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Sample records for pueraria montana community

  1. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  2. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  3. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  4. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) Invasion Doubles Emissions of Nitric Oxide, a Precursor to Tropospheric Ozone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, J. E.; Wu, S.; Mickley, L. J.; Lerdau, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen-fixing plants can increase rates of nitrogen (N) cycling in soils, fluxes of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluxes of the ozone precursor nitric oxide (NO). Invasion by the nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) across millions of hectares in the southeastern United States could be contributing to increased ozone concentrations. Ozone formation in the Southeast is broadly limited by atmospheric NO concentrations, so perturbations to the N cycle by kudzu have the potential to increase ozone concentrations in the region. At three sites in Madison County, Georgia, kudzu invasion increased rates of net N mineralization by up to an order of magnitude and rates of net nitrification and soil pools of NO3- and NO2- by up to 500%. Emissions of NO from soils invaded by kudzu averaged 2.81 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1, significantly higher than emissions from soil dominated by native vegetation, which averaged 1.24 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1. Emissions of N2O display a trend towards increasing under kudzu invasion, but N2O emissions at these sites were three orders of magnitude smaller than emissions of NO. Atmospheric chemical modeling suggests that these higher NO emissions could increase ozone concentrations in the region by up to 2 ppb. We propose that kudzu invasion in the southeastern United States represents a novel threat to air quality and could increase the frequency with which federal ozone standards are exceeded.

  5. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Jonathan E.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Lerdau, Manuel T.

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm−2 h−1). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control. PMID:20479252

  6. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

    2006-03-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

  7. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii. PMID:17202681

  8. "Just Following the Buffalo": Origins of a Montana Metis Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Martha Harroun

    2006-01-01

    By 1879 the vast buffalo herds were all but gone from the Great Plains. Many of the remaining animals had moved south from the Milk River of northern Montana and Alberta into the Judith Basin of central Montana. In these rich grasslands, for a few more years, life went on as it had for centuries. Following the buffalo came many Indian bands, as…

  9. Parsing polyphyletic Pueraria: Delimiting distinct evolutionary lineages through phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ashley N; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Cagle, William

    2016-11-01

    Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae). Polyphyly was found to be more extensive than previously thought, with five distinct lineages spread across the tribe and spanning over 25mya of divergence strongly supported by two chloroplast and one nuclear marker, AS2, presented here as a phylogenetic marker for the first time. Our phylogenies support taxonomic revisions to rectify polyphyly within Pueraria, including the resurrection of Neustanthus, moving one species to Teyleria, and the creation of two new genera, Haymondia and Toxicopueraria (taxonomic revisions published elsewhere). PMID:27495827

  10. Relationship between Participation in 4-H and Community Leadership in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Allison; Frick, Martin; Steele, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the impact of 4-H on former members generally use alumni as one cohort. In rural states, such as Montana, it is important to understand the impact of 4-H on alumni in these rural areas and the role 4-H plays in community involvement. The study reported here sought to determine the perception of current community leaders in rural Montana…

  11. You grow where you're planted: Community building in Colstrip, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David Ramsey

    The expansion of energy production in the 1970s resulted in the construction of large extraction and power production facilities in many parts of the American West. Boomtowns almost always accompanied these enterprises. Colstrip, Montana, became the focus of a wide variety of social and environmental controversies when the Montana Power Company began strip mining operations and power plant construction in the early 1970s. Nevertheless, a sense of community attachment in Colstrip has steadily grown. Increased participation in public affairs, often in response to challenges made to the community, has accompanied the integration of Colstrip's residents in the non-economic environments of families, churches, recreation, and school-related activities. Researchers in the 1970s and early '80s often took the view that rapid development disrupts long-standing patterns of community attachment and integration. Using a model derived from Ferdinand Tonnies' Gemeinschaft-Gesell schaft continuum, these researchers undertook to demonstrate the folly of the energy companies' activities. The decline of community has frequently appeared as a theme in sociology and history. Yet the venerable but erroneous and largely sentimental theoretical perspective used by some early social impact assessment researchers did not accurately represent the processes at work in Colstrip and places like it. I suggest that Colstrip demonstrates an evolutionary continuum, but precisely the opposite of Tonnies' proposition. The feeling of attachment and home we call community is a growth-oriented phenomenon, not a simply a passive object subject only to decline. Colstrip, where sociologists found community lacking, is now found by the historian as the model of community.

  12. Rural School-Community Relationships in North Central Montana: The Role of Schools in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Rick; Lundt, Jack C.

    1999-01-01

    A telephone survey of 150 north-central Montana rural residents found that they would support increased adult education programs by their schools and more economic and business-related curriculum offerings. Residents of larger towns expressed more agreement with school district consolidation than residents of smaller towns. Implications for rural…

  13. Community Background Reports: Cut Bank, Montana. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 8, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Theodore

    As a part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, this paper is a report on the community of Cut Bank, Montana. Data were collected in the fall of 1968, when a 4-member team from the University of Colorado made a 6-week study at the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. General factors studied were location, physical…

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Social Organization in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigart, Robert J.

    The four papers in this publication discusses Montana's social structure as it relates to culture, income, urbanism, and communal religious communities. "Montana Social Structure and Culture" includes rural and suburban life styles; the history of rural community organization; rural-small town communities; urban physical conditions; developments…

  16. A primary assessment of the endophytic bacterial community in a xerophilous moss (Grimmia montana) using molecular method and cultivated isolates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao Lei; Liu, Su Lin; Liu, Min; Kong, Bi He; Liu, Lei; Li, Yan Hong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the endophytic bacterial community in special moss species is fundamental to understanding the microbial-plant interactions and discovering the bacteria with stresses tolerance. Thus, the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the xerophilous moss Grimmia montana were estimated using a 16S rDNA library and traditional cultivation methods. In total, 212 sequences derived from the 16S rDNA library were used to assess the bacterial diversity. Sequence alignment showed that the endophytes were assigned to 54 genera in 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids). Of them, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (45.9%) and Firmicutes (27.6%), the most abundant genera included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Leclercia, Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Planococcus, Paenisporosarcina and Planomicrobium. In addition, a total of 14 species belonging to 8 genera in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) were isolated, Curtobacterium, Massilia, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the dominant genera. Although some of the genera isolated were inconsistent with those detected by molecular method, both of two methods proved that many different endophytic bacteria coexist in G. montana. According to the potential functional analyses of these bacteria, some species are known to have possible beneficial effects on hosts, but whether this is the case in G. montana needs to be confirmed. PMID:24948927

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-176-1826, St. James Community Hospital, Butte, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, B.J.

    1987-08-01

    In response to a request from the Director of Nursing Service at St. James Community Hospital located in Butte, Montana, an evaluation was made of exposures to glutaraldehyde in the respiratory therapy and sigmoidoscopy departments of the hospital, where it was used in equipment sterilization. Glutaraldehyde concentrations in three breathing-zone samples were 0.25mg/cu m, 0.38mg/cu m, and below the detection level. Of six general area samples, five showed measurable concentrations ranging from 0.48 to 0.209mg/cu m. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has set a threshold-limit value of 0.7mg/cu m ceiling value for glutaraldehyde. The author concludes that no health hazard exists for glutaraldehyde in these operations. Informal interviews of technicians in the two departments did not reveal any health problems that could be attributed to glutaraldehyde exposure. Respiratory therapy equipment was cleaned in a hallway used as a passageway for other personnel. It is recommended that an improved arrangement be devised for cleaning respiratory equipment and that the area used for the purpose not be used as a hallway. The author also recommends that the ventilation system for the sigmoidoscope disinfecting operations be shared with other facilities, as it was very effective.

  18. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-01-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities. PMID:14594627

  19. A new isoflavone glycoside from Pueraria alopecuroides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junlin; Fan, Qingfei; Zhang, Huanli; Song, Qishi

    2016-01-01

    A new isoflavone glycoside, (-)-tuberosin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with 10 known compounds 1a-10, was isolated from Pueraria alopecuroides. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. These compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26525177

  20. MONTANA VIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Montana View is a decision support tool designed to assist with environmental and natural resource management in Montana. Montana View is based on a review platform and provides an interface for various environmental queries. It also provides online access...

  1. "Who's Going To Dance with Somebody Who Calls You a Mainstreeter": Communism, Culture, and Community in Sheridan County, Montana, 1918-1934.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahavi, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Traces the development and decline of communism and radical politics in Sheridan County, Montana, 1918-34. Examines conflicts that split the community into conservative and radical camps (primarily townspeople and farmers, respectively); the school and school board as defenders of conservative morality; intrusions of politics into children's…

  2. Community Support for a Gold Cyanide Process Mine: Resident and Leader Differences in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rebecca T.; Brod, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have established that community residents and leaders differ in their support for hazardous waste facility siting in rural areas (Spies et al. 1998). We examine whether these same differences exist in rural communities that face other high-risk development decisions by analyzing resident and leader support for a proposed gold…

  3. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 1: Field evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, H.; LeJeune, K.; Lipton, J.

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and metals in soils surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana were correlated with vegetative community structure and composition and wildlife habitat quality. Soils in the uplands surrounding the smelter were highly enriched with arsenic and metals. Concentrations of these analytes decreased with distance from the smelter and with soil depth, suggesting that the smelter is the source of the enrichment. In enriched areas, marked modifications to the native vegetation community structure and composition were observed. These included replacement of evergreen forest with bare unvegetated ground; species impoverishment and increased dominance by weed species in grasslands; and reductions in the vertical complexity of the habitat. Significant negative correlations existed between soil arsenic and metals concentrations and the extent of vegetative cover and the vertical diversity of plant communities. Loss of vegetative cover in the affected areas has been accompanied by reductions in their capacity to support indigenous wildlife populations.

  4. Colstrip, Montana: The Fiscal Effects of Recent Coal Development and an Evaluation of the Community's Ability to Handle Further Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Maxine C.; White, Randle V.

    Much of the coal development in eastern Montana has occured in or is proposed for sparsely settled Rosebud County, which includes the Colstrip elementary and high school districts. Between fiscal 1966 and 1975, the population growth resulting from coal activities has brought about a 68% real increase in Rosebud County expenditures. Increase in…

  5. Workforce: Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Employment in Montana (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 17 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding over 96,000 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 554,456 to 651,135. The rate of growth is higher than the 15 percent increase projected for the nation as a whole. Growth will occur…

  6. Assessment of potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the Powder River and Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Feldman, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency aquatic task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. Ecological assessments, made from 2005–08 under the direction of the task group, indicated biological condition of the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the middle reaches of the Powder was lower than in the upper or lower reaches. On the basis of the 2005–08 results, sampling of the macroinvertebrate and algae communities was conducted at 18 sites on the mainstem Powder River and 6 sites on the mainstem Tongue River in 2010. Sampling-site locations were selected on a paired approach, with sites located upstream and downstream of discharge points and tributaries associated with coalbed natural gas development. Differences in biological condition among site pairs were evaluated graphically and statistically using multiple lines of evidence that included macroinvertebrate and algal community metrics (such as taxa richness, relative abundance, functional feeding groups, and tolerance) and output from observed/expected (O/E) macroinvertebrate models from Wyoming and Montana. Multiple lines of evidence indicated a decline in biological condition in the middle reaches of the Powder River, potentially indicating cumulative effects from coalbed natural gas discharges within one or more reaches between Flying E Creek and Wild Horse Creek in Wyoming. The maximum concentrations of alkalinity in the Powder River also occurred in the middle reaches. Biological condition in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River was variable, with declines between some site pairs, such as upstream and downstream of Dry Fork and Willow Creek, and increases at others, such as upstream and downstream of Beaver Creek. Biological condition at site pairs on the Tongue River showed an increase in one case

  7. [Study on decocting conditions for Pueraria lobata Ohui in qiweibaizhu bage].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y H; Zhang, L Z

    1989-04-01

    Taking the puerarin content---the chief constituent of Pueraria lobata---as the index in the mixed decoction of Pueraria lobata etc, we have adopted the method of orthogon al experiment to explore the best decocting conditions for Pueraria lobata. The results show that a better way to decoct Pueraria lobata is to cut the root into slices of 0.4-0.7 cm, and water 12-15 times the weight of the root and decoct for 30 minutes. It makes no big difference whether the root is soaked or not. PMID:2505803

  8. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  9. Challenges and Sustainability Practices of Frontier Schools in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette; Harmon, Hobart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study commissioned by the Montana Small Schools Alliance to explore the challenges and sustainability practices of frontier schools. A Montana frontier school is defined as a school district with 200 or fewer students with its attendant community located in a county with five or fewer people per square mile.…

  10. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 2: Laboratory phytotoxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kapustka, L.A.; Lipton, J.; Galbraith, H.; Cacela, D.; LeJeune, K.

    1995-11-01

    Vegetation communities on metal- and arsenic-contaminated uplands surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana have been eliminated or highly modified. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using site soils from the impacted areas to determine whether the soils limit the ability of plants to establish and grow. The germination and growth of alfalfa, lettuce, and wheat in impacted area soils was compared to germination and growth of the three species in reference soils. The degree of phytotoxicity was quantified using a species-endpoint toxicity score calculated on the magnitude of difference between germination and growth of plants in impacted and reference soils. The impacted soils exhibited substantial toxicity to plants: 5% of the sites were severely phytotoxic, 55% were highly phytotoxic, 10% were moderately phytotoxic, 20% were mildly phytotoxic, and 10% were nontoxic. Root growth was consistently the most affected endpoint (18 of 20 impacted soils) and reduction in root length and mass was observed. Correlation and partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the causes of phytotoxicity. Concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn and, to a lesser extent, Pb and Cd were found to be positively correlated with phytotoxicity.

  11. Community-Level Social Support Responses in a Slow-Motion Technological Disaster: The Case of Libby, Montana

    PubMed Central

    Orom, Heather; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, C. Brad; Schwartz, Ann G.; Ruckdeschel, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for communities experiencing disasters. However, a disaster's nature (rapid- versus slow-onset, natural versus technological) may influence community-level responses. Disaster research on social support focuses primarily on rapid-onset natural disasters and, to a lesser extent, rapid-onset technological disasters. Little research has addressed slow-onset disasters. This study explores social support processes in Libby, MT, a community experiencing a “slow-motion technological disaster” due to widespread amphibole asbestos exposure. A comprehensive social support coding system was applied to focus-group and in-depth-interview transcripts. Results reveal that, although the community has a history of normative supportiveness during community and individual crises, that norm has been violated in the asbestos disaster context. Results are interpreted as a failure to achieve an “emergent altruistic community.” Specifically, community-level conflict appears to interfere with previously established social support patterns. The observed phenomenon can be understood as the deterioration of a previously supportive community. PMID:20526664

  12. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking. PMID:25745227

  13. Montana Tribal College Development Program (MTCDP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Office of Tribal Service.

    This report describes the Montana Tribal College Development Program (MTCDP), a project designed to meet the educational and economic needs of the state's American Indian tribal communities. The document also includes a detailed evaluation of the program based on research results. The MTCDP was designed to improve services of seven American Indian…

  14. Proteome analysis of Pueraria mirifica tubers collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Jungsukcharoen, Jutarmas; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Cherdshewasart, Wichai; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2016-06-01

    Pueraria mirifica-derived tuberous powder has been long-term consumed in Thailand as female hormone-replacement traditional remedies. The protein profiles of tubers collected in different seasons were evaluated. Phenol extraction, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry were employed for tuberous proteome analysis. Out of the 322 proteins detected, over 59% were functionally classified as being involved in metabolism. The rest proteins were involved in defense, protein synthesis, cell structure, transportation, stress, storage, and also unidentified function. The proteins were found to be differentially expressed with respect to harvest season. Importantly, chalcone isomerase, isoflavone synthase, cytochrome p450, UDP-glycosyltransferase, and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in the biosynthesis pathway of bioactive isoflavonoids, were most abundantly expressed in the summer-collected tubers. This is the first report on the proteomic patterns in P. mirifica tubers in relevant with seasonal variation. The study enlights the understanding of variance isoflavonoid production in P. mirifica tubers. PMID:26940377

  15. Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone). Its antioxidant capacity was determined and compared with alcoholic extract as EC50 value for scavenging potential towards pre-generated monocation ABTS* radical, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, metal chelation property and on lipid peroxidation. Further, rat peritoneal macrophages were isolated, cultured and the attached macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with different concentrations of tuberosin (pretreatment for 30 min). After 17 h the released NO content, in culture supernatant, was indirectly estimated as accumulated nitrite by Griess reagent. To understand the mechanism of action, the extent of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase genes, the iNOS protein was assessed in macrophage lysate by using its antibody on western blot analysis. Tuberosin significantly scavenged all the species of FRs, described above and it also inhibited the LPS induced release of NO and amount of iNOS protein in macrophages. All the changes were significant and concentration dependent. Thus it could be suggested that tuberosin, is one of the active principles of Pueraria tuberose, which directly scavenges various species of Free radicals (FRs) and also inhibits LPS induced inflammatory changes in macrophages. PMID:20836891

  16. Screening and isolation of potential lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors from five Chinese medicinal herbs: Soybean, Radix pueraria, Flos pueraria, Rhizoma belamcandae, and Radix astragali.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Li, Senlin; Li, Sainan; Yang, Xiaojing; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yuchi; Liu, Chunming

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is among the leading causes of death and severe disability worldwide. Flavonoids have been extensively used in the treatment of ischemic stroke by reducing lactate dehydrogenase levels and thereby enhancing blood perfusion to the ischemic region. Here, we used ultrafiltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry for the rapid screening and identification of flavonoids from five Chinese medicinal herbs: soybean, Radix pueraria, Flos pueraria, Rhizoma belamcandae, and Radix astragali. Using PC12 cells as a suitable in vitro model of toxicity, cell viability was quantitated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results showed that the extracts of soybean and the six major components, namely, acetyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidiain, glycitin, genistin, and acetylcitin; the extract of R. pueraria and its main component daidzein; the extract of F. pueraria and its three major components, tectorigenin, tectoridin, and tectorigenin-7-O-xylosylglucosid; and the extract of R. belamcandae and its main component, tectoridin, were strong lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors. Also, the components of R. astragali showed no bioactivity. These findings indicate that the ultrafltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry method could be utilized in rapid screening and separation of bioactive compounds from a complex matrix. PMID:27059876

  17. Carbon and Nitrogen Levels across Forest Soil Communities Impacted by Bark Beetle and Wildfire Disturbance in Western Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. S. M.; Ballantyne, A. P.; Cooper, L. A.; Hursh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change has had extensive impacts on the forest ecosystems of the western US, namely by causing increases in mountain pine beetle numbers and wildfires. Mountain pine beetles experience higher survival rates due to milder winters, allowing for greater frequency and severity of attacks and in turn causing more widespread pine tree mortality. Meanwhile, the arid conditions created by this temperature increase have been conducive to a surge in wildfires. Although many investigations have been carried out on the soil biogeochemistry in areas hit by one or the other, no study to our knowledge has explicitly researched the compound effects of these disturbances. This study examined soil levels of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as well as the C/N ratios of pine and fir soil communities that have been affected by both beetle and fire disturbance. Our results show that no significant differences were found in the C/N ratios in response to all modes of disturbance. However, significant C losses from the O horizon, but not the M horizon, were observed following wildfire. Similarly, losses in N from just the O horizon were observed, but these were not significant. In conclusion, fire resulted in marked declines in soil C, and forests impacted by beetle infestation and fire experienced C losses similar to fire alone.

  18. 75 FR 27981 - Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...Pursuant to the authorities in the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) and under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393) the Beaverhead- Deerlodge National Forest's Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet on Thursday June 3, 2010, from 9 a.m. until 4 p.m., in Dillon, Montana. The purpose of the meeting is to review......

  19. 76 FR 53880 - Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...Pursuant to the authorities in the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) and under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393) the Beaverhead- Deerlodge National Forest's Southwest Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet on Wednesday, September 14, 2011, from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m., in Dillon, Montana. The purpose of the meeting is to......

  20. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4'-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4'-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4'-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  1. An Alternative Pathway for Formononetin Biosynthesis in Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The O-methylation is an important tailing process in Pueraria lobata isoflavone metabolism, but the molecular mechanism governing it remains not elucidated. This manuscript describes the mining of key O-methyltransferases (OMTs) involved in the process. Using our previously constructed P. lobata transcriptome, the OMT candidates were searched, extensively analyzed, and their functions were investigated by expression in yeast, Escherichia coli, or Glycine max hairy roots. Here, we report the identification of the key OMT gene responsible for formononetin production in P. lobata (designated as PlOMT9). PlOMT9 primarily functions as an isoflavone-specific 4′-O-methyltransferase, although it shows high sequence identities with isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferases. Moreover, unlike the previously reported OMTs that catalyze the 4′-O-methylation for formononetin biosynthesis at the isoflavanone stage, PlOMT9 performs this modifying step at the isoflavone level, using daidzein rather than 2,7,4′-trihydroxy-isoflavanone as the substrate. Gene expression analyses and metabolite profiling supported its proposed roles in P. lobata. Using the system of transgenic G. max hairy roots, the role of PlOMT9 in the biosynthesis of formononetin was further demonstrated in vivo. PMID:27379141

  2. Transcriptomic landscape of Pueraria lobata demonstrates potential for phytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Han, Rongchun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi has a long and broad application in the treatment of disease. However, in the US and EU, it is treated as a notorious weed. The information to be gained from decoding the deep transcriptome profile would facilitate further research on P. lobata. In this study, more than 93 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina's next-generation sequencing approach using five types of P. lobata tissue, followed by CLC de novo assembly methods, ultimately yielding about 83,041 contigs in total. Then BLASTx similarity searches against the NCBI NR database and UniProtKB database were conducted. Once the duplicates among BLASTx hits were eliminated, ID mapping against the UniProt database was conducted online to retrieve Gene Ontology information. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential biosynthesis pathways, all 1,348 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Enzymes related to the isoflavonoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were focused for detailed investigation and subsequently, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for biological validation. Metabolites of interest, puerarin and daidzin were studied by HPLC. The findings in this report may serve as a footstone for further research into this promising medicinal plant. PMID:26157443

  3. Pueraria tuberosa: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Maji, Amal K; Pandit, Subrata; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2014-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC is a perennial herb commonly known as 'vidarikanda', distributed throughout south east Asia. The plant's tuber is widely used in ethanomedicine as well as in traditional systems of medicine, particularly in ayurveda. It has been used in various ayurvedic formulations as restorative tonic, antiaging, spermatogenic and immune booster and has been recommended for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, fertility disorders, menopausal syndrome, sexual debility and spermatorrhoea. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, mostly isoflavonoids such as puerarin, genistein, daidzein, tuberosin and so on have been identified in the tuber. In vivo and in vitro studies have provided the support against traditional demands of the tuber as spermatogenic, immune booster, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and brain tonic. However, further studies are required to define the active phytochemical compositions and to validate its clinical utilisation in the herbal formulations for human uses. This review provides an overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. tuberosa. This review also provides plausible hypotheses about how various isoflavones particularly puerarin, genistein and daidzein, individually or collectively, may be responsible for the therapeutic potential against a wide range of ailments. PMID:24980468

  4. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    PubMed

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  5. Geology of northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Arthur J.

    1919-01-01

    A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results are here included with those of the writer, who during the field seasons of 1915 and 1916 was engaged in an investigation of the lignite resources of the remainder of this region, which extends from a line within 12 miles of the Montana-North Dakota boundary westward about 200 miles.

  6. The Montana experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dundas, T. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development and capabilities of the Montana geodata system are discussed. The system is entirely dependent on the state's central data processing facility which serves all agencies and is therefore restricted to batch mode processing. The computer graphics equipment is briefly described along with its application to state lands and township mapping and the production of water quality interval maps.

  7. Rural Education and Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamblyn, Lewis R.

    Synthesizing previous research, statements, and special reports calling attention to the unique problems associated with rural education, this paper presents definitions, statistics, and recommendations applicable to rural education and to Montana. Among the topics presented are: a contemporary definition of rurality (nonmetropolitan is posited as…

  8. Frontier Schools in Montana: Challenges and Sustainability Practices. A Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.; Morton, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    This study reveals the challenges confronting small, rural "frontier" schools in Montana and the practices that contribute to their sustainability. A Montana frontier school is defined as a school district with 200 or fewer students and its attendant community in a county with five or fewer people per square mile. The researcher surveyed…

  9. Enrollment in Higher Education Institutions in the State of Montana, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Paul C.

    Data on fall 1978 enrollment in higher education in Montana are summarized and compared with the previous year. Institutions in the Montana state university system, private colleges, and community colleges are included, as are graduate students. Enrollments in noncredit courses are not included in the tables, but are footnoted. Analyses include:…

  10. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  11. [Traditional Chinese medicine pairs (III)--effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix on intestinal absorption in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-hang; Li, Meng-xuan; Meng, Zhao-qing; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the intestinal absorption of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) to reveal the scientific connotation of the compatibility of TCM pairs. The single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) was used in rats to compare the absorption of single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix, single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, combined extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma mixture in rats. The content of puerarin, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in liquid were tested by HPLC. The speed constant (Ka) and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated and compared. Specifically, the order of puerarin Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Puerariae Lobatae Radix > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix; the order of ginsenosides Ka and Papp values from high to low was Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix mixture > single extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma > combined extracts from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The combined administration of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix may improve the absorption in the intestinal tract. PMID:26677717

  12. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  13. Indians in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ., Missoula. Bureau of Business and Economic Research.

    The three papers in this publication discuss American Indians in Montana. "Indian Poverty in Montana: Findings of the 1960 Census" examines data pertaining to the Indians' economic background. Income data, derived from 25 percent of the population, reports income received in 1959 from: (1) wages, salaries, commissions, and tips; (2) "own business,…

  14. Technology Planning for Montana's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette, Ed.

    Although Montana has not required school districts to write technology plans, districts need such plans to apply for technology grants and the E-rate discount on Internet service. This document was created to help Montana's primarily small school districts meet new demands related to technology and understand the role that technology can play in…

  15. Isoflavonoids production in callus culture of Pueraria tuberosa, the Indian kudzu.

    PubMed

    Vaishnav, Kamlesh; Goyal, Shaily; Ramawat, K G

    2006-12-01

    Isoflavonoid contents of different plant parts and callus tissues of the Indian Kudzu, Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb.ex.Willd.) DC are presented. The initial cultures were slow growing, associated with browning of the tissues. The production of four isoflavonoids (puerarin, genistin, genistein and daidzein) in the callus cultures of P. tuberosa was studied by manipulating the plant growth regulators and sucrose concentration in the medium. Organogenesis was not recorded in callus on any of these treatments. Tuber and stem accumulated puerarin, a glycoside of daidzein, at high amounts, 0.65% and 0.054% respectively. However, the daidzein content of the callus tissues grown on Murashige and Skoog medium containing BA (20.9 microM) and sucrose (60 gl(-1)) was significantly higher (0.056%) than in vivo plant material (0.02%) and other comparable culture systems like Genista and Pueraria lobata. PMID:17176676

  16. Assessment of ecological conditions and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities in streams of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Clark, Melanie L.; Foster, Katharine; Wright, Peter R.; Boughton, Gregory K.

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. The interagency task group developed a monitoring plan and conducted sampling of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities at 47 sites during 2005-08 to document current ecological conditions and determine existing and potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on biological communities. Macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish community composition varied between drainage basins, among sites within drainage basins, and by year. Macroinvertebrate communities of the main-stem Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and higher abundance of Ephemeroptera, for example, compared to macroinvertebrate communities in plains tributaries of the Tongue River and the main-stem Powder River. Fish communities of the Tongue River were characterized by higher taxa richness and abundance of introduced species compared to the Powder River where native species were dominant. Macroinvertebrate community metric values from sites in the middle reach of the main-stem Powder River, from below Willow Creek to below Crazy Woman Creek, differed from metric values in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River. Metrics indicative of communitywide differences included measures of taxa richness, relative abundance, feeding mode, and tolerance. Some of the variation in the macroinvertebrate communities could be explained by variation in environmental variables, including physical (turbidity, embeddedness, bed substrate size, and streamflow) and chemical (alkalinity and specific conductance) variables. Of these environmental variables, alkalinity was the best indicator of coalbed natural gas development because of the sodiumbicarbonate signature of the production water. Algal

  17. RATTLESNAKE ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.A.; Mayerle, Ronald T.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area in Montana identified a small area of substantiated resource potential for a low-grade stratabound copper occurrence along the northwest border of the area. A demonstrated barite (BaSO//4) resource of 45 tons and a demonstrated limestone resource suitable for cement production are present in the southern part of the roadless area. Limestone, silica in quartz veins, and sand and gravel deposits are known in the southern part of the area but similar deposits occur widely outside the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the Rattlesnake Roadless Area.

  18. Future fuels from Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-04-15

    To make America less dependent on foreign oil, Montana Governor Brain Schweitzer pushes for investment in synfuel technology. He advocates coal as the 'new fuel' for cars and believes synfuels from coal can bridge the gap between the petroleum economy of the past and the hydrogen economy of the future. He is pushing for a 'Future Fuels' project to form a public-private partnership to build 20 coal conversion, synfuel manufacturing plants. This could contribute to making the USA energy self-sufficient, more quickly than the FutureGen project, he believes.

  19. Floods of May 1981 in west-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.; Fassler, John W.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in west-central Montana during May 22-23, 1981, as a result of a series of rainstorms. Flooding was particularly severe in the communities of East Helena, Belt, and Deer Lodge. Although no lives were lost, total flood damages were estimated by the Montana Disaster Emergency Services Division to be in excess of $30 million. Peak discharges were determined at 75 sites in the flooded area. At 25 sites the May 1981 peak discharge exceeded the computed 100-year frequency flood, and at 29 sites, where previous flow records are available, the May 1981 peak discharge exceeded the previous peak of record. (USGS)

  20. Building Transitions from High School to College and Careers for Montana's Youth. High Schools That Work Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

    2007-01-01

    On August 30, 2006, Montana state educational and policy leaders participated in the Montana Education Forum to discuss ways to improve student transition from high school to postsecondary education and careers. The forum was sponsored by the League for Innovation in the Community College and the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) and…

  1. Effects of agaricus lilaceps fairy rings on soil aggregation and microbial community structure in relation to growth stimulation of western wheatgrass (pascopyrum smithii) in Eastern Montana rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stimulation of plant productivity caused by Agaricus fairy rings has been reported, but nothing is known about soil aggregation and the microbial community structure of the stimulated zone, particularly the communities that can bind to soil particles. We studied three concentric zones of Agaricus li...

  2. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  3. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  4. 75 FR 43476 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...We are announcing receipt of revisions pertaining to a previously proposed statutory amendment to the Montana regulatory program (hereinafter, the ``Montana program'') under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (``SMCRA'' or ``the Act''). Montana revised its original amendment proposal to remain consistent with SMCRA and Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement......

  5. Montana strikes it rich: Commonwealth Edison Co. v. Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Supreme Court decision in Commonwealth Edison v. Montana confirms the right of states to impose a severance tax on natural resources and the right of Congress to limit the rate of taxation, but it declined to mandate an equitable rate. If other states follow Montana's example and raise their severance taxes, the Court and Congress can avert any effort to form a coal cartel among the Western mining states. This article reviews the issues behind the suit and analyzes the decision. An appendix compares the rate and revenue disposition of the 16 states that impose severance taxes. (DCK)

  6. 68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 as Sutton's New Grand Theatre, had a seating capacity of 2,175. In its heyday, this theater attracted the most famous acts of vaudville, opera, and theater. The upper stories are built of yellow painted brick, with terra-cotta applied in a stone pattern on the ground floor. The entrance has been modernized with a wall of glass bricks. On the north side of the theater is a four story building which provided a side entrance to the theater and had storefronts, with apartments above. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  7. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata. PMID:27097408

  8. [Rapid discriminant analysis of sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix based on vertical and horizontal surfaces].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-sheng; Du, Min; Pan, Xiao-ning; Zhao, Na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-06-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) was used as rapid analysis method to identify the sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix. NIR spectra of the cross-sectional and longitudinal selection of samples were acquired. Principal component analysis was conducted. The samples were randomly selected. The different pretreatment methods were compared. Discriminant models were established for every type of spectra to calculate the recognition rate. The orthogonal test and nonparametric test were used to test data normality. The result showed that absorbance values of different sections were different due to the different structure, and the raw spectra were analyzed by PCA method. The result founded that the cumulative contribution rate was arrived at 99.2% while the PC numbers were arrived at 3. The pretreatment method based on the MSC + 1D + Savitzky-Golay was the best to establish the model. For the 50 models constructed with cross-section and longitudinal spectra and total spectra, the recognition rate were (94.4 ± 0.66)%, (94.4 ± 0.66)%, (95.3 ± 0.65)%, respectively, and no difference was observed. The NIR method could be used to identify the sulfur fumigated Puerariae Lobatae Radix. PMID:26591520

  9. Isoorientin, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) from the Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Sumalatha, Manne; Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Kumar, Kotha Anil; Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Azad, Rajaram; Reddanna, Pallu; Bodo, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fraction of the methanol extract of the roots of Pueraria tuberose DC yielded puerarin, an isoflavone C-glycoside (PT-1), isoorientin, a flavone C-glycoside (PT-2) and mangiferin, a xanthone C-glycoside (PT-3). The extracts and the isolated compounds were screened for potent anti-inflammatory components inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the target enzymes of inflammation, by employing spectroscopic/polorographic methods. Among these, isoorientin was found to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2with an IC50 value of 39 μM. Docking studies were carried out to understand the interactions of isorientin (PT-2) with COX-2.The structures of the isolates were determined by mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR techniques including HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and 1H-1H COSY experiments. Although isoorientin and mangiferin have been reported from several plant sources, this is the first report of their isolation from a Pueraria species. PMID:26669106

  10. A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation of isoflavone derivatives from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jing, Wenguang; Wang, Weihao; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2015-01-01

    A novel and effective chromatographic approach to the separation and purification of isoflavone compounds from Pueraria lobata is described. The method is based on flash chromatography (FC), coupled to preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) via a six-way valve. The FC step comprised tandem reversed phase columns, pre-packed with MCI gel (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and C18 (Fuji Silysia Chemical Ltd, Osaka, Japan) resin, respectively, and was designed to separate a crude Pueraria lobata extract into several preliminary fractions. Fractions containing the target compounds were then directly injected via the six-way valve into prep-HPLC columns, without further treatment, for final isolation and purification. Nine isoflavonoids were successfully isolated, three through an online mode and the other six through an offline mode. The purities of all compounds exceeded 95.0%, as determined by HPLC with an UV-vis photodiode array detector. The convenience, low solvent consumption, and time-saving advantages of this method offer an attractive and promising approach to the isolation of natural products. PMID:25751785

  11. Large scale purification of puerarin from Puerariae Lobatae Radix through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguang, Xin-Cheng; Guo, Yu-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Puerarin is the major isoflavone of Puerariae Lobatae Radix. A method for large scale purification of puerarin was developed through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis. The adsorption properties of six macroporous resins (D101, S-8, H103, X-5, HPD600, AB-8) were compared through the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption isotherms. Results showed that H103 resin had the best adsorption rate and capacity. The mass transfer zone motion model was further used for analyzing the fixed bed adsorption of H103 resin. Its length of mass transfer zone with 2mg/ml of puerarin in water and 10% ethanol at flow rate of 10ml/min were 41.6 and 47.5cm, while the equilibrium adsorption capacity was 165.03 and 102.88mg/g, respectively. By using 75% ethanol, puerarin could be well desorbed from the resin with recovery of 97.4%. Subsequently, H103 resin was successfully used for puerarin purification from Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The content of total isoflavones and puerarin in the resin adsorption product were 69.25% and 41.78%, respectively, which were about three times increased compared to the crude extract. Then, the product was hydrolyzed by 2.5M HCl at 90°C for 1h. Puerarin with purity of 90% and a byproduct daidzein with purity of 78% were obtained. PMID:25553536

  12. Symbiotic N 2 -Fixation Estimated by the (15) N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m(2) of (15)N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  13. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  14. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  15. Montana Faxnet Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brander, Linda L.

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Montana Faxnet Project, which was created to design and demonstrate a statewide document delivery network utilizing telefacsimile equipment that would create equitable access for all Montanans accessing and retrieving information, and reduce the waiting time for requested materials…

  16. Who Will Teach Montana's Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Dori Burns

    Montana is experiencing three types of teacher shortages, each requiring different intervention strategies. These situations include shortages in specific subject areas, most notably in music, special education, and foreign languages, followed closely by guidance and library; many job openings, caused by rapid enrollment growth, a large number of…

  17. Montana Rural Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Ralph, Comp.

    The material in this K-8 curriculum guide is designed to provide classroom professionals in rural Montana schools with some guidance as to when to introduce and develop concepts in each subject area. It is intended to be a guide, not a rule book or complete course of study. For each subject area and for each grade level, topics are coded as I…

  18. Marigolds for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolbaugh, Walt; Dunkel, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Describes a collaborative science research project designed to help build strong school and community relationships. Participating students joined with university scientists on a yearlong agriculturally-based research project to study the effect of marigolds on nematode management. (KHR)

  19. Potential Skin Regeneration Activity and Chemical Composition of Absolute from Pueraria thunbergiana Flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Hwang, Dae-Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Joo-Hoon; Yoon, Myeong Sik; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-11-01

    The flower of Pueraria thunbergiana BENTH (PTBF) contains isoflavonoids and essential oil components. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant, and weight loss. However, its effect on skin regeneration remains unknown. In the present study, we isolated the absolute from PTBF through solvent extraction and determined the role of the absolute on skin regeneration-associated responses in human epidermal-keratinocytes (HaCats). The PTBF absolute, which contained 10 compounds, stimulated migration and proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 in HaCats. It induced type I and IV collagen synthesis in HaCats. In addition, treatment with PTBF absolute resulted in increased sprout outgrowth in HaCats. These findings suggest that PTBF absolute may participate in skin regeneration, probably through promotion of migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. PMID:26749850

  20. A Report on Teen Pregnancy in Montana. 1996/97 Montana Special Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief "Kids Count" report explores the impact of and factors that bear on teen pregnancy in Montana and ways to prevent teen pregnancy. Statistics and summaries are provided in the following areas: (1) live births to women under age 20, 1990-95; (2) Montana's unmarried teen births as compared to neighboring states; (3) number of Montana teen…

  1. TV FOR MONTANA EDUCATION, REPORT OF THE MONTANA EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION COMMITTEE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSEN, ERLING S.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A FULL REPORT OF THE MONTANA EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION COMMITTEE. IT CONTAINS DETAILED INFORMATION ON THE FOLLOWING POINTS, AS WELL AS PLANS FOR EDUCATIONAL TV DEVELOPMENT IN MONTANA--(1) MONTANA HAS GROWING NEEDS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATIONAL METHODS, (2) EDUCATIONAL TV IS ENRICHING AND EXPANDING INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS IN THE U.S.,…

  2. Smoke over Montana and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    California was not the only western state affected by fire during the last weekend of July. Parts of Montana and Wyoming were covered by a thick pall of smoke on July 30, 2000. This true-color image was captured by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). It is much easier to distinguish smoke from cloud in the color SeaWiFS imagery than the black and white Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery. However, GOES provides almost continuous coverage (animation of Sequoia National Forest fire) and has thermal infrared bands (Extensive Fires in the Western U.S.) which detect the heat from fires. On Monday July 31, 2000, eight fires covering 105,000 acres were burning in Montana, and three fires covering 12,000 acres were burning in Wyoming. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  4. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcspadden, W. R.; Stewart, D. H.; Kuwada, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Drilling the first geothermal well in Montana presented many challenges, not only in securing materials and planning strategies for drilling the wildcat well but also in addressing the environmental, legal, and institutional issues raised by the request for permission to explore a resource which lacked legal definition. The Marysville Geothermal Project was to investigate a dry hot rock heat anomaly. The well was drilled to a total depth of 6790 feet and many fractured water bearing zones were encountered below 1800 feet.

  5. ANACONDA-PINTLAR WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Anaconda-Pintlar Wilderness, an area of about 250 sq mi in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Results of this survey indicate that parts of the area have probable and (or) substantiated resource potential for silver, copper, molybdenum, lead, tungsten, tin, gold, and zinc. Based on the nature of the geologic terrain, there is little likelihood of the occurrence of geothermal, coal, oil, or gas resources.

  6. Reflections on Tribal Governance in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kenneth L., Ed.

    This document discusses tribal governance as part of the "Native American Week" on Montana State University's Bozeman campus. The document contains a commissioned paper, a panel discussion, a speech, and a list of legal documents of tribal governments in Montana. The commissioned paper, "Federal Indian Policy: A Summary," by Walter Fleming…

  7. 40 CFR 81.327 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Montana. 81.327 Section 81.327 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.327 Montana. Montana—SO2 Designated area Does not...

  8. 40 CFR 81.327 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Montana. 81.327 Section 81.327 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.327 Montana. Montana—SO2 Designated area Does not...

  9. 77 FR 18149 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... the Montana program in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later... announced receipt of the proposed amendment in the October 17, 2011, Federal Register (200 FR 64047... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program...

  10. 75 FR 61366 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ..., Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning Montana's program and program... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public...

  11. 77 FR 75445 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Main, Lewistown, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary L. ``Stan'' Benes, Central Montana... oral comments may be limited. Gary L. ``Stan'' Benes, Central Montana District Manager. BILLING...

  12. Montana Statewide Education Profile: K-12 Public Schools, School Year 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Dori B.; Lamson, Joe; Love, Catherine; Quinlan, Madalyn

    This is Montana's first education profile. The measures in the profile, and the information they contain, provide a clear picture of education in the state. Public school education is provided by more than 460 school districts in this, the U.S.'s fourth largest state in terms of land. With only a few large communities, more than two-thirds of the…

  13. Engineers without Borders at Montana State University: Student-Led Engagement and Transnational Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Otto R.; Schmalzbauer, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The Montana State University student chapter of Engineers Without Borders USA is a student-managed partnership with the people of Khwisero, Kenya. The primary mission, to bring potable water and clean sanitation facilities to 61 primary schools and the surrounding communities of Khwisero, necessitates a long-term commitment to collaboration and…

  14. The Montana Model: Integrated Primary Care and Behavioral Health in a Family Practice Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Claire; Moore, Douglas; Burford, Duncan; Fahrenwald, Roxanne; Woodward, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    To address the local health care needs of both patients and primary care providers in Montana, an integrated primary care and behavioral health family practice clinic was developed. In this paper we describe our experience with integrating mental health and substance abuse services into a primary care setting (a community health center) while…

  15. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  16. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3'-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3'-, 4'- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4'- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3'-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3'-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3'-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  17. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  18. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo D T; Da Cruz, Leandro R; Dos Santos, Samuel A; Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Dos Santos, Izabela T; De Oliveira, Ariane M; Barros, Rodrigo E; Santos, Márcia V; Faria, Rodrigo M

    2015-03-01

    Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloides plants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity of N. wightii and P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light. PMID:25714076

  19. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Fang, Shih-Hua; Wen, Kuo-Ching; Hsiu, Su-Lan; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chi, Ying-Chang; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC(0-t) by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats. PMID:15936791

  20. Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

  1. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.-J.; Hou, Y.C.; Lin, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-A.; Sheu, Jim J.C.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, B.-H.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Wan Lei Tsai, F.-J.

    2009-01-23

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) concentration of 2.35 {mu}M. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  2. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Task Force on Two-Year Education in Montana Interim Report to the Commissioner of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Commission for Higher Education Facilities, Helena.

    The Montana Commission of Higher Education put forth this report on the best practices in two-year colleges and operational recommendation in November 2002. The report describes the practices used in the best community colleges as the following: (1) responsiveness of the community college to the ever expanding needs of those they serve; (2) full…

  4. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ..., Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning Montana's program and program... identified by ``SATS No. MT-034- FOR'' or ``Docket ID No. OSM-2011-0018,'' by any of the following...

  5. Effect of invader litter chemistries on soil organic matter compositions: consequences of Polygonum cuspidatum and Pueraria lobata invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharayil, N.; Tamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fixation during photosynthesis forms the precursor of all organic carbon in soil and the predominant source of energy that drives soil microbial processes; hence the molecular identity of the fixed carbon could influence the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). Due to their high resource acquisition and resource use efficiencies, some invasive plants can input disproportionately high quantities of litter that are qualitatively distinctive, and this could influence the accrual of organic carbon and overall carbon cycling in invaded habitats. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. Japanese knotweed produces low litter abundant in polyphenols which selectively hinders microbially mediated decomposition and re-synthesis; whereas kudzu produces low C:N, high quality litter that can stimulate microbial decomposition. Soil samples were collected at 5-cm intervals and from inside and outside 15 to 20 year old stands of the invasive species. The novelty of our study was that both of our study species were invading into soils of contrasting substrate qualities relative to the invading litter quality. The molecular composition of carbon in the soils and the degradation stage of the SOM were assessed with a biomarker approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the source of biomolecules (plant or microbes). Stability of SOM fractions was assessed through oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, serving as a proxy of biological degradation, followed by stable isotope analysis. Fungal communities dominated the uppermost soils under knotweed whereas kudzu litter suppressed fungal biomass in the top 10-cm. In constrast, increase in active microbial biomass C

  6. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, S.; Agarwal, T.; Singothu, S.; Samal, A.; Banerjee, I.; Pal, K.; Pramanik, K.; Ray, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK – 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot+ and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5’-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  7. Molecular Docking and Interactions of Pueraria Tuberosa with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors.

    PubMed

    Asthana, S; Agarwal, T; Singothu, S; Samal, A; Banerjee, I; Pal, K; Pramanik, K; Ray, S S

    2015-01-01

    Pueraria tuberosa is known for its therapeutic potentials in cardiovascular disorders, but its effect in angiogenesis has not been studied so far. In this study, a computational approach has been applied to elucidate the role of the phytochemicals in inhibition of angiogenesis through modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, major factors responsible for angiogenesis. Metabolite structures retrieved from PubChem and KNApSAcK - 3D databases, were docked using AutoDock4.2 tool. Hydrogen bond and molecular docking, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and toxicity predictions were carried out using UCSF Chimera, LigPlot(+) and PreADMET server, respectively. From the docking analysis, it was observed that puerarone and tuberostan had significant binding affinity for the intracellular kinase domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 respectively. It is important to mention that both the phytochemicals shared similar interaction profile as that of standard inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Also, both puerarone and tuberostan interacted with Lys861/Lys868 (adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-2), thus providing a clue that they may enforce their inhibitory effect by blocking the adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Moreover, these molecules exhibited good drug-likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties without any carcinogenic and toxic effects. The interaction pattern of the puerarone and tuberostan may provide a hint for a novel drug design for vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors with better specificity to treat angiogenic disorders. PMID:26664060

  8. Neurotherapeutic Effects of Pueraria mirifica Extract in Early- and Late-Stage Cognitive Impaired Rats.

    PubMed

    Anukulthanakorn, Kanya; Parhar, Ishwar S; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Kitahashi, Takashi; Watanbe, Gen; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-06-01

    We determined the neurotherapeutic effects of Pueraria mirifica extract (PME) and pure puerarin (PU) in comparison with 17β-estradiol (E2 ) in early- and late-stage cognitive impaired rats. Rats were ovariectomized (OVX), kept for 2 and 4 months to induce early- and late-stage cognitive impairment, respectively, and divided into four groups that were treated daily with (i) distilled water, (ii) 100 mg/kg of PME, (iii) 7 mg/kg of PU, and (iv) 80 µg/kg of E2 for 4 months. The estrogen deficiency symptoms of OVX rats were abrogated by treatment with E2 or PME, but not by treatment with PU. The mRNA level of genes associated with amyloid production (App and Bace1) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (Tau4) were upregulated together with the level of impaired cognition in the 2- and 4-month OVX rats. Treatment with E2 reduced the level of cognitive impairment more than that with PME and PU, and 2-month OVX rats were more responsive than 4-month OVX rats. All treatments down-regulated the Bace1 mRNA level in 2-month OVX rats, while PU and PME also decreased the App mRNA level in 2- and 4-month OVX rats, respectively. Only PU suppressed Tau4 expression in 2-month OVX rats. Thus, PME and PU elicit neurotherapeutic effects in different pathways, and earlier treatment is optimal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26915634

  9. Protective effects of total flavonoids from Flos Puerariae on retinal neuronal damage in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dai; Yang, Fang; Cheng, Hongke; Liu, Chao; Sun, Ming; Wu, Kaili

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential protective effects of total flavonoids from Flos Puerariae (TFF) on retinal neural cells in diabetic mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to generate type I diabetes in a murine model, as indicated by blood glucose levels ≥11.1 mmol/l. TFF was administered intragastrically at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day. After 10 weeks of administration, the mice were euthanized, and the eyes were dissected. Retinal histology was examined, and the thickness of the retina was measured. Ultrastructural changes in the retinal ganglion cells and capillary basement membrane were observed with electron microscopy. Apoptosis of retinal neural cells was determined with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assay. Bax and Bcl-2 expression in the retinal tissues was determined with immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. Results Compared with the diabetic mice, the blood glucose level decreased (p<0.01) and the bodyweight increased (p<0.05) in the 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF-treated groups. The thickness of the retina significantly increased (p<0.01), and the retinal capillary basement membrane (BM) thickness was reduced in the 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF-treated diabetic mice (DM). The 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF treatments also attenuated the diabetes-induced apoptosis of retinal neural cells. Consistent with these effects, TFF treatment decreased the Bax expression level and, concurrently, increased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax. Conclusions TFF attenuated diabetes-induced apoptosis in retinal neurons by inhibiting Bax expression and increasing the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax, which suggests that TFF might prevent retinal neuronal damage in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24146535

  10. Comparison of Puerariae Radix and its hydrolysate on stimulation of hyaluronic acid production in NHEK cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is present in high concentrations in the intercellular spaces of the epidermis and the connective tissues of the dermis. It is associated with many beneficial biological activities including water retention, maintenance of various cellular functions, and skin homeostasis. Puerariae Radix (PR), a Chinese herb and a popular food in Asia, is used for various medicinal purposes including anti-hypertension, anti-angina pectoris and anti-dipsotropic. PR is rich in isoflavone glycosides like genistin and daidzin as soya. In this study, Bifidobactericum breve CCRC 14061 and CCRC 11846 were used for the fermentation of PR; moreover, acid was used to hydrolyze PR decoction. Genistein and daidzein in the hydrolysate were determined by HPLC. The HA production in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) was measured after 48 hours incubation with PR and its hydrolysate, respectively. HA was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and retinoic acid was used as the positive control. After fermentation with Bifidobactericum breve, the contents of daidzein and genistein were increased 785% and 1,010% by CCRC 14061, and 192% and 406% by CCRC 11846, respectively, whereas after acid hydrolysis, only daidzein was increased by 990%. The production of HA in NHEK was increased after incubation with the fermentation product of CCRC 14061, acid hydrolysate, PR decoction and retinoic acid (22+/- 0.2%), whereas no increase of HA concentration was found after incubation with the fermentation product of CCRC 11846. Furthermore, the PR hydrolysate stimulated the HA production of NHEK, and the effect was dose-dependent (18.6%-83.9%). In conclusion, PR preparations would stimulate HA production in NHEK cells which might be used as a new cosmetic ingredient in moisturizers and an anti-aging agent. PMID:20128051

  11. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent. PMID:25063049

  12. A Report on Traffic Safety and Montana's Children. 1999 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report looks at major problems, available data, and some solutions for Montana's children as passengers in and drivers of vehicles on Montana's roads and highways. The report also presents information about adults' roles and responsibilities for preventing traffic accidents and protecting children. Facts presented in the…

  13. Montana Institute for Effective Teaching of American Indian Children (Missoula, Montana, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This guide presents 11 American Indian study units developed by Montana teachers. Nine units are intended for intermediate or middle-school grades; two are suitable for prekindergarten through primary grades. The units contain information about various American Indian tribes, but focus on tribes of Montana. Many lessons include writing and…

  14. Case Study of a Service-Learning Partnership: Montana Tech and the Montana State Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amtmann, John; Evans, Roberta; Powers, Jack

    2002-01-01

    As a service learning project, Montana Tech students deliver a wellness program for older inmates in Montana State Prison. Outcomes identified in student interviews included improved interpersonal skills (tact, diplomacy, communication, assertiveness) and opportunities to apply knowledge. Students recognized the value of the program for…

  15. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  16. 76 FR 45644 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster Number MT-00063 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Montana (FEMA-1996-DR), dated 06/17/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Montana, dated 06/17/2011, is hereby amended to include...

  17. Montana Library Laws, Rules, and Public Library Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Library, Helena.

    Chapter 1 of this handbook of Montana library laws, rules, and public library standards contains excerpts from the Constitution of Montana, including articles on property tax exemptions, educational goals and duties, and code of ethics. Montana library laws covering the following areas are presented in Chapter 2: publication and updating of the…

  18. 76 FR 20624 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Forest Service Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Stanford, Montana... committee members, replacement members and Forest Service personnel; (2) Selection of a chairperson by...

  19. Mechanism of acid tolerance in a rhizobium strain isolated from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhang; Jian-ping, Gu; Shi-qing, Wei; Ze-yang, Zhou; Chao, Zhang; Yongxiong, Yu

    2011-06-01

    The Rhizobium sp. strain PR389 was isolated from the root nodules of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, which grows in acidic (pH 4.6) yellow soil of the Jinyun Mountains of Beibei, Chongqing, China. While rhizobia generally have a pH range of 6.5-7.5 for optimum growth, strain PR389 grew in a liquid yeast extract - mannitol agar medium at pH 4.6, as well as in a pH 4.1 soil suspension, suggesting acid tolerance in this specific strain of rhizobium . However, at pH 4.6, the lag phase before vigorous growth was 40 h compared with 4 h under neutral conditions (pH 7.0). For PR389, the generation time after the lag phase remained the same at different pH levels despite the different durations of the lag phase. Except in the pH 4.4 treatment, the pH of the culturing media increased from 4.6, 4.8, 5.0, and 5.5 to neutral and slightly alkaline after 70 h of culture. Chloramphenicol was added to determine if protein production was involved in the increasing pH process. Chloramphenicol significantly inhibited PR389 growth under acid stress but had little effect under neutral conditions. Proton flux measured during a short acid shock (pH 3.8) revealed that this strain has an intrinsic ability to prevent H(+) from entering cells when compared with acid-sensitive rhizobia. We propose that the mechanism for acid tolerance in PR389 involves both intracellular and extracellular processes. When the extracellular pH is lower than pH 4.4, the cell membrane blocks hydrogen from entering the cell. When the pH exceeds 4.4, the rhizobium strain has the ability to raise the extracellular pH, thereby, potentially decreasing the toxicity of aluminum in acid soil. PMID:21635219

  20. Molecular clusters size of Puerariae thomsonii radix aqueous decoction and relevance to oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong; Yang, Caimei; Zhang, Kuan; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    The multi-component system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is very complicated. The clusters are dynamic aggregates whose molecules are held together by hydrogen-bonded, Van der Waals forces or the opposite charges of particles attract each other. In this paper, field emission scanning electron microscopy proved that molecules form clusters in Pueraria thomsonii Benth (Fenge) water decoction. Four kinds of Fenge water decoction, 0.07 g∙mL-1 (F-1), 0.1 g∙mL-1 (F-2), 0.17 g∙mL-1 (F-3), 0.35 g∙mL-1 (F-4); F-1, average diameter of molecular was about 120 nm; F-2, 195 nm; F-3, 256 nm; and F-4, 480 nm. The molecular size was shown to depend on concentration. Rabbits were given equal does of 2.8 g∙kg-1, to perfuse F-1, F-2, F-3, F-4 in volume of 80 mL, 56 mL, 33 mL, 17 mL, respectively. At 0-180 min to collect 2 mL blood from the rabbit ears middle arteries for metabolism fingerprints, the results show the particle size of molecular is smaller, the absorption of drugs is better instead. The acute blood stasis model rats were treatment with Fenge decoction of 1.5 g∙kg-1 for 14 days, the concentrations of Ang II in plasma were significantly lower in F-1 and F-2 groups than those in model group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), but there were no significantly difference in F-3 and F-4 groups than those in model group (p > 0.05). Despite the molecular aggregation is a common physical phenomenon, it influence on the kind and amount of molecule per unit volume. Molecules morphology influence on the absorption behavior of drugs in vivo therefore is to have an impact on pharmacological function. PMID:26198223

  1. Effect of Pueraria tuberosa tuber extract on chronic foot shock stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, S S; Sur, T K; Debnath, P K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the protective effects of tuberous root extract of Pueraria tuberosa on chronic foot shock stress (CS) induced physiological, neurobehavioral and neuropathological alterations. Male Wistar rats (120-150 g) were divided into seven groups, consisting of ten animals in each. Group I served as normal, group II as positive control, while group III-VII as test drug treated. P tuberosa tuber extract (PTE) was given to rats of groups III-VI at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, while group VII treated with Withania somnifera rhizome extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg) as reference drug. Group II (stress control) received only equivalent volume of distilled water (0.5 ml/100 g) orally. All the drugs were given orally once/day for 14 consecutive days. The last dose was given 1 h before study. Simultaneously, all the animals (except group I) were subjected to 1 h of foot-shock (2 mA) through a grid floor for those 14 days in a standard conditioning chamber with the escape route closed [Chronic stress (CS)]. Thereafter, the rats were placed on open-field and plus maze apparatus for studying the behavioral patterns of them, and the anxiolytic effects of the putative drug. Sexual activities of the animals were also studied. Finally, the animals were sacrificed and their ulcer formation in gastric mucosa was noted. Weights of adrenals and spleen were also taken. Further, plasma corticosterone levels were estimated spectroflurometrically. Results indicated that, CS significantly altered the behavioral patterns, decreased the sexual urge and activities, damaged the gastric mucosal layers, enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and increased adrenal glands and spleen weights. PTE and WSE showed significant anxiolytic activity, protected the gastric mucosa, lowered plasma corticosterone level (indicating HPA axis inhibition) and negated the hypertrophy of adrenals and spleen. PTE also enhanced the sexual urge and activities in

  2. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Montana. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Minarik, R.J.; McCulloch, R.B.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. Montana's 1991 nonfuel mineral production value was $590 million, an increase of 3% from that of 1990. Gains in the production value of portland cement, copper, and gold more than offset the decrease in values of molybdenum, platinum-group metals, silver, crushed stone, and zinc. Metallic minerals-copper, gold, iron ore, lead, molybdenum, platinum-group metals, silver, and zinc-accounted for more than 82% of Montana's total nonfuel mineral production value. The State ranked 17th nationally in value compared with 19th in 1990.

  3. The Northern Cheyenne Tribe and Energy Development in Southeastern Montana. Volume I: Social, Cultural, and Economic Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Jean; And Others

    Although there are no easy answers to the economic problems faced by the Northern Cheyenne in Southeast Montana, any economic development plans should stress long-term tribal self-sufficiency, serve community needs, and consider the Cheyenne culture. Differentiation theory is appropriate for understanding the local rural area and the special place…

  4. From Threshers to Thrashers: In Montana, 4-H Takes a Modern Spin To Engage "Blue-Ribbon Kids."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linik, Joyce Riha

    2002-01-01

    A 4-H skateboard club in Bozeman, Montana offers kids community service and educational opportunities as well as something to do after school. Adult and college-student volunteers teach a skateboarding curriculum and help kids fix boards and design ramps. Club members have learned public speaking, fundraising, city planning, and civic involvement…

  5. LC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetics study of puerarin and daidzein in rat plasma after oral administration of Gegenqinlian decoction and Radix Puerariae extract

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifan; Yuan, Jin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gegenqinlian decoction (GQD) is a famous traditional medicine recipe. It is composed of four herbs including Radix Puerariae (GG), Radix Scutellariae (HQ), Rhizoma Coptidis (HL) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC), which is widely used for treating gastro-intestinal disorders in the clinical practice of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of puerarin and daidzein in rats following oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. Thus, a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of puerarin and daidzein in rat plasma following oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK C18 analytical column (100 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 5 μm) by linear gradient elution, with water (0.1% formic acid)-acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Results: The calibration curves were linear over a range of 7.80-1560 ng/mL for puerarin and 6.30-1260 ng/mL for daidzein. The intra- and inter-day precision values were less than 13.6% and their average recoveries was in the range of 77.8% and 88.6% for puerarin and was between 76.3 and 86.8% for daidzein, respectively. Conclusion: The validated method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic studies of puerarin and daidzein after oral administration of Gegenqinlian Decoction and Radix Puerariae extract. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed that puerarin and daidzein from Gegenqinlian Decoction were absorbed more effectively with slower elimination in rat plasma than that from Radix Puerariae extract. These results revealed that as far as the Radix Puerariae extract was concerned, it is very valuable to

  6. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Objective: Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. Materials and Methods: About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. Results: The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Conclusions: The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. SUMMARY Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r2) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error. PMID:27601848

  7. TOXICITY PERSISTENCE IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK, MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Instream toxicity tests using the larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata were conducted on Prickly Pear Creek, Montana waters to study toxicity persistence in a stream. The toxicity source was Spring Creek, a tributary of Prickly Pear...

  8. LEVEL III AND IV ECOREGIONS OF MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second edition of "Ecoregions of Montana" (2002) revises many ecoregion polygon assignments that appeared in the first edition (Woods and others, 1999). These changes were made after research in Idaho (McGrath and others, 2002) recognized the Idaho Batholith as a se...

  9. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: A Statewide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Furshong, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) is a staff development program created to stem school violence. Program components include summer institutes, site teams, ongoing technical assistance, interagency cooperation, program evaluation, information dissemination, and governance by the MBI council. MBI has expanded to include nearly 100 Montana…

  10. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1 Selway... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in...

  11. Secondary Disabilities among American Indians in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Julie Anna; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of incidence of secondary disabilities, completed by 75 disabled Native American adults on 3 Montana reservations, indicated fair to poor ratings for overall health and independence, high incidence/severity for problems of mobility and access, and problems with behavioral components, such as pain, fatigue, and depression. (SV)

  12. Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

  13. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  14. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  15. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  16. 40 CFR 81.417 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Montana. 2 Yellowstone National Park, 2,219,737 acres overall, of which 2,020,625 acres are in Wyoming... 88-577 USDA-FS U. L. Bend Wild 20,890 94-557 USDI-FWS Yellowstone NP 2 167,624 (3) USDI-NPS 1...

  17. 76 FR 12857 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... disposition of comments, and conditions of approval in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You... (Vol. 75, No. 192 FR 61366). In the same document, we opened the public comment period and provided an... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program...

  18. Montana Curriculum Guidelines for Distributive Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    These distributive education curriculum guidelines are intended to provide Montana teachers with teaching information for 11 units. Units cover introduction to marketing and distributive education, human relations and communications, operations and control, processes involved in buying for resale, merchandise handling, sales promotion, sales and…

  19. Montana Kids Count 1996 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This 1996 KIDS COUNT data book presents comparative data on child well-being for each county in Montana and for the state as a whole. Data in the county profiles, which comprise the bulk of the report, are grouped into: background facts (demographic, mental health, education, security, and income support information); charts showing changes in…

  20. Made in Montana: Entrepreneurial Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetting, Marsha A.; Muggli, Gayle Y.

    1988-01-01

    Reports results from a survey of 13 Montana home economists who each started a small business. Information is included on types of businesses the women had started, income, personal characteristics, reasons for starting a business, its impact on family concerns, marketing, obstacles to success, and resources. (CH)

  1. 76 FR 64047 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... program in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public...

  2. 78 FR 63911 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning Montana's program and program amendments... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 ; Docket ID: OSM-2013-0009... AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule;...

  3. Coach Education Online: The Montana Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Coach education is important, but expensive--both in cost and time to public and private athletic programs. To provide basic coach education to coaches, new, innovative, inexpensive approaches must be developed. Joint efforts between state high school associations and colleges and universities can meet those needs. The "Montana approach" is one…

  4. Glauconite from the precambrian belt series, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.; Goldich, S.S.; Thomas, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    Glauconite from the upper part of the Missoula Group of the Belt Series, Flathead County, Montana, has been dated at 1070 million years by potassium-argon and rubidium-strontium analyses. This is the first glauconite of Precambrian age reported in North America.

  5. Montana Labor Mobility Project-6716. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Employment Service, Helena.

    The report is concerned with the third labor mobility project of the Montana State Employment Service. As it had done previously, the project originally intended undertaking relocation of unemployed persons registered with ES offices throughout the state. However, a large layoff of copper miners in the State during the Spring of 1968 made it…

  6. Montana Proprietary Schools. Staff Report No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Commission on Post-Secondary Education, Helena.

    The current status of proprietary school education in Montana and the relationship between state-federal agencies and proprietary schools were studied. Data and information were collected via questionnaires, meetings, personal interviews, personal observations, and input from concerned individuals. Section 2 of the report shows the present status,…

  7. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  8. 75 FR 41557 - Montana Disaster #MT-00056

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... State of Montana (FEMA- 1922-DR), dated 07/10/2010. Incident: Severe storms and flooding. Incident Period: 06/15/2010 and continuing. Effective Date: 07/10/2010. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date... disaster declaration on 07/10/2010, Private Non- Profit organizations that provide essential services...

  9. Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates for the Graduating Class of 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report details the graduation rates for the class of 2003 for Montana High Schools. Sections include: Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rate Overview, and Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates, 2002-03 School Year.

  10. Use of macroinvertebrate biological integrity parameters for biocriteria: Comparison of streams in Montana and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Volosin, J.S.; Cardwell, R.D. |

    1995-12-31

    The effectiveness of cleaning up a zinc mine on the Eagle River in Colorado is being evaluated using biocriteria, among them indices of macroinvertebrate community integrity. One of the proposed approaches to biocriteria evaluation is based on statistical analysis of specific parameters of macroinvertebrate community integrity, and it is based on the hypothesis of no statistically significant differences between reference and target sites for the parameters evaluated. The abundances of mayfly families believed to be sensitive to metals is an example of one set of criteria. To test the approach and help identify appropriate parameters, two unimpeded streams downstream of a copper/silver mine in Montana were compared to the Eagle River sites. The authors tested the hypothesis that the candidate criteria would not detect significant differences between reference and target sites in the unimpacted Montana streams, yet would detect them in an impacted stream. In the Montana streams, no statistical differences were observed between reference and target sites for six biocriteria, including abundance of Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Ephemerellidae. For the same parameters, statistical differences were observed between reference sites and some of the target sites in the Eagle River. The parameters selected richness and total macroinvertebrates, and abundances of Plecoptera, Baetidae, Heptageniidae and Ephemerellidae can be used to evaluate macroinvertebrate integrity in the Eagle River. Furthermore, a statistical approach can be used.

  11. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  12. Supreme Court strikes down Montana's sodomy law.

    PubMed

    1997-08-01

    The Montana Supreme Court struck down the State's sodomy law and ruled that the law violates the State constitutional right to privacy. Until this ruling, all homosexual relations were labeled deviate sexual conduct, punishable by a $50,000 fine and 10 years in prison. No one had been prosecuted under the law since it was enacted in 1973, but its existence placed gay men and lesbians at risk of prosecution. The high court was not persuaded by the State's argument that the sodomy law was permissible because it prevented HIV infection and preserved public morality, largely because the law was enacted a decade before the first case of AIDS was reported in Montana. PMID:11364554

  13. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  14. The Montana Natural Resource Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Stimson, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The Montana Natural Resource Information System (NRIS) is a program created by the legislature to make sources of data and information on Montana's natural resource easily and readily accessible. The program serves business and industry, state and federal agencies, and private citizens by providing a clearinghouse and referral service to link data users with the best sources of information. In addition, NRIS helps coordinate among agencies and organizations that collect, manage, or use the same types of natural resource information to prevent duplication of effort and promote information sharing. The NRIS program consist of the following components: Natural Heritage Program, a computer-assisted inventory of Montana's biological resources emphasizing the locations of rare or endangered plant and animal species and biological communites; Water Information System, a program for locating all kinds of water resource information including data on surface water, groundwater, water quality, riparian areas, water rights, and climate data; Geographic Information System, which provides technical assistance for statewide GIS projects and to agencies developing in-house GIS capability and coordinates GIS data standards and sharing throughout the state; and Natural Resource Index, a geographical and subject area indexing system for existing data sources (published and unpublished sources).

  15. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R. A.; Johns, W. M.; Flood, R. E.; Hawley, K. T.; Wackwitz, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A detailed band 7 ERTS-1 lineament map covering western Montana and northern Idaho has been prepared and is being evaluated by direct comparison with geologic maps, by statistical plots of lineaments and known faults, and by field checking. Lineament patterns apparent in the Idaho and Boulder batholiths do not correspond to any known geologic structures. A band 5 mosaic of Montana and adjacent areas has been laid and a lineament annotation prepared for comparison with the band 7 map. All work to date indicates that ERTS-1 imagery is very useful for revealing patterns of high-angle faults, though much less useful for mapping rock units and patterns of low-angle faults. Large-scale mosaics of U-2 photographs of three test sites have been prepared for annotation and comparison with ERTS-1 maps. Mapping of Quaternary deposits in the Glacial Lake Missoula basin using U-2 color infrared transparencies has been successful resulting in the discovery of some deposits not previously mapped. Detailed work has been done for Test Site 354 D using ERTS-1 imagery; criteria for recognition of several rock types have been found. Photogeologic mapping for southeastern Montana suggest Wasatch deposits where none shown of geologic map.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel Isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate 3′-, 4′- and 7-O-methylated isoflavones and many of these methylated compounds exhibit various pharmacological activities. Either the 4′- or 7-O-methylation activity has been investigated at molecular levels in several legume species. However, the gene encoding the isoflavone 3′-O-methyltransferase (OMT) has not yet been isolated from any plant species. In this study, we reported the first cDNA encoding the isoflavone 3′-OMT from P. lobata (designated PlOMT4). Heterologous expressions in yeast and Escherichia coli cells showed that the gene product exhibits an enzyme activity to methylate the 3′-hydroxy group of the isoflavone substrate. The transcript abundance of PlOMT4 matches well with its enzymatic product in different organs of P. lobata and in the plant roots in response to methyl jasmonate elicitation. Integration of the biochemical with metabolic and transcript data supported the proposed function of PlOMT4. The identification of PlOMT4 would not only help to understand the isoflavonoid metabolism in P. lobata but also potentially provide an enzyme catalyst for methylating existing drug candidates to improve their hydrophobicity. PMID:27458460

  17. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD. PMID:25726582

  18. Acute effect of high-dose isoflavones from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi on lipid and bone metabolism in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Joon; Jun, Hee-jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Hoang, Minh Hien; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the acute metabolic effects of isoflavones from Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi (IPL) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. After 4 weeks of IPL feeding at 500 mg/day/kg body weight (OVX500), plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations were significantly higher (+25%, p < 0.05), whereas plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower in OVX mice (-15%, p < 0.05) compared with controls. Abdominal adipose tissue weight was marginally reduced in IPL-fed groups compared with OVX controls and the plasma levels of liver enzymes were unchanged. In addition, IPL significantly inhibited the reduction of bone mineral density in the femurs of OVX mice (OVX200, +22%; OVX500, +26%; p < 0.05) compared with controls after 4 weeks of IPL feeding. In quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis the expression of aromatase was significantly suppressed and SULT1E1 was increased by IPL feeding, showing that IPL feeding may not alter the risk for breast cancer in mice. Our results suggest that IPL could ameliorate menopausal symptoms in mice. Further studies will confirm the effects of IPL in humans. PMID:22422661

  19. Estrogenic effects of Pueraria mirifica on the menstrual cycle and hormone-related ovarian functions in cyclic female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Trisomboon, Hataitip; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the estrogenic effect of Pueraria mirifica (P. mirifica) on menstrual cycle length and hormone-related ovarian function. Nine normal cyclic monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were separated into 3 groups; each group was force fed with a single dose of 10, 100, and 1,000 mg of P. mirifica. The experimental schedule was separated into the pre-treatment and post-treatment periods. Blood samples were collected on days 3, 9 - 14, 19, 24, 29, and every 10 days until the next menstruation for one and two menstrual cycles during two consecutive periods and assayed for serum levels of gonadotropins and ovarian hormones. The result showed a significant increase in lengths of the follicular phase and total menstrual cycle in monkeys treated with 1,000 mg of P. mirifica, but no change in menstrual cycle length in monkeys treated with 10 and 100 mg of P. mirifica. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, or immunoreactive-inhibin did not change during the first and second menstrual cycles of the post-treatment period for all monkey groups. Our findings demonstrate that although changes in hormonal levels could not be observed in this study, a single dose of 1,000 mg of P. mirifica can disturb ovarian function and menstrual cycle in monkeys. PMID:14745118

  20. 76 FR 43259 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... in Billings, Montana. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and... Grad Montana Hotel and Convention Center, 5500 Midland Road, Billings, MT. Written comments should be sent to Babete Anderson, Custer National Forest, 1310 Main Street, Billings, MT 59105. Comments...

  1. Successful Strategies for Providing Online Credit Recovery in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazelle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This report examines common strategies used by six Montana schools that had high student passing rates in online credit recovery courses offered by the Montana Digital Academy (MTDA) in the 2013/14 school year. The study is based on analysis of interviews conducted with school-based facilitators who oversee the implementation of the online MTDA…

  2. Indian Education for All: Essential Understandings Regarding Montana Indians. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the year 1999, OPI [Montana Office of Public Instruction] brought together representatives from all the tribes in Montana and created 7 Essential Understandings. These are some of the major issues all tribes have in common. They form the basis for all of our curriculum efforts and initiatives. There is great diversity among the 12 tribal…

  3. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

  4. Resources for Teaching HERO: Food Service Occupations in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Angelina O.; Harris, Pamela R.

    This resource guide is designed to help home economics teachers in Montana to develop occupational programs for food service. It provides resources that can be used with the "Food Service Occupations in Montana: Scope and Sequence in Wage-Earning Home Economics." The guide contains 13 sections. The first section explains the core concepts for HERO…

  5. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  6. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  7. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

  8. Montana Slab Edge Insulation Analysis for IECC 2006 Adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan

    2007-05-01

    This is a letter report summarizing the energy analysis of slab insulation requirements which are no longer in IECC 2006 for Montana climate zone. Based on energy analysis using Equest, we calculated energy consumption and annual energy cost for various insulation configurations. This information will be used by the Montana Energy office during the upcoming code hearings.

  9. Resource Sharing in Montana: A Study of Interlibrary Loan and Alternatives for a Montana Union Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    This study recommends a variety of actions to create and maintain a Montana union catalog (MONCAT) for more effective usage of in-state resources and library funds. Specifically, it advocates (1) merger of existing COM, machine readable bibliographic records, and OCLC tapes into a single microform catalog; (2) acceptance of only machine readable…

  10. A Report on the Health of Montana's Infants. 1996 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report reviews principal adverse birth outcomes that affect the status of infants in Montana, including infant mortality and low birth weight. Statistics and brief summaries are provided in the following areas: (1) infant mortality (on the decline since 1989); (2) low birth rate (remaining steady from 1988 through 1992); (3)…

  11. 77 FR 38321 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  12. 78 FR 64531 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5128 or (406) 896-5009,...

  13. 78 FR 66379 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5123 or (406)...

  14. 77 FR 64125 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  15. 77 FR 34401 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  16. 77 FR 34063 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Thomas..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5125 or (406) 896-5009, tlaakso@blm.gov . Persons who...

  17. 77 FR 13620 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Blaise..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5128 or (406) 896-5009, bloderme@blm.gov . Persons...

  18. 76 FR 17443 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  19. 77 FR 34402 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Blaise..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5128 or (406) 896-5009, bloderme@blm.gov . Persons...

  20. 76 FR 44946 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  1. 76 FR 70163 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  2. 76 FR 76178 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (701) 227-7730 or (406) 896-5009,...

  3. 76 FR 41821 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  4. 77 FR 46109 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  5. 77 FR 12075 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Blaise..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5128 or (406) 896-5009, bloderme@blm.gov . Persons...

  6. 76 FR 53695 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  7. 76 FR 44947 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  8. 76 FR 72970 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009,...

  9. 77 FR 34402 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marvin..., Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5124 or (406) 896-5009, Marvin_Montoya@blm.gov ....

  10. Role and Scope of the Montana University System. Adopted June 25, 1979 by the Board of Regents, Montana University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education, Helena.

    The role and scope of the Montana University and postsecondary education system are described. It is explained that the primary goal of the Montana University System is to use as effectively as possible the resources available to it in providing high quality educational opportunities and service to the people of the state, encompassing the three…

  11. CHARLES M. RUSSELL WILDLIFE REFUGE, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Dudley D.; Miller, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Charles M. Russell Wildlife Refuge in Montana indicates that parts of the area have demonstrated resources of low-rank coal and bentonite in areas of substantiated potential and all of the area is assigned a probable resource potential for oil and gas because it is underlain by sedimentary strata known to contain hydrocarbons in other areas. Potential hydrocarbon accumulations, including both oil and gas, are difficult to delineate because of the absence of subsurface control points within the refuge. Geophysical surveys and directional drilling along the fringes of the wildlife refuge would aid in refining resource estimates for organic fuels. 1 ref.

  12. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF. PMID:26935150

  13. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Suthon, Sarocha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-04-01

    Although it has been clearly shown that Pueraria mirifica and its phytoestrogens can mimic estrogen in preventing bone loss, as osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease, the therapeutic effects of P. mirifica should be acknowledged. In this study, 6-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, kept for 4 weeks to induce bone loss, divided into five groups, and treated with P. mirifica at doses of 0, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day (PM0, PM5, PM25, and PM50 groups, respectively) or 7 mg/kg BW/day of puerarin (PU group) for 12 weeks. Only the trabecular bone mineral densities (BMDs) of tibia metaphysis (at the 12th, 14th, and 16th week) and total and trabecular BMDs of L4 (at the 16th week) of the PM50 group were significantly higher than those of the PM0 group. However, the BMDs of tibia metaphysis and L4 at the 16th week of the study period were kept significantly lower than those of the 0 week, and the BMD was also significantly lower than that of the 4th week for tibia metaphysis. The trabecular bone area (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) were significantly higher, and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in the PM50 group, as compared with those of the PM0 group. This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients. PMID:26815435

  14. Effects of Pueraria lobata Root Ethanol Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis During 3T3-L1 Differentiation into Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Myoung; Yoon, Mi Sook; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Pueraria lobata root ethanol extract (PLREE) on lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes by measuring the intracellular expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic markers and lipid accumulation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PLREE were 47 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The electron donating capacity of PLREE at 1,000 μg/mL was 48.8%. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 100, 250, or 500 μg/mL PLREE for 8 days dose-dependently promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the lipid content of PLREE-treated cells was significantly reduced by 7.8% (p < 0.05), 35.6% (p < 0.001), and 42.2% (p < 0.001) following treatment with 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL PLREE, respectively, as compared to differentiated control cells. PLREE upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and protein, and sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c mRNA levels, but did not affect CCAAT/enhancer binding-protein β and α mRNA levels. PLREE also downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and protein, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein, and leptin mRNA levels, but did not affect FAS mRNA expression. PLREE upregulated adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA and protein expression, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression, but did not affect HSL mRNA expression. In conclusion, we found that PLREE enhanced adipogenesis, but reduced lipogenesis, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:26191386

  15. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility. PMID:25069970

  16. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  17. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  18. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing-Hua; Cui, Tuan; Sun, Zhao-Lin; Huang, Fu; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lin; Feng, Qin; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE) on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs) activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro. PMID:23133491

  19. Breccia dikes from the Beaverhead Impact structure, southwest Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, P. S.; Hougen, S. B.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    While shatter cones are generally accepted as indicators of meteorite impact, older petrologic features are not widely recognized in the geologic community. Breccia dikes are one such feature. They are found in many large impact structures occurring over an area at least as extensively as shatter cones. Breccia dikes will survive moderate degrees of metamorphism and tectonism, unlike many other microscopic features (shocked quartz grains, high-pressure polymorphs, etc.) and even large-scale features such as annular or bowl-shaped topographic features. Thus, they are important diagnostic criteria, especially for large, poorly preserved impact structures. The Beaverhead Impact structure is a recently discovered, deeply eroded impact structure in southwestern Montana. The remains of the structure are delineated by the occurrence of shatter cones, found in an area greater than 200 sq km, occurring within the Cabin thrust plate, part of the Cretaceous Sevier fold and thrust system. The distribution of shatter cones is further truncated by Tertiary normal faults. The present remains represent an allochthonous fragment of a larger structure.

  20. 1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow County Courthouse (1910-1912) is on the left. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. 76 FR 44032 - Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households...

  2. 78 FR 45548 - Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households...

  3. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  4. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  5. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.

  6. FLINT CREEK RANGE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, George E.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Flint Creek Range Wilderness study area, Montana shows the presence of mineral deposits. By far the most important are low-grade, potentially large, contact-metamorphic tungsten deposits. A large stockwork molybdenum deposit is probably low in grade. The areas of these tungsten and molybdenum deposits have substantiated mineral-resource potential. A multimillion ton phosphate-rock deposit occurs in an area of substantiated resource potential in the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the south-central part of the study area. Deposits of massive quartz, perhaps suitable for smelter flux, a demonstrated resource. Small scattered silver- and gold-bearing veins are present, but no resource potential was identified.

  7. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geologic maps of four test sites were compiled at 1/250,000. Band 7 prints enlarged to 1/500,000 scale are the best for the purpose, and negative prints provide a valuable supplement. More than 100 mapped lineaments represent most of the major faults of the area and a large number of suspected faults, including many of northeast trend. Under ideal conditions dip slopes may be recognized, laccoliths outlined, and axial traces drawn for narrow, plunging folds. Use of ERTS-1 imagery will greatly facilitate construction of a needed tectonic map of Montana. From ERTS-1 imagery alone, it was possible to identify up-turned undivided Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata and to map the boundaries of mountain glaciation, intermontane basins, a volcanic field, and an area of granitic rocks. It was also possible to outline clay pans associated with bentonite. However, widespread recognition of gross rock types will be difficult.

  8. Clinical fascioliasis in domestic goats in Montana.

    PubMed

    Leathers, C W; Foreyt, W J; Fetcher, A; Foreyt, K M

    1982-06-15

    Fascioliasis (Fasciola hepatica infection) was diagnosed in a herd of domestic goats in Montana. Twenty-eight goats died after a month-long clinical course of anorexia, weight loss, depression, lethargy, and decreased milk production. Clinical laboratory findings included anemia, low hemoglobin content, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilia, and high hepatic enzyme activity. The livers of affected goats had extensive parenchymal necrosis, fibrosis, and biliary hyperplasia. Albendazole oral suspension (20 mg/kg) was used to treat 45 of the remaining goats twice, 30 days apart; 15 goats were untreated controls. Egg counts for the untreated group averaged 171 fluke eggs per gram of feces, which compared with less than 1 epg per gram for the treated group. Fifteen percent of the treated goats died, whereas 73% of the untreated goats died. On the basis of necropsy findings, albendazole treatment was regarded as greater than 99% effective against adult F hepatica. PMID:7096186

  9. 75 FR 36665 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... INFORMATION: This survey was executed at the request of the Program Manager, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Montana Area Office, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine the boundaries...

  10. 75 FR 36436 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... INFORMATION: This survey was executed at the request of the Program Manager, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Montana Area Office, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine the boundaries...

  11. 75 FR 47026 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... INFORMATION: This survey was executed at the request of the Program Manager, Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Montana Area Office, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine the boundaries...

  12. 76 FR 52968 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary L. ``Stan'' Benes, Central Montana District Manager, Lewistown Field Office, 920 NE. Main, Lewistown, Montana 59457, (406) 538-1900, gary_benes@blm.gov . Persons who use...

  13. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  14. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes. PMID:17390809

  15. 75 FR 41881 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, telephone (406) 896-5121 or (406) 896- 5009. SUPPLEMENTARY..., Division of Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-DN-P...

  16. 76 FR 37372 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana... Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Toth, Cadastral Surveyor, Branch of Cadastral Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive,...

  17. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana..., 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Josh Alexander, Cadastral Surveyor, Branch of Cadastral Survey, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive,...

  18. 76 FR 28065 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena... repatriate a cultural item in the possession of the Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT, that meets the... Territory, between 1884 and 1886. In 1892, Allen loaned it to the Montana Historical Society....

  19. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  20. 30 CFR 926.15 - Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments. 926.15 Section 926.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MONTANA § 926.15 Approval of Montana...

  1. 30 CFR 926.15 - Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Montana regulatory program amendments. 926.15 Section 926.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MONTANA § 926.15 Approval of Montana...

  2. 77 FR 42760 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting... Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on September 19, 2012, in Miles City, Montana. The meeting will start at 8:00...

  3. 78 FR 9417 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting... Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on March 6, 2013 in Miles City, Montana. The meeting will start at 8:00 a.m....

  4. 75 FR 67393 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior, Montana, Billings and Miles City Field Offices. ACTION... Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated...

  5. 75 FR 42125 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on August 26, ] 2010, in Miles City, Montana. The meeting will start... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council...

  6. 78 FR 47723 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council AGENCY... Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC... Road, Miles City, Montana, 59301, (406) 233-2831, mark_jacobsen@blm.gov . Persons who use...

  7. 78 FR 22557 - Notice of public meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of public meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting... Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas RAC will be... Montana/Dakotas District, 111 Garryowen Road, Miles City, Montana, 59301, (406) 233-2831,...

  8. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior, Montana, Billings and Miles City Field Offices. ACTION... Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated...

  9. Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses school fall Enrollment of Montana based on race/ethnicity for the 2003-2004 school year. Sections include: (1) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity Overview; and (2) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity-2003-04 School Year. Fall enrollment data are collected by school, grade, gender, and race/ethnicity…

  10. Montana Standards and Guidelines for Career and Vocational/Technical Education. Summer 2002 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This document presents Montana's standards and guidelines for career and vocational/technical education (CVTE). The guide begins with a directory of Montana's key CVTE personnel and specialists. Part 1 presents the federal and state definitions of CVTE and provides an overview of Montana's system for delivering CVTE and its philosophy regarding…

  11. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Montana, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, agriculture and precision farming, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, natural resources conservation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  12. Ecological Assessment of Streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P., Jr.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005-06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring. The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report. The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River

  13. Comparative polytene chromosome maps of D. montana and D. virilis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Päällysaho, Seliina; Vieira, Cristina P; Hoikkala, Anneli; Vieira, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Chromosomal inversion polymorphism was characterized in Finnish Drosophila montana populations. A total of 14 polymorphic inversions were observed in Finnish D. montana of which nine had not been described before. The number of polymorphic inversions in each chromosome was not significantly different from that expected, assuming equal chance of occurrence in the euchromatic genome. There was, however, no correlation between the number of polymorphic inversions and that of fixed inversions in each chromosome. Therefore, a simple neutral model does not explain the evolutionary dynamics of inversions. Furthermore, in contrast to results obtained by others, no significant correlation was found between the two transposable elements (TEs) Penelope and Ulysses and inversion breakpoints in D. montana. This result suggests that these TEs were not involved in the creation of the polymorphic inversions seen in D. montana. A comparative analysis of D. montana and Drosophila virilis polytene chromosomes 4 and 5 was performed with D. virilis bacteriophage P1 clones, thus completing the comparative studies of the two species. PMID:16906413

  14. Utilizing Paraeducators as Links to Their Communities: A Training Package for Use with Teacher/Paraeducator Teams and in the Pre-Service Training of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanson, Michael J.; Peterson, Michael D.; Sampson, Marsha; Hoagland, Tina

    To deliver training and continuing education for education personnel in a large rural state, Montana has decentralized its Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (CSPD) by forming five regional councils. The Montana Center on Disabilities developed a statewide training program for using paraeducators as liaisons to communities to enhance…

  15. Archean collisional tectonics in SW Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Mogk, D.; Rickmond, D.; Salt, K.; Clark, M.; Mueller, P.; Lafrenze, D.; Wooden, J.; Henry, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean continental crust of SW Montana evolved through alternating cycles of stable platform sedimentation followed by crustal thickening through collisional tectonics. The ancient sialic crust in the Beartooth Mountains served as the nucleus for accretion of younger terranes to the west. The oldest orogenic cycle recognized in the Beartooth Mountains involves a 3.4 Ga old supracrustal sequence which was metamorphosed in the granulite facies (T=700-800/sup 0/C, P=6Kb, 35/sup 0/C/Km); deep burial is interpreted as the result of collisional tectonic thickening. The second orogenic cycle is subduction related and has produced 2.8 Ga old andesites, 2.75 Ga old calc-alkaline intrusives, upper amphibolite grade metamorphism, transcurrent faulting (in the North Snowy Block and Yankee Jim canyon at 2.8 Ga) and nappe emplacement. In the central Beartooths post-orogenic granites intrude pelitic schists (T=600/sup 0/C, P=8Kb, 25/sup 0/C/Km). West of the Beartooths the basement consists of 2.75-2.70 Ga old, tectonically telescoped coarse clastics (Gallatin, Madison Ranges) and stable platform sequences (Gravelly, Tobacco Root, Ruby Ranges). Nappe formation and granulite-migmatite (700-750/sup 0/C) associations are common, suggesting deep burial through tectonic thickening. A later-kinematic mesozonal (8Kb) qtz diorite-granodiorite batholithic complex is present in the northern Madison Range. Quartzofeldspathic paragneisses in the westernmost Archean basement are derived from either a continental or island arc source.

  16. Education & Public Outreach in Montana, Supporting the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, H. D.; McKenzie, D. E.

    2005-05-01

    In the Space Public Outreach Team (SPOT) program at Montana State University (MSU), currently a major component of SDO Education and Public Outreach at MSU, the hallmark of the program has been the presentation of cutting-edge science regarding topics of current interest. The program, under the management of Montana Space Grant Consortium since 1996, is a proven way to bring the excitement of NASA space science investigations to primary and secondary schools, while simultaneously involving university students in E/PO. The program is remarkably cost-effective, useful as a service-learning device, and extremely popular. We will outline the mechanisms of the SPOT program, including the involvement of a diverse group of undergraduates, and its recent expansion to reach more of Montana's students.

  17. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  18. Plant water status relationships among major floodplain sites of the Flathead River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, L.C.; Hinckley, T.M.; Scott, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Water status measurements of dominant species from major floodplain plant community types of the North Fork Flathead River, Montana were used to test the accuracy of site moisture gradient relationships postulated from floristic ordinations and site water balance estimates. Analysis of variance tests showed significant differences among the average predawn xylem pressure potential (ψp) of species in several community types. However, additional analyses failed to indicate a significant degree of association between averaged predawn Yp measurements and either floristic ordination or site water balance results. Sixty eight percent of 22 trials comparing the diurnal average ψp of the same species in different community types on the same day were less negative for a species in the wetter community types as predicted by floristic ordinations. Similarly, 64% of the trials indicated that the diurnal average stomatal conductance was higher for a species in the wetter type. These results suggest that although a floodplain moisture gradient exists, it alone does not limit the distribution of floodplain plant communities in the North Fork.

  19. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, John B., Jr.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  20. Montana Partnerships for Rural Resource Teams Project Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This project manual from the Partnerships for Rural Resource Teams Project, a project designed to build upon the foundation of services for children and youth with deaf-blindness in Montana, opens with guiding principles of the project and a description of the types of available services. Grounded in a framework that draws upon the principles of…

  1. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: Student Results and System Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Bailey-Anderson, Susan; Dotter, Susan

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) was developed in 1995 in response to increased incidents of student behavior problems. The intent of MBI is to improve educational environments to meet the needs of all students, including those with behavioral challenges. Each participating school conducts needs assessments and develops site-specific goals…

  2. Montana's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences. State Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuit, David A.; Springer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the economic and social costs of the high school dropout problem in Montana from the perspective of a state taxpayer. The majority of the authors' analysis considers the consequences of this problem in terms of labor market, tax revenue, and public service costs. In quantifying these costs, the authors seek to inform public…

  3. Montana's Indian Education for All: Applying Multicultural Education Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carjuzaa, Jioanna; Jetty, Mike; Munson, Michael; Veltkamp, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Montana's constitutional commitment to the cultural heritages of American Indians exemplifies the practical application of multicultural education. In this article, the authors explore the goals and evolution of Indian Education for All within a multicultural education framework, and discuss how educators are best prepared to implement this…

  4. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Montana. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

  5. 75 FR 43537 - Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance...

  6. Regional assemblages of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Montana canola fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fi...

  7. 76 FR 54521 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00062

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA-1996-DR), dated 07/26/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding. Incident Period: 04/03/2011 through 07/22/2011. Effective Date: 08/24/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 09/26/2011. EIDL Loan Application Deadline Date:...

  8. Montana CETA Field Learning Program. Fiscal Year 1980. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooden, Richard E.

    Evaluation of the CETA/EBCE (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act/Experience Based Career Education) Field Learning Program at eight sites in Montana showed the program to be successful in helping high school students explore careers. The system was generally successful in achieving program outcome objectives: varied types of students were…

  9. Off-Farm Agricultural Occupations in Montana: Employment and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Donald S.

    Data were obtained by interview with managers in a random sample of 161 businesses in 10 selected Montana trade and service centers to (1) identify present and emerging off-farm agricultural occupations, (2) estimate present and anticipated numbers of employees, (3) estimate annual entry opportunities, (4) determine needed competencies, and (5)…

  10. Information-Related Competencies for Montana Extension Service Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawasaki, Jodee Lynn

    Information-related competencies and training needed by professionals in the Montana Extension Service in order to acquire and disseminate information to clients electronically were studied in a needs assessment of administrators, specialists, and extension agents. An e-mail survey listing 37 competencies was completed by 96 extension agents and…

  11. Economic Costs and Benefits of Lifelong Learning in Livingston, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, John C.

    A Livingston, Montana, study on lifelong learning was conducted in two parts. The first part gathered data about the following: (1) what respondents had learned in the previous 12 months; (2) their sources of information and how they rated them; (3) why they initiated learning activities; (4) economic costs and benefits; (5) what they might like…

  12. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ..., 715e, 715f-r). The Federal money used to acquire conservation easements is from the Land and Water... Conservation Stamp Act (16 U.S.C. 718-718j, 48 Stat. 452)]. Additional funding to acquire lands, water, or... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana AGENCY: Fish...

  13. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

  14. 76 FR 17817 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Forest Service Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Custer and Gallatin National Forest's Resource Advisory Committee will meet... committee members, replacement members and Forest Service personnel. (2) Selection of a chairperson by...

  15. 76 FR 59479 - Montana Disaster Number MT-00062

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster Number MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  16. Montana Kids Count Data Book and County Profiles, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This Kids Count report is the second to examine statewide trends in the well-being of Montana's children. The statistical portrait is based on 16 indicators of well-being: (1) low birthweight; (2) infant mortality; (3) child death; (4) teen violent death; (5) Medicaid participation; (6) school enrollment; (7) public school enrollment in Chapter 1…

  17. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  18. Space Radar Image of Rocky Mountains, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of the eastern front range of the Rocky Mountains, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of Great Falls, Montana. The image was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful to scientists because they show the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking south-southeast. Along the right edge of the image is the valley of the north fork of the Sun River. The western edge of the Great Plains appears on the left side. The valleys in the lower center, running off into the plains on the left, are branches of the Teton River. The highest mountains are at elevations of 2,860 meters (9,390 feet), and the plains are about 1,400 meters (4,500 feet) above sea level. The dark brown areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown, orange and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are the differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 47.7 degrees north latitude and 112.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a

  19. A Study of Programs and Services: An Action Report. Montana State Dissemination Worksessions, Office of Public Instruction (Helena, Montana, November and December 1979 and January 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Input into the design, content, and development of a comprehensive resource tool--the Montana Educational Resources and Services notebook--was provided by the 16 members of a planning team made up of Office of Public Instruction (OPI) managers and consultants, selected Montana educators, and Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory Dissemination…

  20. Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  1. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  2. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  3. Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  4. The Media in Montana: Its Effects on Minorities and Women. A Report Prepared by the Montana Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norma; And Others

    Montana's Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights investigated the effects of Montana's television and newspaper media on minorities and women. Focus was on the employment opportunities in and the images projected by the media. Interviews were conducted with management and staff of newspapers, news services, and television…

  5. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:26319677

  6. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  7. Identification of the absorptive constituents and their metabolites in vivo of Puerariae Lobatae Radix decoction orally administered in WZS-miniature pigs by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-Le; Wang, Ying-Feng; Yang, Dong-Hui; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Liang, Jing; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) was used to analyze and identify the absorptive constituents and their metabolites in drug-containing urine of Wuzhishan (WZS)-miniature pigs administered with Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR) decoction. With the accurate mass measurements (<5 ppm) and effective MS(2) fragment ions, 96 compounds, including eight original constituents and 88 metabolites, were identified from the drug-containing urine. Among these, 64 metabolites were new ones and their structures can be categorized into five types: isoflavones, puerols, O-desmethylangolensins, equols and isoflavanones. In particular, puerol-type constituents in PLR were first proved to be absorptive in vivo. Meanwhile, the metabolic pathways of PLR in vivo were investigated. On the basis of relative content of the identified compounds, 13 major metabolites accounting for approximately 50% of the contents, as well as their corresponding 12 prototype compounds, were determined as the major original absorptive constituents and metabolites of PLR in vivo. The HPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS technique proved to be powerful for characterizing the chemical constituents from the complicated traditional Chinese medicine matrices in this research. PMID:23760803

  8. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ping; Xu, Youdong; Meng, Xianli; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  9. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy. PMID:20718648

  10. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  11. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  12. Evaluation of a hydrothermal anomaly near Ennis, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.B.; Wood, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Ennis Hot Spring has a temperature of about 83{degrees} C and issues from valley fill in southwestern Montana. Maps and diagrams illustrating the results of test drilling and of geophysical and geochemical studies near this spring are included in the text. Discharge from Ennis Hot Spring, and from a flowing test hole in which temperature was 94{degrees} C in fractured gneiss, consists mainly of meteoric water heated to at least 165{degrees}C during circulation in deep fracture zones.

  13. Uses, funding, and availability of continuous streamflow data in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shields, R.R.; White, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study of the uses, funding, and availability of continuous streamflow data collected and published by the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana. Data uses and funding sources are identified for the 218 continuous streamflow gages currently (1984) being operated. These stations are supported by 18 different funding sources at a budget for the 1984 water year of $1,065,000. The streamflow-gaging program in Montana has evolved through the years as Federal, State, and local needs for surface-water data have increased. Continuous streamflow records for periods ranging from less than 1 year to more than 90 years have been collected. This report describes phase 1 of a cost-effectiveness study of the streamflow-gaging program in Montana. Evaluation of the program indicates that numerous agencies use the data for studies involving regional hydrology, hydrologic systems, and planning and design. They also use the data for operations of existing hydroelectric and irrigation dams, forecasting flood and seasonal flows, water-quality monitoring, research studies for fish habitat, and other uses such as recreational management. (USGS)

  14. Assessment of Logging Residue in Montana : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, James O.; Fiedler, Carl E.

    1983-05-31

    This study addresses the need for a data base with the capability to provide information on residue volume and characteristics for any location in Montana. Gaps in existing data sources made clear the need for development of a logging residue data base for Montana. The first objective of this study was to develop analytical tools for estimating the volume of logging residue for any uniquely defined supply zone in Montana. Ratios developed in this study relate residue volume to both timber harvest volume and acreage. One ratio gives the cubic foot volume of residues associated with the harvest of 1000 board feet of timber (CF/MBF). The other ratio provides an estimate of cubic foot volume of residue per acre harvested (CF/AC). The second objective was to describe and classify residue by characteristics that affect utilization. Characterization of residue was by: gross and net volume of logging residue by diameter and length, for live and dead or cull material; number of pieces of residue per acre, by diameter and length; volume of residue by percent sound (chippability), in cubic feet per acre; accessibility of residue on cutover areas, by slope and distance to road; and volume by product potential class. 15 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Relation between largest known flood discharge and elevation in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Holnbeck, Stephen R.

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies relating unit discharge to elevation indicated that large floods in the Rocky Mountains may be limited by elevation. However, high-elevation data are sparse in Montana and the indications may not be entirely correct. Based on data at 19 sites in Montana, a strong log-linear relation exists between large-flood discharge and drainage area. The use of unit discharge (peak discharge divided by drainage area) to compare flood magnitude from site to site may thus be biased and tend to overstate flood magnitude for small basins. Removal of the bias by use of a revised unit discharge (peak discharge divided by drainage area raised to the 0.16 power) results in no apparent relation between revised unit discharge and elevation in two areas of Montana. However, because of a paucity of data, the magnitude of revised unit discharge at elevations greater than 1,650 m is largely unknown. Additional data and research are needed to resolve questions about mountain flood hydrology.

  16. 77 FR 49775 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Wisdom and Wise River Ranger Districts; Montana; North and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks (FWP). This project is not a... Agreement (CLGMA) with Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks (FWP). There would be no changes or additions...

  17. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  18. 77 FR 33390 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest; Montana; Supplemental EIS for the Beaverhead-Deerlodge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest; Montana; Supplemental EIS for the Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan To Comply With District of Montana Court Order AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a supplemental environmental...

  19. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and middle…

  20. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  1. 77 FR 31873 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council AGENCY... of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will... River and Arrow Creek reserved water rights; district managers' updates; fire program updates; and...

  2. 76 FR 70163 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... City ] and Billings Field Office manager updates, council member briefings, work sessions and other... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Montana, Billings and Miles City Field Offices, Bureau of Land Management, Interior....

  3. 75 FR 3489 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting... Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on March 4, 2010, in Billings, MT. The meeting will...

  4. Montana High School Dropout Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2002-03 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The Montana School Accreditation Standards (10.55.603, ARM) require schools to do follow-up studies of graduates and students no longer in attendance, therefore, dropout data is collected from all public and accredited (by the Montana Board of Public Education) nonpublic schools. Each fall, schools report dropout data for grades 7 through 12 by…

  5. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

  6. 75 FR 59741 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... including your address, phone number, e-mail address, or other personal identifying information in your...), approximately 18,760 acres of public land located in Broadwater County, Montana, from settlement, sale, location... land located in Broadwater County, Montana, from settlement, sale, location and entry under the...

  7. 75 FR 31812 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Superintendent, Fort Peck Agency, through the Rocky Mountain Regional Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and was... Meridian, Montana T. 28 N., R. 53 E. The plat, in 1 sheet, representing the dependent resurvey of portions... Meridian, Montana, was accepted May 25, 2010. We will place a copy of the plat, in 1 sheet, and...

  8. The Vanishing Breed? The 2006-2007 Montana Rural Teacher Salary and Benefit Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, as the Director of the Montana Rural Education Center at the University of Montana-Western, the author undertook the first comprehensive study of rural teachers' salaries and benefits in the state. This study is the fourth in fourteen years. Not only does it provide a clear picture of the salaries and working conditions of the…

  9. 77 FR 7531 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...EPA is taking final action to partially approve and partially disapprove State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions and new rules as submitted by the State of Montana on June 25, 2010 and May 28, 2003. The revisions contain new rules in Subchapter 7 (Permit, Construction, and Operation of Air Contaminant Sources) that pertain to the issuance of Montana air quality permits, in addition to other......

  10. 76 FR 59338 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...EPA is proposing to partially approve and partially disapprove State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions submitted by the State of Montana on June 25, 2010 and May 28, 2003. The revisions contain new and amended rules in Subchapter 7 (Permit, Construction, and Operation of Air Contaminant Sources) that pertain to the issuance of Montana air quality permits, in addition to other minor......

  11. Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates for the Graduating Class of 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Montana School Accreditation Standards require schools to do follow-up studies of graduates and students no longer in attendance, therefore, dropout and graduate data is collected from all public and accredited (by the Montana Board of Public Education) non-public schools. Dropout data can be used in conjunction with graduate data to build a…

  12. Montana Statewide Dropout and Graduate Report: 2004-05 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Montana School Accreditation Standards (10.55.603, ARM) require schools to do follow-up studies of graduates and students no longer in attendance. This report provides information on students who graduated or dropped out of Montana public, state-funded and nonpublic, accredited schools during the 2004-05 school year. Students who drop out of…

  13. Simultaneous determination of ten active components in traditional Chinese medicinal products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qi; Sun, Lan; Zhao, Run-Huai; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to facilitate the quality control of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a new and simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 10 active components in these products has been developed. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C(18) column eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid in water and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile with gradient elution. The eluent was monitored by a photodiode array UV detector at a wavelength of 250 nm for Gegen components including puerarin, daidzein 8-C-apiosyl-glucoside, daidzin and daidzein, and at 270 nm for Danshen components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIa. Excellent chromatographic separation was achieved for all studied compounds with good linearity (r(2)> 0.999) over the studied concentration ranges. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of the 10 studied compounds in commercially available products containing both Gegen and Danshen. The TCM product samples were extracted by sonication with a mixture of methanol:water (80:20) containing 0.5% acetic acid. Extraction recoveries for all studied compounds were in the range of 96.01-106.18%. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 7.25 and 5.44%, respectively, for all studied compounds. The developed method has not only proved to be effective in the simultaneous determination of the 10 components, but also provides a convenient quality control approach for TCM products containing both Gegen and Danshen. PMID:18438756

  14. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4′,7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4′-O-mono-glucosides, and 4′,7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4′-O- and 4′,7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4′,7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4′ and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4′-O-glucosides and 4′,7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  15. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Iso)flavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Rongyan; Li, Jia; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although, isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs) have been well-characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes, or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2) governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (iso)flavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes. PMID:27066037

  16. Algal and Water-Quality Data for the Yellowstone River and Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Streams of the Yellowstone River Basin in Montana and Wyoming were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Algal communities were sampled in 1999 in conjunction with other ecological sampling and in 2000 during synoptic sampling. Water-quality measurements related to the algal sampling included light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Sites were sampled on the main-stem Yellowstone River, major tributaries such as the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and the Bighorn River, and selected minor tributaries. Some of the data collected, such as the phytoplankton chlorophyll-a data, were referenced or summarized in previous U.S. Geological Survey reports but were not previously published in tabular form, and therefore are presented in this report, prepared in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Data presented in this report include chlorophyll-a concentrations in phytoplankton and periphyton samples, as well as light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen production data from 1999-2000.

  17. A Kindergarten Teacher Bringing Science to a Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Becky; Galindo, Ed; Shockey, Tod

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored professional development of educators in the NASA Summer of Innovation (SOI) program. The Idaho, Montana, and Utah (IMU-SOI) program worked with educators and students from thirteen Native American communities. The summer sessions were focused on problem based learning and…

  18. State Educational Policies and the Mission of Rural Community Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Thomas E.

    Any conclusions that community education concepts are "alive and well" were not supported in a study of the impact of state education policies on rural school districts with total enrollments of 350 students or less in the Great Plains Region (Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota). Survey instruments were…

  19. Montana's Coalbed Methane Ground-Water Monitoring Program: Year One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, J. R.; Smith, M.; Donato, T. A.; Bobst, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tertiary coal seams in the Powder River Basin in southeastern Montana provide three very important resources: ground water, coal, and natural gas. Ground water from springs and wells is essential for the local agricultural economy. Because coal seams in the Fort Union Formation have higher hydraulic conductivity values and are more continuous than the sandstone units, they are the primary aquifers in this region. Coalbed methane (CBM) production is beginning in the Powder River Basin, and requires removal and management of large quantities of water from the coal-seam aquifers. The extensive pumping required to produce the methane is expected to create broad areas of severe potentiometric decline. The Montana CBM ground-water monitoring program, now in place, is based on scientific concepts developed during more than 30 years of coal-mine hydrogeology research. The program includes inventories of ground-water resources and regular monitoring at dedicated wells and selected springs. The program is now providing baseline potentiometric and water-quality data, and will continue to be active through the duration of CBM production and post-production ground-water recovery. An extensive inventory of ground-water resources in the Montana portion of the Powder River Basin has located 300 springs and 21 wells on private land, and 460 springs and 21 wells on U. S. Forest Service and U. S. Bureau of Land Management land, all producing ground water from the methane bearing strata. In southeastern Montana, 134 monitoring wells are currently included in the CBM monitoring program. They are completed either in coal seams, adjacent sandstone units, or alluvium. During the coal boom of the 1970's and 1980's many monitoring wells were drilled, but most have been since unused. Thirty-six of these existing wells have now been returned to service to decrease start-up costs for the CBM program. This network of existing wells has been augmented at key sites with 26 new wells drilled

  20. Tectonic development of southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.A.

    1984-07-01

    The region of southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho, north of the Snake River plain and east of the Idaho batholith, has been affected by a complex sequence of orogenic events from the Proterozoic through Holocene time. Deposition of Proterozoic Belt Supergroup rocks and rocks of similar age in east-central Idaho occurred in basins that were clearly fault controlled. Many of these faults were reactivated repeatedly at later times and controlled or affected the development of younger tectonic features. This study encompasses the entire width of the Sevier orogenic belt in this part of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt. The thrust belt comprises several major eastward-transported thrust plates that are successively younger to the east. These plates juxtapose distinct stratigraphic packages that were deposited in eugeoclinal, miogeoclinal, and continental platform settings. As a consequence, the thrust plates can be distinguished on the basis of facies and thickness distribution as well as, to some extent, structural style. In southwest Montana, Sevier-type structures overlap with, and butt against, basement-involved Laramide structures. The extension of southwest Montana basement trends into Idaho suggests that this overlap may extend into east-central Idaho. Superimposed on these older structures are mid-Tertiary to Holocene normal faults that formed present-day basins and ranges. Many of these are reactivated older fault zones, some of which can be shown to have Precambrian ancestry. The region has excellent oil and gas potential, because reservoir and source rocks and trapping mechanisms are all clearly present. However, an understanding of the effect of overlapping tectonic elements is necessary to predict accurately where favorable rock packages are preserved.

  1. Cenozoic pull-apart basins in southwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, E.T. )

    1991-06-01

    Faults and fault zones bounding the mountain ranges of southwest Montana commonly have been described as normal faults, and the region has been considered to be a northern extension of the Basin and Range. New geologic mapping suggests, however, that Cenozoic movements along most of the zones of steep faults in southwest Montana and in east-central Idaho have been strike-slip, and the intermontane basins appear to be pull-aparts. The principal fault zones trend about north, northwest, east, and north-northeast; the north-trending zones are Cenozoic in age, but the others are of Archean ancestry and are rooted in basement rocks. These faults break the region into rhomboidal mountain blocks separated by broad basins with parallel sides. The basins are as much as 5,000 m deep, and their floors are deeply indented by centers of subsidence wherre they are crossed by major fault zones. The basins are floored by Archean or Proterozoic rocks and are filled with tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of late Oligocene to late Miocene age. The Big Hole basin and the smaller basins in upper Grasshopper Creek and Horse Prairie are interpreted to be pull-aparts between zones of east-trending right-lateral faults. The cratonic basins farther east in southwest Montana are interpreted to be basement-floored openings between mountain blocks that have been separated by subcrustal flow to the northwest. The interpretations suggest that significant accumulations of oil or gas are not likely to be found in this region.

  2. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger-scale process

  3. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  4. MIDDLE MOUNTAIN-TOBACCO ROOT ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Cather, Eric E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the northern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana determined that the area included in or enclosed by the Middle Mountain-Tobacco Root Roadless Area contains serveral areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineralized areas are located in or adjacent to intrusive rocks of Late Cretaceous age. Mineral resources are probably of three types: disseminated and stockwork copper and molybdenum in porphyry-type deposits; gold-silver-quartz veins; and gold-bearing silicified zones. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  5. How Montana's deepest hole cut Mississippian carbonates underneath Precambrian belt

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.H.; Nims, R.C. )

    1992-08-03

    This paper discusses the Unocal i-B30 Federal Canyon Creek well drilled in the Montana thrust belt about 27 miles northwest of Helena to test Mississippian carbonates in a seismic structure in the footwall of the Eldorado thrust. The well penetrated more than 12,000 ft of thrusted Precambrian belt metasedimentary rocks before encountering a faulted and fractured footwall section of Cretaceous through Mississippian shales, sandstones, and carbonates. The 1-B30 well demonstrated that a more complex duplex structure was present under the Eldorado thrust and that the Madison was deeper than anticipated with a true vertical depth of 16,688 ft.

  6. Bioactive constitutents from the stems of Annona montana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y C; Chang, G Y; Ko, F N; Teng, C M

    1995-04-01

    Three structurally related acid amides, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (1), N-p-coumaroyltyramine (2), and N-trans-caffeoyltyramine (3), one lignan, (-)-syringaresinol (4), one aromatic aldehyde, syringaldehyde (5), and two steroids, beta-sitosterol and beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside were isolated from the stem parts of Annona montana (Annonaceae). N-trans-Caffeoyltyramine (3) is a new natural compound. These compounds and their acetate derivatives were subjected to the antiplatelet aggregation and cytotoxicity bioassay where some of them showed significant activities. PMID:7753921

  7. BIG SNOWIES WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey determined that the Big Snowies Wilderness study area in Montana had little promise for the occurrence of mineral or fossil fuel resources. This assessment was based on consideration of geologic environments where minerals and fossil fuels might be expected, on geochemical and geophysical surveys of the study areas, and on examination of claims and prospects. Seismic-reflection studies across the Big Snowy anticline are recommended to better assess the nature and magnitude of offset along the faulted southern flank of the anticline. Discovery of a large offset would place strata and structures favorable for oil and gas beneath the southern part of the study areas.

  8. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, Jordan J.; Boyd, Jennifer N.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plant species and overabundant herbivore populations have the potential to significantly impact rare plant species given their increased risk for local extirpation and extinction. We used interacting invasive species removal and grazer exclusion treatments replicated across two locations in an occurrence of rare Scutellaria montana (large-flowered skullcap) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, to assess: 1) competition by invasive Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) and 2) the role of invasive species in mediating Oedocoilus virginianus (white-tailed deer) grazing of S. montana. Contrary to our hypothesis that invasive species presence would suppress S. montana directly via competition, S. montana individuals experienced a seasonal increase in stem height when invasive species were intact but not when invasive species were removed. Marginally significant results indicated that invasive species may afford S. montana protection from grazers, and we suggest that invasive species also could protect S. montana from smaller herbivores and/or positively influence abiotic conditions. In contrast to growth responses, S. montana individuals protected from O. virginianus exhibited a decrease in flowering between seasons relative to unprotected plants, but invasive species did not affect this variable. Although it has been suggested that invasive plant species may negatively influence S. montana growth and fecundity, our findings do not support related concerns. As such, we suggest that invasive species eradication efforts in S. montana habitat could be more detrimental than positive due to associated disturbance. However, the low level of invasion of our study site may not be representative of potential interference in more heavily infested habitat.

  9. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  10. Source rock potential of middle Cretaceous rocks in southwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S{sub 1}+S{sub 2}) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% R{sub o}. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% R{sub o}, and at Big Sky, Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% R{sub o}. At both localities, high R{sub o} values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  11. Agricultural land use mapping. [Pennsylvania, Montana, and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, A. D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Agricultural areas were selected or analysis in southeastern Pennsylvania, north central Montana, and southern Texas. These three sites represent a broad range of soils, soil parent materials, climate, modes of agricultural operation, crops, and field sizes. In each of these three sites, ERTS-1 digital data were processed to determine the feasibility of automatically mapping agricultural land use. In Pennsylvania, forest land, cultivated land, and water were separable within a 25,000 acre area. Four classes of water were also classified and identified, using ground truth. A less complex land use pattern was analyzed in Hill County, Montana. A land use map was prepared shown alternating patterns of summer fallow and stubble fields. The location of farmsteads could be inferred, along with that of a railroad line. A river and a creek flowing into the river were discernible. Six categories of water, related to sediment content and depth, were defined in the reservoir held by the Fresno dam. These classifications were completed on a 150 square mile area. Analysis of the data from Texas is in its formative stages. A test site has been selected and a brightness map has been produced.

  12. Relevance of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Puerariae lobatae Radix to Aggregation of Multi-Component Molecules in Aqueous Decoctions.

    PubMed

    Su, Bili; Kan, Yongjun; Xie, Jianwei; Hu, Juan; Pang, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0.019, 0.038, 0.075, and 0.30 g/mL, named G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4. In order of molecular aggregate size (diameter) the four kinds of solution were ranked G-1 < G-2 < G-3 < G-4 by Flow Cell 200S IPAC image analysis. A rabbit vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) model was set up and they were given Gegen decoction (GGD) at a clinical dosage of 0.82 g/kg (achieved by adjusting the gastric perfusion volume depending on the concentration). The HPLC fingerprint of rabbit plasma showed that the chemical component absorption into blood in order of peak area values was G-1 < G-2 > G-3 > G-4. Puerarin and daidzin are the major constituents of Gegen, and the pharmacokinetics of G-1 and G-2 puerarin conformed with the two compartment open model, while for G-3 and G-4, they conformed to a one compartment open model. For all four GGDs the pharmacokinetics of daidzin complied with a one compartment open model. FQ-PCR assays of rabbits' vertebrobasilar arterial tissue were performed to determine the pharmacodynamic profiles of the four GGDs. GGD markedly lowered the level of AT₁R mRNA, while the AT₂R mRNA level was increased significantly vs. the VBI model, and G-2 was the most effective. In theory the dosage was equal to the blood drug concentration and should be consistent; however, the formation of molecular aggregates affects drug absorption and metabolism, and therefore influences drugs' effects. Our data provided references for the rational use

  13. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Annual peak discharge from small drainage areas is tabulated for 336 sites in Montana. The 1976 additions included data collected at 206 sites. The program which investigates the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas in Montana, was begun July 1, 1955. Originally 45 crest-stage gaging stations were established. The purpose of the program is to collect sufficient peak-flow data, which through analysis could provide methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods at any point in Montana. The ultimate objective is to provide methods for estimating the 100-year flood with the reliability needed for road design. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Copper-silver deposits of the Revett Formation, Montana and Idaho: origin and resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, Thomas P.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    The Revett Formation of northern Idaho and western Montana contains major stratabound copper-silver deposits near Troy, Rock Creek, and Rock Lake, Montana. To help the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) meet its goal of integrating geoscience information into the land-planning process, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently completed a compilation of regional stratigraphy and mineralogy of the Revett Formation and a mineral resource assessment of Revett-type copper-silver deposits. The USGS assessment indicates that a large area of USFS-administered land in northwestern Montana and northern Idaho may contain significant undiscovered Revett-type copper-silver deposits.

  15. The Beaverhead impact structure, SW Montana and Idaho: Implications for the regional geology of the western U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Fiske, P.S.; Hargaves, R.B.

    1994-03-17

    The Beaverhead impact structure in SW Montana and Idaho is an allochthonous fragment of a large impact structure ({approximately} 100 km diameter) that was transported some distance eastward during the Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. It is the first tectonic fragment of a large impact structure identified in the geologic record. The present evidence for impact consists of shatter cones, pseudotachylites, and planar deformation features in quartz. The age of the impact is not well constrained but is estimated to be Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (1000-500 Ma). The Beaverhead impact event must have created other features that may be preserved, elsewhere in western Montana and Idaho. These include proximal and distal ejecta (which may be misinterpreted as diamictites and/or tuff horizons) and other fragments of the crater floor containing shatter cones and pseudotachylite. A large circular gravity, magnetic and topographic anomaly, which could be the root of the impact structure, has been identified near Challis, Idaho. An enigmatic lithic tuff, identified in drill cores from the Challis area and an intraformational quartzite breccia in the Leaton Gulch area may be impact-related deposits, but no definitive evidence of shock metamorphism has been observed in these materials. The discovery of more pieces of the Beaverhead puzzle, as well as the recognition of other large impacts in the geologic record, are likely once the regional geologic community grows to accept the incidence of such events and becomes more familiar with the features of shock metamorphism in the field. To that end, the community of geologists in this area should integrate the Beaverhead structure into their research and teaching curriculum.

  16. Ecology and distribution of major diatom ecotypes in the southern Fort Union coal region of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Bahls, L.L.; Weber, E.E.; Jarvie, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    From 1975 through 1980, samples were collected to determine the ecology and distribution of the major diatom ecotypes in the southern Fort Union coal region of Montana. Altogether, 370 diatom samples and 289 concurrent water-quality samples were collected at 52 surface-water stations. Sixty-eight major diatom ecotypes were selected for identification on the basis that their percent relative abundance equalled or exceeded 10 following proportional counts of 300 to 400 frustules. Each major diatom ecotype is systematically described in terms of taxonomy and morphology, abundance, ecology, and distribution in the study area. Included are tables of 24 water-quality variables of biological significance for each ecotype. Illustrations and brief descriptions of representative specimens are included to document and facilitate identification. This information may be used to help establish water-quality criteria for the region's aquatic communities, to identify indigenous diatoms or diatom groups that are useful as water-quality indicators, and to provide a basis for an ecological classification of the various diatom associations in the study area. Many of the major diatom ecotypes are identified as having sufficiently narrow ecological amplitudes to be useful as indicators of dissolved solids, suspended sediment, and temperature. These are three of the water-quality variables most likely to be affected by surface mining and related activities. 48 references.

  17. Treatment of Cyanobacterial (Microcystin) Toxicosis Using Oral Cholestyramine: Case Report of a Dog from Montana

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Kelly A.; Alroy, Karen A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Oates, Stori C.; Murray, Michael J.; Miller, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    A two and a half year old spayed female Miniature Australian Shepherd presented to a Montana veterinary clinic with acute onset of anorexia, vomiting and depression. Two days prior, the dog was exposed to an algal bloom in a community lake. Within h, the animal became lethargic and anorexic, and progressed to severe depression and vomiting. A complete blood count and serum chemistry panel suggested acute hepatitis, and a severe coagulopathy was noted clinically. Feces from the affected dog were positive for the cyanobacterial biotoxin, microcystin-LA (217 ppb). The dog was hospitalized for eight days. Supportive therapy consisted of fluids, mucosal protectants, vitamins, antibiotics, and nutritional supplements. On day five of hospitalization, a bile acid sequestrant, cholestyramine, was administered orally. Rapid clinical improvement was noted within 48 h of initiating oral cholestyramine therapy. At 17 days post-exposure the dog was clinically normal, and remained clinically normal at re-check, one year post-exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of canine cyanobacterial (microcystin) toxicosis. Untreated microcystin intoxication is commonly fatal, and can result in significant liver damage in surviving animals. The clinical success of this case suggests that oral administration of cholestyramine, in combination with supportive therapy, could significantly reduce hospitalization time, cost-of-care and mortality for microcystin-poisoned animals. PMID:23888515

  18. Treatment of cyanobacterial (microcystin) toxicosis using oral cholestyramine: case report of a dog from Montana.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Kelly A; Alroy, Karen A; Kudela, Raphael M; Oates, Stori C; Murray, Michael J; Miller, Melissa A

    2013-06-01

    A two and a half year old spayed female Miniature Australian Shepherd presented to a Montana veterinary clinic with acute onset of anorexia, vomiting and depression. Two days prior, the dog was exposed to an algal bloom in a community lake.Within h, the animal became lethargic and anorexic, and progressed to severe depression and vomiting. A complete blood count and serum chemistry panel suggested acute hepatitis, and a severe coagulopathy was noted clinically. Feces from the affected dog were positive for the cyanobacterial biotoxin, microcystin-LA (217 ppb). The dog was hospitalized for eight days. Supportive therapy consisted of fluids, mucosal protectants,vitamins, antibiotics, and nutritional supplements. On day five of hospitalization, a bile acid sequestrant, cholestyramine, was administered orally. Rapid clinical improvement was noted within 48 h of initiating oral cholestyramine therapy. At 17 days post-exposure the dog was clinically normal, and remained clinically normal at re-check, one year post-exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of canine cyanobacterial (microcystin) toxicosis. Untreated microcystin intoxication is commonly fatal, and can result in significant liver damage in surviving animals. The clinical success of this case suggests that oral administration of cholestyramine, in combination with supportive therapy, could significantly reduce hospitalization time, cost-of-care and mortality for microcystin-poisoned animals. PMID:23888515

  19. Health assessment for Montana Pole and Treating Plant, Butte, Montana, Region 8. CERCLIS No. MTD006230635. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Montana Pole and Treating Plant Site is on the National Priorities List. The 40-acre site is a former wood-treatment facility and is located in Butte (Silver Bow County), Montana. Operations consisted of preserving utility poles, posts, and bridge timbers with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and other related compounds. Preliminary on-site sampling results have identified PCP. In addition, polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in ground water. Preliminary off-site groundwater sampling was reported to have identified PCP. It was reported that dioxin was identified on-site. Various volatile organic compounds and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also reported. The site is considered to be of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of human exposure to hazardous substances. Direct contact with and inhalation of contaminated soil along with possible ingestion of and direct contact with contaminated groundwater are the likely exposure pathways. Off-site sampling of ground water, soil, and sediment, and air are necessary to determine the potential for adverse public health effects.

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Anaconda Smelter Site, Mill Creek, Montana (first remedial action), October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-02

    The 160-acre community of Mill Creek is located in Deerlodge County, Montana, immediately adjacent to the Anaconda Smelter NPL site. The community of Mill Creek has been contaminated for over 100 years with smelter emissions, fugitive emissions of flu dust at the smelter, and continued fugitive emissions emanating from adjacent highly contaminated soils. Settled flue emissions in the community of Mill Creek, from the now-defunct copper-smelting operation, contain arsenic, cadmium, and lead. Environmental siting of the community and biological testing of pre-school children, led EPA to conclude that contamination in the Mill Creek area poses an imminent and substantial endangerment to the health of individuals residing there. The primary contaminant of concern at this site is arsenic. Cadmium and lead are secondary contaminants of concern. The selected remedial action for the site includes: permanent relocation of all residents (8 homes) with temporary erosional stabilization of disturbed areas by establishing and maintaining a vegetative cover; demolition, consolidation, and storage.

  1. The Use of Community-Based Support To Effect Curriculum Renewal in Rural Settings. Rural Curriculum Handbook No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoops, Jack W.

    This report examines the use of community-based support to facilitate curriculum renewal efforts in small rural school districts. Interviews with educators from five school districts in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington describe three approaches to curriculum renewal: community-initiated approaches, state-directed reform efforts, and…

  2. Capacity Building and Community Resilience: A Pilot Analysis of Education and Employment Indicators before and after an Extension Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the effects of a quasinatural experiment in which 16 rural communities participated in public discussion, leadership training, and community visioning as part of an Extension program at Montana State University. Difference-in-differences methods reveal that key U.S. Census socioeconomic indicators either…

  3. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6861 (56 FR 26035 (1991)), which... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lonna Sandau, BLM Missoula Field Office, 406-329-1093, or Sandra Ward, BLM Montana...

  4. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Blackfoot travel planning area. Consistent with the Forest Service travel planning regulations, the resulting available public...

  5. UPPER YELLOWSTONE RIVER, MONTANA: MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION AND WATER ANALYSIS 1973-1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroinvertebrate and water chemistry samples were taken at seven stations in the Yellowstone River between August 1973 and August 1974. The stations were located between Gardiner and Laurel, Montana. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected on six, and water chemistry samples on...

  6. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Bellavite, Paolo; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions. PMID:25171757

  7. 75 FR 43199 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary L. ``Stan'' Benes, District Manager, Central Montana District Office, Lewistown, MT 59457, (406) 538-1900. Dated: July 15, 2010. Gary L. ``Stan'' Benes, District Manager. BILLING CODE...

  8. 75 FR 53687 - Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v... Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. (Complainant) filed a complaint against...

  9. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ..., Denver, CO 80202-1129. ] All documents relating to this determination are available for inspection at the...-1129, (2) Montana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Public Water Supply, 1520 East 6th...

  10. Summary of geothermal studies in Montana, 1980 through 1983. DOE final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sonderegger, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The geology, hydrology, and surface manifestations of geothermal systems in Montana are described by area. Water-quality information, tables of inventory and water analysis data for springs and wells, and a geothermal resource map are included. (MHR)

  11. 76 FR 29006 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-...

  12. 76 FR 21778 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-...

  13. 76 FR 63952 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... request of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to... Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS...

  14. 77 FR 12075 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... request of the Regional Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings, Montana, and... (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS...

  15. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  16. Dual high-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of minor and major constituents directly from the crude extract of Pueraria lobata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingrui; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Qinglei, Sun; Nyberg, Nils T; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2015-02-27

    The crude methanol extract of Pueraria lobata was investigated by dual high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition and radical scavenging profiling combined with hyphenated HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Direct analysis of the crude extract without preceding purification was facilitated by combining chromatograms from two analytical-scale HPLC separations of 120 and 600 μg on-column, respectively. High-resolution α-glucosidase and radical scavenging profiles were obtained after microfractionation of the eluate in 96-well microplates. This allowed full bioactivity profiling of individual peaks in the HPLC chromatogram of the crude methanol extract. Subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis allowed identification of 21 known compounds in addition to two new compounds, i.e., 3'-methoxydaidzein 8-C-[α-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 6″-O-malonyl-3'-methoxydaidzin, as well as an unstable compound tentatively identified as 3'-de-O-methylpuerariafuran. PMID:25679337

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  18. 76 FR 758 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...EPA is proposing to disapprove portions of revisions and new rules as submitted by the State of Montana on October 16, 2006 and November 1, 2006. Montana adopted these rules on December 2, 2005 and March 23, 2006 and these rules became State-effective on January 1, 2006. These revisions and new rules do not meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act and EPA's Minor New Source Review (NSR)......

  19. Antigenotoxicity of Roupala montana extract in the mouse micronucleus and comet assays.

    PubMed

    Francielli de Oliveira, Pollyanna; Acésio, Nathália Oliveira; Leandro, Luís Fernando; Cunha, Nayanne Larissa; Uchôa, Camila Jacintho de Mendonça; Januário, Ana Helena; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2014-01-01

    Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) is a typical savannah species and native to tropical South America that has a moderate mortality for adult forms of Schistossoma mansoni. Because this species has been little studied, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of R. montana extract on DNA damage induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in peripheral blood cells and liver of Swiss mice using the micronucleus and comet assay, respectively. R. montana dichloromethane extract was prepared from a stock solution (0.5 mg/mL) in 5% dimethyl sulfoxide in water. Animals received a single dose of different concentrations of R. montana (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage (0.5 mL/animal). For antigenotoxicity assessment, different concentrations of R. montana were administered simultaneously with MMS diluted in water (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; 0.3 mL/animal). Peripheral blood and hepatocyte samples were obtained 48 and 24 h after treatment, respectively. Results showed that R. montana administered alone indicated the absence of genotoxicity in the mouse micronucleus or comet assay. On the other hand, administration of different doses of R. montana concomitantly with MMS led to a significant reduction in frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and DNA damage, when compared to the group treated only with MMS. Further, for the micronucleus assay, the gradual increase of R. montana concentration led to a proportional increase in the reduction of genotoxicity induced by MMS, indicating a dose-response relationship. PMID:24099505

  20. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  1. Geophysical interpretations of the Libby thrust belt, northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleinkopf, M. Dean; with sections by Harrison, Jack Edward; Stanley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Interpretations of gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data, supplemented by results from two seismic reflection profiles and five magnetotelluric soundings, were used to study buried structure and lithology of the Libby thrust belt of northwestern Montana. The gravity anomaly data show a marked correlation with major structures. The Purcell anticlinorium and the Sylvanite anticline are very likely cored by stacks of thrust slices of dense crystalline basement rocks that account for the large gravity highs across these two structures. Gravity anomaly data for the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness show a string of four broad highs. The principal magnetic anomaly sources are igneous intrusive rocks, major fault zones, and magnetite-bearing sedimentary rocks of the Ravalli Group. The most important magnetic anomalies in the principal study area are five distinct positive anomalies associated with Cretaceous or younger cupolas and stocks.

  2. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Suekawa, H.S.; Merrick, D.; Clayton, J.; Rumba, S.

    1982-07-01

    The Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric data were evaluated, and anomalies were examined in the field. Fourteen uranium occurrences were noted in the study area. Only one environment, the phosphorites of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, is considered favorable for uranium deposition. The unfavorable environments include: limestones, sandstones, coal and carbonaceous shales, volcanics, Precambrian metamorphics, and Tertiary basins. Unevaluated areas include the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway and Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, where park service regulations prohibit detailed investigations.

  3. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies.

  4. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  5. SAPPHIRE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.A.; Bannister, D'Arcy P.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral studies located sulfide-bearing quartz veins with demonstrated metallic mineral resources in granitic and metasedimentary rocks in several parts of the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area and contiguous roadless areas, Montana. Mines and prospects contain demonstrated resources of gold, silver, lead, copper, and zinc. Gold-bearing placers occur downstream from each of these vein occurrences; most of the gold placers have a probable mineral-resource potential. A replacement body of sulfide minerals is present at the Senate mine adjacent to the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area. Around the Senate mine is an area of probable mineral-resource potential that extends into the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the study area.

  6. Channeling in Paleocene coals, northern Powder River basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Interpretation of 1,200 geophysical logs in the northern Powder River basin, Montana, reveals the paleodrainages influencing coal deposition during the deposition of the Tongue River member (Paleocene, Fort Union Formation). Four channels with associated crevasse splay deposits are recognized: (1) an east-west rosebud drainage near Colstrip, (2) a north-south wall channel near Birney, (3) a north-south Dietz drainage near Tongue River Reservoir, and (4) a north-south Anderson channel in the vicinity of Moorhead. These channels support the concept of a major northeast-flowing drainage system during deposition of the Tongue River Member. Identification of these channels serves as a guide to future coal exploration.

  7. Geology and ore deposits of the Philipsburg quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, William Harvey; Calkins, Frank Cathcart

    1913-01-01

    Philipsburg lies about midway between the eastern and western limits of the Rocky Mountain system, if the term be used in the broad sense prevailing in the United States. In the general latitude of Montana the system as defined by American usage is bounded on the west by the Columbia River basalt plain and on the east by the Great Plains. The western limit is fairly definite, but on the east there is no very definite line between the plains and mountains; the mountains are fairly continuous west and north of the Philipsburg quadrangle, but to the east and southeast mountains alternate with broad stretches of semiarid lowland. The quadrangle therefore overlaps the line between two physiographic provinces, one characterized by isolated mountain groups, of which the Flint Creek Range is the most westerly, and the other by more continuous elevations, of which the Sapphire Mountains are an example.

  8. Photosensitization of cattle in Montana: is Descurainia pinnata the culprit?

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Baker, D C; Lacey, J R; Brownson, R

    1989-06-01

    Recurrent photosensitization of cattle in Montana has been blamed on Descurainia pinnata, tansy mustard. Two feeding trials were conducted to determine if tansy mustard was phototoxic. Pen-fed cattle consumed 2.4 and 4.1 kg/hd/day of tansy mustard in the 2 trials, and no photosensitization was detected. Liver clearance of BSP was within normal limits, as were blood chemistry values for AST, CK and GGT. Field cases have confirmed that tansy mustard was present and grazed in pastures where affected animals have grazed. We suspect that other factors may be necessary to predispose cattle to photosensitization by tansy mustard, and future work will attempt to determine the cause of the photosensitization. PMID:2741309

  9. Assessment of selected ground-water-quality data in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.E.; Rogers, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-water-quality data for Montana in the U.S. Geological Survey 's computer data file WATSTORE were evaluated for nine geohydrologic units in part of the State east of the Rocky Mountains and for two geohydrologic units in the western mountainous part of the stated region. The availability of data for inorganic, trace, and organic constituents for each grouping of units was assessed. Median dissolved-solids concentrations for the groupings of units range from about 100 to 5,000 milligrams per liter. However, the number and distribution of data sites for some groupings of units wee inadequate to be representative of the aquifer as a whole. Concentrations of most trace constituents do not exceed Federal primary drinking-water standards, although exceptions occur. Few data were available for organic constituents. (USGS)

  10. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Montana Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  11. A strategy for fast screening and identification of sulfur derivatives in medicinal Pueraria species based on the fine isotopic pattern filtering method using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, De-an

    2015-09-24

    Sulfurous compounds are commonly present in plants, fungi, and animals. Most of them were reported to possess various bioactivities. Isotopic pattern filter (IPF) is a powerful tool for screening compounds with distinct isotope pattern. Over the past decades, the IPF was used mainly to study Cl- and Br-containing compounds. To our knowledge, the algorithm was scarcely used to screen S-containing compounds, especially when combined with chromatography analyses, because the (34)S isotopic ion is drastically affected by (13)C2 and (18)O. Thus, we present a new method for a fine isotopic pattern filter (FIPF) based on the separated M + 2 ions ((12)C(x)(1)H(y)(16)O(z)(32)S(13)C2(18)O, (12)C(x+2)(1)H(y)(16)O(z+1)(34)S, tentatively named M + 2OC and M + 2S) with an ultra-high-resolution mass (100,000 FWHM @ 400 m/z) to screen sulfur derivatives in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).This finer algorithm operates through convenient filters, including an accurate mass shift of M + 2OC and M + 2S from M and their relative intensity compared to M. The method was validated at various mass resolutions, mass accuracies, and screening thresholds of flexible elemental compositions. Using the established FIPF method, twelve S-derivatives were found in the popular medicinal used Pueraria species, and 9 of them were tentatively identified by high-resolution multiple stage mass spectrometry (HRMS(n)). The compounds were used to evaluate the sulfurous compounds' situation in commercially purchased Pueraria products. The strategy presented here provides a promising application of the IPF method in a new field. PMID:26423627

  12. Selenium speciation in radix puerariae using ultrasonic assisted extraction combined with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after magnetic solid-phase extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yupin; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli; Deng, Biyang

    2016-08-01

    A new method for determination of selenium species in radix puerariae was described. The method consists of sample enrichment with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and online detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium species were extracted using ultrasonic extraction system with a mixture of protease K and lipase. The SSA-SMNPs were used to enrich trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from lower selenium containing samples. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were observed as 0.0023, 0.0015, 0.0043, and 0.0016 ng mL- 1, respectively. The RSD values (n = 6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.5% and 0.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 1.3%. The linear concentration ranges for SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet and Se(VI) were 0.008-1000, 0.005-200, 0.015-500 and 0.006-200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment with the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of SeCys2, Se(IV), SeMet, and Se(VI) in radix puerariae were determined as 0.0140, 0.171, 0.0178, and 0.0344 μg g- 1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 95.6%-99.4% and the RSDs (n = 6) of recoveries were less than 1.5%.

  13. Drugs, money, and graphic ads: a critical review of the Montana Meth Project.

    PubMed

    Erceg-Hurn, David M

    2008-12-01

    The Montana Meth Project (MMP) is an organization that launched a large-scale methamphetamine prevention program in Montana in 2005. The central component of the program is a graphic advertising campaign that portrays methamphetamine users as unhygienic, dangerous, untrustworthy, and exploitive. Montana teenagers are exposed to the advertisements three to five times a week. The MMP, media and politicians have portrayed the advertising campaign as a resounding success that has dramatically increased anti-methamphetamine attitudes and reduced drug use in Montana. The program is currently being rolled out across the nation, and is receiving considerable public funding. This article critically reviews the evidence used by the MMP to claim that its advertising campaign is effective. The main finding is that empirical support for the campaign is weak. Claims that the campaign is effective are not supported by data. The campaign has been associated with increases in the acceptability of using methamphetamine and decreases in the perceived danger of using drugs. These and other negative findings have been ignored and misrepresented by the MMP. There is no evidence that reductions in methamphetamine use in Montana are caused by the advertising campaign. On the basis of current evidence, continued public funding and rollout of Montana-style methamphetamine programs is inadvisable. PMID:18686033

  14. Identifying priority chronic wasting disease surveillance areas for mule deer in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Gude, Justin; Anderson, N.J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that affects a variety of ungulate species including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). As of 2014, no CWD cases had been reported in free-ranging ungulates in Montana. However, nearby cases in Canada, Wyoming, and the Dakotas indicated that the disease was encroaching on Montana's borders. Mule deer are native and common throughout Montana, and they represent a significant portion of the total hunter-harvested cervids in the state. The arrival of CWD in Montana may have significant ecosystem and socioeconomic impacts as well as potential consequences for wildlife management. We used 18,879 mule deer locations from 892 individual deer collected during 1975–2011 and modeled habitat selection for 7 herds in 5 of the 7 wildlife management regions in Montana. We estimated resource selection functions (RSF) in a Bayesian framework to predict summer and winter habitat preferences for mule deer. We estimated deer abundance from flyover counts for each region, and used the RSF predictions as weights to distribute the deer across the region. We then calculated the distance to the nearest known infected herds. We predicted areas of high risk of CWD infection in mule deer as areas with densities above the median density estimate and within the lowest quartile of distances to known infected herds. We identified these areas, the southeast corner of Montana and the north-central border near Alberta and Saskatchewan, as priority areas for CWD surveillance and management efforts. 

  15. Early Tertiary Anaconda metamorphic core complex, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. M.; Lonn, J.D.; Lageson, D.R.; Kunk, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A sinuous zone of gently southeast-dipping low-angle Tertiary normal faults is exposed for 100 km along the eastern margins of the Anaconda and Flint Creek ranges in southwest Montana. Faults in the zone variously place Mesoproterozoic through Paleozoic sedimentary rocks on younger Tertiary granitic rocks or on sedimentary rocks older than the overlying detached rocks. Lower plate rocks are lineated and mylonitic at the main fault and, below the mylonitic front, are cut by mylonitic mesoscopic to microscopic shear zones. The upper plate consists of an imbricate stack of younger-on-older sedimentary rocks that are locally mylonitic at the main, lowermost detachment fault but are characteristically strongly brecciated or broken. Kinematic indicators in the lineated mylonite indicate tectonic transport to the east-southeast. Syntectonic sedimentary breccia and coarse conglomerate derived solely from upper plate rocks were deposited locally on top of hanging-wall rocks in low-lying areas between fault blocks and breccia zones. Muscovite occurs locally as mica fish in mylonitic quartzites at or near the main detachment. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum obtained from muscovite in one mylonitic quartzite yielded an age of 47.2 + 0.14 Ma, interpreted to be the age of mylonitization. The fault zone is interpreted as a detachment fault that bounds a metamorphic core complex, here termed the Anaconda metamorphic core complex, similar in age and character to the Bitterroot mylonite that bounds the Bitterroot metamorphic core complex along the Idaho-Montana state line 100 km to the west. The Bitterroot and Anaconda core complexes are likely components of a continuous, tectonically integrated system. Recognition of this core complex expands the region of known early Tertiary brittle-ductile crustal extension eastward into areas of profound Late Cretaceous contractile deformation characterized by complex structural interactions between the overthrust belt and Laramide basement uplifts

  16. Large-scale geometry of Montana thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J.W.; Dolberg, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    Regional plunge of a structural culmination in the Sawtooth Mountains, combined with seismic profiles and borehole data, show that the imbricated faults of the Montana Disturbed belt gather upward to merge into a duplex beneath a large thrust plate dominated by the Precambrian Belt Supergroup. The duplex formed after deposition of the Paleocene St. Mary River Formation. This thrust plate overlies the Lewis, Hoadley, El dorado, Steinbach, and related thrust faults and forms the main ranges of the Montana Rocky Mountains. The plate is shaped like a northeasterly tapering wedge; it is 3 to 4 km (10,000 to 13,000 ft) thick at its leading edge, but thickens to more than 25 km (15 mi) to the southwest. At its leading edge, the plate carries lower parts of the Belt supergroup, including the Greyson, Empire, and Spokane formations. These units and overlying parts of the Belt Supergroup thicken dramatically westward within the plate, and the older, very thick, metamorphosed Prichard Formation emerges along the Purcell and related anticlinoria. The plate forms a south-facing monocline along the Lewis and Clark line. The monocline is corrugated into a series of southeast-plunging en echelon folds of Late Cretaceous age and merges with the southern terminus of the Purcell anticlinorium. Along these folds, metamorphosed Belt strata of the plate plunge systematically beneath Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that are preserved in a regional structural depression at the foot of the monocline. Geometric constructions based on areal geology suggest that the monocline has 25 km (15 mi) of structural relief and overlies a major footwall ramp that continues northward beneath the Purcell anticlinorium. This footwall ramp corresponds to the depositional locus for the easterly tapering belt strata of the plate, suggesting a total northeasterly displacement of about 50 km (30 mi) for the plate.

  17. Hydrogeology of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D. )

    1993-04-01

    The Fort Peck Indian Reservation, which encompasses about 3,300 square miles in northeastern Montana, is characterized by three major types of terrain: Missouri River bottom lands, badlands, and topographically higher benchlands. The reservation lies on the western flank of the Williston Basin, a large, petroleum-rich structural depression in Montana, North and South Dakota, and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Structurally, the area is not complex, although the Poplar Anticline trends northwest through the central part of the reservation. The East Poplar Oil Field lies astride this structure and produces from the mississippian Madison Group. Geologic units that crop out in the reservation are the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Hell Creek Formation; the Tertiary Fort Union and Flaxville Formations; and Quaternary glacial and alluvial deposits. Most ground water is produced from alluvial deposits, glacial deposits, Flaxville Formation, Fort Union Formation, Hell Creek Formation, and Fox Hills Sandstone. Well depths range from about 15 to 300 feet below land surface; depth to water ranges from about 5 to 160 feet. Units deeper than the Fox Hills Sandstone are not important aquifers because of the underlying, thick Bearpaw Shale, and because the water is too mineralized for most uses. Background dissolved-solids concentrations of water from major aquifers is in the range of about 300 to 3,000 milligrams per liter. However, in the East Poplar Oil Field, water in the alluvial and glacial deposits has been contaminated near brine-disposal facilities; dissolved-solids concentration of water is as much as 114,000 milligrams per liter.

  18. Project Sunrise Proceedings Document. The Annual Montana Symposium on Early Education and the Exceptional Child (2nd, Billings, Montana, April 1-3, 1981.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kay P., Ed.; And Others

    Four keynote speeches and 14 sectional presentations comprise the proceedings of the April 1981 Montana Symposium on Early Education and the Exceptional Child. The first speech, entitled "The Yellow Brick Road--Does it Lead to Oz or Abyss?" by B. Fredericks, stresses the importance of gathering solid research evidence to demonstrate that early…

  19. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  20. Characterizing Erosion from Forest Roads in Western Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugden, B.; Woods, S.

    2005-12-01

    Unpaved roads are a primary sediment source in forested watersheds. Validation of erosion models and improvements to road management require measurements of road erosion rates. Obtaining these measurements is challenging because physically representative road plots may produce large quantities of runoff and sediment. We measured sediment yields from twenty 0.05 ha unsurfaced road plots in Belt Supergroup and glacial till parent materials of western Montana. Runoff and sediment from each plot was routed into a 30 cm diameter culvert at the foot of the plot, which drained into a 0.8 m3 (1.1 m x 0.9 m x 0.8 m) tub. The tubs were emptied and the mass of sediment weighed at the beginning of the snow free period and periodically after storms. The trap efficiency (the percentage of the total sediment yield trapped by the tubs) was determined by fitting five tubs with tipping buckets that measured the outflow, and a splitter device that collected a sample of the outflow water and suspended sediment. The calculated trap efficiencies ranged from 21% to 84% with a mean of 56%. The percentage clay content of the road tread was a significant predictor of trap efficiency (R2 = 0.85, p = 0.03), and this relationship was used to correct the measured sediment yields at the other plots. Annual sediment yields from the plots ranged from zero to 96.9 Mg ha-1y-1 over three years (2002-2004). Annual mean sediment yields ranged from 2.1 Mg ha-1 in 2003 to 9.9 Mg ha-1 in 2004 with an overall mean of 5.4 Mg ha-1y-1. These values are similar to sediment yields from older, lightly used, unpaved roads in basalt and sandstone in central Washington and in sedimentary parent materials on the Olympic Peninsula. However they are considerably less than sediment yields measured on roads in the granitic parent material of the Idaho Batholith and in other more erodible parent materials. Road erosion in western Montana is limited by low erodibility of the dominant parent materials and by limited summer

  1. Collective Bargaining Agreement between Western Montana College Faculty Association (Local 4323, MFT, AFT, AFL-CIO) and the Board of Regents of Higher Education, Montana University System, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Univ. System, Helena.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Board of Regents of Montana University System and Western Montana College Faculty Association, an American Federation of Teachers affiliate, covering the period July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition; dues deduction; dues checkoff;…

  2. Floodplain Vegetation Productivity and Carbon Cycle Dynamics of the Middle Fork Flathead River of Northwest Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakins, A. J.; Kimball, J. S.; Relyea, S.; Stanford, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    River floodplains are vital natural features that store floodwaters, improve water quality, provide habitat, and create recreational opportunities. Recent studies have shown that strong interactions among flooding, channel and sediment movement, vegetation, and groundwater create a dynamic shifting habitat mosaic that promotes biodiversity and complex food webs. Multiple physical and environmental processes interact within these systems to influence forest productivity, including water availability, nutrient supply, soil texture, and disturbance history. This study is designed to quantify the role of groundwater depth and meteorology in determining spatial and temporal patterns of net primary productivity (NPP) within the Nyack floodplain of the Middle Fork Flathead River, Northwestern Montana. We examine three intensive field sites composed of mature, mixed deciduous and evergreen conifer forest with varying hydrologic and vegetative characteristics. We use a modified Biome-BGC ecosystem process model with field-collected data (LAI, increment growth cores, groundwater depth, vegetation sap-flow, and local meteorology) to describe the effects of floodplain groundwater dynamics on vegetation community structure, and carbon/nitrogen cycling. Initial results indicate that conifers are more sensitive than deeper-rooted deciduous species to variability in groundwater depth and meteorological conditions. Forest productivity also shows a non-linear response to groundwater depth. Sites with intermediate groundwater depths (0.2-0.5m) allow vegetation to maintain connectivity to groundwater over longer periods during the growing season, are effectively uncoupled from atmospheric constraints on photosynthesis, and generally have greater productivity. Shallow groundwater sites (<0.2m) are less productive due to the indirect effects of reduced soil aerobic decomposition and reduced plant available nitrogen.

  3. Training the next generation of scientists: Modeling Infectious Disease and Water Quality of Montana Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Wyman, S.; Lamb, R.; Stevens, L.; Kerans, B.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences and the Barrett Foundation have established a scholarship program for undergraduate students. The Barrett Scholarship program, aware of the importance of developing research quantitative and writing skills for undergraduate students, provides scholarships to outstanding undergraduate students for environmental engineering research projects. The intent is to help retain student interest early in their undergraduate engineering careers when few of their first or second year classes have little engineering or real-world application. We focus on one Barrett research project, derived from a NSF Biodiversity and Infectious Disease grant, because of the multiple disciplines (engineering, ecology, biology) and education levels (spanning secondary to graduate) involved. In this research, students across three departments at two universities (University of Vermont, Montana State University) and one independent high school (Vermont Commons School) formed a cohesive collaboration with faculty members to identify different worm taxa of T. Tubifex. Whirling disease has had a severe impact on the native population of salmonids in the upper Madison River MT, USA, resulting in the death of most fish that contract the parasite. T. Tubifex is the intermediate host for Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease in salmonids. Samples collected from eight locations along the Madison River varied in the prevalence of whirling disease. The site-specific worm community structure has been measured and identified using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key to link worm communities to geochemical features (e.g. site elevation, slope, pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and percent of organic soil matter). Using a unique clustering algorithm, we group geochemical features to discriminate over a range of water quality gradients (i.e., “clean” to “dirty”). The link between

  4. Predicting Disease Risk, Identifying Stakeholders, and Informing Control Strategies: A Case Study of Anthrax in Montana.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lillian R; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases that affect wildlife and livestock are challenging to manage and can lead to large-scale die-offs, economic losses, and threats to human health. The management of infectious diseases in wildlife and livestock is made easier with knowledge of disease risk across space and identifying stakeholders associated with high-risk landscapes. This study focuses on anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, risk to wildlife and livestock in Montana. There is a history of anthrax in Montana, but the spatial extent of disease risk and subsequent wildlife species at risk are not known. Our objective was to predict the potential geographic distribution of anthrax risk across Montana, identify wildlife species at risk and their distributions, and define stakeholders. We used an ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of anthrax risk. We overlaid susceptible wildlife species distributions and land ownership delineations on our risk map. We found that there was an extensive region across Montana predicted as potential anthrax risk. These potentially risky landscapes overlapped the ranges of all 6 ungulate species considered in the analysis and livestock grazing allotments, and this overlap was on public and private land for all species. Our findings suggest that there is the potential for a multi-species anthrax outbreak on multiple landscapes across Montana. Our potential anthrax risk map can be used to prioritize landscapes for surveillance and for implementing livestock vaccination programs. PMID:27169560

  5. NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT): Professional Development for Montana K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Kathryn; McKenzie, D.; Des Jardins, A.; Key, J.; Kanode, C.; Willoughby, S.

    2012-05-01

    Piloted during the 2011-2012 academic year, the NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT) teacher workshop program has introduced five solar astronomy and space weather activities to over forty Montana K-12 teachers. Because many Montana schools are geographically isolated (40% of Montana students live more than 50 miles from a city) and/or serve traditionally underrepresented groups (primarily Native Americans), professional development for teachers can be costly and time consuming. However, with funding shared by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly EPO team and the Montana Space Grant Consortium, graduate student specialists are able to host the two-hour NEAT workshops on-site at the schools free of charge, and participating teachers earn two continuing education credits. Leveraging the existing catalogue of research-based NASA activities, the featured NEAT activities were chosen for their ease-of-use and applicability to Montana science standards. These include three advanced activities for older students, such as a paper plate activity for the June 5th, 2012 Transit of Venus, Kinesthetic Astronomy, and the Herschel Infrared experiment, along with two simpler activities for the younger students, such as Solar Cookies and the Electromagnetic War card game. Feedback surveys show that NEAT workshop participants were interested and engaged in the activities and planned on using the activities in their classrooms. With such positive responses, the NEAT program has been a huge success and can serve as a model for other institutions looking to increase their space public outreach and education.

  6. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts. PMID:19901399

  7. Climate change in Western Montana: local needles in the global haystack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. M.; Zaspel, C. E.; Hill, J.

    2012-12-01

    Global and national climate-change statistics do not inform individuals and communities about specific challenges they face at home. Often local climate-scale data is available but not in a form that elucidates change through time. To investigate site-specific climate trends, the Western Regional Climate Data Center provides free on-line monthly temperature and precipitation data. We investigated 20 sites in Montana (10 SW and 10 NW), selected for spatial distribution and length and continuity of records. Sixteen had more than 100 yrs of record (mean 105, range 75 to 118). All had some missing years, and we eliminated others from analysis, based arbitrarily on missing five or more days/month or one month/year. Mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation, and seasonal temperature and precipitation were graphed for the 20 sites over the period of record. The slopes of regression lines were used to describe change per century. Standard deviations and r2 values provided numerical descriptions of annual variability and the predictive values of the slopes. In NW Montana, average temperature for the 10 sites was 44.1°F/6.7°C (range 39.8 to 46.1°F/4.3 to 7.8°C) and average annual precipitation was 16.3 in/41.4 cm (range 12.6 to 20.9 in/32.0 to 53.1 cm). Changes averaged for all 10 sites were about +2°F/3.6°C and about +0.2 in/0.5 cm/100 yrs. Eight of the 10 sites experienced temperature increases, ranging from about 0.5 to about 4.5°F/0.9 to 8.1°C, with two sites unchanged. Four sites had precipitation losses (up to almost 3.5 in/8.9 cm) and four had precipitation gains (up to about 3.5 in/8.9 cm), with two unchanged. In one community, a 100-yr temperature rise of more than 4°F/7°C accompanied a loss of more than 3 in/7.6 cm of precipitation! In SW Montana, the 10-site average for the period of record was 42.41°F/5.78°C (range 36.37 to 46.86°F/2.43 to 8.26°C) and 15.53 in/39.45 cm (range 11.86 to 18.57 in/30.12 to 47.17 cm), with changes averaging

  8. 75 FR 32357 - Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV Transmission Line...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Forest Service Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV... Four Corners, west of Bozeman, Montana, to a new substation near Big Sky Meadow Village in Big Sky... facility between the Jack Rabbit substation and the Meadow Village substation, along with building a...

  9. Montana K-12 & School Choice Survey: What Do Voters Say about K-12 Education? Polling Paper Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The "Montana K-12 & School Choice Survey" project, commissioned by the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice and conducted by Braun Research, Inc. (BRI), measures Montana registered voters' familiarity and views on a range of K-12 education topics and school choice reforms. The author and his colleagues report response levels and differences…

  10. Libraries across the Education Continuum: Relationships between Library Services at the University of Montana and Regional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Kate; Potter, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the library instructional programming and resources of high school library media centers in western Montana with the intent of documenting and understanding both the services provided to and the experiences of first-year college students at the University of Montana. Results from the survey (n = 22) and site visits (n = 10)…

  11. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  12. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  13. 76 FR 77008 - Notice of Administrative Boundary Change for Bureau of Land Management Offices in Montana To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Administrative Boundary Change for Bureau of Land Management Offices in Montana To Eliminate the County Split of Lewis and Clark County AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The administrative boundaries between the Central Montana...

  14. Measured and predicted temporal changes in soil nitrate-N levels from late summer to early spring in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most soil sampling is conducted from August to November in Montana because of better soil sampling conditions and because it provides more time for growers to make fertilizer decisions prior to application. Fertilizer guidelines in Montana are based on spring nitrate-N levels in the upper 2 ft becau...

  15. Simulation of rain floods on Willow Creek, Valley County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles

    1986-01-01

    The Hydrologic Engineering Center-1 rainfall-runoff simulation model was used to assess the effects of a system of reservoirs and waterspreaders in the 550-sq mi Willow Creek Basin in northeastern Montana. For simulation purposes, the basin was subdivided into 100 subbasins containing 84 reservoirs and 14 waterspreaders. Precipitation input to the model was a 24-hr duration, 100-yr frequency synthetic rainstorm developed from National Weather Service data. Infiltration and detention losses were computed using the U.S. Soil Conservation Service Curve Number concept, and the dimensionless unit hydrograph developed by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service was used to compute runoff. Channel and reservoir flow routing was based on the modified Puls storage routing procedure. Waterspreaders were simulated by assuming that each dike in a spreader system functions as a reservoir, with only an emergency spillway discharging directly into the next dike. Waterspreader and reservoir volumes were calculated from surface areas measured on maps. The first simulation run was made with no structures in place, and resulted in a 100-yr frequency peak at the mouth of Willow Creek of 22,700 cu ft/sec. With all structures in place, the 100-yr frequency peak was decreased by 74% to 5,870 cu ft/sec. (USGS)

  16. Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana.

    PubMed

    Scannella, John B; Fowler, Denver W; Goodwin, Mark B; Horner, John R

    2014-07-15

    The placement of over 50 skulls of the well-known horned dinosaur Triceratops within a stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (HCF) of Montana reveals the evolutionary transformation of this genus. Specimens referable to the two recognized morphospecies of Triceratops, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are stratigraphically separated within the HCF with the T. prorsus morphology recovered in the upper third of the formation and T. horridus found lower in the formation. Hypotheses that these morphospecies represent sexual or ontogenetic variation within a single species are thus untenable. Stratigraphic placement of specimens appears to reveal ancestor-descendant relationships. Transitional morphologies are found in the middle unit of the formation, a finding that is consistent with the evolution of Triceratops being characterized by anagenesis, the transformation of a lineage over time. Variation among specimens from this critical stratigraphic zone may indicate a branching event in the Triceratops lineage. Purely cladogenetic interpretations of the HCF dataset imply greater diversity within the formation. These findings underscore the critical role of stratigraphic data in deciphering evolutionary patterns in the Dinosauria. PMID:24982159

  17. Holocene faulting on the Mission fault, northwest Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenaa, D.A.; Klinger, R.E.; Levish, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    South of Flathead Lake, fault scarps on late Quaternary surfaces are nearly continuous for 45 km along the western flank of the Mission Range. On late Pleistocene alpine lateral moraines, scarp heights reach a maximum of 17 m. Scarp heights on post glacial Lake Missoula surfaces range from 2.6--7.2 m and maximum scarp angles range from 10[degree]--24[degree]. The stratigraphy exposed in seven trenches across the fault demonstrates that the post glacial Lake Missoula scarps resulted from at least two surface-faulting events. Larger scarp heights on late Pleistocene moraines suggests a possible third event. This yields an estimated recurrence of 4--8 kyr. Analyses of scarp profiles show that the age of the most surface faulting is middle Holocene, consistent with stratigraphic evidence found in the trenches. Rupture length and displacement imply earthquake magnitudes of 7 to 7.5. Previous studies have not identified geologic evidence of late Quaternary surface faulting in the Rocky Mountain Trench or on faults north of the Lewis and Clark line despite abundant historic seismicity in the Flathead Lake area. In addition to the Mission fault, reconnaissance studies have located late Quaternary fault scarps along portions of faults bordering Jocko and Thompson Valleys. These are the first documented late Pleistocene/Holocene faults north of the Lewis and Clark line in Montana and should greatly revise estimates of earthquake hazards in this region.

  18. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  19. Structural controls of hot-spring systems on southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, Robert A.; Leonard, Robert Benjamin

    1979-01-01

    Thermal waters that issue as hot (more than 38C) springs in southwestern Montana appear to circulate to depth along Cenozoic block faults, deep fractures penetrating the dominantly crystalline rock crust, or major structural lineaments. At individual hot springs, rising thermal waters are transmitted along conduits formed by the intersection of a major fault with other faults, fracture zones, anticlinal axes (which may be faulted or fractures), or sedimentary aquifers. Step faults and other intra-valley faults may influence circulation at some springs. At others, fracture zones alone may provide the necessary vertical permeability. Normal regional heat apparently is sufficient to maintain the hydrothermal systems without enhancement from cooling igneous bodies. The thermal gradient normally is higher in low thermal conductivity sediments of the block-fault valleys than the 30C per kilometer average for crystalline rock. To attain reservoir temperatures of 60 to 120C indicated by chemical geothermometers, waters would have to circulate to depths of about 2 to 4 kilometers in crystalline rock and about 1 to 2 kilometers in valley sediments. (Kosco-USGS)

  20. Glacier-derived August runoff in northwest Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Adam; Harper, Joel T.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The second largest concentration of glaciers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains is located in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. The total glacier-covered area in this region decreased by ∼35% over the past 50 years, which has raised substantial concern about the loss of the water derived from glaciers during the summer. We used an innovative weather station design to collect in situ measurements on five remote glaciers, which are used to parameterize a regional glacier melt model. This model offered a first-order estimate of the summer meltwater production by glaciers. We find, during the normally dry month of August, glaciers in the region produce approximately 25 × 106 m3 of potential runoff. We then estimated the glacier runoff component in five gaged streams sourced from GNP basins containing glaciers. Glacier-melt contributions range from 5% in a basin only 0.12% glacierized to >90% in a basin 28.5% glacierized. Glacier loss would likely lead to lower discharges and warmer temperatures in streams draining basins >20% glacier-covered. Lower flows could even be expected in streams draining basins as little as 1.4% glacierized if glaciers were to disappear.

  1. Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana

    PubMed Central

    Scannella, John B.; Fowler, Denver W.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Horner, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The placement of over 50 skulls of the well-known horned dinosaur Triceratops within a stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (HCF) of Montana reveals the evolutionary transformation of this genus. Specimens referable to the two recognized morphospecies of Triceratops, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are stratigraphically separated within the HCF with the T. prorsus morphology recovered in the upper third of the formation and T. horridus found lower in the formation. Hypotheses that these morphospecies represent sexual or ontogenetic variation within a single species are thus untenable. Stratigraphic placement of specimens appears to reveal ancestor–descendant relationships. Transitional morphologies are found in the middle unit of the formation, a finding that is consistent with the evolution of Triceratops being characterized by anagenesis, the transformation of a lineage over time. Variation among specimens from this critical stratigraphic zone may indicate a branching event in the Triceratops lineage. Purely cladogenetic interpretations of the HCF dataset imply greater diversity within the formation. These findings underscore the critical role of stratigraphic data in deciphering evolutionary patterns in the Dinosauria. PMID:24982159

  2. Recurrent faulting and petroleum accumulation, Cat Creek Anticline, central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The Cat Creek anticline, scene of central Montana's first significant oil discovery, is underlain by a south-dipping high-angle fault (Cat Creek fault) that has undergone several episodes of movement with opposite sense of displacement. Borehole data suggest that the Cat Creek fault originated as a normal fault during Proterozoic rifting concurrent with deposition of the Belt Supergroup. Reverse faulting took place in Late Cambrian time, and again near the end of the Devonian Period. The Devonian episode, coeval with the Antler orogeny, raised the southern block several hundred feet. The southern block remained high through Meramecian time, then began to subside. Post-Atokan, pre-Middle Jurassic normal faulting lowered the southern block as much as 1,500 ft. During the Laramide orogeny (latest Cretaceous-Eocene) the Cat Creek fault underwent as much as 4,000 ft of reverse displacement and a comparable amount of left-lateral displacement. The Cat Creek anticline is a fault-propagation fold; en echelon domes and listric normal faults developed along its crest in response to wrenching. Oil was generated mainly in organic-rich shales of the Heath Formation (upper Chesterian Series) and migrated upward along tectonic fractures into Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous reservoir rocks in structural traps in en echelon domes. Production has been achieved only from those domes where structural closure was retained from Jurassic through Holocene time.

  3. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  4. Age of the basement rocks of southwest Montana.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, H.L.; Hedge, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rb-Sr analyses of a suite of quartzofeldspathic gneisses that are interlayered with beds of marble, quartzite, and amphibolite in the Ruby and Tobacca Root Ranges and the Gallatin River canyon of southwest Montana show that the age of metamorphism of these strata occurred about 2750 m.y. ago. The 13 samples analyzed are from rock units that have in the past been assigned stratigraphically to the Pony Group, Cherry Creek Group, and Dillion Granite Gneiss. Except for two samples of anomalous composition, the data define a linear array on an isochron diagram that has a best-fit value of 2762+- 113 m.y. Inclusion of other published data for the Tobacco Root Range yields a best-fit value of 2730+- 85 m.y. This age corresponds closely to that of the principal metamorphic-plutonic epoch of the Beartooth Mountains, to which the term 'Beartooth orogeny' has been applied. It also demonstrates that the major Precambrian metasedimentary sequences of the region are of Archean age. - Authors

  5. A Composite Depth Scale for Sediments from Crevice Lake, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Skipp, G.; Honke, J.; Chapman, C.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study to derive records of past environmental change from lake sediments in the western United States, a set of cores was collected from Crevice Lake, Montana, in late February and early March 2001. Crevice Lake (latitude 45.000N, longitude 110.578W, elevation 1,713 meters) lies adjacent to the Yellowstone River at the north edge of Yellowstone National Park. The lake is more than 31 meters deep and has a surface area of 7.76 hectares. The combination of small surface area and significant depth promote anoxic bottom-water conditions that preserve annual laminations (varves) in the sediment. Three types of cores were collected through the ice. The uppermost sediments were obtained in freeze cores that preserved the sediment water interface. Two sites were cored with a 5-centimeter diameter corer. Five cores were taken with a 2-meter-long percussion piston corer. The percussion core uses a plastic core liner with an inside diameter of 9 centimeters. Coring was done at two sites. Because of the relatively large diameter of the percussion cores, samples from these cores were used for a variety of analyses including pollen, charcoal, diatoms, stable isotopes, organic and inorganic carbon, elemental analyses, and magnetic properties.

  6. Regionalization of precipitation characteristics in Montana using L-moments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, C.

    1998-01-01

    Dimensionless precipitation-frequency curves for estimating precipitation depths having small exceedance probabilities were developed for 2-, 6-, and 24-hour storm durations for three homogeneous regions in Montana. L-moment statistics were used to help define the homogeneous regions. The generalized extreme value distribution was used to construct the frequency curves for each duration within each region. The effective record length for each duration in each region was estimated using a graphical method and was found to range from 500 years for 6-hour duration data in Region 2 to 5,100 years for 24-hour duration data in Region 3. The temporal characteristics of storms were analyzed, and methods for estimating synthetic storm hyetographs were developed. Dimensionless depth-duration data were grouped by independent duration (2,6, and 24 hours) and by region, and the beta distribution was fit to dimensionless depth data for various incremental time intervals. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to develop relations between dimensionless depths for a key, short duration - termed the kernel duration - and dimensionless depths for other durations. The regression relations were used, together with the probabilistic dimensionless depth data for the kernel duration, to calculate dimensionless depth-duration curves for exceedance probabilities from .1 to .9. Dimensionless storm hyetographs for each independent duration in each region were constructed for median value conditions based on an exceedance probability of .5.

  7. Characteristics of modern pollen rain and the relationship to vegetation in sagebrush-steppe environments of Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, C.; Bryant, V.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in pollen production and dispersal characteristics among plant species complicate our ability to determine direct relationships between deposited pollen and actual vegetation. In order to better understand modern pollen-vegetation relationships, we analyzed pollen from 61 samples taken from sagebrush-steppe environments across Montana and compared them with the actual vegetation composition at each site. We also determined to what degree sagebrush-steppe communities can be geographically distinguished from one another based on their pollen signature. Pollen preservation was good, especially in wetter environments, with pollen degradataion ranging from 4-15%. Diploxylon Pinus was the primary contributor to the pollen rain, even in plots where pine trees did not occur or were several kilometers from the plot. Artemisia and grass pollen are underrepresented in the soils samples, while Chenopodiaceae and Juniperus pollen are overrepresented when compared to actual vegetation composition. Insect-pollinated species are present only in very minor amounts in the soil samples, even though some (e.g., Brassica) are abundant in the plots. In general, pollen spectra show significant differences between regions, however, within each region the individual spectra are not statistically significant from one another. An understanding of modern pollen-vegetation relationships and the palynological “fingerprint” of sagebrush-steppe communities aid in climatic and ecological interpretations of fossil pollen assemblages. The data also provide important control samples for forensics studies that use pollen to geolocate an object or person to a crime scene.

  8. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  9. Preliminary report on the Comet area, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becraft, George Earle

    1952-01-01

    Several radioactivity anomalies and a few specimens of sooty pitchblende and other uranium minerals have been found on the mine dumps of formerly productive base-and precious-metal mines along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone in the Comet area in southwestern Montana. The shear zone is from 50 to 200 feet wide and has been traced for at least 5 1/2 miles. It trends N. 80° W. across the northern part of the area and cuts the quartz monzonitic rocks of the Boulder batholith and younger silicic intrusive rocks, as well as the pre-batholitic volcanic rocks, and is in turn cut by dacite and andesite dikes. The youngest period of mineralization is represented by chalcedonic vein zones comprising one or more discontinuous stringers and veins of cryptocrystalline silica in silicified quartz monzonite and in alaskite that has not been appreciably silicified. In some places these zones contain no distinct chalcedonic veins, but are represented only by silicified quartz monzonite. These zones locally contain uranium in association with very small amounts of the following minerals: pyrite, galena, ruby silver, argentite, native silver, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and barite. At the Free Enterprise mine, uranium has been produced from a narrow chalcedonic vein that contains disseminated secondary uranium minerals and local small pods of pitchblende and from disseminated secondary uranium minerals in the adjacent quartz monzonite. Undiscovered commercial deposits of uranium ore may occur spatially associated with the base-and precious-metal deposits along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone, and chalcedonic vein zones similar to the Free Enterprise.

  10. Preliminary report on the Comet area, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becraft, George Earle

    1953-01-01

    Several radioactivity anomalies and a few specimens of sooty pitchblende and other uranium minerals have been found on the mine dumps of formerly productive base- and precious-metal mines along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone in the Comet area in southwestern Montana. The shear zone is from 50 to 200 feet wide and has been traced for at least 5? miles. It trends N. 80 ? W. across the northern part of the area and cuts the quartz monzonitic rocks of the Boulder batholith and younger silicic intrusive rocks, as well as prebatholithic volcanic rocks, and is in turn cut by dacite and andesite dikes. The youngest period of mineralization is represented by chalcedonic vein zones comprising one or more discontinuous stringers and veins of cryptocrystalline silica in silicified quartz monzonite and in alaskite that has not been appreciably silicified. In some places these zones contain no distinct chalcedonic veins but are represented only by silicified quartz monzonite. These zones locally contain uranium in association with very small amounts of pyrite, galena, ruby silver, arqentite, native silver, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, and barite. At the Free Enterprise mine, uranium has been produced from a narrow chalcedonic vein that contains disseminated secondary uranium minerals and local small pods of pitchblende and also from disseminated secondary uranium ,minerals in the adjacent quartz monzonite. Undiscovered deposits of uranium ore may occur spatially associated with the base- and precious-metal deposits along the Comet-Gray Eagle shear zone and with chalcedonic vein zones similar to the Free Enterprise.

  11. Cyclic platform dolomites of Devonian Jefferson Formation, Montana and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dorobek, S.L.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary field study indicates that the Devonian Jefferson Formation in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho consists of cyclic sequences of shallow marine platformal dolomites that grade basinward into slope sediments deposited on a steepened carbonate ramp. Individual shallowing-upward, platformal cycles are 25 to < 1 m (82 to 3 ft) thick and, from top to bottom, consist of: solution-collapse breccia caps; cryptalgal dolomudstone; rare ooid dolograinstone; thin-bedded Amphipora dolowackestone; sucrosic dolostones with abundant lenticular to domal stromatoporoids; thin-bedded, fine-grained, shaly dolostones with closely spaced hardgrounds that grade upward into burrow-homogenized, irregularly bedded dolostones. Thinner cycles (< 5 m or 16 ft thick) contain fewer basal lithologies and typically consist only of cryptalgal dolomudstone with breccia caps. The 1 to 25-m thick cycles comprise larger scale sequences (30-60 m or 100-200 ft thick), in which smaller scale cycles become progressively thinner toward the top of large-scale sequences. These shallowing-upward carbonate cycles probably formed in response to glacio-eustatic sea level fluctuations. Current estimates for the time span represented by the Jefferson formation (9 m.y.), divided by the number of shallowing-upward cycles, indicate that each cycle represents an average time span of 0.6 to 1.0 m.y.. This time span suggests that either: (1) average sedimentation rates were unrealistically slow during deposition of each cycle (< 0.1-3 cm/1000 years); (2) breccia caps represent long periods of subaerial exposure (> 0.5 to about 0.2 m.y.); or (3) the Jefferson Formation was deposited during a much shorter time span than previously thought.

  12. Carbon Budget of an Alluvial Floodplain in Northwest Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appling, A.; Poole, G.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J.

    2009-12-01

    Alluvial floodplains can be substantial sources of carbon dioxide and sinks for particulate carbon, making them important players in the global aquatic carbon cycle. However, carbon budgets for large floodplains are poorly constrained, especially for floodplains with large hyporheic aquifers and high connectivity to the river channel. We synthesized the results of seven recent studies to construct a carbon budget for the Nyack Floodplain on the Middle Fork Flathead River in northwest Montana. For the whole floodplain, including river channel, hyporheic aquifer, and riparian soils and vegetation, estimated carbon losses exceed inputs by 9.1 gC m-3 yr-1. The imbalance is primarily driven by microbial and invertebrate respiration in the aquifer (8.4 and 0.3 gC m-3 yr-1, respectively). Despite the fact that these respiration rates are among the lowest reported in the literature, they dwarf other carbon inputs to the floodplain: riparian NPP is 1.8 gC m-3 yr-1; in-channel NPP is less than 0.001 gC m-3 yr-1, and riverine DOC inputs (4.8 gC m-3 yr-1) are exceeded by riverine DOC losses (5.9 gC m-3 yr-1). To begin resolving the apparent carbon imbalance, we establish a reasonable range for each flux in the carbon budget and identify key uncertainties. Our results point to the need for more research in three areas: First, we can constrain the aquifer carbon cycle by quantifying riparian soil leaching, root exudate production, and plant biomass turnover. Second, we should better understand upstream inputs of organic matter, both annually and during large episodic floods. Finally, we need to explore the interacting roles of hydrologic flowpaths, sediment texture, and buried organic matter in creating patchy habitats for microbes and invertebrates in the aquifer.

  13. Assessment of selected ground-water-quality data in Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.; Rogers, G.D.

    1984-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the existing, computer-accessible, ground-water-quality data for Montana. All known sources of ground-water-quality data were reviewed. Although the estimated number of analyses exceeds 25,000, more than three-fourths of the data were not suitable for this study. The only data used were obtained from the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) of the US Geological Survey, because the chemical analyses generally are complete, have an assigned geohydrologic unit or source of water, and are accessible by computer. The data were assessed by geographic region of the State because of climatic and geologic differences. These regions consist of the eastern plains region and the western mountainous region. Within each region, the data were assessed according to geohydrologic unit. The number and areal distribution of data sites for some groupings of units are inadequate to be representative, particularly for groupings stratigraphically below the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Hell Creek Formation in the eastern region and for Quaternary alluvium, terrace deposits, glacial deposits, and associated units in the western region. More than one-half the data for the entire State are for the Tertiary Wasatch, Fort Union, and associated units in the eastern region. The results of statistical analyses of data in WATSTORE indicate that the median dissolved-solids concentration for the groupings of geohydrologic units ranges from about 400 to 5000 milligrams per liter in the eastern region and from about 100 to 200 milligrams per liter in the western region. Concentrations of most trace constituents do not exceed the primary drinking-water standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The data in WATSTORE for organic constituents presently are inadequate to detect any organic effects of man's activities on ground-water quality. 26 figs., 79 tabs.

  14. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  15. A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, HongJuan; Ji, BaoPing; Cai, ShengBao; Wang, RuoJun; Zhou, Feng; Yang, JunSi; Liu, HuiJun

    2014-05-01

    According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin. PMID:24626737

  16. Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program among Persons at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadheim, Liane M.; Brewer, Kari A.; Kassner, Darcy R.; Vanderwood, Karl K.; Hall, Taryn O.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Harwell, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of translating the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention into practice in a rural community. Methods: In 2008, the Montana Diabetes Control Program worked collaboratively with Holy Rosary Healthcare to implement an adapted group-based DPP lifestyle intervention. Adults at high risk for…

  17. Assessment of Undiscovered Biogenic Gas Resources, North-Central Montana Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Application of a geology-based assessment methodology by the U.S. Geological Survey resulted in an estimated mean of 6,192 billion cubic feet of shallow biogenic (continuous) undiscovered gas in the North-Central Montana Province. Oil, gas, and natural gas liquids in conventional accumulations were not assessed.

  18. Where does Strip Tillage Fit in Montana and Wyoming Sugarbeet Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet in Montana and Wyoming is often grown in a two year rotation alternating with spring grains. Normally, a sugarbeet grower will make five or more passes across a field for fertilizer application, disking, plowing or ripping, leveling, mulching and hilling. The high price of diesel fuel is m...

  19. Final Report of the Montana Public School Students' Out-of-School Time Study. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Haynes, George W.

    This paper reports on a study that explored the results of a statewide survey conducted in 21 randomly selected counties in Montana during fall 2000. Within each county, no more than 2 school districts were selected for further study, and within each school district, students in the 5th, 7th, and 9th grades were selected to participate in the…

  20. 75 FR 43553 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease MTM 97827, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920, as amended, Longshot Oil LLC timely filed a petition for reinstatement of competitive oil and gas lease MTM 97827, Carbon County, Montana. The lessee paid the required... Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 (30 U.S.C. 188). We are proposing to reinstate the lease, effective the...

  1. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ana Paula; Sato, Cesar; Cardoso, Thayna Neves; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control) or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control), per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD45RA (B lymphocytes), CD18 (beta 2 integrin), CD163 (ED2 protein), CD54 (ICAM-1), and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages). The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N = 20) in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P = .01), lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P = .0001), and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P = .05). The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH. PMID:21318109

  2. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time. PMID:19928761

  3. Stratigraphic sections of the Phosphoria Formation in Montana, 1949-50: part II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, R.W.; Cressman, E.R.; Jones, R. S.; Replogle, B.K.

    1953-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently measured and sampled the Phosphoria formation at many localities in Montana and other western states. These data will not be fully synthesized and analyzed for several years, but segments of the data, accompanied by little or no interpretation, are published as preliminary reports as they are assembled. This report, which contains abstracts of many of the sections in southwestern Montana (fig. 1), is one of this series and is the fourth Montana report; it includes the second half of the data gathered in Montana during 1949 and 1950. The field and laboratory procedures adopted in these investigations are described rather fully in a previous report (McKelvey and others, 1953). Many people have taken part in this investigation. The program of which this work is a part was organized by V. E. McKelvey. J. L. Elliott, W. J. Garmoe, R. F. Gosman, C. W. Tandy, and W. H. Wilson participated in the description of strata and the collection of samples referred to in this report. Crushing and splitting of the samples in the field was done by T. K. Rigby. The laboratory preparation of samples for chemical analysis was done in Denver, Colo., under the direction of W. P. Huleatt.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa montana BDHKU 210001

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sourav; Chandrababunaidu, Mathu Malar; Sen, Deeya; Panda, Arijit; Ghorai, Arpita; Bhan, Sushma; Sanghi, Neha

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time the draft genome sequence of Aphanocapsa montana BDHKU 210001, a halotolerant cyanobacterium isolated from India. This is a marine exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing cyanobacterium. The genome of this species is assembled into 11.50 million bases, with 296 scaffolds carrying approximately 7,296 protein-coding genes. PMID:25744997

  5. 76 FR 55643 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Divide Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Divide travel planning area for wheeled and over-snow motorized vehicles. Consistent with Forest Service travel...

  6. 75 FR 72784 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2010, FR Doc. 2010- 27353 (75 FR 66718-66719... Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Blackfoot...

  7. 76 FR 76970 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as Part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN COAL COMBUSTION. PART III. THE WATER QUALITY OF ROSEBUD CREEK, MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of a study on Rosebud Creek, Montana, designed to assess the impacts on water quality of surface coal mining and/or coal combustion at Colstrip are summarized herein. A general degradation of water quality has been observed along the stream course but direct impacts o...

  9. 77 FR 35061 - Roseburg Forest Products Composite Panels Division Missoula, Montana; Notice of Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... former workers of Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, Montana (subject firm). The Department's Notice was published in the Federal Register on March 26, 2012 (77 FR 17524). The... Employment and Training Administration Roseburg Forest Products Composite Panels Division Missoula,...

  10. 78 FR 69296 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... the new and revised rules, as outlined in 77 FR 67596, into the Montana SIP. MPA notes that the new... (77 FR 67596), the new rules and revisions we are taking final action to approve meet the requirements... submittals on November 13, 2012 (77 FR 67596). We accepted comments from the public on this proposal...

  11. Montana School Nutrition Programs Free and Reduced Price Participation Data, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a count of all students in Montana public and nonpublic schools who are eligible to receive free and reduced price benefits for meals and milk. Because the data presented in this report are frozen on December 31, there may be missing values as well as late corrections for a given year because data came in later than that date.

  12. 78 FR 49510 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes...). Dated: August 8, 2013. Andrew Battin, Director, Office of Information Collection. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P ... State of Montana's request to revise its National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Implementation...

  13. 78 FR 76319 - Notice of Invitation-Coal Exploration License Application MTM 106757, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Invitation--Coal Exploration License Application MTM 106757, Montana... exploration of coal deposits owned by the United States of America in lands located in Yellowstone and... State Office coal Web site at http://www.blm.gov/mt/st/en/prog/energy/coal.html . A written notice...

  14. Montana Statewide Dropout and Graduate Report: 2008-2009 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the Alliance for Excellent Education (AEE), nationally one-third of students, 1.3 million each year, fail to graduate. The AEE suggests that these low rates have for too long been "obscured... by inadequate accountability systems at state and federal levels." Montana's accountability system is a case in point. Dependent on reporting…

  15. 75 FR 48720 - Montana; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050, Presidentially Declared... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major...

  16. 77 FR 9696 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated...

  17. 78 FR 20354 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S....

  18. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN COAL COMBUSTION. PART I. THE FISHES OF ROSEBUD CREEK, MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish populations have been studied during 1975 and 1976 in Rosebud Creek, a prairie stream which flows through the Fort Union Coal Basin in southeastern Montana. The objective of this study was to collect fish population data to determine any immediate effects, and to act as a ya...

  20. EVALUATIONOF THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF PRAIRIE STREAMS IN THE MISSOURI AND YELLOWSTONE RIVER BASINS, MONTANA (REMAP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of this study is within the Montana portion of the Great Plains. Fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and periphyton assemblages will be sampled at a minimum of 50 sites. Thirty sites were randomly chosen using EMAP methods; ten reference and ten impaired (test) sites wer...

  1. Tobacco Use Prevention Education. K-12 Lesson Plans from the Montana Model Curriculum for Health Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This publication presents K-12 tobacco use prevention lesson plans for schools in the state of Montana. Lessons for students in grades K-6 include: family connections; body tracing; smokeless tobacco; prenatal development; tobacco look-alikes; tobacco chemicals; analyzing tobacco and alcohol ads; tobacco use and the lungs; and a personal health…

  2. 76 FR 47221 - Montana; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends...

  3. An Investigation of Montana's Public High School Physics Program During the 1972-73 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickison, Alexander Kane

    It was the purpose of this study to determine the status of physics teaching in Montana secondary public schools in 1972-73. The results of the investigation were compared to earlier studies to determine the progress that had been made in physics since 1959. The study concentrated on teaching objectives and such external factors as enrollment in…

  4. 77 FR 51823 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... at 920 NE Main, Lewistown, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary L. ``Stan'' Benes, Central..._benes@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal... comment and time available, the time for individual oral comments may be limited. Gary L. ``Stan''...

  5. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Montana. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Many states have enacted or are considering proposals to give tax credits for contributions that provide tuition scholarships for students in K-12 schools to attend the private or public schools of their choice. This study seeks to inform the public and policymakers about the implications for Montana if the state were to enact such a program. The…

  6. 76 FR 69281 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S....

  7. 75 FR 71141 - Notice of Public Meeting; Western Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Western Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated...

  8. 75 FR 68618 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated...

  9. 76 FR 61738 - Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...: Public Land Order No. 6881 (56 FR 47414 (1991)) which withdrew 95 acres of National Forest System lands... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  10. The Positive Impact of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Montana's Indian Education for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carjuzaa, Jioanna

    2012-01-01

    Montana's Indian Education for All Act is an unprecedented state constitutional mandate requiring educators to integrate American Indian content into all instruction. Not all educators in this western state in the United States embrace this requirement, but those who do become change agents as they lead students to challenge the status quo.…

  11. The Last Best Place? The 1998-99 Montana Rural Teacher Salary and Benefits Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette

    In Montana, there are 151 small rural schools that constitute elementary independent districts with either a supervising teacher or a teaching principal as the head of the school. In fall 1998, a survey of all 151 schools examined enrollments, budgets, staff, salaries, and benefits. Enrollments ranged from 2 to 174 students; 83 schools had fewer…

  12. EAST GALLATIN RIVER, MONTANA: MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION AND WATER ANALYSIS 1973-1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroinvertebrate samples from seven stations and water chemistry samples from 10 stations in the East Gallatin River, Montana, were collected on thirteen dates throughout the year between June 1973 and August 1974. The stations were selected to cover a stretch of the river both ...

  13. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for Montana related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

  14. State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Progress on Teacher Quality, 2007. Montana State Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" examines what is arguably the single most powerful authority over the teaching profession: state government. This Montana edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the first of what will be an annual look at the status of state policies impacting the…

  15. Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients. PMID:26036671

  16. A Descriptive Study of Students with Disabilities at Montana State University Billings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Thomas Francis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze how the characteristics of age, major and type of disabilities for students who received services through Disability Support Services at Montana State University-Billings have changed from 1999 to 2011. Furthermore, this analysis contrasted local trends for types of disabilities with national…

  17. 40 CFR 272.1351 - Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Montana § 272.1351... its hazardous waste management program. However, EPA retains the authority to exercise its inspection... this section are incorporated by reference as part of the hazardous waste management program...

  18. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…

  19. Microsatellites indicate minimal barriers to mule deer Odocoileus hemionus dispersal across Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John H. Powell; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Megan D. Higgs; Michael R. Ebinger; Vu, Ninh V.; Cross, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the future spread of chronic wasting disease, we conducted a genetic assessment of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus population structure across the state of Montana, USA. Individual based analyses were used to test for population structure in the absence of a priori designations of population membership across the sampling area. Samples from the states of Wyoming, Colorado and Utah were also included in the analysis to provide a geographic context to the levels of population structure observed within Montana. Results showed that mule deer across our entire study region were characterized by weak isolation by distance and a lack of spatial autocorrelation at distances > 10 km. We found evidence for contemporary male bias in dispersal, with female mule deer exhibiting higher mean individual pairwise genetic distance than males. We tested for potential homogenizing effects of past translocations within Montana, but were unable to detect a genetic signature of these events. Our results indicate high levels of connectivity among mule deer populations in Montana and suggest few, if any, detectable barriers to mule deer gene flow or chronic wasting disease transmission.

  20. 75 FR 63855 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease MTM 98742, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease MTM 98742... competitive oil and gas lease MTM 98742, for land in Fergus County, Montana. The lessee paid the required... reinstatement of the lease and the $163 cost for publishing this notice. The lessee has met the requirements...

  1. 78 FR 55055 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Montana; Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... decision to exclude temporary roads from the road density objectives . . . .'' The supplement will address the Forest Plan Goal for Wildlife Security and density of roads and trails open to motorized use... road density. In a May 24, 2013 Order, the U.S. District Court for the District of Montana found...

  2. 76 FR 31579 - Designation for the State of Georgia and State of Montana Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... hours (7 CFR 1.27(c)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the January 4, 2011, Federal Register (76 FR 317... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the State of Georgia and State of Montana Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA....

  3. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  4. Online Credit Recovery: Enrollment and Passing Patterns in Montana Digital Academy Courses. REL 2016-139

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David; Frazelle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. school districts (88 percent) offer credit recovery courses or programs for students. In rural states such as Montana, online credit recovery options are especially popular because they allow schools to serve students in remote areas throughout the year, across a range of subjects, and with few additional resources (Carver & Lewis,…

  5. Montana Institute for Effective Teaching of American Indian Children (Pablo, MT, June 9-14, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This document contains 12 units of study and student activities that incorporate American Indian culture into various aspects of the elementary school curriculum. These teaching units are the outcome of a teacher summer workshop held at Salish Kootenai College, Pablo, Montana. Sections describe: (1) research and presentations on the Indian tribes…

  6. 77 FR 29270 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Montana; State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Montana; State Implementation Plan and Regional Haze Federal Implementation Plan'' (77 FR 23988). See... technologies that provide similar control levels at higher cost. See 70 FR 39165 (July 6, 2005). We think it is..., SNCR, and SCR.'' 6. On page 24018, in Table 52, the annual emissions reduction for fuel...

  7. Operation of 80 MW bubbling bed Heskett Station Montana-Dakota Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, D.L. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the start-up activities and initial commercial operation of the Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) 80 MW bubbling bed retrofit. The primary objectives of this paper is to give a summary of the successes, problems and design solutions that occurred during the initial commercial operation of this retrofit.

  8. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  9. 76 FR 46829 - Montana; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends the... Miller, Office of Response and Recovery, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street,...

  10. 76 FR 46829 - Montana; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Montana; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends the... Miller, Office of Response and Recovery, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street,...

  11. Measuring effectiveness of three postfire hillslope erosion barrier treatments, Western Montana, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After the Valley Complex Fire burned 86000ha in western Montana in 2000, two studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of contour-felled log, straw wattle, and hand-dug contour tench erosion barriers installed in mitigating postfire runoff and erosion. Sixteen plots were located across a...

  12. Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance in northeast Montana, U.S.A., 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance was conducted on a National Wildlife Refuge in northeast Montana, 2005-2006, during which outbreaks of WNV in a colony of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) resulted in juvenile mortality rates of 30 and 31%. During both years, flood...

  13. 75 FR 48722 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Superintendent, Fort Peck Agency, through the Rocky Mountain Regional Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and was.... 44 E. The plat, in 1 sheet, representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of the west ] and north..., Montana, was accepted August 3, 2010. We will place a copy of the plat, in 1 sheet, and related...

  14. 75 FR 19993 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Rocky Mountain Regional Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and was necessary to determine boundaries of.... The plat, in 1 sheet(s), representing the corrective dependent resurvey of a portion of the south... Meridian, Montana, was accepted April 6, 2010. We will place a copy of the plat, in 1 sheet(s), and...

  15. 75 FR 53334 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine.... The plat, in 1 sheet, representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of the west boundary, a portion... August 19, 2010. We will place a copy of the plat, in 1 sheet, and related field notes we described...

  16. 75 FR 57287 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... survey was executed at the request of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings...: Principal Meridian, Montana T. 27 N., R. 52 E. The plat, in 1 sheet, representing the corrective dependent... September 3, 2010. We will place a copy of the plat, in 1 sheet, and related field notes we described in...

  17. 77 FR 2970 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability...

  18. Spread of Virulent Group A Streptococcus Type emm59 from Montana to Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher C.; Olsen, Randall J.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Morman, Monica L.; Fort, Peter L.; Neuwirth, Robert; Majeed, Mohammed; Woodward, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Full-genome sequencing showed that a recently emerged and hypervirulent clone of group A Streptococcus type emm59 active in Canada and parts of the United States has now caused severe invasive infections in rural northeastern Wyoming. Phylogenetic analysis of genome data indicated that the strain was likely introduced from Montana. PMID:24655919

  19. Infiltration and interrill erosion rates after a wildfire in western Montana, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2000 Valley Complex wildfire burned in steep montane forests with ash cap soils in western Montana, USA. The effects of high burn severity on forest soil hydrologic function was examined using rainfall simulations (100 mm h-1 for 1 h) on 0.5-m2 plots. Infiltration rates and sediment yields and c...

  20. 75 FR 58430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT AGENCY: National... Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory...

  1. 77 FR 42509 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Montana, Missoula, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Montana, Missoula, MT AGENCY... inventory of Native American human remains and associated funerary objects in consultation with the... American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an...

  2. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  3. 75 FR 9834 - Approval and Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...EPA is proposing to partially approve and partially disapprove State Implementation Plan revisions submitted by the State of Montana on August 26, 1999, May 28, 2003, March 9, 2004, October 25, 2005, and October 16, 2006. The revisions contain new, amended, and repealed rules in Subchapter 7 (Permit, Construction, and Operation of Air Contaminant Sources) that pertain to the issuance of......

  4. 76 FR 37827 - Notice of Proposed Audit Delegation Renewals for the States of Oklahoma and Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Office of Natural Resources Revenue Notice of Proposed Audit Delegation Renewals for the States of...' proposals for audit delegation renewals. SUMMARY: The States of Oklahoma and Montana (States) are requesting that the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) renew current delegations of audit...

  5. Entrepreneurship in Montana. A Handbook for Integrating Entrepreneurship into All Vocational Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ronald R.

    This handbook was developed to provide vocational education teachers in Montana with information about entreprenuership so that they can integrate the concepts into their vocational courses. The guide provides a definition of entrepreneurship and describes the syllabus for entrepreneurship (ownership, location, financing, personnel, promotion,…

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Bighorn Basin Providence of Wyoming and Montana.

  7. Stable fly phenology in a mixed agricultural-wildlife ecosystem in northeast Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable fly phenology was monitored and compared at three habitats (peninsula, pasture, confinement lot) located within 1.5 to 4.5 km of each other in a mixed agricultural-wildlife ecosystem in northeast Montana. Results revealed that temporal dynamics differed by site. Adult abundance was generall...

  8. Montana Proficiency Events Handbook. FHA HERO: Future Homemakers of America toward New Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Linda, Ed.; Quickenden, Sandy, Ed.

    This handbook contains directions for FHA/HERO (Future Homemakers of America/Home Economics Related Occupations) participation activities in Montana. Participation activities are local, state, and national level competitions involving students in vocational home economics programs. The handbook provides a general overview of participation…

  9. The Montana Radon Study: Social Marketing via Digital Signage Technology for Reaching Families in the Waiting Room

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives I tested a social marketing intervention delivered in health department waiting rooms via digital signage technology for increasing radon program participation among priority groups. Methods I conducted a tri-county, community-based study over a 3-year period (2010–2013) in a high-radon state by using a quasi-experimental design. We collected survey data for eligible participants at the time of radon test kit purchase. Results Radon program participation increased at the intervention site (t38 = 3.74; P = .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 16.0) with an increase in renters (χ21,228 = 4.3; P = .039), Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children families (χ21,166 = 3.13; P = .077) and first-time testers (χ21,228 = 10.93; P = .001). Approximately one third (30.3%; n = 30) attributed participation in the radon program to viewing the intervention message. The intervention crossover was also successful with increased monthly kit sales (t37 = 2.69; P = .01; 95% CI = 1.20, 8.47) and increased households participating (t23 = 4.76; P < .001; 95% CI = 3.10, 7.88). Conclusions A social marketing message was an effective population-based intervention for increasing radon program participation. The results prompted policy changes for Montana radon programming and adoption of digital signage technology by 2 health departments. PMID:25121816

  10. Muellerius capillaris dominates the lungworm community of Bighorn Sheep at the National Bison Range, Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lungworm infections are common among bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America, and the predominant species reported are Protostrongylus stilesi and P. rushi. Currently, the only records of another lungworm species, Muellerius capillaris, infecting bighorns come from South Dakota. At the Nati...

  11. Space Radar Image of Missoula, Montana in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Missoula, Montana, created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful because they show scientists the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking north-northeast. The blue circular area at the lower left corner is a bend of the Bitterroot River just before it joins the Clark Fork, which runs through the city. Crossing the Bitterroot River is the bridge of U.S. Highway 93. Highest mountains in this image are at elevations of 2,200 meters (7,200 feet). The city is about 975 meters (3,200 feet) above sea level. The bright yellow areas are urban and suburban zones, dark brown and blue-green areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 46.9 degrees north latitude and 114.1 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA

  12. CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

  13. Exploring local perceptions and attributions of 'extreme' wildfire impacts in Rural Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, M.; Paveglio, T.; Kallman, D.

    2013-12-01

    To date there have been few systematic efforts to uncover the criteria that local stakeholders use to perceive of and make judgments about the severity of wildfire impacts to the social-ecological systems they are a part of. The study presented here sought to uncover expanded understandings of perceived social and ecological impacts from a wildfire in rural Montana and the underlying causes for those perceived impacts. Such efforts could lead to more comprehensive social impact assessment concerning wildfires or other hazards and help better understand how local perceptions might influence residents' ongoing attitudes toward fire risk or mitigation efforts. The study presented here explored local perceptions of impact from the 2012 Dahl fire near Roundup, MT. The Dahl Fire burned 73 permanent structures, 150 outbuilding and 22,000 acres of predominantly private lands in the rural Bull Mountains. Members of the project team interviewed approximately 50 stakeholders impacted by or involved in the management for the Dahl Fire. Interviews took place in the summer of 2013 and included a variety of residents, emergency personnel, firefighters, local community officials and land management professionals. Results suggest that residents considered the Dahl fire especially impactful given the number of private residences and structures that were burned and the number of people displaced or disrupted by the event (either directly, through efforts to help those affected, or through indirect impacts to community function). The extremity of the firefighting conditions (e.g. wind, relative humidity, terrain), the rapidity of fire spread through populated areas and the damages sustained given previous fires in the area all surprised stakeholders and contributed to their perceptions of impact severity. Conflicts over access to properties during and immediately following the fire, and the variable perception that personal wildfire mitigations did little to reduce damages from the

  14. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  15. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  16. High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    by Cl-rich fluids [4]. The association of high-temperature carbonates with sulphides beneath the J-M reef supports the hydromagmatic theory which involves a late-stage chloride-carbonate fluid percolating upwards, dissolving PGE and sulphides and redepositing them at a higher stratigraphic level. [1] Anovitz, L.M., and Essene, E.J., 1987, Phase Equilibria in the System CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3: Journal of Petrology, v. 28, p. 389-414. [2] Hanley, J.J., Mungall, J.E., Pettke, T., Spooner, E.T.C., and Bray, C.J., 2008, Fluid and Halide Melt Inclusions of Magmatic Origin in the Ultramafic and Lower Banded Series, Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA: Journal of Petrology, v. 49, p. 1133-1160. [3] Boudreau, A.E., and McCallum, I.S., 1989, Investigations of the Stillwater Complex: Part V. Apatites as indicators of evolving fluid composition: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 102, p. 138-153. [4] Newton, R.C., and Manning, C.E., 2002, Experimental determination of calcite solubility in H2O-NaCl solutions at deep crust/upper mantle pressures and temperature: implications for metasomatic processes in shear zones: American Mineralogist, v. 87, p. 1401-1409.

  17. MORE (Montana Organization for Research in Energy), MT DOE/EPSCoR. Progress performance report, traineeship activities: 30 September 1992--31 January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report focuses on Montana`s Graduate Traineeship in Energy Program and covers the past 16 months. During this period, MORE established a graduate traineeship program in energy, released three calls for applications, and funded 26 graduates. The traineeship program stresses interdisciplinary training to prepare professionals for careers in energy-related fields. Preference is given to research projects involving interdisciplinary, intercampus, collaborative research with DOE national laboratories and Montana`s energy industries. The 26 trainee research projects, campus affiliation, host laboratory, and host scientist are summarized in this report.

  18. Concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated OC, EC, and PCDD/Fs measured during the 2003 wildfire season in Missoula, Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Lincoln, Emily

    2006-04-01

    Throughout August and September, 2003, wildfires burned in close proximity to Missoula, Montana, with smoke emanating from the fires impacting the valley for much of the summer. This presented the perfect opportunity to measure the levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) comprising ambient forest fire smoke particles impacting the Missoula Valley. An air sampler at the Montana Department of Environmental Quality's (DEQ) compliance site in Missoula measured hourly averages of PM(10) throughout the fire season. Three collocated PM(2.5) cyclones collected 24-h smoke samples using quartz filters and Polyurethane Foam (PUF) sorbent cartridges. From the quartz filters, concentrations of Organic and Elemental Carbon (OC/EC) were measured, while PCDD/F were measured from one set of a filter (particle phase) and PUF (vapor phase) aggregate of samples in an attempt to also investigate the different phases of PCDD/F in forest fire smoke impaired communities. Hourly PM(10) concentrations peaked at 302.9 microg m(-3) on August 15. The highest OC concentration (115.6 microg m(-3)) was measured between August 21-22, and the highest EC concentration of 10.5 microg m(-3) was measured August 20-21. Measurable concentrations of PM(2.5) associated PCDD/Fs were not detected from a representative aggregate sample, with the exception of small amounts of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin and octachlorodibenzodioxin. PM(2.5) samples collected during the smoke events were composed of approximately 65% OC. However, the OC fraction of the particles collected in the smoke impaired Missoula valley was not composed of significant amounts of PCDD/F. PMID:16502023

  19. Pennsylvanian fusulinids from the Beaverhead Mountains, Morrison Lake area, Beaverhead County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Verville, G.J. ); Sanderson, G.A.; Baesemann, J.F. ); Hampton, G.L. III )

    1990-04-01

    A fusulinid fauna consisting of Triticites spp., Kansanella aff. K. tenuis (Merchant Keroher), Eowaeringella sp., Fusulina sp. (Beedeina of some authors), Wedekindellina henbesti (Skinner), Plectofusulina spp., Pseudostaffella sp., Fusulinella aff. F. acuminata Thompson, and Eoschubertella sp. has been identified from Pennsylvanian rocks exposed on the Continental Divide, Morrison Lake area, Beaverhead County, Montana. These fusulinids, the first to be published from Pennsylvanian rocks in southwestern Montana, indicate that strata of late Atokan, early Desmoinesian, Missourian, and Virgilian age are present. These rocks, previously assigned to the Quadrant Formation in the Morrison Lake area, are subdivided and correlated with the Bloom, Gallagher Peak Sandstone and Juniper Gulch members of the Snaky Canyon Formation (Skipp et al., 1979a).

  20. Reconnaissance examination for uranium at six mines and properties in Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vhay, John Stewart

    1951-01-01

    Six mining properties in Idaho and Montana at which radioactivity had been reported or suspected were briefly examine by J.S. Vhay and W.A. Roberts of the U.S. Geological Survey in October and November 1949. The properties in Idaho are the Grunter mine, from which radio-active mill concentrates have been reported; the Kentuck mine; the Ulysses-kittie Burton Mill; and the Garm-Lemoreaux mine. The properties in Montana are the Armeson-McKenny property in Beaverhead County and the Oro property in Lincoln County. Moderate to high radioactivity was noted at the Garm-Lemoreaux mine and the Armeson-McKenney property. That most of this radioactivity is not caused by uranium is suggested by the low uranium content of the majority of the samples. One sample from a dump of the Garm-Lemoreaux mine assayed 0.11 percent uranium.

  1. Electrical transmission lines in Montana: Mitigation of impacts to soil and biological sources

    SciTech Connect

    McCollough, S.A.; Ring, T.W.

    1990-12-31

    In Montana, the routing and construction of large electrical transmission lines are regulated by the Montana Major Facility Siting Act. Under this act, impacts to resources are minimized through avoidance by routing, where possible, and by mitigating remaining impacts. Land disturbed by the construction of transmission lines considered in this paper ranges from 1681 acres for a 500-kV line across 156 miles of mountainous terrain to 11 acres for a 100-kV line across 27 miles of nearly level terrain. Line access accounts for most of the disturbance, especially when graded roads are built in mountainous terrain. Land disturbed by transmission line construction is susceptible to soil erosion and weed infestation. These problems are addressed through revegetation, erosion control, and herbicide application. Transmission lines can displace wildlife from critical habitats by disruptive construction activities or by improving human access to previously secure range. Wildlife impacts can be reduced by restricting construction periods and gating roads.

  2. Geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, E.T.; Lopez, D.A.; O'Neill, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The digital ARC/INFO databases included in this website provide a GIS database for the geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle of southwest Montana and east-central Idaho. The geologic map was originally published as U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1803-H. This website directory contains ARC/INFO format files that can be used to query or display the geology of USGS Map I-1803-H with GIS software.

  3. Resource potential of the Bear Trap Canyon instant study area, Madison County, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Pinckney, D.M.; Hanna, W.F.; Kaufman, H.E.; Larson, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of Bear Trap Canyon, Montana. A larger area was geologically mapped and sampled in order to obtain knowledge of the geology and geochemisry of the rocks of the canyon and provide a regional perspective. Rocks in the map area are briefly described on the geologic map. The mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks are komatiites, a suite of basic rocks. These are discussed in more detail because of their possible economic importance. (DMC)

  4. Floods of May-July 1975 Along the Continental Divide in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred along both sides of the Continental Divide in Montana from May through July 1975. Runoff from above average snowpack at low altitudes combined with runoff from rainfall to cause floods in May. Snowmelt from high altitudes and above average rain in June caused flooding and sustained high flows into July. Federal and State agencies estimated flood damage at about $53,000,000. Peak stages, flow rates, and estimated frequencies were determined for 124 sites.

  5. Geochemical and petrographic data for intrusions peripheral to the Big Timber Stock, Crazy Mountains, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation hosts a compositionally diverse array of Eocene plugs, dikes, and sills arrayed around the Eocene Big Timber stock in the Crazy Mountains of south-central Montana. The geochemistry and petrography of the sills have not previously been characterized or interpreted. The purpose of this report is (1) to present available geochemical and petrographic data for several dozen samples of these rocks and (2) to provide a basic interpretive synthesis of these data.

  6. Geology, age, and tectonic setting of the Cretaceous Sliderock Mountain Volcano, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Bray, E.A.; Harlan, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    The Sliderock Mountain stratovolcano, part of the Upper Cretaceous continental magmatic arc in southwestern Montana, consists of volcaniclastic strata and basaltic andesite lava flows. An intrusive complex represents the volcano's solidified magma chamber. Compositional diversity within components of the volcano appears to reflect evolution via about 50 percent fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and plagioclase. 40Ar/39Ar indicate that the volcano was active about 78?1 Ma.

  7. Montana District-level Criterion-Referenced Test Results by Subgroup: 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    On April 5, 2002, the Montana Office of Public Instruction (OPI) entered into a compliance agreement with the U.S. Department of Education to bring the state into compliance with the provisions of the following federal laws: Title 1 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1994, P.L. 103-382 and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)…

  8. Montana School-Level Criterion-Referenced Test Results by Subgroup, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    On April 5, 2002, the Montana Office of Public Instruction (OPI) entered into a compliance agreement with the U.S. Department of Education to bring the state into compliance with the provisions of the following federal laws: Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1994, P.L. 103-382 and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)…

  9. Environmental effects of historical mining in the Boulder River watershed, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, David

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed an environmental study of historical mining in the Boulder River watershed, Montana, using the watershed approach. Results of the study have been used by State and Federal agencies to plan and implement cleanup. The watershed approach is based on the premise that contaminated sites that have the most profound effect on water and ecosystem quality within an entire watershed can be identified, characterized, and ranked for cleanup.

  10. A geological reconnaissance across the Bitterroot Range and Clearwater Mountains in Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Waldemar

    1904-01-01

    This report describes, in a preliminary way, a belt of country extending westward from the Bitterroot Valley, across the dividing range and the rugged mountains of the Clearwater system, down to the fertile plateaus which border the canyon of Snake River. It thus presents a reconnaissance section from western Montana across northern Idaho, and deals chiefly with areas about which, thus far, little geological information has been available.

  11. Legal considerations in challenging external threats to Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, Robert B.; Hubert, Wayne A.

    1987-01-01

    External threats to the environmental integrity of Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, fit into three categories: adverse land use practices adjacent to the Park, air pollution, and water pollution. This article identifies and evaluates the laws that Glacier National Park officials might rely upon to protect the Park against these external threats. The article also assesses the available scientific information relating to external threats, and it identifies additional information needed to establish a legal basis for challenging the threats.

  12. Geochemical soil studies in the Cotter Basin area, Lewis and Clark County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, D.J.; Earhart, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical sampling in an area of abnormal vegetation in the Cotter basin area, Lewis and Clark County, Montana, shows anomalously high concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ag, Zn, and Au in the soil. The singular presence of a particular plant species growing in the highly anomalous zone merits further investigation for its potential use as an indicator plant for base-metal deposits, buried at shallow depth.

  13. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1978. Data are tabulated for the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Annual peak stage and stream-discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 191 stations in 1977. Data are tabulated for 336 sites throughout the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1981. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  16. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1955-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1980. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  17. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.

    1955-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1979. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  18. Potential preservation of native American petroglyphs at Steamboat Butte, Montana, using ethyl silicate solution treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grisafe, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the Tongue River Sandstone, collected from the top of Steamboat Butte in central Montana, were treated with an ethyl silicate solution. The samples showed a large increase in compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance, relative to untreated samples, and indicates the treatment(s) significantly consolidate(s) the stone, thus providing a method to increase the lifetime of the petroglyphs carved onto the stone.

  19. 76 FR 40237 - Approval and Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... approved the revisions to ARM 17.8.702 (see 67 FR 55125, 8/28/02, and 40 CFR 52.1370(c)(55)) by the time we.... EPA approved all of the October 25, 2005 submittal on July 19, 2006 (71 FR 40922), except for ARM 17.8... 75 FR 54562 (Sept. 26, 2007) (Missouri), 68 FR 2217 (Jan. 16, 2003) (Idaho). Montana's rules...

  20. A century of climate and ecosystem change in Western Montana: What do temperature trends portend?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of change in temperature averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana temperature change to hemispheric and global temperature change, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly temperature data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term changes in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in temperature above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily temperature time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw temperatures during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as temperatures exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the changes. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B