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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Glomerular disease search filters for Pubmed, Ovid Medline, and Embase: a development and validation study  

PubMed Central

Background Tools to enhance physician searches of Medline and other bibliographic databases have potential to improve the application of new knowledge in patient care. This is particularly true for articles about glomerular disease, which are published across multiple disciplines and are often difficult to track down. Our objective was to develop and test search filters for PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Embase that allow physicians to search within a subset of the database to retrieve articles relevant to glomerular disease. Methods We used a diagnostic test assessment framework with development and validation phases. We read a total of 22,992 full text articles for relevance and assigned them to the development or validation set to define the reference standard. We then used combinations of search terms to develop 997,298 unique glomerular disease filters. Outcome measures for each filter included sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy. We selected optimal sensitive and specific search filters for each database and applied them to the validation set to test performance. Results High performance filters achieved at least 93.8% sensitivity and specificity in the development set. Filters optimized for sensitivity reached at least 96.7% sensitivity and filters optimized for specificity reached at least 98.4% specificity. Performance of these filters was consistent in the validation set and similar among all three databases. Conclusions PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Embase can be filtered for articles relevant to glomerular disease in a reliable manner. These filters can now be used to facilitate physician searching.

2012-01-01

2

Retrieval comparison of EndNote to search MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed) versus searching them directly.  

PubMed

Using EndNote version 7.0, the authors tested the search capabilities of the EndNote search engine for retrieving citations from MEDLINE for importation into EndNote, a citation management software package. Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed were selected for the comparison. Several searches were performed on Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed using EndNote as the search engine, and the same searches were run on both Ovid and PubMed directly. Findings indicate that it is preferable to search MEDLINE directly rather than using EndNote. The publishers of EndNote do warn its users about the limitations of their product as a search engine when searching external databases. In this article, the limitations of EndNote as a search engine for searching MEDLINE were explored as related to MeSH, non-MeSH, citation verification, and author searching. PMID:15364649

Gall, Carole; Brahmi, Frances A

2004-01-01

3

Do Language Fluency and Other Socioeconomic Factors Influence the Use of PubMed and MedlinePlus?  

PubMed Central

Background Increased usage of MedlinePlus by Spanish-speakers was observed after introduction of MedlinePlus in Spanish. This probably reflects increased usage of MEDLINE and PubMed by those with greater fluency in the language in which it is presented; but this has never been demonstrated in English speakers. Evidence that lack of English fluency deters international healthcare personnel from using PubMed could support the use of multi-language search tools like Babel-MeSH. Objectives This study aims to measure the effects of language fluency and other socioeconomic factors on PubMed MEDLINE and MedlinePlus access by international users. Methods We retrospectively reviewed server pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus from various periods of time, and analyzed them against country statistics on language fluency, GDP, literacy rate, Internet usage, medical schools, and physicians per capita, to determine whether they were associated. Results We found fluency in English to be positively associated with pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus in countries with high literacy rates. Spanish was generally found to be positively associated with pageviews of MedlinePlus en Español. The other parameters also showed varying degrees of association with pageviews. Conclusions After adjusting for the other factors investigated in this study, language fluency was a consistently significant predictor of the use of PubMed, MedlinePlus English and MedlinePlus en Español. This study may support the need for multi-language search tools and may increase access of health information resources from non-English speaking countries.

Sheets, L.; Gavino, A.; Callaghan, F.; Fontelo, P.

2013-01-01

4

Identifying nurse staffing research in Medline: development and testing of empirically derived search strategies with the PubMed interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The identification of health services research in databases such as PubMed\\/Medline is a cumbersome task. This task becomes even more difficult if the field of interest involves the use of diverse methods and data sources, as is the case with nurse staffing research. This type of research investigates the association between nurse staffing parameters and nursing and patient outcomes.

Michael Simon; Elke Hausner; Susan F Klaus; Nancy E Dunton

2010-01-01

5

PubMed Assistant: a biologist-friendly interface for enhanced PubMed search.  

PubMed

MEDLINE is one of the most important bibliographical information sources for biologists and medical workers. Its PubMed interface supports Boolean queries, which are potentially expressive and exact. However, PubMed is also designed to support simplicity of use at the expense of query expressiveness and exactness. Many PubMed users have never tried explicit Boolean queries. We developed a Java program, PubMed Assistant, to make literature access easier in several ways. PubMed Assistant provides an interface that efficiently displays information about the citations and includes useful functions such as keyword highlighting, export to citation managers, clickable links to Google Scholar and others that are lacking in PubMed. PMID:16332704

Ding, Jing; Hughes, Laron M; Berleant, Daniel; Fulmer, Andy W; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

2006-02-01

6

PubMed Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After almost a year of sometimes contentious debate, the National Institutes of Health has officially opened PubMed Central, a free online archive of full-text, peer-reviewed research papers in the life sciences. While the majority of the major scientific publishers have declined to participate, a number of respected journals will be featured at the site. The first of these are Molecular Biology of the Cell and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. At the time of writing, only the November 1, 1999 issue of Molecular Biology of the Cell was available. Users can view abstracts or the full text of over 30 articles in HTML or .pdf format. The full texts of issues for both journals from 1999 and 1998 are in preparation. Forthcoming journals include Biochemical Journal, Canadian Medical Association Journal, Frontiers in Bioscience, and five journals from BioMed Central. Background and participation information are available at the site. While current offerings at the site are modest, PubMed Central promises to become a major resource for scholars and professionals in the life sciences.

7

MEDLINE PLUS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEDLINE plus is the National Library of Medicine's web site for consumer health information. MEDLINE plus has extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other trusted sources on over 600 diseases and conditions. There are also lists of hospitals and physicia...

8

The cochrane tobacco addiction group.  

PubMed

The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group produces up-to-date systematic reviews of interventions for the cessation and prevention of tobacco use. Many of our Cochrane Reviews have also been published in scientific journals. Our review prioritization schedule is informed by our group's experience and expertise as well as identifying topics for reviews via regular searches of current scientific literature and from other news sources, such as the Action on Smoking and Health updates. The Cochrane Register of Studies allows identification of new trials, which might be eligible for review updates. Everyday challenges include timely publishing and updating of our reviews, and ensuring compliance to Cochrane methodological expectations of Cochrane intervention review standards. We are grateful for the contributions of our authors and peer reviewers, with whom we aim to have close working and productive relationships. We look forward to continuing our contribution toward a reliable evidence base on interventions to combat tobacco addiction. PMID:24325412

Mehta, Monaz

2013-11-01

9

Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy reviews  

PubMed Central

In 1996, shortly after the founding of The Cochrane Collaboration, leading figures in test evaluation research established a Methods Group to focus on the relatively new and rapidly evolving methods for the systematic review of studies of diagnostic tests. Seven years later, the Collaboration decided it was time to develop a publication format and methodology for Diagnostic Test Accuracy (DTA) reviews, as well as the software needed to implement these reviews in The Cochrane Library. A meeting hosted by the German Cochrane Centre in 2004 brought together key methodologists in the area, many of whom became closely involved in the subsequent development of the methodological framework for DTA reviews. DTA reviews first appeared in The Cochrane Library in 2008 and are now an integral part of the work of the Collaboration.

2013-01-01

10

Automatic Export of PubMed Citations to EndNote.  

PubMed

The export of MEDLINE references to EndNote can be accomplished in various ways. Unlike Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed does not have a direct export feature to EndNote. Until recently, PubMed references had to be saved as a text file to import into EndNote. Now, the automatic export of PubMed references can be done using Internet Explorer (IE) or Mozilla Firefox Web browsers. The development and teaching of seamless citation management is a value-added service to health professionals. PMID:20432138

London, Sue; Gurdal, Osman; Gall, Carole

2010-04-01

11

[Acupuncture resources in Cochrane Library].  

PubMed

To identify acupuncture resources in six databases of Cochrane Library (CL) with computer retrieve. Seventy-two literatures were identified in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Among them, 12 Cochrane systematic review (CSR) verified the effectiveness of acupuncture, 29 concerning the indeterminacy of the efficacy of acupuncture with 1 didn't support acupuncture for epilepsy and 31 remained as protocols; 121 literatures were found in Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) with more types of diseases or symptoms and rich modality comparing to CSR; 4218 randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials were identified in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCRCT); 43 literatures in Cochrane Methodology Register Database (CMRD) which focused on blindness study, quality assessment of methodology of research and publication bias and so on; 25 literatures in Health Technology Assessment Database (HTAD) and 18 in NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) which were centered on acupuncture analgesia. Consequently, acupuncture literatures in 6 databases of CL do provide good resources for acupuncture researchers due to its abundant content, concrete classification and high quality evidence. PMID:21823303

Liu, Mai-Lan; Lan, Lei; Wu, Xi; Du, Huai-Bin; Tang, Hong-Zhi; Liang, Fan-Rong

2011-07-01

12

MScanner: a classifier for retrieving Medline citations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Keyword searching through PubMed and other systems is the standard means of retrieving information from Medline. However, ad-hoc retrieval systems do not meet all of the needs of databases that curate information from literature, or of text miners developing a corpus on a topic that has many terms indicative of relevance. Several databases have developed supervised learning methods that

Graham L. Poulter; Daniel L. Rubin; Russ B. Altman; Cathal Seoighe

2008-01-01

13

Telehealthcare for asthma: a Cochrane review  

PubMed Central

Background: Telehealthcare has the potential to provide care for long-term conditions that are increasingly prevalent, such as asthma. We conducted a systematic review of studies of telehealthcare interventions used for the treatment of asthma to determine whether such approaches to care are effective. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including CENTRAL (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and PsycINFO, as well as other electronic resources. We also searched registers of ongoing and unpublished trials. We were interested in studies that measured the following outcomes: quality of life, number of visits to the emergency department and number of admissions to hospital. Two reviewers identified studies for inclusion in our meta-analysis. We extracted data and used fixedeffect modelling for the meta-analyses. Results: We identified 21 randomized controlled trials for inclusion in our analysis. The methods of telehealthcare intervention these studies investigated were the telephone and video- and Internet-based models of care. Meta-analysis did not show a clinically important improvement in patients’ quality of life, and there was no significant change in the number of visits to the emergency department over 12 months. There was a significant reduction in the number of patients admitted to hospital once or more over 12 months (risk ratio 0.25 [95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.66]). Interpretation: We found no evidence of a clinically important impact on patients’ quality of life, but telehealthcare interventions do appear to have the potential to reduce the risk of admission to hospital, particularly for patients with severe asthma. Further research is required to clarify the cost-effectiveness of models of care based on telehealthcare.

McLean, Susannah; Chandler, David; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Liu, Joseph; Pagliari, Claudia; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz

2011-01-01

14

Home based versus centre based cardiac rehabilitation: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the effect of home based and supervised centre based cardiac rehabilitation on mortality and morbidity, health related quality of life, and modifiable cardiac risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease.Design Systematic review.Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, without language restriction, searched from 2001 to

Hasnain M Dalal; Anna Zawada; Kate Jolly; Tiffany Moxham; Rod S Taylor

2010-01-01

15

Understanding PubMed® user search behavior through log analysis  

PubMed Central

This article reports on a detailed investigation of PubMed users’ needs and behavior as a step toward improving biomedical information retrieval. PubMed is providing free service to researchers with access to more than 19 million citations for biomedical articles from MEDLINE and life science journals. It is accessed by millions of users each day. Efficient search tools are crucial for biomedical researchers to keep abreast of the biomedical literature relating to their own research. This study provides insight into PubMed users’ needs and their behavior. This investigation was conducted through the analysis of one month of log data, consisting of more than 23 million user sessions and more than 58 million user queries. Multiple aspects of users’ interactions with PubMed are characterized in detail with evidence from these logs. Despite having many features in common with general Web searches, biomedical information searches have unique characteristics that are made evident in this study. PubMed users are more persistent in seeking information and they reformulate queries often. The three most frequent types of search are search by author name, search by gene/protein, and search by disease. Use of abbreviation in queries is very frequent. Factors such as result set size influence users’ decisions. Analysis of characteristics such as these plays a critical role in identifying users’ information needs and their search habits. In turn, such an analysis also provides useful insight for improving biomedical information retrieval. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed

Islamaj Dogan, Rezarta; Murray, G. Craig; Neveol, Aurelie; Lu, Zhiyong

2009-01-01

16

MScanner: a classifier for retrieving Medline citations  

PubMed Central

Background Keyword searching through PubMed and other systems is the standard means of retrieving information from Medline. However, ad-hoc retrieval systems do not meet all of the needs of databases that curate information from literature, or of text miners developing a corpus on a topic that has many terms indicative of relevance. Several databases have developed supervised learning methods that operate on a filtered subset of Medline, to classify Medline records so that fewer articles have to be manually reviewed for relevance. A few studies have considered generalisation of Medline classification to operate on the entire Medline database in a non-domain-specific manner, but existing applications lack speed, available implementations, or a means to measure performance in new domains. Results MScanner is an implementation of a Bayesian classifier that provides a simple web interface for submitting a corpus of relevant training examples in the form of PubMed IDs and returning results ranked by decreasing probability of relevance. For maximum speed it uses the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and journal of publication as a concise document representation, and takes roughly 90 seconds to return results against the 16 million records in Medline. The web interface provides interactive exploration of the results, and cross validated performance evaluation on the relevant input against a random subset of Medline. We describe the classifier implementation, cross validate it on three domain-specific topics, and compare its performance to that of an expert PubMed query for a complex topic. In cross validation on the three sample topics against 100,000 random articles, the classifier achieved excellent separation of relevant and irrelevant article score distributions, ROC areas between 0.97 and 0.99, and averaged precision between 0.69 and 0.92. Conclusion MScanner is an effective non-domain-specific classifier that operates on the entire Medline database, and is suited to retrieving topics for which many features may indicate relevance. Its web interface simplifies the task of classifying Medline citations, compared to building a pre-filter and classifier specific to the topic. The data sets and open source code used to obtain the results in this paper are available on-line and as supplementary material, and the web interface may be accessed at .

Poulter, Graham L; Rubin, Daniel L; Altman, Russ B; Seoighe, Cathal

2008-01-01

17

MEDLINE Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive manual for the operation of the MEDLINE system. Contains specific information on modes of accessing MEDLINE, the commands which may be used, techniques for searching the data base, and a number of helpful appendices.

1972-01-01

18

MEDLINE Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive manual for the operation of the MEDLINE system. It contains specific information on modes of accessing MEDLINE, the commands which may be used, techniques for searching the data base, and a number of helpful appendices. It includes instruc...

1973-01-01

19

Biochemia Medica indexed in Medline  

PubMed Central

Biochemia Medica has been approved for inclusion in PubMed/Medline bibliographic database, from the first issue published in 2011 year. We believe that this outstanding achievement comes as acknowledgment for many past efforts and some recent developments of the journal Editorial Board, such as recent launch of a new web page, online manuscript submission system and the implementation of the revised policy on the Statement of Conflict of Interest. We will continue our committed work to maintain the timeliness of publication, publication ethics and research integrity, and further improve the quality of content as well as the quality of the editorial work and production of the Journal. We sincerely hope that inclusion of our Journal in PubMed will enable us to increase its international visibility and the number of high-quality submissions.

Simundic, Ana-Maria

2012-01-01

20

Searching PubMed for studies on bacteremia, bloodstream infection, septicemia, or whatever the best term is: A note of caution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is inconsistency in the terminology used to describe bacteremia. To demonstrate the impact on information retrieval, we compared the yield of articles from PubMed MEDLINE using the terms \\

Mette So gaard; Jens Peter Andersen; Henrik Carl Schonheyder

2011-01-01

21

Fifteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group--focus on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

This fifteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group (CHMG) highlights recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of hemato-oncology, covering the publication period from October 2011 to May 2012. Implications for clinical practice and methodological aspects are the main principles for selecting trials for this report. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE using a broad search filter that covers all topics in hemato-oncology combined with a highly sensitive search filter for randomized trials (Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions). PMID:23852951

Rancea, Michaela; Will, Andrea; Borchmann, Peter; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Skoetz, Nicole

2013-08-01

22

A Systematic Review of Cochrane Anticoagulation Reviews  

PubMed Central

Context I coauthored a published review of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published a review on the same topic in MedGenMed (now the Medscape Journal of Medicine). In contrast to the article in Medscape, the discussion and conclusions in the Cochrane review were altered appreciably during the review process. Consequently, I decided to critique all anticoagulation drug-related reviews and protocols in the Cochrane database with feedback letters concerning any issues of potential controversy. Evidence Acquisition Using key words in the search engine of the Cochrane Reviews, I located reviews and protocols involving anticoagulant drugs. I critiqued each anticoagulation review and protocol and sent a total of 57 feedback letters to Cochrane concerning each publication to elicit a response/rebuttal from the authors. Evidence Synthesis Cochrane anticoagulation review editors acknowledged receipt of all letters. As of 12 months after receipt of my last letter, the Cochrane authors have replied to 13 of the 57 and agreed with many of my points. Two protocols were withdrawn after my feedback letters were acknowledged. The 58 Cochrane anticoagulation drug reviews, including mine, contained 9 categories of methodological errors (207 total instances) and 4 types of biases (18 total instances). This review of those Cochrane reviews suggests that the effectiveness of anticoagulants for 30 medical indications is questionable. Conclusions The efficacy of anticoagulants for treatment and prophylaxis for 30 current medical indications should be reconsidered by the scientific community and medical regulatory agencies. At least 50,000 people per year worldwide have fatal bleeding due to anticoagulant treatment or prophylaxis for these indications.

Cundiff, David Keith

2009-01-01

23

PubMed Medical publications from Libya  

PubMed Central

Medical research and publications are the back-bone for advancing the medical field. We identified the Pubmed medical publications that are affiliated with Libya to shed some light on the contribution of this country's medical community to the PubMed database. All publications affiliated with Libya in the PubMed were counted over a five year period ending December 2006. We also used the same method to obtain data on the PubMed medical publications from Tunisia, Morocco and Yemen. Tunisia had the largest number of PubMed publications among the studied countries: 20.4 publications per million population per year and 7.2 publications per year per one billion US$ GDP. Libya had much fewer publications: 2.4 publications per million population per year and 0.4 publications per one billion US$ GDP. The citation frequency for Libyan published research was very low compared to Tunisian and Moroccan related research. Conclusion: This preliminary analysis shows that medical research output in Libya is about twenty times less than in other countries with similar backgrounds, and that it needs to be enhanced.

Bakoush, O; Al-Tubuly, AA; Ashammakhi, N; Elkhammas, EA

2007-01-01

24

Sixteenth Biannual Report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group: Focus on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.  

PubMed

This sixteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group highlights recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of hemato-oncology, with special focus on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The report covers the publication period June 2012 to July 2013. Trials are selected regarding their methodology and implication for clinical practice. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE using a broad search filter that covers all topics in hemato-oncology combined with a highly sensitive search filter for randomized trials (Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions). Four RCTs are presented in detail, followed by two further RCTs of high importance in a short version. The report is finalized with an overview of new and updated Cochrane Reviews. PMID:25031306

Rancea, Michaela; Will, Andrea; Borchmann, Peter; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Skoetz, Nicole

2014-08-01

25

Predicting clicks of PubMed articles  

PubMed Central

Predicting the popularity or access usage of an article has the potential to improve the quality of PubMed searches. We can model the click trend of each article as its access changes over time by mining the PubMed query logs, which contain the previous access history for all articles. In this article, we examine the access patterns produced by PubMed users in two years (July 2009 to July 2011). We explore the time series of accesses for each article in the query logs, model the trends with regression approaches, and subsequently use the models for prediction. We show that the click trends of PubMed articles are best fitted with a log-normal regression model. This model allows the number of accesses an article receives and the time since it first becomes available in PubMed to be related via quadratic and logistic functions, with the model parameters to be estimated via maximum likelihood. Our experiments predicting the number of accesses for an article based on its past usage demonstrate that the mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of our model are 4.0% and 8.1% lower than the power-law regression model, respectively. The log-normal distribution is also shown to perform significantly better than a previous prediction method based on a human memory theory in cognitive science. This work warrants further investigation on the utility of such a log-normal regression approach towards improving information access in PubMed.

Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong

2013-01-01

26

A Cochrane Systematic Review Finds No Evidence to Support the Use of Antibiotics for Pain Relief in Irreversible Pulpitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cochrane Systematic Review promotes evidence-based outcomes studies. The review summarized here was conducted in an attempt to achieve reliable evidence concerning the effectiveness, or otherwise, of prescribing antibiotics for patients having irreversible pulpitis. A competent search strategy was developed and used across several databases including MEDLINE to identify randomized controlled trials for inclusion. Assessment of methodological quality was based

James V. Keenan; Allan G. Farman; Zbigniew Fedorowicz; Jonathan T. Newton

2006-01-01

27

Detroit MEDLINE Consortium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Detroit MEDLINE Consortium is an experimental pilot project which is intended to extend use of the on line retrieval system to the hospital environment. The consortium was initiated to increase the capacity for bibliographic information retrieval supp...

V. DeSchryver

1973-01-01

28

Detroit MEDLINE Consortium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Detroit MEDLINE Consortium is an experimental pilot project which is intended to extend use of the on-line retrieval system to the hospital environment. The consortium was initiated to increase the capacity for bibliographic information retrieval supp...

V. DeSchryver V. Pings C. Cziske B. C. Johnson J. Malin

1973-01-01

29

MedlinePlus Connect  

MedlinePLUS

... Connect responds to requests based on diagnosis (problem) codes, medication codes, and laboratory test codes. When an EHR or patient portal submits a code request, MedlinePlus Connect returns a response that includes ...

30

A MEDLINE categorization algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Categorization is designed to enhance resource description by organizing content description so as to enable the reader to grasp quickly and easily what are the main topics discussed in it. The objective of this work is to propose a categorization algorithm to classify a set of scientific articles indexed with the MeSH thesaurus, and in particular those of the MEDLINE bibliographic database. In a large bibliographic database such as MEDLINE, finding materials of particular interest to a specialty group, or relevant to a particular audience, can be difficult. The categorization refines the retrieval of indexed material. In the CISMeF terminology, metaterms can be considered as super-concepts. They were primarily conceived to improve recall in the CISMeF quality-controlled health gateway. Methods The MEDLINE categorization algorithm (MCA) is based on semantic links existing between MeSH terms and metaterms on the one hand and between MeSH subheadings and metaterms on the other hand. These links are used to automatically infer a list of metaterms from any MeSH term/subheading indexing. Medical librarians manually select the semantic links. Results The MEDLINE categorization algorithm lists the medical specialties relevant to a MEDLINE file by decreasing order of their importance. The MEDLINE categorization algorithm is available on a Web site. It can run on any MEDLINE file in a batch mode. As an example, the top 3 medical specialties for the set of 60 articles published in BioMed Central Medical Informatics & Decision Making, which are currently indexed in MEDLINE are: information science, organization and administration and medical informatics. Conclusion We have presented a MEDLINE categorization algorithm in order to classify the medical specialties addressed in any MEDLINE file in the form of a ranked list of relevant specialties. The categorization method introduced in this paper is based on the manual indexing of resources with MeSH (terms/subheadings) pairs by NLM indexers. This algorithm may be used as a new bibliometric tool.

Darmoni, Stefan J; Neveol, Aurelie; Renard, Jean-Marie; Gehanno, Jean-Francois; Soualmia, Lina F; Dahamna, Badisse; Thirion, Benoit

2006-01-01

31

Basics of Searching MEDLINE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Guide is designed to acquaint the health professional with the basic concepts and skills involved in using MEDLARS to retrieve information from its primary database, MEDLINE. It may be used in a formal training course or as a self-paced learning tool....

1989-01-01

32

Query Expansion and MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of query expansion strategies on a MEDLINE test collection using Cornell University's SMART retrieval system. Three expansion strategies are tested on their ability to identify appropriate McSH terms for user queries: expansion using an inter-field statistical thesaurus, expansion via retrieval feedback and expansion using a combined approach. These expansion strategies do not require prior

Padmini Srinivasan

1996-01-01

33

Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design  

PubMed Central

Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users.

Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

2012-01-01

34

Medical Questions? Medline has Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the electronic version of "Index Medicus," Medline is the world's largest collection of published medical knowledge. Discussion includes accessing Medline (cost-free) with a Web browser, librarians as links between patients and physicians; and examples of Medline searches. (AEF)

Modlin, Melanie

1998-01-01

35

Celebrating 20 years of the international Cochrane Collaboration.  

PubMed

In 2013 the international Cochrane Collaboration is celebrating the 20th anniversary of its foundation with a series of events, publications, and videos. The "Cochrane Corner" has been a regular feature of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery for several years, but for those unfamiliar with the work of Cochrane we provide some background about our organization. PMID:23980033

Bellorini, Jenny; Schilder, Anne G M; Burton, Martin J

2013-10-01

36

Medline Plus: Sports Injuries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exercising and playing sports can lead to a sound mind and body, but sports-related injuries can be frustrating for anyone. This very helpful site, offered as part of the Medline Plus series from the U.S. National Library of Medicine, contains dozens of fact sheets, media presentations, and other items regarding various sports injuries. Visitors who know exactly what they need can click on over to the "Related Topics" area on the right-hand side of the homepage, where they will find resources on everything from ankle injuries to general wellness. Their homepage also contains sections like "Basics", "Research", and "Multimedia & Cool Tools". Two items that are definitely worth checking out are the tennis elbow tutorial and the basic overview of sports injuries offered by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

37

MedlinePlus: Diets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this section of their website, Medline Plus, a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, tackles the subject of diets. The information is divided up into half a dozen labeled boxes near the top of the page, and includes "Basics", "Research", "Learn More", and "Reference Shelf". Within these sections visitors can find links to information on "Nutrition", "Specific Conditions", "Journal Articles", "Dictionaries/Glossaries", and more. Many of the topics discussed throughout the categories is the safety of certain diets, such as the link "Nutrition for Weight Loss: What You Need to Know About Fad Diets", and "Are Detox Diets Safe?" found under the Teenagers category at the bottom of the page. Visitors interested in participating in clinical trials going on throughout the United States, can check out the links "ClinicalTrials.gov: Diet" and "ClinicalTrials.gov: Diet Therapy" under the category Clinical Trials.

38

Dr. Felix's Free MEDLINE Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you need to search the National Medical Library's Medline database, Dr. Felix's Free Medline Page is a good place to start. This simple page is a comparison of twenty-eight web based services that offer free access to parts or all of Medline. For each service users can access information about database coverage, registration requirements, usage restrictions, and document delivery. Hypertext links are available from all of the services discussed. Dr. Felix is a quick and convenient way to launch a Medline session that can inform users of the possible limitations of their search right from the start.

Perry, Helga J.

1997-01-01

39

pubmed2ensembl: A Resource for Mining the Biological Literature on Genes  

PubMed Central

Background The last two decades have witnessed a dramatic acceleration in the production of genomic sequence information and publication of biomedical articles. Despite the fact that genome sequence data and publications are two of the most heavily relied-upon sources of information for many biologists, very little effort has been made to systematically integrate data from genomic sequences directly with the biological literature. For a limited number of model organisms dedicated teams manually curate publications about genes; however for species with no such dedicated staff many thousands of articles are never mapped to genes or genomic regions. Methodology/Principal Findings To overcome the lack of integration between genomic data and biological literature, we have developed pubmed2ensembl (http://www.pubmed2ensembl.org), an extension to the BioMart system that links over 2,000,000 articles in PubMed to nearly 150,000 genes in Ensembl from 50 species. We use several sources of curated (e.g., Entrez Gene) and automatically generated (e.g., gene names extracted through text-mining on MEDLINE records) sources of gene-publication links, allowing users to filter and combine different data sources to suit their individual needs for information extraction and biological discovery. In addition to extending the Ensembl BioMart database to include published information on genes, we also implemented a scripting language for automated BioMart construction and a novel BioMart interface that allows text-based queries to be performed against PubMed and PubMed Central documents in conjunction with constraints on genomic features. Finally, we illustrate the potential of pubmed2ensembl through typical use cases that involve integrated queries across the biomedical literature and genomic data. Conclusion/Significance By allowing biologists to find the relevant literature on specific genomic regions or sets of functionally related genes more easily, pubmed2ensembl offers a much-needed genome informatics inspired solution to accessing the ever-increasing biomedical literature.

Baran, Joachim; Gerner, Martin; Haeussler, Maximilian; Nenadic, Goran; Bergman, Casey M.

2011-01-01

40

MedlinePlus FAQ: Mobile Version of MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Is there a mobile version of MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Answer: Yes, there is a mobile version of MedlinePlus available at http://m.medlineplus. ...

41

Finding biomedical categories in Medline®  

PubMed Central

Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

2012-01-01

42

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

43

Bosnian and Herzegovinian medical scientists in PubMed database.  

PubMed

In this paper it is shortly presented PubMed as one of the most important on-line databases of the scientific biomedical literature. Also, the author has analyzed the most cited authors, professors of the medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the published papers in the biomedical journals abstracted and indexed in PubMed. PMID:24341067

Masic, Izet

2013-01-01

44

Sharing MedlinePlus®/MEDLINE® for information literacy education (SMILE): a dental public health information project.  

PubMed

The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of "power information users" among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provided public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel. PMID:22040242

Gaines, Julie K; Levy, Linda S; Cogdill, Keith W

2011-01-01

45

Developing optimal search strategies for finding information on herbs and other medicinal plants in MEDLINE.  

PubMed

The MEDLINE database is an important resource for locating up-to-date information on herbs and other botanical therapies. However, the evolving nature of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the complexity of herbal terminology can make it difficult to identify useful citations. This paper describes optimal search strategies for finding clinical information on herbs and medicinal plants in MEDLINE using the PubMed retrieval system. Searchers will benefit from an understanding of the structure of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and PubMed's advanced search capabilities. Details for using PubMed's MeSH Database, Clinical Queries, Clipboard, and limiting features to retrieve pertinent botanical research are described. Tables containing MeSH terms for medicinal plants and useful print and electronic resources are included. PMID:16131300

Saxton, Jane D; Owen, David J

2005-08-01

46

MedlinePlus FAQ: What is MedlinePlus?  

MedlinePLUS

... herbs and supplements. Interactive tutorials from the Patient Education Institute explain over 165 procedures and conditions in easy-to-read language. Return to the list of MedlinePlus FAQs Mobile version Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

47

MedlinePlus Survey Results 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL MedlinePlus Survey Results 2012 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. These survey results describe MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus en español users. ...

48

Searching CINAHL and MEDLINE Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 20 min. tutorial, done in Adobe Captivate software, is designed to walk nursing students through both keyword and subject heading searching in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases, as configured at IPFW Helmke Library.

Shannon F Johnson

2009-01-01

49

An Experiment in Teaching Medline.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Case Western Reserve University added training in MEDLINE analysis to its health sciences librarianship program in 1974, with help and some funding from the National Library of Medicine and with the cooperation of the Cleveland Health Sciences Library. ME...

A. M. Rees

1975-01-01

50

Contact Us: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Thank you for visiting MedlinePlus. We welcome your comments. We cannot respond to questions about your individual ... directly with your healthcare provider. Subject of my comment/suggestion: My comment or question (required): Optional information: ...

51

Effective and evidence-based management strategies for rosacea: summary of a Cochrane systematic review.  

PubMed

Rosacea is a common chronic skin disease affecting the face. There are numerous treatment options, but it is unclear which are the most effective. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the efficacy and safety of treatments for rosacea. Searches included the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Ongoing Trials Registers (updated February 2011). Randomized controlled trials in people with moderate to severe rosacea were included. Fifty-eight trials, including 27 from the original review, comprising 6633 participants were included in this updated review. Interventions included topical metronidazole, oral antibiotics, topical azelaic cream or gel, topical benzoyl peroxide and/or combined with topical antibiotics, sulphacetamide/sulphur, and others. There was some evidence that topical metronidazole and azelaic acid were more effective than placebo. Two trials indicated that doxycycline 40mg was more effective than placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in effectiveness between doxycycline 40mg and 100mg but there were fewer adverse effects. One study reported that ciclosporin ophthalmic emulsion was significantly more effective than artificial tears for treating ocular rosacea. Although the majority of included studies were assessed as being at high or unclear risk of bias, there was some evidence to support the effectiveness of topical metronidazole, azelaic acid and doxycycline (40mg) in the treatment of moderate to severe rosacea, and ciclosporin 0·05% ophthalmic emulsion for ocular rosacea. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:21692773

van Zuuren, E J; Kramer, S F; Carter, B R; Graber, M A; Fedorowicz, Z

2011-10-01

52

Evidence-based treatments for female pattern hair loss: a summary of a Cochrane systematic review.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) or androgenic alopecia is the most common type of hair loss affecting women with reduced hair density and can have a serious psychological impact. It is characterized by progressive replacement of slow cycling terminal hair follicles by miniaturized, rapidly cycling vellus hair follicles. The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of the treatments available for FPHL. Searches included: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO, LILACS and several ongoing trials registries (October 2011). Randomized controlled trials in women with FPHL were identified. Twenty-two trials, comprising 2349 participants, were included. A range of interventions was evaluated, with 10 studies examining varying concentrations of minoxidil. Pooled data from four studies indicated that a greater proportion of participants treated with minoxidil reported a moderate increase in their hair regrowth compared with placebo (relative risk 1·86, 95% confidence interval 1·42-2·43). There was no difference between the number of adverse events experienced in the twice daily minoxidil and the placebo intervention groups, except for a reported increase with minoxidil 5% twice daily. Single studies accounted for most of the other comparisons, which were assessed as either having high risk of bias and/or they did not address the prespecified outcomes for this review and provided limited evidence of either the effectiveness or safety of these interventions. Further well-designed, adequately powered randomized controlled trials investigating other treatment options are still required. PMID:23039053

van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z; Carter, B

2012-11-01

53

Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Chinese Herbal Medicines: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesOur study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible

Jing Hu; Junhua Zhang; Wei Zhao; Yongling Zhang; Li Zhang; Hongcai Shang

2011-01-01

54

Choosing your path to MEDLINE.  

PubMed

Competing vendors package the seven million article citations in MEDLINE in many different ways. When the information inside is the same, how can you tell solid value from just another pretty interface? This article, one in a series on medical information technology, discusses points to consider before making a commitment. PMID:7567048

Baldwin, F D

1995-07-01

55

NIH MedlinePlus Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

NLM Director’s Comments Transcript NIH MedlinePlus Magazine: 05/27/2014 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ... and veterans. The film ‘ Combat Fatigue Irritability ’ (with comments about its historic significance) is now available on ...

56

Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task.

Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

2013-01-01

57

PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

Nariani, Rajiv

2013-01-01

58

PubMed Central: An Archive of Life Science Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There has been an increased interest in open source publishing as of late, and the U.S government has gotten involved recently with the creation of PubMed Central (through the National Center for Biotechnology Information and the National Library of Medicine) in 2000. PubMed Central is a digital archive of life science journal literature which offers free and complete access to the contents of approximately 50 peer-reviewed journals, such as Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Dynamic Medicine, and the Journal of Bacteriology. The search engine is fairly straightforward, as users may elect to enter author names, journal titles in full, or by keywords. All told, PubMed currently contains many thousands of articles, many of which will be of great interest to researchers and students in these fields. Perhaps the most crucial features of PubMed are summarized in this passage from their overview section, which remarks thusly: "It also makes it possible to integrate the literature with a variety of other information resources such as sequence databases and other factual databases that are available to scientists, clinicians, and everyone else interested in the life sciences. The intentional and serendipitous discoveries that such links might foster excite us and stimulate us to move forward."

2005-11-05

59

Identifying Diagnostic Studies in MEDLINE: Reducing the Number Needed to Read  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe search filters in PubMed have become a cornerstone in information retrieval in evidence-based practice. However, the filter for diagnostic studies is not fully satisfactory, because sensitive searches have low precision. The objective of this study was to construct and validate better search strategies to identify diagnostic articles recorded on MEDLINE with special emphasis on precision.DesignA comparative, retrospective analysis was

Lucas M Bachmann; Reto Coray; Pius Estermann; Gerben ter Riet

2002-01-01

60

Developing search strategies in medline on the occupational origin of diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background In order to support occupational health practitioners, researchers, and experts (clinical librarians, guideline developers) who search the scientific literature in PubMed (Medline), we developed and evaluated an easy-to-use and effective search strategy. Methods We tested different combinations of search terms, in answering four case vignettes calculating sensitivity and precision in retrieving literature from a gold standard. The use of

Frederieke Schaafsma; Carel Hulshof; J. H. A. M. Verbeek; Jurriaan Bos; Heleen Dyserinck; Dijk van F. J. H

2006-01-01

61

Author Name Disambiguation in MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Background We recently described “Author-ity,” a model for estimating the probability that two articles in MEDLINE, sharing the same author name, were written by the same individual. Features include shared title words, journal name, coauthors, medical subject headings, language, affiliations, and author name features (middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in MEDLINE). Here we test the hypothesis that the Author-ity model will suffice to disambiguate author names for the vast majority of articles in MEDLINE. Methods Enhancements include: (a) incorporating first names and their variants, email addresses, and correlations between specific last names and affiliation words; (b) new methods of generating large unbiased training sets; (c) new methods for estimating the prior probability; (d) a weighted least squares algorithm for correcting transitivity violations; and (e) a maximum likelihood based agglomerative algorithm for computing clusters of articles that represent inferred author-individuals. Results Pairwise comparisons were computed for all author names on all 15.3 million articles in MEDLINE (2006 baseline), that share last name and first initial, to create Author-ity 2006, a database that has each name on each article assigned to one of 6.7 million inferred author-individual clusters. Recall is estimated at ~98.8%. Lumping (putting two different individuals into the same cluster) affects ~0.5% of clusters, whereas splitting (assigning articles written by the same individual to >1 cluster) affects ~2% of articles. Impact The Author-ity model can be applied generally to other bibliographic databases. Author name disambiguation allows information retrieval and data integration to become person-centered, not just document-centered, setting the stage for new data mining and social network tools that will facilitate the analysis of scholarly publishing and collaboration behavior. Availability The Author-ity 2006 database is available for nonprofit academic research, and can be freely queried via http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu.

TORVIK, VETLE I.; SMALHEISER, NEIL R.

2009-01-01

62

MedlinePlus Connect: Technical Information  

MedlinePLUS

... to keep you informed of updates and enhancements. Web Application The MedlinePlus Connect Web application responds to ... Connect response pages, visit the Web application demonstration . Web Service Using the MedlinePlus Connect Web service, a ...

63

Welcome to MedlinePlus en español  

MedlinePLUS

... Medicine have teamed up to promote the new Spanish-language MedlinePlus.gov/salud Web site. Don Francisco, ... free, comprehensive, authoritative health information Web site for Spanish speakers in the United States and worldwide — MedlinePlus. ...

64

MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service  

MedlinePLUS

MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus Connect is available as a ... if you implement MedlinePlus Connect by contacting us . Web Service Overview The parameters for the Web service ...

65

MEDLINE on the Internet: "Healthier" than Before?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the many Internet/World Wide Web versions of MEDLINE and reports whether the file is "healthier" now than it was before. Describes two search examples and two non-National Library of Medicine Web MEDLINE sites. Notes that for MEDLINE searching, the user should pick a couple of sites and perform a personal comparisons and…

Buntrock, Robert E.

1997-01-01

66

Information management and complementary alternative medicine: the anatomy of information about CAMs through PubMed.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a growing interest about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and the use of CAM interventions has become more common among people. For these reasons, health professionals must be able to effectively manage information in this field of knowledge according to an evidence-based point of view. This study assessed the anatomy of the available information about CAMs using PubMed, to give practical instructions to manage information in this field. We also analyzed the anatomy of information according to each alternative medicine branch, narrow and broad search methods, subset filters for indexed-for-Medline and non-indexed citations, and different publication types including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAMs subset (supplied by PubMed search engine) leads to a great number of citations determining an information overload. Our data reveal that it would be more useful to search for the CAM separately, identifying specific items and study design. Moreover, we found the largest number of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses related to herbal medicine and acupuncture, neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for bach and flower remedies, auriculoacupuncture, iridology, and pranotherapy. For the first time, our study gives a comprehensive view of the anatomy of information regarding CAMs and each branch of them. We suggest a methodological approach to face with searching information about this emerging issue from an evidence-based point of view. Finally, our data pointed out some "grey zones" since neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for some CAMs. PMID:23999987

Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Colomba, Daniela; Ippolito, Calogero; Gargano, Vincenzo; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Licata, Giuseppe

2013-10-01

67

Evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration for Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations, underscoring the importance and appropriateness of further research. These preliminary findings should be considered tentative and need to be confirmed with rigorous randomized controlled trials.

Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.

2009-01-01

68

Complex event extraction at PubMed scale  

PubMed Central

Motivation: There has recently been a notable shift in biomedical information extraction (IE) from relation models toward the more expressive event model, facilitated by the maturation of basic tools for biomedical text analysis and the availability of manually annotated resources. The event model allows detailed representation of complex natural language statements and can support a number of advanced text mining applications ranging from semantic search to pathway extraction. A recent collaborative evaluation demonstrated the potential of event extraction systems, yet there have so far been no studies of the generalization ability of the systems nor the feasibility of large-scale extraction. Results: This study considers event-based IE at PubMed scale. We introduce a system combining publicly available, state-of-the-art methods for domain parsing, named entity recognition and event extraction, and test the system on a representative 1% sample of all PubMed citations. We present the first evaluation of the generalization performance of event extraction systems to this scale and show that despite its computational complexity, event extraction from the entire PubMed is feasible. We further illustrate the value of the extraction approach through a number of analyses of the extracted information. Availability: The event detection system and extracted data are open source licensed and available at http://bionlp.utu.fi/. Contact: jari.bjorne@utu.fi

Bjorne, Jari; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo; Tsujii, Jun'ichi; Salakoski, Tapio

2010-01-01

69

Assessing and presenting summaries of evidence in Cochrane Reviews  

PubMed Central

Cochrane Reviews are intended to help providers, practitioners and patients make informed decisions about health care. The goal of the Cochrane Applicability and Recommendation Methods Group (ARMG) is to develop approaches, strategies and guidance that facilitate the uptake of information from Cochrane Reviews and their use by a wide audience with specific focus on developers of recommendations and on healthcare decision makers. This paper is part of a series highlighting developments in systematic review methodology in the 20 years since the establishment of The Cochrane Collaboration, and its aim is to present current work and highlight future developments in assessing and presenting summaries of evidence, with special focus on Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and Plain Language Summaries. A SoF table provides a concise and transparent summary of the key findings of a review in a tabular format. Several studies have shown that SoF tables improve accessibility and understanding of Cochrane Reviews. The ARMG and GRADE Working Group are working on further development of the SoF tables, for example by evaluating the degree of acceptable flexibility beyond standard presentation of SoF tables, developing SoF tables for diagnostic test accuracy reviews and interactive SoF tables (iSoF). The plain language summary (PLS) is the other main building block for dissemination of review results to end-users. The PLS aims to summarize the results of a review in such a way that health care consumers can readily understand them. Current efforts include the development of a standardized language to describe statistical results, based on effect size and quality of supporting evidence. Producing high quality PLS and SoF tables and making them compatible and linked would make it easier to produce dissemination products targeting different audiences (for example, providers, health policy makers, guideline developers). Current issues of debate include optimal presentation formats of SoF tables, the training required to produce SoF tables, and the extent to which the authors of Cochrane Reviews should provide explicit guidance to target audiences of patients, clinicians and policy-makers.

2013-01-01

70

Making PubMed searching simple: learning to retrieve medical literature through interactive problem solving.  

PubMed

Searching the literature has a direct, beneficial influence on patient care. The amount of medical scientific information has increased to a great extent, while the development of networking technologies has broadened access to online databases. Successful searches depend upon understanding technical librarianship concepts and the skills for mastering searching interfaces. From a problem-oriented approach, concepts like MEDLINE coverage, PubMed resources, Boolean logic, search strategies, and Web sources for full-text articles are introduced along seven online situations: locating a specific publication, answering a complex clinical question, finding information on a general subject, finding publications by a particular author, finding publications in a particular language, finding a specific publication type, and locating the full-text document. Oncologists should face the challenge of performing their own searches. Specific knowledge is mandatory to avoid frustrating, time-consuming work. The objective of this work is to present concepts, strategies, and skills required for medical literature retrieval, easing the incorporation of new and welcomed practices. PMID:16549808

Vincent, Beatriz; Vincent, Maurice; Ferreira, Carlos Gil

2006-03-01

71

Systematic reviews on tobacco control from Cochrane and the Community Guide: different methods, similar findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo compare the methods and findings of systematic reviews (SRs) on common tobacco control interventions from two organizations: the Cochrane Collaboration (“Cochrane”) and the US Task Force for Community Preventive Services (“the Guide”).

Laura J. Rosen; Michal Ben Noach

2010-01-01

72

Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Chinese Herbal Medicines: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 5, 2010) to identify all reviews of CHM. A total of fifty-eight reviews were eligible for our study. Twenty-one of the included reviews had at least one Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioner as its co-author. 7 reviews didn't include any primary study, the remaining reviews (n?=?51) included a median of 9 studies and 936 participants. 50% of reviews were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2008. The questions addressed by 39 reviews were broad in scope, in which 9 reviews combined studies with different herbal medicines. For OQAQ, the mean of overall quality score (item 10) was 5.05 (95% CI; 4.58-5.52). All reviews assessed the methodological quality of primary studies, 16% of included primary studies used adequate sequence generation and 7% used adequate allocation concealment. Of the 51 nonempty reviews, 23 reviews were reported as being inconclusive, while 27 concluded that there might be benefit of CHM, which was limited by the poor quality or inadequate quantity of included studies. 58 reviews reported searching a median of seven electronic databases, while 10 reviews did not search any Chinese database. Conclusions Now CDSR has included large numbers of CHM reviews, our study identified some areas which could be improved, such as almost half of included reviews did not have the participation of TCM practitioners and were not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria, some reviews pooled the results of different herbal medicines and ignored the searching of Chinese databases.

Hu, Jing; Zhang, Junhua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yongling; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hongcai

2011-01-01

73

MedlinePlus FAQ: What's New on Medline Plus Page and Email Updates  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How is the What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed different from ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed include alerts ...

74

Visit the new MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Visit the new MedlinePlus Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... trusted, up-to-date medical information Visit the new MedlinePlus From the top medical experts at the ...

75

6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 192. Shows center turn span and part of one fixed span. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

76

2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SE. David J. Kaminsky, Architecturl Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

77

5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., after bridge collapsed in 1973. Shows broken turn span and overturned center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

78

3. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE AND FERRY 1.5 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE AND FERRY 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 1927. West ferry landing ferry barge, andcar in foreground. Alabama, Tennessee & Northern (later Frisco) RR bridge in background. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

79

4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Western half of collapsed Alabama, Tenn. & Northern RR. Bridge Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., photographer, 1973. Copy by Sarcone Photography, Columbs, Ms Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

80

1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SW. David J. Kaminsky, Architectural Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

81

Mobile App versus Web App: a Comparison Using 2008-2012 "PubMed for Handhelds" Server Data  

PubMed Central

Recent surveys show that mobile apps are more popular than Web apps. Apple’s iTunes Store, now has about 800,000 apps and reported to have about 40 billion downloads. Android apps, although fewer, is available to the most number of smartphones today. About 40,000 apps are medical or health related. We developed a PubMed4Hh mobile app for iPhone/iPad users to search MEDLINE/PubMed with same features as our Web-based search tools, in use since 2002. Five-year (2008–2012) server data for PubMed4Hh and Web app were analyzed. Searches using the mobile app significantly increased compared to the same five-year time period. Month-by-month comparison showed a 3 to 5-fold increase in queries. The six-month total accesses comparison increased 280% from the previous four-year average. A review of 500 randomly selected queries revealed that the majority of queries were clinical questions ((97.8%) and 61% of these queries are searches related to therapy.

Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

2013-01-01

82

MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application  

MedlinePLUS

MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus Connect is available as a ... please see our guidelines and instructions on linking. Web Application Overview The API for the Web application ...

83

List of Journals Indexed for Medline 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE is a continuation of the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus. Coverage in the List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE includes all titles currently indexed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH (Trade Name)) in NL...

2008-01-01

84

MedlinePlus FAQ: News Coverage  

MedlinePLUS

... Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: I saw a news article on MedlinePlus but now I can't ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The health news page displays the most recent news. MedlinePlus displays ...

85

Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users: Cochrane Reviewa  

PubMed Central

Background Problem alcohol use is common among illicit drug users and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor in poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opiate overdose in opioid users. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for problem alcohol use in adult illicit drug users with concurrent problem alcohol use (principally, problem drug users of opiates and stimulants). Methods We searched the following databases (November 2011): Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and reference list of articles. We also searched conference proceedings and online registers of clinical trials. Two reviewers independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data from included randomized controlled trials. Results Four studies (594 participants) were included in this review. Half of the trials were rated as having a high or unclear risk of bias. The four studies considered six different psychosocial interventions grouped into four comparisons: 1) cognitive-behavioral coping skills training versus 12-step facilitation (N = 41), 2) brief intervention versus treatment as usual (N = 110), 3) hepatitis health promotion versus motivational interviewing (N = 256), and 4) brief motivational intervention versus assessment-only group (N = 187). Differences between studies precluded any pooling of data. Findings are described for each trial individually. Most findings were not statistically significant except for comparison 2: decreased alcohol use at three months (risk ratio (RR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.54) and nine months (RR 0.16; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.33) in the treatment-as-usual group and comparison 4: reduced alcohol use in the brief motivational intervention (RR 1.67; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.60). Conclusions No conclusion can be made because of the paucity of the data and the low quality of the retrieved studies.

2013-01-01

86

General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify the benefits and harms of general health checks in adults with an emphasis on patient-relevant outcomes such as morbidity and mortality rather than on surrogate outcomes. Design Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. For mortality, we analysed the results with random effects meta-analysis, and for other outcomes we did a qualitative synthesis as meta-analysis was not feasible. Data sources Medline, EMBASE, Healthstar, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, EPOC register, ClinicalTrials.gov, and WHO ICTRP, supplemented by manual searches of reference lists of included studies, citation tracking (Web of Knowledge), and contacts with trialists. Selection criteria Randomised trials comparing health checks with no health checks in adult populations unselected for disease or risk factors. Health checks defined as screening general populations for more than one disease or risk factor in more than one organ system. We did not include geriatric trials. Data extraction Two observers independently assessed eligibility, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We contacted authors for additional outcomes or trial details when necessary. Results We identified 16 trials, 14 of which had available outcome data (182?880 participants). Nine trials provided data on total mortality (11?940 deaths), and they gave a risk ratio of 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.03). Eight trials provided data on cardiovascular mortality (4567 deaths), risk ratio 1.03 (0.91 to 1.17), and eight on cancer mortality (3663 deaths), risk ratio 1.01 (0.92 to 1.12). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses did not alter these findings. We did not find beneficial effects of general health checks on morbidity, hospitalisation, disability, worry, additional physician visits, or absence from work, but not all trials reported on these outcomes. One trial found that health checks led to a 20% increase in the total number of new diagnoses per participant over six years compared with the control group and an increased number of people with self reported chronic conditions, and one trial found an increased prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Two out of four trials found an increased use of antihypertensives. Two out of four trials found small beneficial effects on self reported health, which could be due to bias. Conclusions General health checks did not reduce morbidity or mortality, neither overall nor for cardiovascular or cancer causes, although they increased the number of new diagnoses. Important harmful outcomes were often not studied or reported. Systematic review registration Cochrane Library, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009009.

2012-01-01

87

Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010)  

PubMed Central

Background Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on leishmaniasis research indexed in PubMed during a 66-year period. Methods Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. The search strategy was Leishmania [MeSH] or leishmaniasis [MeSH] from 1 January 1945 until 31 December 2010. Neither language nor document type restrictions were employed. Results A total of 20,780 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time, with 3,380 publications from 1945-1980 to 8,267 from 2001-2010. Leishmaniasis documents were published in 1,846 scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (4.9%) was the top one. The USA was the predominant country by considering the first author’s institutional address (16.8%), followed by Brazil (14.9%), and then India (9.0%), however Brazil leads the scientific output in 2001-2010 period (18.5%), followed by the USA (13.5%) and India (10%). The production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalised by population (Israel and Switzerland), by gross domestic product (Nepal and Tunisia), and by gross national income per capita (India and Ethiopia). For geographical area, Europe led (31.7%), followed by Latin America (24.5%). Conclusions We have found an increase in the number of publications in the field of leishmaniasis. The USA and Brazil led scientific production on leishmaniasis research.

2013-01-01

88

"Is Cybermedicine Killing You?" - The Story of a Cochrane Disaster  

PubMed Central

This editorial briefly reviews the series of unfortunate events that led to the publication, dissemination, and eventual retraction of a flawed Cochrane systematic review on interactive health communication applications (IHCAs), which was widely reported in the media with headlines such as "Internet Makes Us Sick," "Knowledge May Be Hazardous to Web Consumers' Health," "Too Much Advice Can Be Bad for Your Health," "Click to Get Sick?" and even "Is Cybermedicine Killing You?" While the media attention helped to speed up the identification of errors, leading to a retraction of the review after only 13 days, a paper published in this issue of JMIR by Rada shows that the retraction, in contrast to the original review, remained largely unnoticed by the public. We discuss the three flaws of the review, which include (1) data extraction and coding errors, (2) the pooling of heterogeneous studies, and (3) a problematic and ambiguous scope and, possibly, some overlooked studies. We then discuss "retraction ethics" for researchers, editors/publishers, and journalists. Researchers and editors should, in the case of retractions, match the aggressiveness of the original dissemination campaign if errors are detected. It is argued that researchers and their organizations may have an ethical obligation to track down journalists who reported stories on the basis of a flawed study and to specifically ask them to publish an article indicating the error. Journalists should respond to errors or retractions with reports that have the same prominence as the original story. Finally, we look at some of the lessons for the Cochrane Collaboration, which include (1) improving the peer-review system by routinely sending out pre-prints to authors of the original studies, (2) avoiding downplay of the magnitude of errors if they occur, (3) addressing the usability issues of RevMan, and (4) making critical articles such as retraction notices open access.

Kummervold, Per Egil

2005-01-01

89

Aortic Aneurysm - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Aortic Aneurysm - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Aortic Angiography ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

90

Alzheimer's Caregivers - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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91

Anesthesia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anesthesia - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

92

Acne - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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93

Advance Directives - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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94

Anxiety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anxiety - Multiple Languages Chinese - Traditional (????) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

95

Aneurysms - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aneurysms - Multiple Languages Chinese - Traditional (????) Spanish (español) Chinese - Traditional (????) ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

96

Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por sus siglas en inglés), la Sociedad de ...

97

Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus magazine!  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus magazine! Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... Produced by the National Institutes of Health, the magazine and its companion Web site medlineplus.gov are ...

98

MedlinePlus Milestones: 1998-present  

MedlinePLUS

... adds herb and supplement information in English and Spanish from Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. MedlinePlus ... layout and distinctive color schemes for English and Spanish. The redesigned site incorporates suggestions from users, simplifies ...

99

MedlinePlus XML Data Sources  

MedlinePLUS

... Web service provides access to all English and Spanish MedlinePlus health topics and offers a variety of ... Group XML These files cover all English and Spanish health topics and can be found on the ...

100

Information Content in Medline Record Files.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background: The authors have been conducting text mining analyses (extraction of useful information from text) of Medline records, using Abstracts as the main data source. For literature-based discovery, and other text mining applications as well, all rec...

R. N. Kostoff J. A. Block J. A. Stump K. Pfeil

2003-01-01

101

Overview of Reviews The prevention of eczema in infants and children: an overview of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Eczema is the most common inflammatory skin disease of childhood, characterized by an itchy red rash that usually involves the face and skin folds. There is currently no curative treatment for eczema, so the reduction of eczema incidence through disease prevention is a desirable goal. Potential interventions for preventing eczema include exclusive breastfeeding, hydrolysed protein formulas and soy formulas when bottle feeding, maternal antigen avoidance, omega oil supplementation, prebiotics and probiotics. Objectives This overview of reviews aims to present the current body of data from Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews to provide the most up-to-date evidence on the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent eczema in infants and children at different risk levels for developing allergic disease. Methods Our pool of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews came from the 2010 United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) Evidence Skin Disorders Annual Evidence Updates Mapping Exercise on Atopic Eczema. This group used a comprehensive search strategy last conducted in August 2010 to identify all systematic reviews on eczema prevention. We identified all reviews that met our pre-specified inclusion criteria, and data were extracted, analysed, compiled into tables and synthesized using quantitative and qualitative methods. Main results Seven systematic reviews containing 39 relevant trials with 11 897 participants were included in this overview. Overall, there was no clear evidence that any of the main interventions reviewed reduced eczema incidence. In subgroup analyses of infants at high risk of allergic disease, an observational study found that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months compared with introduction of solids at three to six months decreased the incidence of eczema by 60% (risk ratio (RR): 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 0.78), and a randomized controlled trial found that prebiotics compared with no prebiotics decreased incidence by 58% (RR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.84). However, each of these findings was based on the results of a single small trial, and no intervention reduced eczema incidence beyond the first two years of life. Although we pre-specified incidence of atopic eczema (i.e. eczema associated with immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization) as a primary outcome, data on whether participants diagnosed with eczema were truly atopic were largely lacking from systematic reviews. Similarly, data on atopy, measured using skin prick tests or specific IgE tests to allergens, were not reported in many reviews. No interventions were found to decrease atopy when reported. Adverse events data were generally lacking, but data from a trial of probiotics versus no probiotics showed significantly more spitting up in the first one (RR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.45) and two (RR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.80) months of life, but no overall increase in risk of gastrointestinal symptoms in the first year. Authors’ conclusions Although there is currently no clear evidence showing that any of the interventions examined in this overview prevent eczema in participants not selected for risk of allergic disease, there is some evidence that exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months and prebiotics might reduce eczema incidence in high-risk participants. However, these conclusions are based on limited evidence with methodological shortcomings. Future research on prevention of eczema is needed and should examine different types of hydrolysed formulas, prebiotics and probiotics, as well as enhancement of the skin barrier and other novel approaches in infants at different risk levels for developing allergic disease.

Foisy, Michelle; Boyle, Robert J.; Chalmers, Joanne R.; Simpson, Eric L.; Williams, Hywel C.

2012-01-01

102

Twenty years of Cochrane reviews in menstrual disorders and subfertility.  

PubMed

The past three decades have seen considerable change in the understanding of clinical research methods. There has been an acceptance that RCTs are the best way of establishing treatment effectiveness and a recognition that, while single studies are useful, pooling knowledge from a complete body of work is likely to provide the best evidence. Advances in methodology have been mirrored by the many advances in the field of reproductive medicine, such as assisted reproduction, assessment of male fertility, ovulation induction and laparoscopic surgery. Together, they have led to welcome improvements in the outcomes of fertility treatments. In particular, systematic reviews have become important tools enabling clinicians and patients to make health-care decisions based on evidence from all the available high-quality studies. The move towards identifying and aggregating the highest quality evidence has been led by the Cochrane Collaboration, which this year celebrates 20 years of preparing and publishing systematic reviews. This paper outlines the achievements, progress and challenges of this enterprise to date, with a particular focus on systematic reviews of reproductive medicine. PMID:23990642

Farquhar, Cindy; Moore, Vivienne; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Blake, Debbie; Vail, Andy; Thomas, Jane; Cheong, Ying; Showell, Marian; Nagels, Helen; Marjoribanks, Jane

2013-11-01

103

Poor Reliability between Cochrane Reviewers and Blinded External Reviewers When Applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool in Physical Therapy Trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the inter-rater reliability of the RoB tool applied to Physical Therapy (PT) trials by comparing ratings from Cochrane review authors with those of blinded external reviewers. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PT were identified by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for meta-analysis of PT interventions. RoB assessments were conducted independently by 2 reviewers blinded to the RoB ratings reported in the Cochrane reviews. Data on RoB assessments from Cochrane reviews and other characteristics of reviews and trials were extracted. Consensus assessments between the two reviewers were then compared with the RoB ratings from the Cochrane reviews. Agreement between Cochrane and blinded external reviewers was assessed using weighted kappa (?). Results In total, 109 trials included in 17 Cochrane reviews were assessed. Inter-rater reliability on the overall RoB assessment between Cochrane review authors and blinded external reviewers was poor (? ?=? 0.02, 95%CI: ?0.06, 0.06]). Inter-rater reliability on individual domains of the RoB tool was poor (median ? ?=?0.19), ranging from ? ?=? ?0.04 (“Other bias”) to ? ?=? 0.62 (“Sequence generation”). There was also no agreement (? ?=? ?0.29, 95%CI: ?0.81, 0.35]) in the overall RoB assessment at the meta-analysis level. Conclusions Risk of bias assessments of RCTs using the RoB tool are not consistent across different research groups. Poor agreement was not only demonstrated at the trial level but also at the meta-analysis level. Results have implications for decision making since different recommendations can be reached depending on the group analyzing the evidence. Improved guidelines to consistently apply the RoB tool and revisions to the tool for different health areas are needed.

Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Ospina, Maria; da Costa, Bruno R.; Egger, Matthias; Saltaji, Humam; Fuentes, Jorge; Ha, Christine; Cummings, Greta G.

2014-01-01

104

MedlinePlus E-mail Updates | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

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105

NIH Quickfinder and NIH Medline Plus Advisory Group | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIH Quickfinder NIH Quickfinder and NIH Medline Plus Advisory Group Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... http://orwh.od.nih.gov (301) 402-1770 NIH MedlinePlus Advisory Group Marin P. Allen, Ph.D., ...

106

An active visual search interface for Medline.  

PubMed

Searching the Medline database is almost a daily necessity for many biomedical researchers. However, available Medline search solutions are mainly designed for the quick retrieval of a small set of most relevant documents. Because of this search model, they are not suitable for the large-scale exploration of literature and the underlying biomedical conceptual relationships, which are common tasks in the age of high throughput experimental data analysis and cross-discipline research. We try to develop a new Medline exploration approach by incorporating interactive visualization together with powerful grouping, summary, sorting and active external content retrieval functions. Our solution, PubViz, is based on the FLEX platform designed for interactive web applications and its prototype is publicly available at: http://brainarray.mbni.med.umich.edu/Brainarray/DataMining/PubViz. PMID:17951838

Xuan, Weijian; Dai, Manhong; Mirel, Barbara; Wilson, Justin; Athey, Brian; Watson, Stanley J; Meng, Fan

2007-01-01

107

MEDLINE: the options for health professionals.  

PubMed Central

The bibliographic database MEDLINE, produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is a computerized index to the world's biomedical literature. The database can be searched back to 1966 and contains 6.8 million records. The various means of access are divided, for the purposes of this article, into three categories: logging onto a remote host computer by telephone and modem or by the Internet; subscribing to part or all of the database on compact disc (CD-ROM); and leasing the data on a transport medium such as magnetic tape or CDs for loading on a local host computer. Decisions about which method is preferable in a given situation depend on cost, availability of hardware and software, local expertise, and the size of the intended user population. Trends include increased access to the Internet by health professionals, increased network speed, links from MEDLINE records to full-text databases or online journals, and integration of MEDLINE into wider health information systems.

Wood, E H

1994-01-01

108

Reconsidering the Teacher Education Reform Debate: A Commentary on Cochran-Smith and Fries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the November 2001 issue of Educational Researcher, Marilyn Cochran-Smith and Mary Kim Fries provided a penetrating analysis of the discourse that comprises the debate between those who advocate highly professionalized teacher preparation and those who seek simpler and more abundant routes to teacher training and certification. This commentary extends the Cochran-Smith and Fries analysis in several directions, inquiring into

Gary D Fenstermacher

2002-01-01

109

PubMed smarter: Query expansion with implicit words based on gene ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomedical literature is increasing rapidly, but most information retrieval systems for biomedicine are not what we really expect. In general, users suffer from exactly specifying what they want to the information retrieval systems, thereby getting back unsatisfied results from these systems. In this paper, we proposed PubMed Smarter that improves the effectiveness of information retrieval in PubMed. We built

Yin-fu Huang; Chun-hao Hsu

2008-01-01

110

Development and classification of an operational definition of complementary and alternative medicine for the Cochrane Collaboration  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade the Cochrane Collaboration has been an increasingly important source of information on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. From 2007 to 2008 the Cochrane CAM Field developed a topics list that allowed us to categorize all 396 Cochrane reviews related to CAM (as of The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009). This topics list is an advance in making Cochrane reviews on CAM topics accessible to the public. In this paper, we discuss challenges in developing the topics list, including developing an operational definition of CAM, deciding which reviews should be included within the CAM Field’s scope, developing the structured list of CAM Field-specific topics, and determining where in the topics list the reviews should be placed. Although aspects of our operational definition of CAM are open to revision, a standardized definition provides us with an objective, reproducible and systematic method for defining and classifying CAM therapies.

Wieland, L. Susan; Manheimer, Eric; Berman, Brian M.

2011-01-01

111

Optimal Document-Indexing Vocabulary for MEDLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of MEDLINE document indexing focuses on a study that assessed the use of free text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and a variety of combination retrieval strategies. Prior research involving free text and controlled vocabularies is reviewed, and results of the study indicate that MeSH does have an important role in text retrieval.…

Srinivasan, Padmini

1996-01-01

112

MedlinePlus Connect: Email List  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. MedlinePlus Connect is a free service of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH), ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. ... Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on ...

113

Alcohol - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol - Multiple Languages Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Spanish (español) Alcohol ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

114

Detroit MEDLINE Consortium; An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Detroit MEDLINE Consortium is an experimental pilot project which is intended to extend use of the on line retrieval system to the hospital environment. The consortium was initiated to increase the capacity for bibliographic information retrieval supportive of the delivery of patient care in the hospital environment. Secondarily, it addresses…

DeSchryver, Victor; And Others

115

MEDLINE on CD-ROM: An Introduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Opening session of one day forum on evaluation of medline on cd-rom with participation from 21 evaluation sites in the biomedical community contains opening remarks and introductions by elliot r. Siegel, ph.D, and welcoming remarks by donald a. B. Lindber...

1994-01-01

116

Finding UMLS Metathesaurus Concepts in MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire collection of about 11.5 million MEDLINE abstracts was processed to extract 549 million noun phrases using a shallow syntactic parser. English language strings in the 2002 and 2001 releases of the UMLS Metathesaurus were then matched against these phrases using flexible matching techniques. 34% of the Metathesaurus names occurring in 30% of the concepts were found in the

Suresh Srinivasan; Thomas C. Rindflesch; William T. Hole; Alan R. Aronson; James G. Mork

2002-01-01

117

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature.

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

118

MedlinePlus Goes Local in NC  

Microsoft Academic Search

NC Health Info http:\\/\\/www.nchealthinfo.orgis a collection of online North Carolina-based health services Web sites that link seamlessly with health information on MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine's Web site. NC Health Info is the result of a pilot study to define the components involved in creating such a system and serves as a model to be used by other states

Carol G. Jenkins; Joanne Gard Marshall; Diana McDuffee

2004-01-01

119

Mining MEDLINE: Abstracts, Sentences, or Phrases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sentence pair Sentence Phrasew--} w>0.511 - 0.339MEDLINE based on abstracts, sentences, andphrases. Tables 2 and 3 and the statistical significance summary in the precedingsection indicate that each of these units has advantages and disadvantages comparedto the

Jing Ding; Daniel Berleant; Dan Nettleton; Eve Syrkin Wurtele

2002-01-01

120

Optimal Document-Indexing Vocabulary for MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indexing vocabulary is an important determinant of success in text retrieval. Researchers have compared the effectiveness of indexing using free-text and controlled vocabularies in a variety of text contexts. A number of studies have investigated the relative merits of free-text, MeSH and UMLS Metathesaurus indexing vocabularies for MEDLINE document indexing. Most of these studies conclude that controlled vocabularies offer

Padmini Srinivasan

1996-01-01

121

MEDLINE: the options for health professionals.  

PubMed

The bibliographic database MEDLINE, produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is a computerized index to the world's biomedical literature. The database can be searched back to 1966 and contains 6.8 million records. The various means of access are divided, for the purposes of this article, into three categories: logging onto a remote host computer by telephone and modem or by the Internet; subscribing to part or all of the database on compact disc (CD-ROM); and leasing the data on a transport medium such as magnetic tape or CDs for loading on a local host computer. Decisions about which method is preferable in a given situation depend on cost, availability of hardware and software, local expertise, and the size of the intended user population. Trends include increased access to the Internet by health professionals, increased network speed, links from MEDLINE records to full-text databases or online journals, and integration of MEDLINE into wider health information systems. PMID:7850561

Wood, E H

1994-01-01

122

MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How do Web sites get listed in MedlinePlus? To use the ... authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web sites. We try to ensure that the information ...

123

MedlinePlus Marks its 15th Anniversary  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL MedlinePlus Marks its 15 th Anniversary To use the sharing features on ... gov ) launched in October 1998. Over the past 15 years, MedlinePlus has brought trusted health information to ...

124

Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus, the magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... Past Issues Welcome to NIH Medline Plus , the magazine Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... MedlinePlus Web site. Your physician has made this magazine available to you as a free health resource; ...

125

MedlinePlus FAQ: Copyrighted and Non-Copyrighted Material  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Is the material on MedlinePlus copyrighted? To use the sharing features ... Answer: MedlinePlus contains both copyrighted and non-copyrighted material. Please see our copyright information page . Restrictions may ...

126

MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How can I locate materials on MedlinePlus that are easy to read and ... public, not for health professionals. But, not all materials on MedlinePlus are at the same reading level. ...

127

Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

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128

MedlinePlus 2010 User Survey Results: How did you learn of the MedlinePlus web site?  

MedlinePLUS

... only) Responses: Web search engine (Yahoo!, Google, AOL, etc.) MedlinePlus en español users 76% Link from another ... 5% Health organization or association (hospital, clinic, AMA, etc.) MedlinePlus en español users 8% Physician, nurse, pharmacist, ...

129

Measuring Medical Student Preference: A Comparison of Classroom Versus Online Instruction for Teaching Pubmed*EC  

PubMed Central

Objective: The research analyzed evaluation data to assess medical student satisfaction with the learning experience when required PubMed training is offered entirely online. Methods: A retrospective study analyzed skills assessment scores and student feedback forms from 455 first-year medical students who completed PubMed training either through classroom sessions or an online tutorial. The class of 2006 (n?=?99) attended traditional librarian-led sessions in a computer classroom. The classes of 2007 (n?=?120), 2008 (n?=?121), and 2009 (n?=?115) completed the training entirely online through a self-paced tutorial. PubMed skills assessment scores and student feedback about the training were compared for all groups. Results: As evidenced by open-ended comments about the training, students who took the online tutorial were equally or more satisfied with the learning experience than students who attended classroom sessions, with the classes of 2008 and 2009 reporting greater satisfaction (P<0.001) than the other 2 groups. The mean score on the PubMed skills assessment (91%) was the same for all groups of students. Conclusions: Student satisfaction improved and PubMed assessment scores did not change when instruction was offered online to first-year medical students. Comments from the students who received online training suggest that the increased control and individual engagement with the web-based content led to their satisfaction with the online tutorial.

Schimming, Laura M.

2008-01-01

130

Serenoa repens monotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): an updated Cochrane systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the effectiveness and harms of Serenoa repens monotherapy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consistent with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and other sources through to January 2012 to identify randomised trials. Trials were eligible if they randomised men with symptomatic BPH to receive Serenoa repens extract monotherapy for at least 4 weeks in comparison with placebo, and assessed clinical outcomes and urodynamic measurements. Our primary outcome was improvement in LUTS, based on change in urological symptom-scale scores. Results In all, 17 randomised controlled trials (N = 2008) assessing Serenoa repens monotherapy (typically 320 mg/day) vs placebo met inclusion criteria, although only five reported American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) or International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS). Trial lengths ranged from 4 to 72 weeks. The mean age of all enrolees was 64.3 years and most participants were of White race. The mean baseline total score was 14 points, indicating moderately severe symptoms. In all, 16 trials were double blinded and adequate treatment allocation concealment was reported in six trials. In a meta-analysis of three high quality long-to-moderate term trials (n = 661), Serenoa repens therapy was no better than placebo in reducing LUTS based on the AUASI/IPSS (weighted mean difference [WMD] ?0.16 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?1.45 to 1.14) or maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax; WMD 0.40 mL/s, 95% CI ?0.30 to 1.09). Based on mostly short-term studies, Qmax measured at study endpoint were also not significantly different between treatment groups (WMD 1.15 mL/s, 95% CI ?0.23 to 2.53) with evidence of substantial heterogeneity (I2 58%). One long-term dose escalation trial (72 weeks) found double and triple doses of Serenoa repens extract did not improve AUASI compared with placebo and the proportions of clinical responders (? 3 point decrease in the AUASI) were nearly identical (43% vs 44% for Serenoa repens and placebo, respectively) with a corresponding risk ratio of 0.96 (95% CI 0.76–1.22). Long-term, Serenoa repens therapy was no better than placebo in improving nocturia in one high-quality study (P = 0.19). Pooled analysis of nine short-term Permixon® trials showed a reduction in the frequency of nocturia (WMD ?0.79 times/night, 95% CI?1.28 to ?0.29), although there was evidence of heterogeneity (I2 76%) Adverse events of Serenoa repens extracts were few and mild, and incidences were not statistically significantly different vs placebo. Study withdrawals occurred in ?10% and did not differ between Serenoa repens and placebo. Conclusions Serenoa repens therapy does not improve LUTS or Qmax compared with placebo in men with BPH, even at double and triple the usual dose. Adverse events were generally mild and comparable to placebo.

MacDonald, Roderick; Tacklind, James W.; Rutks, Indulis; Wilt, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

131

Cochrane Summary of Findings: Horse Chestnut Seed Extract for Chronic Venous Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

As part of its efforts to disseminate the results of Cochrane reviews to a wider audience, the Cochrane Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Field develops Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and then uses these tables as a basis for its Plain Language Summaries. In each SoF table, the most important outcomes of the review, the effect of the intervention on each outcome, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome are presented. The process of developing the SoF table involves deciding which outcomes to present for which time points and evaluating the strength and quality of the evidence for the outcomes. The Cochrane CAM Field contacted the authors of this review to request clarification on any points that are not understood in the Cochrane review and also to request their review of the SoF. In this article, review authors in the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the effects of horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency.

Underland, Vigdis; Saeterdal, Ingvil

2012-01-01

132

Cochrane summary of findings: horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency.  

PubMed

As part of its efforts to disseminate the results of Cochrane reviews to a wider audience, the Cochrane Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Field develops Summary of Findings (SoF) tables and then uses these tables as a basis for its Plain Language Summaries. In each SoF table, the most important outcomes of the review, the effect of the intervention on each outcome, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome are presented. The process of developing the SoF table involves deciding which outcomes to present for which time points and evaluating the strength and quality of the evidence for the outcomes. The Cochrane CAM Field contacted the authors of this review to request clarification on any points that are not understood in the Cochrane review and also to request their review of the SoF. In this article, review authors in the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the effects of horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. PMID:24278808

Underland, Vigdis; Sæterdal, Ingvil; Nilsen, Elin Strømme

2012-03-01

133

PURE: a PubMed article recommendation system based on content-based filtering.  

PubMed

We have developed a PubMed article recommendation system, PURE, which is based on content-based filtering. PURE has a web interface by which users can add/delete their preferred articles. Once articles are registered, PURE then performs model-based clustering of the preferred articles and recommends the highly-rated articles by the prediction using the trained model. PURE updates the PubMed articles and reports the recommendation by email on daily-base. This system will be helpful for biologists to reduce the time required for gathering information from PubMed. PURE is downloadable under GPL license, via www.bic.kyoto-u.ac.jp/pathway/mami/out/PURE.tar.gz. PMID:18546494

Yoneya, Takashi; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

2007-01-01

134

An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts  

PubMed Central

Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a web-based prototype capable of creating domain-specific investigator networks based on an application that accurately generates detailed investigator profiles from PubMed abstracts combined with robust standard vocabularies. This approach could be used for other biomedical fields to efficiently establish domain-specific investigator networks.

Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

2007-01-01

135

PubFocus: semantic MEDLINE/PubMed citations analytics through integration of controlled biomedical dictionaries and ranking algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding research activity within any given biomedical field is important. Search outputs generated by MEDLINE/PubMed are not well classified and require lengthy manual citation analysis. Automation of citation analytics can be very useful and timesaving for both novices and experts. Results PubFocus web server automates analysis of MEDLINE/PubMed search queries by enriching them with two widely used human factor-based bibliometric indicators of publication quality: journal impact factor and volume of forward references. In addition to providing basic volumetric statistics, PubFocus also prioritizes citations and evaluates authors' impact on the field of search. PubFocus also analyses presence and occurrence of biomedical key terms within citations by utilizing controlled vocabularies. Conclusion We have developed citations' prioritisation algorithm based on journal impact factor, forward referencing volume, referencing dynamics, and author's contribution level. It can be applied either to the primary set of PubMed search results or to the subsets of these results identified through key terms from controlled biomedical vocabularies and ontologies. NCI (National Cancer Institute) thesaurus and MGD (Mouse Genome Database) mammalian gene orthology have been implemented for key terms analytics. PubFocus provides a scalable platform for the integration of multiple available ontology databases. PubFocus analytics can be adapted for input sources of biomedical citations other than PubMed.

Plikus, Maksim V; Zhang, Zina; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

2006-01-01

136

Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group: leading the field on health communication evidence.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of the history and achievements of the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group, part of the international Cochrane Collaboration. It surveys the Group's establishment and structure, the scope of its Cochrane Reviews and the growth in its publication output over its 16-year history. The paper examines the Group's developmental work in interventions and outcomes related to patient communication and involvement, as well as methodological resources for review authors. It also outlines the Review Group's research partnerships with state, national and international agencies, particularly in the areas of chronic disease management, medicines use, public involvement, and vaccines communication. The Group's strong contribution to an evidence-base for health communication and participation are acknowledged. PMID:24325413

Prictor, Megan; Hill, Sophie

2013-11-01

137

Systematic reviews published in the january 2014 issue of the cochrane library.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online ( http://www.thecochranelibrary.com ). The January 2014 issue (1st DVD for 2014) contains 5840 complete reviews, 2342 protocols for reviews in production, and 28,000 short summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 763,000 randomized controlled trials, and 15,700 cited papers in the Cochrane Methodology Register. The Health Technology Assessment database contains some 13,000 citations. Ninety-four new reviews have been published in the previous 3 months, of which five have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine. The impact factor of the Cochrane Library stands at 5.715. Readers are encouraged to access the full report for any articles of interest, as only a brief commentary is provided. PMID:24799160

Wiffen, Philip J

2014-06-01

138

Antenatal interventions to reduce preterm birth: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Several factors are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB); therefore, various interventions might have the potential to influence it. Due to the large number of interventions that address PTB, the objective of this overview is to summarise evidence from Cochrane reviews regarding the effects and safety of these different interventions. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Included reviews should be based on randomised controlled trials comparing antenatal non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that directly or indirectly address PTB with placebo/no treatment or routine care in pregnant women at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation without signs of threatened preterm labour. We considered PTB at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation as the primary outcome. Results We included 56 Cochrane systematic reviews. Three interventions increased PTB risk significantly. Twelve interventions led to a statistically significant lower incidence of PTBs. However, this reduction was mostly observed in defined at-risk subgroups of pregnant women. The remaining antenatal interventions failed to prove a significant effect on PTB?Cochrane reviews which intended to report on PTB?Cochrane systematic reviews. Few interventions have been demonstrated to be effective and a small number have been found to be harmful. For around half of the interventions evaluated, the Cochrane review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to provide sound recommendations for clinical practice. No RCT evidence is available for a number of potentially relevant interventions.

2014-01-01

139

Divine intervention? A Cochrane review on intercessory prayer gone beyond science and reason  

PubMed Central

We discuss in this commentary a recent Cochrane review of 10 randomised trials aimed at testing the religious belief that praying to a god can help those who are prayed for. The review concluded that the available studies merit additional research. However, the review presented a scientifically unsound mixture of theological and scientific arguments, and two of the included trials that had a large impact on the findings had problems that were not described in the review. The review fails to live up to the high standards required for Cochrane reviews.

J?rgensen, Karsten Juhl; Hrobjartsson, Asbj?rn; G?tzsche, Peter C

2009-01-01

140

Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous medical databases on the World Wide Web, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. We compared the content coverage and prac- tical utility of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The official Web pages of the data- bases

Matthew E. Falagas; Eleni I. Pitsouni; George A. Malietzis; Georgios Pappas

2007-01-01

141

Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese. PMID:23920740

Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

2013-01-01

142

Power and sample size evaluation for the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean score (Wilcoxon rank sum) test and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend.  

PubMed

The power of a chi-square test, and thus the required sample size, are a function of the noncentrality parameter that can be obtained as the limiting expectation of the test statistic under an alternative hypothesis specification. Herein, we apply this principle to derive simple expressions for two tests that are commonly applied to discrete ordinal data. The Wilcoxon rank sum test for the equality of distributions in two groups is algebraically equivalent to the Mann-Whitney test. The Kruskal-Wallis test applies to multiple groups. These tests are equivalent to a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean score test using rank scores for a set of C-discrete categories. Although various authors have assessed the power function of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, herein it is shown that the power of these tests with discrete observations, that is, with tied ranks, is readily provided by the power function of the corresponding Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean scores test for two and R?>?2 groups. These expressions yield results virtually identical to those derived previously for rank scores and also apply to other score functions. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend assesses whether there is an monotonically increasing or decreasing trend in the proportions with a positive outcome or response over the C-ordered categories of an ordinal independent variable, for example, dose. Herein, it is shown that the power of the test is a function of the slope of the response probabilities over the ordinal scores assigned to the groups that yields simple expressions for the power of the test. PMID:22006667

Lachin, John M

2011-11-10

143

Sample size for K 2×2 tables in equivalence studies using Cochran's statistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new sample size formula for Cochran's test that uses additional information on stratum-specific success rates and requires fewer subjects for an equivalence study. Equivalence studies are common in clinical trials, where unlike superiority studies, the goal is to show whether a new drug therapy is as effective as a standard one. Stratification is typically used to

James X Song; James T Wassell

2003-01-01

144

Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…

Furlong, John

2002-01-01

145

Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries’ (2001) recent analysis of the ways in which two competing ideologies are currently being employed in the United States in support of teacher education reform. In England over the last 15 years, teacher education has been fundamentally reformed and the arguments of both the “deregulators” and the “professionalizers” have been

John Furlong

2002-01-01

146

Time to Update and Quantitative Changes in the Results of Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background The recommended interval between updates for systematic reviews included in The Cochrane Library is 2 years. However, it is unclear whether this interval is always appropriate. Whereas excessive updating wastes time and resources, insufficient updating allows out-of-date or incomplete evidence to guide clinical decision-making. We set out to determine, for Cochrane pregnancy and childbirth reviews, the frequency of updates, factors associated with updating, and whether updating frequency was appropriate. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochrane pregnancy and childbirth reviews published in Issue 3, 2007 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were retrieved, and data were collected from their original and updated versions. Quantitative changes were determined for one of the primary outcomes (mortality, or the outcome of greatest clinical significance). Potential factors associated with time to update were assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Among the 101 reviews in our final sample, the median time before the first update was 3.3 years (95% CI 2.7–3.8). Only 32.7% had been updated within the recommended interval of 2 years. In 75.3% (76/101), a median of 3 new trials with a median of 576 additional participants were included in the updated versions. There were quantitative changes in 71% of the reviews that included new trials (54/76): the median change in effect size was 18.2%, and the median change in 95% CI width was 30.8%. Statistical significance changed in 18.5% (10/54) of these reviews, but conclusions were revised in only 3.7% (2/54). A shorter time to update was associated with the same original review team at updating. Conclusions/Significance Most reviews were updated less frequently than recommended by Cochrane policy, but few updates had revised conclusions. Prescribed time to update should be reconsidered to support improved decision-making while making efficient use of limited resources.

Jaidee, Wanlop; Moher, David; Laopaiboon, Malinee

2010-01-01

147

Issues in the incorporation of economic perspectives and evidence into Cochrane reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Methods for systematic reviews of the effects of health interventions have focused mainly on addressing the question of 'What works?’ or 'Is this intervention effective in achieving one or more specific outcomes?’ Addressing the question 'Is it worth it given the resources available?’ has received less attention. This latter question can be addressed by applying an economic lens to the systematic review process. This paper reflects on the value and desire for the consideration by end users for coverage of an economic perspective in a Cochrane review and outlines two potential approaches and future directions. Methods Two frameworks to guide review authors who are seeking to include an economic perspective are outlined. The first involves conducting a full systematic review of economic evaluations that is integrated into a review of intervention effects. The second involves developing a brief economic commentary. The two approaches share a set of common stages but allow the tailoring of the economic component of the Cochrane review to the skills and resources available to the review team. Results The number of studies using the methods outlined in the paper is limited, and further examples are needed both to explore the value of these approaches and to further develop them. The rate of progress will hinge on the organisational leadership, capacity and resources available to the CCEMG, author teams and other Cochrane entities. Particular methodological challenges to overcome relate to understanding the key economic trade-offs and casual relationships for a given decision problem and informing the development of evaluations designed to support local decision-makers. Conclusions Methods for incorporating economic perspectives and evidence into Cochrane intervention reviews are established. Their role is not to provide a precise estimate of 'cost-effectiveness’ but rather to help end-users of Cochrane reviews to determine the implications of the economic components of reviews for their own specific decisions.

2013-01-01

148

XplorMed: a tool for exploring MEDLINE abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most frequent access to the MEDLINE database of scientific abstracts is by keyword search. However, this is often not sufficient because although the user might find all the useful abstracts, these are buried in hundreds that are irrelevant. The exploratory tool XplorMed has been developed to analyse the result of any MEDLINE query. It suggests main groups of related

Carolina Perez-Iratxeta; Peer Bork; Miguel A Andrade

2001-01-01

149

What time-lag for a retraction search on PubMed?  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate fraud and errors, scientists have studied cohorts of retraction notices. These researches have been performed using a PubMed search on publication type “retraction of publication” which retrieves the notices of the retractions. We assessed the stability of the indexation of retraction notices over a 15-month period and what was the time-lag to get stability. Findings A search on notices of retraction issued in 2008 was repeated every 3 months during 15 months from February 2011. The first search resulted in 237 notices of retraction. Throughout the study period, 14 discrepancies with the initial search were observed (6%). We found that the number of retraction notices became stable 35 months after the retraction. Conclusions The time-lag observed in this study has to be taken into account when performing a PubMed search.

2014-01-01

150

PubMedAlertMe - Standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI Software Application  

PubMed Central

PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip

Ma'ayan, Avi

2008-01-01

151

PubMedAlertMe--standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI software application.  

PubMed

PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip. PMID:18402930

Ma'ayan, Avi

2008-05-01

152

Enabling multi-level relevance feedback on PubMed by integrating rank learning into DBMS  

PubMed Central

Background Finding relevant articles from PubMed is challenging because it is hard to express the user's specific intention in the given query interface, and a keyword query typically retrieves a large number of results. Researchers have applied machine learning techniques to find relevant articles by ranking the articles according to the learned relevance function. However, the process of learning and ranking is usually done offline without integrated with the keyword queries, and the users have to provide a large amount of training documents to get a reasonable learning accuracy. This paper proposes a novel multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, called RefMed, which supports both ad-hoc keyword queries and a multi-level relevance feedback in real time on PubMed. Results RefMed supports a multi-level relevance feedback by using the RankSVM as the learning method, and thus it achieves higher accuracy with less feedback. RefMed "tightly" integrates the RankSVM into RDBMS to support both keyword queries and the multi-level relevance feedback in real time; the tight coupling of the RankSVM and DBMS substantially improves the processing time. An efficient parameter selection method for the RankSVM is also proposed, which tunes the RankSVM parameter without performing validation. Thereby, RefMed achieves a high learning accuracy in real time without performing a validation process. RefMed is accessible at http://dm.postech.ac.kr/refmed. Conclusions RefMed is the first multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, which achieves a high accuracy with less feedback. It effectively learns an accurate relevance function from the user’s feedback and efficiently processes the function to return relevant articles in real time.

2010-01-01

153

An analysis of gene/protein associations at PubMed scale  

PubMed Central

Background Event extraction following the GENIA Event corpus and BioNLP shared task models has been a considerable focus of recent work in biomedical information extraction. This work includes efforts applying event extraction methods to the entire PubMed literature database, far beyond the narrow subdomains of biomedicine for which annotated resources for extraction method development are available. Results In the present study, our aim is to estimate the coverage of all statements of gene/protein associations in PubMed that existing resources for event extraction can provide. We base our analysis on a recently released corpus automatically annotated for gene/protein entities and syntactic analyses covering the entire PubMed, and use named entity co-occurrence, shortest dependency paths and an unlexicalized classifier to identify likely statements of gene/protein associations. A set of high-frequency/high-likelihood association statements are then manually analyzed with reference to the GENIA ontology. Conclusions We present a first estimate of the overall coverage of gene/protein associations provided by existing resources for event extraction. Our results suggest that for event-type associations this coverage may be over 90%. We also identify several biologically significant associations of genes and proteins that are not addressed by these resources, suggesting directions for further extension of extraction coverage.

2011-01-01

154

PubMed and beyond: a survey of web tools for searching biomedical literature.  

PubMed

The past decade has witnessed the modern advances of high-throughput technology and rapid growth of research capacity in producing large-scale biological data, both of which were concomitant with an exponential growth of biomedical literature. This wealth of scholarly knowledge is of significant importance for researchers in making scientific discoveries and healthcare professionals in managing health-related matters. However, the acquisition of such information is becoming increasingly difficult due to its large volume and rapid growth. In response, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is continuously making changes to its PubMed Web service for improvement. Meanwhile, different entities have devoted themselves to developing Web tools for helping users quickly and efficiently search and retrieve relevant publications. These practices, together with maturity in the field of text mining, have led to an increase in the number and quality of various Web tools that provide comparable literature search service to PubMed. In this study, we review 28 such tools, highlight their respective innovations, compare them to the PubMed system and one another, and discuss directions for future development. Furthermore, we have built a website dedicated to tracking existing systems and future advances in the field of biomedical literature search. Taken together, our work serves information seekers in choosing tools for their needs and service providers and developers in keeping current in the field. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/search. PMID:21245076

Lu, Zhiyong

2011-01-01

155

Saving the Time of the Library User through Subject Access Innovation: Papers in Honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers in honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane on subject access issues in library and information science: (1) "Obstacles in Progress in Mechanized Subject Access and the Necessity of a Paradigm Change" (Robert Fugmann); (2) "On MARC and the Nature of Text Searching: A Review of Pauline Cochrane's Inspirational…

Wheeler, William J., Ed.

156

77 FR 65545 - Mr. Jesse S. Capel and Mr. Hilton J. Cochran; EWP LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S. Capel and Mr. Hilton J. Cochran; EWP LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1...Capel and Mr. Hilton J. Cochran and EWP LLC informed the Commission that its exemption...February 7, 1983,\\1\\ and transferred to EWP LLC by application.\\2\\ The project...

2012-10-29

157

NEMO: Extraction and normalization of organization names from PubMed affiliation strings  

PubMed Central

Background. We are witnessing an exponential increase in biomedical research citations in PubMed. However, translating biomedical discoveries into practical treatments is estimated to take around 17 years, according to the 2000 Yearbook of Medical Informatics, and much information is lost during this transition. Pharmaceutical companies spend huge sums to identify opinion leaders and centers of excellence. Conventional methods such as literature search, survey, observation, self-identification, expert opinion, and sociometry not only need much human effort, but are also noncomprehensive. Such huge delays and costs can be reduced by “connecting those who produce the knowledge with those who apply it”. A humble step in this direction is large scale discovery of persons and organizations involved in specific areas of research. This can be achieved by automatically extracting and disambiguating author names and affiliation strings retrieved through Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and other keywords associated with articles in PubMed. In this study, we propose NEMO (Normalization Engine for Matching Organizations), a system for extracting organization names from the affiliation strings provided in PubMed abstracts, building a thesaurus (list of synonyms) of organization names, and subsequently normalizing them to a canonical organization name using the thesaurus. Results: We used a parsing process that involves multi-layered rule matching with multiple dictionaries. The normalization process involves clustering based on weighted local sequence alignment metrics to address synonymy at word level, and local learning based on finding connected components to address synonymy. The graphical user interface and java client library of NEMO are available at http://lnxnemo.sourceforge.net . Conclusion: NEMO is developed to associate each biomedical paper and its authors with a unique organization name and the geopolitical location of that organization. This system provides more accurate information about organizations than the raw affiliation strings provided in PubMed abstracts. It can be used for : a) bimodal social network analysis that evaluates the research relationships between individual researchers and their institutions; b) improving author name disambiguation; c) augmenting National Library of Medicine (NLM)’s Medical Articles Record System (MARS) system for correcting errors due to OCR on affiliation strings that are in small fonts; and d) improving PubMed citation indexing strategies (authority control) based on normalized organization name and country.

Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Topham, Philip

2010-01-01

158

Evidence for perinatal and child health care guidelines in crisis settings: can Cochrane help?  

PubMed Central

Background It is important that healthcare provided in crisis settings is based on the best available research evidence. We reviewed guidelines for child and perinatal health care in crisis situations to determine whether they were based on research evidence, whether Cochrane systematic reviews were available in the clinical areas addressed by these guidelines and whether summaries of these reviews were provided in Evidence Aid. Methods Broad internet searches were undertaken to identify relevant guidelines. Guidelines were appraised using AGREE and the clinical areas that were relevant to perinatal or child health were extracted. We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify potentially relevant reviews. For each review we determined how many trials were included, and how many were conducted in resource-limited settings. Results Six guidelines met selection criteria. None of the included guidelines were clearly based on research evidence. 198 Cochrane reviews were potentially relevant to the guidelines. These reviews predominantly addressed nutrient supplementation, breastfeeding, malaria, maternal hypertension, premature labour and prevention of HIV transmission. Most reviews included studies from developing settings. However for large portions of the guidelines, particularly health services delivery, there were no relevant reviews. Only 18 (9.1%) reviews have summaries in Evidence Aid. Conclusions We did not identify any evidence-based guidelines for perinatal and child health care in disaster settings. We found many Cochrane reviews that could contribute to the evidence-base supporting future guidelines. However there are important issues to be addressed in terms of the relevance of the available reviews and increasing the number of reviews addressing health care delivery.

2010-01-01

159

An overview of two Cochrane systematic reviews of complementary treatments for chronic asthma: acupuncture and homeopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acupuncture and homeopathy are commonly used complementary treatments for chronic asthma. This review summarizes two recently updated Cochrane systematic reviews that assess the safety and efficacy of homeopathy or acupuncture in individuals with chronic stable asthma.Inclusion criteria: Only randomized-controlled trials were considered for inclusion. Statistical aggregation of the data was undertaken where possible.Search strategy: Searches for both reviews were

R. W McCarney; T. J Lasserson; K Linde; B Brinkhaus

2004-01-01

160

How relevant is the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to nursing care?  

PubMed

Barriers obstructing evidence-based nursing have been explored in many countries. Lack of resources and evidence has been noted as one of these barriers. We aimed to identify nursing care-related systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1996 until 2009. Using a broad search strategy we identified titles of Cochrane systematic reviews and protocols that focused on nursing care. The abstract of each title was examined and predetermined data were collected and analysed. 1249 titles out of a possible 6244 records were identified as being relevant to nursing care. Most of them focused on newborn and adult populations and related to comparing one intervention with another, and management strategies. The most common nursing specialties represented were internal medicine (34%) and mother and child care (25%). Twenty one percent of reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews are of direct interest to those involved in nursing care however their relevance was not always obvious. PMID:23181952

Geurden, Bart J G; Stern, Cindy; Piron, Cécile; Gobert, Micheline

2012-12-01

161

[Patient participation in the Cochrane Collaboration--barriers, experience, and concepts in Germany].  

PubMed

The aim of the Cochrane Collaboration (CC) is to bridge the gap of information transfer between the clinician and the patient. For this purpose, the CC pursues since years the concept of involving the consumers in the process of collaborative review groups. In spite of a positive experience altogether, some barriers (for example the communication between the scientists involved in CC review groups and the patients) remain to be overcome. To improve the information transfer, the Cochrane Hematological Malignancies Group (CHMG) has built a consumer network within the initiatives of the German Cancer Association, for example devising specific training concepts. The German Cochrane Center, on the other hand, focuses on direct information of patients and interested consumers, and provides translated consumer synopses of all available systematic reviews (SR) adapted for use in the German health system. In the future, it will be necessary to develop more concepts to optimize the patient participation process, and to find methods to measure the impact of these projects on the patient outcome. PMID:16121652

Weingart, Olaf; Skoetz, Nicole; Lang, Britta; Richter, Bernd; Engert, Andreas

2005-01-01

162

Development of a heart failure filter for Medline: an objective approach using evidence-based clinical practice guidelines as an alternative to hand searching  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure is a highly debilitating syndrome with a poor prognosis primarily affecting the elderly. Clinicians wanting timely access to heart failure evidence to provide optimal patient care can face many challenges in locating this evidence. This study developed and validated a search filter of high clinical utility for the retrieval of heart failure articles in OvidSP Medline. Methods A Clinical Advisory Group was established to advise study investigators. The study set of 876 relevant articles from four heart failure clinical practice guidelines was divided into three datasets: a Term Identification Set, a Filter Development Set, and a Filter Validation Set. A further validation set (the Cochrane Validation Set) was formed using studies included in Cochrane heart failure systematic reviews. Candidate search terms were identified via word frequency analysis. The filter was developed by creating combinations of terms and recording their performance in retrieving items from the Filter Development Set. The filter's recall was then validated in both the Filter Validation Set and the Cochrane Validation Set. A precision estimate was obtained post-hoc by running the filter in Medline and screening the first 200 retrievals for relevance to heart failure. Results The four-term filter achieved a recall of 96.9% in the Filter Development Set; 98.2% in the Filter Validation Set; and 97.8% in the Cochrane Validation Set. Of the first 200 references retrieved by the filter when run in Medline, 150 were deemed relevant and 50 irrelevant. The post-hoc precision estimate was therefore 75%. Conclusions This study describes an objective method for developing a validated heart failure filter of high recall performance and then testing its precision post-hoc. Clinical practice guidelines were found to be a feasible alternative to hand searching in creating a gold standard for filter development. Guidelines may be especially appropriate given their clinical utility. A validated heart failure filter is now available to support health professionals seeking reliable and efficient access to the heart failure literature.

2011-01-01

163

Summer Insect Safety: MedlinePlus Health News Video  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety HealthDay May 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Lyme Disease Tick Bites Transcript Summer is about fun in ... ticks have gained infamy as potential conveyors of Lyme disease a bacterial infection that can pack a flu- ...

164

Treating Cataracts | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... her experience recently with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What did you notice about your vision that told you ... how long it would take to recover. Where did you go for information about cataracts and surgery? ...

165

Asthma in Children - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Asthma in Children - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

166

Automated Extraction of Medical Knowledge from Medline Citations  

PubMed Central

The Medline database consists of over six million citations to the medical literature, indexed by the National Library of Medicine with the use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Subheadings. We propose that analysis of MeSH Headings and Subheadings in Medline citations will reveal the interrelationships among medical concepts described in the original articles. We have developed a rule-based system which postulates relationships based on the co-occurrence of MeSH Headings in Medline citations. At present, the rule base consists of 504 rules which propose 57 relationships. When this rule base was applied to a test set of 673 citations, 93% of the proposed relationships were determined to be correct (96%, after correction of a transcription error in the rule base). We believe this approach has great potential, both for assisting acquisition of medical knowledge and for improving the quality of Medline retrievals.

Cimino, James J.; Mallon, Laurie J.; Barnett, G. Octo

1988-01-01

167

MedlinePlus en español marks its 10th anniversary  

MedlinePLUS

... of authoritative, reliable consumer-level health information in Spanish from the National Institutes of Health and national ... public can use. Making MedlinePlus information available in Spanish greatly expands NIH's ability to carry out its ...

168

MEDTUTOR: a microcomputer-based training program for MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

MEDTUTOR is an interactive, microcomputer-based training package designed to teach medical and health professionals, as well as librarians and information specialists, how to use MEDLINE effectively. The objective of MEDTUTOR is to provide a comprehensive package for teaching the various commands and search techniques required for utilizing the MEDLINE database through the MEDLARS system. MEDTUTOR's menu-driven design allows novice users to learn about the content and use of MEDLINE, such as author searching, text word searching, MeSH indexing, etc., at their own pace and with considerable program feedback. In addition, MEDTUTOR provides the skilled searcher with a way to reinforce or recall previously-learned search techniques without incurring online charges. MEDTUTOR may be used in place of formal training, as a precursor to or as a refresher following formal training, or for review of a particular concept. It provides inexpensive and easily accessible instruction for searching MEDLINE.

Perkins, M L; Spann, M L; Buchan, P C

1989-01-01

169

Asian American Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages Burmese (myanmasa) Chinese - Traditional (????) Hmong (Hmoob) Korean ( ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

170

Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov  

MedlinePLUS

... Issue Past Issues Down the Block... Around the World...MedlinePlus.gov Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... on. No matter where you are in the world, www.medlineplus.gov is your best global source ...

171

Dog Bite Prevention Week: MedlinePlus Health News Video  

MedlinePLUS

... hand corner of the player. Dog Bite Prevention Week HealthDay May 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Animal ... sharing canine safety tips during Dog Bite Prevention Week. The Academy advises dog lovers to hold off ...

172

TV and Adult Health: MedlinePlus Health News Video  

MedlinePLUS

... hand corner of the player. TV and Adult Health HealthDay June 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Exercise ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

173

PubMed, the New York Times and the Chicago Tribune as tools for teaching genetics.  

PubMed

An elementary course in human heredity for students not planning to major in the sciences can be based on current scientific literature and on the popular media. Examinations are constructed from questions on recent abstracts obtained from PubMed. The course is designed to promote writing skills in the sciences, and students write two papers in the course of a quarter. In the first paper, students trace the primary source of media reports on genetics and attempt to evaluate the reporter's translation. In a second paper, students write popular articles on the basis of current primary sources. PMID:16143615

Strauss, Bernard S

2005-12-01

174

PubMed, The New York Times and The Chicago Tribune as Tools for Teaching Genetics  

PubMed Central

An elementary course in human heredity for students not planning to major in the sciences can be based on current scientific literature and on the popular media. Examinations are constructed from questions on recent abstracts obtained from PubMed. The course is designed to promote writing skills in the sciences, and students write two papers in the course of a quarter. In the first paper, students trace the primary source of media reports on genetics and attempt to evaluate the reporter's translation. In a second paper, students write popular articles on the basis of current primary sources.

Strauss, Bernard S.

2005-01-01

175

EBIMed - text crunching to gather facts for proteins from Medline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: To allow efficient and systematic retrieval of statements from Medline we have developed EBIMed, a service that combines document retrieval with co-occurrence-based analysis of Medline abstracts. Upon keyword query, EBIMed retrieves the abstracts from EMBL-EBI'sinstallationofMedlineandfiltersforsentencesthatcontain biomedical terminology maintained in public bioinformatics resources. The extracted sentences and terminology are used to generate an overview table on proteins, Gene Ontology (GO)

Dietrich Rebholz-schuhmann; Harald Kirsch; Miguel Arregui; Sylvain Gaudan; Mark Riethoven; Peter Stoehr

2007-01-01

176

Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE  

PubMed Central

Background Health technology assessments of surgical interventions frequently require the inclusion of non-randomised evidence. Literature search strategies employed to identify this evidence often exclude a methodological component because of uncertainty surrounding the use of appropriate search terms. This can result in the retrieval of a large number of irrelevant records. Methodological filters would help to minimise this, making literature searching more efficient. Methods An objective approach was employed to develop MEDLINE and EMBASE filters, using a reference standard derived from screening the results of an electronic literature search that contained only subject-related terms. Candidate terms for MEDLINE (N = 37) and EMBASE (N = 35) were derived from examination of the records of the reference standard. The filters were validated on two sets of studies that had been included in previous health technology assessments. Results The final filters were highly sensitive (MEDLINE 99.5%, EMBASE 100%, MEDLINE/EMBASE combined 100%) with precision ranging between 16.7% – 21.1%, specificity 35.3% – 43.5%, and a reduction in retrievals of over 30%. Against the validation standards, the individual filters retrieved 85.2% – 100% of records. In combination, however, the MEDLINE and EMBASE filters retrieved 100% against both validation standards with a reduction in retrieved records of 28.4% and 30.1% Conclusion The MEDLINE and EMBASE filters were highly sensitive and substantially reduced the number of records retrieved, indicating that they are useful tools for efficient literature searching.

Fraser, Cynthia; Murray, Alison; Burr, Jennifer

2006-01-01

177

Geography of Africa biomedical publications: An analysis of 1996-2005 PubMed papers  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific publications play an important role in scientific process providing a key linkage between knowledge production and use. Scientific publishing activity worldwide over the past decades shows that most countries in Africa have low levels of publication. We sought to examine trends and contribution of different Africa subregions and individual countries as represented by the articles indexed by PubMed between 1996 and 2005. Results Research production in Africa is highly skewed; South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeria make up a striking 60% of the total number of articles indexed by PubMed between 1996 and 2005. When adjusted for population size smaller countries, such as The Gambia, Gabon and Botswana, were more productive than Nigeria and Kenya. The Gambia and Eritrea had better records when total production was adjusted for gross domestic product. The contribution of Africa to global research production was persistently low through the period studied. Conclusion In this study, we found that most populous and rich countries (such as South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeria) have correspondingly higher research production; but smaller countries can be productive. We noted continuous increases and reassuring trends in the production of research articles from all African subregions during the period 1996 – 2005. However, contribution of Africa to global research production was limited.

Uthman, Olalekan A; Uthman, Mubashir B

2007-01-01

178

How useful are systematic reviews for informing palliative care practice? Survey of 25 Cochrane systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews in palliative care are well performed, but fail to provide good evidence for clinical practice because the primary studies are few in number, small, clinically heterogeneous, and of poor quality and external validity. They are useful in highlighting the weakness of the evidence base and problems in performing trials in palliative care.

Wee, Bee; Hadley, Gina; Derry, Sheena

2008-01-01

179

[The effect of zinc therapy on common cold--a survey of a Cochrane review].  

PubMed

The Cochrane review "Zinc and the common cold" included 15 randomized controlled double-blind trials. It was concluded, that zinc would shorten the duration of the episode of common cold and also could be used as a prevention so that the risk of developing an episode of common cold would be decreased. It is too early to give general recommendations for the use of zinc as we do not have sufficient knowledge about the optimal dose, formulation and duration of treatment. Further research should focus on the effect of zinc in patients who are at increased risk of developing complications after common cold. PMID:22233719

Valentiner-Branth, Palle

2012-01-01

180

[Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD000219].  

PubMed

Acute otitis media is one of the most common infections in children and one of the leading causes for antibiotic prescription. In this paper, we assess and comment the Cochrane systematic review 'Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children', which aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for acute otitis media in children and identifying subgroups of children who might benefit more than others from antibiotic treatment. This review showed spontaneous resolution of acute otitis media in most children (82%) and a favorable but modest effect of antibiotics, namely in pain control (number needed to treat to benefit: 20), reduction of tympanic membrane perforations and reduction of contralateral acute otitis media. Adverse effects such as vomiting, diarrhea or rash were more common in the antibiotic group (number needed to treat to harm: 14). Thus, for most children, an expectant observational approach during 48-72h without immediate antibiotic prescription seems justified. An additional meta-analysis found that antibiotics appear to be most useful in children with both acute otitis media and otorrhoea and children under two years of age with bilateral acute otitis media. PMID:24388246

Pinto, Sara; Costa, João; Vaz Carneiro, António; Fernandes, Ricardo

2013-01-01

181

Sample size for K 2x2 tables in equivalence studies using Cochran's statistic.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new sample size formula for Cochran's test that uses additional information on stratum-specific success rates and requires fewer subjects for an equivalence study. Equivalence studies are common in clinical trials, where unlike superiority studies, the goal is to show whether a new drug therapy is as effective as a standard one. Stratification is typically used to adjust for differences among individual clinical trial centers with different success rates. The sample size is derived for a clinical trial design where two independent binomial proportions are compared within each stratum. Implementation of the sample size formula is described when the number of centers is large and the success rates of each individual center are not known exactly. The effect of variability of the success rates on the power of Cochran's test is shown through simulation. The variability of the success rates is measured by the intracluster correlation coefficient, which can be estimated by the ANOVA estimator of Donald and Donner. The simulation results show that the new sample size formula requires fewer subjects than sample size methods, which ignore stratification. The new method provides greater savings as the variability of success rates among centers increases. PMID:12865033

Song, James X; Wassell, James T

2003-08-01

182

Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram  

PubMed Central

Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates. A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results. There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates.

2014-01-01

183

Clinical trials of investigational agents for IPF: a review of a Cochrane report  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of treatment effect can be assessed by a number of methods. One reliable method of collectively analysing data from randomised clinical trials is that used in Cochrane reviews. These systematic reviews identify and analyse the available evidence using the reliable method of meta-analysis. These often combine data from studies to provide robust evaluations of overall treatment effects. In 2003, a review of data from studies of corticosteroid use in IPF patients found no evidence of a treatment effect. Similarly, very little evidence was found to support the use of immunomodulatory agents. A recent update of these Cochrane reviews failed to identify any new evidence supporting the use of corticosteroids in IPF. However, a review of non-steroid agents for the treatment of IPF identified data from 15 RCTs that was suitable for analysis. Two trials of interferon gamma-1b were pooled and analysed, but no treatment effect was observed in terms of survival. Meta-analysis of three Phase III studies of pirfenidone treatment in IPF patients suggested that progression-free survival was significantly increased by 30%, demonstrating a reduction in the decline of lung function in IPF patients. In addition, there are numerous ongoing trials investigating potential therapeutic agents which provides hope for IPF patients and their doctors.

2013-01-01

184

Clinical trials of investigational agents for IPF: a review of a Cochrane report.  

PubMed

The magnitude of treatment effect can be assessed by a number of methods. One reliable method of collectively analysing data from randomised clinical trials is that used in Cochrane reviews. These systematic reviews identify and analyse the available evidence using the reliable method of meta-analysis. These often combine data from studies to provide robust evaluations of overall treatment effects. In 2003, a review of data from studies of corticosteroid use in IPF patients found no evidence of a treatment effect. Similarly, very little evidence was found to support the use of immunomodulatory agents. A recent update of these Cochrane reviews failed to identify any new evidence supporting the use of corticosteroids in IPF. However, a review of non-steroid agents for the treatment of IPF identified data from 15 RCTs that was suitable for analysis. Two trials of interferon gamma-1b were pooled and analysed, but no treatment effect was observed in terms of survival. Meta-analysis of three Phase III studies of pirfenidone treatment in IPF patients suggested that progression-free survival was significantly increased by 30%, demonstrating a reduction in the decline of lung function in IPF patients. In addition, there are numerous ongoing trials investigating potential therapeutic agents which provides hope for IPF patients and their doctors. PMID:23734867

Richeldi, Luca

2013-01-01

185

Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram.  

PubMed

Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates.A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results.There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates. PMID:24886533

Stovold, Elizabeth; Beecher, Deirdre; Foxlee, Ruth; Noel-Storr, Anna

2014-01-01

186

Net Improvement of Correct Answers to Therapy Questions After PubMed Searches: Pre/Post Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. Objective To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). Methods We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. Results We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. Conclusions PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers.

Keepanasseril, Arun

2013-01-01

187

Matching references with MEDLINE via TCP/IP.  

PubMed

Bibliographic references are an important part of databases and information resources used by clinicians and biomedical researchers. In addition to the obvious clerical advantages of standard references, bibliographic references can also be used as links to related items in different data sets. This paper describes an effort that involved matching references from a variety of disparate databases to canonical MEDLINE references. The references matched were those involved in a database unification project which is part of the Mouse Genome Informatics effort at The Jackson Laboratory. Software was developed to take advantage of a commercially available retrieval engine which accesses MEDLINE on CD-ROM disks. The software permits client programs on UNIX/C, and potentially other environments, to access unabridged MEDLINE via networks supporting the TCP/IP protocols. The matching process described can be used as a model for similar efforts with different research or clinical data sets, as well as different hardware or software environments. PMID:8130546

Guidi, J N

1993-01-01

188

Text similarity: an alternative way to search MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The most widely used literature search techniques, such as those offered by NCBI's PubMed system, require significant effort on the part of the searcher, and inexperienced searchers do not use these systems as effectively as experienced users. Im- proved literature search engines can save researchers time and effort by making it easier to locate the most important and relevant

James Lewis; Stephan Ossowski; Justin M. Hicks; Mounir Errami; Harold R. Garner

2006-01-01

189

Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed  

PubMed Central

Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of ‘high-quality’ SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments.

Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2010-01-01

190

Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed.  

PubMed

Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of 'high-quality' SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments. PMID:20551243

Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

2010-07-01

191

Improving the Chance of Student Usage of MEDLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that analyzed transaction logs of a search assignment conducted on MEDLINE by medical students at the University of Michigan. The relationship between levels of search experience and search skills, clinical knowledge, search outcome, and subsequent use level are examined. (Contains 21 references.) (LRW)

Pao, Miranda Lee; And Others

1993-01-01

192

Effect of Search Experience on Sustained MEDLINE Usage by Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship of medical student experience with computer searches to their continued use of search services. Results indicated that, among the 184 students studied, searching the MEDLINE database once a month through the first years of medical school improved the likelihood that students would continue searching.…

Pao, Miranda Lee; And Others

1994-01-01

193

Extracting Biochemical Interactions from MEDLINE Using a Link Grammar Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many natural language processing approaches at vari- ous complexity levels have been reported for extracting biochemical interactions from MEDLINE. While some algorithms using simple template matching are unable to deal with the complex syntactic structures, others exploit- ing sophisticated parsing techniques are hindered by greater computational cost. This study investigates link grammar parsing for extracting biochemical interactions. Link grammar parsing

Jing Ding; Daniel Berleant; Jun Xu; Andy W. Fulmer

2003-01-01

194

Cochrane re-arranged: support for policies to vaccinate elderly people against influenza.  

PubMed

The 2010 Cochrane review on efficacy, effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination in the elderly by Jefferson et al. covering dozens of clinical studies over a period of four decades, confirmed vaccine safety, but found no convincing evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) against disease thus challenging the ongoing efforts to vaccinate the elderly. However, the Cochrane review analyzed and presented the data in a way that may itself have hampered the desired separation of real vaccine benefits from inevitable 'background noise'. The data are arranged in more than one hundred stand-alone meta-analyses, according to various vaccine types, study designs, populations, and outcome case definitions, and then further subdivided according to virus circulation and antigenic match. In this way, general vaccine effects could not be separated from an abundance of environmental and operational, non vaccine-related variation. Furthermore, expected impacts of changing virus circulation and antigenic drift on VE could not be demonstrated. We re-arranged the very same data according to a biological and conceptual framework based on the basic sequence of events throughout the 'patient journey' (exposure, infection, clinical outcome, observation) and using broad outcome definitions and simple frequency distributions of VE values. This approach produced meaningful predictions for VE against influenza-related fatal and non-fatal complications (average ~30% with large dispersion), typical influenza-like illness (~40%), disease with confirmed virus infection (~50%), and biological vaccine efficacy against infection (~60%), under conditions of virus circulation. We could also demonstrate a VE average around zero in the absence of virus circulation, and decreasing VE values with decreasing virus circulation and increasing antigenic drift. We regard these findings as substantial evidence for the ability of influenza vaccine to reduce the risk of influenza infection and influenza-related disease and death in the elderly. PMID:24095882

Beyer, Walter E P; McElhaney, Janet; Smith, Derek J; Monto, Arnold S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

2013-12-01

195

Skeletal and Dental Changes in Class II division 1 Malocclusions Treated with Splint-Type Herbst Appliances A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate skeletal and dental changes in growing individuals through lateral ceph- alograms obtained after the sole use of the splint-type Herbst appliances in Class II division 1 malocclusions. Methods: Several electronic databases (Pubmed, Medline, Medline In-Process & Other Non- Indexed Citations, Cochrane Library Database, Embase, Web of Sciences, Scopus, and Lilacs) were searched with the help of a

Carlos Flores-Mir; Abenaa Ayeh; Ashim Goswani

196

Safety of regular formoterol or salmeterol in children with asthma: an overview of Cochrane reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Two large surveillance studies in adults with asthma have found an increased risk of asthma-related mortality in those who took regular salmeterol as monotherapy in comparison to placebo or regular salbutamol. No similar sized surveillance studies have been carried out in children with asthma, and we remain uncertain about the comparative safety of regular combination therapy with either formoterol or salmeterol in children with asthma. Objectives We have used the paediatric trial results from Cochrane systematic reviews to assess the safety of regular formoterol or salmeterol, either as monotherapy or as combination therapy, in children with asthma. Methods We included Cochrane reviews relating to the safety of regular formoterol and salmeterol from a search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews conducted in May 2012, and ran updated searches for each of the reviews. These were independently assessed. All the reviews were assessed for quality using the AMSTAR tool. We extracted the data relating to children from each review and from new trials found in the updated searches (including risks of bias, study characteristics, serious adverse event outcomes, and control arm event rates). The safety of regular formoterol and salmeterol were assessed directly from the paediatric trials in the Cochrane reviews of monotherapy and combination therapy with each product. Then monotherapy was indirectly compared to combination therapy by looking at the differences between the pooled trial results for monotherapy and the pooled results for combination therapy. The comparative safety of formoterol and salmeterol was assessed using direct evidence from trials that randomised children to each treatment; this was combined with the result of an indirect comparison of the combination therapy trials, which represents the difference between the pooled results of each product when randomised against inhaled corticosteroids alone. Main results We identified six high quality, up to date Cochrane reviews. Four of these related to the safety of regular formoterol or salmeterol (as monotherapy or combination therapy) and these included 19 studies in children. We added data from two recent studies on salmeterol combination therapy in 689 children which were published after the relevant Cochrane review had been completed, making a total of 21 trials on 7474 children (from four to 17 years of age). The two remaining reviews compared the safety of formoterol with salmeterol from trials randomising participants to one or other treatment, but the reviews only included a single trial in children in which there were 156 participants. Only one child died across all the trials, so impact on mortality could not be assessed. We found a statistically significant increase in the odds of suffering a non-fatal serious adverse event of any cause in children on formoterol monotherapy (Peto odds ratio (OR) 2.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27 to 4.83, I2 = 0%, 5 trials, N = 1335, high quality) and smaller increases in odds which were not statistically significant for salmeterol monotherapy (Peto OR 1.30; 95% CI 0.82 to 2.05, I2 = 17%, 5 trials, N = 1333, moderate quality), formoterol combination therapy (Peto OR 1.60; 95% CI 0.80 to 3.28, I2 = 32%, 7 trials, N = 2788, moderate quality) and salmeterol combination therapy (Peto OR 1.20; 95% CI 0.37 to 2.91, I2 = 0%, 5 trials, N = 1862, moderate quality). We compared the pooled results of the monotherapy and combination therapy trials. There was no significant difference between the pooled ORs of children with a serious adverse event (SAE) from long-acting beta2-agonist beta agonist (LABA) monotherapy (Peto OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.33, 10 trials, N = 2668) and combination trials (Peto OR 1.50; 95% CI 0.82 to 2.75, 12 trials, N = 4,650). However, there were fewer children with an SAE in the regular inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) control group (0.7%) than in the placebo control group (3.6%). As a result, there was an absolute increase of an additional 21 children (95% CI 4 to 45) suffering such an SA

Cates, Christopher J; Oleszczuk, Marta; Stovold, Elizabeth; Wieland, L. Susan

2014-01-01

197

Cupping Therapy May be Harmful for Eczema: A PubMed Search  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a common childhood atopic condition and treatment is with emollients, topical corticosteroids, and avoidance of possible triggers. S. aureus colonization is a common complication. As there is no immediate cure, many parents seek alternative therapies that claim unproven therapeutic efficacy. We report a girl with long history of treatment noncompliance. After practicing a long period of dietary avoidance and supplementation, the grandparents took her to an alternative medicine practitioner. Following cupping therapy and acupuncture, the child developed blistering and oozing over her back the next day, which rapidly evolved to two large irregular-edge deep ulcers. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics and received multidisciplinary supportive intervention. Using search words of??“cupping,” “eczema,” and “atopic dermatitis,” only two reports were found on PubMed. Therapeutic efficacy was claimed but not scientifically documented in these reports. Childhood eczema is an eminently treatable atopic disease. Extreme alternative therapy seems not to be efficacious and may even be associated with serious undesirable sequelae. Physicians should be aware of various alternative treatment modalities and be prepared to offer evidence-based advice to the patients with eczema and their families.

Hon, Kam Lun E.; Luk, David Chi Kong; Leong, Kin Fon; Leung, Alexander K. C.

2013-01-01

198

From patient uncertainty to WHO policy in two years: a GP's experience of preparing and maintaining a Cochrane review.  

PubMed

Clinical encounters in daily practice can provide a fertile ground for identifying uncertainties that require further investigation. Addressing such uncertainties by undertaking a Cochrane review can be a rewarding educational process and result in important contributions to health care policy. This paper describes the experiences of a UK GP undertaking a Cochrane review whilst working in clinical practice. It outlines some of the practical issues when starting a review, the importance of effective mentorship and collaboration, the power of the modern medical media (BMJ, Wikipedia) and engaging with policy makers (WHO). PMID:24195593

Irving, Greg

2014-03-01

199

Shifting Sands: Science Researchers on Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, with Implications for Library Collections Budgets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz were surveyed about their article database use and preferences in order to inform collection budget choices. Web of Science was the single most used database, selected by 41.6%. Statistically there was no difference between PubMed (21.5%) and Google Scholar (18.7%) as the second most…

Hightower, Christy; Caldwell, Christy

2010-01-01

200

Critique of an evaluation of software for searching MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, investigators at McMaster University compared 14 ways to search the MEDLINE database and concluded that the method that cost the least (the National Library of Medicine's ELHILL program) yielded the highest proportion of relevant articles, whereas the method that cost the most (PaperChase) yielded the least. There are serious defects in the study design that invalidate the authors' conclusions.

Bleich, H. L.

1993-01-01

201

Using Noun Phrases for Navigating Biomedical Literature on Pubmed: How Many Updates Are We Losing Track of?  

PubMed Central

Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The “related citations” on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed “related citations.” We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper – many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper.

Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A.

2011-01-01

202

Finding Answers in a Beauty Shop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... customers the MedlinePlus website. Dexter Waiters uses the computer at MaFlo's to access the MedlinePlus consumer health ... A waiting area offers several comfortable chairs, three computers, and a printer. On a typical day, the ...

203

Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/allergy.html MedlinePlus: ...

204

Repeat antenatal glucocorticoids for women at risk of preterm birth: a Cochrane Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Administration of antenatal glucocorticoids to women at risk of preterm birth has major benefits for infants but the use of repeat dose(s) is controversial. We performed a systematic review of randomized trials, using standard Cochrane methodology, to assess the effectiveness and safety of 1 or more repeat doses given to women at risk of preterm birth 7 or more days after an initial course. Ten trials were included involving over 4730 women and 5700 infants. Treatment with repeat dose(s) compared with no repeat treatment reduced the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (risk ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) and serious neonatal morbidity (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.94). At 2- to 3-year follow-up (4 trials, 4170 children), there was no evidence of either significant benefit or harm. Repeat doses of glucocorticoids should be considered in women at risk of preterm birth 7 or more days after an initial course, in view of the neonatal benefits. PMID:21982021

McKinlay, Christopher J D; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa; Harding, Jane E

2012-03-01

205

Lifestyle Factors in Hypertension Drug Research: Systematic Analysis of Articles in a Leading Cochrane Report  

PubMed Central

Established standards for first-line hypertension management include lifestyle modification and behavior change. The degree to which and how lifestyle modification is systematically integrated into studies of first-line drug management for hypertension is of methodological and clinical relevance. This study systematically reviewed the methodology of articles from a recent Cochrane review that had been designed to inform first-line medical treatment of hypertension and was representative of high quality established clinical trials in the field. Source articles (n = 34) were systematically reviewed for lifestyle interventions including smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, physical activity and exercise, stress reduction, and moderate alcohol consumption. 54% of articles did not mention lifestyle modification; 46% contained nonspecific descriptions of interventions. We contend that hypertension management research trials (including drug studies) need to elucidate the benefits and risks of drug-lifestyle interaction, to support the priority of lifestyle modification, and that lifestyle modification, rather than drugs, is seen by patients and the public as a priority for health professionals. The inclusion of lifestyle modification strategies in research designs for hypertension drug trials could enhance current research, from trial efficacy to clinical outcome effectiveness, and align hypertension best practices of a range of health professionals with evidence-based knowledge translation.

Wilson, Dan E.; Van Vlack, Tashina; Schievink, Brendin P.; Doak, Eric B.; Shane, Jason S.; Dean, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

206

Investigating the balance of reporting maternal and infant outcomes in pregnancy and childbirth cochrane reviews.  

PubMed

Objective?To summarize the overall conclusions of Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (PCG) reviews where interventions have different effects on maternal and infant outcomes. Methods?PCG reviews were analyzed and primary outcomes extracted and categorized by maternal and infant outcomes. The overall conclusions were categorized depending on whether they follow the benefit or harm for one group or are inconclusive due to the discrepancy. Results?A total of 451 current PCG reviews were assessed out of which 206 were analyzed. In general, the overall conclusions of reviews followed both beneficial and harmful outcomes. Around 58 (28.2%) recommended the intervention, 60 (29.1%) discouraged the intervention, and 88 (42.7%) were inconclusive. Total 10 Reviews reported opposing maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. Six (60%) contained inconclusive final recommendations. Three of the remaining four (75%) had a summary recommendation following the fetal/neonatal outcome. We did not detect bias based on whether the author group was obstetric or pediatric providers. Conclusion?The final author conclusions in PCG reviews generally follow the overall assessment of maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. There were, however, a large number of inconclusive final recommendations in PCG reviews. These findings highlight the fact that many interventions represent trade-offs between maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:24108666

Starrick, Emily; Bath, Natalie; Haas, David M

2014-09-01

207

The Evidence Base for Interventions Delivered to Children in Primary Care: An Overview of Cochrane Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Background As a first step in developing a framework to evaluate and improve the quality of care of children in primary care there is a need to identify the evidence base underpinning interventions relevant to child health. Our objective was to identify all Cochrane systematic reviews relevant to the management of childhood conditions in primary care and to assess the extent to which Cochrane reviews reflect the burden of childhood illness presenting in primary care. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the Cochrane Child Health Field register of child-relevant systematic reviews to complete an overview of Cochrane reviews related to the management of children in primary care. We compared the proportion of systematic reviews with the proportion of consultations in Australia, US, Dutch and UK general practice in children. We identified 396 relevant systematic reviews; 358 included primary studies on children while 251 undertook a meta-analysis. Most reviews (n?=?218, 55%) focused on chronic conditions and over half (n?=?216, 57%) evaluated drug interventions. Since 2000, the percentage of pediatric primary care relevant reviews only increased by 2% (7% to 9%) compared to 18% (10% to 28%) in all child relevant reviews. Almost a quarter of reviews (n?=?78, 23%) were published on asthma treatments which only account for 3–5% of consultations. Conversely, 15–23% of consultations are due to skin conditions yet they represent only 7% (n?=?23) of reviews. Conclusions/Significance Although Cochrane systematic reviews focus on clinical trials and do not provide a comprehensive picture of the evidence base underpinning the management of children in primary care, the mismatch between the focus of the published research and the focus of clinical activity is striking. Clinical trials are an important component of the evidence base and the lack of trial evidence to demonstrate intervention effectiveness in substantial areas of primary care for children should be addressed.

Gill, Peter J.; Wang, Kay Yee; Mant, David; Hartling, Lisa; Heneghan, Carl; Perera, Rafael; Klassen, Terry; Harnden, Anthony

2011-01-01

208

Optimal search strategies for retrieving scientifically strong studies of diagnosis from Medline: analytical survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop optimal search strategies in Medline for retrieving sound clinical studies on the diagnosis of health disorders. Design Analytical survey. Setting Medline, 2000. Participants 170 journals for 2000 of which 161 were indexed in Medline. Main outcome measures The sensitivity, specificity, precision (\\

R Brian Haynes; Nancy L Wilczynski

2004-01-01

209

Reporting and methodologic quality of Cochrane Neonatal review group systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background The Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG) has achieved a lot with limited resources in producing high quality systematic reviews to assist clinicians in evidence-based decision-making. A formal assessment of published CNRG systematic reviews has not been undertaken; we sought to provide a comprehensive assessment of the quality of systematic reviews (both methodologic and reporting quality) published in CNRG. Methods We selected a random sample of published CNRG systematic reviews. Items of the QUOROM statement were utilized to assess quality of reporting, while items and total scores of the Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ) were used to assess methodologic quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality. A Student t-test was used to compare quality scores pre- and post-publication of the QUOROM statement. Results Sixty-one systematic reviews were assessed. Overall, the included reviews had good quality with minor flaws based on OQAQ total scores (mean, 4.5 [0.9]; 95% CI, 4.27–4.77). However, room for improvement was noted in some areas, such as the title, abstract reporting, a priori plan for heterogeneity assessment and how to handle heterogeneity in case it exists, and assessment of publication bias. In addition, reporting of agreement among reviewers, documentation of trials flow, and discussion of possible biases were addressed in the review process. Reviews published post the QUOROM statement had a significantly higher quality scores. Conclusion The systematic reviews published in the CNRG are generally of good quality with minor flaws. However, efforts should be made to improve the quality of reports. Readers must continue to assess the quality of published reports on an individual basis prior to implementing the recommendations.

Al Faleh, Khalid; Al-Omran, Mohammed

2009-01-01

210

A warning on the use of the Cochrane-Orcutt procedure based on a money demand equation for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that estimates of the elasticity if demand for money in the United States depend crucially on which of the three minima of the residual sum of squares is selected by the Cochrane-Orcutt procedure applied to a model which contains a lagged endogenous variable. The model constitutes the first real example of multiple minima obtainable by the Cochrane-Orcutt procedure

Jean-Marie Dufour; Marc J. I. Gaudry; R. W. Hafer

1982-01-01

211

GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique  

PubMed Central

Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM), a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

Yu, Wei; Clyne, Melinda; Dolan, Siobhan M; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Liu, Tiebin; Khoury, Muin J; Gwinn, Marta

2008-01-01

212

Using Topic Models to Interpret MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the task of interpreting and understanding a taxonomy of classification terms applied to documents in a collection. In particular, we show how unsupervised topic models are useful for interpreting and understanding MeSH, the Medical Subject Headings applied to articles in MEDLINE. We introduce the resampled author model, which captures some of the advantages of both the topic model and the author-topic model. We demonstrate how topic models complement and add to the information conveyed in a traditional listing and description of a subject heading hierarchy.

Newman, David; Karimi, Sarvnaz; Cavedon, Lawrence

213

Antiemetic treatment for acute gastroenteritis in children: an updated Cochrane systematic review with meta-analysis and mixed treatment comparison in a Bayesian framework  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of antiemetics on gastroenteritis-induced vomiting in children and adolescents. Design Systematic review. Data Sources The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE searched from 1980 to March 2012. Methods Methods included comprehensive searches, data synthesis, meta-analysis and mixed treatment comparisons (MTC). Review methods Reference lists were checked, and missing or inconsistent data were sought from trial investigators. Randomised controlled trials comparing antiemetics in participants younger than 18?years and who were vomiting due to acute gastroenteritis. Four meta-analyses and three MTC were carried out. Results 10 trials (1479 participants) and five treatments were included: dexamethasone, dimenhydrinate, granisetron, metoclopramide and ondansetron. There was clear evidence that ondansetron (oral or intravenous) compared with placebo increased the proportion of patients with cessation of vomiting (orally administered) (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.61), reduced the immediate hospital admission rate (orally administered) (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.83) and the need for intravenous rehydration therapy (orally administered) (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.59). No significant difference was noted in the revisit rates, but ondansetron was associated with an increase in episodes of diarrhoea. There was no evidence for the use of dexamethasone or metoclopramide and limited evidence that dimenhydrinate or granisetron increased the cessation of vomiting. The MTC analysis suggested that ondansetron was the most likely treatment to stop the child vomiting. Nine studies were carried out in secondary care and one in primary care. Conclusions This systematic review used a method novel to this clinical area and found clear evidence that ondansetron was the most likely treatment to allow oral rehydration therapy to commence. Given the significance of these results, the authors urge healthcare policy makers to consider the wider use of ondansetron in secondary care. Furthermore, randomised controlled trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of antiemetic treatment in primary care (including ambulatory care interventions).

Fedorowicz, Zbys

2012-01-01

214

A warning on the use of the Cochrane-Orcutt procedure based on a money demand equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betancourt\\/Kelejian [1981] have recently warned against using the Cochrane-Orcutt procedure in models which include a lagged endogenous variable because this procedure can have more than onefixed point even asymptotically. FollowingSargan [1964], we argue instead that fixed points are not necessarily minima and that the question of practical importance is whether the residual sum of squares can have multipleminima. Within this

J.-M. Dufour; M. J. I. Gaudry; R. W. Hafer

1983-01-01

215

Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain. A report of a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).\\u000aAim: To evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques in chronic pain.\\u000aDesign: A Cochrane systematic

Neil E OConnell; Benedict M Wand; Louise Marston; Sally Spencer; Lorraine H DeSouza

2011-01-01

216

Pharmacy journal abstracts published in PubMed that abide by the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research was to determine the proportion of abstracts in pharmacy journals that are prepared according to the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria for abstracts. Certain abstracts for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) indexed in PubMed were eligible for inclusion, with the primary endpoint being median overall compliance to CONSORT recommendations for abstracts. A total of 63 RCT abstracts were included in the analysis, with only 56% of the recommended CONSORT items represented in the sample. It is recommended that pharmacy journals encourage authors to follow CONSORT recommendations for abstracts when submitting RCTs for publication.

Blair, Daniel A.; Woolley, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

217

PESCADOR, a web-based tool to assist text-mining of biointeractions extracted from PubMed queries  

PubMed Central

Background Biological function is greatly dependent on the interactions of proteins with other proteins and genes. Abstracts from the biomedical literature stored in the NCBI's PubMed database can be used for the derivation of interactions between genes and proteins by identifying the co-occurrences of their terms. Often, the amount of interactions obtained through such an approach is large and may mix processes occurring in different contexts. Current tools do not allow studying these data with a focus on concepts of relevance to a user, for example, interactions related to a disease or to a biological mechanism such as protein aggregation. Results To help the concept-oriented exploration of such data we developed PESCADOR, a web tool that extracts a network of interactions from a set of PubMed abstracts given by a user, and allows filtering the interaction network according to user-defined concepts. We illustrate its use in exploring protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disease and in the expansion of pathways associated to colon cancer. Conclusions PESCADOR is a platform independent web resource available at: http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/tools/pescador/

2011-01-01

218

Methodological quality and implications for practice of systematic Cochrane reviews in pediatric oral health: a critical assessment  

PubMed Central

Background To ensure evidence-based decision-making in pediatric oral health, Cochrane systematic reviews that address topics pertinent to this field are necessary. We aimed to identify all systematic reviews of paediatric dentistry and oral health by the Cochrane Oral Health Group (COHG), summarize their characteristics and assess their methodological quality. Our second objective was to assess implications for practice in the review conclusions and provide an overview of clinical implications about the usefulness of paediatric oral health interventions in practice. Methods We conducted a methodological survey including all paediatric dentistry reviews from the COHG. We extracted data on characteristics of included reviews, then assessed the methodological quality using a validated 11-item quality assessment tool (AMSTAR). Finally, we coded each review to indicate whether its authors concluded that an intervention should be implemented in practice, was not supported or was refuted by the evidence, or should be used only in research (inconclusive evidence). Results We selected 37 reviews; most concerned the prevention of caries. The methodological quality was high, except for the assessment of reporting bias. In 7 reviews (19%), the research showed that benefits outweighed harms; in 1, the experimental intervention was found ineffective; and in 29 (78%), evidence was insufficient to assess benefits and harms. In the 7 reviews, topical fluoride treatments (with toothpaste, gel or varnish) were found effective for permanent and deciduous teeth in children and adolescents, and sealants for occlusal tooth surfaces of permanent molars. Conclusions Cochrane reviews of paediatric dentistry were of high quality. They provided strong evidence that topical fluoride treatments and sealants are effective for children and adolescents and thus should be implemented in practice. However, a substantial number of reviews yielded inconclusive evidence.

2014-01-01

219

Indexing of randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy interventions: a comparison of AMED, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, Hooked on Evidence, PEDro, PsycINFO and PubMed  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare the comprehensiveness of indexing the reports of randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy interventions by eight bibliographic databases (AMED, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, Hooked on Evidence, PEDro, PsycINFO and PubMed).

Anne M. Moseley; Catherine Sherrington; Mark R. Elkins; Robert D. Herbert; Christopher G. Maher

2009-01-01

220

How Twitter Is Studied in the Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed  

PubMed Central

Background Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. Objective This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Methods Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper’s title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. Results As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that researchers are starting to use knowledge discovery methods and data mining techniques to understand vast quantities of tweets: the study of Twitter is becoming quantitative research. Conclusions This work is to the best of our knowledge the first overview study of medical related research based on Twitter and related microblogging. We have used 5 dimensions to categorize published medical related research on Twitter. This classification provides a framework within which researchers studying development and use of Twitter within medical related research, and those undertaking comparative studies of research, relating to Twitter in the area of medicine and beyond, can position and ground their work.

2013-01-01

221

MedlinePlus Connect: Linking Health IT Systems to Consumer Health Information  

PubMed Central

The National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Connect service extends the reach of the consumer health website MedlinePlus.gov to deliver relevant information to patients and providers via health IT systems, electronic health records, and patient portals.

Burgess, Sarena; Dennis, Stephanie; Lanka, Soma; Miller, Naomi; Potvin, Joseph

2012-01-01

222

Taking Advantage of the Explosion of Systematic Reviews: An Efficient MEDLINE Search Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT. Systematic reviews of the literature are an important resource for clinicians. Unfortunately, the few published strategies for identifying these articles involve MEDLINE interfaces not widely available outside of academic medicine. In addi- tion, the performance of these strategies is unknown. OBJECTIVE. To develop and evaluate a search strategy for identifying systematic reviews by using a publicly available MEDLINE interface

LISA A. BERO

2001-01-01

223

Optimal search strategies for retrieving systematic reviews from Medline: analytical survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop optimal search strategies in Medline for retrieving systematic reviews. Design: Analytical survey. Data sources: 161 journals published in 2000 indexed in Medline. Main outcome measures: The sensitivity, specificity, and precision of retrieval of systematic reviews of 4862 unique terms in 782 485 combinations of one to five terms were determined by comparison with a hand search of

Victor M Montori; Nancy L Wilczynski; Douglas Morgan; R Brian Haynes

2004-01-01

224

PCorral--interactive mining of protein interactions from MEDLINE.  

PubMed

The extraction of information from the scientific literature is a complex task-for researchers doing manual curation and for automatic text processing solutions. The identification of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) requires the extraction of protein named entities and their relations. Semi-automatic interactive support is one approach to combine both solutions for efficient working processes to generate reliable database content. In principle, the extraction of PPIs can be achieved with different methods that can be combined to deliver high precision and/or high recall results in different combinations at the same time. Interactive use can be achieved, if the analytical methods are fast enough to process the retrieved documents. PCorral provides interactive mining of PPIs from the scientific literature allowing curators to skim MEDLINE for PPIs at low overheads. The keyword query to PCorral steers the selection of documents, and the subsequent text analysis generates high recall and high precision results for the curator. The underlying components of PCorral process the documents on-the-fly and are available, as well, as web service from the Whatizit infrastructure. The human interface summarizes the identified PPI results, and the involved entities are linked to relevant resources and databases. Altogether, PCorral serves curator at both the beginning and the end of the curation workflow for information retrieval and information extraction. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/pcorral. PMID:23640984

Li, Chen; Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Arregui, Miguel; Kirsch, Harald; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

2013-01-01

225

CD-ROM MEDLINE use and users: information transfer in the clinical setting.  

PubMed Central

Effective delivery of biomedical information to health professionals depends on the availability of systems that are compatible with the information-seeking patterns of health professionals. MEDLINE is a major source of biomedical information, but has been available primarily through libraries via telecommunications networks. The recent availability of MEDLINE on CD-ROM has made it possible to provide MEDLINE directly to clinicians without the associated problems of telecommunications and online use charges. The MEDLINE on CD-ROM Evaluation Forum sponsored by the National Library of Medicine reported on clinicians' use of CD-ROM MEDLINE at seven different clinical settings. This article summarizes the findings from these sites and places them in the context of current understanding of information-seeking behaviors of health professionals. Key issues in the design and development of information technologies in the clinical setting are also articulated.

Dalrymple, P W

1990-01-01

226

PubMed search strategies for the identification of etiologic associations between hypothalamic-pituitary disorders and other medical conditions.  

PubMed

Biomedical literature has enormously grown in the last decades and become broadly available through online databases. Ad-hoc search methods, created on the basis of research field and goals, are required to enhance the quality of searching. Aim of this study was to formulate efficient, evidence-based PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles assessing etiologic associations between a condition of interest and hypothalamic-pituitary disorders (HPD). Based on expert knowledge, 17 MeSH (Medical Subjects Headings) and 79 free terms related to HPD were identified to search PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportion of articles containing pertinent information and formulated two strings (one more specific, one more sensitive) for the detection of articles focusing on the etiology of HPD, that were then applied to retrieve articles identifying possible etiologic associations between HPD and three diseases (malaria, LHON and celiac disease) considered not associated to HPD, and define the number of abstracts needed to read (NNR) to find one potentially pertinent article. We propose two strings: one sensitive string derived from the combination of articles providing the largest literature coverage in the field and one specific including combined terms retrieving ?40% of potentially pertinent articles. NNR were 2.1 and 1.6 for malaria, 3.36 and 2.29 for celiac disease, 2.8 and 2.2 for LHON, respectively. For the first time, two reliable, readily applicable strings are proposed for the retrieval of medical literature assessing putative etiologic associations between HPD and other medical conditions of interest. PMID:23196809

Guaraldi, Federica; Grottoli, Silvia; Arvat, Emanuela; Mattioli, Stefano; Ghigo, Ezio; Gori, Davide

2013-12-01

227

A Re-Analysis of the Cochrane Library Data: The Dangers of Unobserved Heterogeneity in Meta-Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Heterogeneity has a key role in meta-analysis methods and can greatly affect conclusions. However, true levels of heterogeneity are unknown and often researchers assume homogeneity. We aim to: a) investigate the prevalence of unobserved heterogeneity and the validity of the assumption of homogeneity; b) assess the performance of various meta-analysis methods; c) apply the findings to published meta-analyses. Methods and Findings We accessed 57,397 meta-analyses, available in the Cochrane Library in August 2012. Using simulated data we assessed the performance of various meta-analysis methods in different scenarios. The prevalence of a zero heterogeneity estimate in the simulated scenarios was compared with that in the Cochrane data, to estimate the degree of unobserved heterogeneity in the latter. We re-analysed all meta-analyses using all methods and assessed the sensitivity of the statistical conclusions. Levels of unobserved heterogeneity in the Cochrane data appeared to be high, especially for small meta-analyses. A bootstrapped version of the DerSimonian-Laird approach performed best in both detecting heterogeneity and in returning more accurate overall effect estimates. Re-analysing all meta-analyses with this new method we found that in cases where heterogeneity had originally been detected but ignored, 17–20% of the statistical conclusions changed. Rates were much lower where the original analysis did not detect heterogeneity or took it into account, between 1% and 3%. Conclusions When evidence for heterogeneity is lacking, standard practice is to assume homogeneity and apply a simpler fixed-effect meta-analysis. We find that assuming homogeneity often results in a misleading analysis, since heterogeneity is very likely present but undetected. Our new method represents a small improvement but the problem largely remains, especially for very small meta-analyses. One solution is to test the sensitivity of the meta-analysis conclusions to assumed moderate and large degrees of heterogeneity. Equally, whenever heterogeneity is detected, it should not be ignored.

Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Springate, David A.; Reeves, David

2013-01-01

228

Do antiviral agents effectively treat Ramsay Hunt syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sourcesThe Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, PubMed, Embase and other relevant databases (Cinhal.LILACS,KoreaMed, IndMed, PakMediNet, theUK Clinical Research Network Portfolio Database (UKCRN), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), Google Scholar, NLH ENT & Audiology Specialist Library and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT).)

Stephen Porter

2008-01-01

229

Extracting rate changes in transcriptional regulation from MEDLINE abstracts  

PubMed Central

Background Time delays are important factors that are often neglected in gene regulatory network (GRN) inference models. Validating time delays from knowledge bases is a challenge since the vast majority of biological databases do not record temporal information of gene regulations. Biological knowledge and facts on gene regulations are typically extracted from bio-literature with specialized methods that depend on the regulation task. In this paper, we mine evidences for time delays related to the transcriptional regulation of yeast from the PubMed abstracts. Results Since the vast majority of abstracts lack quantitative time information, we can only collect qualitative evidences of time delays. Specifically, the speed-up or delay in transcriptional regulation rate can provide evidences for time delays (shorter or longer) in GRN. Thus, we focus on deriving events related to rate changes in transcriptional regulation. A corpus of yeast regulation related abstracts was manually labeled with such events. In order to capture these events automatically, we create an ontology of sub-processes that are likely to result in transcription rate changes by combining textual patterns and biological knowledge. We also propose effective feature extraction methods based on the created ontology to identify the direct evidences with specific details of these events. Our ontologies outperform existing state-of-the-art gene regulation ontologies in the automatic rule learning method applied to our corpus. The proposed deterministic ontology rule-based method can achieve comparable performance to the automatic rule learning method based on decision trees. This demonstrates the effectiveness of our ontology in identifying rate-changing events. We also tested the effectiveness of the proposed feature mining methods on detecting direct evidence of events. Experimental results show that the machine learning method on these features achieves an F1-score of 71.43%. Conclusions The manually labeled corpus of events relating to rate changes in transcriptional regulation for yeast is available in https://sites.google.com/site/wentingntu/data. The created ontologies summarized both biological causes of rate changes in transcriptional regulation and corresponding positive and negative textual patterns from the corpus. They are demonstrated to be effective in identifying rate-changing events, which shows the benefits of combining textual patterns and biological knowledge on extracting complex biological events.

2014-01-01

230

Intelligent system for topic survey in MEDLINE by keyword recommendation and learning text characteristics.  

PubMed

We have implemented a system for assisting experts in selecting MEDLINE records for database construction purposes. This system has two specific features: The first is a learning mechanism which extracts characteristics in the abstracts of MEDLINE records of interest as patterns. These patterns reflect selection decisions by experts and are used for screening the records. The second is a keyword recommendation system which assists and supplements experts' knowledge in unexpected cases. Combined with a conventional keyword-based information retrieval system, this system may provide an efficient and comfortable environment for MEDLINE record selection by experts. Some computational experiments are provided to prove that this idea is useful. PMID:11700589

Tanaka, M; Nakazono, S; Matsuno, H; Tsujimoto, H; Kitamura, Y; Miyano, S

2000-01-01

231

Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

Gomez, Grace Felix

2013-01-01

232

Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

2010-01-01

233

Systematic review of the use of honey as a wound dressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate topical honey in superficial burns and wounds though a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, reference lists and databases were used to seek randomised controlled trials. Seven randomised trials involved superficial burns, partial thickness burns, moderate to severe burns that included full thickness injury, and infected postoperative wounds. REVIEW METHODS:

Owen A Moore; Lesley A Smith; Fiona Campbell; Kate Seers; Henry J McQuay; R Andrew Moore

2001-01-01

234

Fallopian Tube Reanastomosis by Laparotomy versus Laparoscopy: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare efficacy of sterilization reversals by laparotomy versus laparoscopy. Design: Meta-analysis. Search Strategy: Electronic searches were carried out for randomized controlled trials and retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Search engines such as PubMed, Science Direct, Medline and the Cochrane database were made use of. Our restrictions were English human studies published from 1989 to January 2010. Interventions: Microsurgical

J. la Grange; T. F. Kruger; D. W. Steyn; J. P. van der Merwe; I. Siebert; T. Matsaseng; M. I. Viola

2012-01-01

235

Effects of low power laser irradiation on bone healing in animals: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The meta-analysis was performed to identify animal research defining the effects of low power laser irradiation on biomechanical indicators of bone regeneration and the impact of dosage. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database of Randomised Clinical Trials) for studies in the area of laser and bone healing published from 1966 to October

Siamak Bashardoust Tajali; Joy C MacDermid; Pamela Houghton; Ruby Grewal

2010-01-01

236

Transvaginal sonographic measurement of cervical length to predict preterm birth in asymptomatic women at increased risk: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To estimate the ability of cervical length mea- sured by transvaginal ultrasonography in asymptomatic high-risk women to predict spontaneous preterm birth. Methods MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published in any language between January 1980 and July 2006, using the keywords 'transvaginal ultrasonography' or ('cervix' and ('ultrasound' or 'ultrasonography' or 'sonog- raphy')); and ('preterm'

J. M. G. Crane; D. Hutchens

2008-01-01

237

Physical Activity Interventions in Adult Populations With Disabilities: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to review the literature of physical activity interventions among adults with disabilities, focusing on interventions designed to increase physical activity. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Physical Education Index, PsycINFO, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus from 1998 to 2009. Relevant data such as participant characteristics, research designs,

Carlos M. Cervantes; Wendell C. Taylor

2011-01-01

238

The effectiveness of rehabilitation for nonoperative management of shoulder instability: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review of published evidence on conservative management was conducted in Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Allied & Alternative Medicine (AMED), PubMed, and Cochrane. For each article, two of the four reviewers conducted abstract selection and critical appraisal. Disagreements were resolved through consensus and third review,

Joy C MacDermid

2004-01-01

239

No evidence for long-term effectiveness of early osteodistraction in hemifacial microsomia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The authors performed a critical literature review to find evidence of the long-term stability after early distraction osteogenesis of the mandible in patients with hemifacial microsomia. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL databases were searched systematically for studies performed between 2002 and 2008. Abstracts from the 89 relevant articles were reviewed for evidence. RESULTS: Thirteen articles

K. Nagy; A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman; M. Y. Mommaerts

2009-01-01

240

Biotea: RDFizing PubMed Central in support for the paper as an interface to the Web of Data  

PubMed Central

Background The World Wide Web has become a dissemination platform for scientific and non-scientific publications. However, most of the information remains locked up in discrete documents that are not always interconnected or machine-readable. The connectivity tissue provided by RDF technology has not yet been widely used to support the generation of self-describing, machine-readable documents. Results In this paper, we present our approach to the generation of self-describing machine-readable scholarly documents. We understand the scientific document as an entry point and interface to the Web of Data. We have semantically processed the full-text, open-access subset of PubMed Central. Our RDF model and resulting dataset make extensive use of existing ontologies and semantic enrichment services. We expose our model, services, prototype, and datasets at http://biotea.idiginfo.org/ Conclusions The semantic processing of biomedical literature presented in this paper embeds documents within the Web of Data and facilitates the execution of concept-based queries against the entire digital library. Our approach delivers a flexible and adaptable set of tools for metadata enrichment and semantic processing of biomedical documents. Our model delivers a semantically rich and highly interconnected dataset with self-describing content so that software can make effective use of it.

2013-01-01

241

Evidence based palaeopathology: Meta-analysis of Pubmed(®)-listed scientific studies on pre-Columbian, South American mummies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to review all Pubmed(®)-listed palaeopathological studies performed on pre-Columbian South American mummies. A total of 61 studies were found (1977-2005). Review criteria included e.g. method of examination, method of mummification, palaeopathological diagnoses and individual age of mummies as well as dating, which ranged from 7500 to 500 years BP, mainly (if reported) originating from the Chiribaya and Chinchorro cultures. The average age of the 99 individually reported mummies was about 25 years. Only six studies included computed tomography, thirteen studies used classical radiography as an examination method. Three studies analysed parasite related diseases, especially caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Among all of the reported infectious diseases (n=9), there were seven studies presenting cases of tuberculosis. The results were also compared inter-culturally. In 61 studies (37 epidemiological and 24 case reports) more than 6400 mummified individuals were analysed. By contrast, meta-analytic data for ancient Egyptian mummies (Zweifel et al., 2009) included about 3000 analysed individuals in 131 studies (85 case reports and 46 epidemiological studies). In general, ancient Egyptian mummies were shown to be intentionally mummified, whereas the Pre-Columbian American mummies showed a great diversity of spontaneous mummification. However, ritualistic mummification methods were also practised (n=2). This study's results shall assist to improve evidence-based research in palaeopathology. PMID:24721560

Dageförde, K L; Vennemann, M; Rühli, F J

2014-06-01

242

Teachers' Tactics and Test Performance: MedlinePlus Health News Video  

MedlinePLUS

... Related MedlinePlus Pages School Health Teen Health Transcript Motivation and test performance among high school students may ... performance. They were also asked to characterize their motivation to study. Survey responses were then stacked up ...

243

Rheumatoid Arthritis When Your Immune System Attacks Your Body | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Research Summer 2014 Table of Contents Accelerating ... a project plan to address relevant challenges for rheumatoid arthritis. Read Part 1 on Lupus in MedlinePlus magazine, ...

244

Coffee and Type 2 Diabetes: MedlinePlus Health News Video  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Coffee and Type 2 Diabetes HealthDay April 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Caffeine Diabetes Type 2 Transcript Coffee-lovers rejoice. Fresh research reveals that drinking just ...

245

MedlinePlus Connect: Linking Patient Portals and Electronic Health Records to Health Information  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Linking Patient Portals and EHRs to Consumer Health Information MedlinePlus Connect is a free service of ... National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Department of Health and Human ...

246

Quality Guidelines for Health Information in Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools Quality Guidelines for Health Information in Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... we are selective in reviewing materials in other languages. In addition to our general MedlinePlus Quality Guidelines ...

247

Building Paths to Health Careers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... Selected articles from past issues of NIH MedlinePlus magazine will be a part of the course content. ... enjoy and learn from this issue of the magazine. And please consider joining FNLM to support all ...

248

The Match of Her Life | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... answer questions for this issue of NIH MedlinePlus magazine about her breast cancer. You discovered you had ... way of healing. As this issue of the magazine went to press, Navratilova was receiving radiation therapy ...

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For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...  

MedlinePLUS

... turn Javascript on. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past ... hearing from you. The Friends of the National Library of Medicine has a warm and mutually appreciative ...

250

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer?  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer? To ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: You cannot download the interactive health tutorials from MedlinePlus. With permission ...

251

Don't Let Osteoporosis Slow You Down | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... on Women's Health's "Best Bones Forever" osteoporosis educational campaign. NIH MedlinePlus magazine's Peter Reinecke spoke to Leachman ... for age discrimination! Winter 2011 Issue: Volume 5 Number 4 Page 10

252

bookmark.php?pub=medlineplus&title=MedlinePlus: Trusted Health Information for You&lng=en  

MedlinePLUS

#footer {position: relative;} #footer-inner{background:#fff;} Bookmark & Share medlineplus MedlinePlus: Trusted Health Information for You 100zakladok 2 Tag 2linkme A97abi Adfty Adifni ADV QR code Amazon Amen Me! ...

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bookmark.php?pub=medlineplus&title=MedlinePlus: Trusted Health Information for You&lng=us  

MedlinePLUS

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254

A Two-Term MEDLINE Search Strategy for Identifying Randomized Trials in Obstetrics and Gynecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop and test a simple MEDLINE search strategy for identification of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in obstetrics and gynecology.Methods: To develop our search strategy, we asked clinicians in our department to indicate, from a list of search terms, the terms they would use to identify RCTs in MEDLINE. The two most common terms, controlled-clinical-trial (publication type) and randomized-controlled-trial

Chika R Nwosu; Khalid S Khan; Patrick F. W Chien

1998-01-01

255

Automatic extraction of mutations from Medline and cross-validation with OMIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations help us to understand the molecular origins of diseases. Researchers, therefore, both publish and seek disease-relevant mutations in pub- lic databases and in scientific literature, e.g. Medline. The retrieval tends to be time-consuming and incomplete. Automated screening of the litera- ture is more efficient. We developed extraction methods (called MEMA) that scan Medline abstracts for mutations. MEMA identified 24

Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann; Stephane Marcel; Sylvie Albert; Ralf Tolle; Georg Casari; Harald Kirsch

2004-01-01

256

Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings: abridged Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effectiveness of screening for intimate partner violence conducted within healthcare settings to determine whether or not screening increases identification and referral to support agencies, improves women’s wellbeing, decreases further violence, or causes harm. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of trials assessing effectiveness of screening. Study assessment, data abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted independently by two of the authors. Standardised estimations of the risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Data sources Nine databases searched up to July 2012 (CENTRAL, Medline, Medline(R), Embase, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and ASSIA), and five trials registers searched up to 2010. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of screening programmes for intimate partner violence involving all women aged ?16 attending a healthcare setting. We included only studies in which clinicians in the intervention arm personally conducted the screening, or were informed of the screening result at the time of the consultation, compared with usual care (or no screening). Studies of screening programmes that were followed by structured interventions such as advocacy or therapeutic intervention were excluded. Results 11 eligible trials (n=13?027) were identified. In six pooled studies (n=3564), screening increased the identification of intimate partner violence (risk ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 3.89), particularly in antenatal settings (4.26, 1.76 to 10.31). Based on three studies (n=1400), we detected no evidence that screening increases referrals to domestic violence support services (2.67, 0.99 to 7.20). Only two studies measured women’s experience of violence after screening (three to 18 months after screening) and found no reduction in intimate partner violence. One study reported that screening does not cause harm. Conclusions Though screening is likely to increase identification of intimate partner violence in healthcare settings, rates of identification from screening interventions were low relative to best estimates of prevalence of such violence. It is uncertain whether screening increases effective referral to supportive agencies. Screening does not seem to cause harm in the short term, but harm was measured in only one study. As the primary studies did not detect improved outcomes for women screened for intimate partner violence, there is insufficient evidence for screening in healthcare settings. Studies comparing screening versus case finding, or screening in combination with therapeutic intervention for women’s long term wellbeing, are needed to inform the implementation of identification policies in healthcare settings.

2014-01-01

257

Building Disease-Specific Drug-Protein Connectivity Maps from Molecular Interaction Networks and PubMed Abstracts  

PubMed Central

The recently proposed concept of molecular connectivity maps enables researchers to integrate experimental measurements of genes, proteins, metabolites, and drug compounds under similar biological conditions. The study of these maps provides opportunities for future toxicogenomics and drug discovery applications. We developed a computational framework to build disease-specific drug-protein connectivity maps. We integrated gene/protein and drug connectivity information based on protein interaction networks and literature mining, without requiring gene expression profile information derived from drug perturbation experiments on disease samples. We described the development and application of this computational framework using Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as a primary example in three steps. First, molecular interaction networks were incorporated to reduce bias and improve relevance of AD seed proteins. Second, PubMed abstracts were used to retrieve enriched drug terms that are indirectly associated with AD through molecular mechanistic studies. Third and lastly, a comprehensive AD connectivity map was created by relating enriched drugs and related proteins in literature. We showed that this molecular connectivity map development approach outperformed both curated drug target databases and conventional information retrieval systems. Our initial explorations of the AD connectivity map yielded a new hypothesis that diltiazem and quinidine may be investigated as candidate drugs for AD treatment. Molecular connectivity maps derived computationally can help study molecular signature differences between different classes of drugs in specific disease contexts. To achieve overall good data coverage and quality, a series of statistical methods have been developed to overcome high levels of data noise in biological networks and literature mining results. Further development of computational molecular connectivity maps to cover major disease areas will likely set up a new model for drug development, in which therapeutic/toxicological profiles of candidate drugs can be checked computationally before costly clinical trials begin.

Li, Jiao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jake Yue

2009-01-01

258

Information Literacy for Users at the National Medical Library of Cuba: Cochrane Library Course for the Search of Best Evidence for Clinical Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Medical Library of Cuba is currently developing an information literacy program to train users in the use of biomedical databases. This paper describes the experience with the course "Cochrane Library: Evidence-Based Medicine," which aims to teach users how to make the best use of this database, as well as the evidence-based medicine…

Santana Arroyo, Sonia; del Carmen Gonzalez Rivero, Maria

2012-01-01

259

Evaluating the impact of MEDLINE filters on evidence retrieval: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Rather than searching the entire MEDLINE database, clinicians can perform searches on a filtered set of articles where relevant information is more likely to be found. Members of our team previously developed two types of MEDLINE filters. The 'methods' filters help identify clinical research of high methodological merit. The 'content' filters help identify articles in the discipline of renal medicine. We will now test the utility of these filters for physician MEDLINE searching. Hypothesis When a physician searches MEDLINE, we hypothesize the use of filters will increase the number of relevant articles retrieved (increase 'recall,' also called sensitivity) and decrease the number of non-relevant articles retrieved (increase 'precision,' also called positive predictive value), compared to the performance of a physician's search unaided by filters. Methods We will survey a random sample of 100 nephrologists in Canada to obtain the MEDLINE search that they would first perform themselves for a focused clinical question. Each question we provide to a nephrologist will be based on the topic of a recently published, well-conducted systematic review. We will examine the performance of a physician's unaided MEDLINE search. We will then apply a total of eight filter combinations to the search (filters used in isolation or in combination). We will calculate the recall and precision of each search. The filter combinations that most improve on unaided physician searches will be identified and characterized. Discussion If these filters improve search performance, physicians will be able to search MEDLINE for renal evidence more effectively, in less time, and with less frustration. Additionally, our methodology can be used as a proof of concept for the evaluation of search filters in other disciplines.

2010-01-01

260

Ranking the whole MEDLINE database according to a large training set using text indexing  

PubMed Central

Background The MEDLINE database contains over 12 million references to scientific literature, with about 3/4 of recent articles including an abstract of the publication. Retrieval of entries using queries with keywords is useful for human users that need to obtain small selections. However, particular analyses of the literature or database developments may need the complete ranking of all the references in the MEDLINE database as to their relevance to a topic of interest. This report describes a method that does this ranking using the differences in word content between MEDLINE entries related to a topic and the whole of MEDLINE, in a computational time appropriate for an article search query engine. Results We tested the capabilities of our system to retrieve MEDLINE references which are relevant to the subject of stem cells. We took advantage of the existing annotation of references with terms from the MeSH hierarchical vocabulary (Medical Subject Headings, developed at the National Library of Medicine). A training set of 81,416 references was constructed by selecting entries annotated with the MeSH term stem cells or some child in its sub tree. Frequencies of all nouns, verbs, and adjectives in the training set were computed and the ratios of word frequencies in the training set to those in the entire MEDLINE were used to score references. Self-consistency of the algorithm, benchmarked with a test set containing the training set and an equal number of references randomly selected from MEDLINE was better using nouns (79%) than adjectives (73%) or verbs (70%). The evaluation of the system with 6,923 references not used for training, containing 204 articles relevant to stem cells according to a human expert, indicated a recall of 65% for a precision of 65%. Conclusion This strategy appears to be useful for predicting the relevance of MEDLINE references to a given concept. The method is simple and can be used with any user-defined training set. Choice of the part of speech of the words used for classification has important effects on performance. Lists of words, scripts, and additional information are available from the web address .

Suomela, Brian P; Andrade, Miguel A

2005-01-01

261

Optimal search strategies for retrieving scientifically strong studies of treatment from Medline: analytical survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective To develop,and,test optimal,Medline,search strategies for retrieving sound,clinical studies on prevention,or treatment,of health disorders. Design Analytical survey. Data sources 161 clinical journals indexed,in Medline for the year 2000. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy,of 4862 unique,terms in 18 404 combinations. Results Only 1587 (24.2%) of 6568 articles on treatment,met criteria for testing clinical interventions. Combinations,of search terms,reached,peak,sensitivities

R Brian Haynes; K Ann Mckibbon; Nancy L Wilczynski; Stephen D Walter

2005-01-01

262

Evaluating MEDLINE on CD-ROM: An Overview of Field Tests in Library and Clinical Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the National Library of Medicine's 1988 field test and evaluation project on the use of MEDLINE products on CD-ROM. Results are summarized in the areas of user characteristics, search characteristics, user satisfaction, product features and costs, and impact on online searching. (10 references) (LRW)

Rapp, Barbara A.; And Others

1990-01-01

263

Comparison of CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE Databases for the Nurse Researcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine which of three databases, CINAHL, EMBASE or MEDLINE, should be accessed when researching nursing topics. The three databases were searched for citations on topics selected by three nurse researchers and the results were compared. For the search of nursing care literature on a medical condition, it was helpful to search both CINAHL

Judy Burnham; Barbara Shearer

1993-01-01

264

A nursing qualitative systematic review required MEDLINE and CINAHL for study identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: Analyze the number and the relevance of references retrieved from CINAHL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to perform a nursing systematic review. Study Design: A search strategy for the review topic was designed according to thesaurus terms. The study analyzes (1) references with abstract, (2) overlap between databases, (3) reference relevance, (4) relevance agreement between experts, and (5) reference accessibility.

Mireia Subirana; Ivan Sola; Josep M. Garcia; Ignasi Gich; Gerard Urru Tia

265

Married...with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Married...with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Photo: ... life together and a common problem—severe food allergies. NIH MedlinePlus magazine’s Naomi Miller caught up with ...

266

How to select publications on occupational health: the usefulness of Medline and the impact factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESPublications in the field of occupational health appear in various journals, including those of other medical specialties. This complicates the follow up of literature for specialists in this field. On the basis of Medline and the impact factor, this diversity was assessed, and a cost effective method for selecting the most pertinent journals in the practice of occupational health was

J F Gehanno; B. Thirion

2000-01-01

267

Model Formulation: A Document Clustering and Ranking System for Exploring MEDLINE Citations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveA major problem faced in biomedical informatics involves how best to present information retrieval results. When a single query retrieves many results, simply showing them as a long list often provides poor overview. With a goal of presenting users with reduced sets of relevant citations, this study developed an approach that retrieved and organized MEDLINE citations into different topical groups

Yongjing Lin; Wenyuan Li; Keke Chen; Ying Liu

2007-01-01

268

Developing Optimal Search Strategies for Detecting Clinically Sound Causation Studies in MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Clinical end users of MEDLINE must be able to retrieve articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. The use of methodologic search filters has been advocated to improve the accuracy of searching for such studies. These filters are available for the literature on therapy and diagnosis, but strategies for the literature on causation have

Nancy L. Wilczynski; R. Brian Haynes

2003-01-01

269

Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound prognostic studies in MEDLINE: an analytic survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinical end users of MEDLINE have a difficult time retrieving articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. Search filters have been developed to assist end users in increasing the success of their searches. Many filters have been developed for the literature on therapy and reviews but little has been done in the area of

Nancy L Wilczynski; R Brian Haynes

2004-01-01

270

Automatic Extraction of Gene and Protein Synonyms from MEDLINE and Journal Articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes and proteins are often associated with multiple names, and more names are added as new functional or s tructural information is discovered. Because authors often alternate between these synonyms, information retrieval and extraction benefits from identifying these synonymous names. We have developed a method to extract automatically synonymous gene and protein names from MEDLINE and journal articles. We first

Hong Yu; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou; Carol Friedman; Andrey Rzhetsky; W. John Wilbur

2002-01-01

271

Use of the critical incident technique to evaluate the impact of MEDLINE  

SciTech Connect

The NLM has an ongoing responsibility to assess the extent to which its information products and services support the requirements of its users. This enables the Library to craft ever more responsive systems that capitalize on the latest advances in information and computer technology and, when necessary, to modify existing systems whose performance may no longer be optimal or consistent with the functions intended. The importance of this requirement was underscored in the recent report of the Outreach Planning Panel to the NLM Board of regents. A fundamental concern is the need to identify the impact of MEDLINE-derived information--i.e., does the use of MEDLINE make a difference'' In what ways is it used, and with what effect In particular, is information retrieved from MEDLINE used successfully by health professionals to support medical decision-making and patient care Previous efforts to address this question have been limited to the collection of available anecdotal reports. Traditional survey methodology, with pre-defined response categories, while used effectively to determine general areas in which MEDLINE information is used, is not well suited to developing a detailed understanding of user motivation, behavior, and resulting consequences. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tab.

Wilson, S.R.; Starr-Schneidkraut, N.; Cooper, M.D.

1989-09-30

272

A probabilistic similarity metric for Medline records: A model for author name disambiguation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model for estimating the probability that a pair of author names (sharing last name and first initial), appearing on two different Medline articles, refer to the same individual. The model uses a simple yet powerful similarity profile between a pair of articles, based on title, journal name, coauthor names, medical subject headings (MeSH), language, affiliation, and name

Vetle I. Torvik; Marc Weeber; Don R. Swanson; Neil R. Smalheiser

2005-01-01

273

A Study of the Morpho-Semantic Relationship in Medline1  

PubMed Central

Morphological analysis as applied to English has generally involved the study of rules for inflections and derivations. Recent work has attempted to derive such rules from automatic analysis of corpora. Here we study similar issues, but in the context of the biological literature. We introduce a new approach which allows us to assign probabilities of the semantic relatedness of pairs of tokens that occur in text in consequence of their relatedness as character strings. Our analysis is based on over 84 million sentences from the MEDLINE database, over 2.3 million token types that occur in MEDLINE, and enables us to identify over 36 million token type pairs which have assigned probabilities of semantic relatedness of at least 0.7 based on their similarity as strings. The quality of these predictions is tested by two different manual evaluations and found to be good.

Wilbur, W. John; Smith, Larry

2014-01-01

274

Evaluation of the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials: focus groups, online survey, proposed recommendations and their implementation  

PubMed Central

Background In 2008, the Cochrane Collaboration introduced a tool for assessing the risk of bias in clinical trials included in Cochrane reviews. The risk of bias (RoB) tool is based on narrative descriptions of evidence-based methodological features known to increase the risk of bias in trials. Methods To assess the usability of this tool, we conducted an evaluation by means of focus groups, online surveys and a face-to-face meeting. We obtained feedback from a range of stakeholders within The Cochrane Collaboration regarding their experiences with, and perceptions of, the RoB tool and associated guidance materials. We then assessed this feedback in a face-to-face meeting of experts and stakeholders and made recommendations for improvements and further developments of the RoB tool. Results The survey attracted 380 responses. Respondents reported taking an average of between 10 and 60 minutes per study to complete their RoB assessments, which 83% deemed acceptable. Most respondents (87% of authors and 95% of editorial staff) thought RoB assessments were an improvement over past approaches to trial quality assessment. Most authors liked the standardized approach (81%) and the ability to provide quotes to support judgements (74%). A third of participants disliked the increased workload and found the wording describing RoB judgements confusing. The RoB domains reported to be the most difficult to assess were incomplete outcome data and selective reporting of outcomes. Authors expressed the need for more guidance on how to incorporate RoB assessments into meta-analyses and review conclusions. Based on this evaluation, recommendations were made for improvements to the RoB tool and the associated guidance. The implementation of these recommendations is currently underway. Conclusions Overall, respondents identified positive experiences and perceptions of the RoB tool. Revisions of the tool and associated guidance made in response to this evaluation, and improved provision of training, may improve implementation.

2014-01-01

275

Patient safety and systematic reviews: finding papers indexed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo develop search strategies for identifying papers on patient safety in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL.MethodsSix journals were electronically searched for papers on patient safety published between 2000 and 2006. Identified papers were divided into two gold standards: one to build and the other to validate the search strategies. Candidate terms for strategy construction were identified using a word frequency analysis

A. A. Tanon; F. Champagne; A. P. Contandriopoulos; M. P. Pomey; A. Vadeboncoeur; H. Nguyen

2010-01-01

276

Optimal search strategies for detecting health services research studies in MEDLINE  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from health services research (HSR) is currently thinly spread through many journals, making it difficult for health services researchers, managers and policy-makers to find research on clinical practice guidelines and the appropriateness, process, outcomes, cost and economics of health care services. We undertook to develop and test search terms to retrieve from the MEDLINE database HSR articles meeting minimum quality standards. Methods The retrieval performance of 7445 methodologic search terms and phrases in MEDLINE (the test) were compared with a hand search of the literature (the gold standard) for each issue of 68 journal titles for the year 2000 (a total of 25 936 articles). We determined sensitivity, specificity and precision (the positive predictive value) of the MEDLINE search strategies. Results A majority of the articles that were classified as outcome assessment, but fewer than half of those in the other categories, were considered methodologically acceptable (no methodologic criteria were applied for cost studies). Combining individual search terms to maximize sensitivity, while keeping specificity at 50% or more, led to sensitivities in the range of 88.1% to 100% for several categories (specificities ranged from 52.9% to 97.4%). When terms were combined to maximize specificity while keeping sensitivity at 50% or more, specificities of 88.8% to 99.8% were achieved. When terms were combined to maximize sensitivity and specificity while minimizing the differences between the 2 measurements, most strategies for HSR categories achieved sensitivity and specificity of at least 80%. Interpretation Sensitive and specific search strategies were validated for retrieval of HSR literature from MEDLINE. These strategies have been made available for public use by the US National Library of Medicine at www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/hedges/search.html.

Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian; Lavis, John N.; Ramkissoonsingh, Ravi; Arnold-Oatley, Alexandra E.

2004-01-01

277

A Performance and Failure Analysis of SAPHIRE with a MEDLINE Test Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAssess the performance of the SAPHIRE automated information retrieval system.DesignComparative study of automated and human searching of a MEDLINE test collection.MeasurementsRecall and precision of SAPHIRE were compared with those attributes of novice physicians, expert physicians, and librarians for a test collection of 75 queries and 2,334 citations. Failure analysis assessed the efficacy of the Metathesaurus as a concept vocabulary; the

William R. Hersh; David H. Hickman; R Brian Haynes; K. Ann Mckibbon

1994-01-01

278

Extraction of Gene-Disease Relations from Medline Using Domain Dictionaries and Machine Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system that extracts disease-gene relations from MedLine. We con- structed a dictionary for disease and gene names from six public databases and extracted relation candidates by dictionary matching. Since dictionary matching produces a large number of false positives, we developed a method of machine learning-based named entity recognition (NER) to fllter out false recognitions of disease\\/gene names.

Hong-woo Chun; Yoshimasa Tsuruoka; Jin-dong Kim; Rie Shiba; Naoki Nagata; Teruyoshi Hishiki; Jun-ichi Tsujii

2006-01-01

279

Supporting discovery in medicine by association rule mining in Medline and UMLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper presents an interactive discovery support system for the field of medicine. The intended users of the system are medical researchers. The goal of the system is: for a given starting concept of interest, discover new, potentially meaningful,relations with other concepts that have not been published,in the medical,literature before. The known relations between,the medical,concepts,come,from,the Medline bibliographic database and,the

Dimitar Hristovski; Janez Stare; Borut Peterlin; Saso Dzeroski

2001-01-01

280

Developing Optimal Search Strategies for Detecting Clinically Sound Studies in MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo develop optimal MEDLINE search strategies for retrieving sound clinical studies of the etiology, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disorders in adult general medicine.DesignAnalytic survey of operating characteristics of search strategies developed by computerized combinations of terms selected to detect studies meeting basic methodologic criteria for direct clinical use in adult general medicine.MeasuresThe sensitivities, specificities, precision, and accuracy of

R Brian Haynes; Nancy Wilczynski; K Ann McKibbon; Cynthia J Walker; JC Sinclair

1994-01-01

281

Knowledge production status of Iranian researchers in the gastric cancer area: based on the medline database.  

PubMed

Background: Scientometrics is a useful method for management of financial and human resources and has been applied many times in medical sciences during recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of science production by Iranian scientists in the gastric cancer field based on the Medline database. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study Iranian science production concerning gastric cancer during 2000-2011 was investigated based on Medline. After two stages of searching, 121 articles were found, then we reviewed publication date, authors names, journal title, impact factor (IF), and cooperation coefficient between researchers. SPSS.19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant increase in published articles about gastric cancer by Iranian researchers in Medline database during 2006-2011. Mean cooperation coefficient between researchers was 6.14±3.29 person per article. Articles of this field were published in 19 countries and 56 journals. Those basex in Thailand, England, and America had the most published Iranian articles. Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Mohammadreza Zali had the most outstanding role in publishing scientific articles. Conclusions: According to results of this study, improving cooperation of researchers in conducting research and scientometric studies about other fields may have an important role in increasing both quality and quantity of published studies. PMID:24998590

Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Nasrolah-Zadeh, Raheleh; Bayat-Khajeh, Parvaneh; Piri, Reza; Mirnia, Keyvan; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

2014-01-01

282

Evaluation of linguistic features useful in extraction of interactions from PubMed; Application to annotating known, high-throughput and predicted interactions in I2D  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Identification and characterization of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is one of the key aims in biological research. While previous research in text mining has made substantial progress in automatic PPI detection from literature, the need to improve the precision and recall of the process remains. More accurate PPI detection will also improve the ability to extract experimental data related to PPIs and provide multiple evidence for each interaction. Results: We developed an interaction detection method and explored the usefulness of various features in automatically identifying PPIs in text. The results show that our approach outperforms other systems using the AImed dataset. In the tests where our system achieves better precision with reduced recall, we discuss possible approaches for improvement. In addition to test datasets, we evaluated the performance on interactions from five human-curated databases—BIND, DIP, HPRD, IntAct and MINT—where our system consistently identified evidence for ?60% of interactions when both proteins appear in at least one sentence in the PubMed abstract. We then applied the system to extract articles from PubMed to annotate known, high-throughput and interologous interactions in I2D. Availability: The data and software are available at: http://www.cs.utoronto.ca/?juris/data/BI09/. Contact: yniu@uhnres.utoronto.ca; juris@ai.utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Niu, Yun; Otasek, David; Jurisica, Igor

2010-01-01

283

National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), which helps computer systems work together; outreach to the underserved; and ... Mobile MedlinePlus Free podcast audio reports on your computer or personal audio player www.nih.gov/news/ ...

284

Epidemiology, diagnosis, aetiology and knowledge about autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Africa: perspectives from literatures cited in pubmed over the last decade (2000 - 2009)  

PubMed Central

Background The universal occurrence of ASD was queried about twenty-six years ago. It was thought to occur only in western industrialized countries with high technological development. Over the last decade, knowledge about ASD and its prevalence had been documented to be on the rise in different regions of the world with most literatures coming from the western world but the present situation in Africa on aspects of ASD remained unclear. Perspectives of literatures cited in pubmed over the last decade on aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, aetiology and knowledge about ASD among Africans were assessed. Methods Key words like autism, diagnosis, aetiology, knowledge and Africa were variously combined in doing a pubmed search of literatures published over the last decade about ASD among Africans. Results No study addressed specifically epidemiology of ASD in Africa. One of the two studies that were relevant addressed epidemiology of ASD in Arab countries, though included two Northern African countries. Higher proportion of non-verbal cases of ASD compared to verbal cases was documented in literature coming from Africa. Associated co-morbid disorders included intellectual disability, epilepsy and oculo-cutaneous albinism. Aetiological factors postulated were post-encephalitic infection, genetic and auto-immune factors, vitamin D aetiological hypothesis among others. Knowledge about ASD in Africa was noted to be low. Conclusion There is need for epidemiological studies in Africa to define the magnitude of the problem of ASD and characteristics of children affected by ASD in this region. This would help in planning and might be helpful in answering the bothering question of aetiology of ASD. More policy making attention need to be directed at issues of childhood developmental disorders in Africa.

Munir, Kerim M.

2011-01-01

285

Survey of individual users of MEDLINE on the NLM system (Summary)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past three years the number of individual health professionals who search with MEDLINE on the NLM system has increased dramatically. It is continuing to grow at the rate of over 200 users per month. In order to provide them with an online information retrieval service that individuals can use easily and effectively, NLM surveyed this growing end-user population by the questionnaire including 35 items such as their demographic characteristics, methods of access to the system, frequency of searching, search purpose, number of citations retrieved, use of information retrieved, and level of satisfaction with current system. This paper describes the results of this survey.

Fukushima, Translated By Isao; Kawano, Koreni

286

Textquest: document clustering of Medline abstracts for concept discovery in molecular biology.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for large-scale document clustering of biological text, obtained from Medline abstracts. The algorithm is based on statistical treatment of terms, stemming, the idea of a 'go-list', unsupervised machine learning and graph layout optimization. The method is flexible and robust, controlled by a small number of parameter values. Experiments show that the resulting document clusters are meaningful as assessed by cluster-specific terms. Despite the statistical nature of the approach, with minimal semantic analysis, the terms provide a shallow description of the document corpus and support concept discovery. PMID:11262957

Iliopoulos, I; Enright, A J; Ouzounis, C A

2001-01-01

287

Modular Semantic Tagging of Medline Abstracts and its Use in Inferring Regulatory Networks  

SciTech Connect

We describe MedstractPlus, a resource for mining relations from the Medline bibliographic database that is currently under construction. It was built on the remains of Medstract, a previously created resource that included a biorelation server and an acronym database. MedstractPlus uses simple and scalable natural language processing modules to structure text, is designed with reusability and extendibility in mind, and adheres to the philosophy of the Linguistic Annotation Framework. We show how MedstractPlus has been used to provide seeds for a novel approach to inferring transcriptional regulatory networks from gene expression data.

Verhagen, Marc; Pustejovsky, James; Taylor, Ronald C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

2011-09-19

288

Exploiting MeSH indexing in MEDLINE to generate a data set for word sense disambiguation  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) methods in the biomedical domain is difficult because the available resources are either too small or too focused on specific types of entities (e.g. diseases or genes). We present a method that can be used to automatically develop a WSD test collection using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus and the manual MeSH indexing of MEDLINE. We demonstrate the use of this method by developing such a data set, called MSH WSD. Methods In our method, the Metathesaurus is first screened to identify ambiguous terms whose possible senses consist of two or more MeSH headings. We then use each ambiguous term and its corresponding MeSH heading to extract MEDLINE citations where the term and only one of the MeSH headings co-occur. The term found in the MEDLINE citation is automatically assigned the UMLS CUI linked to the MeSH heading. Each instance has been assigned a UMLS Concept Unique Identifier (CUI). We compare the characteristics of the MSH WSD data set to the previously existing NLM WSD data set. Results The resulting MSH WSD data set consists of 106 ambiguous abbreviations, 88 ambiguous terms and 9 which are a combination of both, for a total of 203 ambiguous entities. For each ambiguous term/abbreviation, the data set contains a maximum of 100 instances per sense obtained from MEDLINE. We evaluated the reliability of the MSH WSD data set using existing knowledge-based methods and compared their performance to that of the results previously obtained by these algorithms on the pre-existing data set, NLM WSD. We show that the knowledge-based methods achieve different results but keep their relative performance except for the Journal Descriptor Indexing (JDI) method, whose performance is below the other methods. Conclusions The MSH WSD data set allows the evaluation of WSD algorithms in the biomedical domain. Compared to previously existing data sets, MSH WSD contains a larger number of biomedical terms/abbreviations and covers the largest set of UMLS Semantic Types. Furthermore, the MSH WSD data set has been generated automatically reusing already existing annotations and, therefore, can be regenerated from subsequent UMLS versions.

2011-01-01

289

Factors Associated with Success in Searching medline and Applying Evidence to Answer Clinical Questions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study sought to assess the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to use medline to obtain evidence for answering clinical questions and to identify factors associated with the successful answering of questions. Methods: A convenience sample of medical and nurse practitioner students was recruited. After completing instruments measuring demographic variables, computer and searching attitudes and experience, and cognitive traits, the subjects were given a brief orientation to medline searching and the techniques of evidence-based medicine. The subjects were then given 5 questions (from a pool of 20) to answer in two sessions using the Ovid medline system and the Oregon Health & Science University library collection. Each question was answered using three possible responses that reflected the quality of the evidence. All actions capable of being logged by the Ovid system were captured. Statistical analysis was performed using a model based on generalized estimating equations. The relevance-based measures of recall and precision were measured by defining end queries and having relevance judgments made by physicians who were not associated with the study. Results: Forty-five medical and 21 nurse practitioner students provided usable answers to 324 questions. The rate of correctness increased from 32.3 to 51.6 percent for medical students and from 31.7 to 34.7 percent for nurse practitioner students. Ability to answer questions correctly was most strongly associated with correctness of the answer before searching, user experience with medline features, the evidence-based medicine question type, and the spatial visualization score. The spatial visualization score showed multi-collinearity with student type (medical vs. nurse practitioner). Medical and nurse practitioner students obtained comparable recall and precision, neither of which was associated with correctness of the answer. Conclusions: Medical and nurse practitioner students in this study were at best moderately successful at answering clinical questions correctly with the assistance of literature searching. The results confirm the importance of evaluating both search ability and the ability to use the resulting information to accomplish a clinical task.

Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Friedman, Charles P.; Tidmarsh, Patricia; Mosbaek, Craig; Kraemer, Dale

2002-01-01

290

Completeness of reporting of setting and health worker cadre among trials on antenatal iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy: an assessment based on two Cochrane reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reporting of medical trials has triggered the development of trial reporting standards within the scientific community. In addition to a description of the proposed intervention, adequate information about the trial setting and the group of health workers (cadre) delivering the intervention would allow a better understanding of the generalizability of the trial findings, facilitate replication of trial interventions and assist with assessment of trials for inclusion in systematic reviews. This study aims to determine the completeness of reporting for trial setting and cadre among trials included in two Cochrane reviews on iron and folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy. Methods From the 81 trials included in the two Cochrane reviews, we extracted data on the trial setting, including the facility type and geographic location, facility descriptors (i.e. level of care) and population descriptors (i.e. socioeconomic status); and the cadre, including professional qualifications, training and supervision. Results Almost all studies reported the facility type and location (96%). However, only 68% included this information in the “methods” section of the report. Facility descriptors and population descriptors were less commonly reported (26% and 54% respectively). For 34% of the trials, we found some account of the type of health worker that delivered the intervention. Only 4% of the trials reported any training procedures. Conclusions Currently, complete reporting of setting and health worker cadre in iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy trials remains far from ideal, limiting assessments of the applicability of the trial findings. Trialists and journals need to ensure that this information is included in trial reports by adhering to and improving current reporting standards and by not making assumptions regarding readers’ knowledge of the context and of the intervention delivery mechanism.

2013-01-01

291

Automatic identification of comparative effectiveness research from Medline citations to support clinicians' treatment information needs  

PubMed Central

Online knowledge resources such as Medline can address most clinicians’ patient care information needs. Yet, significant barriers, notably lack of time, limit the use of these sources at the point of care. The most common information needs raised by clinicians are treatment-related. Comparative effectiveness studies allow clinicians to consider multiple treatment alternatives for a particular problem. Still, solutions are needed to enable efficient and effective consumption of comparative effectiveness research at the point of care. Objective Design and assess an algorithm for automatically identifying comparative effectiveness studies and extracting the interventions investigated in these studies. Methods The algorithm combines semantic natural language processing, Medline citation metadata, and machine learning techniques. We assessed the algorithm in a case study of treatment alternatives for depression. Results Both precision and recall for identifying comparative studies was 0.83. A total of 86% of the interventions extracted perfectly or partially matched the gold standard. Conclusion Overall, the algorithm achieved reasonable performance. The method provides building blocks for the automatic summarization of comparative effectiveness research to inform point of care decision-making.

Zhang, Mingyuan; Fiol, Guilherme Del; Grout, Randall W.; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Medlin, Richard; Mishra, Rashmi; Weir, Charlene; Liu, Hongfang; Mostafa, Javed; Fiszman, Marcelo

2014-01-01

292

Study of style effects on OCR errors in the MEDLINE database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Library of Medicine has developed a system for the automatic extraction of data from scanned journal articles to populate the MEDLINE database. Although the 5-engine OCR system used in this process exhibits good performance overall, it does make errors in character recognition that must be corrected in order for the process to achieve the requisite accuracy. The correction process works by feeding words that have characters with less than 100% confidence (as determined automatically by the OCR engine) to a human operator who then must manually verify the word or correct the error. The majority of these errors are contained in the affiliation information zone where the characters are in italics or small fonts. Therefore only affiliation information data is used in this research. This paper examines the correlation between OCR errors and various character attributes in the MEDLINE database, such as font size, italics, bold, etc. and OCR confidence levels. The motivation for this research is that if a correlation between the character style and types of errors exists it should be possible to use this information to improve operator productivity by increasing the probability that the correct word option is presented to the human editor. We have determined that this correlation exists, in particular for the case of characters with diacritics.

Garrison, Penny; Davis, Diane L.; Andersen, Tim L.; Barney Smith, Elisa H.

2005-01-01

293

Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cummings TM, White AR. Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:986-92. Objective: To establish whether there is evidence for or against the efficacy of needling as a treatment approach for myofascial trigger point pain. Data Sources: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, AMED, and CISCOM databases, searched

T. Michael Cummings; Adrian R. White

2001-01-01

294

Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields exposure and female breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 24,338 cases and 60,628 controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) has been suggested to increase female breast cancer risk;\\u000a however, the data have been inconclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis\\u000a was performed. Medline, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were\\u000a used to assess the strength

Chunhai Chen; Xiangyu Ma; Min Zhong; Zhengping Yu

2010-01-01

295

Smoking cessation programs targeted to women: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This systematic review aimed to examine tobacco interventions developed to meet the needs of women, to identify sex- and gender-specific components, and to evaluate their effects on smoking cessation in women. Methods: We searched electronic databases in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and EMBASE; the search was not restricted by publication date.

Iris Torchalla; Chizimuzo T. C. Okoli; Joan L. Bottorff; Annie Qu; Nancy Poole; Lorraine Greaves

2012-01-01

296

Sedative hypnotics in older people with insomnia: meta-analysis of risks and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To quantify and compare potential benefits (subjective reports of sleep variables) and risks (adverse events and morning-after psychomotor impairment) of short term treatment with sedative hypnotics in older people with insomnia. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane clinical trials database, PubMed, and PsychLit, 1966 to 2003; bibliographies of published reviews and meta-analyses; manufacturers of newer sedative hypnotics (zaleplon, zolpidem,

Jennifer Glass; Krista L Lanctôt; Nathan Herrmann; Beth A Sproule; Usoa E Busto

2005-01-01

297

Soy isoflavone intake inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To clarify the effects of isoflavone intake on bone resorption and bone formation.Methods:We identified randomized controlled trials related to urinary deoxypyridinoline (Dpyr, a bone resorption marker) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP, a bone formation marker) listed on MEDLINE (January 1966–April 2006), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE (1985–January 2006), Science Citation Index and PUBMED (updated till April 2006).Results:Nine studies

D-F Ma; L-Q Qin; P-Y Wang; R Katoh

2008-01-01

298

A Concept Analysis of Person-Centered Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term person-centered care (PCC) has been frequently used in the literature, but there is no consensus about its meaning. This article uses Walker and Avants’s method of concept analysis as a framework to analyze PCC. A literature search was completed and data were collected using several search engines (CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Review). The key words used were

Stephanie Morgan; Linda H. Yoder

2012-01-01

299

Strategies for the Treatment of Antipsychotic-induced Sexual Dysfunction and \\/or Hyperprolactinemia among Patients of the Schizophrenia Spectrum: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited evidence for management of sexual dysfunction and\\/or hyperprolactinemia due to antipsychotic in patients with schizophrenia and spectrum. The aim of this study was to rewiew and describes the strategies for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunctions and\\/or hyperprolactinemia. The research was carried out through Medline \\/PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Embase, and PsycINFO and included open labels or randomized

Luciana Vargas Alves Nunes; Hugo Cogo Moreira; Denise Razzouk; Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes; Jair De Jesus Mari

2012-01-01

300

A review of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cirrhosis developing during chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) poses a risk of anticipated liver-related death, therefore representing a dominant indication to anti-HCV therapy.Objective: This review highlights the efficacy and safety of treatment of HCV infection in cirrhotic patients with respect to the clinical stage of the disease.Methods: The PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases, as well

Elena Vezali; Alessio Aghemo; Massimo Colombo

2010-01-01

301

Randomized trial for answers to clinical questions: Evaluating a pre-appraised versus a MEDLINE search protocol  

PubMed Central

Objective: The paper compares the speed, validity, and applicability of two different protocols for searching the primary medical literature. Design: A randomized trial involving medicine residents was performed. Setting: An inpatient general medicine rotation was used. Participants: Thirty-two internal medicine residents were block randomized into four groups of eight. Main Outcome Measures: Success rate of each search protocol was measured by perceived search time, number of questions answered, and proportion of articles that were applicable and valid. Results: Residents randomized to the MEDLINE-first (protocol A) group searched 120 questions, and residents randomized to the MEDLINE-last (protocol B) searched 133 questions. In protocol A, 104 answers (86.7%) and, in protocol B, 117 answers (88%) were found to clinical questions. In protocol A, residents reported that 26 (25.2%) of the answers were obtained quickly or rated as “fast” (<5 minutes) as opposed to 55 (51.9%) in protocol B, (P = 0.0004). A subset of questions and articles (n = 79) were reviewed by faculty who found that both protocols identified similar numbers of answer articles that addressed the questions and were felt to be valid using critical appraisal criteria. Conclusion: For resident-generated clinical questions, both protocols produced a similarly high percentage of applicable and valid articles. The MEDLINE-last search protocol was perceived to be faster. However, in the MEDLINE-last protocol, a significant portion of questions (23%) still required searching MEDLINE to find an answer.

Patel, Manesh R.; Schardt, Connie M.; Sanders, Linda L.; Keitz, Sheri A.

2006-01-01

302

Development and Validation of Filters for the Retrieval of Studies of Clinical Examination From Medline  

PubMed Central

Background Efficiently finding clinical examination studies—studies that quantify the value of symptoms and signs in the diagnosis of disease—is becoming increasingly difficult. Filters developed to retrieve studies of diagnosis from Medline lack specificity because they also retrieve large numbers of studies on the diagnostic value of imaging and laboratory tests. Objective The objective was to develop filters for retrieving clinical examination studies from Medline. Methods We developed filters in a training dataset and validated them in a testing database. We created the training database by hand searching 161 journals (n = 52,636 studies). We evaluated the recall and precision of 65 candidate single-term filters in identifying studies that reported the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms or signs in the training database. To identify best combinations of these search terms, we used recursive partitioning. The best-performing filters in the training database as well as 13 previously developed filters were evaluated in a testing database (n = 431,120 studies). We also examined the impact of examining reference lists of included articles on recall. Results In the training database, the single-term filters with the highest recall (95%) and the highest precision (8.4%) were diagnosis[subheading] and “medical history taking”[MeSH], respectively. The multiple-term filter developed using recursive partitioning (the RP filter) had a recall of 100% and a precision of 89% in the training database. In the testing database, the Haynes-2004-Sensitive filter (recall 98%, precision 0.13%) and the RP filter (recall 89%, precision 0.52%) showed the best performance. The recall of these two filters increased to 99% and 94% respectively with review of the reference lists of the included articles. Conclusions Recursive partitioning appears to be a useful method of developing search filters. The empirical search filters proposed here can assist in the retrieval of clinical examination studies from Medline; however, because of the low precision of the search strategies, retrieving relevant studies remains challenging. Improving precision may require systematic changes in the tagging of articles by the National Library of Medicine.

Badgett, Robert G; Pi, Mina; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, K. Ann; Ketchum, Andrea M; Haynes, R. Brian

2011-01-01

303

Global Mapping of Gene/Protein Interactions in PubMed Abstracts: A Framework and an Experiment with P53 Interactions  

PubMed Central

Gene/protein interactions provide critical information for a thorough understanding of cellular processes. Recently, considerable interest and effort has been focused on the construction and analysis of genome-wide gene networks. The large body of biomedical literature is an important source of gene/protein interaction information. Recent advances in text mining tools have made it possible to automatically extract such documented interactions from free-text literature. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework for constructing and analyzing large-scale gene functional networks based on the gene/protein interactions extracted from biomedical literature repositories using text mining tools. Our proposed framework consists of analyses of the network topology, network topology-gene function relationship, and temporal network evolution to distill valuable information embedded in the gene functional interactions in literature. We demonstrate the application of the proposed framework using a testbed of P53-related PubMed abstracts, which shows that literature-based P53 networks exhibit small-world and scale-free properties. We also found that high degree genes in the literature-based networks have a high probability of appearing in the manually curated database and genes in the same pathway tend to form local clusters in our literature-based networks. Temporal analysis showed that genes interacting with many other genes tend to be involved in a large number of newly discovered interactions.

Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Huang, Zan; Su, Hua; Martinez, Jesse D.

2007-01-01

304

Using co-occurrence network structure to extract synonymous gene and protein names from MEDLINE abstracts  

PubMed Central

Background Text-mining can assist biomedical researchers in reducing information overload by extracting useful knowledge from large collections of text. We developed a novel text-mining method based on analyzing the network structure created by symbol co-occurrences as a way to extend the capabilities of knowledge extraction. The method was applied to the task of automatic gene and protein name synonym extraction. Results Performance was measured on a test set consisting of about 50,000 abstracts from one year of MEDLINE. Synonyms retrieved from curated genomics databases were used as a gold standard. The system obtained a maximum F-score of 22.21% (23.18% precision and 21.36% recall), with high efficiency in the use of seed pairs. Conclusion The method performs comparably with other studied methods, does not rely on sophisticated named-entity recognition, and requires little initial seed knowledge.

Cohen, AM; Hersh, WR; Dubay, C; Spackman, K

2005-01-01

305

Automatic Summarization of MEDLINE Citations for Evidence-Based Medical Treatment: A Topic-Oriented Evaluation  

PubMed Central

As the number of electronic biomedical textual resources increases, it becomes harder for physicians to find useful answers at the point of care. Information retrieval applications provide access to databases; however, little research has been done on using automatic summarization to help navigate the documents returned by these systems. After presenting a semantic abstraction automatic summarization system for MEDLINE citations, we concentrate on evaluating its ability to identify useful drug interventions for fifty-three diseases. The evaluation methodology uses existing sources of evidence-based medicine as surrogates for a physician-annotated reference standard. Mean average precision (MAP) and a clinical usefulness score developed for this study were computed as performance metrics. The automatic summarization system significantly outperformed the baseline in both metrics. The MAP gain was 0.17 (p < 0.01) and the increase in the overall score of clinical usefulness was 0.39 (p < 0.05).

Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Kilicoglu, Halil; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

306

Separate but equal? A system comparison study of MEDLINE's controlled vocabulary MeSH.  

PubMed Central

This study tested the effect of controlled vocabulary search feature implementation on two online systems. Specifically, the study examined retrieval rates using four unique controlled vocabulary search features (explode, major descriptor, descriptor, subheadings). Each search feature was applied to nine search queries obtained from a medical reference librarian. The same queries were searched in the complete MEDLINE file on the Dialog and Ovid systems. The unique records, i.e., those records retrieved in only one of the two systems, were identified and analyzed. Dialog produced equal or more records than Ovid in nearly 20% of the queries. The study demonstrated that users need to be aware of system-specific designs that may require differing input strategies across different systems for the same unique controlled vocabulary search features. The paper concludes by making recommendations and suggestions for future research.

Hallett, K S

1998-01-01

307

Derivation and Validation of a MEDLINE Search Strategy for Research Studies That Use Administrative Data  

PubMed Central

Objective To derive and validate a search strategy that identifies administrative database research (ADR) in the MEDLINE database. Design Analytical survey. Methods We downloaded all articles published between January 1, 2008 and October 7, 2009 in 20 top journals in internal medicine, cardiovascular medicine, public health, and health services research. These were reviewed to determine whether they were ADR (in which the study cohort, exposure, or outcome was defined using electronic data created for or during the processing of patients through their health care). We used chi-squared recursive partitioning to create a search strategy that maximized sensitivity based on publication type, MeSH headings, and text words. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity and positive predictive value of the search strategy for true ADR in three samples: derivation (n=5,513); internal validation (n=2,710); and external validation (n=1,500). Results The prevalence of ADR in the derivation, internal validation, and external validation samples was 2.6, 2.9, and 2.2 percent, respectively. The sensitivity of our search strategy in these samples was 90.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 85.0–95.1), 88.5 percent (79.2–94.6), and 100 percent (99.3–100), respectively. The positive predictive value in these samples was 10.7 percent (9.0–12.6), 11.5 percent (9.1–14.4), and 3.3 percent (2.3–4.6), respectively. Conclusion We derived and validated a search strategy that is highly sensitive for ADR in MEDLINE.

van Walraven, Carl; Bennett, Carol; Forster, Alan J

2010-01-01

308

Text-mining of PubMed abstracts by natural language processing to create a public knowledge base on molecular mechanisms of bacterial enteropathogens  

PubMed Central

Background The Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC; ) has a goal of providing bioinformatics support for the scientific community researching enteropathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Rapid and accurate identification of experimental conclusions from the scientific literature is critical to support research in this field. Natural Language Processing (NLP), and in particular Information Extraction (IE) technology, can be a significant aid to this process. Description We have trained a powerful, state-of-the-art IE technology on a corpus of abstracts from the microbial literature in PubMed to automatically identify and categorize biologically relevant entities and predicative relations. These relations include: Genes/Gene Products and their Roles; Gene Mutations and the resulting Phenotypes; and Organisms and their associated Pathogenicity. Evaluations on blind datasets show an F-measure average of greater than 90% for entities (genes, operons, etc.) and over 70% for relations (gene/gene product to role, etc). This IE capability, combined with text indexing and relational database technologies, constitute the core of our recently deployed text mining application. Conclusion Our Text Mining application is available online on the ERIC website . The information retrieval interface displays a list of recently published enteropathogen literature abstracts, and also provides a search interface to execute custom queries by keyword, date range, etc. Upon selection, processed abstracts and the entities and relations extracted from them are retrieved from a relational database and marked up to highlight the entities and relations. The abstract also provides links from extracted genes and gene products to the ERIC Annotations database, thus providing access to comprehensive genomic annotations and adding value to both the text-mining and annotations systems.

Zaremba, Sam; Ramos-Santacruz, Mila; Hampton, Thomas; Shetty, Panna; Fedorko, Joel; Whitmore, Jon; Greene, John M; Perna, Nicole T; Glasner, Jeremy D; Plunkett, Guy; Shaker, Matthew; Pot, David

2009-01-01

309

PMD2HD - A web tool aligning a PubMed search results page with the local German Cancer Research Centre library collection  

PubMed Central

Background Web-based searching is the accepted contemporary mode of retrieving relevant literature, and retrieving as many full text articles as possible is a typical prerequisite for research success. In most cases only a proportion of references will be directly accessible as digital reprints through displayed links. A large number of references, however, have to be verified in library catalogues and, depending on their availability, are accessible as print holdings or by interlibrary loan request. Methods The problem of verifying local print holdings from an initial retrieval set of citations can be solved using Z39.50, an ANSI protocol for interactively querying library information systems. Numerous systems include Z39.50 interfaces and therefore can process Z39.50 interactive requests. However, the programmed query interaction command structure is non-intuitive and inaccessible to the average biomedical researcher. For the typical user, it is necessary to implement the protocol within a tool that hides and handles Z39.50 syntax, presenting a comfortable user interface. Results PMD2HD is a web tool implementing Z39.50 to provide an appropriately functional and usable interface to integrate into the typical workflow that follows an initial PubMed literature search, providing users with an immediate asset to assist in the most tedious step in literature retrieval, checking for subscription holdings against a local online catalogue. Conclusion PMD2HD can facilitate literature access considerably with respect to the time and cost of manual comparisons of search results with local catalogue holdings. The example presented in this article is related to the library system and collections of the German Cancer Research Centre. However, the PMD2HD software architecture and use of common Z39.50 protocol commands allow for transfer to a broad range of scientific libraries using Z39.50-compatible library information systems.

Bohne-Lang, Andreas; Lang, Elke; Taube, Anke

2005-01-01

310

Mechanization of library procedures in the medium-sized medical library: XV. A study of the interaction of nonlibrarian searchers with the MEDLINE retrieval system.  

PubMed Central

The MEDLINE searchhes of sixteen nonlibrarian searchers at the School of Medicine Library, Washington University, were examined to determine the amount of utilization of the interactive capabilities of the system. The searchers made an average of 5.7 search statement modifications of their original searc statements and it was concluded that they did indeed use the interactive capabilities of MEDLINE.

Olson, P E

1975-01-01

311

Hybrid approach combining contextual and statistical information for identifying MEDLINE citation terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong demand for developing automated tools for extracting pertinent information from the biomedical literature that is a rich, complex, and dramatically growing resource, and is increasingly accessed via the web. This paper presents a hybrid method based on contextual and statistical information to automatically identify two MEDLINE citation terms: NIH grant numbers and databank accession numbers from HTML-formatted online biomedical documents. Their detection is challenging due to many variations and inconsistencies in their format (although recommended formats exist), and also because of their similarity to other technical or biological terms. Our proposed method first extracts potential candidates for these terms using a rule-based method. These are scored and the final candidates are submitted to a human operator for verification. The confidence score for each term is calculated using statistical information, and morphological and contextual information. Experiments conducted on more than ten thousand HTML-formatted online biomedical documents show that most NIH grant numbers and databank accession numbers can be successfully identified by the proposed method, with recall rates of 99.8% and 99.6%, respectively. However, owing to the high false alarm rate, the proposed method yields F-measure rates of 86.6% and 87.9% for NIH grants and databanks, respectively.

Kim, In Cheol; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

2008-01-01

312

Mining characteristics of epidemiological studies from Medline: a case study in obesity  

PubMed Central

Background The health sciences literature incorporates a relatively large subset of epidemiological studies that focus on population-level findings, including various determinants, outcomes and correlations. Extracting structured information about those characteristics would be useful for more complete understanding of diseases and for meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Results We present an information extraction approach that enables users to identify key characteristics of epidemiological studies from MEDLINE abstracts. It extracts six types of epidemiological characteristic: design of the study, population that has been studied, exposure, outcome, covariates and effect size. We have developed a generic rule-based approach that has been designed according to semantic patterns observed in text, and tested it in the domain of obesity. Identified exposure, outcome and covariate concepts are clustered into health-related groups of interest. On a manually annotated test corpus of 60 epidemiological abstracts, the system achieved precision, recall and F-score between 79-100%, 80-100% and 82-96% respectively. We report the results of applying the method to a large scale epidemiological corpus related to obesity. Conclusions The experiments suggest that the proposed approach could identify key epidemiological characteristics associated with a complex clinical problem from related abstracts. When integrated over the literature, the extracted data can be used to provide a more complete picture of epidemiological efforts, and thus support understanding via meta-analysis and systematic reviews.

2014-01-01

313

Characteristics of project management at institutions sponsoring National Library of Medicine MedlinePlus Go Local*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Through interviews with the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus Go Local collaborators, an evaluation team sought to identify process characteristics that are critical for long-term sustainability of Go Local projects and to describe the impact that Go Local projects have on sponsoring institutions. Methods: Go Local project coordinators (n?=?44) at 31 sponsor institutions participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences developing and maintaining Go Local sites. Interviews were summarized, checked for accuracy by the participating librarians, and analyzed using a general inductive methodology. Results: Institutional factors that support Go Local projects were identified through the interviews, as well as strategies for staffing and partnerships with external organizations. Positive outcomes for sponsoring institutions also were identified. Conclusions: The findings may influence the National Library of Medicine team's decisions about improvements to its Go Local system and the support it provides to sponsoring institutions. The findings may benefit current sponsoring institutions as well as those considering or planning a Go Local project.

Olney, Cynthia A.; Backus, Joyce E. B.; Klein, Lori J.

2010-01-01

314

Does use of the CONSORT Statement impact the completeness of reporting of randomised controlled trials published in medical journals? A Cochrane reviewa  

PubMed Central

Background The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement is intended to facilitate better reporting of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). A systematic review recently published in the Cochrane Library assesses whether journal endorsement of CONSORT impacts the completeness of reporting of RCTs; those findings are summarised here. Methods Evaluations assessing the completeness of reporting of RCTs based on any of 27 outcomes formulated based on the 1996 or 2001 CONSORT checklists were included; two primary comparisons were evaluated. The 27 outcomes were: the 22 items of the 2001 CONSORT checklist, four sub-items describing blinding and a ‘total summary score’ of aggregate items, as reported. Relative risks (RR) and 99% confidence intervals were calculated to determine effect estimates for each outcome across evaluations. Results Fifty-three reports describing 50 evaluations of 16,604 RCTs were assessed for adherence to at least one of 27 outcomes. Sixty-nine of 81 meta-analyses show relative benefit from CONSORT endorsement on completeness of reporting. Between endorsing and non-endorsing journals, 25 outcomes are improved with CONSORT endorsement, five of these significantly (? = 0.01). The number of evaluations per meta-analysis was often low with substantial heterogeneity; validity was assessed as low or unclear for many evaluations. Conclusions The results of this review suggest that journal endorsement of CONSORT may benefit the completeness of reporting of RCTs they publish. No evidence suggests that endorsement hinders the completeness of RCT reporting. However, despite relative improvements when CONSORT is endorsed by journals, the completeness of reporting of trials remains sub-optimal. Journals are not sending a clear message about endorsement to authors submitting manuscripts for publication. As such, fidelity of endorsement as an ‘intervention’ has been weak to date. Journals need to take further action regarding their endorsement and implementation of CONSORT to facilitate accurate, transparent and complete reporting of trials.

2012-01-01

315

Prophylactic cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases in patients undergoing radical treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer: A Cochrane Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has a role in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A search strategy was designed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PCI with no PCI in NSCLC patients treated with curative intent. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cancerlit were searched, along with relevant journals, books, and review articles to identify potentially eligible trials. Four RCTs were identified and reviewed. A total of 951 patients were randomized in these RCTs, of whom 833 were evaluable and reported. Forty-two patients with small-cell lung cancer were excluded, leaving 791 patients in total. Because of the small patient numbers and trial heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was attempted. Results: Prophylactic cranial irradiation did significantly reduce the incidence of brain metastases in three trials. No trial reported a survival advantage with PCI over observation. Toxicity data were poorly collected and no quality of life assessments were carried out in any trial. Conclusion: Prophylactic cranial irradiation may reduce the incidence of brain metastases, but there is no evidence of a survival benefit. It was not possible to evaluate whether any radiotherapy regimen is superior, and the effect of PCI on quality of life is not known. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of PCI in clinical practice. Where possible, patients should be offered entry into a clinical trial.

Lester, Jason Francis [Department of Oncology, Velindre Hospital, Whitchurch, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jason.lester@velindre-tr.wales.nhs.uk; MacBeth, Fergus R. [Department of Oncology, Velindre Hospital, Whitchurch, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Coles, Bernadette [Department of Oncology, Velindre Hospital, Whitchurch, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom)

2005-11-01

316

Comparison of two schemes for automatic keyword extraction from MEDLINE for functional gene clustering.  

PubMed

One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the unprecedented quatities of data on gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the nature of the functional links among genes within the derived clusters. However, the quality of the keyword lists extracted from biomedical literature for each gene significantly affects the clustering results. We extracted keywords from MEDLINE that describes the most prominent functions of the genes, and used the resulting weights of the keywords as feature vectors for gene clustering. By analyzing the resulting cluster quality, we compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalized z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). The best combination of background comparison set, stop list and stemming algorithm was selected based on precision and recall metrics. In a test set of four known gene groups, a hierarchical algorithm correctly assigned 25 of 26 genes to the appropriate clusters based on keywords extracted by the TDFIDF weighting scheme, but only 23 og 26 with the z-score method. To evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clusters from microarray profiles, 44 yeast genes that are differentially expressed during the cell cycle were used as a second test set. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords had higher purity, lower entropy, and higher mutual information than those produced from normalized z-score weighted keywords. The optimized algorithms should be useful for sorting genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters. PMID:16448032

Liu, Ying; Ciliax, Brian J; Borges, Karin; Dasigi, Venu; Ram, Ashwin; Navathe, Shamkant B; Dingledine, Ray

2004-01-01

317

User support for a library-managed online database search service: the BMA Library free MEDLINE service.  

PubMed

This paper discusses user support in the context of a library-managed online database search service. Experience is drawn from the British Medical Association (BMA) Library's Free MEDLINE Service. More than 9,600 BMA members, who are largely unfamiliar with computer communications and database searching, have registered as users of the service. User support has played a significant role in the development of the service and has comprised four main aspects: an information pack, a help desk, online help, and MEDLINE courses. The paper includes an analysis of help desk usage statistics collected from January 1996 through June 1996, and highlights other relevant research. Plans for further service enhancements and their implications in terms of future user support are discussed. PMID:9285124

Rowlands, J; Yeadon, J; Forrester, W; McSeán, T

1997-07-01

318

Biomedical text summarization to support genetic database curation: using Semantic MEDLINE to create a secondary database of genetic information  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper examines the development and evaluation of an automatic summarization system in the domain of molecular genetics. The system is a potential component of an advanced biomedical information management application called Semantic MEDLINE and could assist librarians in developing secondary databases of genetic information extracted from the primary literature. Methods: An existing summarization system was modified for identifying biomedical text relevant to the genetic etiology of disease. The summarization system was evaluated on the task of identifying data describing genes associated with bladder cancer in MEDLINE citations. A gold standard was produced using records from Genetics Home Reference and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Genes in text found by the system were compared to the gold standard. Recall, precision, and F-measure were calculated. Results: The system achieved recall of 46%, and precision of 88% (F-measure?=?0.61) by taking Gene References into Function (GeneRIFs) into account. Conclusion: The new summarization schema for genetic etiology has potential as a component in Semantic MEDLINE to support the work of data curators.

Fiszman, Marcelo; Hurdle, John F; Rindflesch, Thomas C

2010-01-01

319

Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) medicines for treatment of menopausal symptoms - comments on major statements of the Cochrane Collaboration report 2012 "black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (review)".  

PubMed

Menopausal symptoms management with high-quality plant extracts from Actaea (Cimicifuga. racemosa rootstock is well-established. Efficacy and safety are supported by research and clinical trials since several decades and backed up by official monographs. However, the recent published Cochrane review on black cohosh neglects major evidence for beneficial effects. The authors' negative conclusions are questionable and call for reply and clarification. Our careful reconsideration of all appropriate placebo-controlled clinical studies reveals a standardized mean difference of 0.385 in favor of black cohosh (p?

Beer, André-M; Osmers, Rüdiger; Schnitker, Jörg; Bai, Wenpei; Mueck, Alfred O; Meden, Harald

2013-12-01

320

Relapse Rate Following Azathioprine Withdrawal in Maintaining Remission for Crohn’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The duration of use of azathioprine (Aza) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) for maintaining remission for Crohn’s disease is debatable.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To examine whether Aza\\/6-MP can be safely withdrawn in patients with Crohn’s disease who have been in remission.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (1950–September 2010), EMBASE (1980–September 2010), CINHAL (1981–September\\u000a 2010), PubMed (1950–September 2010), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled

Helen French; A. Mark Dalzell; Ramesh Srinivasan; Wael El-Matary

2011-01-01

321

Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure: a systematic review of definitional criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study was to identify the definitional criteria for the pressure-limited and time-cycled modes: airway\\u000a pressure release ventilation (APRV) and biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) available in the published literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Systematic review.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases (1982–2006) were searched using the following terms: APRV, BIPAP, Bilevel\\u000a and lung protective strategy, individually and in combination. Two

Louise Rose; Martyn Hawkins

2008-01-01

322

From Shakespeare to Star Trek and beyond: a Medline search for literary and other allusions in biomedical titles  

PubMed Central

Objectives To document biomedical paper titles containing literary and other allusions. Design Retrospective survey. Setting Medline (1951 to mid-2005) through Dialog Datastar. Main outcome measure Allusions to Shakespeare, Hans Christian Andersen, proverbs, the Bible, Lewis Carroll, and movie titles, corrected and scaled for five year periods 1950-4 to 2000-4. Results More than 1400 Shakespearean allusions exist, a third of them to “What's in a name” and another third to Hamlet—mostly to “To be or not to be.” The trend of increasing use of allusive titles, identified from Shakespeare and Andersen, is paralleled by allusions to Carroll and proverbs; the trend of biblical allusions is also upward but is more erratic. Trends for newer allusions are also upwards, including the previously surveyed “paradigm shift.” Allusive titles are likely to be to editorial or comment rather than to original research. Conclusions The similar trends are presumably a mark of a particular learnt author behaviour. Newer allusions may be becoming more popular than older ones. Allusive titles can be unhelpful to reviewers and researchers, and many are now clichés. Whether they attract readers or citations is unknown, but better ways of gaining attention exist.

Goodman, Neville W

2005-01-01

323

About MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Director Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg, Director, National Library of Medicine View Dr. Lindberg's welcome (Quicktime video ... good health information from the world's largest medical library, the National Library of Medicine. Health professionals and ...

324

Retrieval Feedback in MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate a new approach for query expansion based on retrieval feedback. The first objective in this study was to examine alternative query-expansion methods within the same retrieval-feedback framework. The three alternatives proposed are: expansion on the MeSH query field alone, expansion on the free-text field alone, and expansion on both the MeSH and the free-text fields. The second objective

Padmini Srinivasan

1996-01-01

325

Clinical practice: between Aristotle and Cochrane.  

PubMed

Health and disease consist of amino acids and self image, cell membranes and human ideals, muscles and politics. Only to a limited extent can clinical practice be based on science. It can never be carried on in isolation from political, and cultural forces that influence patients' health behaviour. Evidence-based medicine is essential but not sufficient. A continuous relationship with patients is a conditio sine qua non for general practice. The general practitioner must be a master of pragmatic medicine. Rationality, the dominant modern trend, may be dangerous for patients and doctors: (1) advances in technology can give patients and doctors the illusion of mastering the universe; (2) patients complain of being treated like biomachines, without human touch. Another symptom of modernity is the decline of religion. But patients and doctors are by no means rational beings. God, destiny and hope are replaced by modern medico-scientific megalomania. Modern medicine is also strongly influenced by commercialization and invasion by bureaucrats. Instead of becoming a biomedical robot, the general practitioner must learn to value the Aristotelian concept of phronesis. It means practical wisdom and can only be gained by personal experience; a form of learning by doing. Good clinical practice cannot come from science alone, or from personal experience alone. It is an amalgam of scientia and phronesis. PMID:9540138

Fugelli, P

1998-02-01

326

"Sibert N. Ros C. Le Bigot L. Ramond M. Gatefin J. Route J.-F. (2009). Effects of domain knowledge on reference search with the PubMed database : an experimental study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60 (7) 1423?1447."  

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Did you mean: "Sibert N. Ros C. Le Bigot L. Ramond M. Gatefin J. Route J.-F. (2009). Effects of domain knowledge on reference search with the PubMed database : an experimental study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60 (7) 1423?1447." ?

327

Is laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy an acceptable primary bariatric procedure in obese patients? Early and 5-year postoperative results.  

PubMed

In this paper, we analyze and discuss the possibility of Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy being accepted as a primary and definitive procedure for obese patients with comorbidities. This is based on our postoperative and 5 years of follow-up result and comparing them with the data reported in the international literature. For comparison of the results, a narrative revision of the literature was performed, using the Medline, Pubmed, and data base publications (Medline, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library), looking for the term "Sleeve gastrectomy," "Obesity," "Bariatric surgery," "Laparoscopic surgery" including "Review" articles and also other 42 selected papers. The current results demonstrate very low morbidity (<10%), nil mortality (<1%), mean % weight loss after 5 years of follow-up of 57%, very satisfactory results regarding comorbidities or improvement. However, gastroesophageal reflux manifestation after the operation (20% to 31%) and the possibility of regaining weight after 5 years (15% to 75%) appear as points for analysis. PMID:23238373

Braghetto, Italo; Csendes, Attila; Lanzarini, Enrique; Papapietro, Karin; Cárcamo, Carlos; Molina, Juan C

2012-12-01

328

Design and validation of an automated method to detect known adverse drug reactions in MEDLINE: a contribution from the EU-ADR project  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this research was to automate the search of publications concerning adverse drug reactions (ADR) by defining the queries used to search MEDLINE and by determining the required threshold for the number of extracted publications to confirm the drug/event association in the literature. Methods We defined an approach based on the medical subject headings (MeSH) ‘descriptor records’ and ‘supplementary concept records’ thesaurus, using the subheadings ‘chemically induced’ and ‘adverse effects’ with the ‘pharmacological action’ knowledge. An expert-built validation set of true positive and true negative drug/adverse event associations (n=61) was used to validate our method. Results Using a threshold of three of more extracted publications, the automated search method presented a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. For nine different drug/event pairs selected, the recall of the automated search ranged from 24% to 64% and the precision from 93% to 48%. Conclusions This work presents a method to find previously established relationships between drugs and adverse events in the literature. Using MEDLINE, following a MeSH approach to filter the signals, is a valid option. Our contribution is available as a web service that will be integrated in the final European EU–ADR project (Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by integrative mining of clinical records and biomedical knowledge) automated system.

Avillach, Paul; Dufour, Jean-Charles; Diallo, Gayo; Salvo, Francesco; Joubert, Michel; Thiessard, Frantz; Mougin, Fleur; Trifiro, Gianluca; Fourrier-Reglat, Annie; Pariente, Antoine; Fieschi, Marius

2013-01-01

329

Selecting CD-ROM databases for nursing students: a comparison of MEDLINE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL).  

PubMed Central

With the introduction of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) on CD-ROM, research was initiated to compare coverage of nursing journals by CINAHL and MEDLINE in this format, expanding on previous comparison of these databases in print and online. The study assessed search results for eight topics in 1989 and 1990 citations in both databases, each produced by SilverPlatter. Results were tallied and analyzed for number of records retrieved, unique and overlapping records, relevance, and appropriateness. An overall precision score was developed. The goal of the research was to develop quantifiable tools to help determine which database to purchase for an academic library serving an undergraduate nursing program.

Okuma, E

1994-01-01

330

Bladder cancer - the neglected tumor: a descriptive analysis of publications referenced in MEDLINE and data from the register clinicaltrials.gov  

PubMed Central

Background Uro-oncological neoplasms have both a high incidence and mortality rate and are therefore a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate research activity in uro-oncology over the last decade. Methods We searched MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov systematically for studies on prostatic, urinary bladder, kidney, and testicular neoplasms. The increase in newly published reports per year was analyzed using linear regression. The results are presented with 95% confidence intervals, and a p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The number of new publications per year increased significantly for prostatic, kidney and urinary bladder neoplasms (all <0.0001). We identified 1,885 randomized controlled trials (RCTs); also for RCTs, the number of newly published reports increased significantly for prostatic (p?=?0.001) and kidney cancer (p?=?0.005), but not for bladder (p?=?0.09) or testicular (p?=?0.44) neoplasms. We identified 3,114 registered uro-oncological studies in ClinicalTrials.gov. However, 85% of these studies are focusing on prostatic (45%) and kidney neoplasms (40%), whereas only 11% were registered for bladder cancers. Conclusions While the number of publications on uro-oncologic research rises yearly for prostatic and kidney neoplasms, urothelial carcinomas of the bladder seem to be neglected despite their important clinical role. Clinical research on neoplasms of the urothelial bladder must be explicitly addressed and supported.

2013-01-01

331

Contact Us: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... your inquiry. For further information see the National Library of Medicine's Customer Service Policy . Please note that third party contractors may ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. ... Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on ...

332

Articles about MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1324769 Mayer S, Smith KH, Rios G. Consumer health information services 2. ... purchase. DOI: 10.1197/jamia.M2449 Keselman A, Smith CA, Divita G, Kim H, Browne AC, Leroy ...

333

Surgery Videos: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Cardiac & Vascular Institute, Miami, FL, 2/24/2011) Pediatric Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve (TPV) Implantation (Children's Hospital Boston, ... Moore Regional Hospital, Pinehurst, NC, 4/02/2009) Pediatric Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve (TPV) Implantation (Children's Hospital Boston, ...

334

Linking to MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... link to that page in your individual social networks. You may also link to any of the ... about drugs and supplements, an illustrated medical encyclopedia, interactive tutorials, the latest health news, and surgery videos. ...

335

Search terms and a validated brief search filter to retrieve publications on health-related values in Medline: a word frequency analysis study  

PubMed Central

Objective Healthcare debates and policy developments are increasingly concerned with a broad range of values-related areas. These include not only ethical, moral, religious, and other types of values ‘proper’, but also beliefs, preferences, experiences, choices, satisfaction, quality of life, etc. Research on such issues may be difficult to retrieve. This study used word frequency analysis to generate a broad pool of search terms and a brief filter to facilitate relevant searches in bibliographic databases. Methods Word frequency analysis for ‘values terms’ was performed on citations on diabetes, obesity, dementia, and schizophrenia (Medline; 2004–2006; 4440 citations; 1?110?291 words). Concordance® and SPSS 14.0 were used. Text words and MeSH terms of high frequency and precision were compiled into a search filter. It was validated on datasets of citations on dentistry and food hypersensitivity. Results 144 unique text words and 124 unique MeSH terms of moderate and high frequency (?20) and very high precision (?90%) were identified. Of these, 19 text words and seven MeSH terms were compiled into a ‘brief values filter’. In the derivation dataset, it had a sensitivity of 76.8% and precision of 86.8%. In the validation datasets, its sensitivity and precision were, respectively, 70.1% and 63.6% (food hypersensitivity) and 47.1% and 82.6% (dentistry). Conclusions This study provided a varied pool of search terms and a simple and highly effective tool for retrieving publications on health-related values. Further work is required to facilitate access to such research and enhance its chances of being translated into practice, policy, and service improvements.

Sutcliffe, Paul; Fulford, K W M (Bill); Dale, Jeremy

2011-01-01

336

Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: a Comparison of 15 Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complemen- tary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive

Elise Cogo; Margaret Sampson; Isola Ajiferuke; Eric Manheimer; Kaitryn Campbell; Raymond Daniel; David Moher

2009-01-01

337

Treatment of Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Blood Pressure Goals, Choice of Agents, and Setting Priorities in Diabetes Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Extraction: Studies were identified by using the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, meta-analyses, review articles, and expert rec- ommendation. The searches of the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE were performed in May 2000 and updated in April 2002. Data were abstracted to standardized forms by a single reviewer and were confirmed by a second reviewer. Data Synthesis: Treatment of hypertension in type

Sandeep Vijan; Rodney A. Hayward

2003-01-01

338

Meta analysis of efficacy and safety between Mammotome vacuum-assisted breast biopsy and open excision for benign breast tumor  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the efficacy and safety between Mammotome vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (Mammotome VABB) and conventional open excision for benign breast tumor. Methods A computer-based online search of Medline, PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Cochrane Library, VIP, Wanfang, CNKI and Chinese Biological Medicine Database was performed, and conference references were manually searched. With the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines, all randomized controlled trials comparing mammotome minimally invasive operation and conventional open excision were systematically reviewed. The Cochrane Collaboration’s RevMan 5.0 software was used for data analysis. Results A total of 15 studies involving 5,256 patients was included. Meta-analyses showed no significant difference in the size of tumor, postoperative hematomas, ecchymosis, ecchymoma and residual disease between Mammotome VABB and conventional open excision. Mammotome VABB was superior to open excision as to the size of incision, intraoperative blood loss, operative time, healing time, size of scar, wound infection and breast deformation. Conclusions Mammotome VABB is an ideal method for benign breast tumor.

Ding, Boni; Chen, Daojin; Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Hongyan

2013-01-01

339

Expanding Gene-Based PubMed Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The rapid expansion of the scientific literature is turning the task of finding relevant articles into a demanding one for\\u000a researchers working in the biomedical field. We investigate the use of a query expansion strategy based on a thesaurus built\\u000a from standard resources such as the Entrez Gene, UniProt and KEGG databases. Results obtained on the ad-hoc retrieval task\\u000a of

Sérgio Matos; Joel P. Arrais; José Luís Oliveira

2010-01-01

340

The effectiveness of walking as an intervention for low back pain: a systematic review.  

PubMed

As current low back pain (LBP) guidelines do not specifically advocate walking as an intervention, this review has explored for the effectiveness of walking in managing acute and chronic LBP. CINAHL, Medline, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases, as well as a hand search of reference lists of retrieved articles, were searched. The search was restricted to studies in the English language. Studies were included when walking was identified as an intervention. Four studies met inclusion criteria, and were assessed with a quality checklist. Three lower ranked studies reported a reduction in LBP from a walking intervention, while the highest ranked study observed no effect. Heterogeneity of study design made it difficult to draw comparisons between studies. There is only low-moderate evidence for walking as an effective intervention strategy for LBP. Further investigation is required to investigate the strength of effect for walking as a primary intervention in the management of acute and chronic LBP. PMID:20414688

Hendrick, P; Te Wake, A M; Tikkisetty, A S; Wulff, L; Yap, C; Milosavljevic, S

2010-10-01

341

The interactions between hemostasis and resistance training: a review  

PubMed Central

Physical inactivity is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with changes in arterial structure. Regular physical activity and exercise contributes to the prevention of coronary artery disease. Therefore, cardiovascular and resistance training improve hemostatic parameters and promote a less thrombotic blood profile. This review highlights the studies, mechanisms, and outcomes relating to the effectiveness of resistance training on the process of hemostasis. The Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Ibecs, and Cochrane databases were used to locate the original articles. Seventeen studies were found during the research process. Of these, ten articles were excluded. Those protocols using a high volume of training for young adults showed a greater fibrinolytic response, and training protocols with intensities above 80% of 1 maximum repetition showed an increased platelet activity. In subjects with coronary artery disease, just one session of resistance training resulted in improvement in the fibrinolytic system (tissue plasminogen activator) without raising potential thrombotic markers.

Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; de Santana, Frederico Santos; da Silva, Renato Andre Sousa; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo; Balsamo, Sandor

2012-01-01

342

Pharmacological treatments for frontotemporal dementias: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

The objective of this review is to summarize the current data on the pharmacological treatments for frontotemporal dementias from randomized controlled trials. A systematic search of 4 major databases, PubMed, Medline, PsychINFO and Cochrane, found a total of 9 randomized controlled, double-blinded clinical trials. Of these, 2 trials used the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), paroxetine; 1 trial used trazodone; 2 trials used stimulants (methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine); 1 trial used the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, galantamine; 2 trials used the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, memantine; and 1 trial used the neuropeptide oxytocin. The analysis of the available data indicates that SSRIs, trazodone, and the amphetamines may be effective in reducing some behavioral symptoms, but none of these medications had an impact on cognition. Available data indicate that these medications were well tolerated in all the trials. PMID:24164931

Nardell, Maria; Tampi, Rajesh R

2014-03-01

343

Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to describe the association between central auditory processing mechanism and the cardiac autonomic regulation. Methods It was researched papers on the topic addressed in this study considering the following data bases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The key words were: “auditory stimulation, heart rate, autonomic nervous system and P300”. Results The findings in the literature demonstrated that auditory stimulation influences the autonomic nervous system and has been used in conjunction with other methods. It is considered a promising step in the investigation of therapeutic procedures for rehabilitation and quality of life of several pathologies. Conclusion The association between auditory stimulation and the level of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has received significant contributions in relation to musical stimuli.

2014-01-01

344

Lipoprotein (A) in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein (a) is a strong and independent risk factor for atherosclerosis severity and a predictor of the risk of ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Many questions are still unanswered in relation to the clinical relevance of the scientific observations on Lp(a) and its application in the realms of cardiovascular prevention. Lp(a), a lipoprotein subtype, is linked to the Apo(a) gene located on chromosome 6q26-27 independently associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). For this review, data sources from Cochrane, Pubmed, MEDLINE from 1960 till 2012 were analysed systematically. At least one-off measurement of plasma Lp(a) was found to be indicated in those with premature coronary disease when no real causative factor was identified. Management seemed promising with PCSK9 I, apheresis, CETPI, dietary choices and ACEi. There was clear evidence that Lp(a) is a definite risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:24864642

Jayasinghe, Rohan; Craig, Ian Hamilton; Mohan, Raj Kamal Alfred

2014-04-01

345

Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii  

PubMed Central

Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii.

Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

2012-01-01

346

An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products  

PubMed Central

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

2011-01-01

347

Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii.  

PubMed

Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E

2012-07-01

348

Epigastric hernia in pregnancy: a management plan based on a systematic review of literature and a case history.  

PubMed

Symptomatic epigastric hernia is rare in pregnant women. A case history, management of which prompted a systematic review of the literature and proposed plan for treatment of such cases, is hereby presented. There is paucity of information on management of this condition in the standard literature as searches in Pubmed, Science Direct, Hinari, Medline, African Journal Online, Bioone as well as Cochrane library revealed. There are two schools of thought for the management of hernias in pregnancy-watchful waiting and herniorrhaphy in pregnancy. There is no consensus or definite guideline on the management of epigastric hernias in pregnancy. Based on the literature review, a management algorithm is proposed, which combines the two schools of thought. PMID:24426568

Debrah, Samuel A; Okpala, Amalachukwu M

2013-06-01

349

High burden of protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria: beyond the health care setting.  

PubMed

There is still a high burden of protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria. The severe forms of the disease are usually associated with high level of mortality even in the tertiary health facilities. To review the cost-effective health promotional strategies at community levels that could aid prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of protein-energy malnutrition. The strategy used for locating articles used for this review was to search databases like Google, Google scholar, relevant electronic journals from the universities' libraries, including PubMed and Scirus, Medline, Cochrane library and WHO's Hinari. We believe that strategies beyond the health care setting have potential of significantly reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria. PMID:23209994

Ubesie, Ac; Ibeziakor, Ns

2012-01-01

350

High Burden of Protein-Energy Malnutrition in Nigeria: Beyond the Health Care Setting  

PubMed Central

There is still a high burden of protein–energy malnutrition in Nigeria. The severe forms of the disease are usually associated with high level of mortality even in the tertiary health facilities. To review the cost-effective health promotional strategies at community levels that could aid prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of protein–energy malnutrition. The strategy used for locating articles used for this review was to search databases like Google, Google scholar, relevant electronic journals from the universities’ libraries, including PubMed and Scirus, Medline, Cochrane library and WHO's Hinari. We believe that strategies beyond the health care setting have potential of significantly reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with protein–energy malnutrition in Nigeria.

Ubesie, AC; Ibeziakor, NS

2012-01-01

351

The role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to assess the current evidence in scientific literature that supports the use of physical activity as a fundamental tool for primary and secondary prevention and to encourage its use conscientiously. Observational studies and international guidelines have been examined to evaluate the positive effects of physical activity as primary prevention on some of the most common diseases. We have also evaluated those studies which demonstrate that the association of physical activity with drug therapy in chronic diseases results in a better prognosis. We researched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, PubMed up to January 2009. Furthermore, we screened references in relevant reviews and clinical trials. Sixty four studies were included in the review and cited as giving consistent evidence for the utilization of physical activity to improve health. There is strong evidence that, according to international guidelines, physical activity should be adopted as a tool in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. PMID:21181084

Adami, P E; Negro, A; Lala, N; Martelletti, P

2010-01-01

352

The effectiveness of walking as an intervention for low back pain: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

As current low back pain (LBP) guidelines do not specifically advocate walking as an intervention, this review has explored for the effectiveness of walking in managing acute and chronic LBP. CINAHL, Medline, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases, as well as a hand search of reference lists of retrieved articles, were searched. The search was restricted to studies in the English language. Studies were included when walking was identified as an intervention. Four studies met inclusion criteria, and were assessed with a quality checklist. Three lower ranked studies reported a reduction in LBP from a walking intervention, while the highest ranked study observed no effect. Heterogeneity of study design made it difficult to draw comparisons between studies. There is only low–moderate evidence for walking as an effective intervention strategy for LBP. Further investigation is required to investigate the strength of effect for walking as a primary intervention in the management of acute and chronic LBP.

Hendrick, P.; Te Wake, A. M.; Tikkisetty, A. S.; Wulff, L.; Yap, C.

2010-01-01

353

Exact Cochran–Armitage trend tests: comparisons under different models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exact methods for small-sample dose–response analyses with binary outcome have been rapidly developed in recent years. For exact conditional approach, nuisance parameters (e.g. the intercept) are eliminated by conditioning on their reduced sufficient statistics (e.g. marginal row totals for the intercept under the logit link). For exact unconditional approach, nuisance parameters, on the other hand, are eliminated by using the

Man-Lai Tang; Hon Keung Tony Ng; Jianhua Guo; Wai Chan; Ben Ping-Shing Chan

2006-01-01

354

Knowledge for Knowledge Translation: The Role of the Cochrane Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge-translation (KT) activities, including continuing education, should be informed by the totality of available research evidence. Systematic reviews are a generic methodology used to synthesize evidence from a broad range of research methods addressing different questions. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the…

Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Santesso, Nancy; Cumpston, Miranda; Mayhew, Alain; McGowan, Jessie

2006-01-01

355

Library Resources  

Cancer.gov

Library Resources Literature Search via PubMed NOTE: PubMed replaces Entrez (previously limited to Molecular Biology references in Medline). Searches are now free, with no account required, either for Grateful Med or PubMed. National Library of Medicine NIH

356

New approach to managing genital warts  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations.

Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

2013-01-01

357

Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discussion of treatment options. Methods A systematic computerized database search (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), and EMBASE) was performed in March 2009. The quality of the studies was assessed independently by two authors using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results We extracted data from 44 articles. The best available evidence for treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is sparse and of generally low methodological quality. Nonoperative treatment using physiotherapy (GRADE: high quality, weak recommendation for use), taping (GRADE: moderate quality, weak recommendation for use), or injection therapy (GRADE: very low quality, weak recommendation for use) may result in short-term relief. Joint-preserving surgical treatment may result in insufficient, unpredictable, or only short-term improvement (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation against use). Total knee replacement with patellar resurfacing results in predictable and good, durable results (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Outcome after patellofemoral arthroplasty in selected patients is good to excellent (GRADE: low quality, weak recommendation for use). Interpretation Methodologically good quality comparative studies, preferably using a patient-relevant outcome instrument, are needed to establish the optimal treatment strategy for patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

Poolman, Rudolf W; van Kampen, Albert

2010-01-01

358

Interventions to support children's engagement in health-related decisions: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Children often need support in health decision-making. The objective of this study was to review characteristics and effectiveness of interventions that support health decision-making of children. Methods A systematic review. Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched from inception until March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened eligibility: a) intervention studies; b) involved supporting children (?18 years) considering health-related decision(s); and c) measured decision quality or decision-making process outcomes. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted by one author and verified by another using a standardized data extraction form. Quality appraisal was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results Of 4313 citations, 5 studies were eligible. Interventions focused on supporting decisions about risk behaviors (n?=?3), psycho-educational services (n?=?1), and end of life (n?=?1). Two of 5 studies had statistically significant findings: i) compared to attention placebo, decision coaching alone increased values congruence between child and parent, and child satisfaction with decision-making process (lower risk of bias); ii) compared to no intervention, a workshop with weekly assignments increased overall decision-making quality (higher risk of bias). Conclusions Few studies have focused on interventions to support children’s participation in decisions about their health. More research is needed to determine effective methods for supporting children’s health decision-making.

2014-01-01

359

The Physiological and Biochemical Outcomes Associated with a Reflexology Treatment: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Reflexology is one of the top forms of complementary and alternative medicine in the UK and is used for healthcare by a diverse range of people. However, it is offered by few healthcare providers as little scientific evidence is available explaining how it works or any health benefits it may confer. The aim of this review was to assess the current evidence available from reflexology randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated changes in physiological or biochemical outcomes. Methods. Guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed: the following databases were searched from inception to December 2013: AMED, CAM Quest, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Medline Ovid, Proquest, and Pubmed. Risk of bias was assessed independently by two members of the review team and overall strength of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation guidelines. Results. Seventeen eligible RCTs met all inclusion criteria. A total of 34 objective outcome measures were analysed. Although twelve studies showed significant changes within the reflexology group, only three studies investigating blood pressure, cardiac index, and salivary amylase resulted in significant between group changes in favour of reflexology. The overall quality of the studies was low.

McCullough, J. E. M.; Liddle, S. D.; Sinclair, M.; Close, C.; Hughes, C. M.

2014-01-01

360

The physiological and biochemical outcomes associated with a reflexology treatment: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Background. Reflexology is one of the top forms of complementary and alternative medicine in the UK and is used for healthcare by a diverse range of people. However, it is offered by few healthcare providers as little scientific evidence is available explaining how it works or any health benefits it may confer. The aim of this review was to assess the current evidence available from reflexology randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated changes in physiological or biochemical outcomes. Methods. Guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed: the following databases were searched from inception to December 2013: AMED, CAM Quest, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Medline Ovid, Proquest, and Pubmed. Risk of bias was assessed independently by two members of the review team and overall strength of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation guidelines. Results. Seventeen eligible RCTs met all inclusion criteria. A total of 34 objective outcome measures were analysed. Although twelve studies showed significant changes within the reflexology group, only three studies investigating blood pressure, cardiac index, and salivary amylase resulted in significant between group changes in favour of reflexology. The overall quality of the studies was low. PMID:24883067

McCullough, J E M; Liddle, S D; Sinclair, M; Close, C; Hughes, C M

2014-01-01

361

Artesunate Plus Amodiaquine (AS+AQ) Versus Artemether -Lumefantrine (AL) for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa-A Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to summarize the available data on the efficacy of Artesunate plus Amodiaquine (AS+AQ) versus Artemether -Lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa using uncorrected parasitaemia as a clinically relevant endpoint. Studies and conference abstracts identified through Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Ansinet, AJOL, Bioline, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Science Citation Index, Lilacs, African Index Medicus, Clusty, Google, Yahoo and Microsoft search engines. Randomized controlled clinical trials comparing Artesunate-Amodiaquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine, in Sub-Saharan Africa from January 2004 to June 2009, and which had at least 30 patients per study arm. The authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed methodological quality and extracted data into a predesigned form. The outcome of interest was uncorrected day 28 parasitological failure. Data were then checked for agreement and double entered into RevMan version 5 for further analyses. Fifteen trials (4265 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Day 28 parasitological failure was lower for AL (286 of 2201 participants or 13.0 % failures) when compared with AS+AQ (446 of 2424 participants or 18.4% failures). The relative risk of parasitological failure with AS+AQ was higher when compared with AL (RR 1.65, 95% CI, 1.18-2.32). There were significant heterogeneity and inconsistencies in the studies. AL appears more effective at avoiding parasitological failure at days 28 than AS+AQ. PMID:23878697

Bello, Shaibu O; Chika, Aminu; Abdulgafar, Jimoh O

2010-01-01

362

Herbal medicines for cancer cachexia: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction To assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as a treatment of cancer cachexia. Methods and analysis We will search the following 13 electronic databases from their inception. MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Journal Integration Platform (VIP) and six Korean Medical Databases (KoreaMed, the Korean Traditional knowledge Portal, OASIS, DBPIA, the Research Information Service System and the Korean Studies Information Service System) without restrictions on time or language. The data will be extracted independently by two authors using predefined criteria. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion between the authors. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Dissemination The review will be published in a journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. An update of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPERO 2013:CRD42013006612.

Park, Bongki; Jun, Ji Hee; Jung, Jeeyoun; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeong Soo

2014-01-01

363

Prospective Head and Neck Cancer Research: A Four-Decade Bibliometric Perspective  

PubMed Central

Background. It is unknown whether changes in study sponsorship have affected the proportion of prospective research on surgery, radiotherapy, and pharmacotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) being published over time. Patients and Methods. We examined prospective studies from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Chi-squared tests were used to identify significant associations between sponsorship and authorship, treatments within study protocols, and presentation of results, whereas time-based trends were analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Results. Among 309 articles, industry (70, 22.7%) and the U.S. government (65, 21%) were the most common sponsors. There was a significant increase in the proportion of industry-sponsored research (p for trend = .013) and a decline in U.S. government-sponsored research (p for trend = .001) over time. The inclusion of surgery in treatment protocols declined over the past four decades (p for trend = .003). Protocols incorporating pharmacotherapy were more likely to have industry support than those without pharmacotherapy (p = .001), whereas protocols with radiotherapy (p = .003) or surgery (p = .002) were less likely to have industry support. Conclusion. Industry is the predominant sponsor of prospective HNSCC research, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapy.

Houlton, Jeffrey J.; Moloci, Nicholas M.; MacEachern, Mark P.; Bradford, Carol R.; Prince, Mark E.; Jagsi, Reshma

2013-01-01

364

Is fibrin sealant effective and safe in total knee arthroplasty? A meta-analysis of randomized trials  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrin sealant in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A comprehensive literature search of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken. The evidence base was critically appraised using a tool from the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group. Eight RCTs involving 641 patients were included. The use of fibrin sealant significantly reduced postoperative drainage (weighted mean difference (WMD) ?346, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?496.29 to ?197.54, P?

2014-01-01

365

Online Medical Literature Consultation Habits of Academic Teaching Physicians in the EU and CIS Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Both in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and in the European Union (EU2004), ample availability of up to date medical scientific literature is important for progress in medical science and for the education of the next generation of healthcare workers. The aim of this research is to assess if the use of online medical literature among academic teaching (AT) physicians is at the same level in the CIS as in the EU2004. Methodology/Principal Findings In the capital cities of the CIS and the EU2004 member states, AT physicians holding an academic position at least equivalent to an associate professor and performing the three classical tasks in academic medicine (teaching, research and patient care) were interviewed about their use of and familiarity with the Internet and 9 online literature services, including journals and bibliographical databases such as PubMed (Medline), The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Library staff members were interviewed about the availability of these online literature services at their libraries. About 750 physicians and 40 library staff members were invited for participation. Eventually 124 AT physicians and 22 library staff members participated. Internet was everywhere available, but used daily by more AT physicians in the EU2004 (71% versus 48% in the CIS, P?=?.005). AT physicians in the EU2004 accessed a higher percentage of all articles online (74% versus 43% in the CIS, P<.001). PubMed (P<.001), The Cochrane Library (P<.001) and Web of Science (P<.003) were used more frequently in the EU2004. In the EU2004 more AT physicians were familiar with Open Access journals (89% versus 51% in the CIS, P<.001). Conclusions/Significance AT physicians in the CIS use online medical literature less than in the EU2004. It is recommended that the awareness of freely available online literature services such as Open Access journals is enhanced among AT physicians and library staff members, especially in the CIS.

van der Voort, Chiel T. M.; Swenne, Cees A.; van der Hoorn-van Velthoven, Catharina A. M.; Belt, Johannes H. J.

2012-01-01

366

Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science. 8. Improving Health Care and Palliative Care for Advanced and Serious Illness. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 208.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is to systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of health care and palliative care interventions to improve outcomes for patients with advanced and serious illness. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and DARE from...

2012-01-01

367

Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Common Foods ???????????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Hmong (Hmoob) Cut down on Fat -- Not on Taste! English Txu Tej kev noj Rog! -- Txhob Saj! - Hmoob (Hmong) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Return to top Spanish (español) Grasas en la ...

368

Heat Illness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... English Toplotni talasi - Bosanski (Bosnian) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Chinese - Traditional (????) "It's Too Darn Hot" -- Planning for Excessive Heat Events English ?????-- ???????? - ???? (Chinese - ... Healthy Roads Media Return to top Spanish (español) Enfermedades causadas por ...

369

Dental Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... za dobro zdravlje - Bosanski (Bosnian) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Chinese - Simplified (????) Diabetic Dental Care English ?????????? - ???? ( ... Dental Care English ?????????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese ... (Russian) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Getting Older? Why Your Teeth and Gums are ...

370

Stroke - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ????) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Stroke Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC ou derrame) - português ( ...

371

Stress - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Coping with Stress Como lidar com o estresse - ...

372

Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Testicular Self Exam Auto-exame dos testículos - português ( ...

373

Quitting Smoking - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Hmoob) Japanese (???) Khmer (Khmer) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) How to Quit Smoking Como parar de fumar - ...

374

Retinal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Retinal Tears and Detachment Ruptura e descolamento de ...

375

Falls - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... ?????? ?? ???????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Safety Tips to Prevent Falls at Home (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual ... ???????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Safety Tips to Prevent Falls at Home ?????????? - ???? (Chinese - ...

376

Joint Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Home Care After Total Joint Replacement Cuidados em ...

377

Newborn Screening - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese (kajin Majöl) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Hearing Test for Your Baby Teste de audição ...

378

Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Feeling Sad Sensação de tristeza - português (Portuguese) Bilingual ...

379

Mammography - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Japanese (???) Korean (???) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Harborview Medical Center Return to top Portuguese (português) Mammogram Mamografia - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

380

Knee Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Total Knee Replacement Substituição total do joelho - português ( ...

381

Fever - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Taking a Temperature Como medir a temperatura - português ( ...

382

Hysterectomy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Hysterectomy Histerectomia - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

383

Gallbladder Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Gall Bladder Removal Surgery Cirurgia para remoção da ...

384

Pain - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Sgaw Karen) Korean (???) Marshallese (kajin Majöl) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) About Your Pain Informações sobre dor - português (Portuguese) ...

385

Head Lice - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Head Lice Piolho - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health ...

386

Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese (kajin Majöl) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Emotional Changes After Giving Birth Alterações emocionais pós- ...

387

Glaucoma - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Glaucoma Glaucoma - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

388

Heart Failure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ????) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Heart Failure Insuficiência Cardíaca - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF ...

389

MRSA - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus ...

390

Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ????) Japanese (???) Kirundi (Rundi) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Changes to Your Baby and Your Body during ...

391

Heart Attack - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ????) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Heart Attack Ataque Cardíaco - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF ...

392

Gallstones - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Gall Bladder Removal Surgery Cirurgia para remoção da ...

393

Menopause - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Managing Menopause Controle da menopausa - português (Portuguese) Bilingual ...

394

Common Cold - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ????) French (français) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng ... Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Portuguese (português) Cover Your Cough English Cubrase quando tossir - português ( ...

395

Hip Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Total Hip Replacement Substituição total de quadril - português ( ...

396

Kidney Failure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Kidney Failure Falência dos rins - português (Portuguese) Bilingual ...

397

Liver Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Liver Cancer - Multiple Languages Burmese (myanmasa) Chinese - Traditional (????) Hmong (Hmoob) Korean (???) ... Lao) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Burmese (myanmasa) Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific ...

398

Tick Bites - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Tick Bites - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Hmong (Hmoob) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Tularemia English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department of Health ...

399

Leishmaniasis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leishmaniasis - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Leishmaniasis Infection English (Arabic) ?????????? ?? ??? ??? - ??????? ...

400

Urinary Incontinence - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Care of a Foley Catheter (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Transvaginal ... PDF Health Information Translations ASL (American Sign Language) Foley Catheter - Female American Sign Language (ASL) Bilingual Multimedia Health ...

401

Title | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... please turn JavaScript on. Medical Movies on the Web Debuts with Gene Kelly's "Combat Fatique Irritability" 1945 ... of Medicine To view Medical Movies on the Web, go to: www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/collections/ ...

402

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... image shows the uncontrolled growth of cells in squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer. If caught early, squamous cell carcinoma is usually not life-threatening. Photo courtesy of ...

403

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... gov/digitalprojects.html. Photo courtesy of NIH From DNA to Beer: A Unique Look at the Mighty ... drink we consume. The exhibition is called From DNA to Beer: Harnessing Nature in Medicine and Industry. ...

404

Text mining: Generating hypotheses from MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis generation, a crucial initial step for making scientific discoveries, relies on prior knowledge, experi- ence, and intuition. Chance connections made between seemingly distinct subareas sometimes turn out to be fruitful. The goal in text mining is to assist in this process by automatically discovering a small set of interesting hypotheses from a suitable text collection. In this report, we

Padmini Srinivasan

2004-01-01

405

Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Natural Gas Emergencies English (Arabic) ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Bosnian (Bosanski) Natural Gas Emergencies English Slu?ajevi neposredne opasnosti sa prirodnim gasom - ...

406

Gout - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gout - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Gout English (Arabic) ???????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education Institute ...

407

Dialysis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Dialysis - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Dialysis (Arabic) ???? ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF ...

408

Varicose Veins - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Varicose Veins - Multiple Languages Russian (???????) Spanish (español) Russian (???????) Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy (Varicose Veins) English ???????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????????? - ?????????? ???? - ...

409

Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Preventing Lead Poisoning English (Arabic) ?????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education ...

410

Health Information in Ukrainian (??????????): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Information Translations How to Use an Insulin Pen ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? - ?????????? (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF ... ?????? - ?????????? (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan ???-?????????? (????????-???????? ...

411

Tutorials for Africa - Diarrhea: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... project is a collaboration between the U.S. National Library of Medicine and Makerere University Faculty of Medicine with technical assistance from the Patient Education Institute . Faculty of Medicine: Community-Based Education and Service Program Ugandan Team Education and Service Program Makerere ...

412

A Study of Abbreviations in MEDLINE Abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abbreviations are widely used in writing, and the understanding of abbreviations is important for natural language processing applications. Abbreviations are not always defined in a document and they are highly ambiguous. A knowledge base that consists of abbreviations with their associated senses and a method to resolve the ambiguities are needed. In this paper, we studied the UMLS coverage, textual

Hongfang Liu; Alan R. Aronson; Carol Friedman

413

Resolving abbreviations to their senses in Medline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Biological literature contains many abbreviations with one particular sense in each document. However, most abbreviations do not have a unique sense across the literature. Furthermore, many documents do not contain the long forms of the abbreviations. Resolv- ing an abbreviation in a document consists of retrieving its sense in use. Abbreviation resolution improves accuracy of document retrieval engines and

Sylvain Gaudan; Harald Kirsch; Dietrich Rebholz-schuhmann

2005-01-01

414

Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) German (Deutsch) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) ... PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention German (Deutsch) Acute Radiation Syndrome English Akutes Strahlensyndrom - Deutsch (German) ...

415

Videos and Cool Tools: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... with the interactive tutorials and games. Check your health by using the calculators and quizzes. Hospital Infections ... All calculators & quizzes Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool Daily Food Plan Do You Have ...

416

Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified ( ... ??????? Multimedia Patient Education Institute Chinese - Simplified (????) Diabetic Foot Care English ??????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese ...

417

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... Contents A display in "Genome: Unlocking Life's Code" exhibition at the National Museum of Natural History in ... Research Institute and the Smithsonian Institution developed the exhibition. Photo courtesy of Maggie Bartlett, National Human Genome ...

418

Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Thai (???????) Turkish (Türkçe) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Amharic (amarunya) Brucellosis English ... for Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Turkish (Türkçe) Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV23) English Polisakkarid Pnömokok ...

419

Diphtheria - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Thai (???????) Turkish (Türkçe) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Chinese - Traditional (????) Tetanus, ... for Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Turkish (Türkçe) Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) or Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis ( ...

420

Hepatitis A - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Thai (???????) Turkish (Türkçe) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Arabic (???????) Hepatitis A ... for Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Turkish (Türkçe) Hepatitis A Vaccine English Hepatit A A?isi - ...

421

Whooping Cough - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Thai (???????) Turkish (Türkçe) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Chinese - Traditional (????) Tetanus, ... for Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Turkish (Türkçe) Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) or Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis ( ...

422

Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... page, please enable JavaScript. Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Russian (???????) Bipolar Disorder English ?????????? ???????????? - ??????? (Russian) ...

423

Health Information in Hindi (??????): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Female Exam and Pap Smear ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ... Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health ...

424

Health Information in Arabic (???????): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ?????? ???????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Female Exam and Pap Smear (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF ... ??????? Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Women's Health Checkup Female Exam and Pap Smear (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF ...

425

Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Female Exam and Pap Smear ?? ??? ?? ??? ... ??? (Korean) Bilingual Hepatitis B Foundation Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) ?? ??-?? (??? ??) - ??? ( ...

426

Health Information in Russian (???????): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ???????????? - ??????? (Russian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Female Exam and Pap Smear ???????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ... Russian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) ?????? ????-??????? (?????? ?????) - ??????? ( ...

427

Health Information in Japanese (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ??? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Female Exam and Pap Smear ??????????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual ... Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urine Sample -- Female (Clean Catch) ?????- ?? (???? ????) - ??? (Japanese) ...

428

NLM Director's Comments Podcasts: MedlinePlus  

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... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL NLM Director's Comments Podcasts To use the sharing features on this ... have three options to listen to NLM Director's Comments. To listen directly on your computer, click on ...

429

Meningitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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... Türkçe) Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine English Konjuge Pnömokok A?isi - Türkçe (Turkish) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control ... Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV23) English Polisakkarid Pnömokok A?isi - ... (Turkish) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control ...

430

Pneumococcal Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Türkçe) Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine English Konjuge Pnömokok A?isi - Türkçe (Turkish) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control ... Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV23) English Polisakkarid Pnömokok A?isi - ... (Turkish) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control ...

431

Pneumonia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Türkçe) Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine English Konjuge Pnömokok A?isi - Türkçe (Turkish) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control ... Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV23) English Polisakkarid Pnömokok A?isi - ... (Turkish) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control ...

432

Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Türkçe) Inactivated Influenza Vaccine English ?naktif Grip A?isi - Türkçe (Turkish) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Live, Intranasal Influenza Vaccine English Türkçe (Turkish) PDF Immunization Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control ...

433

Tornadoes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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434

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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... on. Healthlines Spring 2014 Table of Contents EatPlayGrow™: Creative Activities for a Healthy Start is a health ... ways to teach young children healthy habits. EatPlayGrow™ : Creative Activities for a Healthy Start is a health ...

435

Scabies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

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436

Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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... that smokers who carry those variants have a harder time quitting on their own and benefit more ... 2 diabetes progressed more quickly, and it was harder to treat, in youth than in adults. The ...

437

The impact of physical therapy on functional outcomes after stroke: what's the evidence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the evidence for physical therapy interventions aimed at improving functional outcome after stroke.Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, PEDro, EMBASE and DocOnline were searched for controlled studies. Physical therapy was divided into 10 intervention categories, which were analysed separately. If statistical pooling (weighted summary effect sizes) was not

R PS Van Peppen; G Kwakkel; S Wood-Dauphinee; H JM Hendriks; Ph J Van der Wees; J Dekker

2004-01-01

438

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on treatment of asthma: critical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the clinical, methodological, and reporting aspects of systematic reviews and meta›analyses on the treatment of asthma and to compare those published by the Cochrane Collaboration with those published in paper based journals. Design Analysis of studies identified from Medline, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, personal collections, and reference lists. Studies Articles describing a systematic review or a

Alejandro R Jadad; Michael Moher; George P Browman; Lynda Booker; Christopher Sigouin; Mario Fuentes; Robert Stevens

2000-01-01

439

Is routine dental prophylaxis effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data SourcesSearches were made for relevant papers using Medline, CINHAL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Embase, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, HealthSTAR, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and ACP (American College of Physicians) Journal Club. Further articles were identified by reviewing the

Chris Sampson

2010-01-01

440

Routine use of oxygen in the treatment of myocardial infarction: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: International guidelines recommend the routine use of oxygen therapy in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). Objective: To undertake a systematic review and meta- analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials of oxygen therapy in MI. Data sources: Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and CINHAL. Study selection: Randomised placebo-controlled trials of oxygen therapy

M Wijesinghe; K Perrin; M Simmonds; M Weatherall; R Beasley; Joshua Hess

2010-01-01

441

Interventions for treating calcaneal fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fracture of the calcaneus (os calcis or heel bone) comprises one to two per cent of all fractures.Objectives: To identify and evaluate randomized trials of treatments for calcaneal fractures.Search strategy: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Trials Register were searched. We checked reference lists of relevant articles and contacted trialists and

S. A. Bridgman; K. M. Dunn; D. J. McBride; P. J. Richards

2002-01-01

442

Systematic reviews of complementary therapies – an annotated bibliography. Part 3: Homeopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with homeopathy. Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of articles

Klaus Linde; Maria Hondras; Andrew Vickers; Gerben ter Riet; Dieter Melchart

2001-01-01

443

Corticosteroids for severe sepsis and septic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the effects of corticosteroids on mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Data sources Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of corticosteroids versus placebo (or supportive treatment alone) retrieved from the Cochrane infectious diseases group's trials register, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Medline, Embase, and LILACS. Review method Two pairs of reviewers agreed on eligibility

Djillali Annane; Eric Bellissant; Pierre Edouard Bollaert; Josef Briegel; Didier Keh; Yizhak Kupfer; Hôpital Raymond Poincaré

2004-01-01

444

Evidence is limited about effective interventions for maintaining healthy peri-implant tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sources Studies were identified through the Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline and EMbase, hand searches of dental journals, as well as contact with authors of all identified trials, 55 oral implant manufacturers and from two extensive personal libraries (ME and AJ).Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCT) of oral implants that compared agents

Robin Seymour

2003-01-01

445

Injury Prevention and Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To critically examine and summarize the literature identifying risk factors and prevention strategies for injury in child and adolescent sport. Data Sources: Seven electronic databases were searched including: Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychinfo, Cochrane Database for Systematic and Complete Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, HealthSTAR and SPORTDiscus. Medical subject headings and text words

C. Emery

2005-01-01

446

The risk factors for elevated blood pressure and how to address cardiovascular risk factors: a review in paediatric populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the epidemiology of hypertension and management strategies of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in paediatric populations in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world in the 21st century. A computerized literature search was carried out using Medline, Evidence-Based Child Health (A Cochrane Review Journal), the Cochrane Library and Cochrane Child Health Field. A manual search in the African

K D Monyeki; H C G Kemper

2008-01-01

447

Lack of evidence about the effectiveness of the different denture cleaning methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sourcesRelevant studies were sourced by searching the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane CENTRAL (Cochrane Library), Medline, Embase, LILACS and CINAHL. There were no language restrictions.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCT) were considered if they compared any mechanical method (eg, brushing or ultrasound) or chemical (eg, enzymes, sodium hypochlorite, oral rinses or peroxide solutions) in adults over the age

Robert Jagger

2009-01-01

448

Use of autologous fat grafting for reconstruction postmastectomy and breast conserving surgery: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is growing interest in the potential use of autologous fat grafting (AFG) for the purposes of breast reconstruction. However, concerns have been raised regarding the technique's clinical effectiveness, safety and interference with screening mammography. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the oncological, clinical, aesthetic and functional, patient reported, process and radiological outcomes for AFG. Methods and analysis All original studies, including randomised controlled trials, cohorts studies, case–control studies, case series and case reports involving women undergoing breast reconstruction. All AFG techniques performed for the purposes of reconstruction in the postmastectomy or breast conserving surgery setting will be considered. Outcomes are defined within this protocol along; oncological, clinical, aesthetic and functional, patient reported, process and radiological domains. The search strategy has been devised to find papers about ‘fat grafting and breast reconstruction’ and is outlined within the body of this protocol. The full search strategy is outlined within the body of the protocol. The following electronic databases will be searched from 1 January 1986 to 6 June 2013: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SciELO, The Cochrane Library, including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (DARE), the Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment Database, the NHS Economic Evaluation Databases and Cochrane Groups, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials Database, the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, UpToDate.com, NHS Evidence and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Grey literature searches will also be conducted as detailed in our review protocol. Eligibility assessment occurred in two stages, title and abstract screening and then full text assessment. Data were extracted and stored in a database with standardised extraction fields to facilitate easy and consistent data entry. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. It will also be presented at national and international conferences in the fields of plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery and at more general surgical and methodological conferences. It will be disseminated electronically and in print. Brief reports of the review findings will be disseminated directly to the appropriate audiences of surgeons and societies through email and other modes of communication. Updates of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Protocol Registration PROSPERO—National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42013005254)

Agha, Riaz A; Goodacre, Tim; Orgill, Dennis P

2013-01-01

449

Medical eligibility criteria for new contraceptive methods: combined hormonal patch, combined hormonal vaginal ring and the etonogestrel implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

To review evidence on the combined hormonal patch, combined hormonal vaginal ring and the etonogestrel implant, with a focus on safety and effectiveness of use among women with special health conditions, we searched MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for reports published from 1980 through March 2005. Articles eligible for review included 11 on the hormonal patch, nine on the

Mary E. Gaffield; Kathryn M. Curtis; Anshu P. Mohllajee; Herbert B. Peterson

2006-01-01

450

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses.Data extraction Search strategy of the Cochrane Library, Medline, OldMedline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, for any intervention to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses (isolation, quarantine, social distancing, barriers, personal protection, and hygiene). Study designs were randomised trials, cohort studies,

Tom Jefferson; Ruth Foxlee; Chris Del Mar; Liz Dooley; Eliana Ferroni; Bill Hewak; Adi Prabhala; Sree Nair; Alex Rivetti

2008-01-01

451

NIH Quickfinder and NIH Medline Plus Advisory Group | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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... 438-4380 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) www.niaaa.nih.gov (301) 443-3860 ... Mark Siegal, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Ann Taubenheim, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ...

452

NIH Quickfinder and NIH Medline Plus Advisory Group | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) www.nichd.nih.gov 1-800-370-2943 National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) www.nidcd.nih.gov 1-800- ...

453

NIH Quickfinder and NIH Medline Plus Advisory Group | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

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454

[Analysis of the Cochrane review: Multimedia educational interventions for consumers about prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013;4:CD008416].  

PubMed

Understanding of the relevant information is especially important in the area of drug treatment, to guarantee an appropriate and rational use of medications by patients. The relevant information must be delivered in a way that patients understand all aspects of the treatment regimen they are taking. In this systematic review the authors analyzed a set of studies on the effectiveness of multimedia educational interventions about medications (prescribed or not) in patients of all ages, concluding that the aforementioned interventions are more effective than usual care (non-standardized education provided by health professionals as part of usual clinical care) or no education. PMID:24581185

Vaz Carneiro, António; Costa, João

2014-01-01

455

Prioritizing PubMed articles for the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database utilizing semantic information.  

PubMed

The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) contains manually curated literature that describes chemical-gene interactions, chemical-disease relationships and gene-disease relationships. Finding articles containing this information is the first and an important step to assist manual curation efficiency. However, the complex nature of named entities and their relationships make it challenging to choose relevant articles. In this article, we introduce a machine learning framework for prioritizing CTD-relevant articles based on our prior system for the protein-protein interaction article classification task in BioCreative III. To address new challenges in the CTD task, we explore a new entity identification method for genes, chemicals and diseases. In addition, latent topics are analyzed and used as a feature type to overcome the small size of the training set. Applied to the BioCreative 2012 Triage dataset, our method achieved 0.8030 mean average precision (MAP) in the official runs, resulting in the top MAP system among participants. Integrated with PubTator, a Web interface for annotating biomedical literature, the proposed system also received a positive review from the CTD curation team. PMID:23160415

Kim, Sun; Kim, Won; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

2012-01-01

456

Misoprostol for prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality especially in the developing world. Misoprostol, a highly effective drug is highly effective in inducing uterine contractions and has been proposed as a low-cost, easy-to-use intervention for PPH.Objective: This study assessed evidence of the effectiveness of misoprostol for the prevention and treatment of PPH.Method: Databases searched included MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINHAL, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE. Reference lists and conference proceedings were also searched for more studies. Three studies included in the meta-analysis were limited to randomised controlled trials (RCT). Two reviewers independently screened all articles for methodological quality using a standardised instrument adapted from the Cochrane Collaboration website. Data were entered in Review Manager 5.1 software for analysis.Results: Three trials (n = 2346) compared misoprostol to a placebo. Misoprostol was shown not to be effective in reducing PPH (risk ratios [RR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.06). Only one trial reported on the need for a blood transfusion (RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-1.15). Shivering (RR 2.75; 95% CI 2.26-3.34) and pyrexia (RR 5.34; 95% CI 2.86-9.96) were significantly more common with misoprostol than with a placebo.Conclusion: The use of misoprostol was not associated with any significant reduction in the incidence of PPH. Therefore, in order to verify the efficacious use of misoprostol in the treatment of PPH, specialised investigations of its dose and routes of administration for clinically significant effects and acceptable side effects are warranted. PMID:23718882

Olefile, Kabelo M; Khondowe, Oswell; M'rithaa, Doreen

2013-01-01

457

Systematic Review of Acupuncture in Cancer Care: A Synthesis of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Purpose Many cancer centers offer acupuncture services. To date, a comprehensive systematic review of acupuncture in cancer care has not been conducted. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for symptom management in patients with cancer. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane (all databases), Scopus, and PubMed were searched from inception through December 2011 for prospective randomized clinical trials (RCT) evaluating acupuncture for symptom management in cancer care. Only studies involving needle insertion into acupuncture points were included. No language limitations were applied. Studies were assessed for risk of bias (ROB) according to Cochrane criteria. Outcomes by symptom were designated as positive, negative, or unclear. Results A total of 2,151 publications were screened. Of those, 41 RCTs involving eight symptoms (pain, nausea, hot flashes, fatigue, radiation-induced xerostomia, prolonged postoperative ileus, anxiety/mood disorders, and sleep disturbance) met all inclusion criteria. One positive trial of acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting had low ROB. Of the remaining studies, eight had unclear ROB (four positive, three negative, and one with unclear outcomes). Thirty-three studies had high ROB (19 positive, 11 negative, and three with both positive and negative outcomes depending on the symptom). Conclusion Acupuncture is an appropriate adjunctive treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, but additional studies are needed. For other symptoms, efficacy remains undetermined owing to high ROB among studies. Future research should focus on standardizing comparison groups and treatment methods, be at least single-blinded, assess biologic mechanisms, have adequate statistical power, and involve multiple acupuncturists.

Garcia, M. Kay; McQuade, Jennifer; Haddad, Robin; Patel, Sonya; Lee, Richard; Yang, Peiying; Palmer, J. Lynn; Cohen, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

458

Strategies for monitoring and updating clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific knowledge is in constant change. The flow of new information requires a frequent re-evaluation of the available research results. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not exempted from this phenomenon and need to be kept updated to maintain the validity of their recommendations. The objective of our review is to systematically identify, describe and assess strategies for monitoring and updating CPGs. Study design and setting We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating one or more methods of updating (with or without monitoring) CPGs or recommendations. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and The Cochrane Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library) from 1966 to June 2012. Additionally, we hand-searched reference lists of the included studies and the Guidelines International Network book of abstracts. If necessary, we contacted study authors to obtain additional information. Results We included a total of eight studies. Four evaluated if CPGs were out of date, three updated CPGs, and one continuously monitored and updated CPGs. The most detailed reported phase of the process was the identification of new evidence. As opposed to studies updating guidelines, studies evaluating if CPGs were out of date applied restricted searches. Only one study compared a restricted versus an exhaustive search suggesting that a restricted search is sufficient to assess recommendations’ Validity. One study analyzed the survival time of CPGs and suggested that these should be reassessed every three years. Conclusions There is limited evidence about the optimal strategies for monitoring and updating clinical practice guidelines. A restricted search is likely to be sufficient to monitor new evidence and assess the need to update, however, more information is needed about the timing and type of search. Only the exhaustive search strategy has been assessed for the update of CPGs. The development and evaluation of more efficient strategies is needed to improve the timeliness and reduce the burden of maintaining the validity of CPGs.

2012-01-01

459

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Vancomycin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Associated with Dosing Schedules That Maintain Troughs between 15 and 20 Milligrams per Liter  

PubMed Central

In an effort to maximize outcomes, recent expert guidelines recommend more-intensive vancomycin dosing schedules to maintain vancomycin troughs between 15 and 20 mg/liter. The widespread use of these more-intensive regimens has been associated with an increase in vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity reports. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to determine the nephrotoxicity potential of maintaining higher troughs in clinical practice. All studies pertaining to vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity between 1996 and April 2012 were identified from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trial Registry, and Medline databases and analyzed according to Cochrane guidelines. Of the initial 240 studies identified, 38 were reviewed, and 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, higher troughs (?15 mg/liter) were associated with increased odds of nephrotoxicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95 to 3.65) relative to lower troughs of <15 mg/liter. The relationship between a trough of ?15 mg/liter and nephrotoxicity persisted when the analysis was restricted to studies that examined only initial trough concentrations (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.81 to 5.37). The relationship between troughs of ?15 mg/liter and nephrotoxicity persisted after adjustment for covariates known to independently increase the risk of a nephrotoxicity event. An incremental increase in nephrotoxicity was also observed with longer durations of vancomycin administration. Vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity was reversible in the majority of cases, with short-term dialysis required only in 3% of nephrotoxic episodes. The collective literature indicates that an exposure-nephrotoxicity relationship for vancomycin exists. The probability of a nephrotoxic event increased as a function of the trough concentration and duration of therapy.

Paterson, D. L.; Lodise, T. P.

2013-01-01

460

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Eccentric Strength Training in the Prevention of Hamstring Muscle Strains in Otherwise Healthy Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Hamstring strains are the most common soft-tissue injury observed in recreational and athletic activities, yet no consensus exists regarding appropriate primary and secondary strategies to prevent these strains. Eccentric exercise has been reported to reduce the incidence of ham-string strains but its role has not been clearly defined. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of eccentric exercise in preventing hamstring strains. Data Sources Online databases, including MED-LINE, PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles. Each database was searched from the earliest date to July 2007. Study Selection Selection criteria included diagnosis of hamstring strain, otherwise healthy individuals, and at least one group receiving an eccentric exercise intervention. Seven articles {three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four cohort studies} met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction Data were extracted using a customized form. Methodological rigor of included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale and Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Data Synthesis Studies were grouped by eccentric exercise intervention protocol: hamstring lowers, isokinetic strengthening, and other strengthening. A best-evidence synthesis of pooled data was qualitatively summarized. Conclusions Findings suggest that eccentric training is effective in primary and secondary prevention of hamstring strains. Study heterogeneity and poor methodological rigor limit the ability to provide clinical recommendations. Further RCTs are needed to support the use of eccentric training protocols in the prevention of hamstring strains.

Cheong, Krystie; Grant, Andrew; Beers, Amanda; Moizumi, Trevor

2008-01-01

461

Is Dor fundoplication optimum after laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia? A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the outcome of acid reflux prevention by Dor fundoplication after laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) for achalasia. METHODS: Electronic database PubMed, Ovid (Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, EmBase and Ovid MEDLINE) and Cochrane Library were searched between January 1995 and September 2012. Bibliographic citation management software (EndNote X3) was used for extracted literature management. Quality assessment of random controlled studies (RCTs) and non-RCTs was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. The data were analyzed using Review Manager (Version 5.1), and sensitivity analysis was performed by sequentially omitting each study. RESULTS: Finally, 6 studies, including a total of 523 achalasia patients, compared Dor fundoplication with other types of fundoplication after LHM (Dor-other group), and 8 studies, including a total of 528 achalasia patients, compared Dor fundoplication with no fundoplication after LHM (Dor-no group). Dor fundoplication was associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate of clinical regurgitation and pathological acid reflux compared with the other fundoplication group (OR = 7.16, 95%CI: 1.25-40.93, P = 0.03, and OR = 3.79, 95%CI: 1.23-11.72, P = 0.02, respectively). In addition, there were no significant differences between Dor fundoplication and no fundoplication in all subjects. Other outcomes, including complications, dysphagia, postoperative physiologic testing, and operation-related data displayed no significant differences in the two comparison groups. CONCLUSION: Dor fundoplication is not the optimum procedure after LHM for achalasia. We suggest more attention should be paid on quality of life among different fundoplications.

Wei, Ming-Tian; He, Ya-Zhou; Deng, Xiang-Bing; Zhang, Yuan-Chuan; Yang, Ting-Han; Jin, Cheng-Wu; Hu, Bing; Wang, Zi-Qiang

2013-01-01

462

Neuraxial anesthesia versus general anesthesia for urological surgery: systematic review.  

PubMed

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Choosing the best anesthetic technique for urological surgery with the aim of mortality reduction remains controversial. The objective here was to compare the effectiveness and safety of neuraxial anesthesia versus general anesthesia for urological surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING Systematic review, Universidade Federal de Alagoas. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library (Issue 10, 2012), Medline via PubMed (1966 to October 2012), Lilacs (1982 to October 2012), SciELO and EMBASE (1974 to October 2012). The reference lists of the studies included and of one systematic review in the same field were also analyzed. The studies included were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that analyzed neuraxial anesthesia and general anesthesia for urological surgery. RESULTS The titles and abstracts of 2720 articles were analyzed. Among these, 16 studies were identified and 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One RCT was published twice. The study validity was: Jadad score > 3 in one RCT; seven RCTs with unclear risk of bias as the most common response; and five RCTs not fulfilling half of the Delphi list items. The frequency of mortality was not significant between study groups in three RCTs. Meta-analysis was not performed. CONCLUSION At the moment, the evidence available cannot prove that neuraxial anesthesia is more effective and safer than general anesthesia for urological surgery. There were insufficient data to pool the results relating to mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, length of hospitalization, quality of life, degree of satisfaction, postoperative cognitive dysfunction and blood transfusion requirements. PMID:23903267

Barbosa, Fabiano Timbo; Castro, Aldemar Araujo

2013-01-01

463

Does Vitamin E Improve the Outcomes of Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: To systemically evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant vitamin E on the outcomes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children. Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews over the period between January 1980 and September 2012 for the studies that examined the role of adjuvant vitamin E given at any dose or duration, alone or in combination with other interventions, on the outcome of pediatric NAFLD. The outcomes are alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization and histological improvement. Results: Five randomized trials were eligible to be included in our analysis, with a total of 270 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in the effect of adjuvant vitamin E on normalizing serum ALT [risk ratio (RR) =1.18, confidence interval (CI) =0.92-1.53, P = 0.77 for heterogeneity, I2 = 0%]. Sensitivity analysis showed that using higher doses of vitamin E, a longer duration of therapy or adding vitamin C did not change the effect on the measured outcome. Only two studies looked at histological changes as an outcome. We observed substantial heterogeneity between the two studies. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis did not find a significant effect of adjuvant vitamin E over placebo in normalizing serum ALT. Data on the long-term effect of adjuvant vitamin E on histological improvements in NAFLD patients are still lacking. Larger, well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in children with histological endpoints are still needed to answer this question.

Sarkhy, Ahmed A.; Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A.; Nobili, Valerio

2014-01-01

464

Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of orthodontic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

This review aimed to identify the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of orthodontic pain. This systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out in accordance with Cochrane Handbook and the PRISMA statement. An extensive literature search for RCTs, quasi-RCTs, and CCTs was performed through CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, Medline, CNKI, and CBM up to October 2011. Risk of bias assessment was performed via referring to the Cochrane tool for risk of bias assessment. Meta-analysis was implemented using Review Manager 5.1. As a result, four RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and two CCTs were selected from 152 relevant studies, including 641 patients from six countries. The meta-analysis demonstrated that 24% risk of incidence of pain was reduced by LLLT (RR?=?0.76, 95% CI range 0.63-0.92, P?=?0.006). In addition, compared to the control group, LLLT brought forward "the most painful day" (MD?=?-0.42, 95% CI range -0.74- -0.10, P?=?0.009). Furthermore, the LLLT group also implied a trend of earlier end of pain compared with the control group (MD?=?-1.37, 95% CI range -3.37-0.64, P?=?0.18) and the pseudo-laser group (MD?=?-1.04, 95% CI range -4.22-2.15, P?=?0.52). However, because of the methodological shortcomings and risk of bias of included trials, LLLT was proved with limited evidence in delaying pain onset and reducing pain intensity. In the future, larger and better-designed RCTs will be required to provide clearer recommendations. PMID:23001570

He, W L; Li, C J; Liu, Z P; Sun, J F; Hu, Z A; Yin, X; Zou, S J

2013-11-01

465

A review of direct neck measurement in occupational settings.  

PubMed

No guidelines are available to orient researchers on the availability and applications of equipment and sensors for recording precise neck movements in occupational settings. In this study reports on direct measurements of neck movements in the workplace were reviewed. Using relevant keywords two independent reviewers searched for eligible studies in the following databases: Cinahal, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, PubMed, MEDLINE, PEDro, Scopus and Web of Science. After applying the inclusion criteria, 13 articles on direct neck measurements in occupational settings were retrieved from among 33,666 initial titles. These studies were then methodologically evaluated according to their design characteristics, exposure and outcome assessment, and statistical analysis. The results showed that in most of the studies the three axes of neck movement (flexion-extension, lateral flexion and rotation) were not simultaneously recorded. Deficiencies in available equipment explain this flaw, demonstrating that sensors and systems need to be improved so that a true understanding of real occupational exposure can be achieved. Further studies are also needed to assess neck movement in those who perform heavy-duty work, such as nurses and electricians, since no report about such jobs was identified. PMID:22163507

Carnaz, Letícia; Batistao, Mariana V; Coury, Helenice J C Gil

2010-01-01

466

Interactions among Low Dose of Methotrexate and Drugs Used in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Methotrexate (MTX) is a nonbiological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug that has shown both a good control of clinical disease and a good safety. Usually drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent the most limiting factor during the clinical management of any disease, in particular when several drugs are coadministered to treat the same disease. In this paper, we report the interactions among MTX and the other drugs commonly used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Using Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane libraries, and Reference lists, we searched for the articles published until June 30, 2012, and we reported the most common DDIs between MTX and antirheumatic drugs. In particular, clinically relevant DDIs have been described during the treatment with MTX and NSAIDs, for example, diclofenac, indomethacin, or COX-2 inhibitors, and between MTX and prednisone or immunosuppressant drugs (e.g., leflunomide and cyclosporine). Finally, an increase in the risk of infections has been recorded during the combination treatment with MTX plus antitumor necrosis factor-? agents. In conclusion, during the treatment with MTX, DDIs play an important role in both the development of ADRs and therapeutic failure.

Patane, Marinella; Ciriaco, Miriam; Chimirri, Serafina; Ursini, Francesco; Naty, Saverio; Grembiale, Rosa Daniela; Gallelli, Luca; De Sarro, Giovambattista

2013-01-01

467

N-acetyl cysteine in clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of reported outcomes  

PubMed Central

Clomiphene citrate (CC) has been the gold-standard drug for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but still CC resistance is seen in approximately 15-40% in women with PCOS. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a safe and cheap drug available in the market many years ago as mucolytic agent, was found to have a role in infertility management. Recently, some reports discussed the possible beneficial effects of NAC on ovulation. The biological properties of the NAC make this drug a potential candidate for its use in the infertility treatment, especially in the PCOS in inducing or augmenting ovulation. An updated electronic search was performed through PUBMED, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE and focused on peer-reviewed, full text, randomized controlled trials, and observational cohort or case-control studies for role of NAC in CC-resistant PCOS. Thorough search through all the clinical studies showed mixed results. Studies with positive results showed improvement in induction of ovulation as compared to negative studies showing contrary results. More randomized clinical trials are still needed to establish its definitive role in CC-resistant PCOS.

Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Saha, Pradip Kumar

2013-01-01

468

Efficacy of ilaprazole in the treatment of duodenal ulcers: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerance of ilaprazole compared with other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. METHODS: An electronic database search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane controlled trials register, Web of Science, PubMed, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (updated to July 2013), and manual searches were conducted. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and tolerance of ilaprazole and other PPIs in the treatment of duodenal ulcers was performed. RESULTS: Five articles involving 1481 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed no difference in the 4-wk healing rate between ilaprazole and other PPIs [89.7% vs 87.0%; relative risk (RR) = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.98-1.06; Z = 1.00; P = 0.32]. The results did not change in the sensitivity analyses. The meta-analysis indicated that the adverse effect rate in the ilaprazole group was lower than that in the control group, but the difference was not significant (9.7% vs 13.0%; RR = 0.81; 95%CI: 0.60-1.07; Z = 1.47; P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Ilaprazole is a highly effective and safe PPI in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. Ilaprazole can be recommended as a therapy for acid-related disorders, especially in Asian populations.

Ji, Xi-Qing; Du, Jun-Feng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Guang; Yu, Bo

2014-01-01

469

Spontaneous neonatal arterial thromboembolism: infants at risk, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.  

PubMed

Neonatal spontaneous arterial thromboembolism is a rare phenomenon with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is little information regarding common risk factors, diagnostic strategies, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes of this condition. The objective was to nucleate the best evidence regarding the disorder in order to facilitate early detection and treatment recommendations and document adverse outcomes. Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Databases, DARE, and OVID databases were searched using the following keywords: 'arterial' AND 'thrombus' OR 'thrombosis' OR 'thromboembolism' OR 'embolism' AND 'spontaneous' AND 'at birth' OR 'newborn' OR 'neonatal' OR 'fetal' AND 'umbilical cord' OR 'umbilical wall necrosis' AND 'coagulation abnormality' OR 'placenta bits' OR 'ischemic limbs'. The search yielded 172 articles, all of which were case series or single case descriptions. Twenty-seven met inclusion criteria, with a total of 53 newborns and 30 newborn pathology reports. Ultrasound was the preferred method of diagnosis and thromboembolic locations varied with the most common site being umbilical, resulting in embolism and vascular compromise. Treatment interventions and drug dosages were not standardized and ranged from use of anticoagulants to surgery and hyperbaric oxygen. The reported mortality rate was 32.8%. Recurring etiological features facilitated identification of possible sequences of events contributing to the disorder. The literature lacks empirical evidence to affirm causes and predisposing risk factors for timely diagnosis and effective treatment of spontaneous neonatal arterial thromboembolism. Further research is needed to clearly establish the causes and the efficacy of specific treatment options. PMID:23941966

Rashish, Galit; Paes, Bosco A; Nagel, Kim; Chan, Anthony K; Thomas, Sumesh

2013-12-01

470

Increasing nursing treatment for pediatric procedural pain.  

PubMed

Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines. PMID:24602440

Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami

2014-03-01

471

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy versus nasogastric tube feeding for patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

There are two main enteral feeding strategies-namely nasogastric (NG) tube feeding and percutaneous gastrostomy-used to improve the nutritional status of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). But up till now there has been no consistent evidence about which method of enteral feeding is the optimal method for this patient group. To compare the effectiveness of percutaneous gastrostomy and NGT feeding in patients with HNC, relevant literature was identified through Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Cochrane, Wiley and manual searches. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-experimental studies comparing percutaneous gastrostomy-including percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy (PFG) -with NG for HNC patients. Data extraction recorded characteristics of intervention, type of study and factors that contributed to the methodological quality of the individual studies. Data were then compared with respect to nutritional status, duration of feeding, complications, radiotherapy delays, disease-free survival and overall survival. Methodological quality of RCTs and non-experimental studies were assessed with separate standard grading scales. It became apparent from our studies that both feeding strategies have advantages and disadvantages. PMID:24453356

Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Minjie; Liu, Chao; Ye, Yun; Huang, Guanhong

2014-05-01

472

World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, part 1: update 2012 on the acute treatment of schizophrenia and the management of treatment resistance.  

PubMed

These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia published in 2005. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations that are clinically and scientific