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Sample records for pubmed medline cochrane

  1. All Information Is Not Equal: Using the Literature Databases PubMed and The Cochrane Library for Identifying the Evidence on Granulocyte Transfusion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Schulz, Manuela; Braun, Volker

    2014-10-01

    To be able to take well-informed decisions or carry out sound research, clinicians and researchers alike require specific information seeking skills matching their respective information needs. Biomedical information is traditionally available via different literature databases. This article gives an introduction to two diverging sources, PubMed (23 million references) and The Cochrane Library (800,000 references), both of which offer sophisticated instruments for searching an increasing amount of medical publications of varied quality and ambition. Whereas PubMed as an unfiltered source of primary literature comprises all different kinds of publication types occurring in academic journals, The Cochrane Library is a pre-filtered source which offers access to either synthesized publication types or critically appraised and carefully selected references. A search approach has to be carried out deliberately and requires a good knowledge on the scope and features of the databases as well as on the ability to build a search strategy in a structured way. We present a specific and a sensitive search approach, making use of both databases within two application case scenarios in order to identify the evidence on granulocyte transfusions for infections in adult patients with neutropenia. PMID:25538539

  2. PUBMED OR NLM GATEWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, provides access to over 12 million MEDLINE citations back to the mid-1960's and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. PubMed was design...

  3. CAM on PubMed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Library of Medicine (NLM) have partnered to create CAM on PubMed®, a subset of NLM's PubMed. PubMed provides access to citations from the MEDLINE database and additional life science journals. It also includes links to many ...

  4. Social Networks in Education of Health Professionals in Bosnia and Herzegovina – the Role of Pubmed/Medline in Improvement of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Social network is a social structure made up of individuals and organizations that represent “nodes”, and they are associated with one or more types of interdependency; such as: friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige and many other interests. Beginning with the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, the Internet was a significant additional tool in the education of teenagers. Later, it takes more and more significant role in educating students and professionals. Goal: The aim of this paper is to investigate, to what extent and how effectively the Internet is used today. In addition, more specifically, this paper will research the implications of the well-known social networks in education of students and health professionals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Material and methods: We compared the ratio of using Medline, as the largest biomedical data base system for spreading medical information, as basics for health education at biomedical faculties at five universities in B&H. Results and discussion: According to data from the CRA (i.e. Communications Regulatory Agency) in B&H, in 2010, there were 522,364 internet access accounts, with about 2 million Internet users, representing about 52% of the total population. The Internet users’ preference is dominated by the users of fast broadband access (e.g. xDSL) with 42.8%, and elsewhere, still with dialup access, with 25.2%. The results showed that only 11.6% of professors use Facebook type of social network, 49.3% of them have a profile on BiomedExperts scientific social network and 79% have available articles in the largest biomedical literature database MEDLINE. Students are also frequent users of general social networks and educational clips from You Tube, which they prefer to utilize considerably more than the other types of professionals. Students rarely use the facilities of professional social networks, because they contain mainly data and information needed for further, postgraduate professional education. In our research, we analized cited published papers in the journal Medical Archives, the oldest medical journal in B&H (established in 1947) of randomly included 151 full and part time professors, authors from five medical faculties in B&H and B&H authors who currently work in the EU and USA.. ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference in the number of articles published between the Universities in Bosnia, but there was significant difference in the number of articles published on MEDLINE, between all faculties in B&H and a group of scientists who work around the world. Students’ tests showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the average number of papers published on Medline, between groups of part-time and full time professors. However, there were no statistically significant differences, between the professors for preclinical and clinical subjects. Conclusion: In B&H there are decent conditions for the use of online social networks in the education of health professionals. While students enthusiastically embraced these opportunities, this is not so much a case with health care professionals in practice; while scientific health care workers have not shown greater interest in the use of social networks, both for purposes of scientific research and in terms of self-education and training of students. There is much more use of the advantages offered by online social networks, both in education and in support of the scientific research. PMID:23408513

  5. Library Helpsheet Medline on PubMed

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    : Printing or Saving Records Clipboard This function enables you to select records that you want until you are ready to save or print records. · Select the record that you want to send must be in upper case: AND, OR, NOT · Click Go · A list of references will appear Click on Advanced

  6. Search Pubmed - Geographic Information Systems & Science

    Cancer.gov

    PubMed, a service of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), provides access to MEDLINE citations for over 12 million scientific journal articles dating back to the 1960s. Searches of the PubMed databases are executed on NCBI's servers. Please read NCBI's disclaimer and copyright information before searching.

  7. Library Helpsheet Cochrane Library

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    or a selection of databases can be made. The 3 most commonly searched databases are: · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Cochrane reviews) Reports of the best available evidence to support treatments · Database Helpsheet Cochrane Library February 09 Page 1 of 5 Cochrane Library About the Cochrane Library The Cochrane

  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?otool=ijputmlib PubMed PubMed ---------------------------------------------------p.2

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2014.4 PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?otool=ijputmlib PubMed Pub®/PubMed® Resources Guide http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/pmresources.html JOURNALS List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE List of All Journals Included in PubMed® http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/serfile_addedinfo.html Pub

  9. Publications in PubMed Updated on 31 Aug 2010

    E-print Network

    Chin, Wei Ngan

    , Cao T. Biomaterials. 2010 Sep;31(27):6968-80. Epub 2010 Jun 17.PMID: 20619789 [PubMed - in process(7):517-25. Epub 2010 Apr 18.PMID: 20403409 [PubMed - in process]Related citations 3. Combining paracetamol;110(4):1170-9. Epub 2010 Feb 8. Review.PMID: 20142348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related citations 4

  10. Methods to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Treweek, Shaun; Lockhart, Pauline; Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan A; Kjeldstrøm, Monica; Johansen, Marit; Taskila, Taina K; Sullivan, Frank M; Wilson, Sue; Jackson, Catherine; Jones, Ritu; Mitchell, Elizabeth D

    2013-01-01

    This review is an abridged version of a Cochrane Review previously published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 4, Art. No.: MR000013 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.MR000013.pub5 (see www.thecochranelibrary.com for information). Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to feedback, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the review. Objective To identify interventions designed to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials, and to quantify their effect on trial participation. Design Systematic review. Data sources The Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, C2-SPECTR, the National Research Register and PubMed. Most searches were undertaken up to 2010; no language restrictions were applied. Study selection Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials, including those recruiting to hypothetical studies. Studies on retention strategies, examining ways to increase questionnaire response or evaluating the use of incentives for clinicians were excluded. The study population included any potential trial participant (eg, patient, clinician and member of the public), or individual or group of individuals responsible for trial recruitment (eg, clinicians, researchers and recruitment sites). Two authors independently screened identified studies for eligibility. Results 45 trials with over 43?000 participants were included. Some interventions were effective in increasing recruitment: telephone reminders to non-respondents (risk ratio (RR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.46; two studies, 1058 participants), use of opt-out rather than opt-in procedures for contacting potential participants (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84; one study, 152 participants) and open designs where participants know which treatment they are receiving in the trial (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.36; two studies, 4833 participants). However, the effect of many other strategies is less clear, including the use of video to provide trial information and interventions aimed at recruiters. Conclusions There are promising strategies for increasing recruitment to trials, but some methods, such as open-trial designs and opt-out strategies, must be considered carefully as their use may also present methodological or ethical challenges. Questions remain as to the applicability of results originating from hypothetical trials, including those relating to the use of monetary incentives, and there is a clear knowledge gap with regard to effective strategies aimed at recruiters. PMID:23396504

  11. MEDLINE PLUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEDLINE plus is the National Library of Medicine's web site for consumer health information. MEDLINE plus has extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other trusted sources on over 600 diseases and conditions. There are also lists of hospitals and physicia...

  12. PubMed QUICK GUIDE University of California Berkeley Library Use this URL to access the UCcustomized version of PubMed, with links to UCBsubscribed full text

    E-print Network

    the UCcustomized version of PubMed, with links to UCBsubscribed full text: http://uclibs.org/PID/17708 Pub. Journal Title Searching Enter the full journal title (e.g., Current Biology), or use the MEDLINE title "vitamin C" or "zinc" Related Articles View the full record for an article (Abstract or Summary view

  13. Telehealthcare for asthma: a Cochrane review

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Susannah; Chandler, David; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Liu, Joseph; Pagliari, Claudia; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Background: Telehealthcare has the potential to provide care for long-term conditions that are increasingly prevalent, such as asthma. We conducted a systematic review of studies of telehealthcare interventions used for the treatment of asthma to determine whether such approaches to care are effective. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and PsycINFO, as well as other electronic resources. We also searched registers of ongoing and unpublished trials. We were interested in studies that measured the following outcomes: quality of life, number of visits to the emergency department and number of admissions to hospital. Two reviewers identified studies for inclusion in our meta-analysis. We extracted data and used fixedeffect modelling for the meta-analyses. Results: We identified 21 randomized controlled trials for inclusion in our analysis. The methods of telehealthcare intervention these studies investigated were the telephone and video- and Internet-based models of care. Meta-analysis did not show a clinically important improvement in patients’ quality of life, and there was no significant change in the number of visits to the emergency department over 12 months. There was a significant reduction in the number of patients admitted to hospital once or more over 12 months (risk ratio 0.25 [95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.66]). Interpretation: We found no evidence of a clinically important impact on patients’ quality of life, but telehealthcare interventions do appear to have the potential to reduce the risk of admission to hospital, particularly for patients with severe asthma. Further research is required to clarify the cost-effectiveness of models of care based on telehealthcare. PMID:21746825

  14. Finding Query Suggestions for PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W. John; McEntyre, Johanna R; Iskhakov, Alexey; Szilagyi, Lee

    2009-01-01

    It is common for PubMed users to repeatedly modify their queries (search terms) before retrieving documents relevant to their information needs. To assist users in reformulating their queries, we report the implementation and usage analysis of a new component in PubMed called Related Queries, which automatically produces query suggestions in response to the original user’s input. The proposed method is based on query log analysis and focuses on finding popular queries that contain the initial user search term with a goal of helping users describe their information needs in a more precise manner. This work has been integrated into PubMed since January 2009. Automatic assessment using clickthrough data show that each day, the new feature is used consistently between 6% and 10% of the time when it is shown, suggesting that it has quickly become a popular new feature in PubMed. PMID:20351887

  15. Teaching PubMed in cyberspace: the development of a self-learning package.

    PubMed

    King, Samuel; Kaplan, Richard; MacDonald, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a series of online modules for learning the PubMed version of MEDLINE. Funded by a National Library of Medicine grant and targeted initially to physician assistants practicing in New Hampshire, the project is approved for CE credit nationally by the American Association of Physician Assistants. The development of the project is described, the tutorial modules are reviewed, and issues encountered with technology and human factors are discussed and evaluated. PMID:19042708

  16. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  17. A MEDLINE feasibility study.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, J L

    1980-01-01

    A MEDLINE feasibility study was conducted with the Northeastern Consortium for Health Information (NECHI) and sponsored by the New England Regional Medical Library Service. It is based on the theory that most potential users and supporters of MEDLINE within hospitals are unaware of its usefulness and applications, and that there exists a need for expanding MEDLINE services to more hospital libraries. The purpose of the study was to provide NECHI with an evaluation of MEDLINE as a feasible service by ascertaining the need and by evaluating the usefulness, satisfaction, and costs of the system. The study demonstrated sufficient use of MEDLINE to justify implementation within NECHI and it provided useful data to determine the future of MEDLINE in each institution. It documented that utilization improved rapidly with publicity and the presence of the system within an institution, that MEDLINE can be an effective and economical complement to the traditional reference services used to support information needs in hospitals, and that more hospital libraries should be able to implement MEDLINE to their advantage once potential users and supporters have been exposed to the system. PMID:6998531

  18. Surgery Videos: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health ...

  19. Videos & Tools: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health ...

  20. MEDLINE (MEDLARS ONLINE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEDLINE (MEDlars onLINE) is the National Library of Medicines (NLM) premier bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences. It contains bibliographic citations (e.g., authors, ...

  1. Dialogues with Marilyn Cochran-Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentini, Dario; Crecci, Vanessa Moreira

    2015-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Dr. Marilyn Cochran-Smith has developed and directed research and contributed to publications about education and "practitioner research," especially about teachers' research and learning in inquiry communities. Her primary topics are inquiry communities, teacher research, teacher education for social…

  2. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2012-01-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  3. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design.

    PubMed

    Mirel, Barbara; Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2013-05-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists' behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists' problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  4. MedlinePlus FAQ: Linking to MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need permission to link to MedlinePlus from my Web site? To use the sharing features on this ... need permission to link to MedlinePlus from your Web site. Please see our guidelines and instructions on ...

  5. MedlinePlus Connect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Web application provide responses in different formats. The Web application returns a link to a formatted MedlinePlus Connect response page. This page will include links to information relevant to the problem/diagnosis, medication, or lab test. For a diagnosis/problem code, the response page ...

  6. Feasibility of a Knowledge Translation CME Program: "Courriels Cochrane"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Granikov, Vera; Theriault, Guylene; Fremont, Pierre; Burnand, Bernard; Mercer, Jay; Marlow, Bernard; Arroll, Bruce; Luconi, Francesca; Legare, France; Labrecque, Michel; Ladouceur, Roger; Bouthillier, France; Sridhar, Soumya Bindiganavile; Moscovici, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Systematic literature reviews provide best evidence, but are underused by clinicians. Thus, integrating Cochrane reviews into continuing medical education (CME) is challenging. We designed a pilot CME program where summaries of Cochrane reviews ("Courriels Cochrane") were disseminated by e-mail. Program participants automatically…

  7. Health Videos: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. Menu Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About ...

  8. Analysis of PubMed User Sessions Using a Full-Day PubMed Query Log: A Comparison of Experienced and Nonexperienced PubMed Users

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest biomedical bibliographic information source on the Internet. PubMed has been considered one of the most important and reliable sources of up-to-date health care evidence. Previous studies examined the effects of domain expertise/knowledge on search performance using PubMed. However, very little is known about PubMed users’ knowledge of information retrieval (IR) functions and their usage in query formulation. Objective The purpose of this study was to shed light on how experienced/nonexperienced PubMed users perform their search queries by analyzing a full-day query log. Our hypotheses were that (1) experienced PubMed users who use system functions quickly retrieve relevant documents and (2) nonexperienced PubMed users who do not use them have longer search sessions than experienced users. Methods To test these hypotheses, we analyzed PubMed query log data containing nearly 3 million queries. User sessions were divided into two categories: experienced and nonexperienced. We compared experienced and nonexperienced users per number of sessions, and experienced and nonexperienced user sessions per session length, with a focus on how fast they completed their sessions. Results To test our hypotheses, we measured how successful information retrieval was (at retrieving relevant documents), represented as the decrease rates of experienced and nonexperienced users from a session length of 1 to 2, 3, 4, and 5. The decrease rate (from a session length of 1 to 2) of the experienced users was significantly larger than that of the nonexperienced groups. Conclusions Experienced PubMed users retrieve relevant documents more quickly than nonexperienced PubMed users in terms of session length. PMID:26139516

  9. Bibliometric and content analysis of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field specialized register of controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of eligible controlled trials for systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions can be difficult. To increase access to these difficult to locate trials, the Cochrane Collaboration Complementary Medicine Field (CAM Field) has established a specialized register of citations of CAM controlled trials. The objective of this study is to describe the sources and characteristics of citations included in the CAM Field specialized register. Methods Between 2006 and 2011, regular searches for citations of CAM trials in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were supplemented with contributions of controlled trial citations from international collaborators. The specialized register was ‘frozen’ for analysis in 2011, and frequencies were calculated for publication date, language, journal, presence in MEDLINE, type of intervention, and type of medical condition. Results The CAM Field specialized register increased in size from under 5,000 controlled trial citations in 2006 to 44,840 citations in 2011. Most citations (60%) were from 2000 or later, and the majority (71%) were reported in English; the next most common language was Chinese (23%). The journals with the greatest number of citations were CAM journals published in Chinese and non-CAM nutrition journals published in English. More than one-third of register citations (36%) were not indexed in MEDLINE. The most common CAM intervention type in the register was non-vitamin, non-mineral dietary supplements (e.g., glucosamine, fish oil) (34%), followed by Chinese herbal medicines (e.g., Astragalus membranaceus, Schisandra chinensis) (27%). Conclusions The availability of the CAM Field specialized register presents both opportunities and challenges for CAM systematic reviewers. While the register provides access to thousands of difficult to locate trial citations, many of these trials are of low quality and may overestimate treatment effects. When including these trials in systematic reviews, adequate analysis of their risk of bias is of utmost importance. PMID:23826877

  10. Telehealthcare for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Cochrane Review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Susannah; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Liu, Joseph LY; Pagliari, Claudia; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common. Telehealthcare, involving personalised health care over a distance, is seen as having the potential to improve care for people with COPD. Aim To systematically review the effectiveness of telehealthcare interventions in COPD to improve clinical and process outcomes. Design and setting Cochrane Systematic Review of randomised controlled trials. Methods The study involved searching the Cochrane Airways Group Register of Trials, which is derived from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE®, embase™, and CINAHL®, as well as searching registers of ongoing and unpublished trials. Randomised controlled trials comparing a telehealthcare intervention with a control intervention in people with a clinical diagnosis of COPD were identified. The main outcomes of interest were quality of life and risk of emergency department visit, hospitalisation, and death. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias method. Meta-analysis was undertaken using fixed effect and/or random effects modelling. Results Ten randomised controlled trials were included. Telehealthcare did not improve COPD quality of life: mean difference –6.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] = –13.62 to 0.48). However, there was a significant reduction in the odds ratios (ORs) of emergency department attendance (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.66) and hospitalisation (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.65). There was a non-significant change in the OR of death (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.75). Conclusion In COPD, telehealthcare interventions can significantly reduce the risk of emergency department attendance and hospitalisation, but has little effect on the risk of death. PMID:23211177

  11. Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people: a Cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Janine A; Cadogan, Cathal A; Patterson, Susan M; Bradley, Marie C; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarise the findings of an updated Cochrane review of interventions aimed at improving the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people. Design Cochrane systematic review. Multiple electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from inception to November 2013). Hand searching of references was also performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series analyses reporting on interventions targeting appropriate polypharmacy in older people in any healthcare setting were included if they used a validated measure of prescribing appropriateness. Evidence quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Setting All healthcare settings. Participants Older people (?65?years) with ?1 long-term condition who were receiving polypharmacy (?4 regular medicines). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were the change in prevalence of appropriate polypharmacy and hospital admissions. Medication-related problems (eg, adverse drug reactions), medication adherence and quality of life were included as secondary outcomes. Results 12 studies were included: 8 RCTs, 2 cluster RCTs and 2 controlled before-and-after studies. 1 study involved computerised decision support and 11 comprised pharmaceutical care approaches across various settings. Appropriateness was measured using validated tools, including the Medication Appropriateness Index, Beers’ criteria and Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP)/ Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START). The interventions demonstrated a reduction in inappropriate prescribing. Evidence of effect on hospital admissions and medication-related problems was conflicting. No differences in health-related quality of life were reported. Conclusions The included interventions demonstrated improvements in appropriate polypharmacy based on reductions in inappropriate prescribing. However, it remains unclear if interventions resulted in clinically significant improvements (eg, in terms of hospital admissions). Future intervention studies would benefit from available guidance on intervention development, evaluation and reporting to facilitate replication in clinical practice. PMID:26656020

  12. MEDLINE in the UK: pioneering the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Steve J; Weightman, Alison L

    2005-09-01

    This article provides a brief history of the development of the MEDLINE database and its huge impact within the UK, from its inception to the present time. The origins of MEDLINE can be traced back to a collection of books in the US Surgeon General's Office during the American Civil War and John Shaw Billings' decision, during 1867, to make this Library as complete as possible. From these beginnings, Index Medicus was developed in the early years of the 20th century, and electronic versions of the database began with the computerized on-demand search service MEDLARS in 1964 and then via CD-ROM and Internet Grateful Med to the web-based and free-to-all service, PubMed, in 1997. The response to PubMed was immediate and startling with usage increasing from 7 million searches per annum in 1996 to 400 million searches per annum in 2001 and the service continues to improve. MEDLINE providers are now offering mapping of natural language queries to the sophisticated indexing vocabulary (Medical Subject Headings, MeSH) and the provision of specific filters for different types of publication to improve searching efficiency, as well as links to full-text versions of the papers where available. The next steps are likely to involve an increased blurring of database and full-text boundaries, incorporating seamless access to the best available evidence within MEDLINE and a wide range of other information resources within a single search and to an increasing amount of full-text via various open-archive initiatives. As ever, the US National Library of Medicine is in the vanguard of research and further applications of its MEDLINE database for users within the UK will be awaited with great interest. PMID:16109026

  13. Archie Cochrane and his vision for evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hriday M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Archibald (Archie) Cochrane's most influential mark on healthcare was his 1971 publication, “Effectiveness and Efficiency.” This book strongly criticized the lack of reliable evidence behind many of the commonly accepted healthcare interventions at the time. His criticisms spurred rigorous evaluations of healthcare interventions and highlighted the need for evidence in medicine. His call for a collection of systematic reviews led to the creation of The Cochrane Collaboration. Archie Cochrane was a visionary person who helped lay down much of the foundation for evidence-based medicine. This paper will introduce evidence-based medicine to Plastic Surgery by tracing its history to the seminal efforts by Archie Cochrane. PMID:19730323

  14. Bosnian and Herzegovinian medical scientists in PubMed database.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is shortly presented PubMed as one of the most important on-line databases of the scientific biomedical literature. Also, the author has analyzed the most cited authors, professors of the medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the published papers in the biomedical journals abstracted and indexed in PubMed. PMID:24341067

  15. Sharing MedlinePlus®/MEDLINE for Information Literacy Education (SMILE): A Dental Public Health Information Project

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Julie K.; Levy, Linda S.; Cogdill, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of “power information users” among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provide public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel. PMID:22040242

  16. MedlineRanker: flexible ranking of biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Barbosa-Silva, Adriano; Schaefer, Martin; Huska, Matthew R; Muro, Enrique M; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2009-07-01

    The biomedical literature is represented by millions of abstracts available in the Medline database. These abstracts can be queried with the PubMed interface, which provides a keyword-based Boolean search engine. This approach shows limitations in the retrieval of abstracts related to very specific topics, as it is difficult for a non-expert user to find all of the most relevant keywords related to a biomedical topic. Additionally, when searching for more general topics, the same approach may return hundreds of unranked references. To address these issues, text mining tools have been developed to help scientists focus on relevant abstracts. We have implemented the MedlineRanker webserver, which allows a flexible ranking of Medline for a topic of interest without expert knowledge. Given some abstracts related to a topic, the program deduces automatically the most discriminative words in comparison to a random selection. These words are used to score other abstracts, including those from not yet annotated recent publications, which can be then ranked by relevance. We show that our tool can be highly accurate and that it is able to process millions of abstracts in a practical amount of time. MedlineRanker is free for use and is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/tools/medlineranker. PMID:19429696

  17. A bibliometric study of scientific literature on obesity research in PubMed (1988-2007).

    PubMed

    Vioque, J; Ramos, J M; Navarrete-Muñoz, E M; García-de-la-Hera, M

    2010-08-01

    This article describes a bibliometric review of the publications on obesity research in PubMed over the last 20 years. We used Medline via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine from 1988 to 2007. The search strategy was: ([obesity] in MesH). A total of 58,325 references were retrieved, 25.5% in 1988-1997, and 74.5% in 1998-2007. The growth in the number of publications showed an exponential increase. The references were published in 3613 different journals, with 20 journals contributing 25% of obesity literature. The two journals contributing most were the International Journal of Obesity (5.1%), Obesity-Obesity Research (2.9%). North America and Europe were the most productive world areas with 44.1% and 37.9% of the literature, respectively. The US was the predominant country in number of publications, followed by the United Kingdom, Japan and Italy. The ranking of production changed when the number of publications was normalized by population, gross domestic product and obesity prevalence by countries. The great increase of publications on obesity during the period 1988-2007 was particularly evident in the second decade of the period which is concordant with the worldwide obesity epidemic. USA and Europe were leaders in the production of scientific articles on obesity. PMID:19754632

  18. GeneView: a comprehensive semantic search engine for PubMed.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe; Starlinger, Johannes; Vowinkel, Alexander; Arzt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    Research results are primarily published in scientific literature and curation efforts cannot keep up with the rapid growth of published literature. The plethora of knowledge remains hidden in large text repositories like MEDLINE. Consequently, life scientists have to spend a great amount of time searching for specific information. The enormous ambiguity among most names of biomedical objects such as genes, chemicals and diseases often produces too large and unspecific search results. We present GeneView, a semantic search engine for biomedical knowledge. GeneView is built upon a comprehensively annotated version of PubMed abstracts and openly available PubMed Central full texts. This semi-structured representation of biomedical texts enables a number of features extending classical search engines. For instance, users may search for entities using unique database identifiers or they may rank documents by the number of specific mentions they contain. Annotation is performed by a multitude of state-of-the-art text-mining tools for recognizing mentions from 10 entity classes and for identifying protein-protein interactions. GeneView currently contains annotations for >194 million entities from 10 classes for ?21 million citations with 271,000 full text bodies. GeneView can be searched at http://bc3.informatik.hu-berlin.de/. PMID:22693219

  19. Mobile MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Mobile MedlinePlus Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Trusted medical information on your mobile phone http://m.medlineplus.gov Wondering what the ...

  20. Mobile MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Mobile MedlinePlus Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Trusted medical information on your mobile phone http://m.medlineplus.gov Wondering what the ...

  1. Evidence-Based Practice: The Cochrane Collaboration, and Occupational Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Robyn; McGrath, John

    1998-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration is an international project to locate, review, and disseminate information on available randomized controlled trials of health care interventions. Occupational therapists can use it to learn about best practices and evaluate research relevant to their clients. (SK)

  2. Neuraminidase inhibitors: the story behind the Cochrane review

    E-print Network

    Doshi, Peter

    Although billions have been spent on oseltamivir in the face of pandemic influenza, the team updating the Cochrane review of neuraminidase inhibitors in healthy adults found that the public evidence base for this global ...

  3. Death, dying and informatics: misrepresenting religion on MedLine

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez del Pozo, Pablo; Fins, Joseph J

    2005-01-01

    Background The globalization of medical science carries for doctors worldwide a correlative duty to deepen their understanding of patients' cultural contexts and religious backgrounds, in order to satisfy each as a unique individual. To become better informed, practitioners may turn to MedLine, but it is unclear whether the information found there is an accurate representation of culture and religion. To test MedLine's representation of this field, we chose the topic of death and dying in the three major monotheistic religions. Methods We searched MedLine using PubMed in order to retrieve and thematically analyze full-length scholarly journal papers or case reports dealing with religious traditions and end-of-life care. Our search consisted of a string of words that included the most common denominations of the three religions, the standard heading terms used by the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature (NRCBL), and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used by the National Library of Medicine. Eligible articles were limited to English-language papers with an abstract. Results We found that while a bibliographic search in MedLine on this topic produced instant results and some valuable literature, the aggregate reflected a selection bias. American writers were over-represented given the global prevalence of these religious traditions. Denominationally affiliated authors predominated in representing the Christian traditions. The Islamic tradition was under-represented. Conclusion MedLine's capability to identify the most current, reliable and accurate information about purely scientific topics should not be assumed to be the same case when considering the interface of religion, culture and end-of-life care. PMID:15992401

  4. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to find references to latest health professional articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database ... Web-based, searchable database of over 25 million article references published in more than 5600 biomedical journals. ...

  5. MedlinePlus FAQ: What's the difference between MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus Connect?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Connect is a free service that allows electronic health record (EHR) systems to easily link users to MedlinePlus, an authoritative up-to-date health information resource for patients, families and health care ...

  6. How Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners Use PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2007-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were felt to be necessary in selecting literature to read but entirely inadequate for both evaluating and learning from the research. Thus, the restrictions and fees the participants faced in accessing full-text articles were points of frustration. Conclusions The study found strong indications of PubMed’s potential value in the professional development of these complementary and alternative medicine practitioners in terms of engaging with and understanding research. It provides support for the various initiatives intended to increase access, including a recommendation that the National Library of Medicine tap into the published research that is being archived by authors in institutional archives and through other websites. PMID:17613489

  7. pubmed.mineR: An R package with text-mining algorithms to analyse PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Rani, Jyoti; Shah, A B Rauf; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2015-10-01

    The PubMed literature database is a valuable source of information for scientific research. It is rich in biomedical literature with more than 24 million citations. Data-mining of voluminous literature is a challenging task. Although several text-mining algorithms have been developed in recent years with focus on data visualization, they have limitations such as speed, are rigid and are not available in the open source. We have developed an R package, pubmed.mineR, wherein we have combined the advantages of existing algorithms, overcome their limitations, and offer user flexibility and link with other packages in Bioconductor and the Comprehensive R Network (CRAN) in order to expand the user capabilities for executing multifaceted approaches. Three case studies are presented, namely, 'Evolving role of diabetes educators', 'Cancer risk assessment' and 'Dynamic concepts on disease and comorbidity' to illustrate the use of pubmed.mineR. The package generally runs fast with small elapsed times in regular workstations even on large corpus sizes and with compute intensive functions. The pubmed.mineR is available at http://cran.rproject. org/web/packages/pubmed.mineR. PMID:26564970

  8. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  9. Visit the MedlinePlus Search Cloud | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please turn Javascript on. Visit the MedlinePlus Search Cloud Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Free, ... Visit the new MedlinePlus Visit the MedlinePlus search cloud, featuring the top 100 search terms of the ...

  10. What is PubMed? PubMed is a resource provided by the US National Institutes of Health. Its subject coverage is biomedicine and health,

    E-print Network

    Scheichl, Robert

    PubMed What is PubMed? PubMed is a resource provided by the US National Institutes of Health. Its subject coverage is biomedicine and health, along with portions of behavioural sciences, bioengineering'; `Dermatis' is listed within `Skin diseases'. How to search using MeSH: Select MeSH from the drop-down menu

  11. Avoidable Ignorance and the Role of Cochrane and Campbell Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The Campbell and Cochrane Collaborations were created to reveal the evidentiary status of claims focusing especially on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Such reviews are constrained by the population of studies available and biases that may influence this availability such as preferred framing of problems. This highlights the…

  12. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  13. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/connect/service.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service To use the sharing features on this ... if you implement MedlinePlus Connect by contacting us . Web Service Overview The parameters for the Web service ...

  14. MedlinePlus Connect: Technical Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Service Technical Information Page MedlinePlus Connect Implementation Options Web Application How does it work? Responds to requests ... examples of MedlinePlus Connect Web Application response pages. Web Service How does it work? Responds to requests ...

  15. MedlinePlus Connect: How it Works

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/connect/howitworks.html MedlinePlus Connect: How it Works To use the sharing features on this page, ... Service response pages. More Information How MedlinePlus Connect Works Demonstrations — Web application and Web service Technical information ...

  16. MedlinePlus Survey Results 2014

    MedlinePLUS

    ... survey used to gather MedlinePlus survey data. Customer Satisfaction Score During 2014, users reported the following overall satisfaction scores (from 6,024 survey respondents): MedlinePlus: 87 ( ...

  17. MedlinePlus Connect: Email List

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    ... and health care providers. Join the MedlinePlus Connect discussion list to keep up with developments and exchange ... by contacting us or posting to the email discussion list. More Information How MedlinePlus Connect Works Demonstrations — ...

  18. PubMed related articles: a probabilistic topic-based model for content similarity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy; Wilbur, W John

    2007-01-01

    Background We present a probabilistic topic-based model for content similarity called pmra that underlies the related article search feature in PubMed. Whether or not a document is about a particular topic is computed from term frequencies, modeled as Poisson distributions. Unlike previous probabilistic retrieval models, we do not attempt to estimate relevance–but rather our focus is "relatedness", the probability that a user would want to examine a particular document given known interest in another. We also describe a novel technique for estimating parameters that does not require human relevance judgments; instead, the process is based on the existence of MeSH ® in MEDLINE ®. Results The pmra retrieval model was compared against bm25, a competitive probabilistic model that shares theoretical similarities. Experiments using the test collection from the TREC 2005 genomics track shows a small but statistically significant improvement of pmra over bm25 in terms of precision. Conclusion Our experiments suggest that the pmra model provides an effective ranking algorithm for related article search. PMID:17971238

  19. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists for assisted conception: a Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Al-Inany, H G; Abou-Setta, A M; Aboulghar, M

    2007-05-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists suppress gonadotrophin secretion resulting in dramatic reduction in treatment cycle duration. Assuming comparable clinical outcomes, these benefits may justify changing the standard long GnRH agonist protocol to GnRH antagonist regimens. To evaluate the evidence, databases (e.g. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE) were electronically searched, hand searches were performed, and manufacturers in the field were contacted. Twenty-seven randomized controlled trials (RCT) fulfilled inclusion criteria for comparison of GnRH antagonist with long GnRH agonist protocol. Clinical pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy/live-birth rate were significantly lower in the antagonist group (P = 0.009; OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95 and P = 0.02; OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.97 respectively). Conversely, incidence of severe OHSS was significantly reduced with the antagonist protocol (P = 0.01; OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.40-0.88), and interventions to prevent OHSS were administered more frequently in the agonist group (P = 0.03; OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.92). Concluding, GnRH antagonist protocols are short, simple, with good clinical outcomes and significant reduction in severe OHSS incidence and gonadotrophin amount; however, the lower pregnancy rate compared with the GnRH agonist long protocol necessitates counselling subfertile couples before recommending change from GnRH agonist to antagonist. PMID:17509210

  20. Searching for unpublished data for Cochrane reviews: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the experiences of authors of Cochrane reviews in searching for, getting access to, and using unpublished data. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Cochrane reviews. Participants 2184 corresponding authors of Cochrane reviews as of May 2012. Main outcome measure Frequencies of responses to open ended and closed questions in an online survey. Results Of 5915 authors contacted by email, 2184 replied (36.9% response rate). Of those, 1656 (75.8%) had searched for unpublished data. In 913 cases (55.1% of 1656), new data were obtained and we received details about these data for 794 data sources. The most common data source was “trialists/investigators,” accounting for 73.9% (n=587) of the 794 data sources. Most of the data were used in the review (82.0%, 651/794) and in 53.4% (424/794) of cases data were provided in less than a month. Summary data were most common, provided by 50.8% (403/794) of the data sources, whereas 20.5% (163/794) provided individual patient data. In only 6.3% (50/794) of cases were data reported to have been obtained from the manufacturers, and this group waited longer and had to make more contacts to get the data. The data from manufacturers were less likely to be for individual patients and less likely to be used in the review. Data from regulatory agencies accounted for 3.0% (24/794) of the obtained data. Conclusions Most authors of Cochrane reviews who searched for unpublished data received useful information, primarily from trialists. Our response rate was low and the authors who did not respond were probably less likely to have searched for unpublished data. Manufacturers and regulatory agencies were uncommon sources of unpublished data. PMID:23613540

  1. School as Parkland: Re-Storying the Story of Cochrane School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2007-01-01

    The narrative inquiry reported in this study offers a partial view of Cochrane Academy's nuanced landscape. This article elaborates a theoretical frame, then uses different story perspectives to survey Cochrane's professional knowledge landscape over time. It relates what currently is Cochrane Academy to parkland landscape, and it discusses the…

  2. 2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SE. David J. Kaminsky, Architecturl Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  3. 1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SW. David J. Kaminsky, Architectural Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  4. 3. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE AND FERRY 1.5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE AND FERRY 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 1927. West ferry landing ferry barge, andcar in foreground. Alabama, Tennessee & Northern (later Frisco) RR bridge in background. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  5. 6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 192. Shows center turn span and part of one fixed span. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  6. 5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., after bridge collapsed in 1973. Shows broken turn span and overturned center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  7. 4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Western half of collapsed Alabama, Tenn. & Northern RR. Bridge Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., photographer, 1973. Copy by Sarcone Photography, Columbs, Ms Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  8. Visit the new MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Visit the new MedlinePlus Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... trusted, up-to-date medical information Visit the new MedlinePlus From the top medical experts at the ...

  9. Development of biomedical publications on ametropia research in PubMed from 1845 to 2010: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chang-Tai; Li, Shan-Qu; Lü, Yong-Gang; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2011-01-01

    AIM We have carried out a bibliometric analysis on the development of ametropia literature to determine its growth rule and tendency, and to provide the basis for the problems related to ametropia research. METHODS Literatures that contained the descriptors of ametropia in title or paper published before Nov. 10, 2010 in PubMed databases (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Pubmed) were selected. As bibliometric indicators of ametropia, biomedical journals referring to ophthalmology by ISSN were calculated. The principal bibliometric indicators: Price's and Bradford's laws were applied on the increase or dispersion of scientific literature, the participation index of languages and the journals. By means of manual coding, literatures were classified according to documents study and statistical analysis. RESULTS The literatures cited in ametropia, astigmatism, myopia and hypermetropia had accumulated to 26475, which consists of Review (n=1560), Randomized Controlled Trial (n=776), Practice Guideline (n=10), Meta-Analysis (n=23), Letter (n=1222), Editorial (n=328), Clinical Trial (n=1726) and Others (n=20830), and Humans (n=23073), Animals(n=1434) and others (n=1968). 1136 literatures were included in PubMed Central, 22384 in MEDLINE and 2955 in others. The ametropia literatures rose every 5 years which of the ametropia-year cumulated amount of the literatures had three periods: before 1900, slowly increasing from 1901 to 1950, rapidly rising from 1951 to 2010 (increased approximate exponentiation exponent). Sixty kinds of languages listed in PubMed databases, of which English is dominant for aborting to ametropia research documents before 2010 (77.32%, 20471/26475). The document languages of top eight account for 95.58% (English, German, French, Japanese, Russian, Italian, Spanish, Chinese), and others for 4.42% (1171/26475). The SCI database includes 48 ophthalmologic journals and the impact factor of 39 journals is ?1 on Thomson-Reuters in 2010. Of 48 ophthalmologic journals, there were 14785 documents (55.85%) of ametropia, astigmatism, myopia, and hypermetropia. Others were without exception. CONCLUSION The bibliometric analysis results show that ametropia literature are increased progressively, approximate exponentiation exponent during 1951-2010. In addition, ametropia research has become more popular since nearly half century. PMID:22553598

  10. MedlinePlus.gov on Twitter

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    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. MedlinePlus.gov on Twitter Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents You can now follow MedlinePlus.gov on Twitter: twitter.com/medlineplus4you The medlineplus4you Twitter ...

  11. MedlinePlus FAQ: News Coverage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... faq/news.html Question: I saw a news article on MedlinePlus but now I can't find ... displays the most recent news. MedlinePlus displays HealthDay articles for 90 days on these pages: the news ...

  12. MedlinePlus.gov Turns 10!

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    ... bringing trusted health information to people across the country and around the world. What a difference a decade makes. Since its debut in 1998, MedlinePlus.gov has grown to include: Information on ... in more than 200 countries have turned to MedlinePlus.gov since its launch. ...

  13. Connecting the Dots between PubMed Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Shahriar; Gresock, Joseph; Edmonds, Yvette; Helm, Richard; Potts, Malcolm; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2012-01-01

    Background There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and diseases. Each article investigates subsets of a biological process, but to gain insight into the functioning of a system as a whole, we must integrate information from multiple publications. Particularly, unraveling relationships between extra-cellular inputs and downstream molecular response mechanisms requires integrating conclusions from diverse publications. Methodology We present an automated approach to biological knowledge discovery from PubMed abstracts, suitable for “connecting the dots” across the literature. We describe a storytelling algorithm that, given a start and end publication, typically with little or no overlap in content, identifies a chain of intermediate publications from one to the other, such that neighboring publications have significant content similarity. The quality of discovered stories is measured using local criteria such as the size of supporting neighborhoods for each link and the strength of individual links connecting publications, as well as global metrics of dispersion. To ensure that the story stays coherent as it meanders from one publication to another, we demonstrate the design of novel coherence and overlap filters for use as post-processing steps. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of our storytelling algorithm to three case studies: i) a many-one study exploring relationships between multiple cellular inputs and a molecule responsible for cell-fate decisions, ii) a many-many study exploring the relationships between multiple cytokines and multiple downstream transcription factors, and iii) a one-to-one study to showcase the ability to recover a cancer related association, viz. the Warburg effect, from past literature. The storytelling pipeline helps narrow down a scientist's focus from several hundreds of thousands of relevant documents to only around a hundred stories. We argue that our approach can serve as a valuable discovery aid for hypothesis generation and connection exploration in large unstructured biological knowledge bases. PMID:22235301

  14. Overview of Reviews The prevention of eczema in infants and children: an overview of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    Foisy, Michelle; Boyle, Robert J.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Simpson, Eric L.; Williams, Hywel C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Eczema is the most common inflammatory skin disease of childhood, characterized by an itchy red rash that usually involves the face and skin folds. There is currently no curative treatment for eczema, so the reduction of eczema incidence through disease prevention is a desirable goal. Potential interventions for preventing eczema include exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas and soy formulas when bottle feeding, maternal antigen avoidance, omega oil supplementation, prebiotics and probiotics. Objectives This overview of reviews aims to present the current body of data from Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews to provide the most up-to-date evidence on the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent eczema in infants and children at different risk levels for developing allergic disease. Methods Our pool of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews came from the 2010 United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) Evidence Skin Disorders Annual Evidence Updates Mapping Exercise on Atopic Eczema. This group used a comprehensive search strategy last conducted in August 2010 to identify all systematic reviews on eczema prevention. We identified all reviews that met our pre-specified inclusion criteria, and data were extracted, analysed, compiled into tables and synthesized using quantitative and qualitative methods. Main results Seven systematic reviews containing 39 relevant trials with 11 897 participants were included in this overview. Overall, there was no clear evidence that any of the main interventions reviewed reduced eczema incidence. In subgroup analyses of infants at high risk of allergic disease, an observational study found that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months compared with introduction of solids at three to six months decreased the incidence of eczema by 60% (risk ratio (RR): 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.78), and a randomized controlled trial found that prebiotics compared with no prebiotics decreased incidence by 58% (RR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.84). However, each of these findings was based on the results of a single small trial, and no intervention reduced eczema incidence beyond the first two years of life. Although we pre-specified incidence of atopic eczema (i.e. eczema associated with immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization) as a primary outcome, data on whether participants diagnosed with eczema were truly atopic were largely lacking from systematic reviews. Similarly, data on atopy, measured using skin prick tests or specific IgE tests to allergens, were not reported in many reviews. No interventions were found to decrease atopy when reported. Adverse events data were generally lacking, but data from a trial of probiotics versus no probiotics showed significantly more spitting up in the first one (RR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.45) and two (RR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.80) months of life, but no overall increase in risk of gastrointestinal symptoms in the first year. Authors’ conclusions Although there is currently no clear evidence showing that any of the interventions examined in this overview prevent eczema in participants not selected for risk of allergic disease, there is some evidence that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months and prebiotics might reduce eczema incidence in high-risk participants. However, these conclusions are based on limited evidence with methodological shortcomings. Future research on prevention of eczema is needed and should examine different types of hydrolysed formulas, prebiotics and probiotics, as well as enhancement of the skin barrier and other novel approaches in infants at different risk levels for developing allergic disease. PMID:22822349

  15. Evidence-based topical treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis: a summary of a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z; El-Gohary, M

    2015-03-01

    Tinea cruris and tinea corporis are common fungal infections. Most can be treated with a variety of topical antifungals. This review aimed to assess the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of topical treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis. Searches included the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, LILACS and ongoing trials registries (August 2013). One hundred and twenty-nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 18 086 participants evaluated a range of interventions - mostly azoles. Pooling of data for several outcomes was only possible for two individual treatments. In five studies, terbinafine showed a statistically significant higher clinical cure rate compared with placebo [risk ratio (RR) 4·51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·10-6·56]. Data for mycological cure could not be pooled owing to substantial heterogeneity. Across three studies, mycological cure rates favoured naftifine (1%) compared with placebo (RR 2·38, 95% CI 1·80-3·14) but the quality of the evidence was low. Combinations of azoles with corticosteroids were slightly more effective than azoles for clinical cure, but there was no statistically significant difference with regard to mycological cure. Sixty-five studies were assessed as 'unclear' and 64 as being at 'high risk' of bias; many were over 20 years old, and most were poorly designed and inadequately reported. Although most active interventions showed sufficient therapeutic effect, this review highlights the need for further, high-quality, adequately powered RCTs to evaluate the effects of these interventions, which can ultimately provide reliable evidence to inform clinical decision making. PMID:25294700

  16. Tutorials for Africa: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NLM created the first MedlinePlus African Tutorial on malaria in collaboration with the Faculty of Medicine and ... meaningful text and illustrations for the tutorials. The malaria tutorial was then field tested in villages by ...

  17. Welcome to MedlinePlus en español

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  18. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application

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  19. Snoring - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  4. MEDLINE services to the developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, R

    1976-01-01

    Supplying MEDLINE services to a widely dispersed user population in the developing countries creates numerous problems not encountered by other MEDLINE centres. The inability to interact with the user complicates system promotion and makes search formulation sometimes a gamble. Nevertheless, an evaluation survey has shown high user satisfaction. Of great concern is the still inadequate solution of document delivery. Near-term objectives are the broadening of geographic coverage and the integration of search processing with supporting hard copy supply. PMID:1247707

  5. MedlinePlus FAQ: What's New on Medline Plus Page and Email Updates

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  7. Research synthesis and dissemination as a bridge to knowledge management: the Cochrane Collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Volmink, Jimmy; Siegfried, Nandi; Robertson, Katharine; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2004-01-01

    In the current information age, research synthesis is a particularly useful tool for keeping track of scientific research and making sense of the large volumes of frequently conflicting data derived from primary studies. The Cochrane Collaboration is a global initiative "to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions". In this paper we set the work of the Cochrane Collaboration in historical perspective, explain what a Cochrane review is, and describe initiatives for promoting worldwide dissemination of synthesized information. We also consider emerging evidence of the Cochrane Collaboration's impact on health-care practice, policy, research and education. Finally, we highlight the need for increased investment in the preparation and maintenance of Cochrane reviews, particularly those that address health issues that are relevant to people living in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:15643800

  8. Development and classification of an operational definition of complementary and alternative medicine for the Cochrane Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, L. Susan; Manheimer, Eric; Berman, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade the Cochrane Collaboration has been an increasingly important source of information on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. From 2007 to 2008 the Cochrane CAM Field developed a topics list that allowed us to categorize all 396 Cochrane reviews related to CAM (as of The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009). This topics list is an advance in making Cochrane reviews on CAM topics accessible to the public. In this paper, we discuss challenges in developing the topics list, including developing an operational definition of CAM, deciding which reviews should be included within the CAM Field’s scope, developing the structured list of CAM Field-specific topics, and determining where in the topics list the reviews should be placed. Although aspects of our operational definition of CAM are open to revision, a standardized definition provides us with an objective, reproducible and systematic method for defining and classifying CAM therapies. PMID:21717826

  9. Research synthesis and dissemination as a bridge to knowledge management: the Cochrane Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Volmink, Jimmy; Siegfried, Nandi; Robertson, Katharine; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2004-10-01

    In the current information age, research synthesis is a particularly useful tool for keeping track of scientific research and making sense of the large volumes of frequently conflicting data derived from primary studies. The Cochrane Collaboration is a global initiative "to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions". In this paper we set the work of the Cochrane Collaboration in historical perspective, explain what a Cochrane review is, and describe initiatives for promoting worldwide dissemination of synthesized information. We also consider emerging evidence of the Cochrane Collaboration's impact on health-care practice, policy, research and education. Finally, we highlight the need for increased investment in the preparation and maintenance of Cochrane reviews, particularly those that address health issues that are relevant to people living in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:15643800

  10. PubMed enhancements: fulfilling the promise of a great product.

    PubMed

    Schott, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    There have been many recent changes to PubMed to enhance its usefulness. Those changes include: LinkOut Libraries (local holding field), PubMed Central (full-text articles archived by the National Library of Medicine), and LinkOut (access to full-text articles right from the PubMed citation). Medical librarians should be aware of how these features work to best assist their clients. These new features offer the possibility of true desktop access for library patrons. Not only will patrons appreciate these new features, but their use in libraries will literally change what we do, who does it, and how it is done. PMID:15778178

  11. [Use of PubMed to improve evidence-based medicine in routine urological practice].

    PubMed

    Rink, M; Kluth, L A; Shariat, S F; Chun, F K; Fisch, M; Dahm, P

    2013-03-01

    Applying evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice is the basis of patient-centered medicine and knowledge of accurate literature acquisition skills is necessary for informed clinical decision-making. PubMed is an easy accessible, free bibliographic database comprising over 21 million citations from the medical field, life-science journals and online books. The article summarizes the effective use of PubMed in routine urological clinical practice based on a common case scenario. This article explains the simple use of PubMed to obtain the best search results with the highest evidence. Accurate knowledge about the use of PubMed in routine clinical practice can improve evidence-based medicine and also patient treatment. PMID:23503794

  12. Open Biomedical Ontology-based Medline exploration

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Weijian; Dai, Manhong; Mirel, Barbara; Song, Jean; Athey, Brian; Watson, Stanley J; Meng, Fan

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective Medline database exploration is critical for the understanding of high throughput experimental results and the development of novel hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying the targeted biological processes. While existing solutions enhance Medline exploration through different approaches such as document clustering, network presentations of underlying conceptual relationships and the mapping of search results to MeSH and Gene Ontology trees, we believe the use of multiple ontologies from the Open Biomedical Ontology can greatly help researchers to explore literature from different perspectives as well as to quickly locate the most relevant Medline records for further investigation. Results We developed an ontology-based interactive Medline exploration solution called PubOnto to enable the interactive exploration and filtering of search results through the use of multiple ontologies from the OBO foundry. The PubOnto program is a rich internet application based on the FLEX platform. It contains a number of interactive tools, visualization capabilities, an open service architecture, and a customizable user interface. It is freely accessible at: . PMID:19426463

  13. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    MedlinePLUS

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  14. MedlinePlus FAQ: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device?

    MedlinePLUS

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  15. PEDro or Cochrane to Assess the Quality of Clinical Trials? A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; da Costa, Bruno R.; Cummings, Greta G.; Ha, Christine; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Egger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is debate on how the methodological quality of clinical trials should be assessed. We compared trials of physical therapy (PT) judged to be of adequate quality based on summary scores from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale with trials judged to be of adequate quality by Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria. Design Meta-epidemiological study within Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Methods Meta-analyses of PT trials were identified in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each trial PeDro and Cochrane assessments were extracted from the PeDro and Cochrane databases. Adequate quality was defined as adequate generation of random sequence, concealment of allocation, and blinding of outcome assessors (Cochrane criteria) or as trials with a PEDro summary score ?5 or ?6 points. We combined trials of adequate quality using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Forty-one Cochrane reviews and 353 PT trials were included. All meta-analyses included trials with PEDro scores ?5, 37 (90.2%) included trials with PEDro scores ?6 and only 22 (53.7%) meta-analyses included trials of adequate quality according to the Cochrane criteria. Agreement between PeDro and Cochrane was poor for PeDro scores of ?5 points (kappa = 0.12; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.16) and slight for ?6 points (kappa 0.24; 95% CI 0.16-0.32). When combining effect sizes of trials deemed to be of adequate quality according to PEDro or Cochrane criteria, we found that a substantial difference in the combined effect size (?0.15) was evident in 9 (22%) out of the 41 meta-analyses for PEDro cutoff ?5 and 10 (24%) for cutoff ?6. Conclusions The PeDro and Cochrane approaches lead to different sets of trials of adequate quality, and different combined treatment estimates from meta-analyses of these trials. A consistent approach to assessing RoB in trials of physical therapy should be adopted. PMID:26161653

  16. Impact of Including Korean Randomized Controlled Trials in Cochrane Reviews of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kong, Jae Cheol; Choi, Jun-Yong; Choi, Tae-Young; Shin, Byung-Cheul; McDonald, Steve; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture is commonly practiced in Korea and is regularly evaluated in clinical trials. Although many Cochrane reviews of acupuncture include searches of both English and Chinese databases, there is no information on the value of searching Korean databases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of searching Korean databasesand journals for trials eligible for inclusion in existing Cochrane acupuncture reviews. Methods We searched 12 Korean databases and seven Korean journals to identify randomised trials meeting the inclusion criteria for acupuncture reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We compared risk of bias assessments of the Korean trials with the trials included in the Cochrane acupuncture reviews. Where possible, we added data from the Korean trials to the existing meta-analyses in the relevant Cochrane review and conducted sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the results. Results Sixteen Korean trials (742 participants) met the inclusion criteria for eight Cochrane acupuncture reviews (125 trials; 13,041 participants). Inclusion of the Korean trials provided data for 20% of existing meta-analyses (24 out of 120). Inclusion of the Korean trials did not change the direction of effect in any of the existing meta-analyses. The effect size and heterogeneity remained mostly unchanged. In only one meta-analysis did the significance change. Compared to the studies included in the Cochrane acupuncture reviews, the risk of bias in the Korean trials was higher in terms of outcome assessor blinding and allocation concealment. Conclusions Many Korean studies contributed additional data to the existing meta-analyses in Cochrane acupuncture reviews. Although inclusion of these studies did not alter the results of the meta-analyses, comprehensive searches of the literature are important to avoid potential language bias. The identification and inclusion of eligible Korean trials should be considered for reviews of acupuncture. PMID:23071826

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  20. MedlinePlus Marks its 15th Anniversary

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  1. Considerations from the risk of bias perspective for updating Cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Alain D; Kabir, Monisha; Ansari, Mohammed T

    2015-01-01

    Authors of Cochrane reviews are expected to update their reviews every 2 years. The updating process helps to ensure that reviews are current and include recent evidence. However, the updating process is time-consuming for authors, particularly when Cochrane methods evolve and authors are required to revisit some of the originally included studies.The Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool is a mandatory component of Cochrane reviews, providing an assessment of the potential biases of included studies. The tool has been modified most recently in 2011, and the expectation is that new versions will continue to be produced and utilised in all Cochrane reviews. In this commentary we discuss, in the context of updating scenarios that are likely to be encountered, the potential options systematic review authors may have recourse to when the Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool has been modified between the original review and its update. We recommend that authors who are updating reviews should revise their original assessments of included studies using the most recent version of the risk of bias tool. Despite the increased workload, use of the most recent version of the tool facilitates consistency of methods and reporting both across and within reviews, and ensures currency to the methodological rigour. PMID:26445323

  2. Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users’ search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1,539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1,396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments. PMID:19162232

  3. Mining MEDLINE for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Pinar; Ceken, Cinar; Hassanpour, Reza; Esmelioglu, Sadik; Tolun, Mehmet Resit

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the importance of osteoporosis disease in terms of medical research and pharmaceutical industry and we introduce a knowledge discovery approach regarding the treatment of osteoporosis from a historical perspective. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease in which osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Osteoporosis has also higher costs, for example, longer hospital stays than many other diseases such as diabetes and heart attack and it is an attractive market for pharmaceutical companies. We use a freely available biomedical search engine leveraging text-mining technology to extract the drug names used in the treatment of osteoporosis from MEDLINE articles. We conclude that alendronate (Fosamax) and raloxifene (Evista) have the highest number of articles in MEDLINE and seem the dominating drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis in the last decade. PMID:21494854

  4. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  5. Automatic Summarization of Mouse Gene Information by Clustering and Sentence Extraction from MEDLINE Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianji; Cohen, Aaron M.; Hersh, William

    2007-01-01

    Tools to automatically summarize gene information from the literature have the potential to help genomics researchers better interpret gene expression data and investigate biological pathways. The task of finding information on sets of genes is common for genomic researchers, and PubMed is still the first choice because the most recent and original information can only be found in the unstructured, free text biomedical literature. However, finding information on a set of genes by manually searching and scanning the literature is a time-consuming and daunting task for scientists. We built and evaluated a query-based automatic summarizer of information on mouse genes studied in microarray experiments. The system clusters a set of genes by MeSH, GO and free text features and presents summaries for each gene by ranked sentences extracted from MEDLINE abstracts. Evaluation showed that the system seems to provide meaningful clusters and informative sentences are ranked higher by the algorithm. PMID:18693953

  6. Measuring Medical Student Preference: A Comparison of Classroom Versus Online Instruction for Teaching Pubmed*EC

    PubMed Central

    Schimming, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The research analyzed evaluation data to assess medical student satisfaction with the learning experience when required PubMed training is offered entirely online. Methods: A retrospective study analyzed skills assessment scores and student feedback forms from 455 first-year medical students who completed PubMed training either through classroom sessions or an online tutorial. The class of 2006 (n?=?99) attended traditional librarian-led sessions in a computer classroom. The classes of 2007 (n?=?120), 2008 (n?=?121), and 2009 (n?=?115) completed the training entirely online through a self-paced tutorial. PubMed skills assessment scores and student feedback about the training were compared for all groups. Results: As evidenced by open-ended comments about the training, students who took the online tutorial were equally or more satisfied with the learning experience than students who attended classroom sessions, with the classes of 2008 and 2009 reporting greater satisfaction (P<0.001) than the other 2 groups. The mean score on the PubMed skills assessment (91%) was the same for all groups of students. Conclusions: Student satisfaction improved and PubMed assessment scores did not change when instruction was offered online to first-year medical students. Comments from the students who received online training suggest that the increased control and individual engagement with the web-based content led to their satisfaction with the online tutorial. PMID:18654658

  7. Systematic Reviews Published in the July 2015 Issue of the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The July 2015 issue (third DVD for 2015) contains 6506 complete reviews, 2431 protocols for reviews in production, and 36,600 short summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 871,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 15,000 citations. One hundred and seven new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months, of which seven have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 5.939. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest as only a brief commentary is provided. PMID:26654419

  8. Systematic Reviews Published in the April 2015 Issue of the Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The April 2015 issue (first DVD for 2015) contains 6390 complete reviews, 2410 protocols for reviews in production, and 36,600 short summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 848,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 15,000 citations. One hundred new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months, of which five have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 5.939. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest, as only a brief commentary is provided. PMID:26368545

  9. A SNPshot of PubMed to associate genetic variants with drugs, diseases, and adverse reactions

    E-print Network

    Baral, Chitta

    A SNPshot of PubMed to associate genetic variants with drugs, diseases, and adverse reactions Jörg, drug efficacy, and drug responses between individuals and sub-populations. Wrong dosages of drugs can lead to severe adverse drug reac- tions in individuals whose drug metabolism drastically differs from

  10. Antenatal interventions to reduce preterm birth: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several factors are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB); therefore, various interventions might have the potential to influence it. Due to the large number of interventions that address PTB, the objective of this overview is to summarise evidence from Cochrane reviews regarding the effects and safety of these different interventions. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Included reviews should be based on randomised controlled trials comparing antenatal non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that directly or indirectly address PTB with placebo/no treatment or routine care in pregnant women at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation without signs of threatened preterm labour. We considered PTB at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation as the primary outcome. Results We included 56 Cochrane systematic reviews. Three interventions increased PTB risk significantly. Twelve interventions led to a statistically significant lower incidence of PTBs. However, this reduction was mostly observed in defined at-risk subgroups of pregnant women. The remaining antenatal interventions failed to prove a significant effect on PTB?Cochrane reviews which intended to report on PTB?Cochrane systematic reviews. Few interventions have been demonstrated to be effective and a small number have been found to be harmful. For around half of the interventions evaluated, the Cochrane review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to provide sound recommendations for clinical practice. No RCT evidence is available for a number of potentially relevant interventions. PMID:24758148

  11. The impact of Cochrane Systematic Reviews: a mixed method evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of Cochrane reviews published by NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007–2011. Methods We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, interviewed guideline developers and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane reviews. We used a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). Results A total of 1,502 new and updated reviews were produced by the 20 NIHR-funded CRGs between 2007 and 2011. The clearest impacts were on policy with a total of 483 systematic reviews cited in 247 sets of guidance: 62 were international, 175 national (87 from the UK) and 10 local. Review authors and CRGs provided some examples of impact on practice or services, for example, safer use of medication, the identification of new effective drugs or treatments and potential economic benefits through the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures. However, such impacts are difficult to objectively document, and the majority of reviewers were unsure if their review had produced specific impacts. Qualitative data suggested that Cochrane reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and guideline developers were barriers to their use. Conclusions Health and economic impacts of research are generally difficult to measure. We found that to be the case with this evaluation. Impacts on knowledge production and clinical guidance were easier to identify and substantiate than those on clinical practice. Questions remain about how we define and measure impact, and more work is needed to develop suitable methods for impact analysis. PMID:25348511

  12. Assessing Diagnostic Expertise of Counselors Using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witteman, Cilia L. M.; Weiss, David J.; Metzmacher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Counseling studies have shown that increasing experience is not always associated with better judgments. However, in such studies performance is assessed against external criteria, which may lack validity. The authors applied the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index, which assesses the ability to consistently discriminate. Results showed that novice…

  13. NEW CONSTRUCTIONS OF SLICE LINKS TIM COCHRAN, STEFAN FRIEDL AND PETER TEICHNER

    E-print Network

    Friedl, Stefan

    NEW CONSTRUCTIONS OF SLICE LINKS TIM COCHRAN, STEFAN FRIEDL AND PETER TEICHNER ABSTRACT. We use-infection of a slice link is again slice (not necessarily smoothly slice). We provide a general context for proving links are slice that includes most of the previously known results. 1. INTRODUCTION A link of m

  14. Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2002-01-01

    Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

  15. Toward Online Verification of Client Behavior in Distributed Applications Robert A. Cochran

    E-print Network

    Reiter, Michael

    Toward Online Verification of Client Behavior in Distributed Applications Robert A. Cochran@cs.unc.edu Abstract Existing techniques for a server to verify the correctness of client behavior in a distributed. We present a novel method for a server to efficiently search for a code path through the client

  16. 77 FR 17505 - Morris W. Cochran, M.D.: Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Morris W. Cochran, M.D.: Revocation of Registration On September 22, 2010, I, the then-Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration...

  17. Fractal Volume Compression Wayne O. Cochran John C. Hart Patrick J. Flynn

    E-print Network

    Fractal Volume Compression Wayne O. Cochran John C. Hart Patrick J. Flynn School of Electrical@eecs.wsu.edu October 18, 1995 Abstract This research is the rst application of fractal compression to volumetric data. The various components of the fractal image compression method extend simply and di- rectly to the volumetric

  18. 78 FR 62678 - Morris W. Cochran, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Morris W. Cochran, M.D.; Decision and Order On July 9, 2013, Administrative Law Judge Gail A. Randall (hereinafter, ALJ) issued the attached Recommended Decision. Therein, the ALJ found that there was no dispute over...

  19. Bibliometric analysis on retinoblastoma literatures in PubMed during 1929 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Xue-Gang; Xu, Chang-Tai; Pan, Bo-Rong; Xu, Li-Xian

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine the growth rule and tendency of retinoblastoma (Rb) literature, and to provide the basis for research of diagnosis, treatment and on Rb. METHODS Bibliometric analyses were carried out on Rb literatures which contain the descriptors of Rb in their titles or texts from 1929 to 2010 in PubMed database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Pubmed). The biomedical journals referring to Rb by using bibliometric indicators were calculated. The principal bibliometric indicators, i.e., Price's and Bradford's laws to the increase or distribution of scientific literature, the participation index of languages and the journals were applied. By means of manual coding, Rb documents were classified according to documents studied and to statistical analysis. RESULTS During 1929-2010, there were 16162 literatures in the PubMed database including the word Rb. According to the literature type, it includes Review (n=2026), Randomized Controlled Trial (n=7), Practice guideline (n=3), meta-analysis (n=4), letter (n=215), editorial (n=98), clinical trial (n=115) and others (n=13694). By the statistical analysis, its equation is near power index (y=3.0477x2.6088, R2=0.9666). From 1929 to 2010, Rb literatures in English were primarily dominant (90.71%) and the amount of the literature in Chinese ranked the fourth (1.37%). By searching PubMed, 1420(8.8%) literatures covered were from 41 of 48 ophthalmological, and 406 (2.5%) literatures from 44 of 86 pediatrics journals that correlated with retinoblastoma (SCI-indexed). The data showed that the literatures of Rb were gradually increasing year by year and were approximate near power index during 1929-2010, and the document publishes published mainly in ophthalmological journals, and in English (90.71%), and showing that the study on Rb is a popular subject in the last half century. CONCLUSION The literatures of Rb are gradually increasing, mainly English in ophthalmologic journals. PMID:22553624

  20. PubMed and beyond: a survey of web tools for searching biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the modern advances of high-throughput technology and rapid growth of research capacity in producing large-scale biological data, both of which were concomitant with an exponential growth of biomedical literature. This wealth of scholarly knowledge is of significant importance for researchers in making scientific discoveries and healthcare professionals in managing health-related matters. However, the acquisition of such information is becoming increasingly difficult due to its large volume and rapid growth. In response, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is continuously making changes to its PubMed Web service for improvement. Meanwhile, different entities have devoted themselves to developing Web tools for helping users quickly and efficiently search and retrieve relevant publications. These practices, together with maturity in the field of text mining, have led to an increase in the number and quality of various Web tools that provide comparable literature search service to PubMed. In this study, we review 28 such tools, highlight their respective innovations, compare them to the PubMed system and one another, and discuss directions for future development. Furthermore, we have built a website dedicated to tracking existing systems and future advances in the field of biomedical literature search. Taken together, our work serves information seekers in choosing tools for their needs and service providers and developers in keeping current in the field. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/search PMID:21245076

  1. Saving the Time of the Library User through Subject Access Innovation: Papers in Honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, William J., Ed.

    This book contains the following papers in honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane on subject access issues in library and information science: (1) "Obstacles in Progress in Mechanized Subject Access and the Necessity of a Paradigm Change" (Robert Fugmann); (2) "On MARC and the Nature of Text Searching: A Review of Pauline Cochrane's Inspirational…

  2. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test IV Appendix IV...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test Using all the available...and Medical Research” (1947, R. A. Fisher and F. Yates). [47 FR 32367,...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test IV Appendix IV...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test Using all the available...and Medical Research” (1947, R. A. Fisher and F. Yates). [47 FR 32367,...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test IV Appendix IV...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test Using all the available...and Medical Research” (1947, R. A. Fisher and F. Yates). [47 FR 32367,...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test IV Appendix IV...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test Using all the available...and Medical Research” (1947, R. A. Fisher and F. Yates). [47 FR 32367,...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test IV Appendix IV...Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test Using all the available...and Medical Research” (1947, R. A. Fisher and F. Yates). [47 FR 32367,...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 264, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 264—Cochran's Approximation... change in any indicator parameter. The t-statistic for all parameters except pH and similar...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 264, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 264—Cochran's Approximation... change in any indicator parameter. The t-statistic for all parameters except pH and similar...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 264, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 264—Cochran's Approximation... change in any indicator parameter. The t-statistic for all parameters except pH and similar...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 264, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 264—Cochran's Approximation... change in any indicator parameter. The t-statistic for all parameters except pH and similar...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 264 - Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens-Fisher Students' t-test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cochran's Approximation to the Behrens... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 264, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 264—Cochran's Approximation... change in any indicator parameter. The t-statistic for all parameters except pH and similar...

  12. 77 FR 65545 - Mr. Jesse S. Capel and Mr. Hilton J. Cochran; EWP LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mr. Jesse S. Capel and Mr. Hilton J. Cochran; EWP LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By application filed on July 30, 2012 and supplemented on August 14, 2012, Mr. Jesse S. Capel and Mr. Hilton J. Cochran and EWP LLC informed the Commission that its exemption from licensing...

  13. Psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Parahoo, Kader; McDonough, Suzanne; McCaughan, Eilis; Noyes, Jane; Semple, Cherith; Halstead, Elizabeth J; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for men with prostate cancer in improving quality of life (QoL), self-efficacy and knowledge and in reducing distress, uncertainty and depression. We searched for trials using a range of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO to October 2013, together with hand searching of journals and reference lists. Randomised controlled trials were eligible if they included psychosocial interventions that explicitly used one or a combination of the following approaches: cognitive behavioural, psycho-educational, supportive and counselling. Interventions had to be delivered or facilitated by trained or lay personnel. Our outcomes were an improvement in QoL, self-efficacy and knowledge and a reduction in distress, uncertainty and depression. Pairs of review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed data using standardised mean differences (SMDs), random-effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In all, 19 studies with a total of 3 204 men, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer, comparing psychosocial interventions vs usual care were included in this review. Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a small, statistically significant improvement in the physical component of general health-related QoL (GHQoL) at end of intervention (SMD 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.22) based on low quality evidence. There was no clear evidence of benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for the mental component of GHQoL at end of intervention (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.06) based on moderate quality evidence. At end of intervention, cancer-related QoL showed a small improvement after psychosocial interventions (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). For prostate cancer-specific and symptom-related QoL, the differences between intervention and control groups were not significant. There was no clear evidence that psychosocial interventions were beneficial in improving self-efficacy at end of intervention (SMD 0.16, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.38) based on very low quality evidence. Men in the psychosocial intervention group had a moderate increase in prostate cancer knowledge at end of intervention (SMD 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.71) based on very low quality evidence. A small increase in knowledge with psychosocial interventions was noted at 3 months after intervention (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.04-0.58). The results for uncertainty (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.26) and distress (SMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.15) at end of intervention were compatible with both benefit and harm based on very low quality evidence. Finally, there was no clear evidence of benefit associated with psychosocial interventions for depression at end of intervention (SMD -0.18, 95% CI -0.51 to 0.15) based on very low quality evidence. The overall risk of bias in the included studies was unclear or high, primarily as the result of performance bias. No data about stage of disease or treatment with androgen-deprivation therapy were extractable for subgroup analysis. Only one study addressed adverse effects. Overall, this review shows that psychosocial interventions may have small, short-term beneficial effects on certain domains of wellbeing, as measured by the physical component of GHQoL and cancer-related QoL when compared with usual care. Prostate cancer knowledge was also increased. However, this review failed to show a statistically significant effect on other domains such as symptom-related QoL, self-efficacy, uncertainty, distress or depression. Moreover, when beneficial effects were seen, it remained uncertain whether the magnitude of effect was large enough to be considered clinically important. The quality of evidence for most outcomes was rated as very low according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system, reflecting study limitations, loss to follow-up, study heterogeneity and small sample sizes. We were unable to perform meaningful subgroup analyses based on disease s

  14. Evidence for perinatal and child health care guidelines in crisis settings: can Cochrane help?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is important that healthcare provided in crisis settings is based on the best available research evidence. We reviewed guidelines for child and perinatal health care in crisis situations to determine whether they were based on research evidence, whether Cochrane systematic reviews were available in the clinical areas addressed by these guidelines and whether summaries of these reviews were provided in Evidence Aid. Methods Broad internet searches were undertaken to identify relevant guidelines. Guidelines were appraised using AGREE and the clinical areas that were relevant to perinatal or child health were extracted. We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify potentially relevant reviews. For each review we determined how many trials were included, and how many were conducted in resource-limited settings. Results Six guidelines met selection criteria. None of the included guidelines were clearly based on research evidence. 198 Cochrane reviews were potentially relevant to the guidelines. These reviews predominantly addressed nutrient supplementation, breastfeeding, malaria, maternal hypertension, premature labour and prevention of HIV transmission. Most reviews included studies from developing settings. However for large portions of the guidelines, particularly health services delivery, there were no relevant reviews. Only 18 (9.1%) reviews have summaries in Evidence Aid. Conclusions We did not identify any evidence-based guidelines for perinatal and child health care in disaster settings. We found many Cochrane reviews that could contribute to the evidence-base supporting future guidelines. However there are important issues to be addressed in terms of the relevance of the available reviews and increasing the number of reviews addressing health care delivery. PMID:20350326

  15. Finding Good Health Information on the Internet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: MedlinePlus Advantage The MedlinePlus Advantage Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents MedlinePlus is the National Institutes of Health's website for patients and ...

  16. How relevant is the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to nursing care?

    PubMed

    Geurden, Bart J G; Stern, Cindy; Piron, Cécile; Gobert, Micheline

    2012-12-01

    Barriers obstructing evidence-based nursing have been explored in many countries. Lack of resources and evidence has been noted as one of these barriers. We aimed to identify nursing care-related systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1996 until 2009. Using a broad search strategy we identified titles of Cochrane systematic reviews and protocols that focused on nursing care. The abstract of each title was examined and predetermined data were collected and analysed. 1249 titles out of a possible 6244 records were identified as being relevant to nursing care. Most of them focused on newborn and adult populations and related to comparing one intervention with another, and management strategies. The most common nursing specialties represented were internal medicine (34%) and mother and child care (25%). Twenty one percent of reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews are of direct interest to those involved in nursing care however their relevance was not always obvious. PMID:23181952

  17. A study of abbreviations in MEDLINE abstracts.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongfang; Aronson, Alan R.; Friedman, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Abbreviations are widely used in writing, and the understanding of abbreviations is important for natural language processing applications. Abbreviations are not always defined in a document and they are highly ambiguous. A knowledge base that consists of abbreviations with their associated senses and a method to resolve the ambiguities are needed. In this paper, we studied the UMLS coverage, textual variants of senses, and the ambiguity of abbreviations in MEDLINE abstracts. We restricted our study to three-letter abbreviations which were defined using parenthetical expressions. When grouping similar expansions together and representing senses using groups, we found that after ignoring senses where the total number of occurrences within the corresponding group was less than 100, 82.8% of the senses matched the UMLS, covered over 93% of occurrences that were considered, and had an average of 7.74 expansions for each sense. Abbreviations are highly ambiguous: 81.2% of the abbreviations were ambiguous, and had an average of 16.6 senses. However, after ignoring senses with occurrences of less than 5, 64.6% of the abbreviations were ambiguous, and had an average of 4.91 senses. PMID:12463867

  18. Beyond PubMed: Searching the “Grey Literature” for Clinical Trial Results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the “grey literature.” Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites. PMID:25337445

  19. Beyond PubMed: Searching the "Grey Literature" for Clinical Trial Results.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2014-07-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites. PMID:25337445

  20. Celebrating 20 years of evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration: what has been the impact of systematic reviews on nephrology?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Craig, Jonathan C; Jones, Ann; Higgins, Gail; Willis, Narelle; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2015-06-01

    It has been 20 years since the Cochrane Collaboration started the global effort to synthesize evidence to improve healthcare. Since 1997, the Cochrane Renal Group has produced over 100 systematic reviews that have collectively had an important impact on nephrology care, guidelines and policy. In this article, we reflect on the ongoing need for randomized trials and systematic reviews in contemporary nephrology and the achievements of the Cochrane Collaboration so far. We also describe some of the challenges in clinical research still faced by the nephrology community today. PMID:25016606

  1. History and Trends of "Personal Health Record" Research in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongeun; Bates, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review history and trends of personal health record research in PubMed and to provide accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions. Methods For the search strategy, PubMed was queried for 'personal health record, personal record, and PHR' in the title and abstract fields. Those containing different definitions of the word were removed by one-by-one analysis from the results, 695 articles. In the end, total of 229 articles were analyzed in this research. Results The results show that the changes in terms over the years and the shift to patient centeredness and mixed usage. And we identified history and trend of PHR research in some category that the number of publications by year, topic, methodologies and target diseases. Also from analysis of MeSH terms, we can show the focal interest in regards the PHR boundaries and related subjects. Conclusions For PHRs to be efficiently used by general public, initial understanding of the history and trends of PHR research may be helpful. Simultaneously, accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions that can lead to the development and growth of PHRs will be valuable to their adoption and expansion. PMID:21818452

  2. Treating Cataracts | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... her experience recently with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What did you notice about your vision that told you ... how long it would take to recover. Where did you go for information about cataracts and surgery? ...

  3. Automated Extraction of Medical Knowledge from Medline Citations

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Mallon, Laurie J.; Barnett, G. Octo

    1988-01-01

    The Medline database consists of over six million citations to the medical literature, indexed by the National Library of Medicine with the use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Subheadings. We propose that analysis of MeSH Headings and Subheadings in Medline citations will reveal the interrelationships among medical concepts described in the original articles. We have developed a rule-based system which postulates relationships based on the co-occurrence of MeSH Headings in Medline citations. At present, the rule base consists of 504 rules which propose 57 relationships. When this rule base was applied to a test set of 673 citations, 93% of the proposed relationships were determined to be correct (96%, after correction of a transcription error in the rule base). We believe this approach has great potential, both for assisting acquisition of medical knowledge and for improving the quality of Medline retrievals.

  4. Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issue Past Issues Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... on. No matter where you are in the world, www.medlineplus.gov is your best global source ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pap Smear ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Exámenes para el cáncer de cuello uterino Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  6. Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Winter 2007 ... and tireless diabetes research advocate Mary Tyler Moore help launch the first official issue of the magazine ...

  7. Cochrane corner: psychological interventions for individuals with cystic fibrosis and their families.

    PubMed

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Fidika, Astrid; Herle, Marion; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2015-11-01

    Psychological issues associated with cystic fibrosis may arise from the patients' lifelong disease- and treatment-related burden. This Cochrane Review aimed to determine psychosocial and physical outcomes of psychological interventions. Trial registries, databases and professional networks were used to identify relevant studies. Altogether, 16 studies involving 556 participants were included. They were heterogeneous in their methods, design, target groups, and outcomes. Overall, the current evidence for psychological interventions is insufficient. Preliminary evidence was available for interventions targeting specific aspects of the treatment regimen, such as behavioural nutrition interventions. PMID:26092922

  8. Identifying Clinical Study Types from PubMed Metadata: The Active (Machine) Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Adam G; Arachi, Diana; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2015-01-01

    We examined a process for automating the classification of articles in MEDLINE aimed at minimising manual effort without sacrificing accuracy. From 22,808 articles pertaining to 19 antidepressants, 1000 were randomly selected and manually labelled according to article type (including, randomised controlled trials, editorials, etc.). We applied a machine learning approach termed 'active learning', where the learner (machine) selects the order in which the user (human) labels examples. Via simulation, we determined the number of articles a user needed to label to produce a classifier with at least 95% recall and 90% precision in three scenarios related to evidence synthesis. We found that the active learning process reduced the number of training instances required by 70%, 19%, and 14% in the three scenarios. The results show that the active learning method may be used in some scenarios to produce accurate classifiers that meet the needs of evidence synthesis tasks and reduce manual effort. PMID:26262175

  9. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R – PubMedMiner – was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner’s functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  10. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R - PubMedMiner - was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner's functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  11. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Interventions for Improving Upper Limb Function after Stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,11:CD010820].

    PubMed

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Torres Cardoso, André; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of the upper limbs is quite frequent after stroke, making rehabilitation an essential step towards clinical recovery and patient empowerment. This review aimed to synthetize existing evidence regarding interventions for upper limb function improvement after Stroke and to assess which would bring some benefit. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Reviews of Effects and PROSPERO databases were searched until June 2013 and 40 reviews have been included, covering 503 studies, 18 078 participants and 18 interventions, as well asdifferent doses and settings of interventions. The main results were: 1- Information currently available is insufficient to assess effectiveness of each intervention and to enable comparison of interventions; 2- Transcranial direct current stimulation brings no benefit for outcomes of activities of daily living; 3- Moderate-quality evidence showed a beneficial effect of constraint-induced movement therapy, mental practice, mirror therapy, interventions for sensory impairment, virtual realityand repetitive task practice; 4- Unilateral arm training may be more effective than bilateral arm training; 5- Moderate-quality evidence showed a beneficial effect of robotics on measures of impairment and ADLs; 6- There is no evidence of benefit or harm for technics such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, music therapy, pharmacological interventions, electrical stimulation and other therapies. Currently available evidence is insufficient and of low quality, not supporting clear clinical decisions. High-quality studies are still needed. PMID:26667856

  12. A Search Engine to Access PubMed Monolingual Subsets: Proof of Concept and Evaluation in French

    PubMed Central

    Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. Objective The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). Methods To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. Results More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. Conclusions It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese. PMID:25448528

  13. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership—retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Does PubMed Central—a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles—compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers.—Davis, P. M. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership—retrospective cohort analysis. PMID:23554455

  14. Work of the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Review Group: making sense of complexity.

    PubMed

    Handoll, Helen

    2013-11-01

    This article examines the ways in which members of the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Review Group have tackled the intrinsic complexity of a large clinical area. This features a diversity of injuries in people of all ages, predominantly physical and surgical interventions that are inherently complex interventions, and a huge array of outcome measures. The methods described include a purposeful focus on common injuries, such as fragility fractures in older people; and the generation of groups of "all intervention" reviews whose structure is informed by a systematic approach, incorporating knowledge of clinical pathways and categorization of interventions. The article concludes with some thoughts about the challenges ahead, particularly in terms of selecting the scopes of future reviews. PMID:24325411

  15. 10/21/2014 Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses. [Phys Life Rev. 2012] -PubMed -NCBI http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925839 1/4

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    10/21/2014 Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses. [Phys Life Rev. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.plrev.2012.07.001. Epub 2012 Jul 10. Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses. Baars BJ , Edelman DB a remarkable range of goalrelevant actions. Consciousness is "a difference that makes a difference

  16. Evidence-Based Pain Management and Palliative Care in Issue Two for 2006 of The Cochrane Library.

    PubMed

    Wiffen, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. It now contains 2674 complete reviews, 1686 protocols for reviews in production and 6019 one page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of 473,442 randomized controlled trials, 22 methodology reviews and 8255 cited papers in the Cochrane methodology register. The health technology assessment database contains 5648 citations. This edition of the Library contains 66 new reviews of which 4 have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. PMID:17182519

  17. Mining locus tags in PubMed Central to improve microbial gene annotation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The scientific literature contains millions of microbial gene identifiers within the full text and tables, but these annotations rarely get incorporated into public sequence databases. We propose to utilize the Open Access (OA) subset of PubMed Central (PMC) as a gene annotation database and have developed an R package called pmcXML to automatically mine and extract locus tags from full text, tables and supplements. Results We mined locus tags from 1835 OA publications in ten microbial genomes and extracted tags mentioned in 30,891 sentences in main text and 20,489 rows in tables. We identified locus tag pairs marking the start and end of a region such as an operon or genomic island and expanded these ranges to add another 13,043 tags. We also searched for locus tags in supplementary tables and publications outside the OA subset in Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 for comparison. There were 168 publications containing 48,470 locus tags and 83% of mentions were from supplementary materials and 9% from publications outside the OA subset. Conclusions B. pseudomallei locus tags within the full text and tables of OA publications represent only a small fraction of the total mentions in the literature. For microbial genomes with very few functionally characterized proteins, the locus tags mentioned in supplementary tables and within ranges like genomic islands contain the majority of locus tags. Significantly, the functions in the R package provide access to additional resources in the OA subset that are not currently indexed or returned by searching PMC. PMID:24499370

  18. Currency of Information Found in SilverPlatter's Medline CDROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the currency of the information found on SilverPlatter's Medline CD-ROM. Results show that the currency of information can vary tremendously. Priority level, periodicity, and prior database were found to have a low but highly significant influence on currency. Six tables and nine figures show results. (Author/AEF)

  19. Alzheimer's Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MedlinePlus , a service of the NIH and National Library of Medicine: https://medlineplus.gov Alzheimer's Association: www.alz.org Alzheimer's Foundation of America: www.alzfdn.org U.S. Administration on Aging's Eldercare Locator: www.eldercare.gov Summary— ...

  20. Public accessibility of biomedical articles from PubMed Central reduces journal readership--retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip M

    2013-07-01

    Does PubMed Central--a government-run digital archive of biomedical articles--compete with scientific society journals? A longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of 13,223 articles (5999 treatment, 7224 control) published in 14 society-run biomedical research journals in nutrition, experimental biology, physiology, and radiology between February 2008 and January 2011 reveals a 21.4% reduction in full-text hypertext markup language (HTML) article downloads and a 13.8% reduction in portable document format (PDF) article downloads from the journals' websites when U.S. National Institutes of Health-sponsored articles (treatment) become freely available from the PubMed Central repository. In addition, the effect of PubMed Central on reducing PDF article downloads is increasing over time, growing at a rate of 1.6% per year. There was no longitudinal effect for full-text HTML downloads. While PubMed Central may be providing complementary access to readers traditionally underserved by scientific journals, the loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the journal to build communities of interest around research papers, impede the communication of news and events to scientific society members and journal readers, and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers. PMID:23554455

  1. Combining PubMed Knowledge and EHR Data to Develop a Weighted Bayesian Network for Pancreatic Cancer Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Weng, Chunhua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method that combines PubMed knowledge and Electronic Health Records to develop a weighted Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) model for pancreatic cancer prediction. We selected 20 common risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer and used PubMed knowledge to weigh the risk factors. A keyword-based algorithm was developed to extract and classify PubMed abstracts into three categories that represented positive, negative, or neutral associations between each risk factor and pancreatic cancer. Then we designed a weighted BNI model by adding the normalized weights into a conventional BNI model. We used this model to extract the EHR values for patients with or without pancreatic cancer, which then enabled us to calculate the prior probabilities for the 20 risk factors in the BNI. The software iDiagnosis was designed to use this weighted BNI model for predicting pancreatic cancer. In an evaluation using a case-control dataset, the weighted BNI model significantly outperformed the conventional BNI and two other classifiers (k-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machine). We conclude that the weighted BNI using PubMed knowledge and EHR data shows remarkable accuracy improvement over existing representative methods for pancreatic cancer prediction. PMID:21642013

  2. Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…

  3. Using Noun Phrases for Navigating Biomedical Literature on Pubmed: How Many Updates Are We Losing Track of?

    PubMed Central

    Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The “related citations” on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed “related citations.” We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper – many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper. PMID:21935487

  4. MedlinePlus Connect: Linking Patient Portals and Electronic Health Records to Health Information

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Search ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: ...

  5. MedlinePlus® Everywhere: Access from Your Phone, Tablet or Desktop

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and links that are spaced for easy tapping Send us your feedback on the new version We ... Contact Us link on any MedlinePlus page to send us feedback about the redesigned site. About MedlinePlus ...

  6. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/allergy.html MedlinePlus: ...

  7. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment of children living in environments where the prevalence and severity of asthma is particularly high. To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/allergy.html MedlinePlus: ...

  8. Finding Answers in a Beauty Shop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... customers the MedlinePlus website. Dexter Waiters uses the computer at MaFlo's to access the MedlinePlus consumer health ... A waiting area offers several comfortable chairs, three computers, and a printer. On a typical day, the ...

  9. Using Cochran's Z Statistic to Test the Kernel-Smoothed Item Response Function Differences between Focal and Reference Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yinggan; Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study combined the kernel smoothing procedure and a nonparametric differential item functioning statistic--Cochran's Z--to statistically test the difference between the kernel-smoothed item response functions for reference and focal groups. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the Type I error and power of the proposed…

  10. The role of The Cochrane Collaboration in support of the WHO Nutrition Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tovey, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the background and contribution of The Cochrane Collaboration to the WHO Nutrition Guidelines program. Systematic reviews, augmented by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology for assessing the quality of a body of evidence, form the evidence basis for WHO guidelines. Our shared experience of working together has highlighted a number of issues that are challenging, such as decisions made about selecting appropriate questions for evidence synthesis and the nature of study types that are included, in particular the decision on whether or not to extend a search beyond randomized studies. Although the skills and experience required for evidence synthesis are different from those needed to determine recommendations for policy and practice, our experience suggests that some engagement between the two groups is mutually beneficial. Finally, our experience highlights the recognition that evidence of effectiveness is essential but by no means sufficient to guide decisions on recommendations. Programmatic and implementation considerations are important to guide decision making and the evidence basis for this may be limited; therefore, it is essential that groups involved in delivering interventions to populations are also engaged in the guidelines process. PMID:24425720

  11. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for advanced prostate cancer: a Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kunath, Frank; Grobe, Henrik R; Rücker, Gerta; Motschall, Edith; Antes, Gerd; Dahm, Philipp; Wullich, Bernd; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effects of non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for treating advanced hormone-sensitive stages of prostate cancer. We searched the Cochrane Prostatic Diseases and Urologic Cancers Group Specialized Register (PROSTATE), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, three trial registries and abstracts from three major conferences to 23 December 2013, together with reference lists, and contacted selected experts in the field and manufacturers. We included randomized controlled trials comparing non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy with medical or surgical castration monotherapy for men in advanced hormone-sensitive stages of prostate cancer. Two review authors independently examined full-text reports, identified relevant studies, assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias as well as quality of evidence according to the GRADE working group guidelines. We used Review Manager 5.2 for data synthesis and the fixed-effect model as primary analysis (when heterogeneity was low with I(2) < 50%); we used a random-effects model when confronted with substantial or considerable heterogeneity (when I(2) ?50%). A total of 11 studies involving 3060 randomly assigned participants were included in the present review. Use of non-steroidal antiandrogens resulted in lower overall survival times (hazard ratio [HR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.48, six studies, 2712 participants) and greater clinical progression (1 year: risk ratio [RR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.45, five studies, 2067 participants; 70 weeks: RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.45, six studies, 2373 participants; 2 years: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25, three studies, 1336 participants), as well as treatment failure (1 year: RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38, four studies, 1539 participants; 70 weeks: RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.52, five studies, 1845 participants; 2 years: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.24, two studies, 808 participants), compared with medical or surgical castration. The quality of evidence for overall survival, clinical progression and treatment failure was rated as moderate according to GRADE. Use of non-steroidal antiandrogens increased the risk for treatment discontinuation as a result of adverse events (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.13-2.94, eight studies, 1559 participants), including events such as breast pain (RR 22.97, 95% CI 14.79- 35.67, eight studies, 2670 participants) and gynaecomastia (RR 8.43, 95% CI 3.19-22.28, nine studies, 2774 participants) The risk of other adverse events, such as hot flushes (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.19-0.27, nine studies, 2774 participants) was decreased when non-steroidal antiandrogens were used. The quality of evidence for breast pain, gynaecomastia and hot flushes was rated as moderate according to GRADE. The effects of non-steroidal antiandrogens on cancer-specific survival and biochemical progression remained unclear. Non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with medical or surgical castration monotherapy for advanced prostate cancer is less effective in terms of overall survival, clinical progression, treatment failure and treatment discontinuation resulting from adverse events. Evidence quality was rated as moderate according to GRADE; therefore, further research is likely to have an important impact on results for patients with advanced but non-metastatic prostate cancer treated with non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy. PMID:25523493

  12. Systemic wound care: a meta-review of cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Ubbink, Dirk T; Santema, Trientje B; Stoekenbroek, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    Wound care is a classic example of a surgical realm with a great variation in care. The diversity in wounds and wound treatments, the limited amount of convincing evidence, and the diverging opinions among doctors and nurses involved in wound care contribute to this undesirable variation in care. For chronic wounds, such as arterial or venous ulcers, pressure sores, and diabetic foot ulcers, but also for acute wounds after surgery or trauma, international and national guidelines provide recommendations on diagnostic procedures and treatment options, but rely mostly on expert opinion. We present the available evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews for the systemic treatment (i.e., not prevention) of patients with wounds, as opposed to topical wound treatments. This evidence shows: - Venous ulcers: High-compression therapy is the classic and evidence-based treatment for treating venous ulcers. Oral pentoxifylline promotes ulcer healing with and without compression therapy. Oral zinc is not effective to heal venous ulcers. - Acute wounds: Recombinant human growth hormone accelerates healing of large burn wounds and donor sites, while high-carbohydrate feeding might reduce the risk of pneumonia. Linezolid is more effective than vancomycin for treating skin and soft tissue infections. Hyperbaric oxygen may help heal crush wounds and skin grafts. Therapeutic touch does not heal acute wounds. - Pressure sores: Air-fluidized and some low-tech devices appear effective for treating existing pressure ulcers. Oral zinc, protein, or vitamin C supplements seem ineffective. Also, evidence is lacking on the effectiveness of repositioning regimes as a treatment option. - Diabetic ulcers: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and pressure-relieving devices may improve healing rates. - Arterial ulcers: Prostanoids and spinal cord stimulation may be effective in healing ischemic ulcers. Thus, fortunately, some high-level evidence exists for various local and systemic interventions in wound care. Caregivers should be aware of, and apply, the strongest evidence available. Only when all stakeholders (patients, physicians, wound care nurses, but also manufacturers and buyers) implement this available evidence will optimum quality of care for patients with wounds be ensured. PMID:24700218

  13. Making the rough places plain: designing MEDLINE end user training.

    PubMed

    Snow, B

    1984-01-01

    Library personnel are frequently asked to design user education programs for orientation to medical databases online. These programs aim at promoting judicious use of online resources via searches conducted by librarian intermediaries or, more recently, at preparing end users to perform online searches themselves. This discussion will focus on factors considered in designing MEDLINE training for medical practitioners, including problems end users may encounter in extant user aids, and how these problems have been addressed in the new DIALOG Seminar for Medical professionals. PMID:10299957

  14. Automated Patent Categorization and Guided Patent Search using IPC as Inspired by MeSH and PubMed

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Document search on PubMed, the pre-eminent database for biomedical literature, relies on the annotation of its documents with relevant terms from the Medical Subject Headings ontology (MeSH) for improving recall through query expansion. Patent documents are another important information source, though they are considerably less accessible. One option to expand patent search beyond pure keywords is the inclusion of classification information: Since every patent is assigned at least one class code, it should be possible for these assignments to be automatically used in a similar way as the MeSH annotations in PubMed. In order to develop a system for this task, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the properties of both classification systems. This report describes our comparative analysis of MeSH and the main patent classification system, the International Patent Classification (IPC). We investigate the hierarchical structures as well as the properties of the terms/classes respectively, and we compare the assignment of IPC codes to patents with the annotation of PubMed documents with MeSH terms. Our analysis shows a strong structural similarity of the hierarchies, but significant differences of terms and annotations. The low number of IPC class assignments and the lack of occurrences of class labels in patent texts imply that current patent search is severely limited. To overcome these limits, we evaluate a method for the automated assignment of additional classes to patent documents, and we propose a system for guided patent search based on the use of class co-occurrence information and external resources. PMID:23734562

  15. Characteristics of meta-analyses and their component studies in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis

    E-print Network

    Davey, Jonathan; Turner, Rebecca M.; Clarke, Mike J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.

    2011-11-24

    Abstract Background Cochrane systematic reviews collate and summarise studies of the effects of healthcare interventions. The characteristics of these reviews and the meta-analyses and individual studies they contain provide insights into the nature...

  16. In 2006, we performed an unbiased search of Pubmed for papers published on either synergistic or antagonistic interactions between antibiotics in vitro. We required the

    E-print Network

    Kishony, Roy

    of these links will open the Pubmed abstract in the default browser. Example: Penicillin's interaction with gentamycin. In the interests of clarity, I've created the subnetwork of penicillin and its interactions

  17. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  18. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  19. The Relationship between Sugar-Containing Methadone and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathee, Sheela; Akbar, Tahira; Richards, Derek; Themessl-Huber, Markus; Freeman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of a relationship between sugar-containing methadone and dental caries. Data sources: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Current Controlled Trials, WHO, OHRN, SIGLE and ERIC databases was conducted from January 1978 up to June 2010. Study selection: Articles were assessed…

  20. How Twitter Is Studied in the Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. Objective This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Methods Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper’s title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. Results As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that researchers are starting to use knowledge discovery methods and data mining techniques to understand vast quantities of tweets: the study of Twitter is becoming quantitative research. Conclusions This work is to the best of our knowledge the first overview study of medical related research based on Twitter and related microblogging. We have used 5 dimensions to categorize published medical related research on Twitter. This classification provides a framework within which researchers studying development and use of Twitter within medical related research, and those undertaking comparative studies of research, relating to Twitter in the area of medicine and beyond, can position and ground their work. PMID:25075237

  1. Boosting naïve Bayesian learning on a large subset of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    We are concerned with the rating of new documents that appear in a large database (MEDLINE) and are candidates for inclusion in a small specialty database (REBASE). The requirement is to rank the new documents as nearly in order of decreasing potential to be added to the smaller database as possible, so as to improve the coverage of the smaller database without increasing the effort of those who manage this specialty database. To perform this ranking task we have considered several machine learning approaches based on the naï ve Bayesian algorithm. We find that adaptive boosting outperforms naï ve Bayes, but that a new form of boosting which we term staged Bayesian retrieval outperforms adaptive boosting. Staged Bayesian retrieval involves two stages of Bayesian retrieval and we further find that if the second stage is replaced by a support vector machine we again obtain a significant improvement over the strictly Bayesian approach. PMID:11080018

  2. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

    PubMed Central

    Piehl, Janet H; Green, Sally; Silagy, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent). Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112). The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent), lack of financial support (36 percent), methodological problems (23 percent) and problems with group dynamics (10 percent). Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review. PMID:12057022

  3. PCorral—interactive mining of protein interactions from MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Arregui, Miguel; Kirsch, Harald; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of information from the scientific literature is a complex task—for researchers doing manual curation and for automatic text processing solutions. The identification of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) requires the extraction of protein named entities and their relations. Semi-automatic interactive support is one approach to combine both solutions for efficient working processes to generate reliable database content. In principle, the extraction of PPIs can be achieved with different methods that can be combined to deliver high precision and/or high recall results in different combinations at the same time. Interactive use can be achieved, if the analytical methods are fast enough to process the retrieved documents. PCorral provides interactive mining of PPIs from the scientific literature allowing curators to skim MEDLINE for PPIs at low overheads. The keyword query to PCorral steers the selection of documents, and the subsequent text analysis generates high recall and high precision results for the curator. The underlying components of PCorral process the documents on-the-fly and are available, as well, as web service from the Whatizit infrastructure. The human interface summarizes the identified PPI results, and the involved entities are linked to relevant resources and databases. Altogether, PCorral serves curator at both the beginning and the end of the curation workflow for information retrieval and information extraction. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/pcorral. PMID:23640984

  4. An evolution of experts: MEDLINE in the library school

    PubMed Central

    Arnott Smith, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Question: What is the real value that medical librarians bring to the health care environment? How have library science educators, frequently former practitioners themselves, responded to the challenge of expert searching? Methods: In this paper, I give an historical introduction to the landscape of medical information retrieval through the development of MEDLINE. I then look at the evolution of training in online searching and its place in the context of library school education and particularly the effect of generalist education on future specialists. Finally, I acknowledge the new role of the informationist as another assertion of our professional expertise. Conclusions: The three interdependent subsystems of our professional machine—our schools, our association, and our professional peers— must all respond to this challenge by asserting our expertise in our curricula, in our continuing education, and in our dialogues with each other. Only by acknowledging the interaction of these subsystems will real and positive changes be effected to benefit our profession and our constituencies. PMID:15685275

  5. Mining MEDLINE for problems associated with vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G.; Aronson, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a two-step approach to generating comprehensive abstractive overviews for biomedical topics. It starts with a sensitivity-maximizing search of MEDLINE/PubMed and MeSH-based filtering of the results that are then processed using NLP methods to extract relations between entities of interest. We evaluate this approach in a case study based on the IOM report on the role of vitamin D in human health. The report defines disorders that serve as health indicators for the role of vitamin D. We evaluate the abstractive overviews generated using MeSH indexing and the extracted relations using the disorders listed in the IOM report as reference standard. We conclude that MeSH-based aggregation and filtering of the results is a useful and easy step in the generation of abstractive overviews. Although our relation extraction achieved 83.6% recall and 92.8% precision, only half of the disorders of interest participated in these relations. PMID:24551339

  6. An experimental search strategy retrieves more precise results than PubMed and Google for questions about medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dylla, Daniel P.; Megison, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We compared the precision of a search strategy designed specifically to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs with search strategies designed for broader purposes. Methods. We designed an experimental search strategy that automatically revised searches up to five times by using increasingly restrictive queries as long at least 50 citations were retrieved. We compared the ability of the experimental and alternative strategies to retrieve studies relevant to 312 test questions. The primary outcome, search precision, was defined for each strategy as the proportion of relevant, high quality citations among the first 50 citations retrieved. Results. The experimental strategy had the highest median precision (5.5%; interquartile range [IQR]: 0%–12%) followed by the narrow strategy of the PubMed Clinical Queries (4.0%; IQR: 0%–10%). The experimental strategy found the most high quality citations (median 2; IQR: 0–6) and was the strategy most likely to find at least one high quality citation (73% of searches; 95% confidence interval 68%–78%). All comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusions. The experimental strategy performed the best in all outcomes although all strategies had low precision. PMID:25922798

  7. Evidence based palaeopathology: meta-analysis of Pubmed-listed scientific studies on pre-Columbian, South American mummies.

    PubMed

    Dageförde, K L; Vennemann, M; Rühli, F J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review all Pubmed(®)-listed palaeopathological studies performed on pre-Columbian South American mummies. A total of 61 studies were found (1977-2005). Review criteria included e.g. method of examination, method of mummification, palaeopathological diagnoses and individual age of mummies as well as dating, which ranged from 7500 to 500 years BP, mainly (if reported) originating from the Chiribaya and Chinchorro cultures. The average age of the 99 individually reported mummies was about 25 years. Only six studies included computed tomography, thirteen studies used classical radiography as an examination method. Three studies analysed parasite related diseases, especially caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Among all of the reported infectious diseases (n=9), there were seven studies presenting cases of tuberculosis. The results were also compared inter-culturally. In 61 studies (37 epidemiological and 24 case reports) more than 6400 mummified individuals were analysed. By contrast, meta-analytic data for ancient Egyptian mummies (Zweifel et al., 2009) included about 3000 analysed individuals in 131 studies (85 case reports and 46 epidemiological studies). In general, ancient Egyptian mummies were shown to be intentionally mummified, whereas the Pre-Columbian American mummies showed a great diversity of spontaneous mummification. However, ritualistic mummification methods were also practised (n=2). This study's results shall assist to improve evidence-based research in palaeopathology. PMID:24721560

  8. Biotea: RDFizing PubMed Central in support for the paper as an interface to the Web of Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Wide Web has become a dissemination platform for scientific and non-scientific publications. However, most of the information remains locked up in discrete documents that are not always interconnected or machine-readable. The connectivity tissue provided by RDF technology has not yet been widely used to support the generation of self-describing, machine-readable documents. Results In this paper, we present our approach to the generation of self-describing machine-readable scholarly documents. We understand the scientific document as an entry point and interface to the Web of Data. We have semantically processed the full-text, open-access subset of PubMed Central. Our RDF model and resulting dataset make extensive use of existing ontologies and semantic enrichment services. We expose our model, services, prototype, and datasets at http://biotea.idiginfo.org/ Conclusions The semantic processing of biomedical literature presented in this paper embeds documents within the Web of Data and facilitates the execution of concept-based queries against the entire digital library. Our approach delivers a flexible and adaptable set of tools for metadata enrichment and semantic processing of biomedical documents. Our model delivers a semantically rich and highly interconnected dataset with self-describing content so that software can make effective use of it. PMID:23734622

  9. An experimental search strategy retrieves more precise results than PubMed and Google for questions about medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Badgett, Robert G; Dylla, Daniel P; Megison, Susan D; Harmon, E Glynn

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We compared the precision of a search strategy designed specifically to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs with search strategies designed for broader purposes. Methods. We designed an experimental search strategy that automatically revised searches up to five times by using increasingly restrictive queries as long at least 50 citations were retrieved. We compared the ability of the experimental and alternative strategies to retrieve studies relevant to 312 test questions. The primary outcome, search precision, was defined for each strategy as the proportion of relevant, high quality citations among the first 50 citations retrieved. Results. The experimental strategy had the highest median precision (5.5%; interquartile range [IQR]: 0%-12%) followed by the narrow strategy of the PubMed Clinical Queries (4.0%; IQR: 0%-10%). The experimental strategy found the most high quality citations (median 2; IQR: 0-6) and was the strategy most likely to find at least one high quality citation (73% of searches; 95% confidence interval 68%-78%). All comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusions. The experimental strategy performed the best in all outcomes although all strategies had low precision. PMID:25922798

  10. Finding Good Health Information on the Internet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: MedlinePlus Advantage Finding Good Health Information on the Internet Past Issues / Winter ... date, some not. How can you tell the good from the bad? If you use the Web, ...

  11. Globetrotting to a Good Night's Sleep | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is one of the most common and troubling sleep disorders. At least 1 in 10 older adults, and ... have sleep apnea. To Find Out More MedlinePlus Sleep Disorders www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/sleepdisorders.html NHLBI ...

  12. The National Library of Medicine: 175 Years of Innovation | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... federal tax purposes. Web site: www.fnlm.org Mobile MedlinePlus! On the go! Find trusted health information ... the-counter medications Trusted medical information on your mobile phone. http://m.medlineplus.gov and in Spanish ...

  13. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please turn Javascript on. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine ... on prescription and over-the-counter medications Trusted medical information on your mobile phone. http://m.medlineplus. ...

  14. Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings: abridged Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of screening for intimate partner violence conducted within healthcare settings to determine whether or not screening increases identification and referral to support agencies, improves women’s wellbeing, decreases further violence, or causes harm. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of trials assessing effectiveness of screening. Study assessment, data abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted independently by two of the authors. Standardised estimations of the risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Data sources Nine databases searched up to July 2012 (CENTRAL, Medline, Medline(R), Embase, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and ASSIA), and five trials registers searched up to 2010. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of screening programmes for intimate partner violence involving all women aged ?16 attending a healthcare setting. We included only studies in which clinicians in the intervention arm personally conducted the screening, or were informed of the screening result at the time of the consultation, compared with usual care (or no screening). Studies of screening programmes that were followed by structured interventions such as advocacy or therapeutic intervention were excluded. Results 11 eligible trials (n=13?027) were identified. In six pooled studies (n=3564), screening increased the identification of intimate partner violence (risk ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 3.89), particularly in antenatal settings (4.26, 1.76 to 10.31). Based on three studies (n=1400), we detected no evidence that screening increases referrals to domestic violence support services (2.67, 0.99 to 7.20). Only two studies measured women’s experience of violence after screening (three to 18 months after screening) and found no reduction in intimate partner violence. One study reported that screening does not cause harm. Conclusions Though screening is likely to increase identification of intimate partner violence in healthcare settings, rates of identification from screening interventions were low relative to best estimates of prevalence of such violence. It is uncertain whether screening increases effective referral to supportive agencies. Screening does not seem to cause harm in the short term, but harm was measured in only one study. As the primary studies did not detect improved outcomes for women screened for intimate partner violence, there is insufficient evidence for screening in healthcare settings. Studies comparing screening versus case finding, or screening in combination with therapeutic intervention for women’s long term wellbeing, are needed to inform the implementation of identification policies in healthcare settings. PMID:24821132

  15. A small animal model for mother-to-fetus transmiss...[Viral Immunol. 2003] -PubMed Result : Viral Immunol. 2003;16(2):191-201. Links

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    A small animal model for mother-to-fetus transmiss...[Viral Immunol. 2003] - PubMed Result : Viral Immunol. 2003;16(2):191-201. Links A small animal model for mother-to-fetus transmission of ts1, a murine

  16. Tamm-Horsfall protein in patients with kidney dama...[Urol Res. 2004] -PubMed Result Urol Res. 2004 May;32(2):79-83. Links

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Tamm-Horsfall protein in patients with kidney dama...[Urol Res. 2004] - PubMed Result Urol Res. 2004 May;32(2):79-83. Links Tamm-Horsfall protein in patients with kidney damage and diabetes in diabetic and control kidney tissue specimens with or without kidney damage. Immunogold labeling

  17. Benzodiazepine-induced hippocampal CA1 neuron alph...[Behav Pharmacol. 2007] -PubMed Result Behav Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;18(5-6):447-60. Links

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Benzodiazepine-induced hippocampal CA1 neuron alph...[Behav Pharmacol. 2007] - PubMed Result Behav Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;18(5-6):447-60. Links Benzodiazepine-induced hippocampal CA1 neuron alpha-amino- 3 of the benzodiazepine, flurazepam (FZP) is associated with increased alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxasole-4-propionic

  18. Service Engagement in Interventions for Street-Connected Children and Young People: A Summary of Evidence Supplementing a Recent Cochrane-Campbell Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Rosa; Coren, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper builds on a Cochrane-Campbell systematic review of interventions that reduce harms and promote reintegration in street-connected children and young people focusing on intervention outcomes. The aim of the present analysis is to explore questions raised in the systematic review over the potential role of service engagement in…

  19. Information Literacy for Users at the National Medical Library of Cuba: Cochrane Library Course for the Search of Best Evidence for Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana Arroyo, Sonia; del Carmen Gonzalez Rivero, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The National Medical Library of Cuba is currently developing an information literacy program to train users in the use of biomedical databases. This paper describes the experience with the course "Cochrane Library: Evidence-Based Medicine," which aims to teach users how to make the best use of this database, as well as the evidence-based medicine…

  20. Use of positive and negative words in scientific PubMed abstracts between 1974 and 2014: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. Design Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. Methods The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and neutral words (25 preselected words in each category), plus 100 randomly selected words were normalised for the total number of abstracts. Subanalyses included pattern quantification of individual words, specificity for selected high impact journals, and comparison between author affiliations within or outside countries with English as the official majority language. Frequency patterns were compared with 4% of all books ever printed and digitised by use of Google Books Ngram Viewer. Main outcome measures Frequencies of positive and negative words in abstracts compared with frequencies of words with a neutral and random connotation, expressed as relative change since 1980. Results The absolute frequency of positive words increased from 2.0% (1974-80) to 17.5% (2014), a relative increase of 880% over four decades. All 25 individual positive words contributed to the increase, particularly the words “robust,” “novel,” “innovative,” and “unprecedented,” which increased in relative frequency up to 15?000%. Comparable but less pronounced results were obtained when restricting the analysis to selected journals with high impact factors. Authors affiliated to an institute in a non-English speaking country used significantly more positive words. Negative word frequencies increased from 1.3% (1974-80) to 3.2% (2014), a relative increase of 257%. Over the same time period, no apparent increase was found in neutral or random word use, or in the frequency of positive word use in published books. Conclusions Our lexicographic analysis indicates that scientific abstracts are currently written with more positive and negative words, and provides an insight into the evolution of scientific writing. Apparently scientists look on the bright side of research results. But whether this perception fits reality should be questioned. PMID:26668206

  1. Long and short time variability of the global and the hemisphere temperature anomalies -Application of the Cochrane-Orcutt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitare; Danov, Dimitar; Goranova, M.

    Climate change holds a key position in science and policy today. A central issue to discuss in the scientific publications is the question how much humans contribute to the climate warming. To get answers in the last decades a lot of efforts were made to model the processes determining the climate, to make forecasts under defined conditions for the development of the society (climate projections). Another scientific tendency to find a more probable right answer consists in the application and development of the statistics to study responses of different climate forcings. Here a classical statistical method -the linear regression -is applied to examine the parts of the global and hemisphere warming due to different radiation forcings, by the use of their long and short time variabilities. The residuals of the regressions are significantly auto-correlated. Therefore the Cochrane-Orcutt method is applied to test the statistical significances. By multiple regression it is found that the main part of the temperature variability is caused by CO2. The impact of the total solar irradiance during the examined time period of 1866 up to 2000 is at the critical level of significance.

  2. The comparative recall of Google Scholar versus PubMed in identical searches for biomedical systematic reviews: a review of searches used in systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The usefulness of Google Scholar (GS) as a bibliographic database for biomedical systematic review (SR) searching is a subject of current interest and debate in research circles. Recent research has suggested GS might even be used alone in SR searching. This assertion is challenged here by testing whether GS can locate all studies included in 21 previously published SRs. Second, it examines the recall of GS, taking into account the maximum number of items that can be viewed, and tests whether more complete searches created by an information specialist will improve recall compared to the searches used in the 21 published SRs. Methods The authors identified 21 biomedical SRs that had used GS and PubMed as information sources and reported their use of identical, reproducible search strategies in both databases. These search strategies were rerun in GS and PubMed, and analyzed as to their coverage and recall. Efforts were made to improve searches that underperformed in each database. Results GS’ overall coverage was higher than PubMed (98% versus 91%) and overall recall is higher in GS: 80% of the references included in the 21 SRs were returned by the original searches in GS versus 68% in PubMed. Only 72% of the included references could be used as they were listed among the first 1,000 hits (the maximum number shown). Practical precision (the number of included references retrieved in the first 1,000, divided by 1,000) was on average 1.9%, which is only slightly lower than in other published SRs. Improving searches with the lowest recall resulted in an increase in recall from 48% to 66% in GS and, in PubMed, from 60% to 85%. Conclusions Although its coverage and precision are acceptable, GS, because of its incomplete recall, should not be used as a single source in SR searching. A specialized, curated medical database such as PubMed provides experienced searchers with tools and functionality that help improve recall, and numerous options in order to optimize precision. Searches for SRs should be performed by experienced searchers creating searches that maximize recall for as many databases as deemed necessary by the search expert. PMID:24360284

  3. Automatic extraction of gene and protein synonyms from MEDLINE and journal articles.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Friedman, Carol; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Wilbur, W. John

    2002-01-01

    Genes and proteins are often associated with multiple names, and more names are added as new functional or structural information is discovered. Because authors often alternate between these synonyms, information retrieval and extraction benefits from identifying these synonymous names. We have developed a method to extract automatically synonymous gene and protein names from MEDLINE and journal articles. We first identified patterns authors use to list synonymous gene and protein names. We developed SGPE (for synonym extraction of gene and protein names), a software program that recognizes the patterns and extracts from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text journal articles candidate synonymous terms. SGPE then applies a sequence of filters that automatically screen out those terms that are not gene and protein names. We evaluated our method to have an overall precision of 71% on both MEDLINE and journal articles, and 90% precision on the more suitable full-text articles alone PMID:12463959

  4. The MedlinePlus public user interface: studies of design challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Marill, Jennifer L.; Miller, Naomi; Kitendaugh, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Question: What are the challenges involved in designing, modifying, and improving a major health information portal that serves over sixty million page views a month? Setting: MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) consumer health Website, is examined. Method: Challenges are presented as six “studies,” which describe selected design issues and how NLM staff resolved them. Main Result: Improving MedlinePlus is an iterative process. Changes in the public user interface are ongoing, reflecting Web design trends, usability testing recommendations, user survey results, new technical requirements, and the need to grow the site in an orderly way. Conclusion: Testing and analysis should accompany Website design modifications. New technologies may enhance a site but also introduce problems. Further modifications to MedlinePlus will be informed by the experiences described here. PMID:16404467

  5. Are mass-media campaigns effective in preventing drug use? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allara, Elias; Ferri, Marica; Bo, Alessandra; Gasparrini, Antonio; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is evidence that mass-media campaigns can be effective in reducing illicit drug consumption and the intent to consume. Design Systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies. Methods We searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I and CENTRAL) and further explored seven additional resources to obtain both published and unpublished materials. We appraised the quality of included studies using standardised tools. We carried out meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and a pooled analysis of interrupted time-series and controlled before-and-after studies. Results We identified 19 studies comprising 184?811 participants. Pooled analyses and narrative synthesis provided mixed evidence of effectiveness. Eight interventions evaluated with randomised controlled trials leaned towards no evidence of an effect, both on drug use (standardised mean difference (SMD) ?0.02; 95% CI ?0.15 to 0.12) and the intention to use drugs (SMD ?0.07; 95% CI ?0.19 to 0.04). Four campaigns provided some evidence of beneficial effects in preventing drug use and two interventions provided evidence of iatrogenic effects. Conclusions Studies were considerably heterogeneous in type of mass-media intervention, outcome measures, underlying theory, comparison groups and design. Such factors can contribute to explaining the observed variability in results. Owing to the risk of adverse effects, caution is needed in disseminating mass-media campaigns tackling drug use. Large studies conducted with appropriate methodology are warranted to consolidate the evidence base. PMID:26338836

  6. Using MEDLINE as a Knowledge Source for Disambiguating Abbreviations in Full-Text Biomedical Journal Articles

    E-print Network

    Yu, Hong

    Using MEDLINE as a Knowledge Source for Disambiguating Abbreviations in Full-Text Biomedical records as a knowledge source for disambiguating abbreviations in full-text biomedical journal articles in full-text journal articles by applying supervised machine-learning algorithms in an unsupervised

  7. Automatic extraction of mutations from Medline and cross-validation with OMIM.

    PubMed

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Marcel, Stephane; Albert, Sylvie; Tolle, Ralf; Casari, Georg; Kirsch, Harald

    2004-01-01

    Mutations help us to understand the molecular origins of diseases. Researchers, therefore, both publish and seek disease-relevant mutations in public databases and in scientific literature, e.g. Medline. The retrieval tends to be time-consuming and incomplete. Automated screening of the literature is more efficient. We developed extraction methods (called MEMA) that scan Medline abstracts for mutations. MEMA identified 24,351 singleton mutations in conjunction with a HUGO gene name out of 16,728 abstracts. From a sample of 100 abstracts we estimated the recall for the identification of mutation-gene pairs to 35% at a precision of 93%. Recall for the mutation detection alone was >67% with a precision rate of >96%. This shows that our system produces reliable data. The subset consisting of protein sequence mutations (PSMs) from MEMA was compared to the entries in OMIM (20,503 entries versus 6699, respectively). We found 1826 PSM-gene pairs to be in common to both datasets (cross-validated). This is 27% of all PSM-gene pairs in OMIM and 91% of those pairs from OMIM which co-occur in at least one Medline abstract. We conclude that Medline covers a large portion of the mutations known to OMIM. Another large portion could be artificially produced mutations from mutagenesis experiments. Access to the database of extracted mutation-gene pairs is available through the web pages of the EBI (refer to http://www.ebi. ac.uk/rebholz/index.html). PMID:14704350

  8. A Study on the Selection and Utilization of MEDLINE Search Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shelley A.; Piemme, Thomas E.

    This report presents the objectives, methodology, and results of a study which assessed the selection and utilization of four MEDLINE search systems by faculty and medical residents at the George Washington University Medical Center. The four systems, which were provided or sponsored by the Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, offer a wide range of…

  9. A novel algorithm for analyzing drug-drug interactions from MEDLINE literature.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin; Shen, Dan; Pietsch, Maxwell; Nagar, Chetan; Fadli, Zayd; Huang, Hong; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is becoming a serious clinical safety issue as the use of multiple medications becomes more common. Searching the MEDLINE database for journal articles related to DDI produces over 330,000 results. It is impossible to read and summarize these references manually. As the volume of biomedical reference in the MEDLINE database continues to expand at a rapid pace, automatic identification of DDIs from literature is becoming increasingly important. In this article, we present a random-sampling-based statistical algorithm to identify possible DDIs and the underlying mechanism from the substances field of MEDLINE records. The substances terms are essentially carriers of compound (including protein) information in a MEDLINE record. Four case studies on warfarin, ibuprofen, furosemide and sertraline implied that our method was able to rank possible DDIs with high accuracy (90.0% for warfarin, 83.3% for ibuprofen, 70.0% for furosemide and 100% for sertraline in the top 10% of a list of compounds ranked by p-value). A social network analysis of substance terms was also performed to construct networks between proteins and drug pairs to elucidate how the two drugs could interact. PMID:26612138

  10. A novel algorithm for analyzing drug-drug interactions from MEDLINE literature

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yin; Shen, Dan; Pietsch, Maxwell; Nagar, Chetan; Fadli, Zayd; Huang, Hong; Tu, Yi-Cheng; Cheng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Drug–drug interaction (DDI) is becoming a serious clinical safety issue as the use of multiple medications becomes more common. Searching the MEDLINE database for journal articles related to DDI produces over 330,000 results. It is impossible to read and summarize these references manually. As the volume of biomedical reference in the MEDLINE database continues to expand at a rapid pace, automatic identification of DDIs from literature is becoming increasingly important. In this article, we present a random-sampling-based statistical algorithm to identify possible DDIs and the underlying mechanism from the substances field of MEDLINE records. The substances terms are essentially carriers of compound (including protein) information in a MEDLINE record. Four case studies on warfarin, ibuprofen, furosemide and sertraline implied that our method was able to rank possible DDIs with high accuracy (90.0% for warfarin, 83.3% for ibuprofen, 70.0% for furosemide and 100% for sertraline in the top 10% of a list of compounds ranked by p-value). A social network analysis of substance terms was also performed to construct networks between proteins and drug pairs to elucidate how the two drugs could interact. PMID:26612138

  11. Mapping Medline Papers, Genes, and Proteins Related to Melanoma Research Kevin W. Boyack

    E-print Network

    Börner, Katy

    Characterization The process of generating a map that shows the association linkages between papers, genesMapping Medline Papers, Genes, and Proteins Related to Melanoma Research Kevin W. Boyack , Ketan years? Which parts of this research field are correlated with the study of genes and proteins

  12. Using Natural Language Processing, Locus Link, and the Gene Ontology to Compare OMIM to MEDLINE

    E-print Network

    Using Natural Language Processing, Locus Link, and the Gene Ontology to Compare OMIM to MEDLINE, such as the Unified Medical Language System, Gene Ontology, LocusLink, and the Online Inheri- tance In Man (OMIM applicability to biomedical text and that takes advantage of online resources such as LocusLink and the Gene

  13. Cross-talk of expression quantitative trait loci w...[Hypertension. 2007] -PubMed Result 1: Hypertension. 2007 Dec;50(6):1126-33. Epub 2007 Oct 15. Links

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Cross-talk of expression quantitative trait loci w...[Hypertension. 2007] - PubMed Result 1: Hypertension. 2007 Dec;50(6):1126-33. Epub 2007 Oct 15. Links Cross-talk of expression quantitative trait loci

  14. Applying MetaMap to Medline for identifying novel associations in a large clinical dataset: a feasibility analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David A; Saeed, Mohammed; Zheng, Kai; Mei, Qiaozhu; Shedden, Kerby; Aronson, Alan R; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Objective We describe experiments designed to determine the feasibility of distinguishing known from novel associations based on a clinical dataset comprised of International Classification of Disease, V.9 (ICD-9) codes from 1.6 million patients by comparing them to associations of ICD-9 codes derived from 20.5 million Medline citations processed using MetaMap. Associations appearing only in the clinical dataset, but not in Medline citations, are potentially novel. Methods Pairwise associations of ICD-9 codes were independently identified in both the clinical and Medline datasets, which were then compared to quantify their degree of overlap. We also performed a manual review of a subset of the associations to validate how well MetaMap performed in identifying diagnoses mentioned in Medline citations that formed the basis of the Medline associations. Results The overlap of associations based on ICD-9 codes in the clinical and Medline datasets was low: only 6.6% of the 3.1 million associations found in the clinical dataset were also present in the Medline dataset. Further, a manual review of a subset of the associations that appeared in both datasets revealed that co-occurring diagnoses from Medline citations do not always represent clinically meaningful associations. Discussion Identifying novel associations derived from large clinical datasets remains challenging. Medline as a sole data source for existing knowledge may not be adequate to filter out widely known associations. Conclusions In this study, novel associations were not readily identified. Further improvements in accuracy and relevance for tools such as MetaMap are needed to realize their expected utility. PMID:24928177

  15. The mini MEDLINE SYSTEM: a library-based end-user search system.

    PubMed Central

    Broering, N C

    1985-01-01

    The mini MEDLINE SYSTEM, a user-friendly search system developed in 1981 at the Georgetown University Medical Center, has been operational since 1982. The system is designed to meet the immediate educational and clinical information needs of students, residents, and faculty. This article focuses on system planning and design, database creation through "downloading," hardware adaptation, and system use. The database is a subset of the NLM's MEDLINE file; it includes over 180,000 citations to articles indexed in over 160 journals from 1982 to the present. With only a few keystrokes in a two-step process it allows users to conduct bibliographic searches. The system is being replicated at eight other medical libraries. PMID:3888329

  16. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care.

    PubMed

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible. PMID:26306259

  17. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible. PMID:26306259

  18. Assigning categorical information to Japanese medical terms using MeSH and MEDLINE.

    PubMed

    Onogi, Yuzo

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the assigning of MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) categories to Japanese terms in an English-Japanese dictionary using the titles and abstracts of articles indexed in MEDLINE. In a previous study, 30,000 of 80,000 terms in the dictionary were mapped to MeSH terms by normalized comparison. It was reasoned that if the remaining dictionary terms appeared in MEDLINE-indexed articles that are indexed using MeSH terms, then relevancies between the dictionary terms and MeSH terms could be calculated, and thus MeSH categories assigned. This study compares two approaches for calculating the weight matrix. One is the TF*IDF method and the other uses the inner product of two weight matrices. About 20,000 additional dictionary terms were identified in MEDLINE-indexed articles published between 2000 and 2004. The precision and recall of these algorithms were evaluated separately for MeSH terms and non-MeSH terms. Unfortunately, the precision and recall of the algorithms was not good, but this method will help with manual assignment of MeSH categories to dictionary terms. PMID:17911806

  19. Use of the Cochrane electronic library in complementary and alternative medicine courses in medical schools: is the giant lost in cyberspace?

    PubMed

    Ezzo, Jeanette; Wright, Katherine; Hadhazy, Victoria; Bahr-Robertson, Mary; Mac Beckner, William; Covington, Maggie; Berman, Brian

    2002-10-01

    Courses in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are increasing in medical schools in the United States and, currently, approximately two thirds of U.S. medical schools offer at least one such course. As these courses grow in popularity, however, concerns are also growing that these courses lack an evidence-based perspective. We propose that one interesting and easy way to bring an evidence-based perspective to the CAM classroom is to utilize the Cochrane Electronic Library (CLIB), which is available in many medical libraries, as a teaching tool. The CLIB currently houses more than 80 CAM-related, full-text systematic reviews and approximately 5000 CAM-related clinical trials, making it a valued resource for people who seek CAM evidence. Moreover, the CLIB commitment to publishing reviews regardless of the results make it a resource where one can find reviews concluding there is strong evidence of benefit or no evidence of benefit. In addition to the access to CAM evidence which the CLIB provides, students can learn basic critical appraisal skills by learning the rationale behind Cochrane systematic reviews. A survey of CAM course directors, however, shows that almost one half of these directors have never used the CLIB. For those who have never used the CLIB, this editorial explains the four main databases within the CLIB and presents ideas for using them in CAM school courses. PMID:12470450

  20. Cochrane Reviews of non-medication-based psychotherapeutic and other interventions for schizophrenia, psychosis, and bipolar disorder: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jung, Xenia Tricia; Newton, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Mental health-care professionals are striving to keep up to date with health interventions that are effective and beneficial to patients. The Cochrane Reviews make available a systematic and up-to-date review of a comprehensive range of health interventions. We identified a total of 28 interventions from a systematic search and review of the Cochrane Reviews for either schizophrenia, psychosis, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorder. These interventions have been graded into tables of: strong support that merits application, moderate support that warrants consideration of application, not supported, and data that is deemed inconclusive. The tables provide a comprehensive summary and classification of evidence-based practices. This information is presented in a way to enable nurses and other health-care professionals to analyze their own practices to improve mental health services and outcomes for patients. Of the 28 interventions identified in this review, four had strong support and five had moderate support meriting application. Limitations of this review are discussed. PMID:19594644

  1. Using Clinical Data, Hypothesis Generation Tools and PubMed Trends to Discover the Association between Diabetic Retinopathy and Antihypertensive Drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Senter, Katherine G; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Patton, Robert M; Chaum, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness and common complication of diabetes. Many diabetic patients take antihypertensive drugs to prevent cardiovascular problems, but these drugs may have unintended consequences on eyesight. Six common classes of antihypertensive drug are angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, alpha blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), -blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics. Analysis of medical history data might indicate which of these drugs provide safe blood pressure control, and a literature review is often used to guide such analyses. Beyond manual reading of relevant publications, we sought to identify quantitative trends in literature from the biomedical database PubMed to compare with quantitative trends in the clinical data. By recording and analyzing PubMed search results, we found wide variation in the prevalence of each antihypertensive drug in DR literature. Drug classes developed more recently such as ACE inhibitors and ARBs were most prevalent. We also identified instances of change-over-time in publication patterns. We then compared these literature trends to a dataset of 500 diabetic patients from the UT Hamilton Eye Institute. Data for each patient included class of antihypertensive drug, presence and severity of DR. Graphical comparison revealed that older drug classes such as diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and -blockers were much more prevalent in the clinical data than in the DR and antihypertensive literature. Finally, quantitative analysis of the dataset revealed that patients taking -blockers were statistically more likely to have DR than patients taking other medications, controlling for presence of hypertension and year of diabetes onset. This finding was concerning given the prevalence of -blockers in the clinical data. We determined that clinical use of -blockers should be minimized in diabetic patients to prevent retinal damage.

  2. Extraction of gene-disease relations from Medline using domain dictionaries and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Chun, Hong-Woo; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Kim, Jin-Dong; Shiba, Rie; Nagata, Naoki; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2006-01-01

    We describe a system that extracts disease-gene relations from Medline. We constructed a dictionary for disease and gene names from six public databases and extracted relation candidates by dictionary matching. Since dictionary matching produces a large number of false positives, we developed a method of machine learning-based named entity recognition (NER) to filter out false recognitions of disease/gene names. We found that the performance of relation extraction is heavily dependent upon the performance of NER filtering and that the filtering improves the precision of relation extraction by 26.7% at the cost of a small reduction in recall. PMID:17094223

  3. Modular Semantic Tagging of Medline Abstracts and its Use in Inferring Regulatory Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Verhagen, Marc; Pustejovsky, James; Taylor, Ronald C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-09-19

    We describe MedstractPlus, a resource for mining relations from the Medline bibliographic database that is currently under construction. It was built on the remains of Medstract, a previously created resource that included a biorelation server and an acronym database. MedstractPlus uses simple and scalable natural language processing modules to structure text, is designed with reusability and extendibility in mind, and adheres to the philosophy of the Linguistic Annotation Framework. We show how MedstractPlus has been used to provide seeds for a novel approach to inferring transcriptional regulatory networks from gene expression data.

  4. An open source infrastructure for managing knowledge and finding potential collaborators in a domain-specific subset of PubMed, with an example from human genome epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Khoury, Muin J; Gwinn, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Background Identifying relevant research in an ever-growing body of published literature is becoming increasingly difficult. Establishing domain-specific knowledge bases may be a more effective and efficient way to manage and query information within specific biomedical fields. Adopting controlled vocabulary is a critical step toward data integration and interoperability in any information system. We present an open source infrastructure that provides a powerful capacity for managing and mining data within a domain-specific knowledge base. As a practical application of our infrastructure, we presented two applications – Literature Finder and Investigator Browser – as well as a tool set for automating the data curating process for the human genome published literature database. The design of this infrastructure makes the system potentially extensible to other data sources. Results Information retrieval and usability tests demonstrated that the system had high rates of recall and precision, 90% and 93% respectively. The system was easy to learn, easy to use, reasonably speedy and effective. Conclusion The open source system infrastructure presented in this paper provides a novel approach to managing and querying information and knowledge from domain-specific PubMed data. Using the controlled vocabulary UMLS enhanced data integration and interoperability and the extensibility of the system. In addition, by using MVC-based design and Java as a platform-independent programming language, this system provides a potential infrastructure for any domain-specific knowledge base in the biomedical field. PMID:17996092

  5. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Holmskov, Mathilde; Skoog, Maria; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Magnusson, Frederik L; Zwi, Morris; Gillies, Donna; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Rasmussen, Kirsten Buch; Gauci, Dorothy; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? Methods Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. Study answer and limitations The analyses included 38 parallel group trials (n=5111, median treatment duration 49 days) and 147 crossover trials (n=7134, 14 days). The average age across all studies was 9.7 years. The analysis suggested a beneficial effect of methylphenidate on teacher rated symptoms in 19 parallel group trials (standardised mean difference (SMD) ?0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of ?9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate was associated with an increased risk of non-serious adverse events (1.29, 21 trials, n=3132; TSA adjusted RR 1.29). Teacher rated general behaviour seemed to improve with methylphenidate (SMD ?0.87, five trials, n=668) A change of 7 points on the child health questionnaire (CHQ) has been deemed a minimal clinically relevant difference. The change reported in a meta-analysis of three trials corresponds to a mean difference of 8.0 points on the CHQ (range 0-100 points), which suggests that methylphenidate may improve parent reported quality of life (SMD 0.61, three trials, n=514). 96.8% of trials were considered high risk of bias trials according to the Cochrane guidelines. All outcomes were assessed very low quality according to GRADE. What this study adds The results suggest that among children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD, methylphenidate may improve teacher reported symptoms of ADHD and general behaviour and parent reported quality of life. However, given the risk of bias in the included studies, and the very low quality of outcomes, the magnitude of the effects is uncertain. Methylphenidate is associated with an increased risk of non-serious but not serious adverse events. Funding, competing interests, data sharing Region Zealand Research Foundation and Copenhagen Trial Unit. Competing interests are given in the full paper on bmj.com. Full data are available in the version of this review published in The Cochrane Library. PMID:26608309

  6. Survey of physician attitudes toward HIV testing i...[AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003] -PubMed Result AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003 Mar;17(3):121-7. Links

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Survey of physician attitudes toward HIV testing i...[AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003] - PubMed Result AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003 Mar;17(3):121-7. Links Survey of physician attitudes toward HIV testing. Between December 2000 and March 2001 a 20-question survey was sent by mail to regional physicians

  7. HIV/AIDS knowledge among female migrant farm worke...[J Immigr Health. 2003] -PubMed Result 1: J Immigr Health. 2003 Jan;5(1):29-36. Links

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    HIV/AIDS knowledge among female migrant farm worke...[J Immigr Health. 2003] - PubMed Result 1: J Immigr Health. 2003 Jan;5(1):29-36. Links HIV/AIDS knowledge among female migrant farm workers of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio 43614-5809, USA. The rate of HIV infection in the migrant farm worker community

  8. Automatic Summarization of MEDLINE Citations for Evidence–Based Medical Treatment: A Topic-Oriented Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    As the number of electronic biomedical textual resources increases, it becomes harder for physicians to find useful answers at the point of care. Information retrieval applications provide access to databases; however, little research has been done on using automatic summarization to help navigate the documents returned by these systems. After presenting a semantic abstraction automatic summarization system for MEDLINE citations, we concentrate on evaluating its ability to identify useful drug interventions for fifty-three diseases. The evaluation methodology uses existing sources of evidence-based medicine as surrogates for a physician-annotated reference standard. Mean average precision (MAP) and a clinical usefulness score developed for this study were computed as performance metrics. The automatic summarization system significantly outperformed the baseline in both metrics. The MAP gain was 0.17 (p < 0.01) and the increase in the overall score of clinical usefulness was 0.39 (p < 0.05). PMID:19022398

  9. Knowledge-based Methods to Help Clinicians Find Answers in MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Sneiderman, Charles A.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Fiszman, Marcelo; Ide, Nicholas C.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Large databases of published medical research can support clinical decision making by providing physicians with the best available evidence. The time required to obtain optimal results from these databases using traditional systems often makes accessing the databases impractical for clinicians. This article explores whether a hybrid approach of augmenting traditional information retrieval with knowledge-based methods facilitates finding practical clinical advice in the research literature. Design Three experimental systems were evaluated for their ability to find MEDLINE citations providing answers to clinical questions of different complexity. The systems (SemRep, Essie, and CQA-1.0), which rely on domain knowledge and semantic processing to varying extents, were evaluated separately and in combination. Fifteen therapy and prevention questions in three categories (general, intermediate, and specific questions) were searched. The first 10 citations retrieved by each system were randomized, anonymized, and evaluated on a three-point scale. The reasons for ratings were documented. Measurements Metrics evaluating the overall performance of a system (mean average precision, binary preference) and metrics evaluating the number of relevant documents in the first several presented to a physician were used. Results Scores (mean average precision = 0.57, binary preference = 0.71) for fusion of the retrieval results of the three systems are significantly (p < 0.01) better than those for any individual system. All three systems present three to four relevant citations in the first five for any question type. Conclusion The improvements in finding relevant MEDLINE citations due to knowledge-based processing show promise in assisting physicians to answer questions in clinical practice. PMID:17712086

  10. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases in patients undergoing radical treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer: A Cochrane Review

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, Jason Francis . E-mail: jason.lester@velindre-tr.wales.nhs.uk; MacBeth, Fergus R.; Coles, Bernadette

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has a role in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A search strategy was designed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PCI with no PCI in NSCLC patients treated with curative intent. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cancerlit were searched, along with relevant journals, books, and review articles to identify potentially eligible trials. Four RCTs were identified and reviewed. A total of 951 patients were randomized in these RCTs, of whom 833 were evaluable and reported. Forty-two patients with small-cell lung cancer were excluded, leaving 791 patients in total. Because of the small patient numbers and trial heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was attempted. Results: Prophylactic cranial irradiation did significantly reduce the incidence of brain metastases in three trials. No trial reported a survival advantage with PCI over observation. Toxicity data were poorly collected and no quality of life assessments were carried out in any trial. Conclusion: Prophylactic cranial irradiation may reduce the incidence of brain metastases, but there is no evidence of a survival benefit. It was not possible to evaluate whether any radiotherapy regimen is superior, and the effect of PCI on quality of life is not known. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of PCI in clinical practice. Where possible, patients should be offered entry into a clinical trial.

  11. Mining connections between chemicals, proteins, and diseases extracted from Medline annotations

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nancy C.; Hemminger, Bradley M.

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical literature is an important source of information about the biological activity and effects of chemicals. We present an application that extracts terms indicating biological activity of chemicals from Medline records, associates them with chemical name and stores the terms in a repository called ChemoText. We describe the construction of ChemoText and then demonstrate its utility in drug research by employing Swanson’s ABC discovery paradigm. We reproduce Swanson’s discovery of a connection between magnesium and migraine in a novel approach that uses only proteins as the intermediate B terms. We validate our methods by using a cutoff date and evaluate them by calculating precision and recall. In addition to magnesium, we have identified valproic acid and nitric oxide as chemicals which developed links to migraine. We hypothesize, based on protein annotations, that zinc and retinoic acid may play a role in migraine. The ChemoText repository has promise as a data source for drug discovery. PMID:20348023

  12. Hybrid approach combining contextual and statistical information for identifying MEDLINE citation terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In Cheol; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong demand for developing automated tools for extracting pertinent information from the biomedical literature that is a rich, complex, and dramatically growing resource, and is increasingly accessed via the web. This paper presents a hybrid method based on contextual and statistical information to automatically identify two MEDLINE citation terms: NIH grant numbers and databank accession numbers from HTML-formatted online biomedical documents. Their detection is challenging due to many variations and inconsistencies in their format (although recommended formats exist), and also because of their similarity to other technical or biological terms. Our proposed method first extracts potential candidates for these terms using a rule-based method. These are scored and the final candidates are submitted to a human operator for verification. The confidence score for each term is calculated using statistical information, and morphological and contextual information. Experiments conducted on more than ten thousand HTML-formatted online biomedical documents show that most NIH grant numbers and databank accession numbers can be successfully identified by the proposed method, with recall rates of 99.8% and 99.6%, respectively. However, owing to the high false alarm rate, the proposed method yields F-measure rates of 86.6% and 87.9% for NIH grants and databanks, respectively.

  13. Characteristics of project management at institutions sponsoring National Library of Medicine MedlinePlus Go Local*

    PubMed Central

    Olney, Cynthia A.; Backus, Joyce E. B.; Klein, Lori J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Through interviews with the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus Go Local collaborators, an evaluation team sought to identify process characteristics that are critical for long-term sustainability of Go Local projects and to describe the impact that Go Local projects have on sponsoring institutions. Methods: Go Local project coordinators (n?=?44) at 31 sponsor institutions participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences developing and maintaining Go Local sites. Interviews were summarized, checked for accuracy by the participating librarians, and analyzed using a general inductive methodology. Results: Institutional factors that support Go Local projects were identified through the interviews, as well as strategies for staffing and partnerships with external organizations. Positive outcomes for sponsoring institutions also were identified. Conclusions: The findings may influence the National Library of Medicine team's decisions about improvements to its Go Local system and the support it provides to sponsoring institutions. The findings may benefit current sponsoring institutions as well as those considering or planning a Go Local project. PMID:20098657

  14. Mining characteristics of epidemiological studies from Medline: a case study in obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health sciences literature incorporates a relatively large subset of epidemiological studies that focus on population-level findings, including various determinants, outcomes and correlations. Extracting structured information about those characteristics would be useful for more complete understanding of diseases and for meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Results We present an information extraction approach that enables users to identify key characteristics of epidemiological studies from MEDLINE abstracts. It extracts six types of epidemiological characteristic: design of the study, population that has been studied, exposure, outcome, covariates and effect size. We have developed a generic rule-based approach that has been designed according to semantic patterns observed in text, and tested it in the domain of obesity. Identified exposure, outcome and covariate concepts are clustered into health-related groups of interest. On a manually annotated test corpus of 60 epidemiological abstracts, the system achieved precision, recall and F-score between 79-100%, 80-100% and 82-96% respectively. We report the results of applying the method to a large scale epidemiological corpus related to obesity. Conclusions The experiments suggest that the proposed approach could identify key epidemiological characteristics associated with a complex clinical problem from related abstracts. When integrated over the literature, the extracted data can be used to provide a more complete picture of epidemiological efforts, and thus support understanding via meta-analysis and systematic reviews. PMID:24949194

  15. Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) medicines for treatment of menopausal symptoms - comments on major statements of the Cochrane Collaboration report 2012 "black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (review)".

    PubMed

    Beer, André-M; Osmers, Rüdiger; Schnitker, Jörg; Bai, Wenpei; Mueck, Alfred O; Meden, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Menopausal symptoms management with high-quality plant extracts from Actaea (Cimicifuga. racemosa rootstock is well-established. Efficacy and safety are supported by research and clinical trials since several decades and backed up by official monographs. However, the recent published Cochrane review on black cohosh neglects major evidence for beneficial effects. The authors' negative conclusions are questionable and call for reply and clarification. Our careful reconsideration of all appropriate placebo-controlled clinical studies reveals a standardized mean difference of 0.385 in favor of black cohosh (p?

  16. Using argumentation to retrieve articles with similar citations: an inquiry into improving related articles search in the MEDLINE digital library.

    PubMed

    Tbahriti, Imad; Chichester, Christine; Lisacek, Frédérique; Ruch, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between citations and the scientific argumentation found abstracts. We design a related article search task and observe how the argumentation can affect the search results. We extracted citation lists from a set of 3200 full-text papers originating from a narrow domain. In parallel, we recovered the corresponding MEDLINE records for analysis of the argumentative moves. Our argumentative model is founded on four classes: PURPOSE, METHODS, RESULTS and CONCLUSION. A Bayesian classifier trained on explicitly structured MEDLINE abstracts generates these argumentative categories. The categories are used to generate four different argumentative indexes. A fifth index contains the complete abstract, together with the title and the list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. To appraise the relationship of the moves to the citations, the citation lists were used as the criteria for determining relatedness of articles, establishing a benchmark; it means that two articles are considered as "related" if they share a significant set of co-citations. Our results show that the average precision of queries with the PURPOSE and CONCLUSION features is the highest, while the precision of the RESULTS and METHODS features was relatively low. A linear weighting combination of the moves is proposed, which significantly improves retrieval of related articles. PMID:16165395

  17. [Recommendations for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Trevisani, Virgínia Fernandes Moça; Pasoto, Sandra Gofinet; Serrano, Erica Vieira; Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia Euzébio; de Alencar Fidelix, Tania Sales; Vilela, Verônica Silva; do Prado, Leandro Lara; Tanure, Leandro Augusto; Libório-Kimura, Tatiana Nayara; de Brito Filho, Odvaldo Honor; de Barros, Liliana Aparecida Pimenta; Miyamoto, Samira Tatiyama; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Santos, Maria Carmen Lopes Ferreira Silva; Vieira, Luis Antonio; Adán, Consuelo Bueno Diniz; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques

    2015-01-01

    The recommendations proposed by the Sjögren's Syndrome Committee of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome were based on a systematic review of literature in Medline (PubMed) and the Cochrane databases until October 2014 and on expert opinion in the absence of studies on the subject. 131 items classified according to Oxford & Grade were included. These recommendations were developed in order to guide the appropriate management and facilitate the access to treatment for those patients with an appropriate indication, considering the Brazilian socioeconomic context and pharmacological agents available in this country. PMID:26360421

  18. Evaluation and management of hemorrhoids: Italian society of colorectal surgery (SICCR) consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Trompetto, M; Clerico, G; Cocorullo, G F; Giordano, P; Marino, F; Martellucci, J; Milito, G; Mistrangelo, M; Ratto, C

    2015-10-01

    Hemorrhoids are one of the most common medical and surgical diseases and the main reason for a visit to a coloproctologist. This consensus statement was drawn up by the Italian society of colorectal surgery in order to provide practice parameters for an accurate assessment of the disease and consequent appropriate treatment. The authors made a careful search in the main databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane), and all results were classified on the basis of the grade of recommendation (A-C) of the American College of Chest Physicians. PMID:26403234

  19. Network-based analysis reveals distinct association patterns in a semantic MEDLINE-based drug-disease-gene network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A huge amount of associations among different biological entities (e.g., disease, drug, and gene) are scattered in millions of biomedical articles. Systematic analysis of such heterogeneous data can infer novel associations among different biological entities in the context of personalized medicine and translational research. Recently, network-based computational approaches have gained popularity in investigating such heterogeneous data, proposing novel therapeutic targets and deciphering disease mechanisms. However, little effort has been devoted to investigating associations among drugs, diseases, and genes in an integrative manner. Results We propose a novel network-based computational framework to identify statistically over-expressed subnetwork patterns, called network motifs, in an integrated disease-drug-gene network extracted from Semantic MEDLINE. The framework consists of two steps. The first step is to construct an association network by extracting pair-wise associations between diseases, drugs and genes in Semantic MEDLINE using a domain pattern driven strategy. A Resource Description Framework (RDF)-linked data approach is used to re-organize the data to increase the flexibility of data integration, the interoperability within domain ontologies, and the efficiency of data storage. Unique associations among drugs, diseases, and genes are extracted for downstream network-based analysis. The second step is to apply a network-based approach to mine the local network structure of this heterogeneous network. Significant network motifs are then identified as the backbone of the network. A simplified network based on those significant motifs is then constructed to facilitate discovery. We implemented our computational framework and identified five network motifs, each of which corresponds to specific biological meanings. Three case studies demonstrate that novel associations are derived from the network topology analysis of reconstructed networks of significant network motifs, further validated by expert knowledge and functional enrichment analyses. Conclusions We have developed a novel network-based computational approach to investigate the heterogeneous drug-gene-disease network extracted from Semantic MEDLINE. We demonstrate the power of this approach by prioritizing candidate disease genes, inferring potential disease relationships, and proposing novel drug targets, within the context of the entire knowledge. The results indicate that such approach will facilitate the formulization of novel research hypotheses, which is critical for translational medicine research and personalized medicine. PMID:25170419

  20. LabVelocity: online tools for life science products, protocols, technical information, MEDLINE searches, and laboratory calculations.

    PubMed

    Riethof, D A; Balakrishnan, R

    2001-06-01

    As the pace of life science discovery increases, so do the demands on researchers. To remain competitive in the life science industry, researchers must use every tool at their disposal to keep up with new products, protocols, news, and literature in their field. While there are now myriad Web sites that assist researchers with this problem, many suffer from confusing user interfaces, poorly designed search engines, and a narrow information focus. Here, we present LabVelocity, a user-friendly Web site that provides a free multidisciplinary information-gathering service for the life science research community. Using LabVelocity, a researcher can quickly find the products, protocols, technical references, news, MEDLINE abstracts, and interactive software tools necessary for an experiment. This aggregation of information can streamline experimental planning and is especially useful when researchers want to set up a new laboratory or to venture outside their field of expertise. PMID:11414224

  1. Academic Scientists' Reaction to End-User Services: Observations on a Trial Service Giving Access to MEDLINE Using the GRATEFUL MED Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilson, Yvette; East, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Conducted at two British universities in 1993, a year-long trial service study of 20 bio-scientists using GRATEFUL MED software access to National Library of Medicine databases, principally MEDLINE, found that the users approved most of the service's ease, convenience, and time saving features and disapproved of its susceptibility to network…

  2. Integrating CD-ROM Medline with electronic mail: first step in implementing new strategy for online reference library.

    PubMed Central

    Ribitzky, R.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous ACCESS to and DISSEMINATION of electronically available PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE, in a productive, Cost-of-Ownership effective, and affordable manner are now achievable. Emerging MANAGEMENT-OF-INFORMATION and SYSTEMS-INTEGRATION disciplines are essential contributing factors to devising and implementing NEW STRATEGIES for ONLINE REFERENCE LIBRARIES. Bringing integrated information closer to the ultimate user and RESHAPING the electronic databases and full-text management systems MARKETPLACE are the most significant outcomes. Key technology attributes are advancements in CD-ROM, Networking, and office automation. We have proven this concept by developing an INTERFACE between MEDLINE from COMPACT CAMBRIDGE and ALL-IN-1 from DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION. Saved search results are automatically routed to the individual's ALL-IN-1 account where further DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT and electronic mail functions may be performed. A 486Ware system from Logicraft and a five-members VAX-Cluster (respectively), are linked in a DECNet environment that is the foundation of Children's Integrated Hospital Information System. In phase one of the project up to 8 SIMULTANEOUS USERS may access the 8 RECENT YEARS, from any one of 1500 ACCESS POINTS (local and remote), and utilize any one of 150 NETWORKED PRINTERS. Opportunities are now within reach to expand the electronic library services while utilizing progressive methods and taking advantage of the best available technologies. PMID:1807668

  3. From Shakespeare to Star Trek and beyond: a Medline search for literary and other allusions in biomedical titles

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Neville W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To document biomedical paper titles containing literary and other allusions. Design Retrospective survey. Setting Medline (1951 to mid-2005) through Dialog Datastar. Main outcome measure Allusions to Shakespeare, Hans Christian Andersen, proverbs, the Bible, Lewis Carroll, and movie titles, corrected and scaled for five year periods 1950-4 to 2000-4. Results More than 1400 Shakespearean allusions exist, a third of them to “What's in a name” and another third to Hamlet—mostly to “To be or not to be.” The trend of increasing use of allusive titles, identified from Shakespeare and Andersen, is paralleled by allusions to Carroll and proverbs; the trend of biblical allusions is also upward but is more erratic. Trends for newer allusions are also upwards, including the previously surveyed “paradigm shift.” Allusive titles are likely to be to editorial or comment rather than to original research. Conclusions The similar trends are presumably a mark of a particular learnt author behaviour. Newer allusions may be becoming more popular than older ones. Allusive titles can be unhelpful to reviewers and researchers, and many are now clichés. Whether they attract readers or citations is unknown, but better ways of gaining attention exist. PMID:16373745

  4. Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Comparison of 15 Databases

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Elise; Sampson, Margaret; Ajiferuke, Isola; Manheimer, Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Daniel, Raymond; Moher, David

    2011-01-01

    This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS) and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005). The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases. PMID:19468052

  5. Eugene R. Cochran Senior Commercialization Manager

    E-print Network

    and commercialization of inventions in several fields including medical devices, biotechnology, physics, materials to the faculty in perfecting patent rights, and helping to commercialize university based inventions

  6. Evolution of Cooperation Patterns in Psoriasis Research: Co-Authorship Network Analysis of Papers in Medline (1942–2013)

    PubMed Central

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Park, Jinseo; Huamaní, Charles; Belinchón, Isabel; Ramos, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although researchers have worked in collaboration since the origins of modern science and the publication of the first scientific journals in the eighteenth century, this phenomenon has acquired exceptional importance in the last several decades. Since the mid-twentieth century, new knowledge has been generated from within an ever-growing network of investigators, working cooperatively in research groups across countries and institutions. Cooperation is a crucial determinant of academic success. Objective The aim of the present paper is to analyze the evolution of scientific collaboration at the micro level, with regard to the scientific production generated on psoriasis research. Methods A bibliographic search in the Medline database containing the MeSH terms “psoriasis” or “psoriatic arthritis” was carried out. The search results were limited to articles, reviews and letters. After identifying the co-authorships of documents on psoriasis indexed in the Medline database (1942–2013), various bibliometric indicators were obtained, including the average number of authors per document and degree of multi-authorship over time. In addition, we performed a network analysis to study the evolution of certain features of the co-authorship network as a whole: average degree, size of the largest component, clustering coefficient, density and average distance. We also analyzed the evolution of the giant component to characterize the changing research patterns in the field, and we calculated social network indicators for the nodes, namely betweenness and closeness. Results The main active research clusters in the area were identified, along with their authors of reference. Our analysis of 28,670 documents sheds light on different aspects related to the evolution of scientific collaboration in the field, including the progressive increase in the mean number of co-authors (which stood at 5.17 in the 2004–2013 decade), and the rise in multi-authored papers signed by many different authors (in the same decade, 25.77% of the documents had between 6 and 9 co-authors, and 10.28% had 10 or more). With regard to the network indicators, the average degree gradually increased up to 10.97 in the study period. The percentage of authors pertaining to the largest component also rose to 73.02% of the authors. The clustering coefficient, on the other hand, remained stable throughout the entire 70-year period, with values hovering around 0.9. Finally, the average distance peaked in the decades 1974–1983 (8.29) and 1984–2003 (8.12) then fell over the next two decades, down to 5.25 in 2004–2013. The construction of the co-authorship network (threshold of collaboration ? 10 co-authored works) revealed a giant component of 161 researchers, containing 6 highly cohesive sub-components. Conclusions Our study reveals the existence of a growing research community in which collaboration is increasingly important. We can highlight an essential feature associated with scientific collaboration: multi-authored papers, with growing numbers of collaborators contributing to them, are becoming more and more common, therefore the formation of research groups of increasing depth (specialization) and breadth (multidisciplinarity) is now a cornerstone of research success. PMID:26658481

  7. Locating sex-specific evidence on clinical questions in MEDLINE: a search filter for use on OvidSP™

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Many recently published clinical studies report sex-specific data. This information may help to improve clinical decision-making for both sexes, but it is not easily accessible in MEDLINE. The aim of this project was to develop and validate a search filter that would facilitate the retrieval of studies reporting high quality sex-specific data on clinical questions. Methods A filter was developed by screening titles, abstracts and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in a set of 80 high quality and relevant papers, 75 of which were identified through a review of clinical guidelines and five through other means. The filter, for use on OvidSP™, consists of nine command lines for searching free text words in the title, abstract and MeSH of a paper. It was able to identify 74/80 (92.5%) of the articles from which it was derived. The filter was evaluated in a set of 622 recently published original studies on Alzheimer's disease and on asthma. It was validated against a reference of 98 studies from this set, which provided high quality, clinically relevant, sex-specific evidence. Recall and precision were used as performance measures. Results The filter demonstrated 81/98 (83%) recall and 81/125 (65%) precision in retrieving relevant articles on Alzheimer's disease and on asthma. In comparison, only 30/98 (31%) recall would have been achieved if sex-specific MeSH terms only had been used. Conclusion This sex-specific search filter performs well in retrieving relevant papers, while its precision rate is good. It performs better than a search with sex-specific MeSH. The filter can be useful to anyone seeking sex-specific clinical evidence (e.g., guideline organizations, researchers, medical educators, clinicians). PMID:19366443

  8. Reasons for the loss of sensitivity and specificity of methodologic MeSH terms and textwords in MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, N. L.; Walker, C. J.; McKibbon, K. A.; Haynes, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reasons for the loss of sensitivity and specificity of methodologic MeSH terms and textwords in MEDLINE for identifying sound clinical studies of the etiology, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disorders in adult general medicine. DESIGN: Analytic survey of the information retrieval properties of methodologic MeSH terms and textwords selected to detect studies meeting basic methodologic criteria for direct clinical use in general adult medicine. MEASURES: Frequency of non-use and misuse of relevant methodologic MeSH terms and textwords among studies meeting and not meeting the basic criteria for clinical practice as determined by the manual review (the gold standard) of all articles in 10 internal and general medicine journals for 1986 and 1991. RESULTS: Loss of sensitivity due to the non-use of relevant methodologic terms among articles meeting basic methodologic criteria was more pronounced in the areas of diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology than treatment in 1991 and 1986. The use of relevant methodologic terms has improved from 1986 to 1991 in all areas except prognosis. Loss of specificity due to the use of relevant methodologic terms among articles not meeting basic methodologic criteria occurred most frequently in the areas of treatment and etiology. CONCLUSIONS: Although the appropriate use of methodologic MeSH and textwords has improved from 1986 to 1991 among studies meeting basic methodologic criteria for direct clinical use in general adult medicine much improvement is still needed in the areas of diagnosis, prognosis, and etiology. Improvement is needed in assigning the relevant methodologic index terms to studies that meet the methods criteria and in having the authors use the relevant methodologic textwords in the title or abstract. Some improvement is also needed in not using methodologic terms when the study clearly does not meet the methods criteria. PMID:8563319

  9. BioNLP 2007: Biological, translational, and clinical language processing, pages 121128, Prague, June 2007. c 2007 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-print Network

    conditions. The MEDLINE database now has 16 mil- lion bibliographic entries, many of them include the information overload, some resources such as the Cochrane Collabo- ration (Cochrane, 2007), Evidence

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Boolean versus ranked querying for biomedical

    E-print Network

    Zobel, Justin

    the Cochrane collaboration, include "Acupuncture for atten- tion-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD through bibliographic databases, such as MEDLINE or EMBASE, of medical papers - or, more often, citations

  11. Comparing the Precision of Information Retrieval of MeSH-Controlled Vocabulary Search Method and a Visual Method in the Medline Medical Database

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Nadjla; Ravandi, Somayyeh Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medline is one of the most important databases in the biomedical field. One of the most important hosts for Medline is Elton B. Stephens CO. (EBSCO), which has presented different search methods that can be used based on the needs of the users. Visual search and MeSH-controlled search methods are among the most common methods. The goal of this research was to compare the precision of the retrieved sources in the EBSCO Medline base using MeSH-controlled and visual search methods. Methods: This research was a semi-empirical study. By holding training workshops, 70 students of higher education in different educational departments of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were taught MeSH-Controlled and visual search methods in 2012. Then, the precision of 300 searches made by these students was calculated based on Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision formulas and analyzed in SPSS software using the independent sample T Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the two search methods. Results: The mean precision of the visual method was greater than that of the MeSH-Controlled search for all three types of precision, i.e. Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P <0.001). Sixty-five percent of the researchers indicated that, although the visual method was better than the controlled method, the control of keywords in the controlled method resulted in finding more proper keywords for the searches. Fifty-three percent of the participants in the research also mentioned that the use of the combination of the two methods produced better results. Conclusion: For users, it is more appropriate to use a natural, language-based method, such as the visual method, in the EBSCO Medline host than to use the controlled method, which requires users to use special keywords. The potential reason for their preference was that the visual method allowed them more freedom of action. PMID:25763155

  12. [Systematic review of diagnostic tests accuracy: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Glória Maria; Camargo, Fábio Trinca; Gonçalves, Eduardo Costa; Duarte, Carlos Vinicius Nascimento; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. We undertook a search using The Cochrane Methodology Reviews (Cochrane Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy), Medline and LILACS up to October 2009. Reference lists of included studies were also hand searched. The following search strategy was constructed by using a combination of subject headings and text words: 1. Cochrane Methodology Reviews: accuracy study "Methodology" 2. In Pubmed "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine" [Mesh]) AND "Sensitivity and Specificity" [Mesh] 3. LILACS (revisao sistematica) or "literatura de REVISAO como assunto" [Descritor de assunto] and (sistematica) or "SISTEMATICA" [Descritor de assunto] and (acuracia) or "SENSIBILIDADE e especificidade" [Descritor de assunto]. In summary, the methodological planning and preparation of systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions are prior to that used in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. There are more sources of heterogeneity in design of diagnostic test studies, which impair the synthesis - meta-analysis - of the results. To work around this problem, there are currently uniform requirements for diagnostic test manuscripts submitted to leading biomedical journals. PMID:20549106

  13. Nanotechnology and its application in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Abiodun-Solanke, Imf; Ajayi, Dm; Arigbede, Ao

    2014-09-01

    Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of everyday life from security to medicine. The concept of nanotechnology is that when one goes down to the bottom of things, one can discover unlimited possibilities and potential of the basic particle. In nanotechnology, analysis can be made to the level of manipulating atoms, molecules and chemical bonds between them. The growing interest in the dental applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new field called nanodentistry. An electronic database search that included PubMed, MedLine, and Cochrane library was conducted. Key words used in the search are nanotechnology dentistry and applications. Language limitation was set as articles reviewed were only those written and published in English language. We did not search the gray literature. Initially, 52 articles were retrieved from the database, and articles considered were those published from 2008 to 2013. Eight articles that met the selection criteria were eventually selected and reviewed. PMID:25364585

  14. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and their implication in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Palleria, Caterina; Di Paolo, Antonello; Giofrè, Chiara; Caglioti, Chiara; Leuzzi, Giacomo; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are one of the commonest causes of medication error in developed countries, particularly in the elderly due to poly-therapy, with a prevalence of 20-40%. In particular, poly-therapy increases the complexity of therapeutic management and thereby the risk of clinically important DDIs, which can both induce the development of adverse drug reactions or reduce the clinical efficacy. DDIs can be classify into two main groups: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. In this review, using Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and Reference lists we searched articles published until June 30 2012, and we described the mechanism of pharmacokinetic DDIs focusing the interest on their clinical implications. PMID:24516494

  15. Interruptions of nurses' activities and patient safety: an integrative literature review1

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Cintia; Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics related to the interruption of nurses in professional practice, as well as to assess the implications of interruptions for patient safety. METHOD: integrative literature review. The following databases were searched: Pubmed/Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, using the descriptors interruptions and patient safety. An initial date was not established, but the final date was December 31, 2013. A total of 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: all the papers included describe interruptions as a harmful factor for patient safety. Data analysis revealed three relevant categories: characteristics of interruptions, implications for patient safety, and interventions to minimize interruptions. CONCLUSION: interruptions favor the occurrence of errors in the health field. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to understand such a phenomenon and its effects on clinical practice. PMID:25806646

  16. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Michael; Norman, Ian; Foley, Michelle; Harris, Richard; Rapca, Anna; Rich, Eileen; Hout, Marie-Claire Van

    2015-12-01

    Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O'Malley's framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted. PMID:26677894

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma and dental implants: A systematic review of case reports

    PubMed Central

    Jeelani, S.; Rajkumar, E.; Mary, G. Geena; Khan, Parvez Ahmad; Gopal, Harish; Roy, Soumya; Maheswaran, T.; Anand, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death world-wide. Apart from the most common etiopathological factors related to cancer, at times very rare causes such as irritant or foreign body induced carcinogenesis is not to be overlooked. To systematically review case reports concerned with the association between dental implants and oral squamous cell carcinoma. A Medline (PubMed), Cochrane database, and Google Scholar search was conducted of dental article published in English related to case reports concerned with oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring around dental implants from 2000 to 2014. Twenty articles were retrieved, which included 20 rare case reports which were systematically reviewed and the results were obtained pertaining to age, clinical symptoms, habits, previous history of cancer, potentially malignant disorders, systemic illness, and local factors. It is imperative to identify promptly persisting inflammation associated with implants. Since malignancy may disguise as periimplantitis, especially in patients who are at risk with contributing prominent predisposing factors. PMID:26538881

  18. Nanotechnology and its Application in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun-Solanke, IMF; Ajayi, DM; Arigbede, AO

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology influences almost every facet of everyday life from security to medicine. The concept of nanotechnology is that when one goes down to the bottom of things, one can discover unlimited possibilities and potential of the basic particle. In nanotechnology, analysis can be made to the level of manipulating atoms, molecules and chemical bonds between them. The growing interest in the dental applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new field called nanodentistry. An electronic database search that included PubMed, MedLine, and Cochrane library was conducted. Key words used in the search are nanotechnology dentistry and applications. Language limitation was set as articles reviewed were only those written and published in English language. We did not search the gray literature. Initially, 52 articles were retrieved from the database, and articles considered were those published from 2008 to 2013. Eight articles that met the selection criteria were eventually selected and reviewed. PMID:25364585

  19. Timing of cannulation of arteriovenous grafts: are we too cautious?

    PubMed Central

    Al Shakarchi, Julien; Inston, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Timing of first cannulation of an arteriovenous graft has been the subject of great debate for clinicians worldwide. In this paper, we reviewed the current literature on the timing of first cannulation of arteriovenous grafts. Methods Searches of PubMed, Medline and the Cochrane Library were performed using specific search terms to identify articles, dealing primarily with the timing of dialysis graft cannulation. Results Following strict inclusion/exclusion criteria by two reviewers, eleven studies were included and divided into subgroups for ePTFE and new generation grafts. Conclusions The current literature does not seem to support the current guidelines as there is no evidence to suggest that a delay in cannulation of grafts will improve graft survival and patency. PMID:26034590

  20. The application of sonography in shoulder pain evaluation and injection treatment after stroke: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wu; Fu, Yu; Hai-xin, Song; Yan, Dong; Jian-hua, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose the application of sonography in shoulder pain after stroke. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address sonography examination, with or without ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection for hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP). The electronic databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline were searched. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, sonographic technique has potential to provide objective measurements in patients with HSP. The main sonography finding of HSP included subacromial subdeltoid (SASD) bursal effusion, tendinosis of the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon, long head of biceps tendon sheath effusion, and shoulder subluxation. Our analysis also revealed significantly decreased pain score (VAS) and increased passive external rotation degree in the steroid injection group than control group. [Conclusion] The sonography examination is useful for HSP assessment and ultrasound guided technique is recommended for HSP injection treatment. PMID:26504346

  1. Application of Low Frequency and Medium Frequency Currents in the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain-A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Stephen Rajan; Maiya, G Arun

    2015-01-01

    Trancutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential therapy (IFT) have been a regular line of treatment for various types of acute and chronic pain. This review aims to compile the latest literature in pain management using these modalities which use low-frequency and medium-frequency currents. The Cochrane Library, Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were searched and studies were examined from their inception till October 2013. After title and abstract screening the relevant studies were included for this review. We found through this review that even though TENS and IFT are used in management of pain, there is limited amount of high quality research available in this area. Most of the studies lack methodological quality and have a low sample size. PMID:25709199

  2. Eradication of tetanus

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, C. L.; Loan, H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The causative agent of tetanus, Clostridium tetani is widespread in the environment throughout the world and cannot be eradicated. To reduce the number of cases of tetanus efforts are focussed on prevention using vaccination and post-exposure wound care. Sources of data Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane databases; World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund publications. Areas of agreement The maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination initiative has resulted in significant reductions in mortality from neonatal tetanus throughout the world. Areas of controversy Although there are few data available it is likely that large numbers of children and adults, particularly men, remain unprotected due to lack of booster immunization. Areas timely for developing research It remains unclear how HIV and malaria affect both responses to vaccination and transplacental transfer of antibodies or how this might affect timing of vaccination doses. PMID:26598719

  3. Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to describe the association between central auditory processing mechanism and the cardiac autonomic regulation. Methods It was researched papers on the topic addressed in this study considering the following data bases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The key words were: “auditory stimulation, heart rate, autonomic nervous system and P300”. Results The findings in the literature demonstrated that auditory stimulation influences the autonomic nervous system and has been used in conjunction with other methods. It is considered a promising step in the investigation of therapeutic procedures for rehabilitation and quality of life of several pathologies. Conclusion The association between auditory stimulation and the level of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has received significant contributions in relation to musical stimuli. PMID:24834128

  4. Picture perfect: benefits and risk of fetal 3D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Claudia S; Kiehl, Ermalynn M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to survey available information and research related to routine three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound technology in obstetrics, with an emphasis on current medical uses, safety, and availability issues. Several data bases, including Cochrane, WHO, NIH, CINALH, Blackwell Synergy, ERIC, PubMed, and Medline, were used along with information from Internet search engines. Although fetal 3D ultrasound is used in both medical and commercial settings, recent studies focus on its possible uses rather than the more difficult issues of safety and commercial applications. Professional organizations associated with ultrasound technology support limiting ultrasounds in pregnancy to medically necessary events, whereas commercial venues use "direct to consumer" marketing to promote this technology as a way to "see" the baby before it is born. How safe is routine or frequent use of 3D ultrasound? Further research is needed to address these important questions. PMID:17356416

  5. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  6. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately. PMID:25628080

  7. Tranexamic acid for the management of uterine fibroid tumors: A systematic review of the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Peitsidis, Panagiotis; Koukoulomati, Anna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a detailed systematic review of the current evidence on the administration and efficacy of tranexamic acid in patients with menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search on the following databases PubMed and Medline (1950-2013); (1980-2013); Cochrane library (1993-2013). RESULTS: A total of 36 articles were retrieved after the initial electronic search. Careful assessment of the retrieved studies led to the final selection of 5 articles for inclusion in the review. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid may reduce blood loss perioperatively in myomectomies. It may reduce the menorrhagia in patients with fibroids, however a stratification of fibroids by size and location is required to define the responses. It is safe in general, with mild adverse effects observed in some cases. More studies with a double-blind randomized design and larger numbers of participants are necessary to reach more precise and safe conclusions. PMID:25516866

  8. Bladder cancer – the neglected tumor: a descriptive analysis of publications referenced in MEDLINE and data from the register clinicaltrials.gov

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uro-oncological neoplasms have both a high incidence and mortality rate and are therefore a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate research activity in uro-oncology over the last decade. Methods We searched MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov systematically for studies on prostatic, urinary bladder, kidney, and testicular neoplasms. The increase in newly published reports per year was analyzed using linear regression. The results are presented with 95% confidence intervals, and a p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The number of new publications per year increased significantly for prostatic, kidney and urinary bladder neoplasms (all <0.0001). We identified 1,885 randomized controlled trials (RCTs); also for RCTs, the number of newly published reports increased significantly for prostatic (p?=?0.001) and kidney cancer (p?=?0.005), but not for bladder (p?=?0.09) or testicular (p?=?0.44) neoplasms. We identified 3,114 registered uro-oncological studies in ClinicalTrials.gov. However, 85% of these studies are focusing on prostatic (45%) and kidney neoplasms (40%), whereas only 11% were registered for bladder cancers. Conclusions While the number of publications on uro-oncologic research rises yearly for prostatic and kidney neoplasms, urothelial carcinomas of the bladder seem to be neglected despite their important clinical role. Clinical research on neoplasms of the urothelial bladder must be explicitly addressed and supported. PMID:24156254

  9. MedlinePlus FAQ: Statistics about MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/faq/stats.html Can you give me some statistics about ... pages in English (many of these are also available in Spanish) Information from over 1,000 organizations Over 35, ...

  10. Search terms and a validated brief search filter to retrieve publications on health-related values in Medline: a word frequency analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Paul; Fulford, K W M (Bill); Dale, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Objective Healthcare debates and policy developments are increasingly concerned with a broad range of values-related areas. These include not only ethical, moral, religious, and other types of values ‘proper’, but also beliefs, preferences, experiences, choices, satisfaction, quality of life, etc. Research on such issues may be difficult to retrieve. This study used word frequency analysis to generate a broad pool of search terms and a brief filter to facilitate relevant searches in bibliographic databases. Methods Word frequency analysis for ‘values terms’ was performed on citations on diabetes, obesity, dementia, and schizophrenia (Medline; 2004–2006; 4440 citations; 1?110?291 words). Concordance® and SPSS 14.0 were used. Text words and MeSH terms of high frequency and precision were compiled into a search filter. It was validated on datasets of citations on dentistry and food hypersensitivity. Results 144 unique text words and 124 unique MeSH terms of moderate and high frequency (?20) and very high precision (?90%) were identified. Of these, 19 text words and seven MeSH terms were compiled into a ‘brief values filter’. In the derivation dataset, it had a sensitivity of 76.8% and precision of 86.8%. In the validation datasets, its sensitivity and precision were, respectively, 70.1% and 63.6% (food hypersensitivity) and 47.1% and 82.6% (dentistry). Conclusions This study provided a varied pool of search terms and a simple and highly effective tool for retrieving publications on health-related values. Further work is required to facilitate access to such research and enhance its chances of being translated into practice, policy, and service improvements. PMID:21846778

  11. Articles about MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search for Free. Scientific American Observations [Internet]. 2014 Mar 31 [cited 2014 Dec 29]. Available from: http:// ... Online Medical Searches. Scientific American Observations [Internet]. 2014 Mar 27 [cited 2014 Dec 29]. Available from: http:// ...

  12. Health Topics: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Complementary and Alternative Therapies Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Surgery and Rehabilitation Symptoms Transplantation and Donation Demographic Groups Children and Teenagers Men Population Groups Seniors Women Health and Wellness ...

  13. Medical Dictionary: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/mplusdictionary.html Medical Dictionary To use the sharing features on this ... Search term GO GO Visit the tutorial, Understanding Medical Words You may also be interested in these ...

  14. Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html Medical Encyclopedia To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. The A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia includes over 4,000 articles about diseases, ...

  15. Knowledge for Knowledge Translation: The Role of the Cochrane Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Santesso, Nancy; Cumpston, Miranda; Mayhew, Alain; McGowan, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation (KT) activities, including continuing education, should be informed by the totality of available research evidence. Systematic reviews are a generic methodology used to synthesize evidence from a broad range of research methods addressing different questions. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the…

  16. PhD Student: Joyce Joy Supervisors: Prof Sandy Cochran

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    Doppler ultrasound? Is Thiel embalmed human cadaver a good model to study the tissue properties? Exciting are embalmed in a special way to preserve the soft tissue properties unlike the formalin based cadavers

  17. Describing methods and interventions: a protocol for the systematic analysis of the perioperative quality improvement literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quality improvement (QI) methods are widely used in surgery in an effort to improve care, often using techniques such as Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to implement specific interventions. Explicit definition of both the QI method and quality intervention is necessary to enable the accurate replication of effective interventions in practice, facilitate cumulative learning, reduce research waste and optimise benefits to patients. This systematic review aims to assess quality of reporting of QI methods and quality interventions in perioperative care. Methods Studies reporting on quality interventions implemented in perioperative care settings will be identified. Searches will be conducted in the Ovid SP version of Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care database and the related articles function of PubMed. The journal BMJ Quality will be searched separately. Search strategy terms will relate to (i) surgery, (ii) QI and (iii) evaluation methods. Explicit exclusion and inclusion criteria will be applied. Data from studies will be extracted using a data extraction form. The Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist will be used to evaluate quality of reporting, together with additional items aimed at assessing QI methods specifically. Systematic review registration PROSPERO http://CRD42014012845 PMID:25193066

  18. Prospective Head and Neck Cancer Research: A Four-Decade Bibliometric Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Houlton, Jeffrey J.; Moloci, Nicholas M.; MacEachern, Mark P.; Bradford, Carol R.; Prince, Mark E.; Jagsi, Reshma

    2013-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether changes in study sponsorship have affected the proportion of prospective research on surgery, radiotherapy, and pharmacotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) being published over time. Patients and Methods. We examined prospective studies from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Chi-squared tests were used to identify significant associations between sponsorship and authorship, treatments within study protocols, and presentation of results, whereas time-based trends were analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Results. Among 309 articles, industry (70, 22.7%) and the U.S. government (65, 21%) were the most common sponsors. There was a significant increase in the proportion of industry-sponsored research (p for trend = .013) and a decline in U.S. government-sponsored research (p for trend = .001) over time. The inclusion of surgery in treatment protocols declined over the past four decades (p for trend = .003). Protocols incorporating pharmacotherapy were more likely to have industry support than those without pharmacotherapy (p = .001), whereas protocols with radiotherapy (p = .003) or surgery (p = .002) were less likely to have industry support. Conclusion. Industry is the predominant sponsor of prospective HNSCC research, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapy. PMID:23635559

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students. PMID:26246529

  20. The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. The itching is caused by an allergic reaction to the mites. The treatment of choice is still controversial. It is commonly treated with topical insecticides. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Open Grey and WHO ICTRP) up to September 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared the efficacy of ivermectin with other medications in the treatment of scabies. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. The author intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. It has been sated that ivermectin was as effective as permethrin in the treatment of scabies. In comparison to other medications such as lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton and malathion, ivermectin was more effective in the treatment of scabies. Ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection. PMID:25911032

  1. The effectiveness of opioid substitution treatments for patients with opioid dependence: a systematic review and multiple treatment comparison protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioids are psychoactive analgesic drugs prescribed for pain relief and palliative care. Due to their addictive potential, effort and vigilance in controlling prescriptions is needed to avoid misuse and dependence. Despite the effort, the prevalence of opioid use disorder continues to rise. Opioid substitution therapies are commonly used to treat opioid dependence; however, there is minimal consensus as to which therapy is most effective. Available treatments include methadone, heroin, buprenorphine, as well as naltrexone. This systematic review aims to assess and compare the effect of all available opioid substitution therapies on the treatment of opioid dependence. Methods/Design The authors will search Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and the National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry. The title, abstract, and full-text screening will be completed in duplicate. When appropriate, multiple treatment comparison Bayesian meta-analytic methods will be performed to deduce summary statistics estimating the effectiveness of all opioid substitution therapies in terms of retention and response to treatment (as measured through continued opioid abuse). Discussion Using evidence gained from this systematic review, we anticipate disseminating an objective review of the current available literature on the effectiveness of all opioid substitution therapies for the treatment of opioid use disorder. The results of this systematic review are imperative to the further enhancement of clinical practice in addiction medicine. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42013006507. PMID:25239213

  2. Readability and cultural sensitivity of web-based patient decision aids for cancer screening and treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M D; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2007-12-01

    Decision aids (DA) can inform cancer screening. We conducted a systematic review of web-based, cancer DA to evaluate their appropriateness for use with low literacy and diverse culture groups. Eighty-one Internet DA were found searching five databases (Pubmed-Medline; Web of Science/SSCI; Cancerlit; CINAHL; and Google) and the Cochrane decision aid inventory. Twenty-three met key inclusion criteria of (1) informing cancer screening or treatment decisions, (2) being patient or consumer oriented, and (3) conforming to the Cochrane definition of DA. DA were evaluated using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards checklist, the Cultural Sensitivity Assessment Tool (CSAT), the Cultural Sensitivity Assessment Checklist (CSAC), and the SMOG readability formula. DA had a high readability with 74% (n = 17) written at the grade 10 - 13, 22% (n = 5) at the grade 9, and 4% (n = 1) at the grade 8 level. Visual aids were used in 35% (n = 8) to present probability information. Written information was complemented with video or audio components in 35% (n = 8). Most (91%, n = 21) were developed for generic audiences, while 9% (n = 2) specified a cultural group. Although DA enabled a step-by-step movement through the website, none allowed key word searches and only 65% permitted document printing. Most DA included difficult texts and were not focused for specific cultural groups. PMID:18072004

  3. Molecular Genetic Testing in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Facts and Fiction

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James; Simpatico, Thomas; Febo, Marcelo; Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Brain Reward Cascade (BRC) is an interaction of neurotransmitters and their respective genes to control the amount of dopamine released within the brain. Any variations within this pathway, whether genetic or environmental (epigenetic), may result in addictive behaviors or RDS, which was coined to define addictive behaviors and their genetic components. Methods To carry out this review we searched a number of important databases including: Filtered: Cochrane Systematic reviews; DARE; Pubmed Central Clinical Quaries; National Guideline Clearinghouse and unfiltered resources: PsychINFO; ACP PIER; PsychSage; Pubmed/Medline. The major search terms included: dopamine agonist therapy for Addiction; dopamine agonist therapy for Reward dependence; dopamine antagonistic therapy for addiction; dopamine antagonistic therapy for reward dependence and neurogenetics of RDS. Results While there are many studies claiming a genetic association with RDS behavior, not all are scientifically accurate. Conclusion Albeit our bias, this Clinical Pearl discusses the facts and fictions behind molecular genetic testing in RDS and the significance behind the development of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARSPREDX™), the first test to accurately predict one’s genetic risk for RDS. PMID:26052557

  4. Leslie and Irene Dub Health Sciences Library Room E1400, Academic Health Sciences Building

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    titles and full-text electronic books Key health sciences online databases including Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science Print Collections at your library Over 52,000 books

  5. Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Gichuhi, Stephen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hawkins, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Background Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous which is used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from cataract surgery. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update, Ovid OLDMED-LINE (January 1946 to May 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2013, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to May 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 22 May 2013. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy. Data collection and analysis Two authors screened the search results independently according to the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We found no randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery. Authors' conclusions There is no evidence from randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for randomized controlled trials to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include gain of vision on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one-year or two-year) outcomes should be examined. PMID:24357418

  6. Mapping Systematic Reviews on Atopic Eczema—An Essential Resource for Dermatology Professionals and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Futamura, Masaki; Thomas, Kim S.; Grindlay, Douglas J. C.; Doney, Elizabeth J.; Torley, Donna; Williams, Hywel C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many research studies have been published on atopic eczema and these are often summarised in systematic reviews (SRs). Identifying SRs can be time-consuming for health professionals, and researchers. In order to facilitate the identification of important research, we have compiled an on-line resource that includes all relevant eczema reviews published since 2000. Methods SRs were searched for in MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE and NHS Evidence. Selected SRs were assessed against the pre-defined eligibility criteria and relevant articles were grouped by treatment category for the included interventions. All identified systematic reviews are included in the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT) database (www.greatdatabase.org.uk) and key clinical messages are summarised here. Results A total of 128 SRs reviews were identified, including three clinical guidelines. Of these, 46 (36%) were found in the Cochrane Library. No single database contained all of the SRs found. The number of SRs published per year has increased substantially over the last thirteen years, and reviews were published in a variety of clinical journals. Of the 128 SRs, 1 (1%) was on mechanism, 37 (29%) were on epidemiology, 40 (31%) were on eczema prevention, 29 (23%) were on topical treatments, 31 (24%) were on systemic treatments, and 24 (19%) were on other treatments. All SRs included searches of MEDLINE in their search methods. One hundred six SRs (83%) searched more than one electronic database. There were no language restrictions reported in the search methods of 52 of the SRs (41%). Conclusions This mapping of atopic eczema reviews is a valuable resource. It will help healthcare practitioners, guideline writers, information specialists, and researchers to quickly identify relevant up-to-date evidence in the field for improving patient care. PMID:23505516

  7. Local Oestrogen for Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Weber, M. A.; Kleijn, M. H.; Langendam, M.; Limpens, J.; Heineman, M. J.; Roovers, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The decline in available oestrogen after menopause is a possible etiological factor in pelvic floor disorders like vaginal atrophy (VA), urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This systematic review will examine the evidence for local oestrogen therapy in the treatment of these pelvic floor disorders. Evidence Acquisition We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the non-MEDLINE subset of PubMed from inception to May 2014. We searched for local oestrogens and VA (I), UI/OAB (II) and POP (III). Part I was combined with broad methodological filters for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and secondary evidence. For part I and II two reviewers independently selected RCTs evaluating the effect of topical oestrogens on symptoms and signs of VA and UI/OAB. In part III all studies of topical oestrogen therapy in the treatment of POP were selected. Data extraction and the assessment of risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Evidence Synthesis The included studies varied in ways of topical application, types of oestrogen, dosage and treatment durations. Objective and subjective outcomes were assessed by a variety of measures. Overall, subjective and urodynamic outcomes, vaginal maturation and vaginal pH changed in favor of vaginal oestrogens compared to placebo. No obvious differences between different application methods were revealed. Low doses already seemed to have a beneficial effect. Studies evaluating the effect of topical oestrogen in women with POP are scarce and mainly assessed symptoms and signs associated with VA instead of POP symptoms. Conclusion Topical oestrogen administration is effective for the treatment of VA and seems to decrease complaints of OAB and UI. The potential for local oestrogens in the prevention as well as treatment of POP needs further research. PMID:26383760

  8. Protocol for an overview of systematic reviews of interventions to reduce unscheduled hospital admissions among adults

    PubMed Central

    Bobrovitz, Niklas; Onakpoya, Igho; Roberts, Nia; Heneghan, Carl; Mahtani, Kamal R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unscheduled hospital admissions are an increasing burden on health systems worldwide. To date, initiatives to reduce admissions have had limited success as it is unclear which strategies effectively reduce admissions and are supported by a strong evidence-base. Therefore, we will conduct an overview to find, assess and summarise all published peer-reviewed systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials that examine the effect of an intervention on unplanned admissions among adults. Methods and analysis This is a protocol for a systematic overview of reviews. We will search four databases: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. We will consider systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials in adults (?16?years old) evaluating the effect of any intervention on unscheduled hospital admissions including those to treat, monitor, diagnose or prevent a health problem. We will only include reviews that identified unscheduled hospitalisations as a prespecified outcome. Two authors will independently screen articles for inclusion using a priori criteria. We will assess the quality of included reviews and extract ratings of the quality of evidence from within each review. We will create a hierarchical list of interventions based on estimates of absolute admission reductions and the quality of the evidence. Presentation of results will align with guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required. We will submit the results of this study for peer-review publication. The results will inform future research and could be used by healthcare managers, administrators and policymakers to guide resource allocation decisions and inform local implementation and optimisation of interventions to reduce unscheduled hospital admissions. PMID:26297366

  9. Malignant pleural effusions and the role of talc poudrage and talc slurry: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mummadi, Srinivas; Kumbam, Anusha; Hahn, Peter Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malignant Pleural Effusion (MPE) is common with advanced malignancy. Palliative care with minimal adverse events is the cornerstone of management. Although talc pleurodesis plays an important role in treatment, the best modality of talc application remains controversial.   Objective: To compare rates of successful pleurodesis, rates of respiratory and non-respiratory complications between thoracoscopic talc insufflation/poudrage (TTI) and talc slurry (TS).  Data sources and study selection: MEDLINE (PubMed, OVID),  EBM Reviews (Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, ACP Journal Club, DARE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment and NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EMBASE and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials published between 01/01/1980 - 10/1/2014 and comparing the two strategies were selected.  Results: Twenty-eight potential studies were identified of which 24 studies were further excluded, leaving four studies. No statistically significant difference in the probability of successful pleurodesis was observed between TS and TTI groups (RR 1.06; 95 % CI 0.99-1.14; Q statistic, 4.84). There was a higher risk of post procedural respiratory complications in the TTI group compared to the TS group (RR 1.91, 95% CI= 1.24-2.93, Q statistic 3.15). No statistically significant difference in the incidence of non-respiratory complications between the TTI group and the TS group was observed (RR 0.88, 95% CI= 0.72-1.07, Q statistic 4.61). Conclusions: There is no difference in success rates of pleurodesis based on patient centered outcomes between talc poudrage and talc slurry treatments.  Respiratory complications are more common with talc poudrage via thoracoscopy. PMID:25878773

  10. Review of the Complications Associated with Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Guide to the Dental Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Lena; Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Akintoye, Sunday O

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. Focus on risk factors, improved diagnostic methods and effective management strategies have made it possible to successfully treat OPC. However, the 5-year survival rate has not improved for several years due to multiple treatment complications, tissue morbidity, loss of function and diminished quality of life. Survivors are faced with complications like oral mucositis, hyposalivation, osteoradionecrosis; tissue fibrosis, morbidity from jaw resection; disfigurement and loss of function that further diminish quality of life. The aim of this review is to highlight major complications associated with treatment of OPC via a literature search and review of available options for identification and management of these complications. Data Sources Relevant publications on oral complications of OPC therapy were thoroughly reviewed from the literature published between the years 1988 and 2012. Material and Method We evaluated reported incidence, prevalence and risk factors for oral complications of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for OPC. The authors conducted electronic search using English language databases namely PubMed Plus, Medline (Pre-Medline and Medline), Cochrane Database of systematic reviews (evidence-based medicine), Dentistry & Oral sciences source, AccessScience, Embase, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews Multifile, Google Scholar, ISI Journal Citation Reports, Ovid Multi-Database. Conclusion We identified the most common complications associated with the treatment of oral cancers. Based on the information gathered, there is evidence that survival of OPC extends beyond eradication of the diseased tissue. Understanding the potential treatment complications and utilizing available resources to prevent and minimize them are important. Caring for OPC survivors should be a multidisciplinary team approach involving the dentist, oncologist, internist and social worker to improve the currently stagnant 5-year survival rate of OPC. More emphasis on improved quality of life after elimination of the cancer will ultimately improve OPC survivorship. PMID:23444208

  11. Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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    Tutorials for Africa: Malaria In Uganda, the burden of malaria outranks that of all other diseases. This tutorial includes information about how malaria spreads, the importance of treatment and techniques for ...

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  14. Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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  16. Health Information in Ukrainian (??????????): MedlinePlus

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  17. Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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    ... better socially," said James Griffin, PhD, of the Child Development and Behavior Branch at NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver ... interaction research program to support studies relevant to child development, health, and the therapeutic use of animals. A ...

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  6. Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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  8. Osteoarthritis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  5. Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  7. Diabetes Complications - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  8. Fractures - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  9. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  10. Liver Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  11. Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  12. Ulcerative Colitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  13. Fever - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  14. Skin Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  15. Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  16. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  17. MedlinePlus FAQ: Search Cloud

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  18. Aortic Aneurysm - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  19. Prenatal Care - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  20. Vaginal Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  1. Colonoscopy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  2. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  3. Laboratory Tests - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  4. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  5. Surgery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  6. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  8. Sleep Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  9. Sleep Apnea - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  10. Mobility Aids - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  11. Patient Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  12. Ultrasound - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  13. Vascular Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  14. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  15. Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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  16. Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus magazine!

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    ... May 20-21, the Friends and the National Library of Medicine together will convene many of the nation's top experts to explore how personal electronic health records (PEHRs) can be adopted most quickly ...

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  18. Knee Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  20. Pain - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  1. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  2. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  7. Effect of rapid HIV testing on HIV incidence and services in populations at high risk for HIV exposure: an equity-focused systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pottie, Kevin; Medu, Olanrewaju; Welch, Vivian; Dahal, Govinda P; Tyndall, Mark; Rader, Tamara; Wells, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of rapid voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV on HIV incidence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services in people at high risk for HIV exposure. Design Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, EMBASE, AIDSearch, LILACS, Global Health, Medline Africa, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group Specialized Register and grey literature from 1 January 2001 to 5 June 2014 without language restriction. Data selection We included controlled studies that compared rapid VCT with conventional testing among people at risk for HIV exposure. Data extraction Two reviewers extracted data. We used Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE criteria: risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision and publication bias. For observational studies we used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We used the PRISMA-Equity reporting guideline. Results From 2441 articles, we included 8 randomised controlled trials and 5 observational studies. Rapid VCT was associated with a threefold increase in HIV-testing uptake (relative risk (RR)=2.95 95% CI 1.69 to 5.16) and a twofold increase in the receipt of test results (RR=2.14, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.24). Women accepted testing more often than men in rapid VCT arm, but no differences in effect for age or socioeconomic status. Observational studies also showed rapid VCT led to higher rates of uptake of testing. Heterogeneity was high. A cluster-randomised trial reported an 11% reduction in HIV incidence in intervention communities (RR=0.89, 95% CI=0.63 to 1.24) over 3?years trial. Conclusions Rapid VCT in health facilities and communities was associated with a large increase in HIV-testing uptake and receipt of results. This has implications for WHO guidelines. The routine use of rapid VCT may also help avoid human rights violations among marginalised populations where testing may occur without informed consent and where existing stigma may create barriers to testing. PMID:25510889

  8. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  9. Systematic review of acupuncture to control hot flashes in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Kay; Graham-Getty, Leslie; Haddad, Robin; Li, Yisheng; McQuade, Jennifer; Lee, Richard T; Spano, Michael; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2015-11-15

    Hot flashes (HFs) are a common side effect of cancer treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence related to the use of acupuncture for HFs in cancer patients. EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane (all databases), PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Scopus were searched from their inception through December 2014. Included studies had to be randomized controlled trials with a usual-care and/or placebo comparison group that investigated acupuncture to treat HFs in cancer patients. No language limits were applied. The risk of bias (ROB) was rated as low, high, or unclear according to Cochrane criteria. Both within-group and between-group changes were evaluated. Four hundred two items were identified, and 192 duplicates were omitted; this left 210 publications to be screened. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, and all involved women with breast cancer. All studies showed significant within-group improvement from the baseline for true acupuncture (TA). One study showed significant improvement in favor of TA over sham acupuncture (SA; P < .001), 1 study found in favor of TA over SA for nighttime HFs only (P = .03), and 1 study found in favor of TA over SA or untreated controls (P < .01 and P < .001, respectively). Between-group (TA vs SA) effect size (ES) estimates for daytime and nighttime HFs were calculated (ES range, 0.04-0.9) whenever possible. No studies were rated with a low ROB. In conclusion, the current level of evidence is insufficient to either support or refute the benefits of acupuncture for the management of HFs in cancer patients. Future studies should provide within-group and between-group ES estimates in addition to P values. Cancer 2015;121:3948-3958. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26281028

  10. Efficacy of treatments and pain management for trapeziometacarpal (thumb base) osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Tokiko; Lalonde, Lyne; Harris, Patrick; Bureau, Nathalie J; Gaudreault, Nathaly; Ziegler, Daniela; Choinière, Manon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The thumb is essential for daily activities. Unfortunately, this digit is commonly affected by trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis (TMO), handicapping a large number of individuals. TMO constitutes an increasing human and economic burden for our society whose population is ageing. Limited access to adequate treatment is among the most important obstacles to optimal TMO management. Poor understanding of TMO characteristics, lack of knowledge about evidence-based treatments, simplistic pain management plans based solely on the patient's physical condition, absence of interprofessional communication and lack of multidisciplinary treatment guidelines contribute to inadequate TMO management. On the long term, our research project aims at improving the quality of care and services offered to patients with TMO by developing a patient-centred, evidence-based multidisciplinary management clinical pathway coordinated across the healthcare system. This proposed systematic review is a prerequisite to ensuring evidence-based practices and aims to document the efficacy of all the existing modalities for TMO management. Methods and analysis The protocol of the systematic review is registered with PROSPERO and will be conducted using the guidelines Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We will identify studies in English and French concerning TMO treatments through searches in Cochrane Central, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINHAL, PubMed, OT Seekers, PEDRO and the grey literature. 2 reviewers will independently screen study eligibility, extract data and appraise studies using published assessment tools. Meta-analyses will be undertaken where feasible; otherwise, narrative syntheses will be carried out. The robustness of evidence will be assessed using the GRADE system. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for this study. A comprehensive knowledge exchange and transfer plan incorporating effective strategies will be used to disseminate the findings of this review and utilise them to optimise TMO management. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015015623. PMID:26463223

  11. Toppled television sets and head injuries in the pediatric population: a framework for prevention.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Parker, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to children caused by falling televisions have become more frequent during the last decade. These injuries can be severe and even fatal and are likely to become even more common in the future as TVs increase in size and become more affordable. To formulate guidelines for the prevention of these injuries, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on injuries related to toppling televisions. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar according to the Cochrane guidelines for all studies involving children 0-18 years of age who were injured by toppled TVs. Factors contributing to injury were categorized using Haddon's Matrix, and the public health approach was used as a framework for developing strategies to prevent these injuries. The vast majority (84%) of the injuries occurred in homes and more than three-fourths were unwitnessed by adult caregivers. The TVs were most commonly large and elevated off the ground. Dressers and other furniture not designed to support TVs were commonly involved in the TV-toppling incident. The case fatality rate varies widely, but almost all deaths reported (96%) were due to brain injuries. Toddlers between the ages of 1 and 3 years most frequently suffer injuries to the head and neck, and they are most likely to suffer severe injuries. Many of these injuries require brain imaging and neurosurgical intervention. Prevention of these injuries will require changes in TV design and legislation as well as increases in public education and awareness. Television-toppling injuries can be easily prevented; however, the rates of injury do not reflect a sufficient level of awareness, nor do they reflect an acceptable effort from an injury prevention perspective. PMID:26416669

  12. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions for Adult and Pediatric Patients with Vocal Cord Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guglani, Loveleen; Atkinson, Sarah; Hosanagar, Avinash; Guglani, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) or paradoxical vocal-fold motion (PVFM) is a functional disorder of the vocal cords that requires multidisciplinary treatment. Besides relaxation techniques, the use of psychological interventions can help treat the underlying psychological co-morbidities. There is currently no literature that examines the effectiveness of psychological interventions for VCD/PVFM. Objectives: To review the evidence for psychological interventions used for the treatment of patients with VCD/PVFM. Data sources: We searched electronic databases for English medical literature using Pubmed (Medline), PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Clinicaltrials.gov. The date range for our search is from June 1964 to June 2014. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions: We included studies that reported the use of psychological interventions in both adults and children diagnosed with VCD/PVFM. We included randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, retrospective chart reviews, prospective case series, and individual case reports. Results: Most reported studies are small case series or individual case reports that have described the use of interventions such as psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, use of anti-anxiety and anti-depressant medications, and hypnotherapy in conjunction with breathing exercises taught by speech therapists for symptomatic relief. Among the various psychological interventions that have been reported, there is no data regarding effectiveness and/or superiority of one approach over another in either adult or pediatric patients. Conclusions: Psychological interventions have a role to play in the management of adult and pediatric patients with VCD/PVFM. Future prospective studies using uniform approaches for treatment of associated psychopathology may help address this question. PMID:25152871

  13. Impact of Chronic Pain on Treatment Prognosis for Patients with Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Brittany B; Bawor, Monica; Naji, Leen; Chan, Carol K; Varenbut, Jaymie; Paul, James; Varenbut, Michael; Daiter, Jeff; Plater, Carolyn; Pare, Guillaume; Marsh, David C; Worster, Andrew; Desai, Dipika; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND While a number of pharmacological interventions exist for the treatment of opioid use disorder, evidence evaluating the effect of pain on substance use behavior, attrition rate, and physical or mental health among these therapies has not been well established. We aim to evaluate these effects using evidence gathered from a systematic review of studies evaluating chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) in patients with opioid use disorder. METHODS We searched the Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest Dissertations and theses Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry databases to identify articles evaluating the impact of pain on addiction treatment outcomes for patients maintained on opioid agonist therapy. RESULTS Upon screening 3,540 articles, 14 studies with a combined sample of 3,128 patients fulfilled the review inclusion criteria. Results from the meta-analysis suggest that pain has no effect on illicit opioid consumption [pooled odds ratio (pOR): 0.70, 95%CI 0.41–1.17; I2 = 0.0] but a protective effect for reducing illicit non-opioid substance use (pOR: 0.57, 95%CI 0.41–0.79; I2 = 0.0). Studies evaluating illicit opioid consumption using other measures demonstrate pain to increase the risk for opioid abuse. Pain is significantly associated with the presence of psychiatric disorders (pOR: 2.18; 95%CI 1.6, 2.9; I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSION CNCP may increase risk for continued opioid abuse and poor psychiatric functioning. Qualitative synthesis of the findings suggests that major methodological differences in the design and measurement of pain and treatment response outcomes are likely impacting the effect estimates. PMID:26417202

  14. Prognostic significance of CD44V6 expression in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunyuan; Ding, Chunming; Wang, Jing; Sun, Guirong; Cao, Yongxian; Xu, Longqiang; Zhou, Lan; Chen, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous individual studies evaluating the relationship between CD44V6 over-expression and prognostic impact in patients with osteosarcoma (OS) have yielded in conclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the value of cell adhesion molecule CD44V6 in prognosis of OS by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted using PubMed (medline), Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, Springer, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, Wanfang, Weipu, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) databases from inception through May 26, 2015. All available articles written in English or Chinese that investigated the expression of CD44V6 and the prognosis of OS were included. The quantity of the studies was evaluated according to the critical review checklist of the Dutch Cochrane Centre proposed by MOOSE. Finally, a total of eight studies with 486 OS patients were involved and the results indicated that the positive expression of CD44V6 predicts neoplasm metastasis (RR?=?1.76, 95 % CI 1.38-2.25, p?

  15. Risk of wound infection and safety profile of amoxicillin in healthy patients which required third molar surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, M A; Aragon-Martinez, O H; Martínez-Morales, J F; Zapata-Morales, J R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the risk of surgical wound infection and the adverse effects of amoxicillin in healthy patients who required excision of third molars. We identified eligible reports from searches of PubMed, Medline®, the Cochrane Library, Imbiomed, LILACS, and Google Scholar. Studies that met our minimum requirements were evaluated using inclusion and exclusion criteria and the Oxford Quality Scale. Those with a score of 3 or more on this Scale were included and their data were extracted and analysed. For evaluation of the risk of infection the absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat, and 95% CI were calculated. For evaluation of the risk of an adverse effect the absolute risk increase, number needed to harm, and 95% CI were calculated using the Risk Reduction Calculator. Each meta-analysis was made with the help of the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model, and estimates of risk (OR) and 95% CI were calculated using the Review Manager 5.3, from the Cochrane Library. A significant risk was assumed when the lower limit of the 95% CI was greater than 1. Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. The results showed that there was no reduction in the risk of infection when amoxicillin was given before or after operation compared with an untreated group or placebo. In conclusion, this study suggests that amoxicillin given prophylactically or postoperatively does not reduce the risk of infection in healthy patients having their third molars extracted. PMID:26316017

  16. Is Bone Grafting Necessary in Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy? A Meta-Analysis of Radiological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae Hwi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Song, Jae Gwang; Yang, Jae Hyuk; Bhandare, Nikhl N; Fernandez, Aldrich Raymund; Park, Hyung Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bone grafting in opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to compare the radiological outcomes of OWHTO with bone graft (autogenous, allogenous, and synthetic bone graft) and those without bone graft. Materials and Methods PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Register of Studies databases were searched using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria for radiological studies involving OWHTO with bone graft and without bone graft groups. All reported delayed union, nonunion and correction loss were analyzed. Data were searched from the time period of January 2000 through July 2014. In addition, a modified Coleman methodology score (CMS) system was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results Twenty-five studies with a mean CMS value of 77 (range, 61 to 85 score) were included. In total, 1,841 patients underwent OWHTO using 4 different procedures for bone graft: autobone graft (n=352), allobone graft (n=547), synthetic bone graft (n=541) and no bone graft (n=401). There was a similar tendency for delayed union, nonunion and correction loss rate among the osteotomy space filling methods. Conclusions The meta-analysis showed there was a similar tendency for radiological union and correction maintenance among patients undergoing OWHTO regardless of the type of bone in all of the studies. However, the currently available evidence is not sufficient to strongly support the superiority of OWHTO with bone graft to OWHTO without bone graft. PMID:26675553

  17. Psychological and somatic sequelae of traumatic vaginal delivery: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth M; Dietz, Hans P

    2015-08-01

    This literature review seeks to examine current knowledge of birth trauma associated with major pelvic floor dysfunction by interpreting and critically appraising existing published material. A search of the literature for peer reviewed journal articles was conducted between September and December 2013 of the following databases: PubMed; Wiley Online; MEDLINE; OvidSP; ScienceDirect; MD Consult Australia; Biomed Central; Sage; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Unpublished interviews from mothers who attended two tertiary teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia and international Internet blogs/websites were also utilised. Maternal birth trauma seems to be a common cause of pelvic floor dysfunction. Women who have sustained birth trauma to the levator ani muscle or the anal sphincters are often injured more seriously than generally believed. There often is a substantial latency between trauma and the manifestation of symptoms. Urinary and faecal incontinence, prolapse and sexual dysfunction are commonly seen as too embarrassing to discuss with clinicians, and frequently, new mothers have inaccurate recollections of obstetric procedures that occurred without much explanation or explicit consent. Moreover, somatic trauma may contribute to psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The link between somatic and psychological trauma is poorly understood. PMID:25537397

  18. Does Scientific Evidence for the Use of Natural Products in the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Exist? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Gabriela Lacet Silva; Pérez, Ana Luíza Alves de Lima; Rocha, Ítalo Martins; Pinheiro, Mayara Abreu; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In view of the limitations of antifungal agents used in the treatment of oral candidiasis and the wide variety of natural products that have been studied as treatment of this disease, this systematic literature review proposed to evaluate whether scientific evidence attesting to the efficacy of natural products in the treatment of this disease exists. A systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was accomplished using the associations among the keywords Candida albicans, phytotherapy, biological products, denture stomatitis, and oral candidiasis in both English and Portuguese. Four independent observers evaluated the methodological quality of the resulting articles. Three studies were included for detailed analysis and evaluated according to the analysis protocol based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 2010 statement. The tested products were different in all studies. Two studies mentioned random samples, but no study described the sample allocation. No study mentioned sample calculations, a prior pilot study, or examiner calibration, and only one trial reported sample losses. Differences between the tested products and the methodological designs among these studies did not allow the existence of scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of these products for the proposed subjects to be confirmed. PMID:25883668

  19. Outcomes of vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth with different medicaments based on review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Khademi, Abbasali

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a biologic and conservative treatment modality to preserve the vitality and function of the coronal or remaining radicular pulp tissue in vital permanent teeth. A search was conducted via the Cochrane database, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Ovid for any articles with the criteria for “pulp-capping,” or “pulp-capping materials” and “VPT outcomes” from 1978 to mid 2014. All articles were evaluated and the valid papers were selected. The outcomes of various VPT techniques, including indirect pulp treatment, direct pulp treatment, partial pulpotomy, and complete pulpotomy in vital permanent teeth were extracted. Although various studies have different research approach, most studies noted a favorable treatment outcome. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) appears to be more effective than calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) for maintaining long-term pulp vitality after indirect and direct pulp-capping. However, it seems that the success rate for partial pulpotomy and pulpotomy with Ca(OH)2 is similar to MTA. PMID:26604953

  20. [Physical exercise in the treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fernando; Leite, Mário; Silva, Francisco; Sousa, Otília

    2007-01-01

    Physical exercise (PE) is a regular component in various disorders management, such as ankylosing spondilitis (AS). AS is a chronic and systematic rheumatic disorder without an effective treatment to restore the health. PE plays an important role on the prevention and management of the deformities related to AS. This review summarizes the randomized controlled trials that have examined the role of PE in AS patients' therapeutic process in order to promote an evidence based practise and to improve the AS patients care. Thirteen randomized controlled trials with a total of 1056 participants were identified in a Cochrane Central, Pubmed/ Medline and PEDro databases computer-based search. The quality assessment of the thirteen randomized controlled trial was 5,62 points in the PEDro scoring scale. Three trials assessed the effects induced by the addition of PE interventions to the medication program, three trials compared individualized home exercise with supervised group exercise, five trials compared alternative exercise programs (hydrotherapy and global posture reeducation) with traditional exercise programs usually recommended to treat AS patients, and two trials investigated the therapy effectiveness. The trials included in this review suggest that PE is a helpful therapy in the management of AS patients; PE should be performed in group under the physiotherapist supervision. New exercise-based approaches, hydrotherapy or global posture reeducation, offers promising results in the management of patients suffering AS. PMID:17572651