious behaviour. We found five double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, which included a total of 50 people. Four trials compared the effects of naltrexone versus placebo and one trial clomipramine versus placebo. We did not identify any relevant placebo-controlled trials for other drugs. We presented a narrative summary, as meta-analysis was not appropriate due to differences in study designs, differences between interventions and heterogeneous outcome measures. There was weak evidence in included trials that any active drug was more effective than placebo for people with intellectual disability demonstrating self-injurious behaviour. Due to sparse data, an absence of power and statistical significance, and high risk of bias for four of the included trials, we are unable to reach any definite conclusions about the relative benefits of naltrexone or clomipramine compared to placebo. PMID:24785762

  14. Finding Good Health Information on the Internet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: MedlinePlus Advantage Finding Good Health Information on the Internet Past Issues / Winter 2015 ... do with your information. 8. Consult with your health professional —Patient/provider partnerships lead to the best ...

  15. Preliminary comparison of three search engines for point of care access to MEDLINE citations.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Susan E; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Ford, Glenn M; Jacobs, Joshua L; Thoma, George

    2006-01-01

    Medical resident physicians used MD on Tap in real time to search for MEDLINE citations relevant to clinical questions using three search engines: Essie, Entrez and Google, in order of performance. PMID:17238564

  16. Preliminary Comparison of Three Search Engines for Point of Care Access to MEDLINE Citations

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Susan E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Ford, Glenn M.; Jacobs, Joshua L.; Thoma, George

    2006-01-01

    Medical resident physicians used MD on Tap in real time to search for MEDLINE citations relevant to clinical questions using three search engines: Essie, Entrez and Google, in order of performance. PMID:17238564

  17. ASD: What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... clinical trials to classroom commitment, NIMH expertise benefits students If you can see this text, your browser does not support iframes. Screencap: National Institute of Mental Health To Find Out More MedlinePlus: www.medlineplus.gov ; ...

  18. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...

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  19. What Research is being done? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation What Research is Being Done? Past Issues / Spring ... of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Stroke Rehabilitation www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/strokerehabilitation.html National ...

  20. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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  1. Are mass-media campaigns effective in preventing drug use? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allara, Elias; Ferri, Marica; Bo, Alessandra; Gasparrini, Antonio; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is evidence that mass-media campaigns can be effective in reducing illicit drug consumption and the intent to consume. Design Systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies. Methods We searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I and CENTRAL) and further explored seven additional resources to obtain both published and unpublished materials. We appraised the quality of included studies using standardised tools. We carried out meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and a pooled analysis of interrupted time-series and controlled before-and-after studies. Results We identified 19 studies comprising 184 811 participants. Pooled analyses and narrative synthesis provided mixed evidence of effectiveness. Eight interventions evaluated with randomised controlled trials leaned towards no evidence of an effect, both on drug use (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.02; 95% CI −0.15 to 0.12) and the intention to use drugs (SMD −0.07; 95% CI −0.19 to 0.04). Four campaigns provided some evidence of beneficial effects in preventing drug use and two interventions provided evidence of iatrogenic effects. Conclusions Studies were considerably heterogeneous in type of mass-media intervention, outcome measures, underlying theory, comparison groups and design. Such factors can contribute to explaining the observed variability in results. Owing to the risk of adverse effects, caution is needed in disseminating mass-media campaigns tackling drug use. Large studies conducted with appropriate methodology are warranted to consolidate the evidence base. PMID:26338836

  2. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and birth outcome: re-analysis of a large randomised controlled trial and update of Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Charles, Deborah H M; Ness, Andy R; Campbell, Doris; Smith, George Davey; Whitley, Elise; Hall, Marion H

    2005-03-01

    Periconceptual folic acid prevents neural tube defects. The effect of folic acid taken throughout pregnancy is unclear, however. We re-analysed data from a large randomised controlled trial performed between 1966 and 1967 and combined the results with those from trials included in a Cochrane review. A total of 2928 women were randomised: 1977 were allocated to placebo, 466 to folic acid 200 microg/day and 485 to folic acid 5 mg/day. Folic acid supplementation was not associated with any difference in mean birthweight, placental weight or gestational age. When combined with trials in the Cochrane review folic acid at high doses was associated with reduced risk of low birthweight (pooled relative risk 0.73 [95% CI 0.53, 0.99]). We found no conclusive evidence of benefit for folic acid supplementation in pregnant women given from time of booking onwards. PMID:15787886

  3. Semi-automated population of an online database of neuronal models (ModelDB) with citation information, using PubMed for validation.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Morse, Thomas M; Migliore, Michele; Shepherd, Gordon M; Hines, Michael L

    2004-01-01

    Citations play an important role in medical and scientific databases by indicating the authoritative source of the data. Manual citation entry is tedious and prone to errors. We describe a method and make available computer scripts which automate the process of citation entry. We use an open citation project PERL module (PARSER) for parsing citation data that is then used to retrieve PubMed records to supply the (validated) reference. Our PERL scripts are available via a link in the web references section of this article. PMID:15365194

  4. MEDLINE on CD-ROM: end user searching in a medical school library.

    PubMed

    Miller, N; Kirby, M; Templeton, E

    1988-01-01

    End users at the Medical College of Pennsylvania enjoyed searching CD-ROM versions of MEDLINE and judged such searches "extremely useful." To assess the effectiveness of their searches, a sample of 500 search statements from Compact Cambridge (CC) MEDLINE was examined. A high proportion of search statements (224, or 45 percent) retrieved no documents. Over one-third of search statements (185, or 37 percent) contained at least one error, which usually resulted in zero retrieval for that search statement. Searchers attempting to enter Medical Subject Headings were frequently defeated by the elaborate punctuation requirement of CC MEDLINE. "Missed opportunities" were evident in over three-fourths of search statements. One-on-one instruction and library classes may increase search success, but these measures reach a limited audience. Improvement in the search software itself is needed to help searchers improve the effectiveness of their searches. PMID:10303159

  5. Knowledge Extraction from MEDLINE by Combining Clustering with Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose A.; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The identification of relevant predicates between co-occurring concepts in scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is crucial for using these sources for knowledge extraction, in order to obtain meaningful biomedical predications as subject-predicate-object triples. We consider the manually assigned MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) in MEDLINE records as a rich resource for extracting a broad range of domain knowledge. In this paper, we explore the combination of a clustering method for co-occurring concepts based on their related MeSH subheadings in MEDLINE with the use of SemRep, a natural language processing engine, which extracts predications from free text documents. As a result, we generated sets of clusters of co-occurring concepts and identified the most significant predicates for each cluster. The association of such predicates with the co-occurrences of the resulting clusters produces the list of predications, which were checked for relevance. PMID:26958228

  6. Evaluation of the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials: focus groups, online survey, proposed recommendations and their implementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, the Cochrane Collaboration introduced a tool for assessing the risk of bias in clinical trials included in Cochrane reviews. The risk of bias (RoB) tool is based on narrative descriptions of evidence-based methodological features known to increase the risk of bias in trials. Methods To assess the usability of this tool, we conducted an evaluation by means of focus groups, online surveys and a face-to-face meeting. We obtained feedback from a range of stakeholders within The Cochrane Collaboration regarding their experiences with, and perceptions of, the RoB tool and associated guidance materials. We then assessed this feedback in a face-to-face meeting of experts and stakeholders and made recommendations for improvements and further developments of the RoB tool. Results The survey attracted 380 responses. Respondents reported taking an average of between 10 and 60 minutes per study to complete their RoB assessments, which 83% deemed acceptable. Most respondents (87% of authors and 95% of editorial staff) thought RoB assessments were an improvement over past approaches to trial quality assessment. Most authors liked the standardized approach (81%) and the ability to provide quotes to support judgements (74%). A third of participants disliked the increased workload and found the wording describing RoB judgements confusing. The RoB domains reported to be the most difficult to assess were incomplete outcome data and selective reporting of outcomes. Authors expressed the need for more guidance on how to incorporate RoB assessments into meta-analyses and review conclusions. Based on this evaluation, recommendations were made for improvements to the RoB tool and the associated guidance. The implementation of these recommendations is currently underway. Conclusions Overall, respondents identified positive experiences and perceptions of the RoB tool. Revisions of the tool and associated guidance made in response to this evaluation, and improved provision of training, may improve implementation. PMID:24731537

  7. Compared with what? An analysis of control-group types in Cochrane and Campbell reviews of psychosocial treatment efficacy with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims A crucial, but under-appreciated, aspect in experimental research on psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders concerns what kinds of control groups are used. This paper examines how the distinction between different control-group designs have been handled by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations in their systematic reviews of psychosocial treatments of substance abuse disorders. Methods We assessed Cochrane and Campbell reviews (n = 8) that were devoted to psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders. We noted what control groups were considered and analysed the extent to which the reviews provided a rationale for chosen comparison conditions. We also analysed whether type of control group in the primary studies influenced how the reviews framed the effects discussed and whether this was related to conclusions drawn. Results The reviews covered studies involving widely different control conditions. Overall, little attention was paid to the use of different control groups (e.g. head-to-head comparisons versus untreated controls) and what this implies when interpreting effect sizes. Seven of eight reviews did not provide a rationale for the choice of comparison conditions. Conclusions Cochrane and Campbell reviews of the efficacy of psychosocial interventions with substance use disorders seem to underappreciate that the use of different control-group types yields different effect estimates. Most reviews have not distinguished between different control-group designs and therefore have provided a confused picture regarding absolute and relative treatment efficacy. A systematic approach to treating different control-group designs in research reviews is necessary for meaningful estimates of treatment efficacy. PMID:25393504

  8. CAM on PubMed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants & Funding What Will NCCIH Fund? Overview Funding Strategy Funding Opportunities Grantee Policies Application Resources Program Directors Clinical Research Toolbox Types of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) All Grant Information Training ...

  9. Using Clinical Data, Hypothesis Generation Tools and PubMed Trends to Discover the Association between Diabetic Retinopathy and Antihypertensive Drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Senter, Katherine G; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Patton, Robert M; Chaum, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness and common complication of diabetes. Many diabetic patients take antihypertensive drugs to prevent cardiovascular problems, but these drugs may have unintended consequences on eyesight. Six common classes of antihypertensive drug are angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, alpha blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), -blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics. Analysis of medical history data might indicate which of these drugs provide safe blood pressure control, and a literature review is often used to guide such analyses. Beyond manual reading of relevant publications, we sought to identify quantitative trends in literature from the biomedical database PubMed to compare with quantitative trends in the clinical data. By recording and analyzing PubMed search results, we found wide variation in the prevalence of each antihypertensive drug in DR literature. Drug classes developed more recently such as ACE inhibitors and ARBs were most prevalent. We also identified instances of change-over-time in publication patterns. We then compared these literature trends to a dataset of 500 diabetic patients from the UT Hamilton Eye Institute. Data for each patient included class of antihypertensive drug, presence and severity of DR. Graphical comparison revealed that older drug classes such as diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and -blockers were much more prevalent in the clinical data than in the DR and antihypertensive literature. Finally, quantitative analysis of the dataset revealed that patients taking -blockers were statistically more likely to have DR than patients taking other medications, controlling for presence of hypertension and year of diabetes onset. This finding was concerning given the prevalence of -blockers in the clinical data. We determined that clinical use of -blockers should be minimized in diabetic patients to prevent retinal damage.

  10. Use of the Cochrane electronic library in complementary and alternative medicine courses in medical schools: is the giant lost in cyberspace?

    PubMed

    Ezzo, Jeanette; Wright, Katherine; Hadhazy, Victoria; Bahr-Robertson, Mary; Mac Beckner, William; Covington, Maggie; Berman, Brian

    2002-10-01

    Courses in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are increasing in medical schools in the United States and, currently, approximately two thirds of U.S. medical schools offer at least one such course. As these courses grow in popularity, however, concerns are also growing that these courses lack an evidence-based perspective. We propose that one interesting and easy way to bring an evidence-based perspective to the CAM classroom is to utilize the Cochrane Electronic Library (CLIB), which is available in many medical libraries, as a teaching tool. The CLIB currently houses more than 80 CAM-related, full-text systematic reviews and approximately 5000 CAM-related clinical trials, making it a valued resource for people who seek CAM evidence. Moreover, the CLIB commitment to publishing reviews regardless of the results make it a resource where one can find reviews concluding there is strong evidence of benefit or no evidence of benefit. In addition to the access to CAM evidence which the CLIB provides, students can learn basic critical appraisal skills by learning the rationale behind Cochrane systematic reviews. A survey of CAM course directors, however, shows that almost one half of these directors have never used the CLIB. For those who have never used the CLIB, this editorial explains the four main databases within the CLIB and presents ideas for using them in CAM school courses. PMID:12470450

  11. Influence of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration branch on medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Balajić, Karolina; Barac-Latas, Vesna; Drenjančević, Ines; Ostojić, Marko; Fabijanić, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the introduction of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and founding of The Cochrane Collaboration branch at the University of Split School of Medicine influenced students’ knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM), including the use of research literature. Methods We used a 26-item questionnaire on EBM knowledge and attitudes to survey 1232 medical students of all study years in 3 medical schools in Croatia (Split, Rijeka, Osijek) and the Croatian-speaking medical school in Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Results Students from the University of Split School of Medicine who had been exposed to the vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration at the school had better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward EBM. In general, students rarely searched for evidence; 28% of students searched for evidence more than once a month and 96% of students used only textbooks in Croatian and teachers’ handouts, even though 74% of students agreed that articles from scholarly journals were an important supplement for textbooks. Conclusion Building up an environment that fosters EBM may be beneficial for students’ knowledge and attitudes toward EBM. Teachers should encourage and require using evidence during all the courses in medical school. PMID:22911530

  12. High school peer tutors teach MedlinePlus: a model for Hispanic outreach*

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Debra G.; Olney, Cynthia A.; Wood, Fred B.; Hansen, Lucille; Bowden, Virginia M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to introduce the MedlinePlus Website to the predominantly Hispanic residents of the Lower Rio Grande Valley region of Texas by partnering with a health professions magnet high school (known as Med High). Methods: Community assessment was used in the planning stages and included pre-project focus groups with students and teachers. Outreach methods included peer tutor selection, train-the-trainer sessions, school and community outreach, and pre- and posttests of MedlinePlus training sessions. Evaluation methods included Web statistics; end-of-project interviews; focus groups with students, faculty, and librarians; and end-of-project surveys of students and faculty. Results: Four peer tutors reached more than 2,000 people during the project year. Students and faculty found MedlinePlus to be a useful resource. Faculty and librarians developed new or revised teaching methods incorporating MedlinePlus. The project enhanced the role of school librarians as agents of change at Med High. The project continues on a self-sustaining basis. Conclusions: Using peer tutors is an effective way to educate high school students about health information resources and, through the students, to reach families and community members. PMID:15858628

  13. Where should the pharmacy researcher look first? Comparing International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, D L; Stone, V L; DiPaula, B A

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of various CD-ROM versions of International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and MEDLINE for pharmacy research. Journal coverage as well as the strengths and weaknesses of database structure and contents were considered. The journals indexed in each database were compared to those identified in a survey of the research journals most important to University of Maryland at Baltimore pharmacy faculty and in a similar North Carolina study rating pharmacy journals. In addition, indexed journals were checked against the Institute for Scientific Information's most recent list of high-impact journals in pharmacology and pharmacy. Searches representing a variety of topics relevant to pharmacy were conducted in both databases, and the number and relevance of citations located were analyzed. Results showed that IPA indexed a greater number of pharmacy titles, but that MEDLINE indexed more pharmacy journals designated in studies as significant to the field. There was little overlap in coverage between the two databases. MEDLINE produced larger retrievals for the majority of questions, but many citations retrieved in IPA did not appear in MEDLINE. PMID:8883989

  14. Automatic extraction of mutations from Medline and cross-validation with OMIM.

    PubMed

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Marcel, Stephane; Albert, Sylvie; Tolle, Ralf; Casari, Georg; Kirsch, Harald

    2004-01-01

    Mutations help us to understand the molecular origins of diseases. Researchers, therefore, both publish and seek disease-relevant mutations in public databases and in scientific literature, e.g. Medline. The retrieval tends to be time-consuming and incomplete. Automated screening of the literature is more efficient. We developed extraction methods (called MEMA) that scan Medline abstracts for mutations. MEMA identified 24,351 singleton mutations in conjunction with a HUGO gene name out of 16,728 abstracts. From a sample of 100 abstracts we estimated the recall for the identification of mutation-gene pairs to 35% at a precision of 93%. Recall for the mutation detection alone was >67% with a precision rate of >96%. This shows that our system produces reliable data. The subset consisting of protein sequence mutations (PSMs) from MEMA was compared to the entries in OMIM (20,503 entries versus 6699, respectively). We found 1826 PSM-gene pairs to be in common to both datasets (cross-validated). This is 27% of all PSM-gene pairs in OMIM and 91% of those pairs from OMIM which co-occur in at least one Medline abstract. We conclude that Medline covers a large portion of the mutations known to OMIM. Another large portion could be artificially produced mutations from mutagenesis experiments. Access to the database of extracted mutation-gene pairs is available through the web pages of the EBI (refer to http://www.ebi. ac.uk/rebholz/index.html). PMID:14704350

  15. On the Front Lines of Rare Disease Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Translational Science Awards Program. Find Out More National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS): https://ncats.nih.gov/ MedlinePlus: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/rarediseases.html Rare Disease United Foundation: rarediseaseunited.org How important is medical research on ...

  16. Health Information in Gujarathi (ગુજરાતી): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reasons I Find Time to Prevent Diabetes: My Future and Theirs - English ગુજરાતી (Gujarathi) PDF National Diabetes Education Program Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  17. Health Information in Thai (ภาษาไทย): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reasons I Find Time to Prevent Diabetes: My Future and Theirs - English ภาษาไทย (Thai) PDF National Diabetes Education Program F ... and Pertussis Vaccines Diphtheria Tetanus and Pertussis Vaccines - English ... on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  18. A novel algorithm for analyzing drug-drug interactions from MEDLINE literature

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yin; Shen, Dan; Pietsch, Maxwell; Nagar, Chetan; Fadli, Zayd; Huang, Hong; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Drug–drug interaction (DDI) is becoming a serious clinical safety issue as the use of multiple medications becomes more common. Searching the MEDLINE database for journal articles related to DDI produces over 330,000 results. It is impossible to read and summarize these references manually. As the volume of biomedical reference in the MEDLINE database continues to expand at a rapid pace, automatic identification of DDIs from literature is becoming increasingly important. In this article, we present a random-sampling-based statistical algorithm to identify possible DDIs and the underlying mechanism from the substances field of MEDLINE records. The substances terms are essentially carriers of compound (including protein) information in a MEDLINE record. Four case studies on warfarin, ibuprofen, furosemide and sertraline implied that our method was able to rank possible DDIs with high accuracy (90.0% for warfarin, 83.3% for ibuprofen, 70.0% for furosemide and 100% for sertraline in the top 10% of a list of compounds ranked by p-value). A social network analysis of substance terms was also performed to construct networks between proteins and drug pairs to elucidate how the two drugs could interact. PMID:26612138

  19. Measuring Information through Topical Subheadings of the Medline Database: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, P.; Pulgarin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring research information from thematic references such as headings and subheadings that are used in indexing, cataloging, and online searching, using the Rasch model as the measuring instrument. Discusses results of a search of anesthesiology in the Medline database that was used as a case study. (Author/LRW)

  20. Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... of its research: MedlinePlus . www.medlineplus.gov . Type "Parkinson's disease" in the Search box. NIHSeniorHealth —Parkinson's Disease http:// ...

  1. Analysis of the Acceptance Behaviour of Medical Librarians and Their Patrons with Regards to Medline on CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eger, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Two questionnaires sent to medical librarians and users of the Core Medline/Ebsco CD-ROM disc in the Netherlands gathered data on librarians' attitudes toward the various forms in which Medline is offered--i.e., printed, online, and CD-ROM. Tables and graphs present data on product attributes, availability, use, relevance, subjects searched,…

  2. Applying MetaMap to Medline for identifying novel associations in a large clinical dataset: a feasibility analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David A; Saeed, Mohammed; Zheng, Kai; Mei, Qiaozhu; Shedden, Kerby; Aronson, Alan R; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Objective We describe experiments designed to determine the feasibility of distinguishing known from novel associations based on a clinical dataset comprised of International Classification of Disease, V.9 (ICD-9) codes from 1.6 million patients by comparing them to associations of ICD-9 codes derived from 20.5 million Medline citations processed using MetaMap. Associations appearing only in the clinical dataset, but not in Medline citations, are potentially novel. Methods Pairwise associations of ICD-9 codes were independently identified in both the clinical and Medline datasets, which were then compared to quantify their degree of overlap. We also performed a manual review of a subset of the associations to validate how well MetaMap performed in identifying diagnoses mentioned in Medline citations that formed the basis of the Medline associations. Results The overlap of associations based on ICD-9 codes in the clinical and Medline datasets was low: only 6.6% of the 3.1 million associations found in the clinical dataset were also present in the Medline dataset. Further, a manual review of a subset of the associations that appeared in both datasets revealed that co-occurring diagnoses from Medline citations do not always represent clinically meaningful associations. Discussion Identifying novel associations derived from large clinical datasets remains challenging. Medline as a sole data source for existing knowledge may not be adequate to filter out widely known associations. Conclusions In this study, novel associations were not readily identified. Further improvements in accuracy and relevance for tools such as MetaMap are needed to realize their expected utility. PMID:24928177

  3. Global Mapping of Gene/Protein Interactions in PubMed Abstracts: A Framework and an Experiment with P53 Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Huang, Zan; Su, Hua; Martinez, Jesse D.

    2007-01-01

    Gene/protein interactions provide critical information for a thorough understanding of cellular processes. Recently, considerable interest and effort has been focused on the construction and analysis of genome-wide gene networks. The large body of biomedical literature is an important source of gene/protein interaction information. Recent advances in text mining tools have made it possible to automatically extract such documented interactions from free-text literature. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework for constructing and analyzing large-scale gene functional networks based on the gene/protein interactions extracted from biomedical literature repositories using text mining tools. Our proposed framework consists of analyses of the network topology, network topology-gene function relationship, and temporal network evolution to distill valuable information embedded in the gene functional interactions in literature. We demonstrate the application of the proposed framework using a testbed of P53-related PubMed abstracts, which shows that literature-based P53 networks exhibit small-world and scale-free properties. We also found that high degree genes in the literature-based networks have a high probability of appearing in the manually curated database and genes in the same pathway tend to form local clusters in our literature-based networks. Temporal analysis showed that genes interacting with many other genes tend to be involved in a large number of newly discovered interactions. PMID:17317333

  4. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care.

    PubMed

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible. PMID:26306259

  5. A Study of the Morpho-Semantic Relationship in Medline1

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, W. John; Smith, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Morphological analysis as applied to English has generally involved the study of rules for inflections and derivations. Recent work has attempted to derive such rules from automatic analysis of corpora. Here we study similar issues, but in the context of the biological literature. We introduce a new approach which allows us to assign probabilities of the semantic relatedness of pairs of tokens that occur in text in consequence of their relatedness as character strings. Our analysis is based on over 84 million sentences from the MEDLINE database, over 2.3 million token types that occur in MEDLINE, and enables us to identify over 36 million token type pairs which have assigned probabilities of semantic relatedness of at least 0.7 based on their similarity as strings. The quality of these predictions is tested by two different manual evaluations and found to be good. PMID:24976874

  6. The mini MEDLINE SYSTEM: a library-based end-user search system.

    PubMed

    Broering, N C

    1985-04-01

    The mini MEDLINE SYSTEM, a user-friendly search system developed in 1981 at the Georgetown University Medical Center, has been operational since 1982. The system is designed to meet the immediate educational and clinical information needs of students, residents, and faculty. This article focuses on system planning and design, database creation through "downloading," hardware adaptation, and system use. The database is a subset of the NLM's MEDLINE file; it includes over 180,000 citations to articles indexed in over 160 journals from 1982 to the present. With only a few keystrokes in a two-step process it allows users to conduct bibliographic searches. The system is being replicated at eight other medical libraries. PMID:3888329

  7. [MEDLINE on compact disk as an information source at the Medical School Library in Novi Sad].

    PubMed

    Brkić, S; Pejić, M; Ninković, S

    1996-01-01

    The transformation of the Library at the Medical Faculty of Novi Sad into a modern information center necessitated the introduction of an up-to-date technology and enforced the use of the latest information sources among which MEDLINE medical database is the most famous one. In the studied period, January 1993-current, 200 searches have been performed on the basis of which the following parameters were analyzed: institution, occupation, and degree of the user, purpose and accuracy of the order, relevant period, number and format of the references, assessment of the search quality and the quality of the library staff services. The analysis proved the initial belief that MEDLINE is a remarkably valuable data base necessary for medical libraries. PMID:8692082

  8. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible. PMID:26306259

  9. French MeSH Browser: a cross-language tool to access MEDLINE/PubMed.

    PubMed

    Thirion, Benoit; Pereira, Susanne; Névéol, Aurélie; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2007-01-01

    When searching the medical literature, health professionals and lay people strongly prefer to use their native language. Therefore, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) translations would be helpful to those who are not fluent in English to access scientific papers indexed in the MEDLINE bibliographic database. Furthermore, medical terminologies such as MeSH are challenging in any language. In this context, a French MeSH Browser was developed. PMID:18694229

  10. Optimal search strategies for identifying mental health content in MEDLINE: an analytic survey

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2006-01-01

    Objective General practitioners, mental health practitioners, and researchers wishing to retrieve the best current research evidence in the content area of mental health may have a difficult time when searching large electronic databases such as MEDLINE. When MEDLINE is searched unaided, key articles are often missed while retrieving many articles that are irrelevant to the search. The objectives of this study were to develop optimal search strategies to detect articles with mental health content and to determine the effect of combining mental health content search strategies with methodologic search strategies calibrated to detect the best studies of treatment. Method An analytic survey was conducted, comparing hand searches of 29 journals with retrievals from MEDLINE for 3,395 candidate search terms and 11,317 combinations. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the search strategies were calculated. Results 3,277 (26.8%) of the 12,233 articles classified in the 29 journals were considered to be of interest to the discipline area of mental health. Search term combinations reached peak sensitivities of 98.4% with specificity at 50.0%, whereas combinations of search terms to optimize specificity reached peak specificities of 97.1% with sensitivity at 51.7%. Combining content search strategies with methodologic search strategies for treatment led to improved precision: substantive decreases in the number of articles that needed to be sorted through in order to find target articles. Conclusion Empirically derived search strategies can achieve high sensitivity and specificity for retrieving mental health content from MEDLINE. Combining content search strategies with methodologic search strategies led to more precise searches. PMID:16556313

  11. Optimal search strategies for detecting health services research studies in MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian; Lavis, John N.; Ramkissoonsingh, Ravi; Arnold-Oatley, Alexandra E.

    2004-01-01

    Background Evidence from health services research (HSR) is currently thinly spread through many journals, making it difficult for health services researchers, managers and policy-makers to find research on clinical practice guidelines and the appropriateness, process, outcomes, cost and economics of health care services. We undertook to develop and test search terms to retrieve from the MEDLINE database HSR articles meeting minimum quality standards. Methods The retrieval performance of 7445 methodologic search terms and phrases in MEDLINE (the test) were compared with a hand search of the literature (the gold standard) for each issue of 68 journal titles for the year 2000 (a total of 25 936 articles). We determined sensitivity, specificity and precision (the positive predictive value) of the MEDLINE search strategies. Results A majority of the articles that were classified as outcome assessment, but fewer than half of those in the other categories, were considered methodologically acceptable (no methodologic criteria were applied for cost studies). Combining individual search terms to maximize sensitivity, while keeping specificity at 50% or more, led to sensitivities in the range of 88.1% to 100% for several categories (specificities ranged from 52.9% to 97.4%). When terms were combined to maximize specificity while keeping sensitivity at 50% or more, specificities of 88.8% to 99.8% were achieved. When terms were combined to maximize sensitivity and specificity while minimizing the differences between the 2 measurements, most strategies for HSR categories achieved sensitivity and specificity of at least 80%. Interpretation Sensitive and specific search strategies were validated for retrieval of HSR literature from MEDLINE. These strategies have been made available for public use by the US National Library of Medicine at www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/hedges/search.html. PMID:15534310

  12. Language barriers and bibliographic retrieval effectiveness: use of MEDLINE by French-speaking end users.

    PubMed Central

    Mouillet, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to determine if bibliographic retrieval performed by French-speaking end users is impaired by English language interfaces. The American database MEDLINE on CD-ROM was used as a model. METHODS: A survey of self-administered questionnaires was performed at two libraries of Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 University, during a two-month period in 1997. Three study groups were constituted: MEDLINE / Ovid end users, MEDLINE / Ovid librarian-mediated users, and Pascal, a French bibliographic database, end users. RESULTS: Among 191 respondents, only 22% thought English was an obstacle to their bibliographic retrieval. However, the research software was generally underused and the quality of the retrieval weak. The differences were statistically significant between users trained by librarians and the self-trained group, the former performing better. CONCLUSION: Special efforts need to be made to develop curriculum training programs for computerized bibliographic retrieval in medical schools, regardless of the native language of the student. PMID:10550030

  13. MEDLINE demand profiles: an analysis of requests for clinical and research information.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, B; Breedlove, R; Berger, W

    1977-01-01

    When a medical library serves both research scientists and practicing physicians, it may be predicted from the results of previous studies that computerized bibliographic search services will show more research and less clinical activity. The present paper reports the results of a statistical analysis of professional use of the National Library of Medicine's bibliographic retrieval system. MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on-Line), at a large medical school library. Results indicate that (1) demand for MEDLINE service is primarily research oriented; (2) frequency of use bears a relationship to rank and departmental affiliation; (3) broad and comprehensive searches are requested more frequently than searches for specific information; (4) usage shows an interesting curvilinear relationship with age and status of the user; and (5) grant funds and support correlate with the number of searches requested. Implication of these findings are that since clinicians' use of MEDLINE was found to be minimal, information services should be reevaluated in order to assist in meeting their information needs more effectively. PMID:831884

  14. MedlinePlus and the challenge of low health literacy: findings from the Colonias project*

    PubMed Central

    Olney, Cynthia A.; Warner, Debra G.; Reyna, Greysi; Wood, Fred B.; Siegel, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential of a community-based health information outreach project to overcome problems associated with health literacy in low-income Hispanic communities along the Texas-Mexico border. Methods: Using a train-the-trainer approach, community outreach workers known as promotoras were trained by a health information outreach team to search English and Spanish versions of MedlinePlus. These 15 promotoras submitted written examples on a weekly basis of the topics they helped residents explore on MedlinePlus and the ways in which the residents used the information. These weekly reports, along with verbal interviews with promotoras and others in the communities, allowed development of a database of 161 incidents (“stories”) demonstrating how community residents used MedlinePlus. These stories were thematically analyzed to explore how the program benefited participants. Results: The database of stories included examples of community residents becoming better informed about their illnesses, resolving to visit doctors, making decisions about recommended treatments, reducing their anxiety about health conditions, committing to healthy or preventive behavior, and assisting family members. Conclusion: With the help of paraprofessionals like promotoras, community-based health information outreach projects may improve the ability of community residents to understand their health conditions and to participate actively in their health care. PMID:17252064

  15. Assigning categorical information to Japanese medical terms using MeSH and MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Onogi, Yuzo

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the assigning of MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) categories to Japanese terms in an English-Japanese dictionary using the titles and abstracts of articles indexed in MEDLINE. In a previous study, 30,000 of 80,000 terms in the dictionary were mapped to MeSH terms by normalized comparison. It was reasoned that if the remaining dictionary terms appeared in MEDLINE-indexed articles that are indexed using MeSH terms, then relevancies between the dictionary terms and MeSH terms could be calculated, and thus MeSH categories assigned. This study compares two approaches for calculating the weight matrix. One is the TF*IDF method and the other uses the inner product of two weight matrices. About 20,000 additional dictionary terms were identified in MEDLINE-indexed articles published between 2000 and 2004. The precision and recall of these algorithms were evaluated separately for MeSH terms and non-MeSH terms. Unfortunately, the precision and recall of the algorithms was not good, but this method will help with manual assignment of MeSH categories to dictionary terms. PMID:17911806

  16. Combining MEDLINE and publisher data to create parallel corpora for the automatic translation of biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the institutional and research information in the biomedical domain is available in the form of English text. Even in countries where English is an official language, such as the United States, language can be a barrier for accessing biomedical information for non-native speakers. Recent progress in machine translation suggests that this technique could help make English texts accessible to speakers of other languages. However, the lack of adequate specialized corpora needed to train statistical models currently limits the quality of automatic translations in the biomedical domain. Results We show how a large-sized parallel corpus can automatically be obtained for the biomedical domain, using the MEDLINE database. The corpus generated in this work comprises article titles obtained from MEDLINE and abstract text automatically retrieved from journal websites, which substantially extends the corpora used in previous work. After assessing the quality of the corpus for two language pairs (English/French and English/Spanish) we use the Moses package to train a statistical machine translation model that outperforms previous models for automatic translation of biomedical text. Conclusions We have built translation data sets in the biomedical domain that can easily be extended to other languages available in MEDLINE. These sets can successfully be applied to train statistical machine translation models. While further progress should be made by incorporating out-of-domain corpora and domain-specific lexicons, we believe that this work improves the automatic translation of biomedical texts. PMID:23631733

  17. [Medline criteria for scientific journals selection. Methodology and indicators. Application to Spanish medical journals paying special attention to public health].

    PubMed

    Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2006-01-01

    Due to the strict selection process applied to its indexed journals, Medline is the most prestigious database in the Health and medicine field. The aim of this paper is both to analyze its selection criteria and translate into indicators that can be applied to Spanish medical journals willing to enter the Index Medicus. Analysis samples and methodology to apply obtained from the five groups of criteria considered by Medline (namely, Scope and coverage, Quality of contents, Quality of editorial work, Production quality and Audience) are proposed. A list of qualitative and quantitative indicators related to the five groups of criteria used by Medline is presented; namely, journal scientific output in the national and international context of the discipline, citation, analysis of the editorial committees, the editorial process and the peer-review system, indicators on compliance with the Vancouver guidelines, journal layout and informational quality, attractiveness, audience, journal visibility and interest as regards Medline goals. PMID:17193815

  18. June 6—7, 2011 Clinical Trials Conference: New Challenges & Opportunities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... 20814. The FNLM is classified as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization for federal tax purposes. Web site: www.fnlm.org Mobile MedlinePlus! On the go! Find trusted health information from the experts at ...

  19. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Holmskov, Mathilde; Skoog, Maria; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Magnusson, Frederik L; Zwi, Morris; Gillies, Donna; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Rasmussen, Kirsten Buch; Gauci, Dorothy; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? Methods Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. Study answer and limitations The analyses included 38 parallel group trials (n=5111, median treatment duration 49 days) and 147 crossover trials (n=7134, 14 days). The average age across all studies was 9.7 years. The analysis suggested a beneficial effect of methylphenidate on teacher rated symptoms in 19 parallel group trials (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of −9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate was associated with an increased risk of non-serious adverse events (1.29, 21 trials, n=3132; TSA adjusted RR 1.29). Teacher rated general behaviour seemed to improve with methylphenidate (SMD −0.87, five trials, n=668) A change of 7 points on the child health questionnaire (CHQ) has been deemed a minimal clinically relevant difference. The change reported in a meta-analysis of three trials corresponds to a mean difference of 8.0 points on the CHQ (range 0-100 points), which suggests that methylphenidate may improve parent reported quality of life (SMD 0.61, three trials, n=514). 96.8% of trials were considered high risk of bias trials according to the Cochrane guidelines. All outcomes were assessed very low quality according to GRADE. What this study adds The results suggest that among children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD, methylphenidate may improve teacher reported symptoms of ADHD and general behaviour and parent reported quality of life. However, given the risk of bias in the included studies, and the very low quality of outcomes, the magnitude of the effects is uncertain. Methylphenidate is associated with an increased risk of non-serious but not serious adverse events. Funding, competing interests, data sharing Region Zealand Research Foundation and Copenhagen Trial Unit. Competing interests are given in the full paper on bmj.com. Full data are available in the version of this review published in The Cochrane Library. PMID:26608309

  20. Identifying gaps in research prioritization: The global burden of neglected tropical diseases as reflected in the Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Karimkhani, Chante; Czaja, Christopher A.; Williams, Hywel C.; Rani, Monica; Nasser, Mona; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Dmitruk, Sergei; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) impact disadvantaged populations in resource-scarce settings. Availability of synthesized evidence is paramount to end this disparity. The aim of the study was to determine whether NTD systematic reviews or protocols in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) reflect disease burden. Methods: Two authors independently searched the CDSR for reviews/protocols regarding the NTDs diseases. Each review or protocol was classified to a single NTD category. Any discrepancy was solved by consensus with third author. NTD systematic review or protocol from CDSR were matched with disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metrics from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and associated P values were used to assess for correlation between the number of systematic reviews and protocols and the %2010 DALY associated with each NTD. Results: Overall, there was poor correlation between CDSR representation and DALYs. Yellow fever, echinococcus, onchocerciasis, and schistosomiasis representation was well-aligned with DALY. Leprosy, trachoma, dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease representation was greater, while cysticercosis, human African trypanosomiasis, ascariasis, lymphatic filariasis, and hookworm representation was lower than DALY. Three of the 18 NTDs had reviews/protocols of diagnostic test accuracy. Conclusions: Our results indicate the need for increased prioritization of systematic reviews on NTDs, particularly diagnostic test accuracy reviews. PMID:26985407

  1. Modular Semantic Tagging of Medline Abstracts and its Use in Inferring Regulatory Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Verhagen, Marc; Pustejovsky, James; Taylor, Ronald C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-09-19

    We describe MedstractPlus, a resource for mining relations from the Medline bibliographic database that is currently under construction. It was built on the remains of Medstract, a previously created resource that included a biorelation server and an acronym database. MedstractPlus uses simple and scalable natural language processing modules to structure text, is designed with reusability and extendibility in mind, and adheres to the philosophy of the Linguistic Annotation Framework. We show how MedstractPlus has been used to provide seeds for a novel approach to inferring transcriptional regulatory networks from gene expression data.

  2. Survey of individual users of MEDLINE on the NLM system (Summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Translated By Isao; Kawano, Koreni

    In the past three years the number of individual health professionals who search with MEDLINE on the NLM system has increased dramatically. It is continuing to grow at the rate of over 200 users per month. In order to provide them with an online information retrieval service that individuals can use easily and effectively, NLM surveyed this growing end-user population by the questionnaire including 35 items such as their demographic characteristics, methods of access to the system, frequency of searching, search purpose, number of citations retrieved, use of information retrieved, and level of satisfaction with current system. This paper describes the results of this survey.

  3. BabelMeSH: development of a cross-language tool for MEDLINE/PubMed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ackerman, Michael; Fontelo, Paul

    2006-01-01

    BabelMeSH is a cross-language tool for searching MEDLINE/PubMed. Queries can be submitted as single terms or complex phrases in French, Spanish and Portuguese. Citations will be sent to the user in English. It uses a smart parser interface with a medical terms database in MySQL. Preliminary evaluation using compound key words in foreign language medical journals showed an accuracy of 68%, 60% and 51% for French, Spanish and Portuguese, respectively. Development is continuing. PMID:17238631

  4. Study of style effects on OCR errors in the MEDLINE database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Penny; Davis, Diane L.; Andersen, Tim L.; Barney Smith, Elisa H.

    2004-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine has developed a system for the automatic extraction of data from scanned journal articles to populate the MEDLINE database. Although the 5-engine OCR system used in this process exhibits good performance overall, it does make errors in character recognition that must be corrected in order for the process to achieve the requisite accuracy. The correction process works by feeding words that have characters with less than 100% confidence (as determined automatically by the OCR engine) to a human operator who then must manually verify the word or correct the error. The majority of these errors are contained in the affiliation information zone where the characters are in italics or small fonts. Therefore only affiliation information data is used in this research. This paper examines the correlation between OCR errors and various character attributes in the MEDLINE database, such as font size, italics, bold, etc. and OCR confidence levels. The motivation for this research is that if a correlation between the character style and types of errors exists it should be possible to use this information to improve operator productivity by increasing the probability that the correct word option is presented to the human editor. We have determined that this correlation exists, in particular for the case of characters with diacritics.

  5. Study of style effects on OCR errors in the MEDLINE database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Penny; Davis, Diane L.; Andersen, Tim L.; Barney Smith, Elisa H.

    2005-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine has developed a system for the automatic extraction of data from scanned journal articles to populate the MEDLINE database. Although the 5-engine OCR system used in this process exhibits good performance overall, it does make errors in character recognition that must be corrected in order for the process to achieve the requisite accuracy. The correction process works by feeding words that have characters with less than 100% confidence (as determined automatically by the OCR engine) to a human operator who then must manually verify the word or correct the error. The majority of these errors are contained in the affiliation information zone where the characters are in italics or small fonts. Therefore only affiliation information data is used in this research. This paper examines the correlation between OCR errors and various character attributes in the MEDLINE database, such as font size, italics, bold, etc. and OCR confidence levels. The motivation for this research is that if a correlation between the character style and types of errors exists it should be possible to use this information to improve operator productivity by increasing the probability that the correct word option is presented to the human editor. We have determined that this correlation exists, in particular for the case of characters with diacritics.

  6. Querying parse tree database of Medline text to synthesize user-specific biomolecular networks.

    PubMed

    Tari, Luis; Hakenberg, Jrg; Gonzalez, Graciela; Baral, Chitta

    2009-01-01

    Curated biological knowledge of interactions and pathways is largely available from various databases, and network synthesis is a popular method to gain insight into the data. However, such data from curated databases presents a single view of the knowledge to the biologists, and it may not be suitable to researchers' specific needs. On the other hand, Medline abstracts are publicly accessible and encode the necessary information to synthesize different kinds of biological networks. In this paper, we propose a new paradigm in synthesizing biomolecular networks by allowing biologists to create their own networks through queries to a specialized database of Medline abstracts. With this approach, users can specify precisely what kind of information they want in the resulting networks. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach in the synthesis of gene-drug, gene-disease and protein-protein interaction networks. We show that our approach is capable of synthesizing these networks with high precision and even finds relations that have yet to be curated in public databases. In addition, we demonstrate a scenario of recovering a drug-related pathway using our approach. PMID:19209697

  7. A performance and failure analysis of SAPHIRE with a MEDLINE test collection.

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W R; Hickam, D H; Haynes, R B; McKibbon, K A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assess the performance of the SAPHIRE automated information retrieval system. DESIGN: Comparative study of automated and human searching of a MEDLINE test collection. MEASUREMENTS: Recall and precision of SAPHIRE were compared with those attributes of novice physicians, expert physicians, and librarians for a test collection of 75 queries and 2,334 citations. Failure analysis assessed the efficacy of the Metathesaurus as a concept vocabulary; the reasons for retrieval of nonrelevant articles and nonretrieval of relevant articles; and the effect of changing the weighting formula for relevance ranking of retrieved articles. RESULTS: Recall and precision of SAPHIRE were comparable to those of both physician groups, but less than those of librarians. CONCLUSION: The current version of the Metathesaurus, as utilized by SAPHIRE, was unable to represent the conceptual content of one-fourth of physician-generated MEDLINE queries. The most likely cause for retrieval of nonrelevant articles was the presence of some or all of the search terms in the article, with frequencies high enough to lead to retrieval. The most likely cause for nonretrieval of relevant articles was the absence of the actual terms from the query, with synonyms or hierarchically related terms present instead. There were significant variations in performance when SAPHIRE's concept-weighing formulas were modified. PMID:7719787

  8. Identifying gaps for research prioritisation: Global burden of external causes of injury as reflected in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews☆

    PubMed Central

    Karimkhani, Chante; Trikha, Ritika; Aksut, Baran; Jones, Trevor; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Schlichte, Megan; Pederson, Hannah; Okland, Tyler; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Nasser, Mona; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke; Murray, Christopher J.L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Burden of disease should impact research prioritisation. Objective To analyse the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and determine whether systematic reviews and protocols accurately represent disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study. Methods Two investigators collected GBD disability metrics for 12 external causes of injury in the GBD 2010 Study. These external causes were then assessed for systematic review and protocol representation in CDSR. Data was collected during the month of April 2015. There were no study participants aside from the researchers. Percentage of total 2010 DALYs, 2010 DALY rank, and median DALY percent change from 1990 to 2010 of the 12 external causes of injury were compared with CDSR representation of systematic reviews and protocols. Data were analysed for correlation using Spearman rank correlation. Results Eleven of the 12 causes were represented by at least one systematic review or protocol in CDSR; the category collective violence and legal intervention had no representation in CDSR. Correlation testing revealed a strong positive correlation that was statistically significant. Representation of road injury; interpersonal violence; fire, heat, and hot substances; mechanical forces; poisonings, adverse effect of medical treatment, and animal contact was well aligned with respect to DALY. Representation of falls was greater compared to DALY, while self-harm, exposure to forces of nature, and other transport injury representation was lower compared to DALY. Conclusions and relevance CDSR representation of external causes of injury strongly correlates with disease burden. The number of systematic reviews and protocols was well aligned for seven out of 12 causes of injury. These results provide high-quality and transparent data that may guide future prioritisation decisions. PMID:26804937

  9. Addition of Japanese terms to MEDLINE File-Service through JOIS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoe, Takao; Sakagami, Yasuhiko; Kawano, Koreni

    This paper describes new service through JOIS-III(JICST Online Information System-III) which enabled English databases, MEDLINE, TOXLINE, and CANCERLIT, to search and output both with Japanese MeSH terms and with English MeSH terms by adding terms of MeSH translated into Japanese to these three files. In this paper, circumstances and background of this plan, cooperation of the work between JICST and The Japan Medical Library Association(JMLA) , fundamental conception and rules for translation of MeSH thesaurus terms into Japanese, practical translation work, search and output by JOIS-III using Japanese MeSH terms translated, relation between JOIS-III and Japanese version of MeSH in book style published by JMLA, and future issues are also described.

  10. Automatic Summarization of MEDLINE Citations for Evidence–Based Medical Treatment: A Topic-Oriented Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    As the number of electronic biomedical textual resources increases, it becomes harder for physicians to find useful answers at the point of care. Information retrieval applications provide access to databases; however, little research has been done on using automatic summarization to help navigate the documents returned by these systems. After presenting a semantic abstraction automatic summarization system for MEDLINE citations, we concentrate on evaluating its ability to identify useful drug interventions for fifty-three diseases. The evaluation methodology uses existing sources of evidence-based medicine as surrogates for a physician-annotated reference standard. Mean average precision (MAP) and a clinical usefulness score developed for this study were computed as performance metrics. The automatic summarization system significantly outperformed the baseline in both metrics. The MAP gain was 0.17 (p < 0.01) and the increase in the overall score of clinical usefulness was 0.39 (p < 0.05). PMID:19022398

  11. Using MEDLINE Elemental Similarity to Assist in the Article Screening Process for Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews and their implementation in practice provide high quality evidence for clinical practice but are both time and labor intensive due to the large number of articles. Automatic text classification has proven to be instrumental in identifying relevant articles for systematic reviews. Existing approaches use machine learning model training to generate classification algorithms for the article screening process but have limitations. Objective We applied a network approach to assist in the article screening process for systematic reviews using predetermined article relationships (similarity). The article similarity metric is calculated using the MEDLINE elements title (TI), abstract (AB), medical subject heading (MH), author (AU), and publication type (PT). We used an article network to illustrate the concept of article relationships. Using the concept, each article can be modeled as a node in the network and the relationship between 2 articles is modeled as an edge connecting them. The purpose of our study was to use the article relationship to facilitate an interactive article recommendation process. Methods We used 15 completed systematic reviews produced by the Drug Effectiveness Review Project and demonstrated the use of article networks to assist article recommendation. We evaluated the predictive performance of MEDLINE elements and compared our approach with existing machine learning model training approaches. The performance was measured by work saved over sampling at 95% recall (WSS95) and the F-measure (F1). We also used repeated analysis over variance and Hommels multiple comparison adjustment to demonstrate statistical evidence. Results We found that although there is no significant difference across elements (except AU), TI and AB have better predictive capability in general. Collaborative elements bring performance improvement in both F1 and WSS95. With our approach, a simple combination of TI+AB+PT could achieve a WSS95 performance of 37%, which is competitive to traditional machine learning model training approaches (23%-41% WSS95). Conclusions We demonstrated a new approach to assist in labor intensive systematic reviews. Predictive ability of different elements (both single and composited) was explored. Without using model training approaches, we established a generalizable method that can achieve a competitive performance. PMID:26323593

  12. Hybrid approach combining contextual and statistical information for identifying MEDLINE citation terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In Cheol; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong demand for developing automated tools for extracting pertinent information from the biomedical literature that is a rich, complex, and dramatically growing resource, and is increasingly accessed via the web. This paper presents a hybrid method based on contextual and statistical information to automatically identify two MEDLINE citation terms: NIH grant numbers and databank accession numbers from HTML-formatted online biomedical documents. Their detection is challenging due to many variations and inconsistencies in their format (although recommended formats exist), and also because of their similarity to other technical or biological terms. Our proposed method first extracts potential candidates for these terms using a rule-based method. These are scored and the final candidates are submitted to a human operator for verification. The confidence score for each term is calculated using statistical information, and morphological and contextual information. Experiments conducted on more than ten thousand HTML-formatted online biomedical documents show that most NIH grant numbers and databank accession numbers can be successfully identified by the proposed method, with recall rates of 99.8% and 99.6%, respectively. However, owing to the high false alarm rate, the proposed method yields F-measure rates of 86.6% and 87.9% for NIH grants and databanks, respectively.

  13. Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) medicines for treatment of menopausal symptoms - comments on major statements of the Cochrane Collaboration report 2012 "black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (review)".

    PubMed

    Beer, André-M; Osmers, Rüdiger; Schnitker, Jörg; Bai, Wenpei; Mueck, Alfred O; Meden, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Menopausal symptoms management with high-quality plant extracts from Actaea (Cimicifuga. racemosa rootstock is well-established. Efficacy and safety are supported by research and clinical trials since several decades and backed up by official monographs. However, the recent published Cochrane review on black cohosh neglects major evidence for beneficial effects. The authors' negative conclusions are questionable and call for reply and clarification. Our careful reconsideration of all appropriate placebo-controlled clinical studies reveals a standardized mean difference of 0.385 in favor of black cohosh (p < 0.0001). PMID:23992293

  14. MeSHSim: An R/Bioconductor package for measuring semantic similarity over MeSH headings and MEDLINE documents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Shui, Yuxuan; Peng, Shengwen; Li, Xuhui; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2015-12-01

    Currently, all MEDLINE documents are indexed by medical subject headings (MeSH). Computing semantic similarity between two MeSH headings as well as two documents has become very important for many biomedical text mining applications. We develop an R package, MeSHSim, which can compute nine similarity measures between MeSH nodes, by which similarity between MeSH headings as well as MEDLINE documents can be easily computed. Also, MeSHSim supports querying hierarchy information of a MeSH heading and retrieving MeSH headings of a query document, and can be easily integrated into pipelines for any biomedical text analysis tasks. MeSHSim is released under general public license (GPL), and available through Bioconductor and from Github at https://github.com/JingZhou2015/MeSHSim. PMID:26471719

  15. User support for a library-managed online database search service: the BMA Library free MEDLINE service.

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, J; Yeadon, J; Forrester, W; McSeán, T

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses user support in the context of a library-managed online database search service. Experience is drawn from the British Medical Association (BMA) Library's Free MEDLINE Service. More than 9,600 BMA members, who are largely unfamiliar with computer communications and database searching, have registered as users of the service. User support has played a significant role in the development of the service and has comprised four main aspects: an information pack, a help desk, online help, and MEDLINE courses. The paper includes an analysis of help desk usage statistics collected from January 1996 through June 1996, and highlights other relevant research. Plans for further service enhancements and their implications in terms of future user support are discussed. PMID:9285124

  16. Viscosupplementation for treating knee osteoarthrosis: review of the literature☆

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Tiago Youssef; Pereira, Tomas Araujo Prado; Mistura, Saulo Luís Lopes; Kuhn, André; Saggin, José Idilio; Lopes Júnior, Osmar Valadão

    2015-01-01

    The aim here was to evaluate the evidence that might support or refute the use of intra-articular viscosupplementation in treating patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthrosis. A review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Trial Register databases and Cochrane database systematic reviews (Cochrane Library). Only studies presenting a high level of evidence were taken into consideration. This study included analysis on randomized clinical trials that included at least 100 patients in each intervention group, meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Two meta-analyses, five systematic reviews and six randomized clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. In the light of the best evidence available so far, there is no consensus for indicating or even for contraindicating the use of intra-articular viscosupplementation among patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthrosis (level of evidence I and degree of recommendation A). Further studies with appropriate methodology are needed to elucidate this matter. PMID:26535192

  17. Public Library Participation in a MedlinePlus Go Local Project: Perceptions of Georgia Librarians and Staff.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rita B

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to promote public library involvement in Georgia Health - Go Local, a National Library of Medicine initiative to link consumers to health resources in their local areas, staff at a large public library system in south Georgia were trained to enter local records into the Go Local database. Results of two follow-up focus groups indicated that participants were enthusiastic about demonstrating Go Local and MedlinePlus to library users but were not comfortable creating or maintaining Go Local records due to concerns about the relevance of the project, unease with medical terminology, varied levels of computer expertise, and worries about possible liability. PMID:21197119

  18. Public Library Participation in a MedlinePlus® Go Local Project: Perceptions of Georgia Librarians and Staff

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rita B.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to promote public library involvement in Georgia Health – Go Local, a National Library of Medicine initiative to link consumers to health resources in their local areas, staff at a large public library system in south Georgia were trained to enter local records into the Go Local database. Results of two follow-up focus groups indicated that participants were enthusiastic about demonstrating Go Local and MedlinePlus to library users but were not comfortable creating or maintaining Go Local records due to concerns about the relevance of the project, unease with medical terminology, varied levels of computer expertise, and worries about possible liability. PMID:21197119

  19. Use of statistical tests and statistical software choice in 2014: tale from three Medline indexed Pakistani journals.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali

    2016-04-01

    Statistical tests help infer meaningful conclusions from studies conducted and data collected. This descriptive study analyzed the type of statistical tests used and the statistical software utilized for analysis reported in the original articles published in 2014 by the three Medline-indexed journals of Pakistan. Cumulatively, 466 original articles were published in 2014. The most frequently reported statistical tests for original articles by all three journals were bivariate parametric and non-parametric tests i.e. involving comparisons between two groups e.g. Chi-square test, t-test, and various types of correlations. Cumulatively, 201 (43.1%) articles used these tests. SPSS was the primary choice for statistical analysis, as it was exclusively used in 374 (80.3%) original articles. There has been a substantial increase in the number of articles published, and in the sophistication of statistical tests used in the articles published in the Pakistani Medline indexed journals in 2014, compared to 2007. PMID:27122277

  20. Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews of Non-Randomized Studies of Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Thiazolidinediones and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: Application of a New Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool

    PubMed Central

    Bilandzic, Anja; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Rosella, Laura; Henry, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions frequently include non-randomized studies. These are subject to confounding and a range of other biases that are seldom considered in detail when synthesizing and interpreting the results. Our aims were to assess the reliability and usability of a new Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool for non-randomized studies of interventions and to determine whether restricting analysis to studies with low or moderate RoB made a material difference to the results of the reviews. Methods and Findings We selected two systematic reviews of population-based, controlled non-randomized studies of the relationship between the use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and major cardiovascular events. Two epidemiologists applied the Cochrane RoB tool and made assessments across the seven specified domains of bias for each of 37 component studies. Inter-rater agreement was measured using the weighted Kappa statistic. We grouped studies according to overall RoB and performed statistical pooling for (a) all studies and (b) only studies with low or moderate RoB. Kappa scores across the seven bias domains ranged from 0.50 to 1.0. In the COX-2 inhibitor review, two studies had low overall RoB, 14 had moderate RoB, and five had serious RoB. In the TZD review, six studies had low RoB, four had moderate RoB, four had serious RoB, and two had critical RoB. The pooled odds ratios for myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death for rosiglitazone versus pioglitazone remained significantly elevated when analyses were confined to studies with low or moderate RoB. However, the estimate for myocardial infarction declined from 1.14 (95% CI 1.07–1.24) to 1.06 (95% CI 0.99–1.13) when analysis was confined to studies with low RoB. Estimates of pooled relative risks of cardiovascular events with COX-2 inhibitors compared with no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug changed little when analyses were confined to studies with low or moderate RoB. The exception was a rise in the relative risk associated with ibuprofen from 1.07 (95% CI 0.97–1.18) to 1.14 (95% CI 1.03–1.26). The main limitation of our study was testing the instrument on a narrow range of pharmacoepidemiological studies; we cannot assume our findings extend to a broader range of interventions and settings. Conclusions The Cochrane RoB tool highlighted a wide range of risks of bias in studies included in two widely cited reviews and had the potential to change the conclusions of the reviews. Systematic reviews that incorporate non-randomized studies of medical interventions should include a detailed assessment of RoB for each included study. PMID:27046153

  1. Sharing MedlinePlus®/MEDLINE® for information literacy education (SMILE): a dental public health information project.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Julie K; Levy, Linda S; Cogdill, Keith W

    2011-01-01

    The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of "power information users" among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provided public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel. PMID:22040242

  2. Evaluation and management of hemorrhoids: Italian society of colorectal surgery (SICCR) consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Trompetto, M; Clerico, G; Cocorullo, G F; Giordano, P; Marino, F; Martellucci, J; Milito, G; Mistrangelo, M; Ratto, C

    2015-10-01

    Hemorrhoids are one of the most common medical and surgical diseases and the main reason for a visit to a coloproctologist. This consensus statement was drawn up by the Italian society of colorectal surgery in order to provide practice parameters for an accurate assessment of the disease and consequent appropriate treatment. The authors made a careful search in the main databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane), and all results were classified on the basis of the grade of recommendation (A-C) of the American College of Chest Physicians. PMID:26403234

  3. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus☆

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Bezerra, Luiz Eduardo Pimentel; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Júnior, Antonio Carlos Tenor; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature. PMID:27069878

  4. Recommendations for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Trevisani, Virgínia Fernandes Moça; Pasoto, Sandra Gofinet; Serrano, Erica Vieira; Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia Euzébio; Fidelix, Tania Sales de Alencar; Vilela, Verônica Silva; Prado, Leandro Lara do; Tanure, Leandro Augusto; Libório-Kimura, Tatiana Nayara; Brito Filho, Odvaldo Honor de; Barros, Liliana Aparecida Pimenta de; Miyamoto, Samira Tatiyama; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Santos, Maria Carmen Lopes Ferreira Silva; Vieira, Luis Antonio; Adán, Consuelo Bueno Diniz; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques

    2015-01-01

    The recommendations proposed by the Sjögren's Syndrome Committee of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome were based on a systematic review of literature in Medline (PubMed) and the Cochrane databases until October 2014 and on expert opinion in the absence of studies on the subject. 131 items classified according to Oxford & Grade were included. These recommendations were developed in order to guide the appropriate management and facilitate the access to treatment for those patients with an appropriate indication, considering the Brazilian socioeconomic context and pharmacological agents available in this country. PMID:26360421

  5. Alignment of systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness with global burden-of-disease data: a bibliographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Hall, Alix; Williams, Christopher M; Skelton, Eliza; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Karimkhani, Chante; Boyers, Lindsay N; Dellavalle, Robert P; Hilton, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of high-quality evidence are used to inform policy and practice. To improve community health, the production of such reviews should align with burden of disease. This study aims to assess if the volume of research output from systematic reviews proportionally aligns with burden of disease assessed using percentages of mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods A cross-sectional audit of reviews published between January 2012 and August 2013 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) was undertaken. Percentages of mortality and DALYs were obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Standardised residual differences (SRD) based on percentages of mortality and DALYs were calculated, where conditions with SRD of more than or less than three were considered overstudied or understudied, respectively. Results 1029 reviews from CDSR and 1928 reviews from DARE were examined. There was a significant correlation between percentage DALYs and systematic reviews published in CDSR and DARE databases (CDSR: r=0.68, p=0.001; DARE: r=0.60, p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between percentage mortality and number of systematic reviews published in either database (CDSR: r=0.34, p=0.14; DARE: r=0.22, p=0.34). Relative to percentage of mortality, mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal conditions and other non-communicable diseases were overstudied. Maternal disorders were overstudied relative to percentages of mortality and DALYs in CDSR. Conclusions The focus of systematic reviews is moderately correlated with DALYs. A number of conditions may be overstudied relative to percentage of mortality particularly in the context of health and medical reviews. PMID:25888595

  6. From Shakespeare to Star Trek and beyond: a Medline search for literary and other allusions in biomedical titles

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Neville W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To document biomedical paper titles containing literary and other allusions. Design Retrospective survey. Setting Medline (1951 to mid-2005) through Dialog Datastar. Main outcome measure Allusions to Shakespeare, Hans Christian Andersen, proverbs, the Bible, Lewis Carroll, and movie titles, corrected and scaled for five year periods 1950-4 to 2000-4. Results More than 1400 Shakespearean allusions exist, a third of them to “What's in a name” and another third to Hamlet—mostly to “To be or not to be.” The trend of increasing use of allusive titles, identified from Shakespeare and Andersen, is paralleled by allusions to Carroll and proverbs; the trend of biblical allusions is also upward but is more erratic. Trends for newer allusions are also upwards, including the previously surveyed “paradigm shift.” Allusive titles are likely to be to editorial or comment rather than to original research. Conclusions The similar trends are presumably a mark of a particular learnt author behaviour. Newer allusions may be becoming more popular than older ones. Allusive titles can be unhelpful to reviewers and researchers, and many are now clichés. Whether they attract readers or citations is unknown, but better ways of gaining attention exist. PMID:16373745

  7. Integrating CD-ROM Medline with electronic mail: first step in implementing new strategy for online reference library.

    PubMed Central

    Ribitzky, R.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous ACCESS to and DISSEMINATION of electronically available PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE, in a productive, Cost-of-Ownership effective, and affordable manner are now achievable. Emerging MANAGEMENT-OF-INFORMATION and SYSTEMS-INTEGRATION disciplines are essential contributing factors to devising and implementing NEW STRATEGIES for ONLINE REFERENCE LIBRARIES. Bringing integrated information closer to the ultimate user and RESHAPING the electronic databases and full-text management systems MARKETPLACE are the most significant outcomes. Key technology attributes are advancements in CD-ROM, Networking, and office automation. We have proven this concept by developing an INTERFACE between MEDLINE from COMPACT CAMBRIDGE and ALL-IN-1 from DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION. Saved search results are automatically routed to the individual's ALL-IN-1 account where further DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT and electronic mail functions may be performed. A 486Ware system from Logicraft and a five-members VAX-Cluster (respectively), are linked in a DECNet environment that is the foundation of Children's Integrated Hospital Information System. In phase one of the project up to 8 SIMULTANEOUS USERS may access the 8 RECENT YEARS, from any one of 1500 ACCESS POINTS (local and remote), and utilize any one of 150 NETWORKED PRINTERS. Opportunities are now within reach to expand the electronic library services while utilizing progressive methods and taking advantage of the best available technologies. PMID:1807668

  8. Evolution of Cooperation Patterns in Psoriasis Research: Co-Authorship Network Analysis of Papers in Medline (1942–2013)

    PubMed Central

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Belinchón, Isabel; Ramos, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although researchers have worked in collaboration since the origins of modern science and the publication of the first scientific journals in the eighteenth century, this phenomenon has acquired exceptional importance in the last several decades. Since the mid-twentieth century, new knowledge has been generated from within an ever-growing network of investigators, working cooperatively in research groups across countries and institutions. Cooperation is a crucial determinant of academic success. Objective The aim of the present paper is to analyze the evolution of scientific collaboration at the micro level, with regard to the scientific production generated on psoriasis research. Methods A bibliographic search in the Medline database containing the MeSH terms “psoriasis” or “psoriatic arthritis” was carried out. The search results were limited to articles, reviews and letters. After identifying the co-authorships of documents on psoriasis indexed in the Medline database (1942–2013), various bibliometric indicators were obtained, including the average number of authors per document and degree of multi-authorship over time. In addition, we performed a network analysis to study the evolution of certain features of the co-authorship network as a whole: average degree, size of the largest component, clustering coefficient, density and average distance. We also analyzed the evolution of the giant component to characterize the changing research patterns in the field, and we calculated social network indicators for the nodes, namely betweenness and closeness. Results The main active research clusters in the area were identified, along with their authors of reference. Our analysis of 28,670 documents sheds light on different aspects related to the evolution of scientific collaboration in the field, including the progressive increase in the mean number of co-authors (which stood at 5.17 in the 2004–2013 decade), and the rise in multi-authored papers signed by many different authors (in the same decade, 25.77% of the documents had between 6 and 9 co-authors, and 10.28% had 10 or more). With regard to the network indicators, the average degree gradually increased up to 10.97 in the study period. The percentage of authors pertaining to the largest component also rose to 73.02% of the authors. The clustering coefficient, on the other hand, remained stable throughout the entire 70-year period, with values hovering around 0.9. Finally, the average distance peaked in the decades 1974–1983 (8.29) and 1984–2003 (8.12) then fell over the next two decades, down to 5.25 in 2004–2013. The construction of the co-authorship network (threshold of collaboration ≥ 10 co-authored works) revealed a giant component of 161 researchers, containing 6 highly cohesive sub-components. Conclusions Our study reveals the existence of a growing research community in which collaboration is increasingly important. We can highlight an essential feature associated with scientific collaboration: multi-authored papers, with growing numbers of collaborators contributing to them, are becoming more and more common, therefore the formation of research groups of increasing depth (specialization) and breadth (multidisciplinarity) is now a cornerstone of research success. PMID:26658481

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... site: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... links Instagram Read our disclaimer about external links LinkedIn E-mail Updates NCCIH Home Privacy and Policies ...

  10. Comparing the Precision of Information Retrieval of MeSH-Controlled Vocabulary Search Method and a Visual Method in the Medline Medical Database

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Nadjla; Ravandi, Somayyeh Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medline is one of the most important databases in the biomedical field. One of the most important hosts for Medline is Elton B. Stephens CO. (EBSCO), which has presented different search methods that can be used based on the needs of the users. Visual search and MeSH-controlled search methods are among the most common methods. The goal of this research was to compare the precision of the retrieved sources in the EBSCO Medline base using MeSH-controlled and visual search methods. Methods: This research was a semi-empirical study. By holding training workshops, 70 students of higher education in different educational departments of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were taught MeSH-Controlled and visual search methods in 2012. Then, the precision of 300 searches made by these students was calculated based on Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision formulas and analyzed in SPSS software using the independent sample T Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the two search methods. Results: The mean precision of the visual method was greater than that of the MeSH-Controlled search for all three types of precision, i.e. Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P <0.001). Sixty-five percent of the researchers indicated that, although the visual method was better than the controlled method, the control of keywords in the controlled method resulted in finding more proper keywords for the searches. Fifty-three percent of the participants in the research also mentioned that the use of the combination of the two methods produced better results. Conclusion: For users, it is more appropriate to use a natural, language-based method, such as the visual method, in the EBSCO Medline host than to use the controlled method, which requires users to use special keywords. The potential reason for their preference was that the visual method allowed them more freedom of action. PMID:25763155

  11. Design and validation of an automated method to detect known adverse drug reactions in MEDLINE: a contribution from the EU–ADR project

    PubMed Central

    Avillach, Paul; Dufour, Jean-Charles; Diallo, Gayo; Salvo, Francesco; Joubert, Michel; Thiessard, Frantz; Mougin, Fleur; Trifirò, Gianluca; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Pariente, Antoine; Fieschi, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this research was to automate the search of publications concerning adverse drug reactions (ADR) by defining the queries used to search MEDLINE and by determining the required threshold for the number of extracted publications to confirm the drug/event association in the literature. Methods We defined an approach based on the medical subject headings (MeSH) ‘descriptor records’ and ‘supplementary concept records’ thesaurus, using the subheadings ‘chemically induced’ and ‘adverse effects’ with the ‘pharmacological action’ knowledge. An expert-built validation set of true positive and true negative drug/adverse event associations (n=61) was used to validate our method. Results Using a threshold of three of more extracted publications, the automated search method presented a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. For nine different drug/event pairs selected, the recall of the automated search ranged from 24% to 64% and the precision from 93% to 48%. Conclusions This work presents a method to find previously established relationships between drugs and adverse events in the literature. Using MEDLINE, following a MeSH approach to filter the signals, is a valid option. Our contribution is available as a web service that will be integrated in the final European EU–ADR project (Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by integrative mining of clinical records and biomedical knowledge) automated system. PMID:23195749

  12. RetroMine, or how to provide in-depth retrospective studies from Medline in a glance: the hepcidin use-case.

    PubMed

    Ameline de Cadeville, Bertrand; Loréal, Olivier; Moussouni-Marzolf, Fouzia

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical literature has provoked an increased development of advanced text mining tools to rapidly extract relevant events from the continuously increasing amount of knowledge published periodically in PubMed. However, bioinvestigators are still reluctant to use these tools for two reasons: i) a large volume of events is often extracted upon a query, and this volume is hard to manage, and ii) background events dominate search results and overshadow more pertinent published information, especially for domain experts. In this paper, we propose an approach that incorporates the temporal dimension of published events to the process of information extraction to improve data selection and prioritize more pertinent periodically published knowledge for scientists. Indeed, instead of providing the total knowledge associated with a PubMed query, which is usually a mix of trivial background information and non-background information, we propose a method that incorporates time and selects non background and highly relevant biological entities and events published over time for bioinvestigators. Before excluding background events from the total knowledge extracted, a quantification of their amount is also provided. This work is illustrated by a case study regarding Hepcidin gene publications over a decade, a duration that is sufficiently long enough to generate alternative views on the overall data extracted. PMID:26673791

  13. [Systematic review of diagnostic tests accuracy: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Glória Maria; Camargo, Fábio Trinca; Gonçalves, Eduardo Costa; Duarte, Carlos Vinicius Nascimento; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. We undertook a search using The Cochrane Methodology Reviews (Cochrane Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy), Medline and LILACS up to October 2009. Reference lists of included studies were also hand searched. The following search strategy was constructed by using a combination of subject headings and text words: 1. Cochrane Methodology Reviews: accuracy study "Methodology" 2. In Pubmed "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine" [Mesh]) AND "Sensitivity and Specificity" [Mesh] 3. LILACS (revisao sistematica) or "literatura de REVISAO como assunto" [Descritor de assunto] and (sistematica) or "SISTEMATICA" [Descritor de assunto] and (acuracia) or "SENSIBILIDADE e especificidade" [Descritor de assunto]. In summary, the methodological planning and preparation of systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions are prior to that used in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. There are more sources of heterogeneity in design of diagnostic test studies, which impair the synthesis - meta-analysis - of the results. To work around this problem, there are currently uniform requirements for diagnostic test manuscripts submitted to leading biomedical journals. PMID:20549106

  14. Incidence of neoplasms in the most prevalent autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Machado, Roberta Ismael Lacerda; Braz, Alessandra de Sousa; Freire, Eutilia Andrade Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    This article is a systematic review of the literature about the coexistence of cancer and autoimmune rheumatic diseases, their main associations, cancers and possible risk factors associated, with emphasis on existing population-based studies, besides checking the relation of this occur with the use of the drugs used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. A search was conducted of scientific articles indexed in the Cochrane / BVS, Pubmed / Medline and Scielo / Lilacs in the period from 2002 to 2012. Also consulted was the IB-ICT (Brazilian digital library of theses and Masters), with descriptors in Portuguese and English for "Systemic sclerosis", "Rheumatoid Arthritis", " Systemic Lupus Erythematosus" and "Sjögren's syndrome", correlating each one with the descriptor AND "neoplasms". The results showed that in the database IBICT a thesis and a dissertation for the descriptor SLE met the inclusion criteria, none met RA one thesis to SS. Lilacs in the database/Scielo found two articles on "Rheumatoid Arthritis" AND "neoplasms". In Pubmed/Medline the inicial search resulted in 118 articles, and 41 were selected. The review noted the relationship between cancer and autoimmune rheumatic diseases, as well as a risk factor for protection, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are not known. PMID:24878860

  15. MedlinePlus FAQ: What is MedlinePlus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... encyclopedia brings health consumers an extensive library of medical images and videos , as well as over 4,000 articles about diseases, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries. The Merriam-Webster medical dictionary allows you to look up definitions and ...

  16. Knowledge for Knowledge Translation: The Role of the Cochrane Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Santesso, Nancy; Cumpston, Miranda; Mayhew, Alain; McGowan, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation (KT) activities, including continuing education, should be informed by the totality of available research evidence. Systematic reviews are a generic methodology used to synthesize evidence from a broad range of research methods addressing different questions. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the…

  17. Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy vs abdominal hysterectomy for benign disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yue-xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Guo, Wan-ru; Su, Yu

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess whether laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy achieves better clinical results compared with abdominal hysterectomy. Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, ProQuest, Cochrane Library and China Biological Medicine Database were searched to identify randomized controlled trials that compared laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy with abdominal hysterectomy. Twenty-three trials were studied and the analysis was performed using Review Manager Version 5 and R Version 2.11.1. The results showed that laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy was associated with a longer operation time, less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, smaller haemoglobin drop, less postoperative pain, quicker return to normal activities and fewer peri-operative complications. Quality of life is likely to be the key outcome to evaluate the approach for hysterectomy, but further research is needed. For suitable patients and surgeons, laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy is a better choice than abdominal hysterectomy. PMID:21664034

  18. Disciplinary processes and the management of poor performance among UK nurses: bad apple or systemic failure? A scoping study.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Michael; Stone, Katie; Cook, Hannah; Gould, Dinah; Maben, Jill

    2014-03-01

    The rise of managerialism within healthcare systems has been noted globally. This paper uses the findings of a scoping study to investigate the management of poor performance among nurses and midwives in the United Kingdom within this context. The management of poor performance among clinicians in the NHS has been seen as a significant policy problem. There has been a profound shift in the distribution of power between professional and managerial groups in many health systems globally. We examined literature published between 2000 and 10 to explore aspects of poor performance and its management. We used Web of Science, CINAHL, MEDLINE, British Nursing Index, HMIC, Cochrane Library and PubMed. Empirical data are limited but indicate that nurses and midwives are the clinical groups most likely to be suspended and that poor performance is often represented as an individual deficit. A focus on the individual as a source of trouble can serve as a distraction from more complex systematic problems. PMID:23441729

  19. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and their implication in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Palleria, Caterina; Di Paolo, Antonello; Giofrè, Chiara; Caglioti, Chiara; Leuzzi, Giacomo; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are one of the commonest causes of medication error in developed countries, particularly in the elderly due to poly-therapy, with a prevalence of 20-40%. In particular, poly-therapy increases the complexity of therapeutic management and thereby the risk of clinically important DDIs, which can both induce the development of adverse drug reactions or reduce the clinical efficacy. DDIs can be classify into two main groups: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. In this review, using Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and Reference lists we searched articles published until June 30 2012, and we described the mechanism of pharmacokinetic DDIs focusing the interest on their clinical implications. PMID:24516494

  20. Sleep deprivation, pain and prematurity: a review study.

    PubMed

    Bonan, Kelly Cristina Santos de Carvalho; Pimentel Filho, João da Costa; Tristão, Rosana Maria; Jesus, José Alfredo Lacerda de; Campos Junior, Dioclécio

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants. PMID:25742585

  1. Interruptions of nurses' activities and patient safety: an integrative literature review1

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Cintia; Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics related to the interruption of nurses in professional practice, as well as to assess the implications of interruptions for patient safety. METHOD: integrative literature review. The following databases were searched: Pubmed/Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, using the descriptors interruptions and patient safety. An initial date was not established, but the final date was December 31, 2013. A total of 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: all the papers included describe interruptions as a harmful factor for patient safety. Data analysis revealed three relevant categories: characteristics of interruptions, implications for patient safety, and interventions to minimize interruptions. CONCLUSION: interruptions favor the occurrence of errors in the health field. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to understand such a phenomenon and its effects on clinical practice. PMID:25806646

  2. The application of sonography in shoulder pain evaluation and injection treatment after stroke: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wu; Fu, Yu; Hai-xin, Song; Yan, Dong; Jian-hua, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose the application of sonography in shoulder pain after stroke. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address sonography examination, with or without ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection for hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP). The electronic databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline were searched. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, sonographic technique has potential to provide objective measurements in patients with HSP. The main sonography finding of HSP included subacromial subdeltoid (SASD) bursal effusion, tendinosis of the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon, long head of biceps tendon sheath effusion, and shoulder subluxation. Our analysis also revealed significantly decreased pain score (VAS) and increased passive external rotation degree in the steroid injection group than control group. [Conclusion] The sonography examination is useful for HSP assessment and ultrasound guided technique is recommended for HSP injection treatment. PMID:26504346

  3. The application of sonography in shoulder pain evaluation and injection treatment after stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wu; Fu, Yu; Hai-Xin, Song; Yan, Dong; Jian-Hua, Li

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose the application of sonography in shoulder pain after stroke. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address sonography examination, with or without ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection for hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP). The electronic databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline were searched. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, sonographic technique has potential to provide objective measurements in patients with HSP. The main sonography finding of HSP included subacromial subdeltoid (SASD) bursal effusion, tendinosis of the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon, long head of biceps tendon sheath effusion, and shoulder subluxation. Our analysis also revealed significantly decreased pain score (VAS) and increased passive external rotation degree in the steroid injection group than control group. [Conclusion] The sonography examination is useful for HSP assessment and ultrasound guided technique is recommended for HSP injection treatment. PMID:26504346

  4. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  5. Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to describe the association between central auditory processing mechanism and the cardiac autonomic regulation. Methods It was researched papers on the topic addressed in this study considering the following data bases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The key words were: “auditory stimulation, heart rate, autonomic nervous system and P300”. Results The findings in the literature demonstrated that auditory stimulation influences the autonomic nervous system and has been used in conjunction with other methods. It is considered a promising step in the investigation of therapeutic procedures for rehabilitation and quality of life of several pathologies. Conclusion The association between auditory stimulation and the level of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has received significant contributions in relation to musical stimuli. PMID:24834128

  6. High Burden of Protein–Energy Malnutrition in Nigeria: Beyond the Health Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ubesie, AC; Ibeziakor, NS

    2012-01-01

    There is still a high burden of protein–energy malnutrition in Nigeria. The severe forms of the disease are usually associated with high level of mortality even in the tertiary health facilities. To review the cost-effective health promotional strategies at community levels that could aid prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of protein–energy malnutrition. The strategy used for locating articles used for this review was to search databases like Google, Google scholar, relevant electronic journals from the universities’ libraries, including PubMed and Scirus, Medline, Cochrane library and WHO's Hinari. We believe that strategies beyond the health care setting have potential of significantly reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with protein–energy malnutrition in Nigeria. PMID:23209994

  7. Nanotechnology and its application in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Abiodun-Solanke, Imf; Ajayi, Dm; Arigbede, Ao

    2014-09-01

    Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of everyday life from security to medicine. The concept of nanotechnology is that when one goes down to the bottom of things, one can discover unlimited possibilities and potential of the basic particle. In nanotechnology, analysis can be made to the level of manipulating atoms, molecules and chemical bonds between them. The growing interest in the dental applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new field called nanodentistry. An electronic database search that included PubMed, MedLine, and Cochrane library was conducted. Key words used in the search are nanotechnology dentistry and applications. Language limitation was set as articles reviewed were only those written and published in English language. We did not search the gray literature. Initially, 52 articles were retrieved from the database, and articles considered were those published from 2008 to 2013. Eight articles that met the selection criteria were eventually selected and reviewed. PMID:25364585

  8. Eradication of tetanus

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, C. L.; Loan, H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The causative agent of tetanus, Clostridium tetani is widespread in the environment throughout the world and cannot be eradicated. To reduce the number of cases of tetanus efforts are focussed on prevention using vaccination and post-exposure wound care. Sources of data Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane databases; World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund publications. Areas of agreement The maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination initiative has resulted in significant reductions in mortality from neonatal tetanus throughout the world. Areas of controversy Although there are few data available it is likely that large numbers of children and adults, particularly men, remain unprotected due to lack of booster immunization. Areas timely for developing research It remains unclear how HIV and malaria affect both responses to vaccination and transplacental transfer of antibodies or how this might affect timing of vaccination doses. PMID:26598719

  9. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately. PMID:25628080

  10. Fenestrated and Chimney Technique for Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysm: A Systematic Review and Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Hu, Zhongzhou; Bai, Chujie; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Ge, Yangyang; Luan, Shaoliang; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Juxtarenal aortic aneurysms (JAA) account for approximately 15% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) and chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (CH-EVAR) are both effective methods to treat JAAs, but the comparative effectiveness of these treatment modalities is unclear. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify English language articles published between January 2005 and September 2013 on management of JAA with fenestrated and chimney techniques to conduct a systematic review to compare outcomes of patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JAA) treated with the two techniques. We compared nine F-EVAR cohort studies including 542 JAA patients and 8 CH-EVAR cohorts with 158 JAA patients regarding techniques success rates, 30-day mortality, late mortality, endoleak events and secondary intervention rates. The results of this systematic review indicate that both fenestrated and chimney techniques are attractive options for JAAs treatment with encouraging early and mid-term outcomes. PMID:26869488

  11. Application of Low Frequency and Medium Frequency Currents in the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain-A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Stephen Rajan; Maiya, G Arun

    2015-01-01

    Trancutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential therapy (IFT) have been a regular line of treatment for various types of acute and chronic pain. This review aims to compile the latest literature in pain management using these modalities which use low-frequency and medium-frequency currents. The Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were searched and studies were examined from their inception till October 2013. After title and abstract screening the relevant studies were included for this review. We found through this review that even though TENS and IFT are used in management of pain, there is limited amount of high quality research available in this area. Most of the studies lack methodological quality and have a low sample size. PMID:25709199

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma and dental implants: A systematic review of case reports

    PubMed Central

    Jeelani, S.; Rajkumar, E.; Mary, G. Geena; Khan, Parvez Ahmad; Gopal, Harish; Roy, Soumya; Maheswaran, T.; Anand, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death world-wide. Apart from the most common etiopathological factors related to cancer, at times very rare causes such as irritant or foreign body induced carcinogenesis is not to be overlooked. To systematically review case reports concerned with the association between dental implants and oral squamous cell carcinoma. A Medline (PubMed), Cochrane database, and Google Scholar search was conducted of dental article published in English related to case reports concerned with oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring around dental implants from 2000 to 2014. Twenty articles were retrieved, which included 20 rare case reports which were systematically reviewed and the results were obtained pertaining to age, clinical symptoms, habits, previous history of cancer, potentially malignant disorders, systemic illness, and local factors. It is imperative to identify promptly persisting inflammation associated with implants. Since malignancy may disguise as periimplantitis, especially in patients who are at risk with contributing prominent predisposing factors. PMID:26538881

  13. A systematic review on skin complications of bone-anchored hearing aids in relation to surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Shwan; Khan, Imran; Hey, S Y; Hussain, S S Musheer

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review to study the skin complications associated with the bone-anchored hearing aid in relation to surgical techniques. The following databases have been searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library , Google scholar and the PubMed. The literature search date was from January 1977 until November 2013. Randomised controlled trials and retrospective studies were included. Initial search identified 420 publications. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria of this review. The most common surgical techniques identified were full-thickness skin graft, Dermatome and linear incision techniques. The result shows that dermatome technique is associated with higher rate of skin complications when compared to linear incision and skin graft techniques. Based on the available literature, the use of a linear incision technique appears to be associated with lower skin complications; however, there is limited data available supporting this. Higher quality studies would allow a more reliable comparison between the surgical techniques. PMID:25503356

  14. Nanotechnology and its Application in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun-Solanke, IMF; Ajayi, DM; Arigbede, AO

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of everyday life from security to medicine. The concept of nanotechnology is that when one goes down to the bottom of things, one can discover unlimited possibilities and potential of the basic particle. In nanotechnology, analysis can be made to the level of manipulating atoms, molecules and chemical bonds between them. The growing interest in the dental applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new field called nanodentistry. An electronic database search that included PubMed, MedLine, and Cochrane library was conducted. Key words used in the search are nanotechnology dentistry and applications. Language limitation was set as articles reviewed were only those written and published in English language. We did not search the gray literature. Initially, 52 articles were retrieved from the database, and articles considered were those published from 2008 to 2013. Eight articles that met the selection criteria were eventually selected and reviewed. PMID:25364585

  15. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Michael; Norman, Ian; Foley, Michelle; Harris, Richard; Rapca, Anna; Rich, Eileen; Van Hout, Marie-Claire

    2015-12-01

    Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O'Malley's framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted. PMID:26677894

  16. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  17. Effects of Sophora japonica flowers (Huaihua) on cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The dried flowers and buds of Sophora japonica are used as a medicinal herb in China, Japan and Korea to treat bleeding hemorrhoids and hematemesis. This article presents an overview of the effects of Sophora japonica on cerebral infarction based on literature searched from Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Sophora japonica contains both anti-hemorrhagic and anti-hemostatic substances. Sophora japonica reduces cerebral infarction partly as a result of its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Previous studies found that Sophora japonica reduced the size of cerebral infarction and neurological deficits and reduced microglial activation, interleukin-1β release and number of apoptotic cells in ischemia-reperfusion injured Sprague-Dawley rats. Further study is required to determine the relationship between Sophora japonica-mediated reduction in cerebral infarction size and the effects of Sophora japonica on platelet aggregation and cardiovascular function. PMID:20875105

  18. Effects of Sophora japonica flowers (Huaihua) on cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The dried flowers and buds of Sophora japonica are used as a medicinal herb in China, Japan and Korea to treat bleeding hemorrhoids and hematemesis. This article presents an overview of the effects of Sophora japonica on cerebral infarction based on literature searched from Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Sophora japonica contains both anti-hemorrhagic and anti-hemostatic substances. Sophora japonica reduces cerebral infarction partly as a result of its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Previous studies found that Sophora japonica reduced the size of cerebral infarction and neurological deficits and reduced microglial activation, interleukin-1β release and number of apoptotic cells in ischemia-reperfusion injured Sprague-Dawley rats. Further study is required to determine the relationship between Sophora japonica-mediated reduction in cerebral infarction size and the effects of Sophora japonica on platelet aggregation and cardiovascular function. PMID:20875105

  19. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  20. Health Topics: MedlinePlus

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  7. The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. The itching is caused by an allergic reaction to the mites. The treatment of choice is still controversial. It is commonly treated with topical insecticides. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Open Grey and WHO ICTRP) up to September 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared the efficacy of ivermectin with other medications in the treatment of scabies. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. The author intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. It has been sated that ivermectin was as effective as permethrin in the treatment of scabies. In comparison to other medications such as lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton and malathion, ivermectin was more effective in the treatment of scabies. Ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection. PMID:25911032

  8. Sexual and gender-based violence in areas of armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual and other forms of gender-based violence are common in conflict settings and are known risk factors for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing. We present findings from a systematic review of the academic and grey literature focused on the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial support interventions for populations exposed to sexual and other forms of gender-based violence in the context of armed conflicts. Methods We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PubMed/ Medline, psycINFO, and PILOTS, as well as grey literature to search for evaluations of interventions, without date limitations. Results Out of 5,684 returned records 189 full text papers were assessed for eligibility. Seven studies met inclusion criteria: 1 non-randomized controlled study; 3 non-controlled pre- post-test designs; 1 retrospective cohort with a matched comparison group; and 2 case studies. Studies were conducted in West and Central Africa; Albania; UK and USA, included female participants, and focused on individual and group counseling; combined psychological, medical, social and economic interventions; and cognitive behavioral therapy (two single case studies). Conclusions The seven studies, while very limited, tentatively suggest beneficial effects of mental health and psychosocial interventions for this population, and show feasibility of evaluation and implementation of such interventions in real-life settings through partnerships with humanitarian organizations. Robust conclusions on the effectiveness of particular approaches are not possible on the basis of current evidence. More rigorous research is urgently needed. PMID:23915821

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students. PMID:26246529

  10. Biphasic Regulation of Lipid Metabolism: A Meta-Analysis of Icodextrin in Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Da-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Ouyang, Man-Zhao; Zhang, Wei-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this systematic meta-analysis was to study the impact of icodextrin (ICO) on lipid profiles. Methods. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature, and the Cochrane Library and Reference lists were searched (last search September 2014) in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results. Searches identified 13 eligible trials with a total of 850 patients. The differentials of total cholesterol (TC) and free fatty acid (FFA) in the ICO group were greater than those in the GLU group. Metaregression analysis showed that TC levels positively correlated with its baseline levels. In the subgroup of patients with dialysis duration more than 6 months, TC and TG in the ICO group were less. In pooled data from cross-sectional studies, differential of TG in the ICO group was less. In the subgroup of patients with diabetes (Martikainen et al., 2005, Sniderman et al., 2014, and Takatori et al., 2011), differential of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the ICO group was less. There was no significant effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), or lipoprotein(a). Conclusions. ICO may be beneficial to lipid metabolism, especially for its biphasic regulation of plasma TC levels. PMID:26788499

  11. Malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenomas into hepatocellular carcinomas: a systematic review including more than 1600 adenoma cases

    PubMed Central

    Stoot, Jan HMB; Coelen, Robert JS; de Jong, Mechteld C; Dejong, Cornelis HC

    2010-01-01

    Background Malignant transformation of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) into hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) has been reported repeatedly and is considered to be one of the main reasons for surgical treatment. However, its actual risk is currently unknown. Objective To provide an estimation of the frequency of malignant transformation of HCAs and to discuss its clinical implications. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using the following databases: The Cochrane Hepatobiliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Results One hundred and fifty-seven relevant series and 17 case reports (a total of 1635 HCAs) were retrieved, reporting an overall frequency of malignant transformation of 4.2%. Only three cases (4.4%) of malignant alteration were reported in a tumour smaller than 5 cm in diameter. Discussion Malignant transformation of HCAs into HCCs remains a rare phenomenon with a reported frequency of 4.2%. A better selection of exactly those patients presenting with an HCA with an amplified risk of malignant degeneration is advocated in order to reduce the number of liver resections and thus reducing the operative risk for these predominantly young patients. The Bordeaux adenoma tumour markers are a promising method of identifying these high-risk adenomas. PMID:20887318

  12. [What is the evidence for non-antibiotic drug therapy of Rhinosinusitis?].

    PubMed

    Mösges, R; Heubach, C P

    2011-12-01

    The German AWMF-guideline for rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps is to be reassessed. By searching the literature for the reevaluation we investigate in this systematic review to what extent existing recommendations can be affirmed, have to be changed or if there are new recommendations to give.We searched PUBMED, MEDLINE and other databases via MEDPILOT, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials without limiting the publication date range. Relevant clinical trials identified by 2 reviewers out of the search results were assessed for their methodical quality using an extended Jadad scale. Datas were extracted and study design, therapy/application, control group and results were analysed. Furthermore, levels of evidence for the different therapeutics have been determined.Out of 1 346 search results 227 potentially eligible trials were identified; for this review we considered only the 47 trials published since 01/2006. Former recommendations are mainly supported by the identified relevant publications and several Cochrane reviews published in the last years.Levels of evidence are Ia for topical and systemic corticosteroid therapy for acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. Additionally, there is evidence that the application of saline solutions is useful not only for chronic but also for acute rhinosinusitis. New therapy options are under examination, but there is not enough evidence for adding them to actual recommendations. PMID:22016266

  13. Evidence-based treatment of maisonneuve fractures.

    PubMed

    Stufkens, Sjoerd A; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Doornberg, Job N; van Dijk, C Niek; Kloen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to review the published clinical evidence available for the treatment of Maisonneuve fractures. Medline via PubMed, Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) annual meetings' abstracts archives Web site, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Clinical Trial register were searched for the period extending from January 1970 to May 2009 in order to identify studies relating to the treatment of Maisonneuve ankle fractures. Six level 4 (case series, N ≥ 5) studies, describing a total of 83 patients with a Maisonneuve fracture, were included in the review. Although the authors did not compare the different treatment strategies described in the reports, the overall outcomes were generally good, and included 74 (89%) patients in which the outcome was considered good or excellent, and 9 (11%) patients in which the outcome was considered fair or poor. Based on this review, some grade B and C recommendations for the treatment of Maisonneuve fractures were formulated, including: 1) the medial malleolus should be fixated, 2) the torn deltoid ligament need not be directly repaired, 3) syndesmotic instability can be treated with one or two 3- or 4-cortical screws and these can be placed percutaneously, and 4) the proximal fibular fracture does not require direct internal fixation. Recommendations for future research were also formulated and described in this report. PMID:21172642

  14. Laparoscopic colorectal resection versus open colorectal resection in octogenarians: a systematic review and meta-analysis of safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Wang, S; Gao, S; Yang, C; Yang, W; Guo, S

    2016-03-01

    Octogenarians are more often viewed as high-risk surgical candidates. This increased risk is attributed to an age-related decline in physical function and reserve capacity coupled with the presence of various underlying diseases. There are no current guidelines or consensus on the optimal treatment strategy for this cohort of complex patients. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic colorectal resection versus open colorectal resection in octogenarians. The meta-analysis was conducted following all aspects of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A systematic literature review was carried out using the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and OVID. Only studies comparing outcome of laparoscopic and open colorectal resections in the elderly population (≥80 years) were selected. The data collected included the patient demographics, interventions, observed outcome and sources of bias. When performing the statistical analysis, we used the odds ratio for categorical variables and the weighted mean difference for continuous variables. The results of this systematic review and pooled analysis demonstrated the safety and potential benefits of laparoscopic colorectal resection in octogenarians. LC can reduce the length of hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss, time to return of normal bowel function, and incidence of postoperative pneumonia, wound infection, and postoperative ileus. PMID:26783029

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Xpert Test in Tuberculosis Detection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravdeep; Kachroo, Kavita; Sharma, Jitendar Kumar; Vatturi, Satyanarayana Murthy; Dang, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and detection of rifampicin resistance. This systematic review was done to know about the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar for relevant studies for studies published between 2010 and December 2014. Studies given in the systematic reviews were accessed separately and used for analysis. Selection of studies, data extraction and assessment of quality of included studies was performed independently by two reviewers. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay among adult or predominantly adult patients (≥14 years), presumed to have pulmonary TB with or without HIV infection were included in the review. Also, studies that had assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay using sputum and other respiratory specimens were included. Results: The included studies had a low risk of any form of bias, showing that findings are of high scientific validity and credibility. Quantitative analysis of 37 included studies shows that Xpert MTB/RIF is an accurate diagnostic test for TB and detection of rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a robust, sensitive and specific test for accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis as compared to conventional tests like culture and microscopic examination. PMID:27013842

  16. Is fibrin sealant effective and safe in total knee arthroplasty? A meta-analysis of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrin sealant in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A comprehensive literature search of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken. The evidence base was critically appraised using a tool from the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group. Eight RCTs involving 641 patients were included. The use of fibrin sealant significantly reduced postoperative drainage (weighted mean difference (WMD) −346, 95% confidence interval (CI) −496.29 to −197.54, P < 0.00001) and blood transfusions (risk ratio (RR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.63, P < 0.00001) and led to a significant improvement in the range of motion (WMD 16.59, 95% CI 6.92 to 26.25, P = 0.0008). However, using fibrin sealant did not significantly reduced total blood loss (WMD −305.25, 95% CI −679.44 to 68.95, P = 0.11). Regarding complications, there were no significant differences in any adverse events, fever, infection, or hematoma among the study groups. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis indicates that the use of fibrin sealant was effective and safe as a hemostatic therapy for patients with TKA. PMID:24884626

  17. Analgesic efficacy and safety of single-dose tramadol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in operations on the third molars: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; de Jesús Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel Hugo

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate published randomised, double-blind, clinical trials to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol with that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in operations on the third molars. We identified eligible reports from searches of PubMed, MedLine, the Cochrane Library, Oxford Pain Relief database, Imbiomed, and Google Scholar. The full text of studies that met our minimum requirements were evaluated using inclusion and exclusion criteria with the Oxford Quality Scale. Those with a Score ≥ 3 in this scale were included and their data were extracted and analysed. Absolute increase in risk, the number needed to harm, odds ratio and 95% CI were calculated using Risk Reduction Calculator software. Each meta-analysis was made with the help of the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model, estimates of risk (odds ratio (OR)) and 95% CI were calculated using the Review Manager 5.2. from the Cochrane Library. A significant risk was assumed when the lower limit of the 95%CI was greater than 1. Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. The results showed that tramadol had less analgesic efficacy and an increased risk of adverse effects compared with NSAID. In conclusion, a single dose of tramadol was not as effective or as safe as NSAID for the relief of pain after operations on the third molars. PMID:24930627

  18. LDL-lowering therapy and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials and 36 observational studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ping; Wei, Shiyou; Tang, Zhuang; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Chen; Nie, Pan; Yang, Lu; Wei, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The role of statins in preventing prostate cancer is currently a controversial issue. The aim of this review is to investigate the effects of statins use on prostate cancer risk. Electronic databases (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched systematically up to April, 2015. Weighted averages were reported as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistic heterogeneity scores were assessed with the standard Cochran's Q test and I(2) statistic. The pooled estimates of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective studies suggest that statins have a neutral effect on total prostate cancer (RR = 1·02, 95% CI: 0·90-1·14; and RR = 0·91, 95% CI: 0·79-1·02, respectively). This research provides no evidence to suggest that the use of statins for cholesterol lowering is beneficial for the prevention of low-grade or localized prostate cancer, although a plausible association between statins use and the reduction risk of advanced (RR = 0·87, 95% CI: 0·82-0·91) or high-grade prostate cancer (RR = 0·83, 95% CI: 0·66-0·99) is observed. Furthermore, it shows that prostate cancer risk does not statistically significant benefit from long-term statins use. PMID:27075437

  19. Systematic review and meta-analysis of closed suction drainage versus non-drainage in primary hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Enda G; Cashman, James P; Imran, Farrah H; Conroy, Ronán; O'Byrne, John

    2014-03-01

    The routine use of drains in surgery has been dogmatically instituted in some disciplines. Orthopaedic surgery is one such sub-speciality. The use of postoperative closed suction drainage in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become increasingly controversial with multiple randomised control trials performed to assess the benefit to outcome in THA. The hypothesis of this systematic review is that closed suction drainage does not infer a benefit and increase transfusion requirements of primary total hip arthroplasty patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted adhering to the PRISMA guidelines. A search of the available literature was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (OVID) and EMBASE using a combination of MeSH terms and Boolean operators. All data analysis was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.1. Sixteen studies (n=2705) were included in the analysis. Post-operative closed suction drainage was found to increase total blood loss and blood transfusion requirements (p<0.05). Surgical site infection demonstrated no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.82). No significant difference in haematoma formation between groups (p=0.19) was elicited. The routine use of closed suction drainage systems post primary hip arthroplasty is not supported by this meta-analysis. However, the heterogeneity between studies does limit the accuracy of the meta-analysis. PMID:24574017

  20. Molecular Genetic Testing in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Facts and Fiction

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James; Simpatico, Thomas; Febo, Marcelo; Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Brain Reward Cascade (BRC) is an interaction of neurotransmitters and their respective genes to control the amount of dopamine released within the brain. Any variations within this pathway, whether genetic or environmental (epigenetic), may result in addictive behaviors or RDS, which was coined to define addictive behaviors and their genetic components. Methods To carry out this review we searched a number of important databases including: Filtered: Cochrane Systematic reviews; DARE; Pubmed Central Clinical Quaries; National Guideline Clearinghouse and unfiltered resources: PsychINFO; ACP PIER; PsychSage; Pubmed/Medline. The major search terms included: dopamine agonist therapy for Addiction; dopamine agonist therapy for Reward dependence; dopamine antagonistic therapy for addiction; dopamine antagonistic therapy for reward dependence and neurogenetics of RDS. Results While there are many studies claiming a genetic association with RDS behavior, not all are scientifically accurate. Conclusion Albeit our bias, this Clinical Pearl discusses the facts and fictions behind molecular genetic testing in RDS and the significance behind the development of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARSPREDX™), the first test to accurately predict one’s genetic risk for RDS. PMID:26052557

  1. Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Gichuhi, Stephen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hawkins, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Background Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous which is used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from cataract surgery. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update, Ovid OLDMED-LINE (January 1946 to May 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2013, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to May 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 22 May 2013. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy. Data collection and analysis Two authors screened the search results independently according to the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We found no randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery. Authors' conclusions There is no evidence from randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for randomized controlled trials to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include gain of vision on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one-year or two-year) outcomes should be examined. PMID:24357418

  2. Local Oestrogen for Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Weber, M. A.; Kleijn, M. H.; Langendam, M.; Limpens, J.; Heineman, M. J.; Roovers, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The decline in available oestrogen after menopause is a possible etiological factor in pelvic floor disorders like vaginal atrophy (VA), urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This systematic review will examine the evidence for local oestrogen therapy in the treatment of these pelvic floor disorders. Evidence Acquisition We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the non-MEDLINE subset of PubMed from inception to May 2014. We searched for local oestrogens and VA (I), UI/OAB (II) and POP (III). Part I was combined with broad methodological filters for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and secondary evidence. For part I and II two reviewers independently selected RCTs evaluating the effect of topical oestrogens on symptoms and signs of VA and UI/OAB. In part III all studies of topical oestrogen therapy in the treatment of POP were selected. Data extraction and the assessment of risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Evidence Synthesis The included studies varied in ways of topical application, types of oestrogen, dosage and treatment durations. Objective and subjective outcomes were assessed by a variety of measures. Overall, subjective and urodynamic outcomes, vaginal maturation and vaginal pH changed in favor of vaginal oestrogens compared to placebo. No obvious differences between different application methods were revealed. Low doses already seemed to have a beneficial effect. Studies evaluating the effect of topical oestrogen in women with POP are scarce and mainly assessed symptoms and signs associated with VA instead of POP symptoms. Conclusion Topical oestrogen administration is effective for the treatment of VA and seems to decrease complaints of OAB and UI. The potential for local oestrogens in the prevention as well as treatment of POP needs further research. PMID:26383760

  3. Mapping Systematic Reviews on Atopic Eczema—An Essential Resource for Dermatology Professionals and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Futamura, Masaki; Thomas, Kim S.; Grindlay, Douglas J. C.; Doney, Elizabeth J.; Torley, Donna; Williams, Hywel C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many research studies have been published on atopic eczema and these are often summarised in systematic reviews (SRs). Identifying SRs can be time-consuming for health professionals, and researchers. In order to facilitate the identification of important research, we have compiled an on-line resource that includes all relevant eczema reviews published since 2000. Methods SRs were searched for in MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE and NHS Evidence. Selected SRs were assessed against the pre-defined eligibility criteria and relevant articles were grouped by treatment category for the included interventions. All identified systematic reviews are included in the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT) database (www.greatdatabase.org.uk) and key clinical messages are summarised here. Results A total of 128 SRs reviews were identified, including three clinical guidelines. Of these, 46 (36%) were found in the Cochrane Library. No single database contained all of the SRs found. The number of SRs published per year has increased substantially over the last thirteen years, and reviews were published in a variety of clinical journals. Of the 128 SRs, 1 (1%) was on mechanism, 37 (29%) were on epidemiology, 40 (31%) were on eczema prevention, 29 (23%) were on topical treatments, 31 (24%) were on systemic treatments, and 24 (19%) were on other treatments. All SRs included searches of MEDLINE in their search methods. One hundred six SRs (83%) searched more than one electronic database. There were no language restrictions reported in the search methods of 52 of the SRs (41%). Conclusions This mapping of atopic eczema reviews is a valuable resource. It will help healthcare practitioners, guideline writers, information specialists, and researchers to quickly identify relevant up-to-date evidence in the field for improving patient care. PMID:23505516

  4. Online Medical Literature Consultation Habits of Academic Teaching Physicians in the EU and CIS Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Voort, Chiel T. M.; Swenne, Cees A.; van der Hoorn-van Velthoven, Catharina A. M.; Belt, Johannes H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Both in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and in the European Union (EU2004), ample availability of up to date medical scientific literature is important for progress in medical science and for the education of the next generation of healthcare workers. The aim of this research is to assess if the use of online medical literature among academic teaching (AT) physicians is at the same level in the CIS as in the EU2004. Methodology/Principal Findings In the capital cities of the CIS and the EU2004 member states, AT physicians holding an academic position at least equivalent to an associate professor and performing the three classical tasks in academic medicine (teaching, research and patient care) were interviewed about their use of and familiarity with the Internet and 9 online literature services, including journals and bibliographical databases such as PubMed (Medline), The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Library staff members were interviewed about the availability of these online literature services at their libraries. About 750 physicians and 40 library staff members were invited for participation. Eventually 124 AT physicians and 22 library staff members participated. Internet was everywhere available, but used daily by more AT physicians in the EU2004 (71% versus 48% in the CIS, P = .005). AT physicians in the EU2004 accessed a higher percentage of all articles online (74% versus 43% in the CIS, P<.001). PubMed (P<.001), The Cochrane Library (P<.001) and Web of Science (P<.003) were used more frequently in the EU2004. In the EU2004 more AT physicians were familiar with Open Access journals (89% versus 51% in the CIS, P<.001). Conclusions/Significance AT physicians in the CIS use online medical literature less than in the EU2004. It is recommended that the awareness of freely available online literature services such as Open Access journals is enhanced among AT physicians and library staff members, especially in the CIS. PMID:23133588

  5. Protocol for an overview of systematic reviews of interventions to reduce unscheduled hospital admissions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Bobrovitz, Niklas; Onakpoya, Igho; Roberts, Nia; Heneghan, Carl; Mahtani, Kamal R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unscheduled hospital admissions are an increasing burden on health systems worldwide. To date, initiatives to reduce admissions have had limited success as it is unclear which strategies effectively reduce admissions and are supported by a strong evidence-base. Therefore, we will conduct an overview to find, assess and summarise all published peer-reviewed systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials that examine the effect of an intervention on unplanned admissions among adults. Methods and analysis This is a protocol for a systematic overview of reviews. We will search four databases: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. We will consider systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials in adults (≥16 years old) evaluating the effect of any intervention on unscheduled hospital admissions including those to treat, monitor, diagnose or prevent a health problem. We will only include reviews that identified unscheduled hospitalisations as a prespecified outcome. Two authors will independently screen articles for inclusion using a priori criteria. We will assess the quality of included reviews and extract ratings of the quality of evidence from within each review. We will create a hierarchical list of interventions based on estimates of absolute admission reductions and the quality of the evidence. Presentation of results will align with guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required. We will submit the results of this study for peer-review publication. The results will inform future research and could be used by healthcare managers, administrators and policymakers to guide resource allocation decisions and inform local implementation and optimisation of interventions to reduce unscheduled hospital admissions. PMID:26297366

  6. Malignant pleural effusions and the role of talc poudrage and talc slurry: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mummadi, Srinivas; Kumbam, Anusha; Hahn, Peter Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malignant Pleural Effusion (MPE) is common with advanced malignancy. Palliative care with minimal adverse events is the cornerstone of management. Although talc pleurodesis plays an important role in treatment, the best modality of talc application remains controversial.   Objective: To compare rates of successful pleurodesis, rates of respiratory and non-respiratory complications between thoracoscopic talc insufflation/poudrage (TTI) and talc slurry (TS).  Data sources and study selection: MEDLINE (PubMed, OVID),  EBM Reviews (Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, ACP Journal Club, DARE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment and NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EMBASE and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials published between 01/01/1980 - 10/1/2014 and comparing the two strategies were selected.  Results: Twenty-eight potential studies were identified of which 24 studies were further excluded, leaving four studies. No statistically significant difference in the probability of successful pleurodesis was observed between TS and TTI groups (RR 1.06; 95 % CI 0.99-1.14; Q statistic, 4.84). There was a higher risk of post procedural respiratory complications in the TTI group compared to the TS group (RR 1.91, 95% CI= 1.24-2.93, Q statistic 3.15). No statistically significant difference in the incidence of non-respiratory complications between the TTI group and the TS group was observed (RR 0.88, 95% CI= 0.72-1.07, Q statistic 4.61). Conclusions: There is no difference in success rates of pleurodesis based on patient centered outcomes between talc poudrage and talc slurry treatments.  Respiratory complications are more common with talc poudrage via thoracoscopy. PMID:25878773

  7. [Literature data banks for university education, continuing education and medical research. A report of experiences with the use of the Medline data base in a CD-ROM version].

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, K F

    1989-07-15

    The National Library of Medicine (USA) database Medline is available as a CD-ROM version in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1988. The utilization of this system and an evaluation of the literature searches in the special medical library of a university clinic was examined. The results of 25 interviews with users and 400 questionnaires (completed by all users after CD-ROM use) were analysed. From the 400 literature searches 224 (56%) were performed by students, 157 (39%) by clinicians and 19 (5%) by others. Literature searches carried out by clinicians were usually for research projects or journal articles. Medical students were mainly interested in information for their doctoral theses. Medical students used other sources of information such as medical books and printed bibliographies more frequently than clinicians. The users evaluated their literature search as satisfactory in 89.3% of the questionnaires, not satisfactory in 6.5% and other in 4.3%. All users were extremely pleased that the CD-ROM-facility had been set up. The use of CD-ROM literature searches for medical further education, research and patient care is discussed. The inclusion of courses in the correct use of scientific literature and information systems for medical students is recommended. PMID:2677630

  8. Review of the Complications Associated with Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Guide to the Dental Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lena; Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Akintoye, Sunday O

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. Focus on risk factors, improved diagnostic methods and effective management strategies have made it possible to successfully treat OPC. However, the 5-year survival rate has not improved for several years due to multiple treatment complications, tissue morbidity, loss of function and diminished quality of life. Survivors are faced with complications like oral mucositis, hyposalivation, osteoradionecrosis; tissue fibrosis, morbidity from jaw resection; disfigurement and loss of function that further diminish quality of life. The aim of this review is to highlight major complications associated with treatment of OPC via a literature search and review of available options for identification and management of these complications. Data Sources Relevant publications on oral complications of OPC therapy were thoroughly reviewed from the literature published between the years 1988 and 2012. Material and Method We evaluated reported incidence, prevalence and risk factors for oral complications of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for OPC. The authors conducted electronic search using English language databases namely PubMed Plus, Medline (Pre-Medline and Medline), Cochrane Database of systematic reviews (evidence-based medicine), Dentistry & Oral sciences source, AccessScience, Embase, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews Multifile, Google Scholar, ISI Journal Citation Reports, Ovid Multi-Database. Conclusion We identified the most common complications associated with the treatment of oral cancers. Based on the information gathered, there is evidence that survival of OPC extends beyond eradication of the diseased tissue. Understanding the potential treatment complications and utilizing available resources to prevent and minimize them are important. Caring for OPC survivors should be a multidisciplinary team approach involving the dentist, oncologist, internist and social worker to improve the currently stagnant 5-year survival rate of OPC. More emphasis on improved quality of life after elimination of the cancer will ultimately improve OPC survivorship. PMID:23444208

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  15. Anxiety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  16. Breast Reconstruction - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Blood Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Back Pain - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Botulism - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Blood - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/blood.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  1. Alzheimer's Caregivers - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  2. Aneurysms - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  3. Anthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  4. Arsenic - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  5. Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  6. Alcohol - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  7. Acne - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Acne URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/acne.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  8. Healthline | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Need to Know About Prescription and Illicit Drug Abuse A new health topic page on NIHSeniorHealth.gov ... to watch for and what to do about drug abuse among older Americans. National surveys find more Baby ...

  9. Dental Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  10. Alzheimer's Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  11. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) ... maternel - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Getting Started Breastfeeding Your Baby Getting ...

  12. Constipation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  13. Bone Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  14. Dry Mouth - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  15. Ultrasound - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) ... Ultrason - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Echocardiogram हिन्दी (Hindi) Bilingual PDF ...

  16. Cholesterol - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Arthritis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Diarrhea - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Patient Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Colonoscopy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  2. Burns - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  3. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  4. Diabetes Complications - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  5. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  6. Esophagus Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  7. Vaginal Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  8. Blood Thinners - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  9. Vascular Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  10. Sleep Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  11. Prenatal Testing - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  12. Prenatal Care - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  13. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  14. Surgery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  15. Sleep Apnea - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  16. Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Dementia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Fatigue - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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